WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-ability individuals perceptions

  1. Fitting the High Ability Program to the Needs of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Lisa Davia; Pierson, Eric E.; Wilczynski, Susan M.; Connolly, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    As the number of individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders grows, leaders are increasingly recognizing the limitations of the existing literature base to serve unique subsets of students on the spectrum. To date, there is a dearth of research regarding individuals who are both diagnosed on the spectrum and identified as gifted or high…

  2. Teacher and Student Perceptions of Critical and Creative Thinking within a Science Programme for High Ability Females in Singapore: Implications for Classroom Practice and Staff Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatter, Christopher John

    2009-01-01

    It can be rationalised that the education of high ability students is of immense importance to society, based on the principle that many of tomorrow's pioneers within the field of science will originate from this group of individuals. Consequently, these students must be equipped with critical and creative thinking skills to fulfil their…

  3. Individual differences in distance perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Russell E

    2009-05-07

    Distance perception is among the most pervasive mental phenomena and the oldest research topics in behavioural science. However, we do not understand well the most pervasive finding of distance perception research, that of large individual differences. There are large individual differences in acrophobia (fear of heights), which we commonly assume consists of an abnormal fear of stimuli perceived normally. Evolved navigation theory (ENT) instead suggests that acrophobia consists of a more normal fear of stimuli perceived abnormally. ENT suggests that distance perception individual differences produce major components of acrophobia. Acrophobia tested over a broad range in the present study predicted large individual differences in distance estimation of surfaces that could produce falls. This fear of heights correlated positively with distance estimates of a vertical surface-even among non-acrophobic individuals at no risk of falling and without knowledge of being tested for acrophobia. Acrophobia score predicted magnitude of the descent illusion, which is thought to reflect the risk of falling. These data hold important implications in environmental navigation, clinical aetiology and the evolution of visual systems.

  4. Social Understanding of High-Ability Children in Middle and Late Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boor-Klip, Henrike J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its importance in social development, social understanding has hardly been studied in high-ability children. This study explores differences in social understanding between children in high-ability and regular classrooms, specifically theory of mind (ToM) and perception accuracy, as well as associations between individual characteristics…

  5. Individual Perceptions of Local Crime Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, M.; Vollaard, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    We provide evidence that perceptions of crime risk are severely biased for many years after a move to a new neighborhood. Based on four successive waves of a large crime survey, matched with administrative records on household relocations, we find that the longer an individual lives in a

  6. Individual differneces in degraded speech perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Kathy M.

    One of the lasting concerns in audiology is the unexplained individual differences in speech perception performance even for individuals with similar audiograms. One proposal is that there are cognitive/perceptual individual differences underlying this vulnerability and that these differences are present in normal hearing (NH) individuals but do not reveal themselves in studies that use clear speech produced in quiet (because of a ceiling effect). However, previous studies have failed to uncover cognitive/perceptual variables that explain much of the variance in NH performance on more challenging degraded speech tasks. This lack of strong correlations may be due to either examining the wrong measures (e.g., working memory capacity) or to there being no reliable differences in degraded speech performance in NH listeners (i.e., variability in performance is due to measurement noise). The proposed project has 3 aims; the first, is to establish whether there are reliable individual differences in degraded speech performance for NH listeners that are sustained both across degradation types (speech in noise, compressed speech, noise-vocoded speech) and across multiple testing sessions. The second aim is to establish whether there are reliable differences in NH listeners' ability to adapt their phonetic categories based on short-term statistics both across tasks and across sessions; and finally, to determine whether performance on degraded speech perception tasks are correlated with performance on phonetic adaptability tasks, thus establishing a possible explanatory variable for individual differences in speech perception for NH and hearing impaired listeners.

  7. Magnetoencephalographic Activity Related to Conscious Perception Is Stable within Individuals across Years but Not between Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Barnes, Gareth Robert; Rees, Geraint;

    2014-01-01

    the generalization across time within individuals and across different individuals. We trained classification algorithms to decode conscious perception from neural activity recorded during binocular rivalry using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The classifiers were then used to predict the perception of the same...

  8. High ability: Giftedness and talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Prieto Sánchez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the journal aims at putting together national and international research on high abilities, and is divided into three sections: 1 Roles and cognitive, emotional and professional competences of high ability students’ teachers, 2 Identification and assessment of high ability students, 3 Analysis of practices, programs and mentoring of high ability students’ attention to diversity.The articles are authored by scholars from nine different countries (Spain, Argentina, UK, USA, Russia, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Portugal and Poland, from sixteen different Spanish and international universities: Alicante (Spain, Autónoma de Barcelona (Spain, Málaga (Spain, Murcia (Spain, Navarra (Spain, Oviedo (Spain, Tufts University (USA, Yale University (USA, Moscow State University (Russia, Nacional de La Plata (Argentina, University of Connecticut (USA, Universidade do Minho (Portugal, Universidade da Beira Interior (Portugal, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, King Faisal University (Saudi Arabia and Universidad de Szczecin (Poland.

  9. Cultural theory and individual perceptions of environmental risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L; Sievers, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    Understanding differences in environmental risk perception and risk judgments might facilitate the development of effective environmental risk management strategies, including risk communication. Cultural theory holds that systematic individual differences exist in the perception of environmental ri

  10. Challenging high-ability students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo; Hafd Onderwijsadvies en training; Leerstoel Vermunt; Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen; LS Wubbels; Education and Learning: Development in Interaction

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on indicators of an optimal learning environment for high-ability students frequently discusses the concept of challenge. It is, however, not clear what, precisely, constitutes appropriate challenge for these students. In this study, the authors examined an undergraduate hono

  11. Challenging High-Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on indicators of an optimal learning environment for high-ability students frequently discusses the concept of challenge. It is, however, not clear what, precisely, constitutes appropriate challenge for these students. In this study, the authors examined an undergraduate honours course, Advanced Cell Biology, which has…

  12. Challenging high-ability students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo; Hafd Onderwijsadvies en training; Leerstoel Vermunt; Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen; LS Wubbels; Education and Learning: Development in Interaction

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on indicators of an optimal learning environment for high-ability students frequently discusses the concept of challenge. It is, however, not clear what, precisely, constitutes appropriate challenge for these students. In this study, the authors examined an undergraduate hono

  13. Teachers of high ability pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido Genovard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the characteristics of gifted and talented students’ expert teachers. The subject background and the specific proprieties of the instructional process to meet gifted students’ educational needs are analyzed. The value of teacher-student interactions and of teaching and learning styles are highlighted. Also, we include different action guidelines and instructional resources to use in the classroom to teach these students. There is not an ideal teacher for high ability students. However, teachers must know what the teaching-learning processes are and how these work, and the diverse psychological, content and contextual variables involved in such processes.

  14. Individual Investor Perceptions and Behavior During the Financial Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Combining monthly survey data with matching trading records, we examine how individual investor perceptions change and drive trading and risk-taking behavior during the 2008–2009 financial crisis. We find that investor perceptions fluctuate significantly during the crisis, with risk tolerance and ri

  15. Individual Investor Perceptions and Behavior During the Financial Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Combining monthly survey data with matching trading records, we examine how individual investor perceptions change and drive trading and risk-taking behavior during the 2008–2009 financial crisis. We find that investor perceptions fluctuate significantly during the crisis, with risk tolerance and

  16. Speech Perception Ability in Individuals with Friedreich Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Fava, Rosanne; Baldock, Heath; Chong, April; Barker, Elizabeth; Corben, Louise; Delatycki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate auditory pathway function and speech perception ability in individuals with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA). Ten subjects confirmed by genetic testing as being homozygous for a GAA expansion in intron 1 of the FXN gene were included. While each of the subjects demonstrated normal, or near normal sound detection, 3…

  17. Individual Investor Perceptions, Behavior, and Performance During the Financial Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: We study how during the financial crisis individual investor perceptions change, impact trading and risk-taking behavior, and explain performance. Based on monthly survey data and matching brokerage records from April 2008 to March 2009, we find that successful investors had higher return

  18. Individual Investor Perceptions, Behavior, and Performance During the Financial Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Post, T.

    2011-01-01

    We study how during the financial crisis individual investor perceptions change, impact trading and risk-taking behavior, and explain performance. Based on monthly survey data and matching brokerage records from April 2008 to March 2009, we find that successful investors had higher return

  19. Speech Perception Ability in Individuals with Friedreich Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Fava, Rosanne; Baldock, Heath; Chong, April; Barker, Elizabeth; Corben, Louise; Delatycki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate auditory pathway function and speech perception ability in individuals with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA). Ten subjects confirmed by genetic testing as being homozygous for a GAA expansion in intron 1 of the FXN gene were included. While each of the subjects demonstrated normal, or near normal sound detection, 3…

  20. Explaining High Abilities of Nobel Laureates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavinina, Larisa

    2004-01-01

    Although the Nobel Prize is associated with a rare, superior degree of intellectually creative achievement, high abilities of Nobel laureates are far from well explained. This paper argues that Nobel laureates' high abilities are determined in part by their extracognitive abilities, that is, specific feelings, preferences, beliefs and intuitive…

  1. High Ability Students' Voice on Learning Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a self-determination theory lens to investigate high ability learners' motivational experiences. Participants were 15 high ability youth involved in a summer learning camp for gifted students. Two major themes emerged from qualitative data analysis: (a) "The Fun Factor of Learning" and (b) "The Rewards and Pressures…

  2. Purpose in Life among High Ability Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronk, Kendall Cotton; Finch, W. Holmes; Talib, Tasneem L.

    2010-01-01

    Leading high ability scholars have proposed theories that suggest a purpose in life may be particularly prevalent among high ability youth; however, the prevalence of purpose has not been empirically assessed among this population. Therefore using in-depth interviews the present study established the prevalence of purpose among a sample of high…

  3. Knowledge corruption for visual perception in individuals high on paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Göritz, Anja S; Van Quaquebeke, Niels; Andreou, Christina; Jungclaussen, David; Peters, Maarten J V

    2014-03-30

    Studies revealed that patients with paranoid schizophrenia display overconfidence in errors for memory and social cognition tasks. The present investigation examined whether this pattern holds true for visual perception tasks. Nonclinical participants were recruited via an online panel. Individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire that included the Paranoia Checklist and were then presented with 24 blurry pictures; half contained a hidden object while the other half showed snowy (visual) noise. Participants were asked to state whether the visual items contained an object and how confident they were in their judgment. Data from 1966 individuals were included following a conservative selection process. Participants high on core paranoid symptoms showed a poor calibration of confidence for correct versus incorrect responses. In particular, participants high on paranoia displayed overconfidence in incorrect responses and demonstrated a 20% error rate for responses made with high confidence compared to a 12% error rate in participants with low paranoia scores. Interestingly, paranoia scores declined after performance of the task. For the first time, overconfidence in errors was demonstrated among individuals with high levels of paranoia using a visual perception task, tentatively suggesting it is a ubiquitous phenomenon. In view of the significant decline in paranoia across time, bias modification programs may incorporate items such as the one employed here to teach patients with clinical paranoia the fallibility of human cognition, which may foster subsequent symptom improvement.

  4. Social Understanding of High-Ability Children in Middle and Late Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boor-Klip, H.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Hell, J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    Despite its importance in social development, social understanding has hardly been studied in high-ability children. This study explores differences in social understanding between children in high-ability and regular classrooms, specifically theory of mind (ToM) and perception accuracy, as well as

  5. Using Self-Concept Instruments with High-Ability College Students: Reliability and Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinn, Anne N.; Cunningham, Lindy G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the academic subscales of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire III and Neeman and Harter's Self-Perception Profile for College Students for use with high-ability college students. Participants included 100 high-ability college students and 196 average-ability college students enrolled in a…

  6. Creativity, synthetic intelligence and high ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sainz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the construct of creativity and its relationship with high ability, presenting different definitions, assessment tools and strategies to encourage their development in the school context. The paper is structured into five sections: firstly, we define the concept of creativity. Secondly, we present the most relevant instruments used in the analysis of high ability students’ creativity. Thirdly, we look into several studies on creativity and high abilitiy, highlighting the main limitations of the research carried out. Fourthly, we present principles and strategies in order to foster creativity in the school context. Finally, some conclusions are drawn on the relationship between creativity and high ability.

  7. Individual-Level Influences on Perceptions of Neighborhood Disorder: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkin, Carl A.; German, Danielle; Hua, Wei; Curry, Aaron D.

    2009-01-01

    Health outcomes are associated with aggregate neighborhood measures and individual neighborhood perceptions. In this study, the authors sought to delineate individual, social network, and spatial factors that may influence perceptions of neighborhood disorder. Multilevel regression analysis showed that neighborhood perceptions were more negative…

  8. Do High Ability Students Have Mathematics Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the level of mathematics anxiety among 116 high ability Secondary Two students. These students were from the top 10% of the Secondary Two students in Singapore. Mathematics Anxiety was measured using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) (Fennema & Sherman, 1978) which consisted of twelve items…

  9. [Individual characteristics associated with perception of the local neighborhood's territory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célio, Fabiano de Almeida; Xavier, Cesar Coelho; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Camargos, Vitor Passos; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Cortês, Marcela Guimarães; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2014-09-01

    There is a growing interest in evaluating the impact of neighborhood characteristics on health. The definition of neighborhood involves two main strategies, one using artificial boundaries, usually created for administrative purposes, and the other based on the individual's definition, namely the perceived neighborhood. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with heterogeneity in the perceived neighborhood among participants in a health survey in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine and quantify this association. Larger size of the perceived neighborhood was associated with better socioeconomic status, positive employment status, positive assessment of aesthetic aspects and mobility within the neighborhood, active identification of problems in the neighborhood, less involvement in sports/leisure activities, and knowing more neighbors. The study's results can help produce more significant neighborhood definitions that are more consistent with residents' own perceptions, thereby favoring more accurate estimates of neighborhood impact on health.

  10. Risk Perception for Developing Diabetes among Non-diabetic Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Vicente Sánchez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus have increased in recent decades and this trend is expected to continue. Objective: to determine the risk perception for developing type 2 diabetes among non-diabetic individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving non-diabetic individuals in the catchment area of the doctor-and-nurse office No.15 of the Manuel Fajardo Polyclinic in Cienfuegos was conducted between May 2013 and June 2014. The universe consisted of 1145 people, and the sample included 323 individuals of different age groups selected by sex. The variables studied were: age, sex, body mass index, nutritional assessment, and having a perceived risk when they answered 70 % of questions correctly. The arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test, and risk estimation were calculated with a 95 % confidence interval. Results: individuals aged 25 to 34 years and females predominated. Fifty nine point two percent of the study participants knew of their risk. Eighty one point one percent understood that diabetes is preventable and 93.5 % stated that it is their responsibility to prevent its development. Thirty five point two percent of women considered normal-weight/thin fully agreed on the importance of physical activity and diabetes prevention. Eighty point five percent of women and 78.5 % of men answered positively to the question about obesity and diabetes. Conclusions: study participants knew of their risk of developing type 2 diabetes, although a large number of them attributed all responsibility for prevention to the health personnel.

  11. Extracurricular enrichment workshops for high ability students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Rojo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze and explain attention to diversity measures for high ability (gifted and talented students. The model, developed in the Spanish region of Murcia, is based on cognitive psychology and aims to encourage thinking skills. The program is developed as a curriculum extension and the interests, motivations and abilities of children have been considered once these were identified. The article offers a theoretical approach, a set of objectives, and some of the activities that have been done with students.

  12. Associations Among Individuals' Perceptions of Future Time, Individual Resources, and Subjective Well-Being in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Infurna, Frank J; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2017-05-01

    Perceptions of future time are of key interest to aging research because of their implications for subjective well-being. Interestingly, perceptions about future time are only moderately associated with age when looking at the second half of life, pointing to a vast heterogeneity in future time perceptions among older adults. We examine associations between future time perceptions, age, and subjective well-being across two studies, including moderations by individual resources. Using data from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516; Mage = 85 years), we link one operationalization (subjective nearness to death) and age to subjective well-being. Using Health and Retirement Study data (N = 2,596; Mage = 77 years), we examine associations of another future time perception indicator (subjective future life expectancy) and age with subjective well-being. Consistent across studies, perceptions of limited time left were associated with poorer subjective well-being (lower life satisfaction and positive affect; more negative affect and depressive symptoms). Importantly, individual resources moderated future time perception-subjective well-being associations with those of better health exhibiting reduced future time perception-subjective well-being associations. We discuss our findings in the context of the Model of Strength and Vulnerability Integration.

  13. Individual perception of different stimuli: Implications for managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos- Álvarez, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Managerial perception is the process by which managers form an image of the stimuli they receive. According to research, perception is conditioned by the individual’s cognitive profile. But the different nature of incoming stimuli suggests that it would be interesting to study whether the cognitive profile’s influence varies in the presence of different stimuli. This paper analyses the effect of the cognitive profile on perception of differently-structured stimuli. The results clearly show that the cognitive style, tolerance of ambiguity, and proactivity have an effect. Specifically, they condition the recognition of stimuli, particularly when the stimuli are relatively unstructured. The results also show that the cognitive variables have less influence in the interpretation stage.

  14. Perception of speech by individuals with Parkinson’s disease: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, Lorinda C.; Whitehill, Tara L.

    2011-01-01

    A few clinical reports and empirical studies have suggested a possible deficit in the perception of speech in individuals with Parkinson's disease. In this paper, these studies are reviewed in an attempt to support clinical anecdotal observations by relevant empirical research findings. The combined evidence suggests a possible deficit in patients' perception of their own speech loudness. Other research studies on the perception of speech in this population were reviewed, in a broader scope o...

  15. How Severe Was the Impact of the Financial Crisis on Individual Investor Perceptions and Behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Based on a unique combination of monthly survey data and matching trading records, we examine how individual investor perceptions change and drive trading and risk-taking behavior during the 2007–2009 financial crisis. Investor perceptions fluctuate significantly, with risk tolerance and

  16. Perception of individualism and collectivism in Dutch society: A developmental approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenheimer, L.J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Within Triandis's (1994) theoretical framework, two studies are reported that deal with the developmental course for subjective perceptions of cultural dimensions in Dutch society (i.e., vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism). While perceptions of society are always subjectively det

  17. The Role of Affective and Cognitive Individual Differences in Social Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Antonio; Haddock, Geoffrey; Maio, Gregory R; Wolf, Lukas J; Alparone, Francesca R

    2016-06-01

    Three studies explored the connection between social perception processes and individual differences in the use of affective and cognitive information in relation to attitudes. Study 1 revealed that individuals high in need for affect (NFA) accentuated differences in evaluations of warm and cold traits, whereas individuals high in need for cognition (NFC) accentuated differences in evaluations of competent and incompetent traits. Study 2 revealed that individual differences in NFA predicted liking of warm or cold targets, whereas individual differences in NFC predicted perceptions of competent or incompetent targets. Furthermore, the effects of NFA and NFC were independent of structural bases and meta-bases of attitudes. Study 3 revealed that differences in the evaluation of warm and cold traits mediated the effects of NFA and NFC on liking of targets. The implications for social perception processes and for individual differences in affect-cognition are discussed. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. The effects of earthquake measurement concepts and magnitude anchoring on individuals' perceptions of earthquake risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celsi, R.; Wolfinbarger, M.; Wald, D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore earthquake risk perceptions in California. Specifically, we examine the risk beliefs, feelings, and experiences of lay, professional, and expert individuals to explore how risk is perceived and how risk perceptions are formed relative to earthquakes. Our results indicate that individuals tend to perceptually underestimate the degree that earthquake (EQ) events may affect them. This occurs in large part because individuals' personal felt experience of EQ events are generally overestimated relative to experienced magnitudes. An important finding is that individuals engage in a process of "cognitive anchoring" of their felt EQ experience towards the reported earthquake magnitude size. The anchoring effect is moderated by the degree that individuals comprehend EQ magnitude measurement and EQ attenuation. Overall, the results of this research provide us with a deeper understanding of EQ risk perceptions, especially as they relate to individuals' understanding of EQ measurement and attenuation concepts. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  19. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Speech Perception by Individuals with Cochlear Implants versus Individuals with Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Rothem, Hilla; Luntz, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The researchers evaluated the contribution of cochlear implants (CIs) to speech perception by a sample of prelingually deaf individuals implanted after age 8 years. This group was compared with a group with profound hearing impairment (HA-P), and with a group with severe hearing impairment (HA-S), both of which used hearing aids. Words and…

  20. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Speech Perception by Individuals with Cochlear Implants versus Individuals with Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Rothem, Hilla; Luntz, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The researchers evaluated the contribution of cochlear implants (CIs) to speech perception by a sample of prelingually deaf individuals implanted after age 8 years. This group was compared with a group with profound hearing impairment (HA-P), and with a group with severe hearing impairment (HA-S), both of which used hearing aids. Words and…

  1. Decoding individual natural scene representations during perception and imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Robert Johnson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We used a multi-voxel classification analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data to determine to what extent item-specific information about complex natural scenes is represented in several category-selective areas of human extrastriate visual cortex during visual perception and visual mental imagery. Participants in the scanner either viewed or were instructed to visualize previously memorized natural scene exemplars, and the neuroimaging data were subsequently subjected to a multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA using a support vector machine (SVM classifier. We found that item-specific information was represented in multiple scene-selective areas: the occipital place area (OPA, parahippocampal place area (PPA, retrosplenial cortex (RSC, and a scene-selective portion of the precuneus/intraparietal sulcus region (PCu/IPS. Furthermore, item-specific information from perceived scenes was re-instantiated during mental imagery of the same scenes. These results support findings from previous decoding analyses for other types of visual information and/or brain areas during imagery or working memory, and extend them to the case of visual scenes (and scene-selective cortex. Taken together, such findings support models suggesting that reflective mental processes are subserved by the re-instantiation of perceptual information in high-level visual cortex. We also examined activity in the fusiform face area (FFA and found that it, too, contained significant item-specific scene information during perception, but not during mental imagery. This suggests that although decodable scene-relevant activity occurs in FFA during perception, FFA activity may not be a necessary (or even relevant component of one’s mental representation of visual scenes.

  2. Competitors' Perceptions of Questions in Individual Events Rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Daniel; Pettus, Ann Burnett

    A study investigated student competitors' opinions of the practice of judges asking questions of competitors at the conclusion of speeches in the individual events competiton at forensic tournaments. Surveys were completed by 52 final round student competitors at a large midwestern university individual events invitational tournament. Results…

  3. Predicting individual variation in language from infant speech perception measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Christia; A. Seidl; C. Junge; M. Soderstrom; P. Hagoort

    2013-01-01

    There are increasing reports that individual variation in behavioral and neurophysiological measures of infant speech processing predicts later language outcomes, and specifically concurrent or subsequent vocabulary size. If such findings are held up under scrutiny, they could both illuminate theore

  4. Predicting Individual Variation in Language From Infant Speech Perception Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cristia, A.; Seidl, A.; Junge, C.M.M.; Soderstrom, M.; Hagoort, P.

    2014-01-01

    There are increasing reports that individual variation in behavioral and neurophysiological measures of infant speech processing predicts later language outcomes, and specifically concurrent or subsequent vocabulary size. If such findings are held up under scrutiny, they could both illuminate theore

  5. Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch perception...... were found not to perceive binaural pitch at all, despite a clear detection of monaural pitch. While both binaural and monaural pitches were detectable by all other listeners, identification scores were significantly lower for binaural than for monaural pitch. A total absence of binaural pitch...... sensation coexisted with a loss of a binaural signal-detection advantage in noise, without implying reduced cognitive function. Auditory filter bandwidths did not correlate with the difference in pitch identification scores between binaural and monaural pitches. However, subjects with impaired binaural...

  6. Perceptions of online lifestyle counseling among individuals living in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxmi, Vidya; Sharma, Shruti; Singh, Awnish K; Amadi, Chioma; Mohan, Krishna; Joshi, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The burden of lifestyle related chronic diseases have increased in recent times. The objective of this pilot study was to explore perceptions about using online lifestyle counseling services among individuals living in rural settings in India. A pilot convenient sample of 100 individuals living in rural settings of Chennai with age 18 years and above was enrolled for the study. Information was gathered about socio-demographic characteristics, health behavior, current disease status; familiarity with technology and perceptions about online lifestyle counseling. The average age of the individuals was 34 years (SD=15). More than half of the individuals had access to computers at home and workplace. Individuals indentified various barriers for unable to obtain lifestyle counseling. Nearly 47% of the individuals were interested in obtaining online lifestyle counseling. There is an urgent need for evaluating the role of an online lifestyle counseling intervention among individuals living in rural settings.

  7. Understanding Discrepancy in Perceptions of Values: Individuals with Mild to Moderate Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamy, Allison M.; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.; Whitlatch, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We explore discrepancies in perceptions of values and care preferences between individuals with dementia (IWDs) and their family caregivers. Design and Methods: We interviewed 266 dyads consisting of an individual with mild to moderate dementia and his or her family caregiver to determine IWDs' beliefs for 5 values related to…

  8. Individual "and" Triadic "and" Group: Supervisee and Supervisor Perceptions of Each Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, L. DiAnne; Welfare, Laura E.; Greason, Paige B.; Paladino, Derrick A.; Mobley, A. Keith; Villalba, Jose A.; Wester, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    In this consensual qualitative research study, the authors explored supervisors' (n= 11) and their supervisees' (n= 31) perceptions of individual, triadic, and group supervision sessions during practicum. Data from supervisor individual interviews and supervisee focus-group interviews revealed several themes regarding the advantages and…

  9. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  10. Emotional intelligence, risk perception in abstinent cocaine dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Mayoral-Gontán, Yolanda; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is now responsible for the second-highest number of cessation intervention requests. In this study we analyze the different skills of emotional intelligence in cocaine- dependent patients maintaining abstinence. The Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) were administered to 50 subjects (25 individuals with no history of drug use and 25 individuals in treatment at the Addictive Behaviors Unit in a state of withdrawal at the time of evaluation). The results showed differences between these groups in overall emotional intelligence quotient, strategic emotional intelligence, understanding emotions and emotional management. Cocaine-addicted participants showed difficulties in analyzing complex emotions and regulating their emotional response, aspects that can interfere with interactions in daily life.

  11. Lessons Learned from Working with High-Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses three lessons that stand out as particularly poignant in the author's career working with high-ability students. The author recounts personal and professional experiences that influenced his thinking. The three lessons are that identifying high-ability students is not an easy business, the development of talent requires more…

  12. Faculty and student perceptions of the feasibility of individual student-faculty meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, B F; Erich, M H; Borleffs, J C C; Elgersma, A F; Cohen-Schotanus, J

    2012-05-01

    The extent to which students feel involved in their education positively influences academic achievement. Individual student-faculty meetings can foster student involvement. To be effective, faculty acknowledgement of the benefit of these meetings is a prerequisite. The aim of this study was to explore faculty perceptions of individual student-faculty meetings. In addition we investigated students' perceptions. As part of the undergraduate programme, mandatory individual intake and follow-up meetings between first-year medical students (n = 425) and senior faculty members (n = 34) have been implemented from 2009 onwards. We administered a questionnaire on faculty perceptions of the benefit and impact of intake meetings. Subsequently, after both meetings had been held, strong and weak points of the mandatory programme were explored using open-ended questions. Students' perceptions were investigated by open-ended questions as a part of the curriculum evaluation process. Faculty enjoyed the meetings (90 %), perceived the meetings to be beneficial (74 %) and expected a positive effect on student involvement (74 %). Faculty appreciated the opportunity to give advice tailored to students' personal needs and levels of performance. The students appreciated the meetings and the attention given to their personal situation and study progress. Faculty and student appreciation of the meetings seems to support the assumption that the individual meetings increase students' social and academic involvement. Further research should focus on the impact of individual student-faculty meetings on students' learning behaviours.

  13. The Neural Basis of Individual Face and Object Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rebecca; Huis in ’t Veld, Elisabeth M. J.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    We routinely need to process the identity of many faces around us, and how the brain achieves this is still the subject of much research in cognitive neuroscience. To date, insights on face identity processing have come from both healthy and clinical populations. However, in order to directly compare results across and within participant groups, and across different studies, it is crucial that a standard task is utilized which includes different exemplars (for example, non-face stimuli along with faces), is memory-neutral, and taps into identity matching across orientation and across viewpoint change. The goal of this study was to test a previously behaviourally tested face and object identity matching design in a healthy control sample whilst being scanned using fMRI. Specifically, we investigated categorical, orientation, and category-specific orientation effects while participants were focused on identity matching of simultaneously presented exemplar stimuli. Alongside observing category and orientation specific effects in a distributed set of brain regions, we also saw an interaction between stimulus category and orientation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus and bilateral middle occipital gyrus. Generally these clusters showed the pattern of a heightened response to inverted versus upright faces, and to upright, as compared to inverted shoes. These results are discussed in relation to previous studies and to potential future research within prosopagnosic individuals. PMID:26973490

  14. Lay people's perception of food hazards: comparing aggregated data and individual data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen; Kiers, Henk A L

    2006-11-01

    The psychometric paradigm has been used to explain the perception of food hazard risks. In past studies, only aggregated data were analyzed, and individual differences were neglected. In the present study, both aggregated data and non-aggregated data are analyzed. Data stem from a mail survey conducted in Switzerland (N=448). Analyzing aggregated data, results of past studies were successfully replicated. The PCA analysis revealed the two factors "unknown risk" and "dread risk." Results of a three-way component analysis (3MPCA) suggest, that two components explain individual differences in the perception of food hazards. The two components were labeled "unobservable hazards," and "familiar hazards." Individual differences in the cognitive representation of hazards were correlated with attitudes toward natural foods. Results suggest that people who prefer natural foods differ in perceived risks from people who do not prefer natural foods. Results show that methods permitting individual differences are crucial for a better understanding of the cognitive representation of food hazards.

  15. Architectures of Oppression: Perceptions of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome in the Republic of Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Fiona; Allan, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a phenomenographic analysis of perceptions of individuals with Asperger's syndrome in the Republic of Armenia. The primary objective was to apply and develop existing theory in a unique national context and across a broader respondent group than in previous studies. As such, the research compares and contrasts the views…

  16. Lay people's perception of food hazards : Comparing aggregated data and individual data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2006-01-01

    The psychometric paradigm has been used to explain the perception of food hazard risks. In past studies, only aggregated data were analyzed, and individual differences were neglected. In the present study, both aggregated data and non-aggregated data are analyzed. Data stem from a mail survey

  17. Perceptions of the Purpose and Value of Required Individual Growth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, David M.; Kim, Do-Hong; Szad, Elizabeth R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine how teachers and administrators in a successful North Carolina district perceived the purpose and value of required individual growth plans (IGPs). The IGP is the foundation of required school improvement, and the perceptions of the purpose and value of the IGP largely determine its success. This…

  18. Perceptions of the Purpose and Value of Required Individual Growth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, David M.; Kim, Do-Hong; Szad, Elizabeth R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine how teachers and administrators in a successful North Carolina district perceived the purpose and value of required individual growth plans (IGPs). The IGP is the foundation of required school improvement, and the perceptions of the purpose and value of the IGP largely determine its success. This…

  19. Teaching for the Millennial Generation: Student and Teacher Perceptions of Community Building and Individual Pedagogical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Sue; Sears, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    As a new generation of learners enters higher education classrooms, effective teaching strategies must adapt to match their learning styles. This research explored student and teacher perceptions of effectiveness of teaching methods, with particular comparison between techniques emphasizing community versus individual learning. Fifteen psychology…

  20. Lay people's perception of food hazards : Comparing aggregated data and individual data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2006-01-01

    The psychometric paradigm has been used to explain the perception of food hazard risks. In past studies, only aggregated data were analyzed, and individual differences were neglected. In the present study, both aggregated data and non-aggregated data are analyzed. Data stem from a mail survey conduc

  1. Teacher Perceptions of School Climate and the Implementation of Individually Guided Education (IGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Edgar A.; And Others

    This study investigated teacher perceptions of the climate in 545 individually Guided Education (IGE) elementary schools, using the Organizational Climate Index as a research tool. The schools were categorized according to degree and length of implementation and according to location (rural, suburban, urban, and inner city). The following…

  2. The molecular basis of individual differences in phenylthiocarbamide and propylthiouracil bitterness perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufe, Bernd; Breslin, Paul A S; Kuhn, Christina; Reed, Danielle R; Tharp, Christopher D; Slack, Jay P; Kim, Un-Kyung; Drayna, Dennis; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2005-02-22

    Individual differences in perception are ubiquitous within the chemical senses: taste, smell, and chemical somesthesis . A hypothesis of this fact states that polymorphisms in human sensory receptor genes could alter perception by coding for functionally distinct receptor types . We have previously reported evidence that sequence variants in a presumptive bitter receptor gene (hTAS2R38) correlate with differences in bitterness recognition of phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) . Here, we map individual psychogenomic pathways for bitter taste by testing people with a variety of psychophysical tasks and linking their individual perceptions of the compounds PTC and propylthiouracil (PROP) to the in vitro responses of their TAS2R38 receptor variants. Functional expression studies demonstrate that five different haplotypes from the hTAS2R38 gene code for operatively distinct receptors. The responses of the three haplotypes we also tested in vivo correlate strongly with individuals' psychophysical bitter sensitivities to a family of compounds. These data provide a direct molecular link between heritable variability in bitter taste perception to functional variations of a single G protein coupled receptor that responds to compounds such as PTC and PROP that contain the N-C=S moiety. The molecular mechanisms of perceived bitterness variability have therapeutic implications, such as helping patients to consume beneficial bitter-tasting compounds-for example, pharmaceuticals and selected phytochemicals.

  3. Collective goals and shared tasks: interdependence structure and perceptions of individual sport team environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M B; Eys, M A

    2015-02-01

    Across two studies, we tested the proposition that interdependence structures (i.e., task interaction among teammates during competition, competition against teammates, presence of a collective outcome) influence interdependence perceptions among teammates as well as perceptions of group cohesion, competitiveness, and satisfaction. Study 1 was a paper-and-pencil survey completed by 210 individual sport athletes from 12 university- and college-level teams. Multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that participants who had to work alongside teammates during competition reported increased interdependence perceptions that were, in turn, associated with increased cohesion and satisfaction as well as decreased competitiveness. There were no differences according to whether participants competed in the same event as all of their teammates or not. Study 2 involved a weekly e-mail survey with 17 university-level individual sport athletes who reported interdependence perceptions on a continual basis over the course of their competitive season. Interdependence perceptions were higher during weeks that were close in time to competitions with a collective group outcome. These studies reveal how interdependence structures shape the group environment and support applied efforts that consider ways to structure teammate interdependencies in ways to optimize group functioning and promote member satisfaction.

  4. Facial trustworthiness perception bias elevated in individuals with PTSD compared to trauma exposed controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertuck, Eric A; Tsoi, Fai; Grinband, Jack; Ruglass, Lesia; Melara, Robert; Hien, Denise A

    2016-03-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) research has focused largely on fear processing. However, interpersonal trauma exposure can also impact interpersonal functioning and the perception of the trustworthiness of others. The present study examined facial perceptions of fearfulness and trustworthiness in individuals with PTSD (n=29), trauma-exposed without PTSD (n=19), and healthy controls (n=18). The PTSD group was hypothesized to exhibit a bias to perceive more fear and untrustworthiness in faces relative to controls. Participants rated the level of fearfulness or trustworthiness of faces that were parametrically morphed along a fear or trustworthiness dimension. The PTSD group was biased to perceive faces as more trustworthy compared to the trauma-exposed healthy controls, yet there were no differences between groups in fear processing. A trustworthiness bias in PTSD may represent a vulnerability factor. Conversely, lower trustworthiness perception may represent a protective disposition in trauma-exposed individuals who do not develop PTSD. Differences in the perception of trustworthiness may be an aspect of social perception that is independent of the fear processing abnormalities observed in PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of individual Difference on Perceptions of Job-related Stress among National College and University Librarians in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-may Sheih Chen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Defined as an environmental force in the workplace, either real or imagined, job-related stress interacts with an individual’s perception. Individuals’ perceptions alter with age, gender, work experience, job characteristics, and personality behavior of individuals. In an attempt to gain a comprehensive understanding, this study examines the relationship between individual difference and the perceptions of job-related stress in the library settings of national colleges and universities on Taiwan. The result shows that individual difference is influential for librarians’ perceptions of job-related stress. [Article content in Chinese

  6. High functioning individuals with schizophrenia have preserved social perception but not mentalizing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpouzian, Tatiana M; Alden, Eva C; Reilly, James L; Smith, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Social perception and mentalizing are fundamental social cognitive abilities that are related to functioning and are impaired in schizophrenia. A novel approach to examine the relationship between social cognition and community functioning is to first functionally categorize individuals with schizophrenia and then evaluate social cognitive performance. We evaluated differences in social perception and mentalizing among controls (CON, n=45), high functioning individuals with schizophrenia (HF-SCZ, n=36), and individuals with low functioning schizophrenia (LF-SCZ, n=24). Analyses revealed that HF-SCZ had preserved social perceptual abilities compared to LF-SCZ. Both schizophrenia groups had impaired mentalizing abilities compared to CON, but did not differ from each other. These results suggest that HF-SCZ and LF-SCZ are characterized by differences in the perceptual aspects of social cognition and encourage future research to evaluate the neural basis underlying this preserved ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Attention to bodily sensations and symptom perception in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Signe; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice

    2010-01-01

    regression analyses revealed significant positive associations between SSAS, APQ, and IEI, while small and inverse associations were seen between TAS and IEI. CONCLUSIONS: The association with SSAS and APQ suggests that perceptual personality characteristics are important in understanding this disorder...... perceptions are associated with IEI would add to our understanding of this complex disorder. PURPOSE: To examine if measures of somato-sensory amplification, autonomic perception and absorption are associated with IEI. METHODS: The study included individuals with self-reported or physician-diagnosed IEI....... Participants (n = 732) completed questionnaires that included items on descriptive variables of IEI, the Somato-Sensory Amplification Scale (SSAS), the Autonomic Perception Questionnaire (APQ), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS) and a Negative Affectivity Scale (NAS). RESULTS: Multiple, hierarchical linear...

  8. The Role of Individual Differences and Situational Factors in Perception of Verbal Irony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucman Magda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to analyze the influence of situational and individual factors on verbal irony perception. Participants (N = 144 rated smartness, criticality, humorousness, and offensiveness of ironic utterances and their literal equivalents. The utterances were put in various contexts, differing in terms of the structure of the interlocutors’ social ranks and the responsibility of the addressee for the described event. Additionally, participants’ state and trait of anxiety were measured using the Polish adaptation of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Wrześniewski, Sosnowski, Jaworowska, & Fecenec, 2011 and their social competences were measured with the Social Competences Questionnaire (Matczak, 2007. Analyses showed that the structure of the interlocutors’ social ranks, the addressee’s responsibility, as well as the state and trait of anxiety can influence the perception of irony, although it does not always concern all of the variables rated herein. No link between social competences and irony perception was found.

  9. Desirable characteristics for teachers of High Ability/Gifted students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra da Costa Souza Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the desirable educational background for a teacher to work with high ability/gifted students, desirable characteristics these teachers should present and conceptions on high ability/giftedness. The participants were 20 public school teachers from a city surrounding Brasilia. Of this group, ten were elementary school teachers working with initial grades and ten were undergraduate Pedagogy teachers. A qualitative approach was used and data were collected by means of a semi-structured interview. A content analysis was then conducted. In relation to the desirable educational background for a teach of high ability/gifted students, participants indicated the need of continuous training, under graduation curriculum adapted to the theme and graduation courses in the area. The desirable features for teachers of high ability/gifted students were related to personological attributes (personality traits and intellectual ability, as well as professional characteristics. The conceptions on high ability/giftedness presented by the participants were, in general, close to those found in the literature and used as reference for this study. However, there was lack of information on how to apply the theory into real practice, as well as several wrong ideas on the topic.

  10. Perceptions of the causes of eating disorders: a comparison of individuals with and without eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Jones, Maegan E.; Haugen, Emily C.; Schaefer, Mallary K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In this study, we examined perceptions regarding the causes of eating disorders, both among those with eating disorders as well as those without. By understanding the differences in perceived causes between the two groups, better educational programs for lay people and those suffering from eating disorders can be developed. Method This study used open-ended questions to assess the beliefs of 57 individuals with self-reported eating disorders and 220 without. Participants responded ...

  11. Perceptions of the causes of eating disorders: a comparison of individuals with and without eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Jones, Maegan E.; Haugen, Emily C.; Schaefer, Mallary K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In this study, we examined perceptions regarding the causes of eating disorders, both among those with eating disorders as well as those without. By understanding the differences in perceived causes between the two groups, better educational programs for lay people and those suffering from eating disorders can be developed. Method This study used open-ended questions to assess the beliefs of 57 individuals with self-reported eating disorders and 220 without. Participants responded ...

  12. Studying the Relationship between Individual and Organizational Factors and Nurses' Perception of Patient Safety Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Abdolahzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safety culture is considered as an important factor in improving patient safety. Therefore, identifying individual and organizational factors affecting safety culture is crucial. This study was carried out to determine individual and organizational factors associated with nurses' perception of patient safety culture. Methods: The present descriptive study included 940 nurses working in four training hospitals affiliated with Urmia University of Medical Sciences (Iran. Data was collected through the self-report questionnaire of patient safety culture. Descriptive (number, percent, mean, and standard deviation and inferential (t-test and analysis of variance statistics were used to analyze the data in SPSS. Results: Nurses' perception of patient safety culture was significantly correlated with marital status, workplace, and overtime hours. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that some individual and organizational factors can impact on nurses' perception of patient safety culture. Nursing authorities should thus pay more attention to factors which promote patient safety culture and ultimately the safety of provided services.

  13. It’s Not You, It’s Me: Self-Perceptions, Antifat Attitudes, and Stereotyping of Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Himmelstein, M; Tomiyama, AJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015. Much research focuses on the formation of antifat attitudes, but an understanding of antifat bias is incomplete without incorporating self-perceptions. We tested a model in which self-perceptions influenced stereotyping of the same target shown as obese versus thin via antifat attitudes. Participants rated six targets, two of which were the same individual before and after weight loss. Questionnaires assessed participants’ self-perceptions and antifat bias. Multi...

  14. Two independent mechanisms for motion-in-depth perception: evidence from individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold T Nefs

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Our forward-facing eyes allow us the advantage of binocular visual information: using the tiny differences between right and left eye views to learn about depth and location in three dimensions. Our visual systems also contain specialized mechanisms to detect motion-in-depth from binocular vision, but the nature of these mechanisms remains controversial. Binocular motion-in-depth perception could theoretically be based on first detecting binocular disparity and then monitoring how it changes over time. The alternative is to monitor the motion in the right and left eye separately and then compare these motion signals. Here we used an individual differences approach to test whether the two sources of information are processed via dissociated mechanisms, and to measure the relative importance of those mechanisms. Our results suggest the existence of two distinct mechanisms, each contributing to the perception of motion in depth in most observers. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrate the relative prevalence of the two mechanisms within a normal population. In general, visual systems appear to rely mostly on the mechanism sensitive to changing binocular disparity, but perception of motion in depth is augmented by the presence of a less sensitive mechanism that uses interocular velocity differences. Occasionally, we find observers with the opposite pattern of sensitivity. More generally this work showcases the power of the individual differences approach in studying the functional organisation of cognitive systems.

  15. Teaching High-Ability Pupils in Early Primary School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Elma

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and implementation of the intervention 'Excel Kwadraat' in primary schools. This intervention aims to improve teachers’ differentiation practices in order to better anticipate pupil differences, including excellent or high-ability pupils. In the end, the intervention

  16. Teaching High-Ability Pupils in Early Primary School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Elma

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and implementation of the intervention 'Excel Kwadraat' in primary schools. This intervention aims to improve teachers’ differentiation practices in order to better anticipate pupil differences, including excellent or high-ability pupils. In the end, the intervention

  17. Identity Development of High-Ability Black Collegians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries-Britt, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties that high-ability black college students face in blending their academic interest and racial affiliation into their sense of self. Student narratives show how a strong peer community and positive student-faculty interactions can overcome these obstacles and promote healthy identity development. (Author/DB)

  18. Setting the Bar for High-Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Buck; Cross, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary school principals face no shortage of issues and challenges when it comes to ensuring that their teachers and students are ready for the Common Core State Standards. With so many issues competing for scarce time and resources, it is understandable that for many school leaders, the needs of high-ability and high-potential students are not…

  19. Perceptions of cervical cancer risk and screening among transmasculine individuals: patient and provider perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Bernstein, Ida M; McDowell, Michal; Alizaga, Natalie M; Reisner, Sari L; Pardee, Dana J; Potter, Jennifer

    2016-10-01

    Transmasculine people (individuals assigned a female sex at birth who identify as male or masculine) are at risk of cervical cancer. Despite low rates of Pap test use in this population, research examining the determinants of cervical cancer screening among transmasculine individuals is scarce. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 49 participants (32 transmasculine patients and 17 healthcare providers) in order to examine transmasculine individuals' and healthcare providers' perceptions of cervical cancer risk and screening among individuals on the transmasculine continuum. Overall, patients believed that transmasculine individuals should receive regular Pap tests, especially in the event of gynaecological concerns. While healthcare providers' views varied, many perceived transmasculine individuals to be at low risk of cervical cancer. Contrary to existing screening guidelines, several providers believed that transmasculine individuals who did not engage in penile-vaginal intercourse with cisgender men, expressed discomfort about Pap testing or intended to obtain a hysterectomy might not need to be screened regularly or at all. Our findings underscore the importance of educating patients and providers about cervical cancer risk among transmasculine individuals and establishing evidence-based guidelines for cervical cancer screening in this underserved population.

  20. Anticipating early fatality: friends', schoolmates' and individual perceptions of fatality on adolescent risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Dana L; Soller, Brian; Williams, Kristi

    2014-02-01

    Past research indicates that anticipating adverse outcomes, such as early death (fatalism), is associated positively with adolescents' likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Health researchers and criminologists have argued that fatalism influences present risk taking in part by informing individuals' motivation for delaying gratification for the promise of future benefits. While past findings highlight the association between the anticipation of early death and a number of developmental outcomes, no known research has assessed the impact of location in a context characterized by high perceptions of fatality. Using data from Add Health and a sample of 9,584 adolescents (51% female and 71% white) nested in 113 schools, our study builds upon prior research by examining the association between friends', school mates', and individual perceptions of early fatality and adolescent risk behaviors. We test whether friends' anticipation of being killed prior to age 21 or location in a school where a high proportion of the student body subscribes to attitudes of high fatality, is associated with risky behaviors. Results indicate that friends' fatalism is positively associated with engaging in violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and drug use after controlling for individual covariates and prior individual risk-taking. Although friends' delinquency accounts for much of the effect of friends' fatalism on violence, none of the potential intervening variables fully explain the effect of friends' fatalism on youth involvement in non-violent delinquency and drug use. Our results underscore the importance of friendship contextual effects in shaping adolescent risk-taking behavior and the very serious consequences perceptions of fatality have for adolescents' involvement in delinquency and drug use.

  1. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ann eLeow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Slowed gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the beat, which might be difficult for PD patients who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties which may improve motivation to move. As a first step in understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low groove music, high groove music, and metronome cues. High groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1 preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2 faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high groove music, and worst with low groove music. In addition, high groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation.

  2. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the "beat," which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation.

  3. Multilevel analysis of the physical health perception of employees: community and individual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayanan, Sudhakar; Brooks, Ambyr J; Hagen, Susan E; Edington, Dee W

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether the communities where employees reside are associated with employee perception of overall physical health after adjusting for individual factors. Retrospective cross-sectional. Active employees from a large manufacturing company representing 157 zip code tabulation areas (ZCTAs) in Michigan. 22,012 active employees who completed at least one voluntary health risk appraisal (HRA) during 1999-2001. Community deprivation and racial segregation at the ZCTA level were obtained using indices created from 2000 U.S. Census data. Demographics and HRA-related data (health-related behaviors, medical history, and quality of life indicators) at the individual level were used as independent variables. A two-level logistic regression model (employees nested in ZCTA) was used to model the probability of better self-rated health perception (SRH) (better health: 89.1% versus poor health: 10.9%). Relative to those living in highly deprived communities, employees residing in less-deprived communities showed 2.06 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57-2.72) and those living in moderately deprived communities showed 1.83 (95% CI, 1.42-2.35) increased odds of better SRH. After adjusting for individual-level variables, employees living in less-deprived communities had increased odds (1.31 [95% CI, 1.07-1.60]) and those living in moderately deprived communities had increased odds (1.33 [95% CI, 1.11-1.59]) of better SRH compared with individuals from highly deprived communities. The association of racial segregation with employees' SRH was mediated after adjusting for other variables. Individual-level variables showed significant statistical associations with SRH. Communities do have a modest association with SRH of the employees living there. After adjusting for individual-level and demographic variables, employees living in less/moderately deprived communities are more likely to perceive better physical health relative to those who live in highly deprived communities.

  4. "All in a day's work": how follower individual differences and justice perceptions predict OCB role definitions and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Dishan; McAllister, Daniel J; Turban, Daniel B

    2006-07-01

    The authors draw on theories of social exchange and prosocial behavior to explain how employee perceptions of procedural justice and individual differences in reciprocation wariness, empathic concern, and perspective taking function jointly as determinants of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) role definitions and behavior. As hypothesized, empirical findings from a field study show both direct and interactive effects of procedural justice perceptions and individual differences on OCB role definition. In turn, OCB role definitions not only predict OCB directly but also moderate the effects of procedural justice perceptions on OCB. The authors explore the implications of these findings for practice as well as research. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Professional networks and the alignment of individual perceptions about medical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopino, Valentina; Mascia, Daniele; Cicchetti, Americo

    2016-10-25

    In recent decades, the role of technology in health care organizations has become increasingly relevant because it enhances health care outcomes and the achievement of clinical goals. Extant research demonstrates that the effectiveness of a medical innovation depends largely on health care professionals' perceptions of its usefulness and impact on their activities and practices. We also know that interaction among social actors contributes to the shaping of their judgments and opinions regarding innovation. This study investigated the role of professionals' social networks and social capital in the formation of similar individual perceptions about a highly innovative robotic surgical system. We collected data from a sample of 50 professionals, including both physicians and nurses, working in three hospital wards belonging to an Italian hospital organization. Using a survey, we gathered data on professionals' demographic characteristics, the adoption and impact of the new technology, and social networks. We tested our hypotheses using a dyadic perspective and logistic regression quadratic assignment procedures. Our findings document that professionals' perceptions regarding technological change were more likely to be similar when they were connected and exhibited similarity in some social capital characteristics and adoption behavior. These results have important implications for health care executives and administrators, as well as for health professionals characterized by high degrees of autonomy and for which organizational change can be affected by professional or organizational resistance.

  6. Attention to bodily sensations and symptom perception in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Elberling, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to exposure to environmental odours or chemicals at levels below those known to induce adverse health effects. A clarification of whether psychological processes involved in sensory perceptions are associated with IEI would add to our understanding of this complex disorder. Purpose To examine if measures of somato-sensory amplification, autonomic perception and absorption are associated with IEI. Methods The study included individuals with self-reported or physician-diagnosed IEI. Participants (n = 732) completed questionnaires that included items on descriptive variables of IEI, the Somato-Sensory Amplification Scale (SSAS), the Autonomic Perception Questionnaire (APQ), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS) and a Negative Affectivity Scale (NAS). Results Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed significant positive associations between SSAS, APQ, and IEI, while small and inverse associations were seen between TAS and IEI. Conclusions The association with SSAS and APQ suggests that perceptual personality characteristics are important in understanding this disorder. PMID:19953345

  7. Individual differences in the perception of biological motion: links to social cognition and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke E; Saygin, Ayse P

    2013-08-01

    Biological motion perception is often claimed to support social cognition, and to rely upon embodied representations and motor imagery. Are people with higher levels of social traits or more vivid motor imagery better at biological motion perception? We administered four experiments measuring sensitivity in using (global) form and (local) motion cues in biological motion, plus well-established measures of social cognition (e.g., empathy) and motor imagery (e.g., kinesthetic motor imagery). This first systematic investigation of individual variability in biological motion processing demonstrated significant relationships between these domains, along with a dissociation. Sensitivity for using form cues in biological motion processing was correlated with social (and not the imagery) measures; sensitivity for using motion cues was correlated with motor imagery (and not the social) measures. These results could not be explained by performance on non-biological control stimuli. We thus show that although both social cognition and motor imagery predict sensitivity to biological motion, these skills likely tap into different aspects of perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic hand eczema: perception and knowledge in non-affected individuals from general and dermatological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letulé, Valerie; Herzinger, Thomas; Schirner, Astrid; Hertrich, Frank; Lange, Dirk; Ruzicka, Thomas; Molin, Sonja

    2014-11-01

    Misunderstanding and stigmatisation are common problems encountered by patients with hand eczema. Various misconceptions about the disease circulate in the general population. Although hand eczema has gained more attention in dermatology during the past years, information on public perception of the disease is still lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate perception of and level of knowledge on the subject hand eczema. There were 624 patients included from 2 general medicine practices and 2 dermatological practices. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by the participants, covering issues on history of hand eczema, level of knowledge and attitude towards a clinical photograph of hand eczema. We found that a larger proportion of individuals from dermatological practice were more familiar with hand eczema as a disease than those from general medical practice. Women knew significantly more about and had a more positive perception of the disease than men. Our results imply that the level of knowledge on hand eczema in the general public is rather low and influenced by prejudice.

  9. Perception of emotional facial expressions in individuals with high Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervin Poljac

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Autism is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, restrictive and repetitive behaviours and specific impairments in emotional processing. The present study employed The Autism Spectrum Quotient (Baron-Cohen et al. 2006 to quantify autistic traits in a group of 260 healthy individuals and to investigate whether this measure is related to the perception of facial emotional expressions. The emotional processing of twelve participants that scored significantly higher than the average on the AQ was compared to twelve participants with significantly lower AQ scores. Perception of emotional expressions was estimated by The Facial Recognition Task (Montagne et al. 2007. There were significant differences between the two groups with regard to accuracy and sensitivity of the perception of emotional facial expressions. Specifically, the group with high AQ score was less accurate and needed higher emotional content to recognize emotions of anger, disgust, happiness and sadness. This result implies a selective impairment that might be helpful in understanding the psychopathology of autism spectrum disorders.

  10. Level of Perception of Individualized Care and Satisfaction With Nursing in Orthopaedic Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Fatma; Findik, Ummu Yildiz

    2015-01-01

    Lately, individualized nursing care and patient satisfaction are important and current issues being discussed. But there is not enough information for patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the individualized care perception and satisfaction in nursing care levels in orthopaedic surgery patients. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 156 patients who underwent orthopaedic surgery. Data were collected using the personal information form, the Individualized Care Scale, and the Newcastle Satisfaction With Nursing Scale. The Spearman correlation analysis and descriptive statistics were performed. The mean individualized care and satisfaction with nursing care scores were found to be close to the preset maximum value, and it was determined that an increase in the level of awareness about nursing interventions and the level of perceived individualized care caused an increase in satisfaction levels regarding nursing care. Nurses should recognize the importance of performing individualized care in order to increase the level of satisfaction with nursing care in orthopaedic surgery patients.

  11. Identifying high ability students: a contribution from neuropsychological indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Cortat Simonetti; Leandro S. Almeida; Zenita Guenther

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some data on the convergence between psychometric intelligence measurements (IQ tests) and physiological signs of mental activity found in high ability adolescents. The research study focus on a small group of 15 subjects submitted to electric encephalograms, previously chosen from a larger group of 77 classmates on the basis of scores on the WISC-III IQ Test. The results suggest continuous predominance of Alpha waves for the gifted group (higher frequency percentile and h...

  12. Social and emotional difficulties among high ability students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Soriano de Alencar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and emotional difficulties observed among highly able students are addressed. The asynchronous development, perfectionism, over-excitability, underachievement, and other social and emotional difficulties are discussed, describing factors related to them. The article finalizes highlighting possible contributions of the psychologist on counseling high ability students, their families and teachers, with the purpose of preventing or reducing maladjustments, as well as of helping them optimize their developmental process.

  13. Persons in the shadow: Assessing the social context of high abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANS GRUBER

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available From a perspective of research on expertise we argue that the analysis of practice and of the growth of social networks is a promising approach to assessing indicators of high ability. Both groups of variables jointly predict how subjects master critical changes or transitional periods in their careers. Although expert performance is frequently an individual matter, the development of expertise crucially depends on the presence of "persons in the shadow" who design practice patterns, direct the subjects' deliberate practice, and motivate them (often extrinsically. We present detailed analyses from the cases of highly successful professionals – a jazz guitarist, a consultant and a scientist – in order to show how individual and social aspects are combined in early expertise development. Thus, these aspects form the crucial components which have to be considered in the assessment of high abilities if an expertise approach is taken.

  14. S1-1: Individual Differences in the Perception of Biological Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Thornton

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to accurately perceive the actions of others based on reduced visual cues has been well documented. Previous work has suggested that this ability is probably made possible by separable mechanisms that can operate in either a passive, bottom-up fashion or an active, top-down fashion (Thornton, Rensink, & Shiffrar, 2002 Perception 31 837–853. One line of evidence for exploring the contribution of top-down mechanisms is to consider the extent to which individual differences in more general cognitive abilities, such as attention and working memory, predict performance on biological motion tasks. In this talk, I will begin by reviewing previous work that has looked at biological motion processing in clinical settings and as a function of domain-specific expertise. I will then introduce a new task that we are using in my lab to explore individual variation in action matching as a function of independently assessed attentional control and working memory capacity.

  15. Driving Difficulties and Adaptive Strategies: The Perception of Individuals Having Sustained a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bottari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. After a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, individuals quickly resume driving. However, relatively little is known about the impact of mTBI on driving ability and, notably, on the perceived influence of postconcussive symptoms on driving. Hence, the objective of this study was to document the perception of driving abilities in individuals with mTBI. Method. Twenty-seven drivers with mTBI were interviewed to document their perception regarding their driving abilities. Both driving-related difficulties and compensatory strategies used to increase driving safety were documented. A mixed quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data was completed. Results. 93% of participants reported at least one difficulty perceived as having an impact on everyday activities. Most frequently named problems affecting driving were fatigue and reduced concentration. In addition, 74% of participants had adapted their driving or developed strategies to compensate for driving difficulties. Discussion/Conclusion. Postconcussive symptoms have repercussions on driving ability. However, people with mTBI tend to be aware of their difficulties and develop, over time, adaptive strategies. Preventive measures are thus warranted to increase health care professionals' awareness of the potential consequences of mTBI on driving ability and to promote guidelines for the safe resumption of driving after injury.

  16. The effect of relationship quality on individual perceptions of social responsibility in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility (SR) has been of continuing interest in the U.S. and around the world. Organizations make a wide variety of SR decisions that represent differing viewpoints. While a number of definitions of SR exist, many of these definitions indicate that SR decisions may be viewed as existing of various facets, such as legal/regulatory, financial/economic, ethical, environmental, and voluntary. While drivers of SR have been proposed, there has been limited research at a micro-level on how individuals perceive SR activities by the organizations where they work. Based on a prior qualitative study (Thornton and Byrd, 2013) that found SR decisions are related to several traits and influenced by relationships, a model was proposed and tested in this research. The traits found relevant in the qualitative research were conscientiousness, especially in the sense of being responsible, and self-efficacy. Relationship quality was assessed based on positive and negative emotional attractors as proposed in intentional change theory. Perceptions of individuals in management and non-management showed that relationship quality mediated the effect of conscientiousness and general self-efficacy on the SR. Because there are multiple facets, the author made use of Carroll’s (1991) pyramid of SR to identify activities that business owners and managers consider relevant. The findings indicate that conscientiousness is related to specific SR activities in the areas of legal/regulatory, ethical and discretionary dimensions while general self-efficacy is related to financial/economic and legal/regulatory dimensions. The presence of relationship quality enhanced the effects of both conscientiousness and general self-efficacy on the various SR dimensions. This suggests that individuals perceived SR activities along different traits and that enhancing these traits might improve perceptions of SR decisions. PMID:26113830

  17. The effect of relationship quality on individual perceptions of social responsibility in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Joseph C

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility (SR) has been of continuing interest in the U.S. and around the world. Organizations make a wide variety of SR decisions that represent differing viewpoints. While a number of definitions of SR exist, many of these definitions indicate that SR decisions may be viewed as existing of various facets, such as legal/regulatory, financial/economic, ethical, environmental, and voluntary. While drivers of SR have been proposed, there has been limited research at a micro-level on how individuals perceive SR activities by the organizations where they work. Based on a prior qualitative study (Thornton and Byrd, 2013) that found SR decisions are related to several traits and influenced by relationships, a model was proposed and tested in this research. The traits found relevant in the qualitative research were conscientiousness, especially in the sense of being responsible, and self-efficacy. Relationship quality was assessed based on positive and negative emotional attractors as proposed in intentional change theory. Perceptions of individuals in management and non-management showed that relationship quality mediated the effect of conscientiousness and general self-efficacy on the SR. Because there are multiple facets, the author made use of Carroll's (1991) pyramid of SR to identify activities that business owners and managers consider relevant. The findings indicate that conscientiousness is related to specific SR activities in the areas of legal/regulatory, ethical and discretionary dimensions while general self-efficacy is related to financial/economic and legal/regulatory dimensions. The presence of relationship quality enhanced the effects of both conscientiousness and general self-efficacy on the various SR dimensions. This suggests that individuals perceived SR activities along different traits and that enhancing these traits might improve perceptions of SR decisions.

  18. The effect of relationship quality on individual perceptions of social responsibility in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Thornton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social responsibility (SR has been of continuing interest in the United States and around the world. Organizations make a wide variety of SR decisions that represent differing viewpoints. While a number of definitions of SR exist, many of these definitions indicate that SR decisions may be viewed as existing of various facets, such as legal/regulatory, financial/economic, ethical, environmental, and voluntary. While drivers of SR have been proposed, there has been limited research at a micro-level on how individuals perceive SR activities by the organizations where they work. Based on a prior qualitative study (Thornton and Byrd, 2013 that found SR decisions are related to several traits and influenced by relationships, a model was proposed and tested in this research. The traits found relevant in the qualitative research were conscientiousness, especially in the sense of being responsible, and self-efficacy. Relationship quality was assessed based on positive and negative emotional attractors (PNEA as proposed in Intentional Change Theory (ICT. Perceptions of individuals in management and non-management showed that relationship quality mediated the effect of conscientiousness and general self-efficacy on the SR. Because there are multiple facets, the author made use of Carroll’s (1991 pyramid of social responsibility to identify activities that business owners and managers consider relevant. The findings indicate that conscientiousness is related to specific SR activities in the areas of legal/regulatory, ethical and discretionary dimensions while general self-efficacy is related to financial/economic and legal/regulatory dimensions. The presence of relationship quality enhanced the effects of both conscientiousness and general self-efficacy on the various SR dimensions. This suggests that individuals perceived SR activities along different traits and that enhancing these traits might improve perceptions of SR decisions.

  19. Evaluating Individual Students' Perceptions of Instructional Quality: An Investigation of their Factor Structure, Measurement Invariance, and Relations to Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Ronny; Nilsen, Trude; Jansen, Malte

    2016-01-01

    Students' perceptions of instructional quality are among the most important criteria for evaluating teaching effectiveness. The present study evaluates different latent variable modeling approaches (confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, and bifactor modeling), which are used to describe these individual perceptions with respect to their factor structure, measurement invariance, and the relations to selected educational outcomes (achievement, self-concept, and motivation in mathematics). On the basis of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 large-scale data sets of Australia, Canada, and the USA (N = 26,746 students), we find support for the distinction between three factors of individual students' perceptions and full measurement invariance across countries for all modeling approaches. In this regard, bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling outperformed alternative approaches with respect to model fit. Our findings reveal significant relations to the educational outcomes. This study synthesizes different modeling approaches of individual students' perceptions of instructional quality and provides insights into the nature of these perceptions from an individual differences perspective. Implications for the measurement and modeling of individually perceived instructional quality are discussed. PMID:26903917

  20. Web-based computer adaptive assessment of individual perceptions of job satisfaction for hospital workplace employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shih-Chung

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop a web-based computer adaptive testing (CAT application for efficiently collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job satisfaction, we examined whether a 37-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ-37 could evaluate the job satisfaction of individual employees as a single construct. Methods The JCQ-37 makes data collection via CAT on the internet easy, viable and fast. A Rasch rating scale model was applied to analyze data from 300 randomly selected hospital employees who participated in job-satisfaction surveys in 2008 and 2009 via non-adaptive and computer-adaptive testing, respectively. Results Of the 37 items on the questionnaire, 24 items fit the model fairly well. Person-separation reliability for the 2008 surveys was 0.88. Measures from both years and item-8 job satisfaction for groups were successfully evaluated through item-by-item analyses by using t-test. Workers aged 26 - 35 felt that job satisfaction was significantly worse in 2009 than in 2008. Conclusions A Web-CAT developed in the present paper was shown to be more efficient than traditional computer-based or pen-and-paper assessments at collecting data regarding workers' perceptions of job content.

  1. Individual perception and cultural development: Foucault's 1954 approach to mental illness and its history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joranger, Line

    2016-02-01

    In his 1954 book Mental Illness and Personality Foucault combines the subjective experience of the mentally ill person with a sociocultural historical approach to mental illness and suggests that there exists a reciprocal connection between individual perception and sociocultural development. This article examines the ramifications of these connections in Foucault's 1954 works and the connection with his later historical works. The article also examines the similarities between Foucault's 1954 thoughts and contemporary intellectual thought, such as those outlined in Maurice Merleau-Ponty's existential phenomenology and in Gaston Bachelard and Georges Canguilhem's historical epistemology. In sum, my study shows that Foucault's historical analysis began long before his 1961 dissertation History of Madness. It also shows that, more than announcing the "death" of the subject, Foucault's historical analysis may have contributed to saving it.

  2. Electrophysiological correlates of individual differences in perception of audiovisual temporal asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Sensitivity to the temporal relationship between auditory and visual stimuli is key to efficient audiovisual integration. However, even adults vary greatly in their ability to detect audiovisual temporal asynchrony. What underlies this variability is currently unknown. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed a simultaneity judgment task on a range of audiovisual (AV) and visual-auditory (VA) stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and compared ERP responses in good and poor performers to the 200ms SOA, which showed the largest individual variability in the number of synchronous perceptions. Analysis of ERPs to the VA200 stimulus yielded no significant results. However, those individuals who were more sensitive to the AV200 SOA had significantly more positive voltage between 210 and 270ms following the sound onset. In a follow-up analysis, we showed that the mean voltage within this window predicted approximately 36% of variability in sensitivity to AV temporal asynchrony in a larger group of participants. The relationship between the ERP measure in the 210-270ms window and accuracy on the simultaneity judgment task also held for two other AV SOAs with significant individual variability -100 and 300ms. Because the identified window was time-locked to the onset of sound in the AV stimulus, we conclude that sensitivity to AV temporal asynchrony is shaped to a large extent by the efficiency in the neural encoding of sound onsets.

  3. Perception of biological motion in schizophrenia and healthy individuals: a behavioral and FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jejoong Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anomalous visual perception is a common feature of schizophrenia plausibly associated with impaired social cognition that, in turn, could affect social behavior. Past research suggests impairment in biological motion perception in schizophrenia. Behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiments were conducted to verify the existence of this impairment, to clarify its perceptual basis, and to identify accompanying neural concomitants of those deficits. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, we measured ability to detect biological motion portrayed by point-light animations embedded within masking noise. Experiment 2 measured discrimination accuracy for pairs of point-light biological motion sequences differing in the degree of perturbation of the kinematics portrayed in those sequences. Experiment 3 measured BOLD signals using event-related fMRI during a biological motion categorization task. Compared to healthy individuals, schizophrenia patients performed significantly worse on both the detection (Experiment 1 and discrimination (Experiment 2 tasks. Consistent with the behavioral results, the fMRI study revealed that healthy individuals exhibited strong activation to biological motion, but not to scrambled motion in the posterior portion of the superior temporal sulcus (STSp. Interestingly, strong STSp activation was also observed for scrambled or partially scrambled motion when the healthy participants perceived it as normal biological motion. On the other hand, STSp activation in schizophrenia patients was not selective to biological or scrambled motion. CONCLUSION: Schizophrenia is accompanied by difficulties discriminating biological from non-biological motion, and associated with those difficulties are altered patterns of neural responses within brain area STSp. The perceptual deficits exhibited by schizophrenia patients may be an exaggerated manifestation of neural events within STSp associated with

  4. Identifying high ability students: a contribution from neuropsychological indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Cortat Simonetti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some data on the convergence between psychometric intelligence measurements (IQ tests and physiological signs of mental activity found in high ability adolescents. The research study focus on a small group of 15 subjects submitted to electric encephalograms, previously chosen from a larger group of 77 classmates on the basis of scores on the WISC-III IQ Test. The results suggest continuous predominance of Alpha waves for the gifted group (higher frequency percentile and higher amplitude what was not observed in the group without any superior intellectual ability. Even taking into account methodological limitations, this study may contribute to the understanding of a relationship between the intellectual quotient (IQ and alpha waves frequency and amplitude, as observed during performance on cognitive tasks. Such results may suggest a possibility to complement psychometric measures with encephalic registers in giftedness research studies.

  5. On the effects of L2 perception and of individual differences in L1 production on L2 pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Natalia; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H

    2014-01-01

    The speech of late second language (L2) learners is generally marked by an accent. The dominant theoretical perspective attributes accents to deficient L2 perception arising from a transfer of L1 phonology, which is thought to influence L2 perception and production. In this study we evaluate the explanatory role of L2 perception in L2 production and explore alternative explanations arising from the L1 phonological system, such as for example, the role of L1 production. Specifically we examine the role of an individual's L1 productions in the production of L2 vowel contrasts. Fourteen Spanish adolescents studying French at school were assessed on their perception and production of the mid-close/mid-open contrasts, /ø-œ/ and /e-ε/, which are, respectively, acoustically distinct from Spanish sounds, or similar to them. The participants' native productions were explored to assess (1) the variability in the production of native vowels (i.e., the compactness of vowel categories in F1/F2 acoustic space), and (2) the position of the vowels in the acoustic space. The results revealed that although poorly perceived contrasts were generally produced poorly, there was no correlation between individual performance in perception and production, and no effect of L2 perception on L2 production in mixed-effects regression analyses. This result is consistent with a growing body of psycholinguistic and neuroimaging research that suggest partial dissociations between L2 perception and production. In contrast, individual differences in the compactness and position of native vowels predicted L2 production accuracy. These results point to existence of surface transfer of individual L1 phonetic realizations to L2 space and demonstrate that pre-existing features of the native space in production partly determine how new sounds can be accommodated in that space.

  6. Individual and Contextual Parameters Associated with Adolescents' Domain Specific Self-Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Hatzinikolaou, Stamatia

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the role of adolescents' self-esteem and perceptions of family and classroom contexts on their domain specific self-perceptions. 345 Greek junior high school adolescents aged 14-16 completed measures of domain specific self-perceptions, self-esteem, parenting styles and classroom climate. Hierarchical regression analyses…

  7. Individual and Contextual Parameters Associated with Adolescents' Domain Specific Self-Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Hatzinikolaou, Stamatia

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the role of adolescents' self-esteem and perceptions of family and classroom contexts on their domain specific self-perceptions. 345 Greek junior high school adolescents aged 14-16 completed measures of domain specific self-perceptions, self-esteem, parenting styles and classroom climate. Hierarchical regression analyses…

  8. Social perception of violence against women: Individual and psychosocial characteristics of victims and abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Herrera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women in close relationships is one of the most worrying and controversial situations in modern society. The main goal of this study was to identify the social perception that people generally have of gender violence in order to obtain profiles of both men who resort to violence against their partners and women who are victims of abuse, identifying both individual (e.g. self-esteem and social (power in relationship characteristics related to gender violence. Using a questionnaire (designed between groups, 268 participants were asked to estimate the probability of men (Batterers vs. Non-batterers and women (Victims vs. Non-victims displaying certain behaviours, beliefs or attitudes. The results revealed the existence of clear social profiles of both aggressors and victims, comprising both individual and psychosocial characteristics. These profiles contained aspects that coincide with the roles traditionally associated with men and women, thus highlighting inequality between both sexes, and which seems to be one of the main causes of gender violence.

  9. PERCEPTION OF STIGMA AND SOCIAL IMPACTS ON INDIVIDUALS WITH HANSEN’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliany Fontes Loures

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The individuals with Hansen’s disease experience situations of prejudice that, together with stigma and discrimination, culminate in social isolation and restrictions in social relationships. This study aimed to evaluate the perception of stigma in individuals with Hansen’s disease and its social repercussions. It was configured as a qualitative study, by means of semi-structured interviews with 20 users registered to chemotherapy treatment in reference units of Zona da Mata Mineira, in the first half of 2014. The analysis was performed through content analysis and the following categories were defined: Lack of knowledge about the disease; Diagnosis and cure; Discrimination and fear; Concealment of the disease; Social support; and Bond and social participation. Lack of knowledge about the disease interferes with the individual’s ability to cope with it, and coupled with fear of discrimination, it was enough for them to conceal their diagnosis from others. Thus, it was not possible to notice any changes in their social bonds. The different emotional reactions at the moment of diagnosis stood out, in addition to the emphasis on healing given by respondents. In this study, it became clear that the concealment of the disease and the social support acted as protective factors that prevented moments of discrimination and restriction in social participation.

  10. Illness and treatment perceptions of patients with chronic low back pain: characteristics and relation to individual, disease and interaction variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyduck, Katja; Meffert, Cornelia; Glattacker, Manuela

    2014-09-01

    The significance of various cognitive and psychosocial factors in the development, progression and persistence of chronic low back pain (CLBP) is well demonstrated. However, only a few studies have addressed CLBP patients' cognitive representations or beliefs about their disease and its treatment. The present study aimed to: (1) describe the illness and treatment beliefs of patients with CLBP, e.g., expected timeline, controllability or treatment related concerns; and (2) explore the relation of these illness and treatment beliefs to individual-, disease- and interaction-related variables. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with N = 201 patients at four inpatient rehabilitation centers. The characteristics of illness and treatment perceptions were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the associations with disease-related, individual-related and interaction-related variables. The results demonstrated large inter-individual variability in the illness and treatment perceptions among patients with CLBP and pointed to several associations with disease-related variables, patients' personal characteristics and interaction experiences. The variables most strongly related to individuals' perceptions were those reflecting disease severity and individual disease experience. Further research is needed on CLBP patients' illness and treatment perceptions, and these personal disease experiences should be considered when designing new treatment approaches.

  11. Myth 15: High-Ability Students Don't Face Problems and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sidney M.

    2009-01-01

    One rationale for failure to address the needs of high-ability students in schools is that high-ability students do not need special services because they do not face any special problems or challenges. A more extreme corollary of this attitude is the notion that high ability is so protective that students with high ability do not face problems or…

  12. The perception of corruption in a cross-country perspective: why are some individuals more perceptive than others?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Melgar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the foundations of corruption perception at the micro-level. Using micro and macro data, we focus on the incidence of personal characteristics and country effects. We extend previous researches by estimating sub-models taking into account differences in the countries of residence. Our database comes from the 2004 International Social Survey Program survey that includes more than 35 countries. Ordered probit models were estimated in order to study the impact of independent variables on the perceived level of corruption. This article argues that there are socio-demographic variables that play a relevant role in determining corruption perception (such as: gender, education, etc.. We find that country of residence matters and the model shows some relevant patters of behavior. Finally, we find a strong relationship between our ranking of countries and the Corruption Perception Index computed by Transparency International.

  13. On the effects of L2 perception and of individual differences in L1 production on L2 pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Natalia; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2014-01-01

    The speech of late second language (L2) learners is generally marked by an accent. The dominant theoretical perspective attributes accents to deficient L2 perception arising from a transfer of L1 phonology, which is thought to influence L2 perception and production. In this study we evaluate the explanatory role of L2 perception in L2 production and explore alternative explanations arising from the L1 phonological system, such as for example, the role of L1 production. Specifically we examine the role of an individual’s L1 productions in the production of L2 vowel contrasts. Fourteen Spanish adolescents studying French at school were assessed on their perception and production of the mid-close/mid-open contrasts, /ø-œ/ and /e-ε/, which are, respectively, acoustically distinct from Spanish sounds, or similar to them. The participants’ native productions were explored to assess (1) the variability in the production of native vowels (i.e., the compactness of vowel categories in F1/F2 acoustic space), and (2) the position of the vowels in the acoustic space. The results revealed that although poorly perceived contrasts were generally produced poorly, there was no correlation between individual performance in perception and production, and no effect of L2 perception on L2 production in mixed-effects regression analyses. This result is consistent with a growing body of psycholinguistic and neuroimaging research that suggest partial dissociations between L2 perception and production. In contrast, individual differences in the compactness and position of native vowels predicted L2 production accuracy. These results point to existence of surface transfer of individual L1 phonetic realizations to L2 space and demonstrate that pre-existing features of the native space in production partly determine how new sounds can be accommodated in that space. PMID:25414678

  14. On the effects of L2 perception and of individual differences in L1 production on L2 pronunciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eKartushina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The speech of late second language (L2 learners is generally marked by an accent. The dominant theoretical perspective attributes accents to deficient L2 perception arising from a transfer of L1 phonology, which is thought to influence L2 perception and production. In this study we evaluate the explanatory role of L2 perception in L2 production and explore alternative explanations arising from the L1 phonological system, such as for example, the role of L1 production. Specifically we examine the role of an individual’s L1 productions in the production of L2 vowel contrasts. Fourteen Spanish adolescents studying French at school were assessed on their perception and production of the mid-close/mid-open contrasts, /ø-œ/ and /e-ε/, which are, respectively, acoustically distinct from Spanish sounds, or similar to them. The participants’ native productions were explored to assess 1 the variability in the production of native vowels (i.e., the compactness of vowel categories in F1/F2 acoustic space, and 2 the position of the vowels in the acoustic space. The results revealed that although poorly perceived contrasts were generally produced poorly, there was no correlation between individual performance in perception and production, and no effect of L2 perception on L2 production in mixed-effects regression analyses. This result is consistent with a growing body of psycholinguistic and neuroimaging research that suggest partial dissociations between L2 perception and production. In contrast, individual differences in the compactness and position of native vowels predicted L2 production accuracy. These results point to existence of surface transfer of individual L1 phonetic realisations to L2 space and demonstrate that pre-existing features of the native space in production partly determine how new sounds can be accommodated in that space.

  15. Increasing support for contraception as HIV prevention: stakeholder mapping to identify influential individuals and their perceptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Petruney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Voluntary contraceptive use by HIV-positive women currently prevents more HIV-positive births, at a lower cost, than anti-retroviral drug (ARV regimens. Despite this evidence, most prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT programs focus solely on providing ARV prophylaxis to pregnant women and rarely include the prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To strengthen support for family planning as HIV prevention, we systematically identified key individuals in the field of international HIV/AIDS-those who could potentially influence the issue-and sought to determine their perceptions of barriers to and facilitators for implementing this PMTCT strategy. We used a criteria-based approach to determine which HIV/AIDS stakeholders have the most significant impact on HIV/AIDS research, programs, funding and policy and stratified purposive sampling to conduct interviews with a subset of these individuals. The interview findings pointed to obstacles to strengthening linkages between family planning and HIV/AIDS, including the need for: resources to integrate family planning and HIV services, infrastructure or capacity to provide integrated services at the facility level, national leadership and coordination, and targeted advocacy to key decision-makers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The individuals we identified as having regional or international influence in the field of HIV/AIDS have the ability to leverage an increasingly conducive funding environment and a growing evidence base to address the policy, programmatic and operational challenges to integrating family planning with HIV/AIDS. Fostering greater support for implementing contraception for HIV prevention will require the dedication, collaboration and coordination of many such actors. Our findings can inform a targeted advocacy campaign.

  16. [Psychoeducational intervention in high ability: intellectual functioning and extracurricular enrichment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2014-02-24

    The 'new paradigm' defines the high intellectual ability as a potential that should crystallize progressively throughout development. Its main feature is a high intellectual initial multidimensional potential, which is transformed so that, being a person with high intellectual ability is the result of a developmental process from a neurobiological substrate and the incidence of variables (psychosocial and education) which determines its manifestation more or less stable and optimal to excellence. It is interesting to know the effectiveness of psychoeducational intervention of the extracurricular enrichment programs and their effects on the expression of differential functioning and the optimization of the management of cognitive resources that lead to excellence. An extracurricular enrichment program is described and evaluated through: 1) the stability of the intellectual measures; 2) the satisfaction level of participants and families. Participants are 58 high ability students on the enrichment program and 25 parents. Intellectual profiles are obtained on T1-T2 and calculated their stability by regression analysis, the CSA and CSA-P questionnaires were applied in order to know the participants and families' satisfaction measure. Results show the basic stability of intellectual profiles with five cases of instability among the 58 profiles obtained, and a high satisfaction with the results obtained in the domain of cognitive and personal management among the participants.

  17. What Predicts the Effectiveness of Foreign-Language Pronunciation Instruction? Investigating the Role of Perception and Other Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated second language (L2) learners' perception of L2 sounds as an individual difference that predicted their improvement in pronunciation after receiving instruction. Learners were given explicit pronunciation instruction in a series of modules added to their Spanish as a foreign language curriculum and were then tested on their…

  18. The Effects of Children's Reading Skills and Interest on Teacher Perceptions of Children's Skills and Individualized Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Silinskas, Gintautas; Soodla, Piret

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of children's reading skills and interest in reading-related tasks on teacher perceptions of children's literacy skills (reading and spelling) and the respective individualized support for children during the first two years of formal schooling. The participants were 334 children and their classroom teachers.…

  19. The Effects of Children's Reading Skills and Interest on Teacher Perceptions of Children's Skills and Individualized Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Silinskas, Gintautas; Soodla, Piret

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of children's reading skills and interest in reading-related tasks on teacher perceptions of children's literacy skills (reading and spelling) and the respective individualized support for children during the first two years of formal schooling. The participants were 334 children and their classroom teachers.…

  20. Individualism and Socioeconomic Diversity at School as Related to Perceptions of the Frequency of Peer Aggression in Fifteen Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzer, Melissa M.; Torney-Purta, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine two aspects of context for peer aggression: national individualism and distributions of socioeconomic status in the school. School administrators for each school reported on their perceptions of the frequency of bullying and violence in their school. The sample comprised 990 school principals/headmasters…

  1. Why harmless sensations might hurt in individuals with chronic pain: About heightened prediction and perception of pain in the mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Hechler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In individuals with chronic pain harmless bodily sensations can elicit anticipatory fear of pain resulting in maladaptive responses such as taking pain medication. Here, we aim to broaden the perspective taking into account recent evidence that suggests that interoceptive perception is largely a construction of beliefs, which are based on past experience and that are kept in check by the actual state of the body. Taking a Bayesian perspective, we propose that individuals with chronic pain display a heightened prediction of pain (prior probability p(pain, which results in heightened pain perception (posterior probability p(pain|sensation due to an assumed link between pain and a harmless bodily sensation (p(sensation│pain. This pain perception emerges because their mind infers pain as the most likely cause for the sensation. When confronted with a mismatch between predicted pain and a (harmless bodily sensation, individuals with chronic pain try to minimize the mismatch most likely by active inference of pain or by an attentional shift. The active inference results in activities that produce a stronger sensation that will match with the prediction, allowing subsequent perceptual inference of pain. Here, we depict heightened pain perception in individuals with chronic pain by reformulating and extending the assumptions of the interoceptive predictive coding model from a Bayesian perspective. The review concludes with a research agenda and clinical considerations.

  2. Individuals' perception of their quality of life following a liver transplant: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, G

    1999-08-01

    This study explores individuals' perceptions of the effect of a liver transplant on their quality of life, focusing on the progression from dependence to independence physically, socially and psychologically. A phenomenological design using taped semi-structured interviews was used. The sample consisted of five patients attending the out-patients clinic at least 1 year following a liver transplant for chronic liver disease. The data were analysed using cluster analysis of transcribed interviews. Categories were identified as physical, social and psychological factors affecting their progression from dependence to independence pre- and post-transplant and specific factors were identified as significant in overcoming the stressors affecting this progression. The findings reflected Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Pre-transplant their physical problems prevented them fulfilling personal goals and addressing psychological issues, e.g. dying. Post-transplant any physical problems identified were insignificant to the participant. They were keen to socially integrate and be treated as normal; however, family and friends restricted their independence by continuing to 'wrap them in cotton wool' as they had before their transplant. Personality, incentives and Unit support were identified as imperative in their progression from dependence to independence. The findings demonstrate a need to impress on family and friends of patients following a liver transplant, their role in assisting the patient's progression from dependence to independence.

  3. Disclosure Management on Social Network Sites: Individual Privacy Perceptions and User-Directed Privacy Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp K. Masur

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The social web and specifically social network sites (SNS have offered new opportunities for interaction and communication, but have also increased the risk of privacy violations. In this study, we investigated how far users imply different disclosure management strategies in status updates and chat conversations. We hypothesized that users perceive specific information as differently private depending on their personal privacy preference, but generally show the same disclosure management pattern: the higher the perceived privacy level of an information, the less frequently it will be shared. We tested the hypothesis using an online survey with 316 German SNS users. The findings suggest that respondents engaged in disclosure management taking both communication channel and type of information into account. We further found that trust toward SNS contacts and use of privacy settings significantly influenced disclosure management in one-to-many (status updates but not in one-to-one communications situations (chat conversations. The results complement existing research by showing the pivotal role of individual privacy perceptions in explaining users’ privacy management in the social web.

  4. Egocentric Fairness Perception: Emotional Reactions and Individual Differences in Overt Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediou, Benoit; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research documents the existence of egocentric biases in the perception and application of justice norms. The origin of these biases remains poorly understood. We investigated both inter- and intra-individual differences in egocentric justice biases. Participants played an ultimatum game presumably with different anonymous players (simulated by a computer) in which they contributed differentially to the joint production of the initial endowment. We examined how contributions (low vs. high) affect proposers' offers and responders' acceptance decisions, as well as their fairness judgments and their emotional reactions to different types of offers (equal, equitable, unfair, and hyperfair). An egocentric bias in proposers' offers (indicating more flexible preferences) was found only in individualists and not in prosocials, suggesting differences in the motivations (or cognitions) underlying their choice of justice norms. Responders also showed egocentric biases in their judgments of fairness and in their emotional reactions to equal and equitable offers, but not in their acceptance decisions. Such dissociation might suggest that some form of emotion regulation occurred. Responders may evaluate offers on valence dimensions (e.g., goal conduciveness/outcome favorability and norm compatibility/justice) that are multiply interacting and potentially conflicting. The individual's acceptance/rejection decision reflects the relative weight attributed to competing appraisals. For this overt behavioral decision, the (personal) appraisal of outcome favorability that drives (analytical) acceptance of goal-conducive outcome seems to be stronger than the (social) appraisal of outcome fairness, which may trigger covert (emotional) rejection of offers that are incompatible with justice norms. Our data show that the emotional reaction patterns provide a more fine-grained readout of the overall evaluation of the proposer's action, the underlying emotional dynamics of which may

  5. Individual and contextual parameters associated with adolescents' domain specific self-perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M; Hatzinikolaou, Stamatia

    2011-04-01

    The present study examined the role of adolescents' self-esteem and perceptions of family and classroom contexts on their domain specific self-perceptions. 345 Greek junior high school adolescents aged 14-16 completed measures of domain specific self-perceptions, self-esteem, parenting styles and classroom climate. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that both family and classroom contexts predicted students' self-perceptions, after students' demographics, academic achievement and self-esteem were controlled for. However, different patterns emerged in the relationship between family, classroom climate and self-esteem depending on domain specific self-perceptions. Academic self-perceptions (scholastic, mathematics and language competences) were predicted by classroom climate dimensions (order and organization, student involvement, rule clarity), whereas self-perceptions regarding relations with parents, close friends and behaviour conduct, were predicted by parenting styles. Given the fact that adolescence is a period of fluctuation in self-understanding which renders self-perceptions particularly malleable, the results support the critical role of the social environments where adolescents operate.

  6. Eating behaviour explains differences between individuals in dynamic texture perception of sausages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, M.S.M.; Derks, J.A.M.; Ketel, E.C.; Wijk, de R.A.; Stieger, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Texture perception of foods has been demonstrated to be influenced by age, dental health and oral processing behaviour. Eating duration is a significant factor contributing to and determining food oral processing behaviour. The influence of eating duration on dynamic texture perception, oral process

  7. Eating behaviour explains differences between individuals in dynamic texture perception of sausages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, M.S.M.; Derks, J.A.M.; Ketel, E.C.; Wijk, de R.A.; Stieger, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Texture perception of foods has been demonstrated to be influenced by age, dental health and oral processing behaviour. Eating duration is a significant factor contributing to and determining food oral processing behaviour. The influence of eating duration on dynamic texture perception, oral

  8. On Feeling in Control: A Biological Theory for Individual Differences in Control Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, Carolyn H.; Boone, Christophe; De Brabander, Bert

    2006-01-01

    This review aims to create a cross-disciplinary framework for understanding the perception of control. Although, the personality trait locus of control, the most common measure of control perception, has traditionally been regarded as a product of social learning, it may have biological antecedents as well. It is suggested that control perception…

  9. Individual Differences in Children's Risk Perception and Appraisals in Outdoor Play Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    Child characteristics including age, gender, risk-taking behaviour and sensation seeking are thought to influence children's ability to appraise risks. The present study investigated children's risk perceptions and appraisals in the context of common outdoor physical play activities. Risk perceptions and appraisal of four- and five-year olds were…

  10. A successful intervention program for high ability minority students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Winson R.

    1989-01-01

    intervention program is the Saturday Academy program for high ability minority students in the Washington, D.C. area. A description of the Saturday Academy is provided with the intent of making it available to personnel who are considering the development of similar projects. The effect of participation in the program on high school graduate rates, college enrollment, and choice of quantitative major is examined.

  11. Individual factors that influence experiences and perceptions of stigma and discrimination towards people with mental illness in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyamfi, Sebastian; Hegadoren, Kathy; Park, Tanya

    2017-03-27

    People with a mental illness often encounter stigma and discrimination from a variety of sources, reinforcing negative self-perceptions and influencing their health and well-being. Even though support systems and attitudes of the general public act as powerful sources of stigma, views and perceptions held by people with mental illness also influence their sensitivity to the experiences they encounter. The aim of the present qualitative study was to examine perceptions of stigma and discrimination and self-stigma in individuals diagnosed with a mental illness. This study adopted a narrative, descriptive method, using a semistructured interview guide to elicit participant perceptions regarding sources of stigma, discrimination, and personal factors that might influence their experiences. Twelve outpatients attending a clinic in Ghana were interviewed. Thematic content analysis was completed and augmented by field notes. Participants' perceptions about personal impacts of stigma were found to be influenced by self-stigma, anticipated stigma and discrimination, perceived discrimination, and their knowledge about their illness. For many participants, their views served to augment societal views, and thus reinforce negative self-perceptions and their future. However, for other participants, their views served as a buffer in the face of environmental situations that reflect stigma and discrimination. Stigma is a complex, socially-sanctioned phenomenon that can seriously affect the health of people with mental illness. As such, it requires coordinated strategies among public policy makers, governmental bodies, and health-care providers to address stigma on a societal level, and to address its potential impacts on broad health outcomes for individuals with mental illness. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  12. Changing the Pond, Not the Fish: Following High-Ability Students across Different Educational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makel, Matthew C.; Lee, Seon-Young; Olszewki-Kubilius, Paula; Putallaz, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) research (e.g., Marsh & Parker, 1984) has found that perceptions of academic ability are generally positively related to individual ability and negatively related to classroom and school average ability. However, BFLPE research typically relies on environmental differences as a between-subjects factor. Unlike…

  13. Individual differences in speech-in-noise perception parallel neural speech processing and attention in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Elaine C; Woodruff Carr, Kali; White-Schwoch, Travis; Otto-Meyer, Sebastian; Kraus, Nina

    2017-02-01

    From bustling classrooms to unruly lunchrooms, school settings are noisy. To learn effectively in the unwelcome company of numerous distractions, children must clearly perceive speech in noise. In older children and adults, speech-in-noise perception is supported by sensory and cognitive processes, but the correlates underlying this critical listening skill in young children (3-5 year olds) remain undetermined. Employing a longitudinal design (two evaluations separated by ∼12 months), we followed a cohort of 59 preschoolers, ages 3.0-4.9, assessing word-in-noise perception, cognitive abilities (intelligence, short-term memory, attention), and neural responses to speech. Results reveal changes in word-in-noise perception parallel changes in processing of the fundamental frequency (F0), an acoustic cue known for playing a role central to speaker identification and auditory scene analysis. Four unique developmental trajectories (speech-in-noise perception groups) confirm this relationship, in that improvements and declines in word-in-noise perception couple with enhancements and diminishments of F0 encoding, respectively. Improvements in word-in-noise perception also pair with gains in attention. Word-in-noise perception does not relate to strength of neural harmonic representation or short-term memory. These findings reinforce previously-reported roles of F0 and attention in hearing speech in noise in older children and adults, and extend this relationship to preschool children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Internet video telephony allows speech reading by deaf individuals and improves speech perception by cochlear implant users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Mantokoudis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze speech reading through Internet video calls by profoundly hearing-impaired individuals and cochlear implant (CI users. METHODS: Speech reading skills of 14 deaf adults and 21 CI users were assessed using the Hochmair Schulz Moser (HSM sentence test. We presented video simulations using different video resolutions (1280 × 720, 640 × 480, 320 × 240, 160 × 120 px, frame rates (30, 20, 10, 7, 5 frames per second (fps, speech velocities (three different speakers, webcameras (Logitech Pro9000, C600 and C500 and image/sound delays (0-500 ms. All video simulations were presented with and without sound and in two screen sizes. Additionally, scores for live Skype™ video connection and live face-to-face communication were assessed. RESULTS: Higher frame rate (>7 fps, higher camera resolution (>640 × 480 px and shorter picture/sound delay (<100 ms were associated with increased speech perception scores. Scores were strongly dependent on the speaker but were not influenced by physical properties of the camera optics or the full screen mode. There is a significant median gain of +8.5%pts (p = 0.009 in speech perception for all 21 CI-users if visual cues are additionally shown. CI users with poor open set speech perception scores (n = 11 showed the greatest benefit under combined audio-visual presentation (median speech perception +11.8%pts, p = 0.032. CONCLUSION: Webcameras have the potential to improve telecommunication of hearing-impaired individuals.

  15. Perceptions of the causes of eating disorders: a comparison of individuals with and without eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H; Jones, Maegan E; Haugen, Emily C; Schaefer, Mallary K

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined perceptions regarding the causes of eating disorders, both among those with eating disorders as well as those without. By understanding the differences in perceived causes between the two groups, better educational programs for lay people and those suffering from eating disorders can be developed. This study used open-ended questions to assess the beliefs of 57 individuals with self-reported eating disorders and 220 without. Participants responded to the questions, "What do you think was (were) the cause(s) of your eating disorder?" and "What do you think is (are) the cause(s) of eating disorders?". A list of possible codes for the causes of eating disorders was created based on a thorough review of the literature. A manually-generated set of eight codes was then created from individuals' actual responses. Frequencies and chi square analyses demonstrated differences in rates of endorsement between those with eating disorders and those without. Participants with eating disorders most frequently endorsed psychological/emotional and social problems, with genetics/biology and media/culture ideals least endorsed. Participants without eating disorders most frequently endorsed psychological/emotional problems and media/culture ideals, with traumatic life events and sports/health least endorsed. There was a difference between groups in the endorsement of the media as a cause of eating disorders, suggesting that those without eating disorders may overly attribute the media as the main cause while those with eating disorders may not be fully aware of the media's impact. Additionally, while both groups highly endorsed psychological/emotional problems, there was a noticeable stigma about eating disorders among those without eating disorders. There were noteworthy differences between samples; such differences suggest that there is a need for more education on the topic of eating disorders. Furthermore, despite empirical support for the effects of

  16. Factors Influencing Academic Self-Concept of High-Ability Girls in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Melissa Mui Mei; Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact of entering high-ability classes on the academic self-concept of high-ability primary girls in Singapore. Participants in this study are 91 Primary 4 girls, 30 high-ability pupils, and 61 pupils from classes that include high-, middle-, and low-ability pupils. This study utilized a mixed-method…

  17. Attention to bodily sensations and symptom perception in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice;

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to exposure to environmental odours or chemicals at levels below those known to induce adverse health effects. A clarification of whether psychological processes involved in sensory perceptions...

  18. Psychology of fragrance use: perception of individual odor and perfume blends reveals a mechanism for idiosyncratic effects on fragrance choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenochová, Pavlína; Vohnoutová, Pavla; Roberts, S Craig; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Grammer, Karl; Havlíček, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Cross-culturally, fragrances are used to modulate body odor, but the psychology of fragrance choice has been largely overlooked. The prevalent view is that fragrances mask an individual's body odor and improve its pleasantness. In two experiments, we found positive effects of perfume on body odor perception. Importantly, however, this was modulated by significant interactions with individual odor donors. Fragrances thus appear to interact with body odor, creating an individually-specific odor mixture. In a third experiment, the odor mixture of an individual's body odor and their preferred perfume was perceived as more pleasant than a blend of the same body odor with a randomly-allocated perfume, even when there was no difference in pleasantness between the perfumes. This indicates that fragrance use extends beyond simple masking effects and that people choose perfumes that interact well with their own odor. Our results provide an explanation for the highly individual nature of perfume choice.

  19. Exaggerated perception of facial expressions is increased in individuals with schizotypal traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions are indispensable communicative tools, and social interactions involving facial expressions are impaired in some psychiatric disorders. Recent studies revealed that the perception of dynamic facial expressions was exaggerated in normal participants, and this exaggerated perception is weakened in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Based on the notion that ASD and schizophrenia spectrum disorder are at two extremes of the continuum with respect to social impairment, we hypothesized that schizophrenic characteristics would strengthen the exaggerated perception of dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between the perception of facial expressions and schizotypal traits in a normal population. We presented dynamic and static facial expressions, and asked participants to change an emotional face display to match the perceived final image. The presence of schizotypal traits was positively correlated with the degree of exaggeration for dynamic, as well as static, facial expressions. Among its subscales, the paranoia trait was positively correlated with the exaggerated perception of facial expressions. These results suggest that schizotypal traits, specifically the tendency to over-attribute mental states to others, exaggerate the perception of emotional facial expressions. PMID:26135081

  20. Individual differences in AMY1 gene copy number, salivary α-amylase levels, and the perception of oral starch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail L Mandel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The digestion of dietary starch in humans is initiated by salivary α-amylase, an endo-enzyme that hydrolyzes starch into maltose, maltotriose and larger oligosaccharides. Salivary amylase accounts for 40 to 50% of protein in human saliva and rapidly alters the physical properties of starch. Importantly, the quantity and enzymatic activity of salivary amylase show significant individual variation. However, linking variation in salivary amylase levels with the oral perception of starch has proven difficult. Furthermore, the relationship between copy number variations (CNVs in the AMY1 gene, which influence salivary amylase levels, and starch viscosity perception has not been explored. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that saliva containing high levels of amylase has sufficient activity to rapidly hydrolyze a viscous starch solution in vitro. Furthermore, we show with time-intensity ratings, which track the digestion of starch during oral manipulation, that individuals with high amylase levels report faster and more significant decreases in perceived starch viscosity than people with low salivary amylase levels. Finally, we demonstrate that AMY1 CNVs predict an individual's amount and activity of salivary amylase and thereby, ultimately determine their perceived rate of oral starch viscosity thinning. CONCLUSIONS: By linking genetic variation and its consequent salivary enzymatic differences to the perceptual sequellae of these variations, we show that AMY1 copy number relates to salivary amylase concentration and enzymatic activity level, which, in turn, account for individual variation in the oral perception of starch viscosity. The profound individual differences in salivary amylase levels and salivary activity may contribute significantly to individual differences in dietary starch intake and, consequently, to overall nutritional status.

  1. Chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, and fatigue--the role of individual differences related to sensory perception and autonomic reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, R; Paulsen, K; Mehlsen, M;

    2007-01-01

    about the role of other factors. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of individual differences related to sensory perception for posttreatment side effects. METHODS: Hundred and twenty-five women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer completed measures of absorption, autonomic...... autonomic nervous system activity, and absorption has been associated with increased autonomic nervous system reactivity to stress. The results suggest that individuals with high absorption may be at greater risk for developing side effects. Improved precision in identifying patients at risk of experiencing...... more severe side effects after cancer treatment will increase the ability to target treatments aimed at reducing these side effects....

  2. Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo PITHON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. Material and Methods: The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%. To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA. The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Results: Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. Conclusion: To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient’s facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive.

  3. Admixture in Latin America: Geographic Structure, Phenotypic Diversity and Self-Perception of Ancestry Based on 7,342 Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Everardo, Paola; de Avila, Francisco; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; León-Mimila, Paola; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C.; Burley, Mari-Wyn; Konca, Esra; de Oliveira, Marcelo Zagonel; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; Rubio-Codina, Marta; Attanasio, Orazio; Gibbon, Sahra; Ray, Nicolas; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Balding, David; Gonzalez-José, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú). These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry. PMID:25254375

  4. Effect of hearing aid release time and presentation level on speech perception in noise in elderly individuals with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottackal Mathai, Jijo; Mohammed, Hasheem

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of compression time settings and presentation levels on speech perception in noise for elderly individuals with hearing loss. To compare aided speech perception performance in these individuals with age-matched normal hearing subjects. Twenty (normal hearing) participants within the age range of 60-68 years and 20 (mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss) in the age range of 60-70 years were randomly recruited for the study. In the former group, SNR-50 was determined using phonetically balanced sentences that were mixed with speech-shaped noise presented at the most comfortable level. In the SNHL group, aided SNR-50 was determined at three different presentation levels (40, 60, and 80 dB HL) after fitting binaural hearing aids that had different compression time settings (fast and slow). In the SNHL group, slow compression time settings showed significantly better SNR-50 compared to fast release time. In addition, the mean of SNR-50 in the SNHL group was comparable to normal hearing participants while using a slow release time. A hearing aid with slow compression time settings led to significantly better speech perception in noise, compared to that of a hearing aid that had fast compression time settings.

  5. Admixture in Latin America: geographic structure, phenotypic diversity and self-perception of ancestry based on 7,342 individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ruiz-Linares

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú. These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry.

  6. Differences and similarities in double special educational needs: high abilities/giftedness x Asperger’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Joyce Wellausen Vieira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was developed from a literature search in books, articles and theses that have been published since the year 2000 on the theme High Abilities / Giftedness and Asperger’s Syndrome. The objectives of this research were to conduct a search on publications from 2000 to 2011, about the common and different features to the person with Asperger syndrome and high ability gifted, and also relate the number of publications found in Education and Special Education. At theoretical we present the conception of High Abilities / Giftedness of Renzulli (2004 and Gardner (2000 and in the conception of Asperger Syndrome, Mello (2007 and Klin (2006. When analyzing the data, were perceived similarities and differences between the behavioral characteristics of individuals with High Abilities / Giftedness and those with Asperger’s Syndrome. It’s possible point out that there is much evidence that separate these two special educational needs and few similarities between them. But do not neglect that there may be a dual disability between these two particular special educational needs, because there are still few studies that verify theoretically the differences and similarities of these subjects, much less those that investigate these similarities and distinctions in the subjects themselves.

  7. Effects of an exercise therapy protocol on inflammatory markers, perception of pain, and physical performance in individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Grazielle Cordeiro; Do Nascimento, Marcela Rêgo; De Miranda, Aline Silva; Rocha, Natalia Pessoa; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Scalzo, Paula Luciana

    2015-03-01

    Establishing prevention and therapeutic strategies for osteoarthritis (OA) is necessary to minimize functional disability and the impact of the disease on society. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of an exercise therapy protocol on inflammatory markers, perception of pain, and physical performance in individuals with OA of the knee. The protocol consisted of flexibility training and muscle strengthening over 12 weeks with three 80-min sessions per week. Peripheral blood was collected to determine serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and soluble forms of the TNF-α receptor (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2). A clinical assessment of the musculoskeletal system and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) questionnaire were applied to evaluate the specific symptoms of knee OA. Pain intensity was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). All measurements were taken before and after the intervention. Twenty-two individuals (mean age 58.8 ± 6.4 years) completed the protocol. A decrease in the perception of pain was evident on VAS (p Physical function subscale score and the WOMAC global score improved significantly (p therapy protocol could be a strategy for reducing IL-6 levels, managing pain, and improving function in individuals with OA of the knee. However, more studies are necessary to investigate the issue.

  8. A comparison of haptic material perception in blind and sighted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Elisabeth; Wiebel, Christiane B; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2015-10-01

    We investigated material perception in blind participants to explore the influence of visual experience on material representations and the relationship between visual and haptic material perception. In a previous study with sighted participants, we had found participants' visual and haptic judgments of material properties to be very similar (Baumgartner, Wiebel, & Gegenfurtner, 2013). In a categorization task, however, visual exploration had led to higher categorization accuracy than haptic exploration. Here, we asked congenitally blind participants to explore different materials haptically and rate several material properties in order to assess the role of the visual sense for the emergence of haptic material perception. Principal components analyses combined with a procrustes superimposition showed that the material representations of blind and blindfolded sighted participants were highly similar. We also measured haptic categorization performance, which was equal for the two groups. We conclude that haptic material representations can emerge independently of visual experience, and that there are no advantages for either group of observers in haptic categorization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of Self-Disclosure on Male and Female Perceptions of Individuals Who Stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T; McGill, Megann; Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Cappellini, Colleen

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of self-disclosure on observers' perceptions of persons who stutter. Participants (N = 173) were randomly assigned to view 2 of 4 possible videos (i.e., male self-disclosure, male no self-disclosure, female self-disclosure, and female no self-disclosure). After viewing both videos, participants completed a survey assessing their perceptions of the speakers. Controlling for observer and speaker gender, listeners were more likely to select speakers who self-disclosed their stuttering as more friendly, outgoing, and confident compared with speakers who did not self-disclose. Observers were more likely to select speakers who did not self-disclose as unfriendly and shy compared with speakers who used a self-disclosure statement. Controlling for self-disclosure and observer gender, observers were less likely to choose the female speaker as friendlier, outgoing, and confident compared with the male speaker. Observers also were more likely to select the female speaker as unfriendly, shy, unintelligent, and insecure compared with the male speaker and were more likely to report that they were more distracted when viewing the videos. Results lend support to the effectiveness of self-disclosure as a technique that persons who stutter can use to positively influence the perceptions of listeners.

  10. Hue-specific colour memory impairment in an individual with intact colour perception and colour naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, L S; Pearson, P M; Robertson, B

    2008-01-15

    Cases of hue-selective dyschomatopsias, together with the results of recent optical imaging studies [Xiao, Y., Casti, A. R. R., Xiao, J., & Kaplan, E. (2006). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque primary visual cortex. Perception, 35, ECVP Abstract Supplement; Xiao, Y., Wang, Y., & Felleman, D. J. (2003). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque cortical area V2. Nature, 421, 535-539], have provided support for the idea that different colours are processed in spatially distinct regions of extrastriate cortex. In the present report, we provide evidence suggesting that a similar, but distinct, map may exist for representations of colour in memory. This evidence comes from observations of a young woman (QP) who demonstrates an isolated deficit in colour memory secondary to a concussive episode. Despite having normal colour perception and colour naming skills, and above-average memory skills in other domains, QP's ability to recall visually encoded colour information over short retention intervals is dramatically impaired. Her long-term memory for colour and her colour imagery skills are also abnormal. Surprisingly, however, these impairments are not seen with all hues; specifically, her ability to remember or imagine blue shades is spared. This interesting case contributes to the literature suggesting that colour perception, naming, and memory can be clinically dissociated, and provides insights into the organization of colour information in memory.

  11. The Gap between Individual Perception and Compliance: A Qualitative Follow-Up Study of the Surgical Safety Checklist Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Sendlhofer

    Full Text Available "The Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC is important, but we don't use it adequately" is a well-suited statement that reflects the SSC's application in hospitals. Our aim was to follow up on our initial study on compliance (2014 by analysing differences between individual perception and compliance with the SSC.We conducted a follow-up online survey to assess healthcare professionals' individual perception of, as well as satisfaction and compliance with the SSC three years following its thorough implementation.171 (19.5% of 875 operating team members completed the online survey. 99.4% confirmed using the SSC. Self-estimated subjective knowledge about the intention of the checklist was high, whereas objective knowledge was moderate, but improved as compared to 2014. According to an independent audit the SSC was used in 93.1% of all operations and among the SSCs used the completion rate was 57.2%. The use of the SSC was rated as rather easy [median (IQR: 7 (6-7], familiar [7 (6-7], generally important [7 (7-7], and good for patients [7 (6-7] as well as for employees [7 (7-7]. Only comfort of use was rated lower [6 (5-7].There is a gap between individual perception and actual application of the SSC. Despite healthcare professionals confirming the importance of the SSC, compliance was moderate. The introduction of SSCs in the health care sector remains a constant challenge and requires continuous re-evaluation as well as a sensible integration into existing workflows in hospitals.

  12. Action perception in individuals with congenital blindness or deafness: how does the loss of a sensory modality from birth affect perception-induced motor facilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, Kaat; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2011-05-01

    Seeing or hearing manual actions activates the mirror neuron system, that is, specialized neurons within motor areas which fire when an action is performed but also when it is passively perceived. Using TMS, it was shown that motor cortex of typically developed subjects becomes facilitated not only from seeing others' actions, but also from merely hearing action-related sounds. In the present study, TMS was used for the first time to explore the "auditory" and "visual" responsiveness of motor cortex in individuals with congenital blindness or deafness. TMS was applied over left primary motor cortex (M1) to measure cortico-motor facilitation while subjects passively perceived manual actions (either visually or aurally). Although largely unexpected, congenitally blind or deaf subjects displayed substantially lower resonant motor facilitation upon action perception compared to seeing/hearing control subjects. Moreover, muscle-specific changes in cortico-motor excitability within M1 appeared to be absent in individuals with profound blindness or deafness. Overall, these findings strongly argue against the hypothesis that an increased reliance on the remaining sensory modality in blind or deaf subjects is accompanied by an increased responsiveness of the "auditory" or "visual" perceptual-motor "mirror" system, respectively. Moreover, the apparent lack of resonant motor facilitation for the blind and deaf subjects may challenge the hypothesis of a unitary mirror system underlying human action recognition and may suggest that action perception in blind and deaf subjects engages a mode of action processing that is different from the human action recognition system recruited in typically developed subjects.

  13. Effects of gender diversity management on perceptions of organizational attractiveness: the role of individual differences in attitudes and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luis L; Parsons, Charles K

    2007-05-01

    In this study, the authors examined how individual gender-related attitudes and beliefs affect the reactions of men and women to gender diversity management programs in organizations. They found that whereas there were no significant between-sex differences in the effects of gender diversity management on organizational attractiveness, there were strong within-sex differences based on individual attitudes and beliefs. Specifically, within the sexes, centrality of one's gender identity, attitudes toward affirmative action for women, and the belief that women are discriminated against in the workplace moderated the effects of gender diversity management on organizational attractiveness. The findings, combined with prior research, suggest that it is critical for organizations to incorporate efforts to manage perceptions of gender diversity management programs into their diversity management strategies. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Calorie estimation accuracy and menu labeling perceptions among individuals with and without binge eating and/or purging disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Haynos, Ann F; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D; White, Marney A

    2013-09-01

    Menu labeling is a public health policy that requires chain restaurants in the USA to post kilocalorie information on their menus to help consumers make informed choices. However, there is concern that such a policy might promote disordered eating. This web-based study compared individuals with self-reported binge eating disorder (N = 52), bulimia nervosa (N = 25), and purging disorder (N = 17) and those without eating disorders (No ED) (N = 277) on restaurant calorie information knowledge and perceptions of menu labeling legislation. On average, people answered 1.46 ± 1.08 questions correctly (out of 6) (25%) on a calorie information quiz and 92% of the sample was in favor of menu labeling. The findings did not differ based on eating disorder, dieting, or weight status, or race/ethnicity. The results indicated that people have difficulty estimating the calories in restaurant meals and individuals with and without eating disorders are largely in favor of menu labeling laws.

  15. Perceptions of lesbian and gay (LG) individuals as desecrators of Christianity as predictors of anti-LG attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Kelly M; Desai, Kavita; Lauricella, Shauna; Pargament, Kenneth I; Mahoney, Annette

    2012-01-01

    This study applied religious coping theory to examine the relationship between participants' perceptions that lesbian and gay (LG) individuals desecrate Christian values (the stressor) and anti-LG attitudes (the response) and whether religious coping influences the relationship between these variables. Greater agreement with desecration messages was associated with higher levels of anti-LG attitudes. Positive religious coping was associated with lower levels of anti-LG attitudes while negative religious coping was associated with higher levels. Greater exposure to messages that LG individuals desecrate Christian values was associated with greater agreement with those messages. Longitudinal studies with more diverse samples are needed to examine causality and the generalizability of the findings. However, these results have implications for preventing and mitigating anti-LG attitudes.

  16. Individualism and socioeconomic diversity at school as related to perceptions of the frequency of peer aggression in fifteen countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzer, Melissa M; Torney-Purta, Judith

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine two aspects of context for peer aggression: national individualism and distributions of socioeconomic status in the school. School administrators for each school reported on their perceptions of the frequency of bullying and violence in their school. The sample comprised 990 school principals/headmasters from nationally representative samples of schools in 15 countries surveyed as part of the larger IEA Civic Education Study (Torney-Purta, Lehmann, Oswald, & Schulz, 2001). A national context of individualism was associated with violence but not bullying. Schools with high socioeconomic diversity had more bullying than homogeneously low or high socioeconomic status schools. In addition, diverse schools had more violence than affluent schools. Results suggest that bullying and violence should be investigated as separate constructs. Furthermore, contexts, such as national culture and school socioeconomic diversity, are important in understanding the prevalence of bullying and violence in schools internationally.

  17. Locus of Control, Academic Self-Concept, and Academic Dishonesty among High Ability College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinn, Anne N.; Boazman, Janette

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were to evaluate a measure of academic dishonesty and examine high ability college students' loci of control and its effect on behaviors of academic dishonesty, as moderated by academic self-concept. A total of 357 high ability college students enrolled at two universities in the southwestern United States took…

  18. Extending Sociological Theorising on High Ability: The Significance of Values and Lived Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli Smith, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Sociological work on high ability is framed by social constructionist theorising and/or takes a social justice approach, and hence particular analytical intellectual traditions are foregrounded. Whilst these approaches have contributed the main critique of essentialist psychological understandings of high ability, they can eclipse normative…

  19. Do High Ability Learners Enjoy Learning Alone "or" in Groups? It Depends....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevsky, Lannie

    2015-01-01

    Pedagogical shifts favouring collaborative learning and findings of recent studies have raised concerns regarding the claim that gifted students prefer to learn alone. The purpose of this study was to further investigate if, when and how high ability learners want to work with or without others. The distributions of 416 high ability students (n =…

  20. Cognitive, Adaptive, and Psychosocial Differences between High Ability Youth with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doobay, Alissa F.; Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Ali, Saba R.; Assouline, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is thriving; however, scant empirical research has investigated how ASD manifests in high ability youth. Further research is necessary to accurately differentiate high ability students with ASD from those without the disorder, and thus decrease the risk of misdiagnosis. The purpose of the present study is…

  1. Selecting the Right Educational Setting for High-Ability TCKS: A Mother's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Meeting the needs of gifted students is challenging even in traditional contexts and settings. Well-known issues include a limited choice of schools, underrepresentation of certain populations, and, often, the lack of facilities and support for high-ability students. Imagine, then, the further complexities of high-ability Third Culture Kids (TCKs)…

  2. Memory and Cognitive Strategies of High Ability Students in a Rural Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fuziana; Yunus, Melor Md

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine language learning strategies employed by the high ability students in a rural secondary school. Memory and cognitive strategies employed by the high ability students were the main focus in this study. A survey design was used and data was collected using Oxford's questionnaires. Findings reveal that the high…

  3. Values and Preferences of Individuals with Dementia: Perceptions of Family Caregivers over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamy, Allison M.; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.; Whitlatch, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Cross-sectional evidence indicates that family caregivers reporting on the importance of daily care values and preferences of individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia consistently report less importance than individuals with dementia (IWDs) self-report. Discrepancy is primarily associated with caregivers' beliefs about…

  4. Increased BOLD variability in the parietal cortex and enhanced parieto-occipital connectivity during tactile perception in congenitally blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Andrea; Bernardi, Giulio; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bonino, Daniela; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies in early blind individuals posited a possible role of parieto-occipital connections in conveying nonvisual information to the visual occipital cortex. As a consequence of blindness, parietal areas would thus become able to integrate a greater amount of multimodal information than in sighted individuals. To verify this hypothesis, we compared fMRI-measured BOLD signal temporal variability, an index of efficiency in functional information integration, in congenitally blind and sighted individuals during tactile spatial discrimination and motion perception tasks. In both tasks, the BOLD variability analysis revealed many cortical regions with a significantly greater variability in the blind as compared to sighted individuals, with an overlapping cluster located in the left inferior parietal/anterior intraparietal cortex. A functional connectivity analysis using this region as seed showed stronger correlations in both tasks with occipital areas in the blind as compared to sighted individuals. As BOLD variability reflects neural integration and processing efficiency, these cross-modal plastic changes in the parietal cortex, even if described in a limited sample, reinforce the hypothesis that this region may play an important role in processing nonvisual information in blind subjects and act as a hub in the cortico-cortical pathway from somatosensory cortex to the reorganized occipital areas.

  5. Increased BOLD Variability in the Parietal Cortex and Enhanced Parieto-Occipital Connectivity during Tactile Perception in Congenitally Blind Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Leo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in early blind individuals posited a possible role of parieto-occipital connections in conveying nonvisual information to the visual occipital cortex. As a consequence of blindness, parietal areas would thus become able to integrate a greater amount of multimodal information than in sighted individuals. To verify this hypothesis, we compared fMRI-measured BOLD signal temporal variability, an index of efficiency in functional information integration, in congenitally blind and sighted individuals during tactile spatial discrimination and motion perception tasks. In both tasks, the BOLD variability analysis revealed many cortical regions with a significantly greater variability in the blind as compared to sighted individuals, with an overlapping cluster located in the left inferior parietal/anterior intraparietal cortex. A functional connectivity analysis using this region as seed showed stronger correlations in both tasks with occipital areas in the blind as compared to sighted individuals. As BOLD variability reflects neural integration and processing efficiency, these cross-modal plastic changes in the parietal cortex, even if described in a limited sample, reinforce the hypothesis that this region may play an important role in processing nonvisual information in blind subjects and act as a hub in the cortico-cortical pathway from somatosensory cortex to the reorganized occipital areas.

  6. Perceptions of hospitalization-related trauma and treatment participation among individuals with psychotic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksarian, D.; Mojtabai, R.; Kotov, R.; Cullen, B.; Nugent, K.L.; Bromet, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which psychiatric hospitalizations are perceived as traumatic and associations of such experiences with treatment participation. Methods First-admissions (n=395) with psychotic disorders participating in the Suffolk County Mental Health Project were interviewed at 10-year follow-up. We examined associations of perceived trauma and distressing or coercive experiences over 10 years with patient characteristics and treatment participation. Results Sixty-nine percent of participants perceived at least one hospitalization as traumatic or extremely distressing. Perceived trauma was more common among females than males and homemakers compared with full-time workers. Trauma perception was not associated with treatment-seeking or time in treatment. However, reporting forced medication was associated with reduced time in treatment, especially for participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Conclusions Although perceptions of trauma during psychiatric hospitalization are common, they may be unrelated to treatment participation. However, we found modest evidence of a link between coercive experiences and reduced time treatment. PMID:24492906

  7. Perception of mineral character in Sauvignon blanc wine: inter-individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Veronica Parr

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Of the descriptors employed to characterize wine organoleptically, minerality is arguably one of the most enigmatic. The aim of the work described in this article was to delineate the nature of perceived minerality in Sauvignon wine, specifically its sensorial reality for experienced wine professionals from France and New Zealand. Participants evaluated 16 Sauvignon blanc wines (8 French; 8 New Zealand under three conditions, ortho-nasal olfaction, palate only (Nose-clip condition, and by full tasting (global perception. Data from the global condition only are reported here. Key results include: i that although there were quantitative differences in perception of minerality as a function of culture, there was substantial agreement conceptually between French and New Zealand participants in terms of the sensorial experience of minerality; and ii that perceived minerality associated significantly with other key wine descriptors, notably presence of citrus, stone-related characters (e.g., flinty or chalky/calcareous notes, and reductive notes, along with absence of Sauvignon varietal characteristics (passion fruit; green notes. Of particular interest, no significant, direct association was found between perceived sourness/acidity and minerality judgments for either culture.

  8. Neuromodulatory Effects of Auditory Training and Hearing Aid Use on Audiovisual Speech Perception in Elderly Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Luodi; Rao, Aparna; Zhang, Yang; Burton, Philip C.; Rishiq, Dania; Abrams, Harvey

    2017-01-01

    Although audiovisual (AV) training has been shown to improve overall speech perception in hearing-impaired listeners, there has been a lack of direct brain imaging data to help elucidate the neural networks and neural plasticity associated with hearing aid (HA) use and auditory training targeting speechreading. For this purpose, the current clinical case study reports functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from two hearing-impaired patients who were first-time HA users. During the study period, both patients used HAs for 8 weeks; only one received a training program named ReadMyQuipsTM (RMQ) targeting speechreading during the second half of the study period for 4 weeks. Identical fMRI tests were administered at pre-fitting and at the end of the 8 weeks. Regions of interest (ROI) including auditory cortex and visual cortex for uni-sensory processing, and superior temporal sulcus (STS) for AV integration, were identified for each person through independent functional localizer task. The results showed experience-dependent changes involving ROIs of auditory cortex, STS and functional connectivity between uni-sensory ROIs and STS from pretest to posttest in both cases. These data provide initial evidence for the malleable experience-driven cortical functionality for AV speech perception in elderly hearing-impaired people and call for further studies with a much larger subject sample and systematic control to fill in the knowledge gap to understand brain plasticity associated with auditory rehabilitation in the aging population. PMID:28270763

  9. Characterizing auditory processing and perception in individual listeners with sensorineural hearing loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    This study considered consequences of sensorineural hearing loss in ten listeners. The characterization of individual hearing loss was based on psychoacoustic data addressing audiometric pure-tone sensitivity, cochlear compression, frequency selectivity, temporal resolution, and intensity......–438 (2008)] was used as a framework. The parameters of the cochlear processing stage of the model were adjusted to account for behaviorally estimated individual basilar-membrane inputoutput functions and the audiogram, from which the amounts of inner hair-cell and outer hair-cell losses were estimated...... was underestimated by the model. The model and the associated parameters for individual hearing-impaired listeners might be useful for investigating effects of individual hearing impairment in more complex conditions, such as speech intelligibility in noise....

  10. Role-play experience facilitates reading the mind of individuals with different perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumikazu Furumi

    Full Text Available The present study examined effects of role-play experience on reading the mind of people with different perception. It is normally difficult but very important in daily life to understand people with different characteristics, including those with restricted color vision. We explored the mechanisms of reading the mind of people with different perception. Forty university students were introduced to a communication task in which the use of mindreading was essential. During each trial, participants viewed a shelf, presented on a laptop computer, which contained several familiar objects, and they were instructed to touch an object on the shelf following an instruction issued by a partner who stood at the opposite side of the shelf. There were two partners: one was a monkey with normal color vision and the other was a dog with restricted color vision. The monkey could see all the objects in the same colors as the participants, whereas the dog saw some objects in different colors (e.g., he saw as yellow objects that the participants saw as red. Participants were required to respond according to the partner's instruction. In the restricted color vision condition, the dog saw the colors of objects differently; thus, participants had to work out his intentions (i.e., mind read, according to his different perspective. In the normal color vision condition, all objects were in the same colors as those seen by the monkey. Before the test phase, the role-play group had a role-play experience in which participants assumed the role of people with restricted color vision. No-role-play participants made significantly more errors in the restricted color vision condition than in the normal color vision condition, whereas among role-play participants, there was no difference between conditions. These results suggest that role-play experience facilitates reading the mind of people with perceptual experiences different from our own.

  11. From perception to metacognition: Auditory and olfactory functions in early blind, late blind, and sighted individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Cornell Kärnekull

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15, late blind (n = 15, and sighted (n = 30 participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity.

  12. From Perception to Metacognition: Auditory and Olfactory Functions in Early Blind, Late Blind, and Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina; Arshamian, Artin; Nilsson, Mats E.; Larsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15), late blind (n = 15), and sighted (n = 30) participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity. PMID:27729884

  13. Individuals' perceptions of employment accommodation decisions and solutions: lessons for social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Helen P; Thurman, Hanna; Cordingly, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Disability rights advocates in social work have claimed that employment opportunities for people with disabilities are an important part of personal empowerment and social inclusion. Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act is aimed at ensuring meaningful employment opportunities are available. Hahn and Raske (2005) state that social work needs to develop a research paradigm that values the inclusion of people with disabilities. This article examines these efforts by incorporating the voices of individuals with disabilities who accessed services at the Job Accommodation Network. Understanding individuals' perspectives could contribute to better accommodation outcomes for people with disabilities, employers, and advocacy professionals alike.

  14. Reconsidering the Roots of Current Perceptions: Saint Pierre, Helvetius and Rousseau on Education and the Individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Tal

    2005-01-01

    Historians and philosophers of education tend to emphasise the contribution of Rousseau to the development of individualistic trends in modern education. However, other eighteenth-century thinkers also took part in the quest to bring the individual and his happiness to the centre of contemporary educational discourse. The work of some of these…

  15. Faculty and student perceptions of the feasibility of individual student-faculty meetings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, B.F.; Erich, M.H.; Borleffs, J.C.; Elgersma, A.F.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which students feel involved in their education positively influences academic achievement. Individual student-faculty meetings can foster student involvement. To be effective, faculty acknowledgement of the benefit of these meetings is a prerequisite. The aim of this study was to expl

  16. Perceptions of others' political affiliation are moderated by individual perceivers' own political attitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Wilson

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that perceivers can accurately extract information about perceptually ambiguous group memberships from facial information alone. For example, people demonstrate above-chance accuracy in categorizing political ideology from faces. Further, they ascribe particular personality traits to faces according to political party (e.g., Republicans are dominant and mature, Democrats are likeable and trustworthy. Here, we report three studies that replicated and extended these effects. In Study 1a, we provide evidence that, in addition to showing accuracy in categorization, politically-conservative participants expressed a bias toward categorizing targets as outgroup members. In Study 1b, we replicate this relationship with a larger sample and a stimulus set consisting of faces of professional politicians. In Study 2, we find that trait ascriptions based on target political affiliation are moderated by perceiver political ideology. Specifically, although Democrats are stereotyped as more likeable and trustworthy, conservative participants rated faces that were categorized as Republicans in Study 1a as more likeable and trustworthy than faces categorized as Democrats. Thus, this paper joins a growing literature showing that it is critical to consider perceiver identity in examining perceptions of identities and traits from faces.

  17. Perception of photoperiod in individual buds of mature trees regulates leaf-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohner, Constantin M; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-12-01

    Experimental data on the perception of day length and temperature in dormant temperate zone trees are surprisingly scarce. In order to investigate when and where these environmental signals are perceived, we carried out bagging experiments in which buds on branches of Fagus sylvatica, Aesculus hippocastanum and Picea abies trees were exposed to natural light increase or kept at constant 8-h days from December until June. Parallel experiments used twigs cut from the same trees, harvesting treated and control twigs seven times and then exposing them to 8- or 16-h days in a glasshouse. Under 8-h days, budburst in Fagus outdoors was delayed by 41 d and in Aesculus by 4 d; in Picea, day length had no effect. Buds on nearby branches reacted autonomously, and leaf primordia only reacted to light cues in late dormancy after accumulating warm days. Experiments applying different wavelength spectra and high-resolution spectrometry to buds indicate a phytochrome-mediated photoperiod control. By demonstrating local photoperiodic control of buds, revealing the time when these signals are perceived, and showing the interplay between photoperiod and chilling, this study contributes to improved modelling of the impact of climate warming on photosensitive species.

  18. Individual differences in laughter perception reveal roles for mentalizing and sensorimotor systems in the evaluation of emotional authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, C; Walsh, E; Jessop, R; Agnew, Z K; Sauter, D A; Warren, J E; Scott, S K

    2015-01-01

    Humans express laughter differently depending on the context: polite titters of agreement are very different from explosions of mirth. Using functional MRI, we explored the neural responses during passive listening to authentic amusement laughter and controlled, voluntary laughter. We found greater activity in anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC) to the deliberate, Emitted Laughs, suggesting an obligatory attempt to determine others' mental states when laughter is perceived as less genuine. In contrast, passive perception of authentic Evoked Laughs was associated with greater activity in bilateral superior temporal gyri. An individual differences analysis found that greater accuracy on a post hoc test of authenticity judgments of laughter predicted the magnitude of passive listening responses to laughter in amPFC, as well as several regions in sensorimotor cortex (in line with simulation accounts of emotion perception). These medial prefrontal and sensorimotor sites showed enhanced positive connectivity with cortical and subcortical regions during listening to involuntary laughter, indicating a complex set of interacting systems supporting the automatic emotional evaluation of heard vocalizations.

  19. The effect of different cochlear implant microphones on acoustic hearing individuals' binaural benefits for speech perception in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff, Justin M; Freed, Daniel J; Fisher, Laurel M; Pal, Ivan; Soli, Sigfrid D

    2011-01-01

    Cochlear implant microphones differ in placement, frequency response, and other characteristics such as whether they are directional. Although normal-hearing (NH) individuals are often used as controls in studies examining cochlear implant users' binaural benefits, the considerable differences across cochlear implant microphones make such comparisons potentially misleading. The goal of this study was to examine binaural benefits for speech perception in noise for NH individuals using stimuli processed by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) based on the different cochlear implant microphones. HRTFs were created for different cochlear implant microphones and used to test participants on the Hearing in Noise Test. Experiment 1 tested cochlear implant users and NH individuals with HRTF-processed stimuli and with sound field (SF) testing to determine whether the HRTFs adequately simulated SF testing. Experiment 2 determined the measurement error and performance-intensity function for the Hearing in Noise Test with NH individuals listening to stimuli processed with the various HRTFs. Experiment 3 compared NH listeners' performance across HRTFs to determine how the HRTFs affected performance. Experiment 4 evaluated binaural benefits for NH listeners using the various HRTFs, including ones that were modified to investigate the contributions of interaural time and level cues. The results indicated that the HRTFs adequately simulated SF testing for the Hearing in Noise Test. They also demonstrated that the test-retest reliability and performance-intensity function were consistent across HRTFs, and that the measurement error for the test was 1.3 dB, with a change in signal-to-noise ratio of 1 dB reflecting a 10% change in intelligibility. There were significant differences in performance when using the various HRTFs, with particularly good thresholds for the HRTF based on the directional microphone when the speech and masker were spatially separated, emphasizing the

  20. Attitudes and Perceptions of the Brazilian Public Health System by Transgender Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Bones Rocha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe how transgender people perceive services offered by the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS. This qualitative study, using the phenomenological technique, is based on eight semi-structured interviews conducted with individuals whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the sex they were assigned at birth. Each interview was evaluated by two interviewers and a content analysis performed by all members of the research group. The analysis identified the following categories as having high relevance to the participants’ experiences: homophobia, receptiveness, and humanization, access to health care, and suggestions to improve the SUS. Information shared by participants emphasized their belief that health care professionals are not adequately prepared to assist transgendered individuals and that health care providers should use a more sensitive approach towards them. A recurrent theme was the need to use appropriate and socially acceptable terminology when providing health care services in order to facilitate transgendered individuals' inclusive treatment. Despite the effort of Brazilian authorities, there is a need for significant improvement in health care practices in order to comply with SUS quality standards. This study highlights the importance of qualitative investigations to improve planning and to help define public health policies with the goal of including the most vulnerable and marginalized groups of the population. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902281

  1. A social-cognitive perspective of terrorism risk perception and individual response in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer E C; Lemyre, Louise

    2009-09-01

    The volume of research on terrorism has increased since the events of September 11, 2001. However, efforts to develop a contextualized model incorporating cognitive, social-contextual, and affective factors as predictors of individual responses to this threat have been limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a series of hypotheses drawn from such a model that was generated from a series of interviews with members of the Canadian public. Data of a national survey on perceived chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNE) terrorism threat and preparedness were analyzed. Results demonstrated that worry and behavioral responses to terrorism, such as individual preparedness, information seeking, and avoidance behaviors, were each a function of cognitive and social-contextual factors. As an affective response, worry about terrorism independently contributed to the prediction of behavioral responses above and beyond cognitive and social-contextual factors, and partially mediated the relationships of some of these factors with behavioral responses. Perceived coping efficacy emerged as the cognitive factor associated with the most favorable response to terrorism. Hence, findings highlight the importance of fostering a sense of coping efficacy to the effectiveness of strategies aimed at improving individual preparedness for terrorism.

  2. On the Framing Effect to the Perception and Cognition of Individual Tax Compliance: A Case Study in Wuhan City of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the problem of individual tax evasion and its perception and cognition. Since individuals are prone to evade payment of taxes by concealing the information of personal income, it is very important to use tax intelligence information to recognize tax evasion. However, very limited work has been done in this field in China, especially for the framing effect in the perception and cognition of individual tax evasion. For this reason, this study has comprehensively researched the framing effect in the perception and cognition of individual tax evasion in Wuhan city of China. To investigate the existence of framing effect, a questionnaire survey of 300 respondents has been complemented and completed. The covariance analysis has been used to analyze the results of the survey. It has found that the level of taxpayers’ compliance is higher when they receive positive framework information than confronting the negative framework information, which convinces the existence of framing effects in the perception and cognition of individual tax evasion. It is also demonstrated that gender differences also affect taxpayers’ compliance level and male taxpayers’ compliance level is lower than female because they have higher risk preferences. Finally, some strategies have been proposed to strengthen individual tax compliance level.

  3. Emotional Intelligence, Individual Ethicality, and Perceptions that Unethical Behavior Facilitates Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mesmer-Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados de este estudio (N = 198 sugieren que la inteligencia emocional es un predictor significativo de la eticidad individual, la percepción de la condición ética de los demás y la percepción de que el comportamiento no ético facilita el éxito. Especialmente, la inteligencia emocional muestra varianza añadida en la percepción de la condición ética de los demás, sobre la explicada por la eticidad individual. La relación entre la inteligencia emocional y la percepción de que el comportamiento no ético facilita el éxito está totalmente mediada por la autoestima. Los resultados sugieren que los trabajadores emocionalmente inteligentes, frente a los bajos en inteligencia emocional, son más expertos en la interpretación de la eticidad de las acciones de los demás y potencialmente menos propensos a participar en las acciones poco éticas. Se discuten las implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica.

  4. BUSINESS PROFESSIONALS’ PERCEPTIONS RELATED TO THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN INDIVIDUAL WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adriano Antonelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature, much has been said about the impact of IT in organizations, but little about its impact on the individual. This study aims to identify IT benefits in individual work, choosing as a proxy some post-graduation “latu sensu” students, from a federal university in the south of Brazil. For data collecting, a questionnaire based on studies of Torkzadeh and Doll (1999 and Pereira (2003 has been prepared. Torkzadeh and Doll dealt with the process of working; Pereira, by using the four phases of decision making . The final instrument, after being validated and tested, amounted to 21 questions to detect the potential benefits of IT. The results demonstrated that users are satisfied, by pointing an average of 2.69 on a scale of "1" (little satisfied to "5" (very much satisfied. The framework, work process, got an overall average [2.82]. Managerial control [3.10] and productivity [3.06] had the highest ratings; innovation [2.34], the lowest one. Technologies fully implemented had greater satisfaction in all constructs of the survey with statistically significant differences. Such differences were also proven in the IT solutions that use ERP technology, the best-evaluated one. When comparing age, it was found that younger users were more satisfied with the benefits of technology. As concerning the number of employees, small business users were less satisfied with IT.

  5. Comparisons of individual bitterness perception and vegetable liking and consumption among Danish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Tove Kjær; Nicklaus, Sophie; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance the consumption of bitter and strong tasting vegetables such as cabbages and root vegetables, it is required to identify potential mediators of sociodemographic–diet relationships. In this context a consumer field studywas conducted in Denmark which comprised a semi...... sites in April and June 2011. Data was subjected to multivariate data analysis in order to elucidate relationships between consumer bitter sensitivity, vegetable preference, liking and consumption of vegetables together with socio-demographiccharacteristics. The outcome of the present study indicated...... a positive relationship between high liking of vegetables in general and high vegetable consumption.Furthermore, it was seen that individuals with low sensitivity toquinine preferred the bitter carrot sample compared to the sweeter carrot sample although this fact could not be confirmed statistically...

  6. The psychology of corporate rights: Perception of corporate versus individual rights to religious liberty, privacy, and free speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentovich, Avital; Huq, Aziz; Cerf, Moran

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court has increasingly expanded the scope of constitutional rights granted to corporations and other collective entities. Although this tendency receives widespread public and media attention, little empirical research examines how people ascribe rights, commonly thought to belong to natural persons, to corporations. This article explores this issue in 3 studies focusing on different rights (religious liberty, privacy, and free speech). We examined participants' willingness to grant a given right while manipulating the type of entity at stake (from small businesses, to larger corporations, to for-profit and nonprofit companies), and the identity of the right holder (from employees, to owners, to the company itself as a separate entity). We further examined the role of political ideology in perceptions of rights. Results indicated a significant decline in the degree of recognition of entities' rights (the company itself) in comparison to natural persons' rights (owners and employees). Results also demonstrated an effect of the type of entity at stake: Larger, for-profit businesses were less likely to be viewed as rights holders compared with nonprofit entities. Although both tendencies persisted across the ideological spectrum, ideological differences emerged in the relations between corporate and individual rights: these were positively related among conservatives but negatively related among liberals. Finally, we found that the desire to protect citizens (compared with businesses) underlies individuals' willingness to grant rights to companies. These findings show that people (rather than corporations) are more appropriate recipients of rights, and can explain public backlash to judicial expansions of corporate rights.

  7. The effects of visual context and individual differences on perception and evaluation of modern art and graffiti art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartus, Andreas; Klemer, Nicolas; Leder, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, artworks are seen as autonomous objects that stand (or should stand) on their own. However, at least since the emergence of Conceptual Art in the 1920s and Pop Art in the 1960s, art lacks any distinctive perceptual features that define it as such. Art, therefore, cannot be defined without reference to its context. Some studies have shown that context affects the evaluation of artworks, and that specific contexts (street for graffiti art, museum for modern art) elicit specific effects (Gartus & Leder, 2014). However, it is yet unclear how context changes perception and appreciation processes. In our study we measured eye-movements while participants (64 psychology undergraduates, 48% women) perceived and evaluated beauty, interest, emotional valence, as well as perceived style for modern art and graffiti art embedded into either museum or street contexts. For modern art, beauty and interest ratings were higher in a museum than in a street context, but context made no difference for the ratings of graffiti art. Importantly, we also found an interaction of context and individual interest in graffiti for beauty and interest ratings, as well as for number of fixations. Analyses of eye-movements also revealed that viewing times were in general significantly longer in museum than in street contexts. We conclude that context can have an important influence on aesthetic appreciation. However, some effects depend also on the style of the artworks and the individual art interests of the viewers.

  8. A descriptive study to assess the impact of surgical stomas on individuals' sleep perceptions & response to sleep hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorbeck, Ellen; Willette-Murphy, Karen; Meiers, Sonja; Rudel, Rebecca; Alakhras, Mazen

    2010-01-01

    Multiple factors affect the sleep quality of individuals with surgically created stomas. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation as the theoretical framework, a study was conducted to: 1) assess subjective sleep quality perceptions and objective sleep measurement in adults with stomas, 2) determine if there is a correlation between subjective and objective measurement of sleep in this group, and 3) implement a stoma-specific sleep hygiene intervention to improve these sleep quality perceptions. Subjective assessment focused on sleep subset questions from the Stoma Quality of Life Index (SQOLI) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Respondents' (n = 26) subjective sleep scores were 7.23 mean global score on seven questions (PSQI, range: 0 [no difficulty sleeping] to 3 [severe difficulty sleeping], total 0 to 21) with a mean score of 7.32 on three questions (SQOLI, range 1 [severe difficulty sleeping] to 4 [no difficulty sleeping], total 0 to 12) on sleep subset questions; composite scores of 5 or greater (PSQI) and 3 or less (SQOLI) indicating sleep problems. Scores showed that adults with stomas have increased sleep disruption and poor sleep quality. Five respondents who met intervention enrollment criteria participated in an objective sleep assessment using actigraphy, overnight oxygenation studies, and a 4-week sleep hygiene intervention. Mean PSQI score improved by 1.20 but the difference was not statistically significant. Because the results of this study confirm that sleep problems are common in older adults with a stoma, larger sample size studies of >4 weeks' duration are warranted. Until additional research results are available, the existence of sleep quality and overnight pouching concerns should be recognized and use of the low-cost, easy-to-use, stoma-specific sleep hygiene intervention considered.

  9. Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH: an ecometric assessment of measures of the community environment based on individual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Corsi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Public health research has turned towards examining upstream, community-level determinants of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Objective measures of the environment, such as those derived from direct observation, and perception-based measures by residents have both been associated with health behaviours. However, current methods are generally limited to objective measures, often derived from administrative data, and few instruments have been evaluated for use in rural areas or in low-income countries. We evaluate the reliability of a quantitative tool designed to capture perceptions of community tobacco, nutrition, and social environments obtained from interviews with residents in communities in 5 countries. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirteen measures of the community environment were developed from responses to questionnaire items from 2,360 individuals residing in 84 urban and rural communities in 5 countries (China, India, Brazil, Colombia, and Canada in the Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH study. Reliability and other properties of the community-level measures were assessed using multilevel models. High reliability (>0.80 was demonstrated for all community-level measures at the mean number of survey respondents per community (n = 28 respondents. Questionnaire items included in each scale were found to represent a common latent factor at the community level in multilevel factor analysis models. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Reliable measures which represent aspects of communities potentially related to cardiovascular disease (CVD/risk factors can be obtained using feasible sample sizes. The EPOCH instrument is suitable for use in different settings to explore upstream determinants of CVD/risk factors.

  10. Genetic and molecular basis of individual differences in human umami taste perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriatsu Shigemura

    Full Text Available Umami taste (corresponds to savory in English is elicited by L-glutamate, typically as its Na salt (monosodium glutamate: MSG, and is one of five basic taste qualities that plays a key role in intake of amino acids. A particular property of umami is the synergistic potentiation of glutamate by purine nucleotide monophosphates (IMP, GMP. A heterodimer of a G protein coupled receptor, TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, is proposed to function as its receptor. However, little is known about genetic variation of TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 and its potential links with individual differences in umami sensitivity. Here we investigated the association between recognition thresholds for umami substances and genetic variations in human TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, and the functions of TAS1R1/TAS1R3 variants using a heterologous expression system. Our study demonstrated that the TAS1R1-372T creates a more sensitive umami receptor than -372A, while TAS1R3-757C creates a less sensitive one than -757R for MSG and MSG plus IMP, and showed a strong correlation between the recognition thresholds and in vitro dose-response relationships. These results in human studies support the propositions that a TAS1R1/TAS1R3 heterodimer acts as an umami receptor, and that genetic variation in this heterodimer directly affects umami taste sensitivity.

  11. Theory of mind, emotion recognition and social perception in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis: Findings from the NAPLS-2 cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariapaola Barbato

    2015-09-01

    Theory of mind and social perception are impaired in individuals at CHR for psychosis. Age and IQ seem to play an important role in the arising of deficits in facial affect recognition. Future studies should examine the stability of social cognition deficits over time and their role, if any, in the development of psychosis.

  12. Trauma-Informed Day Services for Individuals with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities: Exploring Staff Understanding and Perception within an Innovative Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesler, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a systems-level philosophy of service delivery which integrates choice, collaboration, empowerment, safety and trust to create an organizational culture sensitive to trauma. This study explores staff understandings and perceptions within an innovative trauma-informed day program for individuals with…

  13. Looking at the high ability/giftedness through the lens of curriculum studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Napoleão Freitas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available From diving in the educational field, either in teaching or research in Special Education, this article postulates bring visibility to a curricular discussion strongly marked by the educational practice of learners with high ability/giftedness and having the "lighthouse flag” the inclusion policy school principles, not just theorizing about the elements of the theme. Curriculum is understood as a territory of knowledge and power, so the manufacturing process of the curriculum in the wake of the inclusive hillside – a journey which aims to solidify egalitarian social link - can put up as an potentiating agent of different actions for the education of students with high ability/giftedness, protecting them from moments of discrimination, segregation and personal, family, school and social exclusion. Therefore, this article takes up an invitation to educators to look at the prerogatives of education that hosts students with high ability/giftedness with the lens of curriculum studies.

  14. A comparison of individual exposure, perception, and acceptable levels of PM2.5 with air pollution policy objectives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Rao, Chao; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric pollution has emerged as a major public health issue in China. Public perception and acceptable risk levels of air pollution can prompt individual behavioral changes and play a major role in the public's response to health risks. Therefore, to explore these responses and evaluate what constitutes publicly acceptable concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), questionnaire surveys were conducted in three representative cities of China: Beijing, Nanjing, and Guangzhou. Great differences in public risk perception were revealed. Public perception of the health effects of air pollution (Effect) and familiarity with it (Familiarity) were significantly higher in the winter than in the summer, and also during severe haze days compared with typical days. The public perception of trust in the government (Trust) was consistent across all conditions. Exposure to severe haze pollution and experiencing harms from it were key factors influencing public willingness to respond to haze. These results reflected individual exposure levels correlating closely with risk perception and acceptance of PM2.5. However, a crucial gap exists between public acceptable risk levels (PARL) of air pollution and the policy objectives of the State Council's Action Plan. Thus, policymakers can utilize this study to develop more targeted measures to combat air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid Gist Perception of Meaningful Real-Life Scenes: Exploring Individual and Gender Differences in Multiple Categorization Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Vanmarcke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In everyday life, we are generally able to dynamically understand and adapt to socially (irelevant encounters, and to make appropriate decisions about these. All of this requires an impressive ability to directly filter and obtain the most informative aspects of a complex visual scene. Such rapid gist perception can be assessed in multiple ways. In the ultrafast categorization paradigm developed by Simon Thorpe et al. (1996, participants get a clear categorization task in advance and succeed at detecting the target object of interest (animal almost perfectly (even with 20 ms exposures. Since this pioneering work, follow-up studies consistently reported population-level reaction time differences on different categorization tasks, indicating a superordinate advantage (animal versus dog and effects of perceptual similarity (animals versus vehicles and object category size (natural versus animal versus dog. In this study, we replicated and extended these separate findings by using a systematic collection of different categorization tasks (varying in presentation time, task demands, and stimuli and focusing on individual differences in terms of e.g., gender and intelligence. In addition to replicating the main findings from the literature, we find subtle, yet consistent gender differences (women faster than men.

  16. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-06-06

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  17. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Mazzetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  18. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  19. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  20. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  1. Experiences of High-Ability High School Students: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carrie; Goebel, Vella

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to answer the question, "To what extent do 12th-grade high-ability students feel that their past educational experiences, particularly in high school, have challenged their academic abilities?" Much research has been conducted in the field of gifted education about the identification, social and emotional…

  2. High-Ability Students: New Ways to Conceptualize Giftedness and Provide Psychological Services in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicpon, Megan Foley; Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2011-01-01

    Psychologists working in the schools have an opportunity to affect in new and exciting ways the services they provide to high-ability students. A talent development framework offers a unique lens through which gifted services is conceptualized. The framework moves school psychologists beyond viewing giftedness and high IQ as synonymous to…

  3. The Effects of Acceleration on High-Ability Learners: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Moon, Sidney M.

    2011-01-01

    Current empirical research about the effects of acceleration on high-ability learners' academic achievement and social-emotional development were synthesized using meta-analytic techniques. A total of 38 primary studies conducted between 1984 and 2008 were included. The results were broken down by developmental level (P-12 and postsecondary) and…

  4. Early Identification of High-Ability Students: Clinical Assessment of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Brown, Elissa F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of teachers to accurately rate the cognitive and academic functioning of 1,375 students in kindergarten through the third grade on the Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB), as compared to two objective cognitive ability tests. CAB teacher ratings were compared for high-ability students who were currently…

  5. Accelerated Mathematics and High-Ability Students' Math Achievement in Grades Three and Four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the use of a computer-managed integrated learning system entitled Accelerated Math (AM) as a supplement to traditional mathematics instruction on achievement as measured by TerraNova achievement tests of third and fourth grade high-ability students. Gender, socioeconomic status, and…

  6. A Phenomenological Exploration of Teacher Training Regarding Academically Advanced/High-Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueker, Carrie Olstad

    2011-01-01

    The needs of academically advanced/high-ability students may not be met in today's schools. When educational needs are not met, students may not reach full potential, may lose intrinsic motivation for learning, and may develop poor work and study habits. The rural school district involved in this study lacks a formal gifted and talented program.…

  7. Creating an Effective and Meaningful Learning Environment for High-Ability Learners!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joy Lawson

    2013-01-01

    An effective and meaningful classroom for high-ability students is one in which teaching and learning is focused on meeting students' intellectual, academic, and psychosocial needs using specific strategies to impact their learning today as they prepare for tomorrow. As parents become more engaged with teachers, it also is important for them…

  8. Getting Ahead: Current Secondary and Postsecondary Acceleration Options for High-Ability Students in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Scott J.; Mann, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate and concurrent enrollment programs are both options available for high-ability high school students. Their value lies in their potential to provide greater depth and breadth of curriculum than is traditionally possible in public high schools. This study surveyed public school corporations in Indiana to examine the…

  9. Content-Based Curriculum for High-Ability Learners, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce, Ed.; Little, Catherine A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The newly updated "Content-Based Curriculum for High-Ability Learners" provides a solid introduction to curriculum development in gifted and talented education. Written by experts in the field of gifted education, this text uses cutting-edge design techniques and aligns the core content with national and state standards. In addition to a revision…

  10. An Investigation of Cognitive Skills and Behavior in High Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Elsworth, Miquela

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles of high ability students. Performance on measures of verbal and visuo-spatial working memory and general ability (vocabulary and block design) was compared across the following groups: high, average, and low ability students. The behavioral profile of high ability…

  11. Perfectionism in High-Ability Students: Relational Precursors and Influences on Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.; Finch, Holmes

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create and test a model that (a) illustrated variables influencing the development of perfectionism, and (b) demonstrated how different types of perfectionism may influence the achievement goals of high-ability students. Using a multiple groups path analysis, the researchers found that parenting style was…

  12. The Benefits of Exploring Opera for the Social and Emotional Development of High-Ability Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Kristin B.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how the exploration of opera with high-ability students can contribute to positive social and emotional development, particularly the development of humane intelligence, by stimulating ethical and moral awareness, making connections with age-old truths of humanity, and providing a powerful genre for self-expression. Teaching…

  13. Against the Odds: Academic Resilience among High-Ability African American Adolescents Living in Rural Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy Taylor

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the internal and external protective factors that serve to ameliorate barriers to academic achievement posed by the cultural factors of poverty, minority status, and rural residence for high-ability students, rendering them academically resilient. While there has been ample research on underachievement among…

  14. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perception of Emotions by Individuals with Cochlear Implants, Hearing Aids, and Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Aviner, Chen

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the benefits of cochlear implant (CI) with regard to emotion perception of participants differing in their age of implantation, in comparison to hearing aid users and adolescents with normal hearing (NH). Emotion perception was examined by having the participants identify happiness, anger, surprise, sadness, fear, and disgust.…

  15. Predictors of Biased Self-perception in Individuals with High Social Anxiety: The Effect of Self-consciousness in the Private and Public Self Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Henrik; Plummer, Alice; Wells, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    "Biased self-perception," the tendency to perceive one's social performance as more negative than observers do, is characteristic of socially anxious individuals. Self-attention processes are hypothesised to underlie biased self-perception, however, different models emphasise different aspects of self-attention, with attention to the public aspects of the self being prominent. The current study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of two types of dispositional self-attention; public- and private self-consciousness to biased self-perception in a high (n = 48) versus a low (n = 48) social anxiety group undergoing an interaction task. The main finding was that private self-consciousness explained substantial and unique variance in biased negative self-perception in individuals with high social anxiety, while public self-consciousness did not. This relationship was independent of increments in state anxiety. Private self-consciousness appeared to have a specific association with bias related to overestimation of negative social performance rather than underestimation of positive social performance. The implication of this finding is that current treatment models of Social anxiety disorder might include broader aspects of self-focused attention, especially in the context of formulating self-evaluation biases.

  16. Predictors of Biased Self-perception in Individuals with High Social Anxiety: The Effect of Self-consciousness in the Private and Public Self Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nordahl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available “Biased self-perception,” the tendency to perceive one’s social performance as more negative than observers do, is characteristic of socially anxious individuals. Self-attention processes are hypothesised to underlie biased self-perception, however, different models emphasise different aspects of self-attention, with attention to the public aspects of the self being prominent. The current study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of two types of dispositional self-attention; public- and private self-consciousness to biased self-perception in a high (n = 48 versus a low (n = 48 social anxiety group undergoing an interaction task. The main finding was that private self-consciousness explained substantial and unique variance in biased negative self-perception in individuals with high social anxiety, while public self-consciousness did not. This relationship was independent of increments in state anxiety. Private self-consciousness appeared to have a specific association with bias related to overestimation of negative social performance rather than underestimation of positive social performance. The implication of this finding is that current treatment models of Social anxiety disorder might include broader aspects of self-focused attention, especially in the context of formulating self-evaluation biases.

  17. Understanding the mathematics and science achievement and growth trajectories of high ability high school students using hierarchical linear modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belen-Ferrer, Bellasanta

    2009-12-01

    This study used longitudinal data and individual, family, and academic-related matriculation variables to examine trends in initial status and growth trajectories in overall academics, mathematics, and science achievement among 224 high ability high school Asian students. Results indicate that females have an advantage in both initial status and growth rates in overall academics and science. None of the family variables entered in the models were found to be significantly related to overall academics grade point average. All available matriculation variables entered into the models explained less than or at most about half the variance in initial achievement status and growth rate in overall academics and science but not in mathematics. These results strongly imply that other factors, notably family and school and/or classroom-related variables, not measured by the ones used in the models could explain the expected variance in initial status and growth rate of the students especially in Mathematics.

  18. The theory of multiple intelligences in the identification of high-ability students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hernández-Torrano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a framework to implement the theory of multiple intelligences (MI in the identification of high-ability students in secondary education. The internal structure of three scales to assess students' MI (students, parents and teachers' ratings was analyzed in a sample of 566 students nominated as gifted by their teachers. Participants aged 11 to 16 years (M = 14.85, SD = 1.08. The results indicated differentiated intellectual profiles depending on the informant estimating students' MI. This study provided evidence for two components that allow us to analyze the cognitive competence of high-ability students beyond the areas commonly assessed at school: an academic component composed by the linguistic, logical-mathematical, naturalistic, and visual-spatial intelligences; and a non-academic component statistically loaded by the bodily-kinesthetic, musical and social intelligences. Convergence of the two components in the three scales was evidenced; and correlations between these components and students' objective performance on a psychometric intelligence test were found to be low. Finally, the utility of the MI scales to identify high-ability students in secondary education is discussed.

  19. Theory of Mind, Emotion Recognition and Social Perception in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis: findings from the NAPLS-2 cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Mariapaola; Liu, Lu; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Mathalon, Daniel H; Heinssen, Robert; Addington, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Social cognition, the mental operations that underlie social interactions, is a major construct to investigate in schizophrenia. Impairments in social cognition are present before the onset of psychosis, and even in unaffected first-degree relatives, suggesting that social cognition may be a trait marker of the illness. In a large cohort of individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) and healthy controls, three domains of social cognition (theory of mind, facial emotion recognition and social perception) were assessed to clarify which domains are impaired in this population. Six-hundred and seventy-five CHR individuals and 264 controls, who were part of the multi-site North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study, completed The Awareness of Social Inference Test, the Penn Emotion Recognition task, the Penn Emotion Differentiation task, and the Relationship Across Domains, measures of theory of mind, facial emotion recognition, and social perception, respectively. Social cognition was not related to positive and negative symptom severity, but was associated with age and IQ. CHR individuals demonstrated poorer performance on all measures of social cognition. However, after controlling for age and IQ, the group differences remained significant for measures of theory of mind and social perception, but not for facial emotion recognition. Theory of mind and social perception are impaired in individuals at CHR for psychosis. Age and IQ seem to play an important role in the arising of deficits in facial affect recognition. Future studies should examine the stability of social cognition deficits over time and their role, if any, in the development of psychosis.

  20. Teachers’ socio-emotional perceptions on gifted and average adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    María Carmen Fernández; Rosario Bermejo; Marta Sainz; Laura Llor; Daniel Hernández; Gloria Soto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the teachers’ perception on socioemotional competence of their adolescent students, according to exceptionality (high abilities versus non high abilities) and gender. The sample was composed of 443 teachers from 55 Secondary Schools in Murcia (Spain). The instrument used was the EQ-i: YV-O for teachers (BAR-ON & PARKER, in press). According to the exceptionality of the students (high abilities versus non high abilities) the results showed that teachers percei...

  1. The impact of individual ability, favorable team member scores, and student perception of course importance on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Allan Yen-Lun

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the impact of individual ability and favorable team member scores on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods, and examines the moderating effects of student perception of course importance on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods. The author also investigates the relationship between student perception of course importance and their responses to social loafing. Results indicate that individual ability on the preference of team-based learning was affected by the three levels of favorable team member scores. For students with a low level of individual ability, the preference for team-based learning was significant among students with each of three levels of favorable team member scores (p team-based learning and grading methods was not significant (p > .05). The findings also reveal a negative correlation between student perception of course importance and their responses to social loafing (p team member scores in the team selection process to promote student attitude toward team-based learning.

  2. The impact of re-engineering a multi-institutional residency program on resident perceptions of the individual institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobkin, Eric; Fassler, Steven; Horowitz, Sheryl; Kirton, Orlando; Civetta, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    We report on the development of a survey tool used to assess resident perceptions of support and educational quality among multiple institutions in an integrated surgical residency, as well as its use in measuring the impact of re-engineering on that program. The University of Connecticut Integrated General Surgical Residency (UCIGSR) is a multisite program that was placed on probation by the Residency Review Committee in Surgery (RRC) in November 1998. This led to a re-evaluation and a re-engineering of the program. In order to better assess the residents' evaluation of the program, we serially examined their attitudes with a survey of 65 questions. A 4-point grading scale (1 = Poor, 4 = Excellent) was used, and each resident was required to complete a survey beginning shortly after RRC probation was announced and at 6-month intervals. Seven global questions in the survey, directed at residency program support and educational quality, were asked for each of the 4 individual adult hospitals, for a total of 28 questions. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Jonckhere-Terpstra and the Mann-Whitney U tests. The results demonstrated significant improvement for all 7 questions in all 4 hospitals between November 1998 (S1) and November 1999 (S3). Average scores for all 7 questions, Hospital Support (HS), Departmental Support (DS), Hospital Teaching (HT), Outpatient Teaching (OTC), Operating Room Teaching (ORT), Grand Rounds (GR), and Morbidity and Mortality Conferences (MM), improved in every hospital by 16-28%. In S1, 1 out of 28 questions received an average score greater than or equal to 3, whereas on the most recent survey, 17 of 28 scored greater than or equal to 3 and 78.5% of the questions demonstrated statistically significant improvement (p < 0.05). Three of the 4 hospitals now have a combined overall average score greater than or equal to 3 for all 7 questions. Areas of strength in each hospital had the least amount of improvement yet

  3. Association of trait emotional intelligence and individual fMRI-activation patterns during the perception of social signals from voice and face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Ethofer, Thomas; Huberle, Elisabeth; Grodd, Wolfgang; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2010-07-01

    Multimodal integration of nonverbal social signals is essential for successful social interaction. Previous studies have implicated the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) in the perception of social signals such as nonverbal emotional signals as well as in social cognitive functions like mentalizing/theory of mind. In the present study, we evaluated the relationships between trait emotional intelligence (EI) and fMRI activation patterns in individual subjects during the multimodal perception of nonverbal emotional signals from voice and face. Trait EI was linked to hemodynamic responses in the right pSTS, an area which also exhibits a distinct sensitivity to human voices and faces. Within all other regions known to subserve the perceptual audiovisual integration of human social signals (i.e., amygdala, fusiform gyrus, thalamus), no such linked responses were observed. This functional difference in the network for the audiovisual perception of human social signals indicates a specific contribution of the pSTS as a possible interface between the perception of social information and social cognition.

  4. Impairment in emotion perception from body movements in individuals with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder is associated with functional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Lagerberg, Trine Vik; Bjella, Thomas D; Simonsen, Carmen; Andreassen, Ole A; Ueland, Torill; Sundet, Kjetil

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with bipolar disorder present with moderate impairments in social cognition during the euthymic state. The impairment extends to theory of mind and to the perception of emotion in faces and voices, but it is unclear if emotion perception from body movements is affected. The main aim of this study was to examine if participants with bipolar disorder perform worse than healthy control participants on a task using point-light displays of human full figures moving in a manner indicative of a basic emotion (angry, happy, sad, fearful, neutral/no emotion). A secondary research question was whether diagnostic subtypes (bipolar I, bipolar II) and history of psychosis impacted on this type of emotion perception. Finally, symptomatic, neurocognitive, and functional correlates of emotion perception from body movements were investigated. Fifty-three individuals with bipolar I (n = 29) or bipolar II (n = 24) disorder, and 84 healthy control participants were assessed for emotion perception from body movements. The bipolar group also underwent clinical, cognitive, and functional assessment. Research questions were analyzed using analyses of variance and bivariate correlations. The bipolar disorder group differed significantly from healthy control participants for emotion perception from body movements (Cohen's d = 0.40). Analyses of variance yielded no effects of sex, diagnostic subtype (bipolar I, bipolar II), or history of psychosis. There was an effect of emotion, indicating that some emotions are easier to recognize. The lack of a significant group × emotion interaction effect points, however, to this being so regardless of the presence of bipolar disorder. Performance was unrelated to manic and depressive symptom load but showed significant associations with neurocognition and functional capacity. Individuals with bipolar disorder had a small but significant impairment in the ability to perceive emotions from body movement. The impairment was global, i

  5. Percent voluntary inactivation and peak force predictions with the interpolated twitch technique in individuals with high ability of voluntary activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herda, Trent J; Walter, Ashley A; Costa, Pablo B; Ryan, Eric D; Hoge, Katherine M; Stout, Jeffrey R; Cramer, Joel T

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity and peak force prediction capability of the interpolated twitch technique (ITT) performed during submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in subjects with the ability to maximally activate their plantar flexors. Twelve subjects performed two MVCs and nine submaximal contractions with the ITT method to calculate percent voluntary inactivation (%VI). Additionally, two MVCs were performed without the ITT. Polynomial models (linear, quadratic and cubic) were applied to the 10-90% VI and 40-90% VI versus force relationships to predict force. Peak force from the ITT MVC was 6.7% less than peak force from the MVC without the ITT. Fifty-eight percent of the 10-90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with nonlinear models; however, all 40-90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with linear models. Regardless of the polynomial model or the contraction intensities used to predict force, all models underestimated the actual force from 22% to 28%. There was low sensitivity of the ITT method at high contraction intensities and the predicted force from polynomial models significantly underestimated the actual force. Caution is warranted when interpreting the % VI at high contraction intensities and predicted peak force from submaximal contractions.

  6. Perceptions of sexual violence among men who have sex with men and individuals on the trans-feminine spectrum in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Stephenson, Rob; Delegchoimbol, Altanchimeg; Dorjgotov, Myagmardorj; Baral, Stefan

    2015-12-08

    With the growing realisation that sexual violence poses pressing health and human rights concerns for men who have sex with men (MSM) and individuals on the trans-feminine spectrum, research has focused on the context in which sexual violence takes place. Rape myths and other perceptions of sexual violence affect the prevalence of perpetration and the availability of services and support for survivors. Little research has been conducted on rape myths among sexual and gender minority groups, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Two focus groups and 30 in-depth interviews were conducted with MSM and individuals on the trans-feminine spectrum in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. A number of rape myths previously noted to be prevalent among Western, heterosexual men, and women were expressed by participants, including the myth that males are never raped, rape as a cause of homosexuality or transgenderism, conceptualisations of prototypical rape as requiring overwhelming force, and victim blaming. However, many of these perceptions appeared to have different origins and effects in these populations. This study illustrates interesting similarities and differences compared to rape myths explored in Western, heterosexual male samples, and draws attention to the need to address community perceptions of sexual violence in sexual health and violence intervention programming.

  7. Perceptions of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletic Trainers on Motherhood and Work-Life Balance: Individual- and Sociocultural-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M

    2015-08-01

    A multilevel model of work-life balance (WLB) has been established in the sports management literature to explain interactions among organizational/structural, individual, and sociocultural factors and their effects on individual responses and attitudes toward WLB. These factors influence experiences and outcomes related to WLB. To examine individual and sociocultural factors that may influence perceptions of female athletic trainers (ATs) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting, particularly any sex-specific influences. Qualitative study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. A total of 27 women (14 single with no children, 6 married with no children, 7 married with children) currently employed as full-time ATs in the Division I setting participated. Participants responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were examined using a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by multiple-analyst triangulation, member interpretive review, and peer review. Participants recognized that their sex played a role in assessing WLB and a long-term career as an AT. In addition, they identified various individual- and sociocultural-level factors that affected their perceptions of WLB and attitudes toward a career goal. Our data suggested that female ATs may hold traditional sex ideologies of parenting and family roles, which may influence their potential for career longevity.

  8. Perceptions on the effectiveness of treatment and the timeline of Buruli ulcer influence pre-hospital delay reported by healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marike Alferink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Delay in seeking treatment at the hospital is a major challenge in current Buruli ulcer control; it is associated with severe sequelae and functional limitations. Choosing alternative treatment and psychological, social and practical factors appear to influence delay. Objectives were to determine potential predictors for pre-hospital delay with Leventhal's commonsense model of illness representations, and to explore whether the type of available dominant treatment modality influenced individuals' perceptions about BU, and therefore, influenced pre-hospital delay. METHODOLOGY: 130 healthy individuals aged >18 years, living in BU-endemic areas in Benin without any history of BU were included in this cross-sectional study. Sixty four participants from areas where surgery was the dominant treatment and sixty six participants from areas where antibiotic treatment was the dominant treatment modality were recruited. Using a semi-structured interview we measured illness perceptions (IPQ-R, knowledge about BU, background variables and estimated pre-hospital delay. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The individual characteristics 'effectiveness of treatment' and 'timeline acute-chronic' showed the strongest association with pre-hospital delay. No differences were found between regions where surgery was the dominant treatment and regions where antibiotics were the dominant treatment modality. CONCLUSIONS: Individual characteristics, not anticipated treatment modality appeared predictors of pre-hospital delay.

  9. Development of a Survey Instrument to Measure TEFL Academics' Perceptions about, Individual and Workplace Characteristics for Conducting Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Hudson, Peter; Millwater, Jan; Tones, Megan

    2013-01-01

    A 30-item survey was devised to determine Chinese TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) academics' potential for conducting research. A five-part Likert scale was used to gather data from 182 academics on four factors: (1) perceptions on teaching-research nexus, (2) personal perspectives for conducting research, (3) predispositions for…

  10. Beyond visual, aural and haptic movement perception: hMT+ is activated by electrotactile motion stimulation of the tongue in sighted and in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteau, Isabelle; Kupers, Ron; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2010-01-01

    regardless of visual experience and the sensory modality through which such information is carried to the brain. Here we determined whether the hMT+ complex responds to motion perception per se, that is, motion not perceived through the visual, haptic or aural modalities. Using functional magnetic resonance...... imaging (fMRI), we investigated brain responses in eight congenitally blind and nine sighted volunteers who had been trained to use the tongue display unit (TDU), a sensory substitution device which converts visual information into electrotactile pulses delivered to the tongue, to resolve a tactile motion...... that are not visual in nature and that are administered to body structures that, in humans, are not primarily devoted to movement perception or spatial location, such as the tongue. In line with previous studies, the differential activations between sighted and congenitally blind individuals indicate that lack...

  11. The identification and inclusion of students with characteristics of high abilities/giftedness: relevant discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Negrini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Thinking about education in general and about the advances that have been coming up, brings us to reflect on the proposal of the inclusive school. The Brazilian educational policies point in this direction and new propositions appear to the school in order to understand how to make significant changes in the daily education. Accordingly, this article is to hold a discussion regarding the identification of students with high abilities/giftedness, articulating with some ideas proposed by the inclusive education. It is with that highlight the importance of identifying these students for a more genuine inclusion of these students in the educational context. In this sense, is used as input theoretical Gardner (1995, Renzulli (2004, Perez (2004, Virgolim (2007, Vieira (2005, among other authors who assist in the discussion of this issue. The considerations made about the high abilities and their process of identification highlight the importance of a great attention facing the process of identification and relevance of this to the actual inclusion of students with high skills in the educational context. Since they are not identified, these students may not be receiving the necessary guidance to learn and develop their potential, often distancing themselves from colleagues and friends. Thus, it is a debate about the appropriate identification of these students and how it can contribute to the inclusion of them.

  12. The Possible Selves of High-Ability African Males Attending a Residential High School for Highly Able Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Andrea Dawn

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the possible selves of high-ability African American males attending a specialized school for high-ability students. To this end, interviews were conducted with nine students. Results provided details about the hoped-for and feared selves the young men envisioned as well as the strategies these youth utilized to realize and…

  13. Neural correlates of individual differences in processing of rising tones in Cantonese: Implications for speech perception and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampo Law

    2015-04-01

    tone condition [F = (2, 39 = 47.18, p < .001, η2 = .55] and group [F = (2, 39 = 75.89, p = .017, η2 = .14], with T5 eliciting more positive responses than T2, and stronger responses from the [+Per+Pro] than [+Per-Pro] group. Correlations between production accuracy of the two rising tones and perceptual measures found that the averaged production accuracy was negatively correlated with the discrimination RT (r = -.502, p = .001, with shorter discrimination RTs associated with higher production accuracy. In addition, the production accuracy was positively correlated with the mean amplitude of brain responses to rise time of T5 (r = .421, p = .006, the larger the response, the higher the production accuracy. In summary, the present study demonstrated that tone perception is highly dynamic and exploits different acoustic cues at different stages of processing – rise time at the sensory/perceptual level and pitch feature at the cognitive level, as the auditory signal unfolds over time. Moreover, our findings revealed differential sensitivities between individuals with and without distinctive production of the two rising tones as evidenced by the differences in discrimination latency of the two tones and magnitude of brain response to short rise time. The individual differences found in production are proposed to have a perceptual origin, in that less defined phonological representations lead to less distinctive production.

  14. The combination of perception of other individuals and exogenous manipulation of arousal enhances social facilitation as an aftereffect: re-examination of Zajonc's drive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukezono, Masatoshi; Nakashima, Satoshi F; Sudo, Ryunosuke; Yamazaki, Akira; Takano, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Zajonc's drive theory postulates that arousal enhanced through the perception of the presence of other individuals plays a crucial role in social facilitation (Zajonc, 1965). Here, we conducted two experiments to examine whether the elevation of arousal through a stepping exercise performed in front of others as an exogenous factor causes social facilitation of a cognitive task in a condition where the presence of others does not elevate the arousal level. In the main experiment, as an "aftereffect of social stimulus," we manipulated the presence or absence of others and arousal enhancement before participants conducted the primary cognitive task. The results showed that the strongest social facilitation was induced by the combination of the perception of others and arousal enhancement. In a supplementary experiment, we manipulated these factors by adding the presence of another person during the task. The results showed that the effect of the presence of the other during the primary task is enough on its own to produce facilitation of task performance regardless of the arousal enhancement as an aftereffect of social stimulus. Our study therefore extends the framework of Zajonc's drive theory in that the combination of the perception of others and enhanced arousal as an "aftereffect" was found to induce social facilitation especially when participants did not experience the presence of others while conducting the primary task.

  15. The combination of perception of other individuals and exogenous manipulation of arousal enhances social facilitation as an aftereffect: re-examination of Zajonc’s drive theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukezono, Masatoshi; Nakashima, Satoshi F.; Sudo, Ryunosuke; Yamazaki, Akira; Takano, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Zajonc’s drive theory postulates that arousal enhanced through the perception of the presence of other individuals plays a crucial role in social facilitation (Zajonc, 1965). Here, we conducted two experiments to examine whether the elevation of arousal through a stepping exercise performed in front of others as an exogenous factor causes social facilitation of a cognitive task in a condition where the presence of others does not elevate the arousal level. In the main experiment, as an “aftereffect of social stimulus,” we manipulated the presence or absence of others and arousal enhancement before participants conducted the primary cognitive task. The results showed that the strongest social facilitation was induced by the combination of the perception of others and arousal enhancement. In a supplementary experiment, we manipulated these factors by adding the presence of another person during the task. The results showed that the effect of the presence of the other during the primary task is enough on its own to produce facilitation of task performance regardless of the arousal enhancement as an aftereffect of social stimulus. Our study therefore extends the framework of Zajonc’s drive theory in that the combination of the perception of others and enhanced arousal as an “aftereffect” was found to induce social facilitation especially when participants did not experience the presence of others while conducting the primary task. PMID:25999906

  16. Individual differences in the perception of melodic contours and pitch-accent timing in speech: Support for domain-generality of pitch processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin; Dilley, Laura C; Hambrick, David Z

    2015-08-01

    Do the same mechanisms underlie processing of music and language? Recent investigations of this question have yielded inconsistent results. Likely factors contributing to discrepant findings are use of small samples and failure to control for individual differences in cognitive ability. We investigated the relationship between music and speech prosody processing, while controlling for cognitive ability. Participants (n = 179) completed a battery of cognitive ability tests, the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) to assess music perception, and a prosody test of pitch peak timing discrimination (early, as in insight vs. late, incite). Structural equation modeling revealed that only music perception was a significant predictor of prosody test performance. Music perception accounted for 34.5% of variance on prosody test performance; cognitive abilities and music training added only about 8%. These results indicate musical pitch and temporal processing are highly predictive of pitch discrimination in speech processing, even after controlling for other possible predictors of this aspect of language processing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. SAT predicts GPA better for high ability subjects: Implications for Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Thomas; Snyder, Anissa; Pillow, David; Kochunov, Peter

    2011-04-01

    This research examined the predictive validity of the SAT (formerly, the Scholastic Aptitude Test) for high and low ability groups. SAT scores and college GPAs were obtained from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Subjects were classified as high or low ability by g factor scores from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. SAT correlations with GPA were higher for high than low ability subjects. SAT g loadings (i.e., SAT correlations with g) were equivalent for both groups. This is the first study to show that the predictive validity of the SAT varies for ability groups that differ in g. The results contradict a presumption, based on Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns, that a test's predictive validity should be lower for high ability subjects. Further research is needed to identify factors that contribute to the predictive validity of the SAT for groups that differ in g.

  18. The Influence of Skill Development Training Program for Spiritual Care of Elderly Individual on Elderly Care Technician Students' Perception of Spiritual Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulduk, Serap; Usta, Esra; Dinçer, Yeliz

    2017-06-01

    Spiritual care means helping an individual protect, maintain and gain all the dimensions of his/her existence. Elderly care technicians face numerous cases or crisis situations in which elderly individuals from different backgrounds question the meaning and value of life. Elderly care technicians must acknowledge that the spirituality is an important element in the way an elderly individual receives healthcare and they must be equipped for this matter. This study was conducted in order to examine the influence of "Skill Development Training Program for Spiritual Care of Elderly Individual," which was carried out with students from elderly care program, on the perception of spirituality support in a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study design with control group. As the data collection form, "Spiritual Support Perception" (SSP) scale was used. The mean scores of the intervention group after the training and after one month are 50.39 ± 5.34 and 51.13 ± 4.98, respectively, and those of the control group are 43.16 ± 4.83 and 42.72 ± 4.48. A statistically significant difference was found between the mean scores of the intervention group from the pretest and the posttests immediately after the training and one month after the training (f = 94.247, p = 0.001). In the control group, however, there was no significant change in the SSP mean scores (f = 0.269, p = 0.77). As a result, this study pointed out the necessity of such training programs for healthcare professionals to make a distinction between their professional duties and their own personalities in order to offer spiritual care to the elderly individual.

  19. Hands On and Feet First: Linking High-Ability Students to Marine Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Lisa A.

    2002-01-01

    A study explored perceptions of 43 students on benefits gained from participating in the Science Fair Summer Camp program in Fort Pierce, Florida. Benefits included the availability of equipment/technology, opportunities to interact with teachers and scientists, opportunities for research design, and opportunities actually to engage in the process…

  20. The Emergence of Family-specific Support Constructs: Cross-level Effects of Family-supportive Supervision and Family-Supportive Organization Perceptions on Individual Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rachel T; Matthews, Russell A; Walsh, Benjamin M

    2016-12-01

    Implicit to the definitions of both family-supportive supervision (FSS) and family-supportive organization perceptions (FSOP) is the argument that these constructs may manifest at a higher (e.g. group or organizational) level. In line with these conceptualizations, grounded in tenants of conservation of resources theory, we argue that FSS and FSOP, as universal resources, are emergent constructs at the organizational level, which have cross-level effects on work-family conflict and turnover intentions. To test our theoretically derived hypotheses, a multilevel model was examined in which FSS and FSOP at the unit level predict individual work-to-family conflict, which in turn predicts turnover intentions. Our hypothesized model was generally supported. Collectively, our results point to FSOP serving as an explanatory mechanism of the effects that mutual perceptions of FSS have on individual experiences of work-to-family conflict and turnover intentions. Lagged (i.e. overtime) cross-level effects of the model were also confirmed in supplementary analyses. Our results extend our theoretical understanding of FSS and FSOP by demonstrating the utility of conceptualizing them as universal resources, opening up a variety of avenues for future research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Munich High Ability Test Battery (MHBT: A multidimensional, multimethod approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPH PERLETH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction the theoretical basis of the Munich High Ability Test-Battery (MHBT will be outlined in the first part of the article. The MHBT has been developed in the framework of the Munich longitudinal study of giftedness and talent. The MHBT includes not only cognitive predictors measuring several dimensions and types of giftedness concerning intellectual, creative or social abilities etc., but also giftedness-relevant non-cognitive personality and social moderators measuring interests, motivations, learning emotions, self-concepts or family and school climate, educational style, quality of instruction, etc. The MHBT-instruments (different scales and dimensions are described in greater detail.In the second part of the article, after dealing with the objectivity, the reliability, and the validity of the MHBT, the authors discuss the standardization procedure including the development of grade-based T-norms respectively as well as several talent-profiles, e.g. of gifted achievers vs. underachievers, intellectual, creative, social talents or linguistic, math, science talent profiles etc. Finally, examples of talent search for gifted programs and case studies on the basis of MHBT should illustrate multidimensional identification procedures.The MHBT fulfills the most relevant assessment tasks belonging to the gifted educational and counseling practice. The usefulness of the MHBT in the framework of giftedness research as well as of gifted program evaluation studies has also been proven in the last decade. Hence the MHBT offers many opportunities to assessing giftedness and talent.

  2. Social Role-Play Games Vs Individual Perceptions of Conservation and PES Agreements for Maintaining Rubber Agroforests in Jambi (Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace B. Villamor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial incentives can both support and undermine social norms compatible with environmental service enhancement. External co-investment - e.g., through incentives from programs to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD and eco-certification - needs to synergize with local efforts by understanding local dynamics and conditions for free and prior informed consent. We assessed the perceptions and behavior of rubber agroforest farmers under existing conservation agreements as a step toward institutionalized reward schemes for agro-biodiversity using questionnaires and role-playing games (RPG. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply such a combination of methods to explore the perceptions of payments for environmental services (PES. Results revealed a strong conservation belief system and social norms in the research site, with indications that individual interest in converting old rubber agroforest to oil palm, with consequent private gain and loss of local social agro-biodiversity benefits, is suppressed in the social context of a role-playing game. In the game, all financial bids by external agents to secure an oil palm foothold in the village, were rejected despite indications of declining income in the village. Agents promoting an eco-certification scheme in the RPG had success and the responses obtained in the game can assist in the actual rollout of such a scheme without creating unrealistic expectations of its financial benefits. Co-investment schemes that require higher levels of trust and clarity of performance measures will have to address the potential discrepancy between individual preferences and community-level planning and decisions, while recognizing that social norms color the responses of individuals when presented with alternatives.

  3. Can you perceive ensembles without perceiving individuals?: The role of statistical perception in determining whether awareness overflows access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Emily J; Bear, Adam; Scholl, Brian J

    2016-07-01

    Do we see more than we can report? Psychologists and philosophers have been hotly debating this question, in part because both possibilities are supported by suggestive evidence. On one hand, phenomena such as inattentional blindness and change blindness suggest that visual awareness is especially sparse. On the other hand, experiments relating to iconic memory suggest that our in-the-moment awareness of the world is much richer than can be reported. Recent research has attempted to resolve this debate by showing that observers can accurately report the color diversity of a quickly flashed group of letters, even for letters that are unattended. If this ability requires awareness of the individual letters' colors, then this may count as a clear case of conscious awareness overflowing cognitive access. Here we explored this requirement directly: can we perceive ensemble properties of scenes even without being aware of the relevant individual features? Across several experiments that combined aspects of iconic memory with measures of change blindness, we show that observers can accurately report the color diversity of unattended stimuli, even while their self-reported awareness of the individual elements is coarse or nonexistent-and even while they are completely blind to situations in which each individual element changes color mid-trial throughout the entire experiment. We conclude that awareness of statistical properties may occur in the absence of awareness of individual features, and that such results are fully consistent with sparse visual awareness.

  4. Perception of Interannual Covariation and Strategies for Risk Reduction among Mikea of Madagascar : Individual and Social Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Bram

    2007-06-01

    This paper begins with the hypothesis that Mikea, participants in a mixed foraging-fishing-farming-herding economy of southwestern Madagascar, may attempt to reduce interannual variance in food supply caused by unpredictable rainfall by following a simple rule-of-thumb: Practice an even mix of activities that covary positively with rainfall and activities that covary negatively with rainfall. Results from a historical matrix participatory exercise confirm that Mikea perceive that foraging and farming outcomes covary positively or negatively with rainfall. This paper further considers whether Mikea learn about covariation through personal observation and memory recall (individual learning) or through socially transmitted ethnotheory (social learning). Dual inheritance theory models by Boyd and Richerson (1988) predict that individual learning is more effective in spatially and temporally variable environments such as the Mikea Forest. In contrast, the psychological literature suggests that individuals judge covariation poorly when memory of past events is required, unless they share a socially learned theory that a covariation should exist (Nisbett and Ross 1980). Results suggest that Mikea rely heavily on shared ethnotheory when judging covariation, but individuals continually strive to improve their judgment through individual observation.

  5. Association between Individual Differences in Self-Reported Emotional Resilience and the Affective Perception of Neutral Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Estibaliz; Simmons, Alan N.; Stein, Murray B.; Winkielman, Piotr; Hitchcock, Carla; Paulus, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Resilience, i.e., the ability to cope with stress and adversity, relies heavily on judging adaptively complex situations. Judging facial emotions is a complex process of daily living that is important for evaluating the affective context of uncertain situations, which could be related to the individual's level of resilience. We used a novel experimental paradigm to test the hypothesis that highly resilient individuals show a judgment bias towards positive emotions. Methods 65 non-treatment seeking subjects completed a forced emotional choice task when presented with neutral faces and faces morphed to display a range of emotional intensities across sadness, fear, and happiness. Results Overall, neutral faces were judged more often to be sad or fearful than happy. Furthermore, high compared to low resilient individuals showed a bias towards happiness, particularly when judging neutral faces. Limitations This is a cross-sectional study with a non-clinical sample. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that resilient individuals show a bias towards positive emotions when faced with uncertain emotional expressions. This capacity may contribute to their ability to better cope with certain types of difficult situations, perhaps especially those that are interpersonal in nature. PMID:18957273

  6. LGB of Color and White Individuals' Perceptions of Heterosexist Stigma, Internalized Homophobia, and Outness: Comparisons of Levels and Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Wiseman, Marcie C.; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Goodman, Melinda B.; Sarkees, Anthony; Brewster, Melanie E.; Huang, Yu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Conceptual discussions about LGB people of color suggest that, compared with White LGB individuals, LGB people of color may be exposed to greater levels of heterosexist stigma and its deleterious correlates (greater risk) or may be more resilient to such stigma (resilience). This study tested tenets of these two perspectives with a sample of 178…

  7. Adolescent Siblings of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities with and without Comorbid Mental Health Problems: A Preliminary Comparison of Sibling Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Carolyn M.; Kozimor, Laura Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The presence of comorbid mental illness in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) has been shown to have additional negative impact on parents and caregivers. However, the impact of such dual diagnoses on typically developing siblings has yet to be examined. Methods: Parents and typically developing…

  8. School Smoking Policy Characteristics and Individual Perceptions of the School Tobacco Context: Are They Linked to Students' Smoking Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W.; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H. Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10-11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from…

  9. School Smoking Policy Characteristics and Individual Perceptions of the School Tobacco Context: Are They Linked to Students’ Smoking Status?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabiston, Catherine M.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W.; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H. Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10–11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-le...

  10. Do the Big Five personality traits predict individual differences in the left cheek bias for emotion perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Samantha; Lindell, Annukka K

    2016-01-01

    Like language, emotion is a lateralized function. Because the right hemisphere typically dominates emotion processing, people express stronger emotion on the left side of their face. This prompts a left cheek bias: we offer the left cheek to express emotion and rate left cheek portraits more emotionally expressive than right cheek portraits. Though the majority of the population show this left cheek bias (60-70%), individual differences exist but remain largely unexplained. Given that people with higher self-rated emotional expressivity show a stronger left cheek bias, personality variables associated with increased emotional expressivity and emotional intelligence, such as extraversion and openness, may help account for individual differences. The present study thus examined whether the Big Five traits predict left cheek preferences. Participants (M = 58, F = 116) completed the NEO-Five Factor Personality Inventory (NEO-FFI) [Costa, P. T. J., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO PI-R professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources] and viewed pairs of left and right cheek images (half mirror-reversed); participants made forced-choice decisions, indicating which image in each pair looked happier. Hierarchical regression indicated that neither trait extraversion nor openness predicted left cheek selections, with NEO-FFI personality subscales accounting for negligible variance in preferences. As the Big Five traits have been discounted, exploration of other potential contributors to individual differences in the left cheek bias is clearly needed.

  11. Rorschach interpretation with high-ability adolescent females: psychopathology or creative thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, K W; Cornell, D G

    1997-02-01

    Highly intelligent and creative persons have long posed interpretation difficulties for users of the Rorschach Inkblot Test. This study examined Exner's (1993) Schizophrenia, Depression, and Coping Deficit indices as adjustment measures in a sample of 43 female adolescents enrolled in an early college entrance program and a comparison group of 19 girls enrolled in public high school gifted programs. Contrary to conventional interpretation, higher scores on the Rorschach Schizophrenia Index among the accelerants were correlated with healthy emotional adjustment on both the California Psychological Inventory and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA). Further analyses offered support for the hypothesis that among accelerants, elevated scores on the Rorschach constellations did not indicate psychopathology, but rather their creative thinking style.

  12. Teachers’ socio-emotional perceptions on gifted and average adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carmen Fernández

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the teachers’ perception on socioemotional competence of their adolescent students, according to exceptionality (high abilities versus non high abilities and gender. The sample was composed of 443 teachers from 55 Secondary Schools in Murcia (Spain. The instrument used was the EQ-i: YV-O for teachers (BAR-ON & PARKER, in press. According to the exceptionality of the students (high abilities versus non high abilities the results showed that teachers perceived students with high abilities as being more adaptable, having greater general mood and having greater interpersonal abilities. Moreover, in relation to gender, teachers scored boys as having better stress management. In addition, with regard to exceptionality (high abilities versus non high abilities and gender, the results showed statistically significant differences in the adaptability, general mood, and intrapersonal dimensions.

  13. Prevalence of tattooing and body piercing in Germany and perception of health, mental disorders, and sensation seeking among tattooed and body-pierced individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, Aglaja; Hinz, Andreas; Brähler, Elmar

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain data on the incidence and relationship of psychological factors to tattooing and body piercing from a large and representative sample of German citizens (N=2043). Representative data (sample age range=14-93 years) were evaluated with respect to health-related quality of life (SF-36), mental health (General Health Questionnaire), mental disorders (Patient Health Questionnaire), and sensation seeking (Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking). The prevalence of tattooing and that of body piercing in the general German population are 8.5% and 6.5%, respectively. Individuals aged between 14 and 24 years display the highest rate of body piercings or tattoos (females, 41%; males, 27%). Within the group of individuals aged between 14 and 44 years, unemployment and nonaffiliation to a church are positively correlated, tattooing is significantly correlated with the perception of reduced mental health, and both tattooing and body piercing are correlated with significantly increased sensation-seeking behavior. Next to being motivated by fashion and the urge to fit in with one's peers, the major reasons for body modification practices in the German population appear to be negatively perceived conditions of life, reduced social integration, and increased sensation-seeking behavior.

  14. The Effects of a Social and Talent Development Intervention for High Ability Youth with Social Skill Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Assouline, Susan G.; Kivlighan, D. Martin; Fosenburg, Staci; Cederberg, Charles; Nanji, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary models highlight the need to cultivate cognitive and psychosocial factors in developing domain-specific talent. This model was the basis for the current study where high ability youth with self-reported social difficulties (n = 28, 12 with a coexisting disability) participated in a social skills and talent development intervention…

  15. Identifying High Ability Children with DSM-5 Autism Spectrum or Social Communication Disorder: Performance on Autism Diagnostic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Fosenburg, Staci L.; Wurster, Kristin G.; Assouline, Susan G.

    2017-01-01

    This study was a replication of Mazefsky et al.'s ("Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities" 43:1236-1242, 2013) investigation among a sample of 45 high ability children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD under DSM-IV-TR. Items from the ADOS and ADI-R were mapped onto DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD and SCD to determine…

  16. Analysis of Factors Influencing Interest in STEM Career: Comparison between American and Turkish High School Students with High Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Abdulkadir; Adiguzel, Tufan

    2016-01-01

    The low number of students studying or applying for STEM subjects and workforce demand has been prioritized in almost all countries policies. This study intended to examine factors that influenced American and Turkish students to pursue a degree or career in STEM-related fields. Participants of the study were 86 high-ability students selected from…

  17. Honors and High-Ability Students: Factors That Predict Academic Efficacy, Critical Thinking Skills, and Academic Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jessica Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the quantitative study was threefold: (a) to examine high-ability students in and outside an honors program at a midwestern comprehensive university to determine differences in background and demographic characteristics between honors participants and nonparticipants of similar ability; (b) to determine differences in academic…

  18. Cultural and Social Capital and Talent Development: A Study of a High-Ability Aboriginal Student in a Remote Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenko, Karen; Merrotsy, Peter

    2009-01-01

    During the course of a school year, a study was conducted on the cultural context, the social milieu and the personal characteristics of a high ability Aboriginal student in a remote community in Canada. Using the lenses of cultural capital, social capital and human capital, the study explores the development of the student's talent through his…

  19. University Rankings in Action? The Importance of Rankings and an Excellence Competition for University Choice of High-Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstschraer, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes how high-ability students respond to different indicators of university quality when applying for a university. Are prospective students influenced by quality indicators of a university ranking or by an excellence status awarded within a nationwide competition? And if so, are some quality dimensions, e.g. research reputation,…

  20. Identifying High Ability Children with DSM-5 Autism Spectrum or Social Communication Disorder: Performance on Autism Diagnostic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Fosenburg, Staci L.; Wurster, Kristin G.; Assouline, Susan G.

    2017-01-01

    This study was a replication of Mazefsky et al.'s ("Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities" 43:1236-1242, 2013) investigation among a sample of 45 high ability children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD under DSM-IV-TR. Items from the ADOS and ADI-R were mapped onto DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD and SCD to determine…

  1. Perceiving control over aversive and fearful events can alter how we experience those events: an investigation of time perception in spider-fearful individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eBuetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We used a time perception task to study the effects of the subjective experience of control on emotion and cognitive processing. This task is uniquely sensitive to the emotionality of the stimuli: high-arousing negative stimuli are perceived as lasting longer than high-arousing positive events, while the opposite pattern is observed for low-arousing stimuli. We evaluated the temporal distortions of emotionally-charged events in non-anxious (Experiments 1 and 5 and spider-fearful individuals (Experiments 2-4. Participants were shown images of varying durations between 400 and 1600 ms and were asked to report if the perceived duration of the image seemed closer to a short (400 ms or to a long (1600 ms standard duration. Our results replicate previous findings showing that the emotional content of the image modulated the perceived duration of that image. More importantly, we studied whether giving participants the illusion that they have some control over the emotional content of the images could eliminate this temporal distortion. Results confirmed this hypothesis, even though our participant population was composed of highly-reactive emotional individuals (spider fearful facing fear-related images (spiders. Further, we also showed that under conditions of little-to-no control, spider-fearful individuals perceive temporal distortions in a distinct manner from non-anxious participants: the duration of events was entirely determined by the valence of the events, rather than by the typical valence x arousal interaction. That is, spider-fearful participants perceived negative events as lasting longer than positive events, regardless of their level of arousal. Finally, we also showed that under conditions of cognitive dissonance, control can eliminate temporal distortions of low arousal events, but not of high-arousing events, providing an important boundary condition to the otherwise positive effects of control on time estimation.

  2. 面部表情的类别知觉及其个体差异%Categorical Perception of Facial Expression and Its Individual Differences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱方晖; 罗跃嘉; 贾世伟

    2015-01-01

    面部表情类别知觉效应是指连续变化的表情在人脑中按照类别表征,且不同类别的表情之间存在明显的类别界线。介绍了面部表情类别知觉效应的行为和脑电研究范式及基础研究,综述了攻击性、抑郁症、精神分裂症、社交焦虑等对面部表情类别知觉的影响,以及面部表情类别知觉的发展研究。综述表明,类别知觉研究能够揭示不同人群表情知觉类别界线及其偏移情况,有助于解释相应的社会行为。未来研究应注重对面部表情类别知觉效应的个体差异和神经生理机制的探索。%Categorical perception (CP) effect of facial expression is that facial expressions varying continuously are perceived in human brain as belonging to qualitatively discrete categories, with a clear categorical boundary between different emotional expressions. In this paper, the behavior and ERP experiment paradigms and the fundamental research were introduced, and the influence on CP effect of facial expression of aggression, depression, schizophrenia as well as social anxiety disorder and the developmental research of CP were summarized. The review indicates that CP research could reveal the categorical boundary and its deviation of emotional perception among different individuals, which contributes to the explanation of their corresponding social behaviors. Future research should pay more attention to the individual difference and neural mechanism underlying CP effect of facial expression.

  3. Comparison of individuals opting for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC genetic susceptibility testing with regard to coping, illness perceptions, illness experiences, family system characteristics and hereditary cancer distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Brocker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Tibben, Aad

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study differences between individuals opting for genetic cancer susceptibility testing of a known familial BRCA1/2 and HNPCC related germline mutation. Methods: Coping, illness perceptions, experiences with cancer in relatives and family system characteristics were assessed in 271 appl

  4. A Study of Catholic Culture Integration of Lowland Maya Communities in Mexico -An Introductory Study of Experimental Methods for Analysis of Space Perception at the Individual Level of a Mayayucatecan Catholic Community,Mani (3)-

    OpenAIRE

    中別府, 温和; Harukazu, NAKABEPPU

    2015-01-01

    Religion provides a socially or culturally shared set of cognitions which enable members of a society to interpret real experiences in many-sided aspects of life and to provide a disciplined guide to such cognitive problems as self-identity or goals in life. The aim of this paper is to describe and clarify several aspects of space perception complex at the individual level from a working hypothetical concept of a small Catholic Community, Mani. The analysis of space perception should be done ...

  5. Do perceptions of insulin pump usability impact attitudes toward insulin pump therapy? A pilot study of individuals with type 1 and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, James J; Gilgen, Emily

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of perceived insulin pump usability on attitudes toward insulin pump therapy in diabetic individuals currently treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI). This comparative, single-arm study recruited 28 adults with type 1 (n = 16) and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes (n = 12) to evaluate 2 current insulin pumps: Medtronic Revel 723 (Pump 1), Asante Snap Insulin Pump (Pump 2). Participants were randomized 1:1 to 1 of 2 assessment sequences: Pump 1 followed by Pump 2; and Pump 2 followed by Pump 1. Structured observational protocols were utilized to assess participants' ability and time required to learn/perform common tasks associated with pump setup/use. Participants used a modified version of the System Usability Scale (SUS) and investigator-developed questionnaires to rate pump usability and task difficulty; pre-post questionnaires assessed changes in attitudes toward insulin pump therapy. All participants completed the study. SUS scores showed Pump 2 to be more usable than Pump 1 on all usability attributes. Participants rated Pump 2 more positively than Pump 1, overall mean SUS scores of 5.7 versus 4.1 respectively, F(1, 52) = 32.7, P Pump 2 last, 5.3 versus 4.4 for Pump 1 last, F(1, 52) = 10.8, P Pump 2 was preferred for all tasks: manual bolus (86%), bolus calculation (71%), managing basal rates (93%), interpreting alarms (96%), transferring settings (100%), changing insulin and infusion sets (93%), all P pump usability can directly impact acceptance and use of features that may benefit those who wear them. Simpler pump devices that decrease perceptions of complexity may encourage broader use of this technology. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Illness perceptions, risk perception and worry in SDH mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsteijn, L.T. van; Kaptein, A.A.; Louisse, A.; Biermasz, N.R.; Smit, J.W.; Corssmit, E.P.

    2014-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) mutation carriers are predisposed for developing paragangliomas. This study aimed to explore illness perceptions, risk perception and disease-related worry in these individuals. All consecutive SDHB and SDHD mutation carriers followed at the Department of Endocrinology

  7. Sports genetics: the PPARA gene and athletes’ high ability in endurance sports. A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvblad, C; Forero, DA

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed with the aim of re-evaluating the role of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARA) gene intron 7 G/C polymorphism (rs4253778) in athletes’ high ability in endurance sports. Design: A meta-analysis of case control studies assessing the association between the G/C polymorphisms of the PPARA gene and endurance sports was conducted. The Cochrane Review Manager software was used to compare the genotype and allele frequencies between endurance athletes and controls to determine whether a genetic variant is more common in athletes than in the general population. Five studies, encompassing 760 endurance athletes and 1792 controls, fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The pooled odds ratio (and confidence intervals, CIs) for the G allele compared to the C allele was 1.65 (95% CI 1.39-1.96). The pooled OR for the GG genotype compared to the GC genotype was 1.79 (95% CI 1.44-2.22), and for the GG genotype compared to the CC genotype 2.37 (95% CI 1.40-3.99). There was no evidence of heterogeneity (I2 =0%) or of publication bias. Athletes with high ability in endurance sports had a higher frequency of the GG genotype and G allele. PMID:26985127

  8. High-Ability Students' Perspectives on an Affective Curriculum in a Diverse, University-Based Summer Residential Enrichment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Enyi; Gentry, Marcia; Moon, Sidney M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how high-ability students experienced their participation in an affective curriculum through small-group discussions in a diverse, university-based, summer enrichment program for talented youth. The investigation included two closely related studies. The first study included 77 high-ability students…

  9. Social and Affective Concerns High-Ability Adolescents Indicate They Would Like to Discuss with a Caring Adult: Implications for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Enyi; Wu, Jiaxi; Gentry, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the social and affective concerns of 280 high-ability students in Grades 5 through 12 who participated in a summer residential program. Content analysis of responses from an open-ended survey indicated that high-ability adolescents expressed concerns regarding feelings and emotions, future aspirations, and…

  10. The Effects of Age, Singing Ability, and Instrumental Experiences on Preschool Children's Melodic Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jonny H.

    1983-01-01

    Study results revealed the following: (1) age affected the children's perception of melodic rhythm, contour, and interval; (2) high-ability singers scored higher than low-ability singers on perception of melodic rhythm, contour, and interval and tonal center; and (3) instrumental experience did not significantly affect perception of melodic…

  11. Pastoral Perceptions of the Learning and Developing Individual Exercise Skills (L.A.D.I.E.S.) Intervention: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Chandra R.; Gross, Tyra T.; Harvey, Idethia S.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2017-01-01

    African-American women experience higher rates of obesity compared to other racial/ethnic groups. High levels of reported church attendance among African-Americans have led to the proliferation of faith-based health programs. Pastors can influence success for faith-based programs. The purpose of this study was to assess pastors' perceptions of the…

  12. 个体知觉的压力与情绪智力关系的元分析%A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Individual Perception Stress and Emotional Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩文冰; 张进辅

    2012-01-01

    By means of meta-analysis of the relationship between individual perception stress and emotional intelligence, two approaches have been conducted to search relative literatures: computer retrieving and manual retrieving. Thirty-eight documents, including 43 effect sizes (N=ll 748), meet the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The correlation between individual perception stress and emotional intelligence is moderately strong (γ= -0.238). It means that emotional intelligence could help the individuals face the stress effectively. What's more, under the influence of the two variants, namely, the types of stress and those of cultural context, the relationship between individual perception stress and emotional intelligence will change slightly. The types of subjects have no effects on their relationship.%运用元分析技术对个体所知觉的压力与情绪智力的关系进行定量分析,将搜集到的38篇文献43个效应值纳入分析(N=11 748),结果显示:个体所知觉的压力与情绪智力存在中等程度的负相关(r=-0.238),即情绪智力能够帮助个体有效地面对压力所带来的负面影响;两者之间的关系强度受压力类型和文化背景2个变量影响会发生小幅变化;被试类型对两者关系并没有影响.

  13. Dramatic change in a young woman's perception of her diabetes and remarkable reduction in HbA1c after an individual course of Guided Self-Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoffmann, Vibeke; Prip, Anne; Christiansen, Anette Wendelboe

    2015-01-01

    -attendance and psychosocial distress. She managed to change her perception of diabetes dramatically and improved her glycaemic control. Considering the complexity of her case, we explored how she achieved these changes. A GSD-trained nurse delivered the intervention, which involves reflection sheets and advanced professional...... through communication' and 'finding strength within oneself'. The article emphasises that GSD works by breaking isolation through communication as an appropriate way to achieve good diabetes control....

  14. An Experimental Method for the Study of Time Perception at the Individual Level-with Reference to a Case Study in a Catholic Community, Mani, Yucatan, Mexico-(2)

    OpenAIRE

    中別府, 温和; Harukazu, NAKABEPPU

    2014-01-01

    Religion provides a socially or culturally shared set of cognitions which enable members of a society to interpret real experiences in many-sided aspects of life and to provide a disciplined guide to such cognitive problems as self-identity or goals in life. Religious phenomena trace their origin back to primeval antiquity and religion preserves various relics of ancient days. The aim of this paper is to describe and clarify several aspects of time perception complex of a small Catholic commu...

  15. Altas Habilidades/Superdotação: abordagem ao longo da vida High abilities/giftedness: lifespan approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Mosquera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1984686X5371 O artigo revisa ideias perspectivas em Altas habilidades/Superdotação, possibilitando entender sua evolução ao longo da vida, dentro da denominada Abordagem ao Longo da Vida (Lifespan Approach, levando em conta autores destacados nesta área de AH/SD, bem como em Educação e em Psicologia. Procuramos aprofundar em aspectos do desenvolvimento humano e o da personalidade ao longo da vida, para logo aprofundar na temática das AH/SD, comentando ao final algumas possibilidades de atenção a estas pessoas.Palavras-chave: Altas habilidades. Superdotação. Adultez. Abordagem ao Longo da Vida.The article empirically substantiate the theme of the High Ability/Gifted, from studies and discussions and reflections that we do, to enable better understand their approach in terms of Childhood, Adolescent and Adulthood within the so-called lifelong approach (lifespan approach, taking into account outstanding authors in the field, in Education and Psychology, with links to the Neurosciences and studies on brain development (cognition, intelligence, learning and the culture in which the subject develops and operates. We seek to delve into aspects of human development and personality throughout life, in direct relation to social learning, to achieve profound theme of the ongoing process of learning, ending with some possibilities on attention to these people, connecting with Positive Psychology.

  16. Individual uncertainty and the uncertainty of science: The impact of perceived conflict and general self-efficacy on the perception of tentativeness and credibility of scientific information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny eFlemming

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined in two empirical studies how situational and personal aspects of uncertainty influence laypeople’s understanding of the uncertainty of scientific information, with focus on the detection of tentativeness and perception of scientific credibility. In the first study (N = 48, we investigated the impact of a perceived conflict due to contradicting information as a situational, text-inherent aspect of uncertainty. The aim of the second study (N = 61 was to explore the role of general self-efficacy as an intra-personal uncertainty factor. In Study 1, participants read one of two versions of an introductory text in a between-group design. This text provided them with an overview about the neurosurgical procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS. The text expressed a positive attitude toward DBS in one experimental condition or focused on the negative aspects of this method in the other condition. Then participants in both conditions read the same text that dealt with a study about DBS as experimental treatment in a small sample of patients with major depression. Perceived conflict between the two texts was found to increase the perception of tentativeness and to decrease the perception of scientific credibility, implicating that text-inherent aspects have significant effects on critical appraisal. The results of Study 2 demonstrated that participants with higher general self-efficacy detected the tentativeness to a lesser degree and assumed a higher level of scientific credibility, indicating a more naïve understanding of scientific information. This appears to be contradictory to large parts of previous findings that showed positive effects of high self-efficacy on learning. Both studies showed that perceived tentativeness and perceived scientific credibility of medical information contradicted each other. We conclude that there is a need for supporting laypeople in understanding the uncertainty of scientific information and that

  17. Individual Uncertainty and the Uncertainty of Science: The Impact of Perceived Conflict and General Self-Efficacy on the Perception of Tentativeness and Credibility of Scientific Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Danny; Feinkohl, Insa; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We examined in two empirical studies how situational and personal aspects of uncertainty influence laypeople's understanding of the uncertainty of scientific information, with focus on the detection of tentativeness and perception of scientific credibility. In the first study (N = 48), we investigated the impact of a perceived conflict due to contradicting information as a situational, text-inherent aspect of uncertainty. The aim of the second study (N = 61) was to explore the role of general self-efficacy as an intra-personal uncertainty factor. In Study 1, participants read one of two versions of an introductory text in a between-group design. This text provided them with an overview about the neurosurgical procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS). The text expressed a positive attitude toward DBS in one experimental condition or focused on the negative aspects of this method in the other condition. Then participants in both conditions read the same text that dealt with a study about DBS as experimental treatment in a small sample of patients with major depression. Perceived conflict between the two texts was found to increase the perception of tentativeness and to decrease the perception of scientific credibility, implicating that text-inherent aspects have significant effects on critical appraisal. The results of Study 2 demonstrated that participants with higher general self-efficacy detected the tentativeness to a lesser degree and assumed a higher level of scientific credibility, indicating a more naïve understanding of scientific information. This appears to be contradictory to large parts of previous findings that showed positive effects of high self-efficacy on learning. Both studies showed that perceived tentativeness and perceived scientific credibility of medical information contradicted each other. We conclude that there is a need for supporting laypeople in understanding the uncertainty of scientific information and that scientific writers should

  18. A Study on the Relationship of Individual Characteristics and Psychological Contract Perception of Employees%员工个体特征与心理契约感知的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵军

    2015-01-01

    Based on the definition of psychological contract perception and literature analysis about the effects of individual chara-cteristic on psychological contract perception of employees , seven related assumptions were put forward in this paper. Through a large-scale questionnaire survey which was carried out in more than 10 provinces and 100 enterprises and scientific screening for valid answer sheets and the data aggregation, the effects of individual characteristic on psychological contract perception of employees were discussed after the statistics and analysis by the SPSS and AMOS. It was found that gender, education, years in one enterprise, industry and unit kind had no significant effect on psychological contract perception , but age and position had a significant effect on psychological contract perception. Especially, the higher position an employee had, the better psychological contract perception he had. Hypothesis conclusions were analyzed and some management suggestions about how to enhance the transaction responsibility sense , achievement responsibility sense and relational responsibility sense were put forward , it could supply some references for enterprise to enhance psychological contract perception of employees by the improvement of human resource management practice.%文章在界定心理契约感知概念和阐述员工个体特征变量对心理契约感知变量影响的相关文献的基础上提出了七个相关假设,通过在全国10多个省份、100多家企业开展的大范围问卷调查,科学筛选出有效答卷并汇总数据,运用SPSS和AMOS等软件进行数据统计分析,探讨了知识员工个体特征对其心理契约感知的影响。实证研究发现,性别、学历、司龄、行业属性和单位性质对心理契约感知没有显著性影响,年龄和职位对心理契约感知有显著性影响,特别是,员工职位层次越高其心理契约感知状况就越好。文章分析了假设检验的

  19. Academic scientific-production in Brazil in the area of high abilities/giftedness on the period from 1987 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Claudio Moriel Chacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Among students with special educational needs, subjects of special education, are those with high ability/giftedness, a complex phenomenon that requires the participation of education professionals and researchers to foster the potential of development of these students. In this sense, we aimed to identify and analyze thesis and dissertations that they propose to investigate the theme high ability/giftedness, verifying participation of the area of education in these studies. The study was done through a literature review, guided by the following questions: Have the researches on high ability/giftedness been growing in recent years? What is the participation of education area in those researches? What are the issues related to high ability/giftedness addressed in Education? The results show that the institutions present an increasing trend and there is a predominance of education area in this scientific production. However, there is an imbalance between the institutions that aim to investigate the theme in Brazilian regions, as well as among the cases covered by these researches on high ability/giftedness.

  20. A study of the effect of dyad practice versus that of individual practice on simulation-based complex skills learning and of students' perceptions of how and why dyad practice contributes to learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räder, Sune B E W; Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Butrymovich, Vitalij; Sander, Mikael; Jørgensen, Erik; Lönn, Lars; Ringsted, Charlotte V

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the effectiveness of dyad practice compared with individual practice on a simulator for learning a complex clinical skill and (2) to explore medical students' perceptions of how and why dyad practice on a simulator contributes to learning a complex skill. In 2011, the authors randomly assigned 84 medical students to either the dyad or the individual practice group to learn coronary angiography skills using instruction videos and a simulator. Two weeks later, participants each performed two video-recorded coronary angiographies on the simulator. Two raters used a rating scale to assess the participants' video-recorded performance. The authors then interviewed the participants in the dyad practice group. Seventy-two (86%) participants completed the study. The authors found no significant difference between the performance scores of the two groups (mean±standard deviation, 68%±13% for individual versus 63%±16% for dyad practice; P=.18). Dyad practice participants noted that several key factors contributed to their learning: being equal-level novices, the quality of the cooperation between partners, observational learning and overt communication, social aspects and motivation, and meta-cognition. Dyad practice is more efficient and thus more cost-effective than individual practice and can be used for costly virtual reality simulator training. However, dyad practice may not apply to clinical training involving real patients because learning from errors and overt communication, both keys to dyad practice, do not transfer to clinical practice.

  1. Dramatic change in a young woman's perception of her diabetes and remarkable reduction in HbA1c after an individual course of Guided Self-Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoffmann, Vibeke; Prip, Anne; Christiansen, Anette Wendelboe

    2015-07-06

    A 24-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes participated in a randomised controlled trial proving effectiveness of a flexible Guided Self-Determination (GSD) intervention. She had for 10 years been living with a complex situation of eating disorder, poor glycaemic control, non-attendance and psychosocial distress. She managed to change her perception of diabetes dramatically and improved her glycaemic control. Considering the complexity of her case, we explored how she achieved these changes. A GSD-trained nurse delivered the intervention, which involves reflection sheets and advanced professional communication. Glycated hemoglobin was reported in the patient's record and an interview conducted by external interviewers was analysed thematically, indicating that a four-stage process of empowerment had taken place: 'focusing on life prior to numbers', 'unpacking a heavy burden', 'breaking out of isolation through communication' and 'finding strength within oneself'. The article emphasises that GSD works by breaking isolation through communication as an appropriate way to achieve good diabetes control.

  2. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    and responsibilising the unemployed individual? The paper finds that the individualisation that is taking place occurs as an individualisation of responsibility, more than as an individualisation of interventions. A related finding is that the social rights perspective is becoming performance......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...

  3. Development of a Procedural Guide to Implement Response to Intervention (RtI) with High-Ability Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Stephanie; Pfeiffer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a focus on individual student needs has set the stage for tailoring educational interventions to address issues of students who are not working up to educational proficiency standards outlined in the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation. This new pedagogical model may provide a unique opportunity to meet the needs of…

  4. Direct comparison of the impact of head tracking, reverberation, and individualized head-related transfer functions on the spatial perception of a virtual speech source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, D. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Anderson, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    A study of sound localization performance was conducted using headphone-delivered virtual speech stimuli, rendered via HRTF-based acoustic auralization software and hardware, and blocked-meatus HRTF measurements. The independent variables were chosen to evaluate commonly held assumptions in the literature regarding improved localization: inclusion of head tracking, individualized HRTFs, and early and diffuse reflections. Significant effects were found for azimuth and elevation error, reversal rates, and externalization.

  5. Short Circuits or Superconductors? Examining Factors That Encourage or Undermine Group Learning and Collaboration among High-Ability Students. CSE Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Noreen M.; Welner, Mari; Zuniga, Stephen

    This study investigated the effects of group ability composition (homogeneous versus heterogeneous) on group processes and outcomes for high ability students completing science performance assessments. Participants were 99 seventh and eighth graders from 9 classes in 2 schools. The results show that group ability composition does not have…

  6. The Qualities of Effective Teachers of High Ability Female Secondary School Students in Singapore: A Comparison of Teachers' and Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatter, Christopher John

    2010-01-01

    A group of high ability students (n = 32) described the qualities of their most effective teachers through a written essay. Analysis of the essays identified 30 different themes within four domains. These themes were used to construct a Likert scale survey and an ipsative comparison which were both administered to 42 teachers and 300 students at a…

  7. Expectancy-Value Models for the STEM Persistence Plans of Ninth-Grade, High-Ability Students: A Comparison between Black, Hispanic, and White Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lori; Ward, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Group differences in the effects of the expectancies and values that high-ability students have for science and mathematics on plans to persist in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) were investigated. A nationally representative sample of ninth-grade students, the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS: 2009; n =…

  8. Perceptions of stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Šadl, Zdenka

    2016-01-01

    In this article the author investigates paid domestic work in Slovenia to obtain information on domestic workers' perceptions of their work. Cleaning up after other people is usually considered dirty work with a stigma attached to it. Given this, we draw on indepth interviews with paid domestic workers to examine how they deal with society's negative perceptions and potential individual strategies for coping with a stigmatised social identity. On the basis of previous research on paid domesti...

  9. Individual differences in sound-in-noise perception are related to the strength of short-latency neural responses to noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Vinnik

    Full Text Available Important sounds can be easily missed or misidentified in the presence of extraneous noise. We describe an auditory illusion in which a continuous ongoing tone becomes inaudible during a brief, non-masking noise burst more than one octave away, which is unexpected given the frequency resolution of human hearing. Participants strongly susceptible to this illusory discontinuity did not perceive illusory auditory continuity (in which a sound subjectively continues during a burst of masking noise when the noises were short, yet did so at longer noise durations. Participants who were not prone to illusory discontinuity showed robust early electroencephalographic responses at 40-66 ms after noise burst onset, whereas those prone to the illusion lacked these early responses. These data suggest that short-latency neural responses to auditory scene components reflect subsequent individual differences in the parsing of auditory scenes.

  10. Pain perception in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janum, Susanne; Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Werner, Mads U

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the relationship between pain perception and cytokine release during systemic inflammation. We present a randomized crossover trial in healthy volunteers (n = 17) in 37 individual trials. Systemic inflammation was induced by an i.v. bolus of Escherichia coli LPS (2 ng/kg) on two...... in healthy human volunteers leads to reduction in pain pressure threshold and an increase in pain perception to heat stimuli, supporting a relationship between acute systemic inflammation and pain perception....

  11. Tension at the borders: perceptions of role overload, conflict, strain and facilitation in work, family and health roles among employed individuals with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Monique A M; Backman, Catherine L; Kaptein, Simone; Lacaille, Diane; Beaton, Dorcas E; Hofstetter, Catherine; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2012-02-01

    To examine inter-relationships among arthritis (A), work (W) and personal life (P) roles and their reciprocal influences, especially experiences of role balance/imbalance among individuals with inflammatory arthritis (IA) and OA. Eight focus groups were conducted with 24 women and 16 men (aged 29-72 years). A purposive sample was recruited from community advertising. Eligibility included current employment or having been employed within the previous year. Participants were asked about ways arthritis, work and personal life roles intersected and their impact. A standardized questionnaire collected demographic, symptom and employment data for descriptive purposes. Participants noted that having arthritis affected their identity and intersected with work and personal roles, creating role overload, role conflict, role strain and role facilitation. Role overload highlighted that arthritis both affected and was impacted by work and personal life (A → W; A → P; W → A; P → A). Role conflict focused on A → W and A → P difficulties, whereas role facilitation emphasized the positive impact of work and personal life roles on arthritis (W → A; P → A). Role strain was pervasive and arose from numerous sources. Personal strategies (e.g. positive framing) and contextual factors (e.g. support) were important in contributing to or ameliorating role balance/imbalance. By comprehensively examining multiple types of role balance/imbalance and the context within which it occurs, this study identifies gaps in patient-oriented measurement of the impact of arthritis and areas of need in the development of arthritis intervention.

  12. Perceptions of HIV/STI prevention among young adults in Sweden who travel abroad: a qualitative study with focus group and individual interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvarnström, Anna; Oscarsson, Marie G

    2014-09-01

    Young adults are at risk for HIV/STIs because they generally have an active sex life with multiple sexual partners; moreover, they use condoms to a lesser extent. Travelling increases sexually risky behaviour, and among both women and men, sexual contacts abroad are common. Better knowledge of how young adults experience prevention efforts prior to travelling, and what they prefer, is important when planning prevention efforts to this group. Experiences of and attitudes towards prevention efforts against HIV/STI among young adults in Sweden who have travelled abroad were investigated. We conducted 12 focus-group interviews and four individual interviews with young adults (20-29 years) who had travelled abroad within the last 12 months. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using thematic content analysis. Results were discussed from a salutogenic perspective. Only a few had any experience of prevention efforts against HIV/STIs. The majority welcomed the idea of prevention efforts prior to travelling and would have welcomed more, preferably short reminders or links to reliable websites, or someone professional to discuss the issue with. Most of the young adults would use the Internet to search for information. They proposed the possibility of reaching young adults through social media, and the importance of better basic knowledge in school. It is difficult to reach young adults before their trips abroad. Prevention efforts on HIV/STI must therefore focus on the use of established forums. Setting the foundation for a positive attitude towards condom use is needed during school years. Even social media, where there is the possibility for dialogue, should be used as an information source.

  13. Perception of trigeminal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels.

  14. Metacognition in Multisensory Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroy, Ophelia; Spence, Charles; Noppeney, Uta

    2016-10-01

    Metacognition - the ability to monitor one's own decisions and representations, their accuracy and uncertainty - is considered a hallmark of intelligent behavior. Little is known about metacognition in our natural multisensory environment. To form a coherent percept, the brain should integrate signals from a common cause but segregate those from independent causes. Multisensory perception thus relies on inferring the world's causal structure, raising new challenges for metacognition. We discuss the extent to which observers can monitor their uncertainties not only about their final integrated percept but also about the individual sensory signals and the world's causal structure. The latter causal metacognition highlights fundamental links between perception and other cognitive domains such as social and abstract reasoning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fertility and contraceptive decision-making and support for HIV infected individuals: client and provider experiences and perceptions at two HIV clinics in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyenze Rhoda K

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV want to have children while others want to prevent pregnancies; this calls for comprehensive services to address both needs. This study explored decisions to have or not to have children and contraceptive preferences among PLHIV at two clinics in Uganda. Methods This was a qualitative cross-sectional study. We conducted seventeen focus group discussions and 14 in-depth interviews with sexually active adult men and women and adolescent girls and boys, and eight key informant interviews with providers. Overall, 106 individuals participated in the interviews; including 84 clients through focus group discussions. Qualitative latent content analysis technique was used, guided by key study questions and objectives. A coding system was developed before the transcripts were examined. Codes were grouped into categories and then themes and subthemes further identified. Results In terms of contraceptive preferences, clients had a wide range of preferences; whereas some did not like condoms, pills and injectables, others preferred these methods. Fears of complications were raised mainly about pills and injectables while cost of the methods was a major issue for the injectables, implants and intrauterine devices. Other than HIV sero-discordance and ill health (which was cited as transient, the decision to have children or not was largely influenced by socio-cultural factors. All adult men, women and adolescents noted the need to have children, preferably more than one. The major reasons for wanting more children for those who already had some were; the sex of the children (wanting to have both girls and boys and especially boys, desire for large families, pressure from family, and getting new partners. Providers were supportive of the decision to have children, especially for those who did not have any child at all, but some clients cited negative experiences with providers and information gaps for

  16. Autoavaliação vocal e qualidade de vida em voz de indivíduos hipertensos Self-perception vocal and quality of life in the hypertensive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Veis Ribeiro

    2013-02-01

    -assessment and Voice-Related Quality of Life protocol (V-RQOL. RESULTS: it was not observed differences in vocal self-assessment of individuals in groups SG and CG (p = 0,075. Total average scores obtained in V-RQOL were also similar between both groups (p = 0,08. There was a difference between the groups regarding the self perception of the symptom of "a weak voice", which was more frequent in the SG (p = 0,015. CONCLUSION: the use of specific medications for hypertension didn't cause differences in vocal self-assessment and quality of life of the studied group, except for the perception of "weak voice". Non-hypertensive and hypertensive subjects had lower scores than subjects with healthy voice and without vocal complaints.

  17. Autoavaliação vocal e Qualidade de Vida em Voz de indivíduos hipertensos Self-perception vocal and quality of life in the hypertensive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Veis Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    -assessment and Voice-Related Quality of Life protocol (V-RQOL. RESULTS: it was not observed differences in vocal self-assessment of individuals in groups SG and CG (p = 0,075. Total average scores obtained in V-RQOL were also similar between both groups (p = 0,08. There was a difference between the groups regarding the self perception of the symptom of "a weak voice", which was more frequent in the SG (p = 0,015. CONCLUSION: the use of specific medications for hypertension didn't cause differences in vocal self-assessment and quality of life of the studied group, except for the perception of "weak voice". Non-hypertensive and hypertensive subjects had lower scores than subjects with healthy voice and without vocal complaints.

  18. Climate change and coastal aquaculture farmers’ risk perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of risk perception in relation to climate change threats, comparison of risk perceptions in two different regions, and derives general results of what affect peoples’ level of risk perceptions. Revelation of individual risk perception is essential for local acceptan...

  19. High Ability and Learner Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being…

  20. High ability education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul; Baltzer, Kirsten; Kyed, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Chapter in peer refereed book on gifted education. The chapter offers a state of the art review on gifted education literature, and reports the results from a Danish study on giftedness revealing that 42 % had more problems and far more problems than typically reported by children and adolescents...

  1. Changing Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Susanne; Wren, Steve; Dawes, Mark; Blinco, Amy; Haines, Brett; Everton, Jenny; Morgan, Ellen; Barton, Craig; Breen, Debbie; Ellison, Geraldine; Burgess, Danny; Stavrou, Jim; Carre, Catherine; Watson, Fran; Cherry, David; Hawkins, Chris; Stapenhill-Hunt, Maria; Gilderdale, Charlie; Kiddle, Alison; Piggott, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    A group of teachers involved in embedding NRICH tasks (http://nrich.maths.org) into their everyday practice were keen to challenge common perceptions of mathematics, and of the teaching and learning of mathematics. In this article, the teachers share what they are doing to change these perceptions in their schools.

  2. Time Perception and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ceviz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.

  3. Model program for the recruitment and preparation of high ability elementary mathematics/science teachers: A collaborative project among scientists, teacher educators and classroom teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This teacher education program will provide a model for recruiting, educating and retaining high ability students to become mathematics and science lead teachers in elementary schools. The quality experiences and support provided these students will help them develop the knowledge and attitudes necessary to provide leadership for elementary mathematics and science programs. Students will have research experiences at the Ames Laboratory, high quality field experiences with nationally recognized mathematics and science teachers in local schools and opportunities to meaningfully connect these two experiences. This program, collaboratively designed and implemented by scientists, teacher educators and classroom teachers, should provide a replicatable model for other teacher education institutions. In addition, materials developed for the project should help other laboratories interface more effectively with K-8 schools and help other teacher education programs incorporate real science and mathematics experience into their curriculum.

  4. Model program for the recruitment and preparation of high ability elementary mathematics/science teachers: A collaborative project among scientists, teacher educators and classroom teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This teacher education program will provide a model for recruiting, educating and retaining high ability students to become mathematics and science lead teachers in elementary schools. The quality experiences and support provided these students will help them develop the knowledge and attitudes necessary to provide leadership for elementary mathematics and science programs. Students will have research experiences at the Ames Laboratory, high quality field experiences with nationally recognized mathematics and science teachers in local schools and opportunities to meaningfully connect these two experiences. This program, collaboratively designed and implemented by scientists, teacher educators and classroom teachers, should provide a replicatable model for other teacher education institutions. In addition, materials developed for the project should help other laboratories interface more effectively with K-8 schools and help other teacher education programs incorporate real science and mathematics experience into their curriculum.

  5. 基于组织支持与个体感知的前台服务创意驱动研究%Creative Driven Mechanism of Front Office Service based on Organizational Support and Individual Perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋波; 余维臻

    2014-01-01

    Based on the banking industry , this paper investigates the driven mechanism of the effect of organization support on the generation of service innovation ideas by front office staff through individual perceptions .Empirical analysis shows that job satis-faction, organizational support and services contact quality have direct positive effect on their generation of service innovation ide -as.In addition, organizational support and job satisfaction also have indirect positive impact on their generation of service innova -tion ideas through the service contact quality .Organization emotional commitment has positive mediating effect while emotional exhaustion has negative mediating effect on the front office staff generation of service innovation ideas by service contact quality . The results show that service-oriented organization should increase the support and attention to the front office staff to improve service contact quality , which will increase service innovation idea .%以银行业为研究对象,实证分析组织环境因素通过个体感知影响服务型组织前台员工服务创新创意产生的驱动机制。研究结果显示,组织支持、工作满意度和服务接触质量对前台服务创新创意产生都存在正向直接作用。组织支持和工作满意度还通过服务接触对创意产生存在正向间接影响。而前台员工对组织的情感承诺通过服务接触的中介作用也对创意产生存在正向影响,员工情感耗竭通过服务接触的中介作用对服务创新创意的产生存在负向影响。因此,服务型组织应增加对前台员工的支持和关注,改善前台员工对组织工作的感受,进而改善服务接触质量以增强其发现服务创新机会和传递服务创新创意的意愿。

  6. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be p...

  7. Actors', partners', and observers' perceptions of sarcasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, P

    2000-10-01

    This study compared actors', partners', and observers' perceptions of the amount of sarcasm used by participants (n = 80) in videotaped conversations. Significant differences were found among perceptions of actors, partners, and observers. Of the three perspectives, actors perceived themselves as using the greatest amount of sarcasm, followed by partners' perceptions of actors. Observers perceived actors as using the least amount of sarcasm. Correlations conducted to assess whether partners and observers recognized actors' individual attempts at sarcasm during the conversations were generally low.

  8. Individual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  9. Individual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  10. Information retrieval and individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents individual differences, which are found in studies of information retrieval with emphasis on models of personality traits, cognitive and learning styles. It pays special attention to those models which are most often included in studies of information behaviour,information seeking,perceptions of IR systems, etc., but also brings forward some models which have not yet been included in such studies. Additionally, the relationship between different individual characteristics and individual’s chosen profession or academic area is discussed. In this context,the paper presents how investigation of individual differences can be useful in the design of IR systems.

  11. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production syste...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence.......Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... in use today were expressed, but rationalised in terms of consumer demands, market competition and by comparisons to previous systems of production. Knowledge of production systems appeared of little consequence in terms of any meat market potential as several groups freely remarked...

  12. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production syste...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Perception of Citizen Insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Pillhuamán Caña, Nelly; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima - Perú.; Ramos Ramírez, Julio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima - Perú.; Vallenas Ochoa, Guillermo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima - Perú.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out in the district of San Juan de Miraflores having as main purpose to obtain reliable information about «perceptions of insecurity and victimization of citizens. The study is a quantitative, descriptive and transversal. The sample design is probabilistic, three-stage, where the final stage unit is the individual whose age is between 16 and 65. The results indicate that in the past six months, 35% of people have been victims of any unlawful act, being theft crime the m...

  14. New Zealand High School Students' Perception of Accounting: How and Why Those Perceptions Were Formed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to change the negative perceptions high school students have of accounting appear to have been unsuccessful. Using the social psychology theory of stereotyping, this study explains why such attempts have been unsuccessful and proposes intervention strategies. Individual perception data were collected through questionnaires and focus…

  15. New Zealand High School Students' Perception of Accounting: How and Why Those Perceptions Were Formed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to change the negative perceptions high school students have of accounting appear to have been unsuccessful. Using the social psychology theory of stereotyping, this study explains why such attempts have been unsuccessful and proposes intervention strategies. Individual perception data were collected through questionnaires and focus…

  16. Individualizing Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds.

  17. Neighborhood perceptions and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Deurzen, Ioana; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Christensen, Ulla;

    2016-01-01

    this line of argumentation, in the present study we test whether subjective perceptions of neighborhood characteristics relate to an objective measure of stress-related physiological functioning, namely allostatic load (AL). We use a large dataset of 5280 respondents living in different regions of Denmark...... and we account for two alternative mechanisms, i.e., the objective characteristics of the living environment and the socio-economic status of individuals. Our results support the chronic stress mechanisms linking neighborhood quality to health. Heightened perceptions of disorder and pollution were found...

  18. Collective individualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baarts, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Safety knowledge appears to be ‘a doing’. In construction work safety is practised in the complex interrelationship between the individual, pair and gang. Thus the aim is to explore the nature and scope of individualist and collectivist preferences pertaining to the practice of safety at a constr...

  19. Music perception in dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Jennifer M; Cohen, Miriam H; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Foulkes, Alexander J M; Schott, Jonathan M; Mummery, Catherine J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2017-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in music and dementia, music perception has not been widely studied across dementia syndromes using an information processing approach. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 30 patients representing major dementia syndromes of typical Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n=16), logopenic aphasia (LPA, an Alzheimer variant syndrome; n=5) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n=9) in relation to 19 healthy age-matched individuals. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery to assess perception of musical patterns in the dimensions of pitch and temporal information (requiring detection of notes that deviated from the established pattern based on local or global sequence features) and musical scene analysis (requiring detection of a familiar tune within polyphonic harmony). Performance on these tests was referenced to generic auditory (timbral) deviance detection and recognition of familiar tunes and adjusted for general auditory working memory performance. Relative to healthy controls, patients with AD and LPA had group-level deficits of global pitch (melody contour) processing while patients with PNFA as a group had deficits of local (interval) as well as global pitch processing. There was substantial individual variation within syndromic groups. No specific deficits of musical temporal processing, timbre processing, musical scene analysis or tune recognition were identified. The findings suggest that particular aspects of music perception such as pitch pattern analysis may open a window on the processing of information streams in major dementia syndromes. The potential selectivity of musical deficits for particular dementia syndromes and particular dimensions of processing warrants further systematic investigation. PMID:27802226

  20. Componential analysis of interpersonal perception data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, David A; West, Tessa V; Malloy, Thomas E; Albright, Linda

    2006-01-01

    We examine the advantages and disadvantages of 2 types of analyses used in interpersonal perception studies: componential and noncomponential. Componential analysis of interpersonal perception data (Kenny, 1994) partitions a judgment into components and then estimates the variances of and the correlations between these components. A noncomponential analysis uses raw scores to analyze interpersonal perception data. Three different research areas are investigated: consensus of perceptions across social contexts, reciprocity of attraction, and individual differences in self-enhancement. Finally, we consider criticisms of componential analysis. We conclude that interpersonal perception data necessarily have components (e.g., perceiver, target, measure, and their interactions), and that the researcher needs to develop a model that best captures the researcher's questions.

  1. A Study of the Effect of Dyad Practice Versus That of Individual Practice on Simulation-Based Complex Skills Learning and of Students’ Perceptions of How and Why Dyad Practice Contributes to Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räder, Sune Bernd Emil Werner; Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Butrymovich, Vitalij

    2014-01-01

    communication, social aspects and motivation, and meta-cognition. CONCLUSIONS: Dyad practice is more efficient and thus more cost-effective than individual practice and can be used for costly virtual reality simulator training. However, dyad practice may not apply to clinical training involving real patients...

  2. Gaze perception in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Lars; Renneberg, Babette; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2013-12-16

    Clinical observations suggest abnormal gaze perception to be an important indicator of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Experimental research has yet paid relatively little attention to the study of gaze perception in SAD. In this article we first discuss gaze perception in healthy human beings before reviewing self-referential and threat-related biases of gaze perception in clinical and non-clinical socially anxious samples. Relative to controls, socially anxious individuals exhibit an enhanced self-directed perception of gaze directions and demonstrate a pronounced fear of direct eye contact, though findings are less consistent regarding the avoidance of mutual gaze in SAD. Prospects for future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  3. Individual Consultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Walkinshaw

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Responding to calls for research into measurable English language outcomes from individual language support consultations at universities, this study investigated the effect of individual consultations (ICs on the academic writing skills and lexico-grammatical competence of students who speak English as an additional language (EAL. Attendance by 31 EAL students at ICs was recorded, and samples of their academic writing texts before and after a 9-month interval were compared. Participants’ academic writing skills were rated, and lexico-grammatical irregularities were quantified. No statistically significant positive shifts manifested, due to the relatively short research period and limited participant uptake, but there were encouraging predictors of future shifts given continued utilization of the service. First, although a Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed no association between attendance at ICs and shifts in academic writing ability, a Spearman’s rho calculation suggested a tentative relationship to positive pre–post shifts in three academic writing sub-skills: Task Fulfillment, Grammar, and Vocabulary. Second, instances of four common lexico-grammatical irregularities (subject/verb, wrong word, plural/singular, and punctuation declined at post-testing. Although only regular, sustained attendance would produce statistically significant shifts, there is a potential association between participants’ use of ICs and improved academic writing skills/lexico-grammatical competence.

  4. Public perceptions of animal experimentation across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Roten, Fabienne Crettaz

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this article is to map out public perceptions of animal experimentation in 28 European countries. Postulating cross-cultural differences, this study mixes country-level variables (from the Eurostat database) and individual-level variables (from Eurobarometer Science and Technology 2010). It is shown that experimentation on animals such as mice is generally accepted in European countries, but perceptions are divided on dogs and monkeys. Between 2005 and 2010, we observe globally a change of approval on dogs and monkeys, with a significant decrease in nine countries. Multilevel analysis results show differences at country level (related to a post-industrialism model) and at individual level (related to gender, age, education, proximity and perceptions of science and the environment). These results may have consequences for public perceptions of science and we call for more cross-cultural research on press coverage of animal research and on the level of public engagement of scientists doing animal research.

  5. Perceptions of the collective other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, R P; Dasgupta, N; Park, J; Banaji, M R

    1998-01-01

    It is contended that perceptions of groups are affected by particular variables that do not apply to individuals (e.g., intragroup similarity and proximity). Importantly, the perception of outgroup threat has incomplete analogs at the individual level. Results from 3 studies support predictable distinctions between representations of individuals and of groups. Study I showed that priming of the word they produces more extreme negative judgments of the protagonist(s) in a story about 4 individuals acting jointly than in the same story with a single person acting alone. The opposite result holds for priming with the word he. Study 2, with Korean participants, demonstrates that actions by individuals or groups elicit differing preferences for redress. Individual responses (e.g., getting mad) to an individual racial insult (e.g., a snub by a waitress) are preferred to collective responses (e.g., circulating a petition), whereas the reverse preferences hold for a group insult (e.g., taunts from a gang of White youths). In Study 3, cues to the sensitivity of a group are introduced. This concept, introduced by Donald Campbell (1958), distinguishes different degrees of "groupness." Visual depictions of collections of unfamiliar humanoid creatures (greebles) were used to convey that they were either similar or dissimilar and either proximate or scattered. Results confirm the expectation that similarity and proximity-two entitive conditions-elicit more negative judgments of the group. Attention to other cues for entitivity may enrich social psychological views of stereotyping and prejudice by focusing on perceptions of groups as coordinated actors with the potential to bring about negative consequences. Such experiments point to the need for greater research focus on the vastly understudied but fundamental problem of the social cognition of group behavior.

  6. Comparação entre dois métodos de avaliação do controle da asma baseados na percepção individual Comparison between two methods of asthma control evaluation based on individual perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Andrade Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a percepção subjetiva do controle da asma informada pelo paciente com aquela obtida por meio do escore do Asthma Control Questionnaire com seis questões (ACQ-6 em pacientes com asma grave e verificar se o controle da asma está associado ao número de visitas a salas de emergência no mês anterior. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 528 pacientes acompanhados na Central de Referência do Programa para Controle da Asma e Rinite Alérgica na Bahia, entre agosto de 2008 e março de 2010, em Salvador (BA. Os pacientes responderam ao ACQ-6 e a uma questão adicional específica para avaliar sua percepção do controle da doença na semana prévia. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 423 pacientes, que preencheram os critérios de inclusão. A maioria era do gênero feminino (81,3% e possuía renda familiar menor que dois salários mínimos (64,3%. A média de idade foi de 49,85 ± 13,71 anos, e a duração dos sintomas de asma foi de 32,11 ± 16,35 anos. Os pacientes eram regularmente tratados no programa há 36,65 ± 18,10 meses. Baseados na percepção subjetiva do controle, 8% dos pacientes consideraram a sua asma não controlada, enquanto 38,8% obtiveram escore do ACQ > 1,5, indicando falta de controle. O coeficiente kappa revelou fraca concordância entre os dois métodos. Houve uma associação direta entre falta de controle e número de visitas a emergência no mês anterior (p OBJECTIVE: To compare the subjective perception of asthma control reported by the patient with that measured by the score obtained on the Asthma Control Questionnaire 6-item version (ACQ-6 in patients with severe asthma and to determine whether asthma control is associated with the number of emergency room visits in the previous month. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 528 patients treated at the Bahia State Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Control Program Central Referral Clinic between August of 2008 and March of 2010, in the city of Salvador

  7. Student and instructor perceptions of teaching and the impact of learning styles on these perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, George Walter

    This research compared college student perceptions about teaching with their teaching assistants' self-perceptions about their own teaching. How these perceptions changed over time, and the effect of student and instructor learning style matches on these perceptions was also examined. This data was collected in a large introductory biology class using a combination of student evaluations, TA self-evaluations, and student interviews. To ascertain learning style preferences, the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory was also administered to the students and the TAs. Student perceptions and TA self-perceptions held relatively stable over the semester, showing neither convergence or divergence. Students perceived the TAs as being better at classroom management and teaching than the TAs perceived themselves. TAs perceived themselves as being better in areas of dealing with students on the individual level than the students did. These effects were especially pronounced for inexperienced TAs. Learning style similarities between students and TAs had little effect on how these two sets of perceptions changed over the semester. The students whose perceptions most closely match their TA's perceptions shared no MBTI traits with them. Students who had completely dissimilar MBTI profiles from their TA evaluated their TA as being better than students who had the same MBTI profile as their TA. The results of this study suggest easily implemented methods to improve student learning in and satisfaction with their courses, especially in larger introductory science courses involving TAs. The results also suggest ways of improving TA training.

  8. Factors Involved in Tactile Texture Perception through Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Takashi; Zhou, Julia

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of texture perception by robotic systems can be developed by examining human texture perception through a probe. Like texture perception through direct touch with the finger, texture perception by indirect means of a probe is multi-dimensional, comprising rough, hard, and sticky texture continua. In this study, we describe the individual subject variability in probe-mediated texture perception, and compare similarities and differences of texture perception between direct touch and indirect touch. The results show variability among subjects, as individual subjects may choose to rely on different degrees of three texture dimensions and do so at different scanning velocities. Despite this variability between scanning conditions within each subject, the subjects make consistently reliable discriminations of textures and subjective magnitude estimates along texture continua when indirectly exploring texture surfaces with a probe. These data contribute information that is valuable to the design of robotic sensory systems, and to the understanding of sensory feedback, which is essential in teleoperations. PMID:19617927

  9. Violência sexual e associação com a percepção individual de saúde entre mulheres gestantes Violencia sexual y asociación con la percepción individual de salud entre mujeres gestantes Sexual violence and its association with health self-perception among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Moraes Rêgo De Aquino

    2009-12-01

    sexual fueron comparadas con respecto a la edad, escolaridad, ocupación, estado civil, color de la piel y autopercepción de salud física y mental. La violencia sexual fue caracterizada en penetrativa o no penetrativa. RESULTADOS: Hubo prevalencia de 39,1% de violencia sexual entre las entrevistadas, siendo 20% del tipo penetrativo, cometida sobretodo por agresores conocidos. En 57% de las mujeres la primera agresión ocurrió antes de los 14 años. No hubo diferencias sociodemográficas entre mujeres que sufrieron y las que no sufrieron violencia sexual. Escores promedios de percepción de salud física entre las entrevistadas con antecedente de violencia sexual fueron menores (42,2; DP=8,3 con relación a las mujeres sin este antecedente (51,0; DP=7,5 (pOBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of sexual violence history among pregnant women and its association with the self-perception of health status. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a total of 179 pregnant women older than 14 years old at gestation week 14 to 28 attending public health services in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 2006 and 2007. Data collection instruments included: questionnaire on sexual violence; questionnaire on sociodemographic data; and an assessment of health-related quality of life using the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12®. Age, skin color, education, occupational and marital status, and self-perception of physical and mental health were compared between women with and without a lifetime history of sexual violence. Sexual violence was categorized as penetrative and non-penetrative sex. RESULTS: Among all women interviewed, the prevalence of sexual violence was 39.1%, of which 20% were of penetrative type by known perpetrators. In 57% of cases, the first episode of violence was before the age of 14. There were no sociodemographic differences between women with and without history of sexual violence. Mean scores of self-perception of

  10. Cue utilisation and quality perception with regard to branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Consumers' quality perception is based on individual evaluative judgments. Meat is a food category where consumers' quality perception is particularly difficult, among other things because meat is mostly sold unbranded. Through interviews with buyers of branded beef steaks, the study investigates...... the presence of a brand, the correspondence between expected and experienced quality remains moderate. Product familiarity seems to influence the quality perception process as well, with low familiarity consumers relying significantly more on the brand as a quality cue....

  11. Cue utilisation and quality perception with regard to branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Consumers' quality perception is based on individual evaluative judgments. Meat is a food category where consumers' quality perception is particularly difficult, among other things because meat is mostly sold unbranded. Through interviews with buyers of branded beef steaks, the study investigates...... the presence of a brand, the correspondence between expected and experienced quality remains moderate. Product familiarity seems to influence the quality perception process as well, with low familiarity consumers relying significantly more on the brand as a quality cue....

  12. Bistable perception modeled as competing stochastic integrations at two levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gigante

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel explanation for bistable perception, namely, the collective dynamics of multiple neural populations that are individually meta-stable. Distributed representations of sensory input and of perceptual state build gradually through noise-driven transitions in these populations, until the competition between alternative representations is resolved by a threshold mechanism. The perpetual repetition of this collective race to threshold renders perception bistable. This collective dynamics - which is largely uncoupled from the time-scales that govern individual populations or neurons - explains many hitherto puzzling observations about bistable perception: the wide range of mean alternation rates exhibited by bistable phenomena, the consistent variability of successive dominance periods, and the stabilizing effect of past perceptual states. It also predicts a number of previously unsuspected relationships between observable quantities characterizing bistable perception. We conclude that bistable perception reflects the collective nature of neural decision making rather than properties of individual populations or neurons.

  13. Preparing Health Professionals to Provide Care to Individuals with Disabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matt Holder H. Barry Waldman Henry Hood

    2009-01-01

    Aim To review the perceptions of dental/medical educators and their students in the United States on the adequacy of didactic and clinical preparation to provide service for individuals with disabilities...

  14. Individual and Institutional Components of the Medical School Educational Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Stansfield, R Brent

    2016-11-01

    To examine, using a systems framework, the relative influence of individual-level and institution-level factors on student perceptions of the medical school educational environment. A series of hierarchical linear models were fit to a large, 18-school longitudinal dataset of student perceptions of the educational environment, various demographics, and student empathy, tolerance of ambiguity, coping, and patient-provider orientation. Separate models were evaluated for individual-level factors alone, institution-level factors alone, and the combination of individual- and institution-level factors. The individual-level model accounted for 56.7% of the variance in student perceptions of the educational environment. However, few specific variables at the individual level had noteworthy direct effects on these perceptions. Similarly, the institution-level model accounted for 10.3% of the variance in student perceptions, but the specific characteristics of the institution explained little of this impact. The combined individual- and institution-level model attributed 45.5% of the variance in student perceptions to individual-level factors and 10.8% to institution-level factors. Again, specific variables explained little of this impact. These findings indicate that the impact of individual-level factors on perceptions of the educational environment is about four times greater than institution-level factors. This contrast reflects the fact that the educational environment is defined through a learner, not institutional lens. Nonetheless, institutions vary in learner perceptions of their environments, and these differences may provide some support for institutional initiatives to improve the educational environment. More broadly, these results evidence the complexity of the educational environment, both in defining it and in understanding its dynamics.

  15. The Positivity Bias Phenomenon in Face Perception Given Different Information on Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Mo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The negativity bias has been shown in many fields, including in face processing. We assume that this bias stems from the potential threat inlayed in the stimuli (e.g., negative moral behaviors in previous studies. In the present study, we conducted one behavioral and one event-related potentials (ERPs experiments to test whether the positivity bias rather than negativity bias will arise when participants process information whose negative aspect involves no threat, i.e., the ability information. In both experiments, participants first completed a valence rating (negative-to-positive of neutral facial expressions. Further, in the learning period, participants associated the neutral faces with high-ability, low-ability, or control sentences. Finally, participants rated these facial expressions again. Results of the behavioral experiment showed that compared with pre-learning, the expressions of the faces associated with high ability sentences were classified as more positive in the post-learning expression rating task, and the faces associated with low ability sentences were evaluated as more negative. Meanwhile, the change in the high-ability group was greater than that of the low-ability group. The ERP data showed that the faces associated with high-ability sentences elicited a larger early posterior negativity, an ERP component considered to reflect early sensory processing of the emotional stimuli, than the faces associated with control sentences. However, no such effect was found in faces associated with low-ability sentences. To conclude, high ability sentences exerted stronger influence on expression perception than did low ability ones. Thus, we found a positivity bias in this ability-related facial perceptual task. Our findings demonstrate an effect of valenced ability information on face perception, thereby adding to the evidence on the opinion that person-related knowledge can influence face processing. What’s more, the positivity

  16. The Positivity Bias Phenomenon in Face Perception Given Different Information on Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sasa; Xiang, Yanhui; Xie, Jiushu; Ye, Yanyan; Li, Tianfeng; Mo, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The negativity bias has been shown in many fields, including in face processing. We assume that this bias stems from the potential threat inlayed in the stimuli (e.g., negative moral behaviors) in previous studies. In the present study, we conducted one behavioral and one event-related potentials (ERPs) experiments to test whether the positivity bias rather than negativity bias will arise when participants process information whose negative aspect involves no threat, i.e., the ability information. In both experiments, participants first completed a valence rating (negative-to-positive) of neutral facial expressions. Further, in the learning period, participants associated the neutral faces with high-ability, low-ability, or control sentences. Finally, participants rated these facial expressions again. Results of the behavioral experiment showed that compared with pre-learning, the expressions of the faces associated with high ability sentences were classified as more positive in the post-learning expression rating task, and the faces associated with low ability sentences were evaluated as more negative. Meanwhile, the change in the high-ability group was greater than that of the low-ability group. The ERP data showed that the faces associated with high-ability sentences elicited a larger early posterior negativity, an ERP component considered to reflect early sensory processing of the emotional stimuli, than the faces associated with control sentences. However, no such effect was found in faces associated with low-ability sentences. To conclude, high ability sentences exerted stronger influence on expression perception than did low ability ones. Thus, we found a positivity bias in this ability-related facial perceptual task. Our findings demonstrate an effect of valenced ability information on face perception, thereby adding to the evidence on the opinion that person-related knowledge can influence face processing. What's more, the positivity bias in non

  17. Young Athletes' Perceptions of Parental Support and Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    1995-01-01

    Individual participation in athletics was examined as an achievement-oriented activity in which perceived parental support or pressure influence adolescents' perceptions of themselves and their performance. Results with 97 male and 57 female tennis players provide evidence of an association between perceptions of parental involvement and activity…

  18. Individual correlates of autonomy in activities of daily living of institutionalized elderly individuals: an exploratory study in a holistic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Filippo; Zucchetti, Giulia; Magistro, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the individual correlates of autonomy in activities of daily living (ADL) of 40 institutionalized elderly individuals. Results showed that balance skill and perception of physical functioning were significantly associated with ADL. Interventions on the physical functioning, both perceived and real, might have positive influence on the autonomy of institutionalized elderly individuals.

  19. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rising Joshua

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be perceived as safer choices than non-menthol cigarettes. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between menthol cigarette advertising campaigns and the perceptions of these products held by consumers. The marketing of menthol cigarettes has been higher in publications and venues whose target audiences are Blacks/African Americans. Finally, there appears to have been changes in cigarette menthol content over the past decade, which has been viewed by some researchers as an effort to attract different types of smokers.

  20. Social perception in synaesthesia for colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik McErlean, Agnieszka B; Susilo, Tirta; Rezlescu, Constantin; Bray, Amy; Banissy, Michael J

    Synaesthesia is a rare phenomenon in which stimulation in one modality (e.g., audition) evokes a secondary percept not associated with the first (e.g., colour). Prior work has suggested links between synaesthesia and other neurodevelopmental conditions that are linked to altered social perception abilities. With this in mind, here we sought to examine social perception abilities in grapheme-colour synaesthesia (where achromatic graphemes evoke colour experiences) by examining facial identity and facial emotion perception in synaesthetes and controls. Our results indicate that individuals who experience grapheme-colour synaesthesia outperformed controls on tasks involving fine visual discrimination of facial identity and emotion, but not on tasks involving holistic face processing. These findings are discussed in the context of broader perceptual and cognitive traits previously associated with synaesthesia for colour, with the suggestion that performance benefits shown by grapheme-colour synaesthetes may be related to domain-general visual discrimination biases observed in this group.

  1. Recall of Events Affects Perception of Happiness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angelica Moe

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships between recall of positive and negative events, API (attention to positive) and ANI (attention to negative information), and perception of happiness, with the hypothesis that recall affects the perception of happiness and that ANI and API affect recall. One hundred and five women filled in the APNI scale to assess API and ANI and were asked to listen to and recall a story presenting both positive and negative events, and provide an assessment of the character perceived happiness. Finally, they were asked to choose an ending for the story. Results showed that recall is related to the perception of happiness more than API and ANI, and that relationships occur among recall, API, ANI, and perception of happiness. A positive ending for the story was preferred. Discussion focuses on the implications of individual differences in paying attention to and recall positive and negative information.

  2. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    ' in risk perception research covering structure, process, and the social dynamics of risk debates. After that I will present results from a recently completed research project. In this project, we specifically looked into consumers' perceptions of gene technology applied to brewing, and how...... these perceptions related to consumers' attitudes and choice behavior....

  3. Undergraduates Prefer Federated Searching to Searching Databases Individually. A Review of: Belliston, C. Jeffrey, Jared L. Howland, & Brian C. Roberts. “Undergraduate Use of Federated Searching: A Survey of Preferences and Perceptions of Value-Added Functionality.” College & Research Libraries 68.6 (Nov. 2007: 472-86.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Gore

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether use offederated searching by undergraduates saves time, meets their information needs, is preferred over searching databases individually, and provides results of higher quality. Design – Crossover study.Setting – Three American universities, all members of the Consortium of Church Libraries & Archives (CCLA: BYU (Brigham Young University, a large research university; BYUH (Brigham Young University – Hawaii, a small baccalaureate college; and BYUI (Brigham Young University – Idaho, a large baccalaureate collegeSubjects – Ninety-five participants recruited via e-mail invitations sent to a random sample of currently enrolled undergraduates at BYU, BYUH, and BYUI.Methods – Participants were given written directions to complete a literature search for journal articles on two biology-related topics using two search methods: 1. federated searching with WebFeat® (implemented in the same way for this study at the three universities and 2. a hyperlinked list of databases to search individually. Both methods used the same set of seven databases. Each topic was assigned in random order to one of the two search methods, also assigned in random order, for a total of two searches per participant. The time to complete the searches was recorded. Students compiled their list of citations, which were later normalized and graded. To analyze the quality of the citations, one quantitative rubric was created by librarians and one qualitative rubric was approved by a faculty member at BYU. The librarian-created rubric included the journal impact factor (from ISI’s Journal Citation Reports®, the proportion of citations from peer-reviewed journals (determined from Ulrichsweb.com™ to total citations, and the timeliness of the articles. The faculty-approved rubric included three criteria: relevance to the topic, quality of the individual citations (good quality: primary research results, peer-reviewed sources, and

  4. An Empirical Study on the Relationship between Nonprofit's Service Quality and Benefits and Individual Giving Intention from Perspective of Individual Perception%基于感知视角的非营利组织服务质量、捐赠效用对个人捐赠意愿影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜兰英; 赵芬芬; 侯俊东

    2012-01-01

    采用实证的方法验证非营利组织服务质量感知及捐赠效用感知2个构念的子维度结构,并对非营利组织服务质量感知、捐赠效用感知及其子维度与个人捐赠意愿的关系进行了分析.研究发现:非营利组织沟通质量、组织响应是个人捐赠者对非营利组织服务质量感知的2个子维度;显性效用、情绪性效用、家庭性效用是个人捐赠者对非营利组织捐赠效用感知的3个子维度;非营利组织的服务质量感知及其2个子维度包括沟通质量和组织响应正向显著影响个人捐赠意愿;捐赠效用感知负向显著影响个人捐赠意愿,其3个子维度中显性效用对个人捐赠意愿有显著的负向影响,情绪性效用和家庭性效用对个人捐赠意愿没有显著影响.%The structures of two variables including perceived service quality and perceived benefits, and the relationships between the perceived service quality, perceived benefits and their sub-dimensions and individual giving intention are analyzed by empirical methods. The results show that communication quality and response are the two sub-dimensions of the nonprofit's perceived service quality; demonstrable utility, emotional utility and familial utility are the three sub-dimensions of the nonprofit's perceived benefits; perceived service quality and its two sub-dimensions including communication quality and response are positively related to individual giving intention significantly; perceived benefits is negatively related to individual giving intention significantly and among the three sub-dimensions, demonstrable utility has negative influence on individual giving intention significantly while emotional utility and familial utility have no significant influence on individual giving intention.

  5. [Factors that alter taste perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, E R; Silva-Netto, C R

    1990-01-01

    Dysfunction of taste perception is a significant problem for many individuals. Taste anomalies may affect health not only by directly affecting liquid and solid food intake, but also by creating a state of depression due to the loss of an important source of pleasure. Many factors alter taste perception, such as lesions of the oral mucosa, cigarette smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, renal disease, hepatitis, leprosy, hormones, nutrition, use of dentures, medications, and aging. Gum or ice chewing may temporarily help loss of taste. Patients should be encouraged to chew their food thoroughly, alternating the sides of the mouth, or alternating different foods. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no cure for this alteration, and patience is then the only possibility.

  6. Dynamical complexity in the perception-based network formation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Moon, Eunyoung

    2016-12-01

    Many link formation mechanisms for the evolution of social networks have been successful to reproduce various empirical findings in social networks. However, they have largely ignored the fact that individuals make decisions on whether to create links to other individuals based on cost and benefit of linking, and the fact that individuals may use perception of the network in their decision making. In this paper, we study the evolution of social networks in terms of perception-based strategic link formation. Here each individual has her own perception of the actual network, and uses it to decide whether to create a link to another individual. An individual with the least perception accuracy can benefit from updating her perception using that of the most accurate individual via a new link. This benefit is compared to the cost of linking in decision making. Once a new link is created, it affects the accuracies of other individuals' perceptions, leading to a further evolution of the actual network. As for initial actual networks, we consider both homogeneous and heterogeneous cases. The homogeneous initial actual network is modeled by Erdős-Rényi (ER) random networks, while we take a star network for the heterogeneous case. In any cases, individual perceptions of the actual network are modeled by ER random networks with controllable linking probability. Then the stable link density of the actual network is found to show discontinuous transitions or jumps according to the cost of linking. As the number of jumps is the consequence of the dynamical complexity, we discuss the effect of initial conditions on the number of jumps to find that the dynamical complexity strongly depends on how much individuals initially overestimate or underestimate the link density of the actual network. For the heterogeneous case, the role of the highly connected individual as an information spreader is also discussed.

  7. A rough guide to texture : oral physiology and texture perception of semi-solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Lina

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to improve the understanding of oral texture perception. In particular to examine the role of oral physiological processes on oral texture perception of semi-solids and to investigate whether individual differences in perception could be attributed to differences in oral

  8. I Don't Do School: Correlations of School Culture, Power, Fairness, and Behaviour Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Derrick; Watson, Marcia; Adams, Tempestt

    2015-01-01

    Student perceptions of fairness shape behavioural responses that impact the climate of a school. However, prevailing literature on student perceptions fails to critically explore culture, power, and self-concept. This study bridges these gaps through connecting student perception and self-concept as a collective and individual experience of…

  9. Differences in Stakeholder Perceptions about Training Evaluation: A Concept Mapping/Pattern Matching Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Greg V.; Cousins, J. Bradley

    2000-01-01

    Used concept mapping and pattern matching in exploratory research to investigate differences in stakeholder perceptions of training results and evaluation. Group perceptions and the individual perceptions of 39 managers, product developers, and training professionals show that all stakeholder groups agreed reasonably well about the importance of…

  10. Numerical study on the perception-based network formation model

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Hang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the evolution of social networks in terms of perception-based strategic link formation, we numerically study a perception-based network formation model. Here each individual is assumed to have his/her own perception of the actual network, and use it to decide whether to create a link to other individual. An individual with the least perception accuracy can benefit from updating his/her perception using that of the most accurate individual via a new link. This benefit is compared to the cost of linking in decision making. Once a new link is created, it affects the accuracies of other individuals' perceptions, leading to a further evolution of the actual network. The initial actual network and initial perceptions are modeled by Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'enyi random networks but with different linking probabilities. Then the stable link density of the actual network is found to show discontinuous transitions or jumps according to the cost of linking. The effect of initial conditions on the complexity o...

  11. Percepção da qualidade de vida de indivíduos com doença de parkinson através do PDQ-39 Perception of quality of life in individuals with Parkinson's disease using the PDQ-39

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Lana

    2007-10-01

    instrument for evaluating QOL in individuals with PD. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of QOL in individuals with PD at our Institution's outpatient service for movement disorders, using the PDQ-39. METHOD: Individuals with a diagnosis of PD who were aged 40 years and older and classified in stages 1 to 3 of the Modified Hoehn & Yahr scale were included in this study. RESULTS: Thirty-three individuals of mean age 64.65 ± 10.44 years and mean duration of the disease of 9.27 ± 4.40 years participated in this study. The descriptive analysis showed that the median total score in the PDQ-39 was 25%, with worst perceptions of QOL in the dimensions of "Activities of Daily Living" (ADL (41.67% and "Mobility" (34.32%. A high association was found between the total score and the dimension of "Mobility" (r s= 0.82 and a moderate association between the total score and the dimensions of "ADL" (r s= 0.68 and "Communication" (r s = 0.53. CONCLUSIONS: Motor limitations relating to mobility, ADL and communication were significantly related to the general perception of QOL among individuals with PD. These findings suggest that rehabilitation programs aiming to improve QOL among individuals with PD should focus on these limitations.

  12. Potential Students' Perceptions on Online Learning as Innovation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential Students' Perceptions on Online Learning as Innovation. ... Responses of five interviewees were written down during individual interviews; the rest were tape ... The interview also involved a focused group discussion session.

  13. Medical students' experience and perceptions of their final rotation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    led by consultants, and sessions devoted to interpersonal and microcommunication ... Objective. To evaluate medical students' perceptions of their final psychiatry rotation of 7 weeks. Methods. .... relationships between factors and individual.

  14. Stress perception among employees in a French University Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tripodi, D; Roedlich, C; Laheux, M A; Longuenesse, C; Roquelaure, Y; Lombrail, P; Geraut, C

    2012-01-01

    Nantes University Hospital comprises 20 activity sectors. To investigate the role of the work environment at the individual level, as well as the workplace level, in explaining the variability in employees' perception of stress...

  15. Tactile Perception for Stroke Induce Changes in Electroencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Nae Ahn

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study provided a neurophysiological evidence on tactile perception in individuals with chronic stroke. Occupational therapists should consider an active tactile exploration as a useful modality on occupational performance in rehabilitation training.

  16. A common-sense model of injury perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiloh, Shoshana; Heruti, Irit; Leichtentritt, Ronit

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the difference between perceptions of injury and illness. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 38 individuals who had been injured in the past, 8 medical psychologists, 62 graduate psychology students, and 19 health professionals treating injured patients. Data were analyzed by modified analytic induction and constant comparison methods. Common-sense perceptions of injury overlapped with some perceptions of illness, and 4 new themes were elicited. It was concluded that there are themes unique to injury perceptions that should be recognized in research as well as in clinical interventions.

  17. The impact of competition in physical activity and sport on the self-perception of individuals with physical disabilities [Vliv soutěžení při pohybové aktivitě a sportu na sebehodnocení jedinců s tělesným postižením

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Sigmund

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity has traditionally been treated as one of many strategies to improve an individual's quality of life. Until fairly recently, this presumption has been accepted as truth and little research has been done on proving or disproving the claim. Now, there has been a larger focus on it and numerous studies have analyzed the contribution physical activity has on the individual's quality of life in all areas. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the current literature in the area of physical activity and sport as related to self-perception and the overall quality of life in individuals with physical disabilities. METHODS: Using the websites of the following literature databases: Pubmed, Sport Discus, Medline, APAQ archives, and European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity archives, articles from 1990–2009 were selected based on their focus on analyzing the relationship of self-perception and quality of life to physical activity and sport for individuals with physical disabilities. Using these mentioned search programs, 274 articles were found using the keywords for this article. Of these, 40 articles were chosen for being applicable to the topic and target population. Nine of these articles were then used in the direct results as others were used for anecdotal or background information, due to their lack of consistent terminology. Without consistent terminology it was not possible to use these anecdotal articles to make proper comparisons of results. These trends, from the remaining nine articles were then compared to studies with able-bodied populations. RESULTS: The authors found that, overall, there is a significant positive relationship between physical activity and sport programs on the one hand, and increased self-perception among individuals with physical disabilities on the other. This increase can be seen in the process of the comparison of the individual constructs of self-perception as well as of the differences in

  18. Stroke risk perception among participants of a stroke awareness campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Heuschmann Peter U; Heidrich Jan; Kraywinkel Klaus; Wagner Markus; Berger Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Subjective risk factor perception is an important component of the motivation to change unhealthy life styles. While prior studies assessed cardiovascular risk factor knowledge, little is known about determinants of the individual perception of stroke risk. Methods Survey by mailed questionnaire among 1483 participants of a prior public stroke campaign in Germany. Participants had been informed about their individual stroke risk based on the Framingham stroke risk score. S...

  19. Age, sex, education, religion, and perception of tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang

    2002-04-01

    Tattooing has become more acceptable in the mainstream American culture in recent years. Based on a survey with face-to-face interviews of 335 nontattooed adults randomly selected from a city with a population of 444,000, this study explored the relationship of individuals' demographic variables, attitudes toward religion, and their perceptions of tattoos. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that age and attitude toward religion were associated with individuals' perception of tattoos.

  20. Individual Recognition in Ant Queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Heinze, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    recognize each other's unique facial color patterns [3] . Individual recognition is advantageous when dominance hierarchies control the partitioning of work and reproduction 2 and 4 . Here, we show that unrelated founding queens of the ant Pachycondyla villosa use chemical cues to recognize each other......Personal relationships are the cornerstone of vertebrate societies, but insect societies are either too large for individual recognition, or their members were assumed to lack the necessary cognitive abilities 1 and 2 . This paradigm has been challenged by the recent discovery that paper wasps...... perception, was prevented and in tests with anaesthetized queens. The cuticular chemical profiles of queens were neither associated with dominance nor fertility and, therefore, do not represent status badges 5 and 6 , and nestmate queens did not share a common odor. Personal recognition facilitates...

  1. Measuring Environmental Health Perception among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Brown, Stephen L.; Middleton, Wendi K.; Wodika, Alicia B.

    2011-01-01

    One's knowledge, perception, and attitude are fundamental in determining how one behaves regarding environmental hazards. While science has made great strides in promoting environmental health, threats still exist, largely due to individual actions in response to potential health hazards. Undergraduate students (n = 395) enrolled in an…

  2. Employers' Perceptions of Online Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Manouchehr; Solomon, Alison; Strickland, Emily; Metrejean, Eddie

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this research is on perceptions of accounting employers of those individuals obtaining their accounting education online. An online survey of accounting professionals was conducted, and the findings suggest that a candidate with a traditional education is more suitable for employment than a candidate with an online education.…

  3. Employers' Perceptions of Online Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Manouchehr; Solomon, Alison; Strickland, Emily; Metrejean, Eddie

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this research is on perceptions of accounting employers of those individuals obtaining their accounting education online. An online survey of accounting professionals was conducted, and the findings suggest that a candidate with a traditional education is more suitable for employment than a candidate with an online education.…

  4. Problematic Internet Use: Perceptions of Addiction Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acier, Didier; Kern, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing number of publications on problematic Internet use (PIU), there is no consensus on the nature of the phenomenon, its constituent criteria, and its clinical threshold. This qualitative study examines the perceptions of addiction counsellors who have managed individuals with PIU in Quebec (Canada). Four focus groups were conducted…

  5. Problematic Internet Use: Perceptions of Addiction Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acier, Didier; Kern, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing number of publications on problematic Internet use (PIU), there is no consensus on the nature of the phenomenon, its constituent criteria, and its clinical threshold. This qualitative study examines the perceptions of addiction counsellors who have managed individuals with PIU in Quebec (Canada). Four focus groups were conducted…

  6. Suicide Survivors' Perceptions of the Treating Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin M.; Luoma, Jason B.; Dunne, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Examines survivors' attitudes and perceptions of the clinicians who treated their loved one at the time of death. The 71 respondents were relatives or friends of individuals who had died of suicide. Only 11% reported that clinicians attempted to contact them before the death. Discusses implications of findings for clinical practice, legal issues,…

  7. Stroke risk perception among participants of a stroke awareness campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuschmann Peter U

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjective risk factor perception is an important component of the motivation to change unhealthy life styles. While prior studies assessed cardiovascular risk factor knowledge, little is known about determinants of the individual perception of stroke risk. Methods Survey by mailed questionnaire among 1483 participants of a prior public stroke campaign in Germany. Participants had been informed about their individual stroke risk based on the Framingham stroke risk score. Stroke risk factor knowledge, perception of lifetime stroke risk and risk factor status were included in the questionnaire, and the determinants of good risk factor knowledge and high stroke risk perception were identified using logistic regression models. Results Overall stroke risk factor knowledge was good with 67–96% of the participants recognizing established risk factors. The two exceptions were diabetes (recognized by 49% and myocardial infarction (57%. Knowledge of a specific factor was superior among those affected by it. 13% of all participants considered themselves of having a high stroke risk, 55% indicated a moderate risk. All major risk factors contributed significantly to the perception of being at high stroke risk, but the effects of age, sex and education were non-significant. Poor self-rated health was additionally associated with high individual stroke risk perception. Conclusion Stroke risk factor knowledge was high in this study. The self perception of an increased stroke risk was associated with established risk factors as well as low perception of general health.

  8. Links between emotion perception and social participation restriction following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Clare L; Phillips, Louise H; Johnston, Marie; Radlak, Bogumila; Hamilton, Steven; McLeod, Mary Joan

    2014-01-01

    Stroke can cause impairment in emotion perception, but the social consequences of these problems have not been explored to date. In a group of patients with stroke, this study investigated whether difficulties in emotion perception related to social participation and quality-of-life. It also assessed whether these relationships remained significant when controlling for activity limitations. Individuals 1 year post-stroke (n = 28) and control participants (n = 40) were assessed on emotion perception across different modalities. Activity limitations, social participation, and multiple domains of quality-of-life were assessed in patients. Participants with stroke were impaired on emotion perception compared to controls. Emotion perception problems in stroke were significantly correlated with social participation and psychological aspects of QoL, but not with activity limitations. The strong relationships of emotion perception with social participation and psychological aspects of QoL following stroke may have implications for post-stroke outcomes.

  9. Effects of playing video games on perceptions of one's humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    According to self-perception theory, individuals infer their characteristics by observing their own behavior. In the present research, the hypothesis is examined whether helping behavior increases perceptions of one's own humanity even when help is given that does not benefit a real person. In fact, two studies revealed that playing a prosocial video game (where the goal is to help and care for other game characters) led to increased perceptions of the player's own humanity (in particular, for positive humanity traits). Results also revealed that playing a violent, relative to a neutral, video game decreased perceptions of humanity on positive humanity traits and increased perceptions of humanity on negative humanity traits. Taken together, it appears that being helpful while playing video games leads to the perception of being more human, whereas being harmful while playing video games leads players to perceive themselves negatively.

  10. Social Categorization on Perception Bias in the Practice of Microteaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Lu, Chow-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Ruei

    2016-01-01

    Microteaching has gained considerable attention for its effectiveness in rapid and contextual training in professional development programs. However, the interpretive quality of the teaching demonstration and peer feedback may influence individuals' attribution and self-correction, leading to ineffective learning. In this study, a microteaching workshop in a professional development program for 78 elementary school science teachers was investigated. The results showed that the effectiveness of microteaching was negatively affected by participants' perception bias due to social categorization. Moreover, it was indicated that the participants' perception of the in-group and out-group, classified by the degree of the individuals' science knowledge, fostered social categorization. Participants tended to experience perception conflicts caused by their inability to see personal faults, and a typical perception bias of "seeing one's own strengths and seeing others' shortcomings" was more frequently recognized in the out-group. These results converge to highlight the importance of social categorization in perception bias relevant to microteaching.

  11. Social Categorization on Perception Bias in the Practice of Microteaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Lu, Chow-Chin; Tsai, Chi-Ruei

    2017-02-01

    Microteaching has gained considerable attention for its effectiveness in rapid and contextual training in professional development programs. However, the interpretive quality of the teaching demonstration and peer feedback may influence individuals' attribution and self-correction, leading to ineffective learning. In this study, a microteaching workshop in a professional development program for 78 elementary school science teachers was investigated. The results showed that the effectiveness of microteaching was negatively affected by participants' perception bias due to social categorization. Moreover, it was indicated that the participants' perception of the in-group and out-group, classified by the degree of the individuals' science knowledge, fostered social categorization. Participants tended to experience perception conflicts caused by their inability to see personal faults, and a typical perception bias of "seeing one's own strengths and seeing others' shortcomings" was more frequently recognized in the out-group. These results converge to highlight the importance of social categorization in perception bias relevant to microteaching.

  12. Self-perception of quality of life: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Galli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of Quality of Life includes two areas: objective aspects such as socioeconomic status, and subjective self- perception. Psychoeducation provides useful means to find alternative ways to evaluate and cope with life conditions, thus improving quality of life. Evidence to support if there is a relationship between quality of life self- perception and external life conditions was examined in three cities of Argentina. Objective: to assess the socioeconomic status and to analyze individual differences in self-perception among residents of the cities of Buenos Aires, Balcarce and Lincoln. Participants: a total of 398 adults (200 men and 198 women. Method: a assessment of socioeconomic conditions according to international standards b assessment of quality of life self-perception applying the Quality of Life Index (QLI-Sp. Results: external life conditions do not predict individual self- perception of quality of life. 

  13. Hazard personality profiles and individual differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J.; Breakwell, G.M. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Psychology

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: the dominance of the 'psychometric paradigm' and the consequent emphasis on identifying the qualities related to a hazard's perceived risk has resulted in little attention being given to individual variations in the acceptance of such 'personality profiles' of hazards. Attempts to locate sources of variability have largely focused on social, cultural and institutional factors (Turner and Wynne, 1992; Sjoeberg, 1995). Less attention has been paid to the role of intra-individual differences (Myers, Henderson-King, and Henderson-King, 1997). To address this, a questionnaire study (n = 172) explored the relationships between anxiety, experience and risk perceptions in relation to 16 risk activities. Different patterns of relationships for voluntary and involuntary activities were expected. Measures of experience included assessments of impact and outcome valence as well as frequency. Proclivity for, and likelihood of, future risk experiences were also assessed. The results revealed a number of relationships between individual difference variables and risk perceptions relating to the voluntariness of the activities. For involuntary risk activities, there were associations between the experience variables and risk ratings, e.g. previous experience of positive outcomes of involuntary risk activities is associated with perceptions of them affecting few people, with not being fatal and with known risk levels. This would suggest that taking into account people's previous experience of risks is likely to affect reactions to, and mediate the effectiveness of risk communications relating to involuntary risk activities. In contrast for voluntary activities it is the two 'future' oriented variables that are associated with risk perceptions. The relationship between anxiety and risk perceptions also varied in relation to the voluntariness of risk activities. The importance of incorporating a consideration of

  14. Perception of the Threat of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Louck, Keren

    2016-04-28

    In light of the tense and ongoing security situation in Israel, one important issue that needs to be analyzed and understood is the perception of terrorism threats. Most studies focused mainly on the psychological implications of terrorist acts; this study examines the complexity of the manner in which the individual perceives the threat of terrorism. In all, 40 Israeli adults (22 women and 18 men) were interviewed using semistructured in-depth interviews. Qualitative analysis indicates that the components of the perception of terrorism that construct the evaluation and subjective perception of the participants are as follows: (a) perception of control, which is a feeling of loss of control and helplessness due to uncertainty, inability to predict threats, and the vagueness of the threat; (b) perception of vulnerability to the threat, such as a feeling of vulnerability to and potential victimization by terrorism; and (c) perception of fear of terrorism that includes responses of fear, anxiety, feeling of danger, and emotional distress. In addition, gender differences were found in the analysis. The findings of this study help gain a better understanding as to how people perceive the threat of terrorism. The findings also enable an understanding of the complexity of living under ongoing terrorism threats and may assist in understanding how citizens cope with and adjust to this threat. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Perceptions of control in adults with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlert, S

    1994-01-01

    That psychosocial problems are extant in epilepsy is evidenced by a suicide rate among epileptic persons five times that of the general population and an unemployment rate estimated to be more than twice that of the population as a whole. External perceptions of control secondary to repeated episodes of seizure activity that generalize to the social sphere have been implicated as causes of these problems. The hypothesis that individuals who continue to have seizures become more and more external in perceptions of control was tested by a survey mailed to a sample of individuals with epilepsy in a metropolitan area of the Midwest. Dependent variables were, scores on instruments measuring locus of control and attributional style. The independent variable was a measure of seizure control based on present age, age at onset, and length of time since last seizure. Gender, socioeconomic status, and certain parenting characteristics were included as control variables, as they are also known to affect perceptions of control. Analysis by multiple regression techniques supported the study's hypothesis when perceptions of control was conceptualized as learned helplessness for bad, but not for good, events. The hypothesis was not confirmed when perceptions of control was conceptualized as either general or health locus of control.

  16. Levels and properties of map perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żyszkowska Wiesława

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Map perception consists of numerous processes of information processing, taking place almost simultaneously at different levels and stages which makes it conditioned by many factors. In the article, a review of processes related to the perception of a map as well as levels and properties of perception which impact its course and the nature of information obtained from a map is presented. The most important process constituting the basis of a map perception is a visual search (eye movement. However, as stated based on the studies, the process is individual depending on the purpose of map perception and it may be guided by its image (visual search guidance or by the knowledge of users (cognitive search guidance. Perception can take place according to various schemes – “local-to-global” or “global-to-local”, or in accordance with the guided search theory. Perception is divided into three processes: perceiving, distinguishing and identifying, which constitute the basis to interpret and understand a map. They are related to various degrees of intellectual involvement of the user and to various levels of questions concerning the relations between signs and their content. Identification involves referring a sign to its explanation in the legend. Interpretation means transformation of the initial information collected from the map into derivative information in which two basic types of understanding take place: deductive and inductive. Identification of geographical space objects on the map and the interpretation of its content constitute the basis to introduce information into memory structures. In the brain a resource of information is generated called geographic knowledge or spatial representation (mental map which may have a double nature – verbal or pictorial. An important feature of mental maps is organization of spatial information into hierarchical structures, e.g. grouping towns into regions as well as deformation of spatial

  17. Adolescent perceptions of teen births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W

    2008-01-01

    To investigate teens' perceptions of the costs and rewards of teen births, potential interventions to prevent teen pregnancy, and the presence of someone with whom teens could discuss sexuality. Seventeen focus groups were conducted to solicit individual views, group interactions, and shared meanings. Purposive methods accessed a sample of teens considered at risk of teen pregnancy based on their membership in selected community service and teen groups. Teen parents and nonparents (n = 120), from 12 to 19 years of age, were asked about their lives and stresses and the costs and rewards related to teen births. This study yielded rich data about the consequences of teen births. Data were organized in the domains of Impact on relationships, Impact on vocation, and Impact on self. The data reflected the cost and reward themes in each domain. Though teens believed that there were positives of teen births, early childbearing was considered "hard" in many aspects. These perceptions may be used to guide programs, policies, messages, and curricula with the intent to prevent teen pregnancy. These initiatives may be more effective if informed by teens and guided by their perceptions.

  18. Individual differences in low-frequency noise perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Marquardt, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    in the FMETF where the slope changes approx. 6 dB/octave (around 40-65 Hz depending on person). The change in slope is attributed to the shunting effect of the helicotrema. A preliminary study has been carried out in order to see if this resonance feature measured objectively is also found in perceptual data...... frequency range where they are more sensitive and a narrow range where they are less sensitive compared to the standards. Since the frequency range is subject dependent this could explain why some people are annoyed by a lowfrequency sound that is not audible to other people....

  19. Modeling auditory perception of individual hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dau, Torsten

    showed that, in most cases, the reduced or absent cochlear compression, associated with outer hair-cell loss, quantitatively accounts for broadened auditory filters, while a combination of reduced compression and reduced inner hair-cell function accounts for decreased sensitivity and slower recovery from...... selectivity. Three groups of listeners were considered: (a) normal hearing listeners; (b) listeners with a mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss; and (c) listeners with a severe sensorineural hearing loss. A fixed set of model parameters were derived for each hearing-impaired listener. The simulations...

  20. Affective scenes influence fear perception of individual body expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Stock, Jan; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sinke, Charlotte B A; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-02-01

    In natural viewing conditions, different stimulus categories such as people, objects, and natural scenes carry relevant affective information that is usually processed simultaneously. But these different signals may not always have the same affective meaning. Using body-scene compound stimuli, we investigated how the brain processes fearful signals conveyed by either a body in the foreground or scenes in the background and the interaction between foreground body and background scene. The results showed that left and right extrastriate body areas (EBA) responded more to fearful than to neutral bodies. More interestingly, a threatening background scene compared to a neutral one showed increased activity in bilateral EBA and right-posterior parahippocampal place area (PPA) and decreased activity in right retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and left-anterior PPA. The emotional scene effect in EBA was only present when the foreground body was neutral and not when the body posture expressed fear (significant emotion-by-category interaction effect), consistent with behavioral ratings. The results provide evidence for emotional influence of the background scene on the processing of body expressions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Affective scenes influence fear perception of individual body expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Stock, J.B.; Vandenbulcke, M.; Sinke, C.B.A.; de Gelder, B.

    2014-01-01

    In natural viewing conditions, different stimulus categories such as people, objects, and natural scenes carry relevant affective information that is usually processed simultaneously. But these different signals may not always have the same affective meaning. Using body-scene compound stimuli, we

  2. Psychobiology and Food Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, A.

    1985-01-01

    Psychobiology is a scientific discipline which encompasses the phenomena known to be important as regards nutrition and food consumption in space. Specifically, it includes those areas of biology which are clearly related to behavior, human subjective experience and problems of coping and adapting to stress. Taste and odor perception; perception (knowledge gaps); perception (needs); food preference and menu selection; and choosing of acceptable diets are discussed.

  3. Psychobiology and Food Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, A.

    1985-01-01

    Psychobiology is a scientific discipline which encompasses the phenomena known to be important as regards nutrition and food consumption in space. Specifically, it includes those areas of biology which are clearly related to behavior, human subjective experience and problems of coping and adapting to stress. Taste and odor perception; perception (knowledge gaps); perception (needs); food preference and menu selection; and choosing of acceptable diets are discussed.

  4. Public perceptions of geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  5. Perception, Action, and Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety of interdi......What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety...

  6. Cognitive factors and cochlear implants: some thoughts on perception, learning, and memory in speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, D B

    2000-02-01

    Over the past few years, there has been increased interest in studying some of the cognitive factors that affect speech perception performance of cochlear implant patients. In this paper, I provide a brief theoretical overview of the fundamental assumptions of the information-processing approach to cognition and discuss the role of perception, learning, and memory in speech perception and spoken language processing. The information-processing framework provides researchers and clinicians with a new way to understand the time-course of perceptual and cognitive development and the relations between perception and production of spoken language. Directions for future research using this approach are discussed including the study of individual differences, predicting success with a cochlear implant from a set of cognitive measures of performance and developing new intervention strategies.

  7. Students' Perceptions of Using "Facebook" as an Interactive Learning Resource at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Desbrow, Lauren Ball Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2012-01-01

    "Facebook" is a popular platform that may facilitate learning activities at university. In this study, students' perceptions of using ""Facebook" pages" within individual university subject offerings were evaluated. Individual ""Facebook" pages" were developed for four university courses and used…

  8. Risk perceptions and health behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca; Klein, William M

    2015-01-01

    Risk perceptions – or an individual’s perceived susceptibility to a threat – are a key component of many health behavior change theories. Risk perceptions are often targeted in health behavior change interventions, and recent meta-analytic evidence suggests that interventions that successfully engage and change risk perceptions produce subsequent increases in health behaviors. Here, we review recent literature on risk perceptions and health behavior, including research on the formation of risk perceptions, types of risk perceptions (including deliberative, affective, and experiential), accuracy of risk perceptions, and associations and interactions among types of risk perceptions. Taken together, existing research suggests that disease risk perceptions are a critical determinant of health behavior, although the nature of the association among risk perceptions and health behavior may depend on the profile of different types of risk perceptions and the accuracy of such perceptions. PMID:26258160

  9. Perception of infant cues : the role of childhood experiences and oxytocin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhandari, Ritu

    2013-01-01

    In the present thesis we report our findings assessing individual differences in perception of infant signals due to early-life experiences and variability in the oxytocinergic system. We found that the perception of infant cues differs between individuals with fewer versus more experiences of emoti

  10. Students' Attitudes towards Individuals with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meera; Rose, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate attitudes held by a British student population towards individuals with an intellectual disability. Students participated in focus groups addressing their attitudes, behaviours and perceptions of individuals with an intellectual disability. Thematic analysis was the method used to identify emergent themes.…

  11. Students' Attitudes towards Individuals with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meera; Rose, John

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate attitudes held by a British student population towards individuals with an intellectual disability. Students participated in focus groups addressing their attitudes, behaviours and perceptions of individuals with an intellectual disability. Thematic analysis was the method used to identify emergent themes.…

  12. Characterizing perception of ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, T; Axelrod, L J; Slovic, P

    1995-10-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the role of human perception and judgment in ecological risk management. This paper attempts to characterize perceived ecological risk, using the psychometric paradigm developed in the domain of human health risk perception. The research began by eliciting a set of scale characteristics and risk items (e.g., technologies, actions, events, beliefs) from focus group participants. Participants in the main study were 68 university students who completed a survey instrument that elicited ratings for each of 65 items on 30 characteristic scales and one scale regarding general risk to natural environments. The results are presented in terms of mean responses over individuals for each scale and item combination. Factor analyses show that five factors characterize the judgment data. These have been termed: impact on species, human benefits, impact on humans, avoidability, and knowledge of impacts. The factor results correspond with initial expectations and provide a plausible characterization of judgments regarding ecological risk. Some comparisons of mean responses for selected individual items are also presented.

  13. Perceptions of communicative competence after traumatic brain injury: implications for ecologically-driven intervention targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Michael; Allen, Elizabeth M; Prelock, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between non-verbal behaviours and perceptions of the communication abilities of an individual with anomia secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thirty-four university students studying Communication Sciences and Disorders were randomly assigned to watch or listen to six short clips of an individual with TBI engaged in conversation. Participants rated the individual on communication parameters from a modified version of the Pragmatic Protocol and four other dependent measures of communicative competence. A significant positive correlation was identified between perceptions of gestures and ratings of overall communicative competence, and between perceptions of hand and arm movements and ratings of overall communicative competence. Participant raters who viewed the individual's movements as inappropriate also rated her overall communication abilities less favourably. This finding highlights individuality in perception of communication competence and the importance of assessing communication partners' perceptions in a client's environment to determine socially relevant treatment goals.

  14. Music Alters Visual Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e. g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the pe

  15. Language, Perception, Culture & Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Man-li

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the prospect of introducing language, perception, culture and communication. Starting with some definitions of language, perception, culture and communication, the paper argues for the internal connection among them. It pro⁃vides better understanding of these factors in foreign language learning and encourages learners to achieve the better learning re⁃sult to communicate effectively through language, culture etc.

  16. Changes in Perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Though not the sole element to determine foreign policies, perception is of vital importance in defining an environment, understanding international relations and analyzing potential policy choices. India's "Look East" policy after the Cold War originates from its perception changes toward ASEAN.

  17. Music Alters Visual Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e. g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the

  18. Empathizing: neurocognitive developmental mechanisms and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This chapter reviews the Mindreading System model encompassing four neurocognitive mechanisms (ID, EDD, SAM, and ToMM) before reviewing the revised empathizing model encompassing two new neurocognitive mechanisms (TED and TESS). It is argued that the empathizing model is more comprehensive because it entails perception, interpretation, and affective responses to other agents. Sex differences in empathy (female advantage) are then reviewed, as a clear example of individual differences in empathy. This leads into an illustration of individual differences using the Empathy Quotient (EQ). Finally, the neuroimaging literature in relation to each of the neurocognitive mechanisms is briefly summarized and a new study is described that tests if different brain regions respond to the perception of different facial expressions of emotion, as a function of the observer's EQ.

  19. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  20. Controversies in fat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight.

  1. Left Global Hemineglect in High Autism-Spectrum Quotient Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paul Crewther

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism remains as a significant issue for many individuals due to the social impairment accompanying the disorder. Recent theories present potential relationships between autistic tendency and visual perceptual differences to explore differences in underlying visual pathways. These differences have been explored though the use of global and local stimuli to show difference in perception. This study compared the balance of global versus local perception between sub-groups from the normal population both high and low on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ. A diamond illusion task containing rivaling global and local percepts was used to explore the effects of changing the occluder contrast and peripheral viewing upon global/local percept. An increase in global perception relative to increasing eccentricity of the stimulus from a fixation point was also seen in both groups. However, with increasing contrast of the occluding stripes both groups showed an increase in the percentage of global perception. When comparing between groups the high AQ showed a significant reduction in global perception compared to the low AQ group when the stimulus was presented in left hemifield. This difference wasn't present within right hemifield. We discuss how global perceptual hemineglect may suggest abnormal parietal function in individuals with high AQ.

  2. Thinking the individual as form of individuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mateus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will ponder the problem of the individualism through the individuation, pointing out the implications on the idea of “individual”. It attempts to find a theoretical way that allows a broader understanding of its role in human societies It will be suggested that the emphasis placed by modernity in the individual can be evaluated, not as a solipsist individualism, but as a figurational form specific of social contexts characterized by a wide objectivation of the social tissue. That means that beside individualism we can think individualizations through the seminal setting of individuation. This hypothesis is already insinuated in the German sociological thought, in particular, in the sociology of the social forms of Georg Simmel and in the process sociology of Norbert Elias.

  3. Implicit versus Explicit Rejection Self-Perceptions and Adolescents' Interpersonal Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Schad, Megan M; Teachman, Bethany A; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-11-01

    We investigated associations between implicit and explicit self-perceptions of rejection with interpersonal functioning in close relationships. Adolescents (N=124) reported their explicit rejection self-perceptions on a questionnaire and completed the Implicit Association Test to assess their implicit rejection self-perceptions. After controlling for implicit self-perceptions, adolescents' explicit rejection self-perceptions were associated with the adolescents self-reporting more negative relationship quality with close friends and self-reporting more negative behaviors with romantic partners. After controlling for explicit self-perceptions, adolescents' implicit rejection self-perceptions were associated with their romantic partners reporting more negative relationship quality with them, and observations of adolescents displaying more negative behaviors with romantic partners. Implicit and explicit rejection self-perceptions uniquely explain individual differences in interpersonal behaviors.

  4. Implicit versus Explicit Rejection Self-Perceptions and Adolescents’ Interpersonal Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Bethany A.; Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated associations between implicit and explicit self-perceptions of rejection with interpersonal functioning in close relationships. Adolescents (N=124) reported their explicit rejection self-perceptions on a questionnaire and completed the Implicit Association Test to assess their implicit rejection self-perceptions. After controlling for implicit self-perceptions, adolescents’ explicit rejection self-perceptions were associated with the adolescents self-reporting more negative relationship quality with close friends and self-reporting more negative behaviors with romantic partners. After controlling for explicit self-perceptions, adolescents’ implicit rejection self-perceptions were associated with their romantic partners reporting more negative relationship quality with them, and observations of adolescents displaying more negative behaviors with romantic partners. Implicit and explicit rejection self-perceptions uniquely explain individual differences in interpersonal behaviors. PMID:26478646

  5. The relationship between organisational communication and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynissen, H M F

    2011-01-01

    Both researchers and managers search for the most appropriate form of organisational communication. The aim of such an organisational communication is to influence the receivers' perception to confirm, adapt or change behaviour according to the sender's intention. This paper argues that to influence the receivers' perception, a specific form of communication that is embedded in a specific organisational culture is required. It also demands prior knowledge of the existing organisational schemata and the current perception concerning the topic that has to be communicated. The rationale is that three obstacles hinder the objectives of traditional communication strategies to influence perception according to the sender's objectives. The first challenge is that a receiver of a certain message never garners one single, clearly pronounced message conveyed by one single person. Yet, few studies are based on multiple messages from various sources. This makes most of the communication strategies in use obsolete. The second strain is the dual mode of thinking that forms organisational members' perceptions: the heuristic and the cogitative (Taleb, 2010). Most organisational communication theories are based on the paradigm in which receivers of information process this information in a rational way, while research in the field of neurobiology (Lehrer, 2009) indicates that rationality is dominated by emotions. The third difficulty is that organisational members constrain to well-established, ingrained schemas (Labianca et al., 2000; Balogun and Johnson, 2004). Based on these existing schemas, the scattered information from multiple sources, and the inability to process that information through cognitive reasoning, organisational members construct perceptions that are not in line with the objectives of the sender's communication. This article reviews different communication theories, points out key concepts in the literature on individual and collective perceptions, and suggests

  6. Neural networks for perception human and machine perception

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsler, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Neural Networks for Perception, Volume 1: Human and Machine Perception focuses on models for understanding human perception in terms of distributed computation and examples of PDP models for machine perception. This book addresses both theoretical and practical issues related to the feasibility of both explaining human perception and implementing machine perception in terms of neural network models. The book is organized into two parts. The first part focuses on human perception. Topics on network model ofobject recognition in human vision, the self-organization of functional architecture in t

  7. Mapping the Developmental Trajectory and Correlates of Enhanced Pitch Perception on Speech Processing in Adults with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jennifer L.; Hannent, Ian; Heaton, Pamela F.

    2016-01-01

    Whilst enhanced perception has been widely reported in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), relatively little is known about the developmental trajectory and impact of atypical auditory processing on speech perception in intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD. This paper presents data on perception of complex tones and…

  8. Perceptions of Education Faculty Students on Teaching Methods and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmer, Elif; Güven, Gülçin; Aydin, Oktay; Özden, Bülent; Efe, Kadriye; Sener, Nurcan

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences have an influence on a wide range of education fields. These differences can range from organizing teaching environments to the techniques and strategies that the teacher uses. This study focused on individual differences of pre-service teachers and aimed to investigate the perceptions of Education Faculty students on…

  9. Gaze perception in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars eSchulze

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical observations suggest abnormal gaze perception to be an important indicator of social anxiety disorder (SAD. Experimental research has yet paid relatively little attention to the study of gaze perception in SAD. In this article we first discuss gaze perception in healthy human beings before reviewing self-referential and threat-related biases of gaze perception in clinical and non-clinical socially anxious samples. Relative to controls, socially anxious individuals exhibit an enhanced self-directed perception of gaze directions and demonstrate a pronounced fear of direct eye contact, though findings are less consistent regarding the avoidance of mutual gaze in SAD. Prospects for future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. [Time perceptions and representations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been

  11. Social perception in people with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, B; Dejong, H; Kenyon, M; Samarawickrema, N; Loomes, R; Watson, C; Ghelani, S; Schmidt, U

    2013-09-01

    Social perception is a key aspect of social cognition which has so far not been investigated in eating disorders (ED). This study aimed to investigate social perception in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Outpatients with AN (restricting subtype [AN-R]: n=51; binge-purge subtype [AN-BP]: n=26) or BN (n=57) and 50 healthy control (HC) participants completed the Interpersonal Perception Task (IPT-15). This is an ecologically valid task, which consists of 15 video clips, depicting complex social situations relating to intimacy, status, kinship, competition and deception. The participants have to assess relationships between protagonists' based on non-verbal cues. Overall, there was no difference between groups on the IPT total score and subscale scores. Group differences on the Intimacy subscale approached significance so post hoc comparisons were carried out. HCs performed significantly better than AN-R participants in determining the degree of intimacy between others. Social perception is largely preserved in ED patients. Individuals with AN-R show impairments in identifying intimacy in social situations, this may be due to the lack of relationship experience. Further research into different aspects of social cognition is required to establish the link between interpersonal difficulties and ED psychopathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Perception of social support by individuals with diabetes mellitus and foot ulcers Percepción del apoyo social de la persona con Diabetes mellitus y úlceras en los piés Percepção do apoio social pela pessoa com Diabetes mellitus e úlceras nos pés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Galhardo Figueira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of social support and the relationship of sociodemographic, clinical and metabolic control variables in individuals with diabetes mellitus and foot ulcers in an outpatient unit. METHODS: A quantitative cross-sectional approach was carried out using a social support network inventory. RESULTS: Participants had a high perception of social support; family and health professionals were identified as the main support sources. Fasting plasma glucose values were directly related with social support. CONCLUSION: Family members were identified as the main support source, which emphasizes their importance in the health care process.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el apoyo social percibido y su relación con las variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y de control metabólico de personas con Diabetes mellitus y úlceras en los piés, con seguimiento ambulatorio. MÉTODOS: Estudio de abordaje cuantitativo, seccional, realizado por medio del Inventario de la Red de Soporte Social. RESULTADOS: Hubo una elevada percepción de apoyo social en la muestra estudiada, siendo las principales fuentes de apoyo los familiares y los profesionales de la salud. En el estudio de la relación entre el AS y las variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y de tratamiento, no hubo correlaciones estadísticamente significativas. En cuanto a las variables de control metabólico, el valor de la glicemia plasmática en ayuno presentó relación directa con el apoyo social. CONCLUSIÓN: La familia fue la fuente de apoyo más señalada, reiterando su importancia en el proceso del cuidado a la salud.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o apoio social percebido e sua relação com as variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e de controle metabólico em pessoas com Diabetes mellitus e úlceras nos pés, em seguimento ambulatorial. MÉTODOS: Estudo de abordagem quantitativa, seccional, realizado por meio do Inventário da Rede de Suporte Social. RESULTADOS: Houve elevada percep

  13. Magnetoencephalographic activity related to conscious perception is stable within individuals across years but not between individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Barnes, Gareth Robert; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    participants during different recording sessions either days or years later as well as between different participants. No drop in decoding accuracy was observed when decoding across years compared with days, whereas a large drop in decoding accuracy was found for between-participant decoding. Furthermore...

  14. Perception, illusions and Bayesian inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Matthew M; Nour, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Descriptive psychopathology makes a distinction between veridical perception and illusory perception. In both cases a perception is tied to a sensory stimulus, but in illusions the perception is of a false object. This article re-examines this distinction in light of new work in theoretical and computational neurobiology, which views all perception as a form of Bayesian statistical inference that combines sensory signals with prior expectations. Bayesian perceptual inference can solve the 'inverse optics' problem of veridical perception and provides a biologically plausible account of a number of illusory phenomena, suggesting that veridical and illusory perceptions are generated by precisely the same inferential mechanisms.

  15. Perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Sang-Hee

    2003-04-01

    This study aimed at looking at perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English to determine if perception problems are the source of production problems. In particular, first, this study looked at the possible first language effect on the perception of English palatal codas. Second, a possible perceptual source of vowel epenthesis after English palatal codas was investigated. In addition, individual factors, such as length of residence, TOEFL score, gender and academic status, were compared to determine if those affected the varying degree of the perception accuracy. Eleven adult Korean speakers of English as well as three native speakers of English participated in the study. Three sets of a perception test including identification of minimally different English pseudo- or real words were carried out. The results showed that, first, the Korean speakers perceived the English codas significantly worse than the Americans. Second, the study supported the idea that Koreans perceived an extra /i/ after the final affricates due to final release. Finally, none of the individual factors explained the varying degree of the perceptional accuracy. In particular, TOEFL scores and the perception test scores did not have any statistically significant association.

  16. Spatial patterns in tactile perception: is there a tactile field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Patrick; Giovagnoli, Giulia

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies of tactile spatial perception focussed either on a single point of stimulation, on local patterns within a single skin region such as the fingertip, on tactile motion, or on active touch. It remains unclear whether we should speak of a tactile field, analogous to the visual field, and supporting spatial relations between stimulus locations. Here we investigate this question by studying perception of large-scale tactile spatial patterns on the hand, arm and back. Experiment 1 investigated the relation between perception of tactile patterns and the identification of subsets of those patterns. The results suggest that perception of tactile spatial patterns is based on representing the spatial relations between locations of individual stimuli. Experiment 2 investigated the spatial and temporal organising principles underlying these relations. Experiment 3 showed that tactile pattern perception makes reference to structural representations of the body, such as body parts separated by joints. Experiment 4 found that precision of pattern perception is poorer for tactile patterns that extend across the midline, compared to unilateral patterns. Overall, the results suggest that the human sense of touch involves a tactile field, analogous to the visual field. The tactile field supports computation of spatial relations between individual stimulus locations, and thus underlies tactile pattern perception.

  17. Action-specific effects in perception and their potential applications

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Jessica K.; Linkenauger, Sally; Wickens, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Spatial perception is biased by action. Hills appear steeper and distances appear farther to individuals who would have to exert more effort to transverse the space. Objects appear closer, smaller, and faster when they are easier to obtain. Athletes who are playing better than others see their targets as bigger. These phenomena are collectively known as action-specific effects on perception. In this target article, we review evidence for action-specific effects, including evidence that they r...

  18. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders.

  19. Perceptions of pork quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with consumer perceptions of food quality before and after consuming the product, and with the relationship between quality perception and the actural physiological characteristics of the product. The paper is work in progress and with an investigation of how German consumers per...... of the pork on expected and experienced quality. The study uses the Total Food Quality Model (Grunert et al, 1996) as a theoretical framework.......This paper deals with consumer perceptions of food quality before and after consuming the product, and with the relationship between quality perception and the actural physiological characteristics of the product. The paper is work in progress and with an investigation of how German consumers...... perceive the quality of pork (n=200). The main objectives of the study are 1) to investigate which factors determine expected and experienced quality of pork, 2) to investigate the relation between exp and experienced quality, and 3) to investigate the impact of the physiological characteristics...

  20. Measuring perception without introspection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alais, D.; Keetels, M.N.; Freeman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Binocular rivalry, the perceptual alternation between incompatible monocular stimuli, is conventionally measured by asking the subject which percept is currently visible. This is problematic because the response is unverifiable, open to response bias, and falsely assumes that the perceptual

  1. Perception, Action, and Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety of interdi......What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety...... of interdisciplinary perspectives, ranging from theoretical discussion of concepts to findings from recent scientific studies. It incorporates contributions from leading philosophers, psychologists, neuroscientists, and an artificial intelligence theorist. The contributions take a range of positions with respect...

  2. Perception Of Change Management In Nigerian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Banjo Ally; Obasan Kehinde Agbolade; Abass Hassanat Adunni

    2016-01-01

    Organizational management are concerned with the effect of both radical and sudden changes can have on individual relationship with the organization and the organization as a whole. In line with this, the study attempt to assess employees’ perception of change management in Nigerian universities by investigating the relationship between change management and employee commitment on one hand, success and failure of change initiatives and employees’ readiness and resistance to change initiatives...

  3. 中国情境下文化遗产地社区居民旅游增权的结构与测量--基于个体感知的视角%On the Structure and Measurement of Tourism Empowerment of Community Resident in Cultural Heritage Site in China---Based on the Perspective of Individual Perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王会战; 李树民; 刘洋; 李梦

    2015-01-01

    本文采用质性研究和定量研究相结合的方法,基于个体感知的视角开发了中国情境下文化遗产地社区居民旅游增权量表,并通过实证检验具有较高的测评信度和效度。本研究证实了西方的社区旅游增权四维架构具有跨研究情景、跨旅游目的地类型的适用性,不仅在理论上克服了以往关于社区旅游增权状况定量测度的不足,使得对文化遗产地社区居民旅游增权的有效评价、历时追踪和共时比较研究成为了可能,而且通过实际测试表明,本研究开发的测量工具对评估文化遗产地社区居民旅游增权状况具有实际应用效力。%The paper uses both qualitative research and quantitative research to develop a tourism empowerment scale of community resident in cultural heritage site in China on the perspective of individual perception, and has higher meas-urement reliability and validity through empirical test. It reveals that the four-dimension structure of tourism empower-ment of community in western countries is suitable for cross research context and cross types of tourism destination, which not only overcomes the shortcoming in measuring quantitatively the tourism empowerment of society in theory and realizes valid valuation, diachronic track and synchronic comparison research of tourism empowerment of community resi-dent in cultural heritage site, but also has actual application effectiveness to assess the tourism empowerment situation of community resident in cultural heritage site through test.

  4. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  5. Dazzle camouflage affects speed perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E Scott-Samuel

    Full Text Available Movement is the enemy of camouflage: most attempts at concealment are disrupted by motion of the target. Faced with this problem, navies in both World Wars in the twentieth century painted their warships with high contrast geometric patterns: so-called "dazzle camouflage". Rather than attempting to hide individual units, it was claimed that this patterning would disrupt the perception of their range, heading, size, shape and speed, and hence reduce losses from, in particular, torpedo attacks by submarines. Similar arguments had been advanced earlier for biological camouflage. Whilst there are good reasons to believe that most of these perceptual distortions may have occurred, there is no evidence for the last claim: changing perceived speed. Here we show that dazzle patterns can distort speed perception, and that this effect is greatest at high speeds. The effect should obtain in predators launching ballistic attacks against rapidly moving prey, or modern, low-tech battlefields where handheld weapons are fired from short ranges against moving vehicles. In the latter case, we demonstrate that in a typical situation involving an RPG7 attack on a Land Rover the reduction in perceived speed is sufficient to make the grenade miss where it was aimed by about a metre, which could be the difference between survival or not for the occupants of the vehicle.

  6. Perception, time of perception, perception of the time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata, André

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available From a conceptual point of view, time is independent of its experience. That is: it can be given a conceptual description of time without any reference to terms related to the subjective consciousness of time. But concerning a phenomenology of that subjective experience of time, it can it be showed that such experience of time is, in itself, temporal. The very same terms employed in a conceptual description of time – terms like “change” and “duration”– are implied in the phenomenological description of every perception, including perception of time. This authorizes a characterization of subjective time experience as subjective time. At last, based on temporal nature of perception of time, I will suggest an explanation for our common experience of asymmetries subjective time and objective time.Desde un punto de vista conceptual, el tiempo es independiente respecto de la experiencia del tiempo. Es decir: puede darse una descripción conceptual del tiempo sin referencia ninguna a términos relacionados con la conciencia subjetiva del tiempo. Pero en lo concerniente a una fenomenología de esa experiencia subjetiva del tiempo, puede revelarse que tal experiencia de tiempo es, ella en sí misma, temporal? Los mismísimos términos empleados en una descripción conceptual del tiempo, como “cambio” y “duración”, están implicados en la descripción fenomenológica de toda percepción, incluida la percepción del tiempo. Esto autoriza una caracterización de la experiencia subjetiva del tiempo como tiempo subjetivo. Finalmente, sobre la base de la naturaleza temporal de la percepción del tiempo, sugeriré una explicación racional de nuestra experiencia común de asimetrías entre el tiempo subjetivo y el tiempo objetivo.

  7. The Perception and Construction of Sexual Harassment by Czech University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Vohlídalová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The individual perception of sexual harassment and the gap between the individual and legal-institutional defi nitions of sexual harassment has been subject to intense scientifi c scrutiny as this is considered to be one of the reasons for the failure of anti-harassment policies. This article focuses on perceptions and constructions of sexual harassment by students and the gap between students’ individual defi nitions and expert (mainly legislative) definitions of sexual harassment. The artic...

  8. Origin of Individual Differences in Importance Attached to Work: A Model and a Contribution to Its Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverko, Branimir

    1989-01-01

    Tested model proposing that importance of work for individual depends on individual's perception of possibilities for attainment of personal salient work values through working. Responses from 1,872 high school students, 348 university students, and 344 adults to measures on importance of 20 work values, perceptions of their attainment…

  9. Dreams, Perception, and Creative Realization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaskin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    This article draws on the ethnography of Aboriginal Australia to argue that perceptual openness, extending from waking life into dreaming experience, provides an important cognitive framework for the apprehension of dreamt experience in these contexts. I argue that this perceptual openness is analogous to the "openness to experience" described as a personality trait that had been linked with dream recall frequency (among other things). An implication of identifying perceptual openness at a cultural rather than at an individual level is two-fold. It provides an example of the ways in which cultural differences affect perception, indicative of cognitive diversity; and, given the relationship between dreams and creativity suggested anecdotally and through research, a cultural orientation toward perceptual openness is also likely to have implications for the realization of creativity that occurs through dreams. Such creativity though cannot be separated from the relational context in which such dreamt material is elaborated and understood.

  10. Auditory Spatial Perception without Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Valuable insights into the role played by visual experience in shaping spatial representations can be gained by studying the effects of visual deprivation on the remaining sensory modalities. For instance, it has long been debated how spatial hearing evolves in the absence of visual input. While several anecdotal accounts tend to associate complete blindness with exceptional hearing abilities, experimental evidence supporting such claims is, however, matched by nearly equal amounts of evidence documenting spatial hearing deficits. The purpose of this review is to summarize the key findings which support either enhancements or deficits in spatial hearing observed following visual loss and to provide a conceptual framework that isolates the specific conditions under which they occur. Available evidence will be examined in terms of spatial dimensions (horizontal, vertical, and depth perception) and in terms of frames of reference (egocentric and allocentric). Evidence suggests that while early blind individuals show superior spatial hearing in the horizontal plane, they also show significant deficits in the vertical plane. Potential explanations underlying these contrasting findings will be discussed. Early blind individuals also show spatial hearing impairments when performing tasks that require the use of an allocentric frame of reference. Results obtained with late-onset blind individuals suggest that early visual experience plays a key role in the development of both spatial hearing enhancements and deficits. PMID:28066286

  11. Evaluation of perception of quality of life of disabled athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolach Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the perception of quality of life for athletes - disabled, participating in individual and team Paralympic sports. Material: The study involved 32 athletes sports club "Start" in Wroclaw in 2013, engaged in individual sports: swimming, weightlifting, powerlifting (powerlifting and command: wheelchair basketball and volleyball in a sitting position. Results: Studies have proven that sports people with physical disabilities have a positive effect on the quality of their lives. Conclusions: 1. Study aspects of perception of quality of life is a complex issue, but deserves proper attention and appropriate force to study it. 2. Athletes - Disabled involved both individual and team sports, the perception of quality of life is average.

  12. Individual recovery profiles in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jordi; Ramos-Castro, Juan; Rodas, Gil; Tarragó, Joan R; Capdevila, Lluís

    2015-01-01

    In the sport context, recovery has been characterized as a multifactor process (physiological, psychological, behavioral, social, etc.). This study takes a multidisciplinary approach to find psychophysiological markers of the stress-recovery process. It aims to determine how athletes' specific recovery actions relate to their perceptions of recovery, and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). A total of 196 assessments were analyzed from 6 players on a men's professional basketball team within the Liga LEB Oro basketball federation (2012/2013 season). Perceptions of recovery, recovery strategies, and HRV were recorded. The results show a pattern of individual differences in behavior related to athletes' recovery actions and HRV profiles throughout the season (p < .05). Moreover, we observed that each player had different recovery needs. In light of these results, we suggest an individualistic approach to evaluating and monitoring recovery to attend more accurately to each player's recovery needs.

  13. Musical Rhythm Discrimination Explains Individual Differences in Grammar Skills in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Shivers, Carolyn M.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kotz, Sonja A.; Yoder, Paul J.; McAuley, J. Devin

    2015-01-01

    This study considered a relation between rhythm perception skills and individual differences in phonological awareness and grammar abilities, which are two language skills crucial for academic achievement. Twenty-five typically developing 6-year-old children were given standardized assessments of rhythm perception, phonological awareness,…

  14. Lexical Context Effects on Speech Perception in Chinese People with Autistic Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hui-Chun

    2007-01-01

    One theory (weak central coherence) that accounts for a different perceptual-cognitive style in autism may suggest the possibility that individuals with autism are less likely to be affected by lexical knowledge on speech perception. This lexical context effects on speech perception has been evidenced by Ganong (1980) by using word-to-nonword identification test along a VOT dimension. This Ganong effect (which suggests that people tend to make their percept a real word) can be seen as one ...

  15. Lexical Context Effects on Speech Perception in Chinese People with Autistic Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hui-Chun

    2007-01-01

    One theory (weak central coherence) that accounts for a different perceptual-cognitive style in autism may suggest the possibility that individuals with autism are less likely to be affected by lexical knowledge on speech perception. This lexical context effects on speech perception has been evidenced by Ganong (1980) by using word-to-nonword identification test along a VOT dimension. This Ganong effect (which suggests that people tend to make their percept a real word) can be seen as one ...

  16. Seismic risk perception test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  17. Regional characteristics, opportunity perception and entrepreneurial activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuetzer, Michael; Obschonka, Martin; Brixy, Udo

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to better understand the link between regional characteristics and individual entrepreneurship. We combine individual-level Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for Western Germany with regional-level data, using multilevel analysis to test our hypotheses. We find no direct lin...... creation, the economic context and an entrepreneurial culture have an effect on the individual perception of founding opportunities, which in turn predicted start-up intentions and activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York....... between regional knowledge creation, the economic context and an entrepreneurial culture on the one side and individual business start-up intentions and start-up activity on the other side. However, our findings point to the importance of an indirect effect of regional characteristics as knowledge...

  18. MET and AKT genetic influence on facial emotion perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Teng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Facial emotion perception is a major social skill, but its molecular signal pathway remains unclear. The MET/AKT cascade affects neurodevelopment in general populations and face recognition in patients with autism. This study explores the possible role of MET/AKT cascade in facial emotion perception. METHODS: One hundred and eighty two unrelated healthy volunteers (82 men and 100 women were recruited. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of MET (rs2237717, rs41735, rs42336, and rs1858830 and AKT rs1130233 were genotyped and tested for their effects on facial emotion perception. Facial emotion perception was assessed by the face task of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT. Thorough neurocognitive functions were also assessed. RESULTS: Regarding MET rs2237717, individuals with the CT genotype performed better in facial emotion perception than those with TT (p = 0.016 by ANOVA, 0.018 by general linear regression model [GLM] to control for age, gender, and education duration, and showed no difference with those with CC. Carriers with the most common MET CGA haplotype (frequency = 50.5% performed better than non-carriers of CGA in facial emotion perception (p = 0.018, df = 1, F = 5.69, p = 0.009 by GLM. In MET rs2237717/AKT rs1130233 interaction, the C carrier/G carrier group showed better facial emotion perception than those with the TT/AA genotype (p = 0.035 by ANOVA, 0.015 by GLM, even when neurocognitive functions were controlled (p = 0.046 by GLM. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest that genetic factors can affect performance of facial emotion perception. The findings indicate that MET variances and MET/AKT interaction may affect facial emotion perception, implicating that the MET/AKT cascade plays a significant role in facial emotion perception. Further replication studies are needed.

  19. Social norm perception in groups with outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannals, Jennifer E; Miller, Dale T

    2017-09-01

    Social outliers draw a lot of attention from those inside and outside their group and yet little is known about their impact on perceptions of their group as a whole. The present studies examine how outliers influence observers' summary perceptions of a group's behavior and inferences about the group's descriptive and prescriptive norms. Across 4 studies (N = 1,718) we examine how observers perceive descriptive and prescriptive social norms in groups containing outliers of varying degrees. We find consistent evidence that observers overweight outlying behavior when judging the descriptive and prescriptive norms, but overweight outliers less as they become more extreme, especially in perceptions of the prescriptive norm. We find this pattern across norms pertaining to punctuality (Studies 1-2 and 4) and clothing formality (Study 3) and for outliers who are both prescriptively and descriptively deviant (e.g., late arrivers), as well as for outliers who are only descriptive deviants (e.g., early arrivers). We further demonstrate that observers' perceptions of the group shift in the direction of moderate outliers. This occurs because observers anchor on the outlier's behavior and adjust their recollections of nonoutlying individuals, making their inferences about the group's average behavior more extreme. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Millisecond precision spike timing shapes tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackevicius, Emily L; Best, Matthew D; Saal, Hannes P; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2012-10-31

    In primates, the sense of touch has traditionally been considered to be a spatial modality, drawing an analogy to the visual system. In this view, stimuli are encoded in spatial patterns of activity over the sheet of receptors embedded in the skin. We propose that the spatial processing mode is complemented by a temporal one. Indeed, the transduction and processing of complex, high-frequency skin vibrations have been shown to play an important role in tactile texture perception, and the frequency composition of vibrations shapes the evoked percept. Mechanoreceptive afferents innervating the glabrous skin exhibit temporal patterning in their responses, but the importance and behavioral relevance of spike timing, particularly for naturalistic stimuli, remains to be elucidated. Based on neurophysiological recordings from Rhesus macaques, we show that spike timing conveys information about the frequency composition of skin vibrations, both for individual afferents and for afferent populations, and that the temporal fidelity varies across afferent class. Furthermore, the perception of skin vibrations, measured in human subjects, is better predicted when spike timing is taken into account, and the resolution that predicts perception best matches the optimal resolution of the respective afferent classes. In light of these results, the peripheral representation of complex skin vibrations draws a powerful analogy with the auditory and vibrissal systems.

  1. A Multilevel Study Of Supportive Leadership And Individual Work Outcomes: The Mediating Roles Of Team Cooperation, Job Satisfaction, And Team Commitment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuhyung Shin; Won-Kyung Oh; Chang-Hyun Sim Sim; Jee-Young Lee

    2016-01-01

    .... The results of multilevel structural equation modeling showed that individuals' perceptions of supportive leadership were positively related to their subsequent task performance, and that this relationship...

  2. The spectacular human nose: an amplifier of individual quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åse Kristine Rognmo Mikalsen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier. For an amplifier to evolve, the average fitness benefit to the high quality individuals should be higher than the average cost for the low quality individuals. The human nose is, compared to the nose of most other primates, extraordinary large, fragile and easily broken—especially in male–male interactions. May it have evolved as an amplifier among high quality individuals, allowing easy assessment of individual quality and influencing the perception of attractiveness? We tested the latter by manipulating the position of the nose tip or, as a control, the mouth in facial pictures and had the pictures rated for attractiveness. Our results show that facial attractiveness failed to be influenced by mouth manipulations. Yet, facial attractiveness increased when the nose tip was artificially centered according to other facial features. Conversely, attractiveness decreased when the nose tip was displaced away from its central position. Our results suggest that our evaluation of attractiveness is clearly sensitive to the centering of the nose tip, possibly because it affects our perception of the face’s symmetry and/or averageness. However, whether such centering is related to individual quality remains unclear.

  3. Quarrelsome behavior in borderline personality disorder: influence of behavioral and affective reactivity to perceptions of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadikaj, Gentiana; Moskowitz, D S; Russell, Jennifer J; Zuroff, David C; Paris, Joel

    2013-02-01

    We examined how the amplification of 3 within-person processes (behavioral reactivity to interpersonal perceptions, affect reactivity to interpersonal perceptions, and behavioral reactivity to a person's own affect) accounts for greater quarrelsome behavior among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using an event-contingent recording (ECR) methodology, individuals with BPD (N = 38) and community controls (N = 31) reported on their negative affect, quarrelsome behavior, and perceptions of the interaction partner's agreeable-quarrelsome behavior in interpersonal events during a 20-day period. Behavioral reactivity to negative affect was similar in both groups. However, behavioral reactivity and affect reactivity to interpersonal perceptions were elevated in individuals with BPD relative to community controls; specifically, individuals with BPD reported more quarrelsome behavior and more negative affect during interactions in which they perceived others as more cold-quarrelsome. Greater negative affect reactivity to perceptions of other's cold-quarrelsome behavior partly accounted for the increased quarrelsome behavior reported by individuals with BPD during these interactions. This pattern of results suggests a cycle in which the perception of cold-quarrelsome behavior in others triggers elevated negative affect and quarrelsome behavior in individuals with BPD, which subsequently led to more quarrelsome behavior from their interaction partners, which leads to perceptions of others as cold-quarrelsomeness, which begins the cycle anew.

  4. Rethinking evolutionary individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereshefsky, Marc; Pedroso, Makmiller

    2015-08-18

    This paper considers whether multispecies biofilms are evolutionary individuals. Numerous multispecies biofilms have characteristics associated with individuality, such as internal integrity, division of labor, coordination among parts, and heritable adaptive traits. However, such multispecies biofilms often fail standard reproductive criteria for individuality: they lack reproductive bottlenecks, are comprised of multiple species, do not form unified reproductive lineages, and fail to have a significant division of reproductive labor among their parts. If such biofilms are good candidates for evolutionary individuals, then evolutionary individuality is achieved through other means than frequently cited reproductive processes. The case of multispecies biofilms suggests that standard reproductive requirements placed on individuality should be reconsidered. More generally, the case of multispecies biofilms indicates that accounts of individuality that focus on single-species eukaryotes are too restrictive and that a pluralistic and open-ended account of evolutionary individuality is needed.

  5. Integrating public risk perception into formal natural hazard risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. Plattner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An urgent need to take perception into account for risk assessment has been pointed out by relevant literature, its impact in terms of risk-related behaviour by individuals is obvious. This study represents an effort to overcome the broadly discussed question of whether risk perception is quantifiable or not by proposing a still simple but applicable methodology. A novel approach is elaborated to obtain a more accurate and comprehensive quantification of risk in comparison to present formal risk evaluation practice. A consideration of relevant factors enables a explicit quantification of individual risk perception and evaluation. The model approach integrates the effective individual risk reff and a weighted mean of relevant perception affecting factors PAF. The relevant PAF cover voluntariness of risk-taking, individual reducibility of risk, knowledge and experience, endangerment, subjective damage rating and subjective recurrence frequency perception. The approach assigns an individual weight to each PAF to represent its impact magnitude. The quantification of these weights is target-group-dependent (e.g. experts, laypersons and may be effected by psychometric methods. The novel approach is subject to a plausibility check using data from an expert-workshop. A first model application is conducted by means of data of an empirical risk perception study in Western Germany to deduce PAF and weight quantification as well as to confirm and evaluate model applicbility and flexibility. Main fields of application will be a quantification of risk perception by individual persons in a formal and technical way e.g. for the purpose of risk communication issues in illustrating differing perspectives of experts and non-experts. For decision making processes this model will have to be applied with caution, since it is by definition not designed to quantify risk acceptance or risk evaluation. The approach may well explain how risk perception differs, but not

  6. Brain mechanisms for simple perception and bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Megan; Arteaga, Daniel; He, Biyu J

    2013-08-27

    When faced with ambiguous sensory inputs, subjective perception alternates between the different interpretations in a stochastic manner. Such multistable perception phenomena have intrigued scientists and laymen alike for over a century. Despite rigorous investigations, the underlying mechanisms of multistable perception remain elusive. Recent studies using multivariate pattern analysis revealed that activity patterns in posterior visual areas correlate with fluctuating percepts. However, increasing evidence suggests that vision--and perception at large--is an active inferential process involving hierarchical brain systems. We applied searchlight multivariate pattern analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging signals across the human brain to decode perceptual content during bistable perception and simple unambiguous perception. Although perceptually reflective activity patterns during simple perception localized predominantly to posterior visual regions, bistable perception involved additionally many higher-order frontoparietal and temporal regions. Moreover, compared with simple perception, both top-down and bottom-up influences were dramatically enhanced during bistable perception. We further studied the intermittent presentation of ambiguous images--a condition that is known to elicit perceptual memory. Compared with continuous presentation, intermittent presentation recruited even more higher-order regions and was accompanied by further strengthened top-down influences but relatively weakened bottom-up influences. Taken together, these results strongly support an active top-down inferential process in perception.

  7. Stereoscopic distance perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Limited cue, open-loop tasks in which a human observer indicates distances or relations among distances are discussed. By open-loop tasks, it is meant tasks in which the observer gets no feedback as to the accuracy of the responses. What happens when cues are added and when the loop is closed are considered. The implications of this research for the effectiveness of visual displays is discussed. Errors in visual distance tasks do not necessarily mean that the percept is in error. The error could arise in transformations that intervene between the percept and the response. It is argued that the percept is in error. It is also argued that there exist post-perceptual transformations that may contribute to the error or be modified by feedback to correct for the error.

  8. Biophysics of food perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, Adam S.; Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present food perception across a range of time and length scales as well as across the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology. We achieve the objective of the article by presenting food from a material science angle as well as presenting the physiology of food perception that enables humans to probe materials in terms of aroma, taste and texture. We highlight that by using simple physical concepts, one can also decipher the mechanisms of transport that link food structure with perception physiology and define the regime in which physiology operates. Most importantly, we emphasise the notion that food/consumer interaction operates across the biological fluid interface grouped under the terminology of mucus, acting as a transfer fluid for taste, aroma and pressure between food and dedicated receptors.

  9. The neurobiology of individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Individuals often display conspicuously different patterns of behavior, even when they are very closely related genetically. These differences give rise to our sense of individuality, but what is their molecular and neurobiological basis? Individuals that are nominally genetically identical differ at various molecular and neurobiological levels: cell-to-cell variation in somatic genomes, cell-to-cell variation in expression patterns, individual-to-individual variation in neuronal morphology and physiology, and individual-to-individual variation in patterns of brain activity. It is unknown which of these levels is fundamentally causal of behavioral differences. To investigate this problem, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whose genetic toolkit allows the manipulation of each of these mechanistic levels, and whose rapid lifecycle and small size allows for high-throughput automation of behavioral assays. This latter point is crucial; identifying inter-individual behavioral differences requires high sample sizes both within and across individual animals. Automated behavioral characterization is at the heart of our research strategy. In every behavior examined, individual flies have individual behavioral preferences, and we have begun to identify both neural genes and circuits that control the degree of behavioral variability between individuals.

  10. Stress and Visceral Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel M Delvaux

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional bowel disorders are characterized by the presence of a visceral hyperalgesia in most patients. This visceral hyperalgesia is related to an enhanced perception of sensations originating from the gut. Stressful events can dramatically influence the course of functional bowel disorders, and patients suffering from these syndromes appear to be more susceptible to the stressful events of daily life. However, until now, few studies have evaluated the relationship between stress and visceral perception. Some studies of healthy volunteers indicated contradictory results, but the studies used different methodologies. During stress conditions, either physical or mental, thresholds of perception of rectal distension were increased, suggesting a ‘distraction effect’, or were decreased, supporting a sensitizing effect of stress. In most studies, rectal compliance was not affected, but stress has been shown to alter the rectal tone, as measured by a barostat. One study comparing irritable bowel syndrome patients with controls demonstrated the importance of cognitive processes in the modulation of visceral perception by stress. Animal studies have also demonstrated the sensitizing effect of stress on the perception of rectal distension. Mediators involved may be numerous, but corticotropin-releasing factor has been demonstrated to play a major role at the central level. Mast cells and histamine release may play a role at the peripheral level. Stress can thus be included in an integrative model explaining the pathophysiology of functional bowel disorders. Advances in the understanding of the relationship between stress and visceral perception may constitute a basis for a therapeutic approach of functional bowel disorders targeted on the central nervous system.

  11. Aspects of sexual self-perception in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vucic Peitl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Self-perception is a complex, dynamic system and sexual self-perception is only one of the items in that complex system. Our goal was to establish whether the differences in sexual self-perception between schizophrenic patients and healthy individuals exist, and to establish possible differences in sexual self-perception between acute and chronic schizophrenic patients. Method: Bezinovic’s test for sexual self-perception was used because it assesses multiple aspects of sexual self-perception and provides thorough insight of that part of self. Results: Results revealed that schizophrenic patients, compared to healthy individuals, scored significantly higher on the aspects of negative emotionality and sexual incompetence and significantly lower on the aspect of sexual satisfaction. No statistically significant differences were established between acute and chronic schizophrenic patients. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the conscious part of libido organization in schizophrenic patients exhibits proper consciousness of own sexuality, normal readiness for sexual activity, normal sexual adventurism, significantly higher negative emotionality and sexual incompetence and significantly lower sexual satisfaction.

  12. Self-Perception of Aging and Satisfaction With Children's Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2017-09-01

    Those with self-beliefs in negative aging may desire a stronger support network to buffer against potential threats and may hence see their current network as less than adequate. This study investigated whether negative self-perception of aging is associated with increased dissatisfaction with children's support. Six hundred and forty Chinese older adults with at least one child and a total of 2,108 adult children rated the degree of support received from each child individually and the degree to which it met their expectation. Additionally, the participants responded to measures of self-perception of aging (both positive and negative), neuroticism, instrumental activities of daily living, chronic illnesses, financial strain, and living status. The multilevel dataset was analyzed using mixed-effects regression. Individuals who had a more negative self-perception of aging, who were younger, who lived alone, and who had fewer children provided lower support satisfaction ratings after support received from children was controlled for. Positive self-perception of aging was unrelated to support satisfaction. Neuroticism did not account for the relationship between negative self-perception of aging and support satisfaction. A negative self-perception of aging may create vulnerability to intergenerational tension that puts older people at risk of adverse psychological and physical health outcomes.

  13. Obesity and body size perceptions in a Spanish Roma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Alaitz; Ibáñez, María Eugenia; Rebato, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Roma people are particularly vulnerable to developing overweight and obesity. Self-perception of body image may influence the prevalence of obesity in this ethnic minority. The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence of obesity, to analyse body size perceptions and preferences and to assess the relationship between body size perceptions and obesity in the Roma population. The analyses were carried out on 372 men, women and children from the Roma population residing in the Greater Bilbao region (Basque Country, Spain). In adults, a standard figural scale was used to analyse body size perceptions and preferences in this ethnic minority. Overall 51.7% of adult and 24.4% of minor Roma individuals were obese. Both Roma men and women had inaccurate self-perceptions of their body size. Significant differences on body size perceptions were detected based on age, sex, nutritional status and socioeconomic characteristics. This Roma population presents one of the highest rates of obesity worldwide. Although a certain awareness of the correct weight status was appreciated, the inability of Roma individuals to see themselves as overweight or obese may be a significant factor on the high prevalence of obesity in this population.

  14. On Direct Social Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Shannon

    2015-11-01

    Direct Social Perception (DSP) is the idea that we can non-inferentially perceive others' mental states. In this paper, I argue that the standard way of framing DSP leaves the debate at an impasse. I suggest two alternative interpretations of the idea that we see others' mental states: others' mental states are represented in the content of our perception, and we have basic perceptual beliefs about others' mental states. I argue that the latter interpretation of DSP is more promising and examine the kinds of mental states that plausibly could satisfy this version of DSP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Climate change and coastal environmental risk perceptions in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Stuart J; Jacobson, Susan K

    2013-11-30

    Understanding public perceptions of climate change risks is a prerequisite for effective climate communication and adaptation. Many studies of climate risk perceptions have either analyzed a general operationalization of climate change risk or employed a case-study approach of specific adaptive processes. This study takes a different approach, examining attitudes toward 17 specific, climate-related coastal risks and cognitive, affective, and risk-specific predictors of risk perception. A survey of 558 undergraduates revealed that risks to the physical environment were a greater concern than economic or biological risks. Perceptions of greater physical environment risks were significantly associated with having more pro-environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Democratic-leaning. Perceptions of greater economic risks were significantly associated with having more negative environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Republican-leaning. Perceptions of greater biological risks were significantly associated with more positive environmental attitudes. The findings suggest that focusing on physical environment risks maybe more salient to this audience than communications about general climate change adaptation. The results demonstrate that climate change beliefs and risk perceptions are multifactorial and complex and are shaped by individuals' attitudes and basic beliefs. Climate risk communications need to apply this knowledge to better target cognitive and affective processes of specific audiences, rather than providing simple characterizations of risks.

  16. The implicit memory of individual depression in percept-driven process under the influence of sad mood induction%知觉驱动条件下悲伤性心境对抑郁情绪个体内隐记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆英; 冯正直; 王凤; 李嘉雯

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨知觉驱动条件下悲伤性心境对抑郁情绪个体内隐记忆的影响.方法 采用Paller改进的知觉驱动内隐范式,对26名抑郁情绪被试和25名正常被试进行学习一测验任务.记录被试对不同情绪效价面孔的性别判断正确率.结果 ①正常组和抑郁情绪组的视觉模拟评分中,评价时间(F=4.61,P<0.05)、心境状态(F=21.61,P<0.05)有显著主效应,二者存在交互作用(F=4.13,P<0.05).组别无主效应.②正常组和抑郁情绪组对不同呈现时间的情绪面孔性别判断正确率中,呈现时间(F=4.12,P<0.05)、实验类型(F=20.55,P<0.05)有显著主效应,并且存在交互效应(F=31.72,P<0.05).③进一步简单效应分析发现:实验类型在呈现时间为3600 ms的正性[(80±13)%,(92±10)%,F=65.06,P<0.05]、负性[(58±12)%,(91±10)%,F=10.00,P<0.05]、中性[(84±16)%,(88±9)%,F=12.49,P<0.05]面孔的性别判断正确率上的简单效应非常显著;实验类型在呈现时间为300ms的正性[(76±12)%,(85±10)%,F=54.72,P<0.05]、中性[(82±10)%,(80±10)%,F=54.57,P<0.05]面孔的性别判断正确率上的简单效应非常显著,同时,呈现时间为300ms的中性面孔的性别判断正确率的简单效应存在组间差异(F=54.72,P<0.05).结论 悲伤性心境使2组被试对正性和负性面孔的内隐记忆显著增强,抑郁情绪组较正常组在中性面孔的内隐性加工过程上存在显著差异.%Objective To investigate the effect of sad mood to implicit memory of depressed individuals under the condition of percept-driven process. Methods Using the percept-driven implicit paradigm improved by Paller,26 depression subjects and 25 normal subjects completed study-test task and reported the gender of different emotional faces. Results ①There were main effects of time(F = 4.61, P<0.05)and mood state(F= 21.61, P <0.05) ,significant interaction of time and emotion(F = 4. 13, P<0. 05) ,no significant difference of group on visual analogue scale

  17. Age Differences in Emotion Perception: The Effects of the Social Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Matthew W. E.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2017-01-01

    Older adults tend to have lower emotion-perception accuracy compared to younger adults. Previous studies have centered on individual characteristics, including cognitive decline and positive attentional preferences, as possible mechanisms underlying these age differences in emotion perception; however, thus far, no perceiver-focused factor has…

  18. Air Quality in Hamilton: Who Is Concerned? Perceptions from Three Neighbourhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Dylan; Eyles, John; Newbold, K. Bruce; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the factors influencing perceptions of air quality in the industrial city of Hamilton, Canada. The research employs data collected via a telephone survey of 1,002 adult residents in three neighbourhoods. Perceptions in the neighbourhoods were examined by individual socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital and…

  19. Mentors' Perceptions of Factors Associated with Change in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Jacobs, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Mentors' perceptions of factors associated with educational change were identified following an individualized mentoring program about constructivist curriculum for early childhood educators. A qualitative case study analysis of the mentors' journals of six classrooms was conducted to review their perceptions of change. Classroom…

  20. A Phenomenological Study of Urban School Counselors' Perceptions of Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebekah F.; Grothaus, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study explores urban school counselors' perceptions of low-income families in their schools. Ten school counselors participated in two rounds of individual interviews and answered two emailed reflective questions. Six themes emerged from the data: (a) perceptions of family characteristics and environment, (b)…

  1. Right Temporoparietal Gray Matter Predicts Accuracy of Social Perception in the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Nicole; Schultz, Johannes; Milne, Elizabeth; Schunke, Odette; Schöttle, Daniel; Münchau, Alexander; Siegel, Markus; Vogeley, Kai; Engel, Andreas K.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show hallmark deficits in social perception. These difficulties might also reflect fundamental deficits in integrating visual signals. We contrasted predictions of a social perception and a spatial-temporal integration deficit account. Participants with ASD and matched controls performed two…

  2. Health policy perception and health behaviours: a multilevel analysis and implications for public health psychology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengerke, T. von; Vinck, J.; Rütten, A.; Reitmeir, P.; Abel, T.; Kannas, L.; Lüschen, G.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Zee, J. van der

    2004-01-01

    Associations of health policy perception with health behaviours are analysed. Policy perception is differentiated in information about programmes and appraisal of health policy’s contribution to policy goals, and conceptualized on the level of: (1) individuals; and (2) populations (as a social clima

  3. Caregiver Perceptions and Child-Caregiver Interactions in a Newly Inclusive Infant Child Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan L.; Berr, Christy N.; Hsiung, Madeline

    1998-01-01

    Explored caregivers' perceptions concerning inclusion of infants and toddlers with special needs, as well as their actual behaviors toward these children. Findings indicated that while individual differences in infant behavior may affect caregiving need more than differences specific to a particular risk condition, caregivers' perceptions about…

  4. Student and Teacher Perceptions of First Language Use in Secondary French Immersion Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culligan, Karla

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological study (Creswell, 2003, 2007; van Manen, 1997) explores student and teacher perceptions of first language use in French immersion mathematics classrooms at a large, urban high school in Canada. During individual interviews, participants discussed their perceptions and experiences of French immersion mathematics, language use,…

  5. Student and Teacher Perceptions of First Language Use in Secondary French Immersion Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culligan, Karla

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological study (Creswell, 2003, 2007; van Manen, 1997) explores student and teacher perceptions of first language use in French immersion mathematics classrooms at a large, urban high school in Canada. During individual interviews, participants discussed their perceptions and experiences of French immersion mathematics, language use,…

  6. Anxiety and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Perceptions of Social Prominence among Incarcerated Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Goldweber, Aska; Meyer, Kristen; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how perceptions of social prominence and attitudes toward antisocial behavior among peers moderate the association between anxiety and antisocial behavior among incarcerated females. Latent profile analysis identified two classes of females distinguished by their perceptions and attitudes. Individuals in both classes…

  7. An Investigation into Perceptions of Facebook-Use in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the complete process for and findings resulting from an individual-led research project entitled "An Investigation into Perceptions of Facebook-use in Higher Education." The aim of the research project was primarily to investigate current perceptions of using Facebook as a means for interaction between students and…

  8. Air Quality in Hamilton: Who Is Concerned? Perceptions from Three Neighbourhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Dylan; Eyles, John; Newbold, K. Bruce; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the factors influencing perceptions of air quality in the industrial city of Hamilton, Canada. The research employs data collected via a telephone survey of 1,002 adult residents in three neighbourhoods. Perceptions in the neighbourhoods were examined by individual socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital and…

  9. Risk perception and clinical decision making in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Benedicte Marie Lind

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aim to present new knowledge about different perspectives of health care professionals’ risk perceptions and clinical decision making. Furthermore, we intend to discuss differences between professional and personal risk perceptions and the impact on decisions in terms of both short...... and long-term outcomes. Background Insight into healthcare professionals’ perception of risk is a cornerstone for understanding their strategies for practising preventive care. The way people perceive risk can be seen as part of a general personality trait influenced by a mixture of individual...... considerations and the specific context. Most research has been focused on understanding of the concepts of risk. However healthcare professionals’ risk perception and personal attitudes also affect their clinical decision-making and risk communication. The differences between health care professionals’ personal...

  10. Understanding public perceptions of biotechnology through the "Integrative Worldview Framework".

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, Annick; Osseweijer, Patricia; Pierce, Robin

    2015-07-03

    Biotechnological innovations prompt a range of societal responses that demand understanding. Research has shown such responses are shaped by individuals' cultural worldviews. We aim to demonstrate how the Integrative Worldview Framework (IWF) can be used for analyzing perceptions of biotechnology, by reviewing (1) research on public perceptions of biotechnology and (2) analyses of the stakeholder-debate on the bio-based economy, using the Integrative Worldview Framework (IWF) as analytical lens. This framework operationalizes the concept of worldview and distinguishes between traditional, modern, and postmodern worldviews, among others. Applied to these literatures, this framework illuminates how these worldviews underlie major societal responses, thereby providing a unifying understanding of the literature on perceptions of biotechnology. We conclude the IWF has relevance for informing research on perceptions of socio-technical changes, generating insight into the paradigmatic gaps in social science, and facilitating reflexive and inclusive policy-making and debates on these timely issues. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. University Faculty Gender Roles Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Sue; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed 400 college faculty men and women to determine gender role preferences and perceptions. Perceptions of the ideal woman, ideal man, most women, most men, and self were measured. Results from the Sex Role Trait Inventory show that both men and women faculty preferences and perceptions were generally very similar. Implications are discussed.…

  12. Towards Musical Individuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Min Kim

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In Jungian theory, heavily influenced by Zen Buddhism, the developmental stages of human life are symbolized as a circle that represents the wholeness, and the open ended process towards the wholeness is called Individuation. Within the circle there are two stages; the Morning and the Afternoon of Life, and the latter begins at the age of 35, an age at which individuation begins and one that I have reached and passed. Thus, it seemed to be a perfect time for me to begin my own journey towards individuation, especially musical individuation since music had always been such a central part of my life. The first step of individuation is to be aware of one’s individual, social, cultural unconscious forces that affect conscious thoughts and behavior. Thus, my musical individuation began with my attempts to be aware of the unconscious forces beneath my conscious thoughts and behaviors.

  13. Relationships between Religion, Collectivism, Individualism and Satisfaction with Life

    OpenAIRE

    Benn, Carola

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Religious belief and socio-cultural perspectives of Collectivism and Individualism are influential aspects of our perception of the world. Research has considered differences across groups, cultures and nations. Objectives: This study looks at whether there is a relationship between religion and Collectivism on the individual level. It further looks at correlations of Collectivism with satisfaction with life. Methods: A sample of 109 participants consisting of students and their ...

  14. Brain structure links loneliness to social perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Duchaine, Brad; Janik, Agnieszka; Banissy, Michael J; Rees, Geraint

    2012-10-23

    Loneliness is the distressing feeling associated with the perceived absence of satisfying social relationships. Loneliness is increasingly prevalent in modern societies and has detrimental effects on health and happiness. Although situational threats to social relationships can transiently induce the emotion of loneliness, susceptibility to loneliness is a stable trait that varies across individuals [6-8] and is to some extent heritable. However, little is known about the neural processes associated with loneliness (but see [12-14]). Here, we hypothesized that individual differences in loneliness might be reflected in the structure of the brain regions associated with social processes. To test this hypothesis, we used voxel-based morphometry and showed that lonely individuals have less gray matter in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)--an area implicated in basic social perception. As this finding predicted, we further confirmed that loneliness was associated with difficulty in processing social cues. Although other sociopsychological factors such as social network size, anxiety, and empathy independently contributed to loneliness, only basic social perception skills mediated the association between the pSTS volume and loneliness. Taken together, our results suggest that basic social perceptual abilities play an important role in shaping an individual's loneliness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. General practitioners' perceptions of COPD treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Katrine Rutkær; Egerod, Ingrid; Staun Valentiner, Laura

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, the treatment of COPD is mainly managed by general practitioners (GPs). Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is available to patients with COPD in the local community by GP referral, but in practice, many patients do not participate in rehabilitation. The aim of our study...... was to explore 1) GPs' perceptions of their role and responsibility in the rehabilitation of patients with COPD, and 2) GPs' perceptions of how patients manage their COPD. METHODS: The study was based on a qualitative design with semi-structured key-informant interviews with GPs. Investigator triangulation...... the resources to discuss rehabilitation and follow up on individual plans. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested a potential self-reinforcing problem with the treatment of COPD being mainly focused on medication rather than on PR. Neither GPs nor patients used a proactive approach. Further, GPs were not fully...

  16. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Brianna; Snell, Sam; Bye-Nagel, Kyri; Tonidandel, Scott; Heyer, Laurie J; Campbell, A Malcolm

    2011-07-21

    Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008). Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  17. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  18. From local perception to global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Flavio; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2015-08-01

    Recent sociological studies show that over short time periods the large day-to-day, month-to-month or year-to-year variations in weather at a specific location can influence and potentially bias our perception of climate change, a more long-term and global phenomenon. By weighting local temperature anomalies with the number of people that experience them and considering longer time periods, we illustrate that the share of the world population exposed to warmer-than-normal temperatures has steadily increased during the past few decades. Therefore, warming is experienced by an increasing number of individuals, counter to what might be simply inferred from global mean temperature anomalies. This behaviour is well-captured by current climate models, offering an opportunity to increase confidence in future projections of climate change irrespective of the personal local perception of weather.

  19. Stereotype-based modulation of person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadflieg, Susanne; Flannigan, Natasha; Waiter, Gordon D; Rossion, Bruno; Wig, Gagan S; Turk, David J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-07-15

    A core social-psychological question is how cultural stereotypes shape our encounters with other people. While there is considerable evidence to suggest that unexpected targets-such as female airline pilots and male nurses-impact the inferential and memorial aspects of person construal, it has yet to be established if early perceptual operations are similarly sensitive to the stereotype-related status of individuals. To explore this issue, the current investigation measured neural activity while participants made social (i.e., sex categorization) and non-social (i.e., dot detection) judgments about men and women portrayed in expected and unexpected occupations. When participants categorized the stimuli according to sex, stereotype-inconsistent targets elicited increased activity in cortical areas associated with person perception and conflict resolution. Comparable effects did not emerge during a non-social judgment task. These findings begin to elucidate how and when stereotypic beliefs modulate the formation of person percepts in the brain.

  20. Laypeople's and experts' perception of nanotechnology hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen; Kastenholz, Hans; Frey, Silvia; Wiek, Arnim

    2007-02-01

    Public perception of nanotechnology may influence the realization of technological advances. Laypeople's (N=375) and experts' (N=46) perception of 20 different nanotechnology applications and three nonnanotechnology applications were examined. The psychometric paradigm was utilized and applications were described in short scenarios. Results showed that laypeople and experts assessed asbestos as much more risky than nanotechnology applications. Analyses of aggregated data suggested that perceived dreadfulness of applications and trust in governmental agencies are important factors in determining perceived risks. Similar results were observed for experts and laypeople, but the latter perceived greater risks than the former. Analyses of individual data showed that trust, perceived benefits, and general attitudes toward technology influenced the perceived risk of laypeople. In the expert sample, confidence in governmental agencies was an important predictor of risks associated with nanotechnology applications. Results suggest that public concerns about nanotechnology would diminish if measures were taken to enhance laypeople's trust in governmental agencies.

  1. Fitting perception in and to cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Robert L; de Leeuw, Joshua R; Landy, David H

    2015-02-01

    Perceptual modules adapt at evolutionary, lifelong, and moment-to-moment temporal scales to better serve the informational needs of cognizers. Perceptual learning is a powerful way for an individual to become tuned to frequently recurring patterns in its specific local environment that are pertinent to its goals without requiring costly executive control resources to be deployed. Mechanisms like predictive coding, categorical perception, and action-informed vision allow our perceptual systems to interface well with cognition by generating perceptual outputs that are systematically guided by how they will be used. In classic conceptions of perceptual modules, people have access to the modules' outputs but no ability to adjust their internal workings. However, humans routinely and strategically alter their perceptual systems via training regimes that have predictable and specific outcomes. In fact, employing a combination of strategic and automatic devices for adapting perception is one of the most promising approaches to improving cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceptions of Sexual Orientation From Minimal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Nicholas O

    2017-01-01

    People derive considerable amounts of information about each other from minimal nonverbal cues. Apart from characteristics typically regarded as obvious when encountering another person (e.g., age, race, and sex), perceivers can identify many other qualities about a person that are typically rather subtle. One such feature is sexual orientation. Here, I review the literature documenting the accurate perception of sexual orientation from nonverbal cues related to one's adornment, acoustics, actions, and appearance. In addition to chronicling studies that have demonstrated how people express and extract sexual orientation in each of these domains, I discuss some of the basic cognitive and perceptual processes that support these judgments, including how cues to sexual orientation manifest in behavioral (e.g., clothing choices) and structural (e.g., facial morphology) signals. Finally, I attend to boundary conditions in the accurate perception of sexual orientation, such as the states, traits, and group memberships that moderate individuals' ability to reliably decipher others' sexual orientation.

  3. Predictive dynamics of human pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A Cecchi

    Full Text Available While the static magnitude of thermal pain perception has been shown to follow a power-law function of the temperature, its dynamical features have been largely overlooked. Due to the slow temporal experience of pain, multiple studies now show that the time evolution of its magnitude can be captured with continuous online ratings. Here we use such ratings to model quantitatively the temporal dynamics of thermal pain perception. We show that a differential equation captures the details of the temporal evolution in pain ratings in individual subjects for different stimulus pattern complexities, and also demonstrates strong predictive power to infer pain ratings, including readouts based only on brain functional images.

  4. Students’ perceptions on feedback module in pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Varsha J.; Malhotra, Supriya D.; Rana, Devang A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Feedback is an integral part of formative assessment though underutilized in medical education. The objective of this study was to review our feedback module through students’ perceptions. Methodology: We have developed a feedback module which is practiced by us for last 10 years for term ending examination that gives collective feedback to the whole class, followed by individual student-teacher interactions. Students were also exposed to 6–7 multiple choice questions (MCQs) based assessment during the course of pharmacology. Immediately after each MCQ test the answer keys is displayed along with an explanation. Two classes of students were requested to give their perceptions about the feedback by responding on Likert scale for the statements in the questionnaire. All the 206 students who volunteered for the study were enrolled in the study. Mann–Whitney test was used to calculate the difference in perceptions. Results: Of 278 students of two classes, 206 responded (74%). Students’ agreement varied from 93% to 98% for 5 items in the questionnaire for the feedback after term ending examinations. Perception of students attending one or more than one feedback session did not differ significantly. For MCQs, tests agreement was 91% to 98% for the 4 items. There was no significant difference between two classes in their perceptions regarding feedback practices (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Students gave a favorable opinion for our feedback module. In the medical colleges with a large number of students, this module is feasible for feedback in formative assessment in the form of written tests. PMID:27500170

  5. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Liaci

    Full Text Available In von Schiller's Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio ("AR", i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances. Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1 perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion.We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants' forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames.Increasing the tactile SAM's AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias.Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual strategy of the individual

  6. Exploring the "psychometric paradigm": comparisons between aggregate and individual analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marris, C; Langford, I; Saunderson, T; O'Riordan, T

    1997-06-01

    The "psychometric paradigm" developed by Slovic, Fischhoff, and Lichtenstein was a landmark in research about public attitudes toward risks. One problem with work, however, was that (at least initially) it did not attempt to distinguish between individuals or groups of people, except "experts" vs. "lay people." This paradigm produced a "cognitive map" of hazards, and the assumption seemed to be that the characteristics identified were inherent attributes of risk. This paper examines the validity of this assumption. A questionnaire survey similar to those designed by Slovic et al. was conducted, but the data were analyzed at both the aggregate level, using mean scores, and at the level of individuals (N = 131 Norwich residents). The results reported here demonstrate that (1) individuals vary in their perception of the same risk issue; (2) individuals vary in their rating of the same risks characteristics on the same risk issue; and (3) some of the strong intercorrelations observed between risk characteristics at the aggregate level are not supported when the same data are analysed at the level of individuals. Despite these findings, the relationship between risk characteristics and risk perceptions inferred by the psychometric paradigm did hold true at the level of individuals, for most--but not all--of the characteristics. In particular, the relationship between "lack of knowledge to those exposed" and risk perceptions appears to be a complex one, a finding which has important implications for risk communication strategies.

  7. Perceptual averaging in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Elise Corbett

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that observers rely on statistical summaries of visual information to maintain stable and coherent perception. Sensitivity to the mean (or other prototypical value of a visual feature (e.g., mean size appears to be a pervasive process in human visual perception. Previous studies in individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD have uncovered characteristic patterns of visual processing that suggest they may rely more on enhanced local representations of individual objects instead of computing such perceptual averages. To further explore the fundamental nature of abstract statistical representation in visual perception, we investigated perceptual averaging of mean size in a group of 12 high-functioning individuals diagnosed with ASD using simplified versions of two identification and adaptation tasks that elicited characteristic perceptual averaging effects in a control group of neurotypical participants. In Experiment 1, participants performed with above chance accuracy in recalling the mean size of a set of circles (mean task despite poor accuracy in recalling individual circle sizes (member task. In Experiment 2, their judgments of single circle size were biased by mean size adaptation. Overall, these results suggest that individuals with ASD perceptually average information about sets of objects in the surrounding environment. Our results underscore the fundamental nature of perceptual averaging in vision, and further our understanding of how autistic individuals make sense of the external environment.

  8. Multisensory Flavor Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Multisensory Flavor Perception: From Fundamental Neuroscience Through to the Marketplace provides state-of-the-art coverage of the latest insights from the rapidly-expanding world of multisensory flavor research. The book highlights the various types of crossmodal interactions, such as sound and

  9. Consumers' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone;

    2001-01-01

    Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market is r...... framework, the Total Food Quality Model, which we believe is useful in understanding consumers perception of food quality. We will then illustrate applications of the model using two recent examples of the quality perception of meat and fish.......Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market...... of quality and the ability of producers to react to changes in consumers' perception of quality may form the basis of market success or failure, independent of whether you are a local or multinational producer. This chapter deals with the analysis of consumers' quality perception. We will introduce a general...

  10. Perception, Illusion, and Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Paul R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a psychology course in which magical illusions were used for teaching the principles of sensation and perception. Students read psychological, philosophical, historical, and magical literature on illusion, performed a magical illusion, and analyzed the illusion in terms of the psychological principles involved. (Author/KC)

  11. Multimodal perception and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkhoven, P.J.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses mechanisms of multimodal perception in the context of multimodal simulators and virtual worlds. We review some notable findings from psychophysical experiments with a focus on what we call touch-inclusive multimodal perception—that is, the sensory integration of the tactile sy

  12. Hand-eye dominance and depth perception effects in performance on a basic laparoscopic skills set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Rabiya; Yang, Tong; Paige, John; Chauvin, Sheila; Alleyn, Jaime; Brewer, Martha; Johnson, Stephen I; Hoxsey, Rodney J

    2010-01-01

    Our study determined whether depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance affect an individual's ability to perform laparoscopic skills. The study cohort comprised 104 third-year medical students from LSU School of Medicine who completed a questionnaire including information on handedness and were tested for eye dominance and depth perception by using standardized methods. Training sessions involved an initial recorded performance, a 20-minute practice session, followed by a final recorded performance. Recorded sessions were randomized and rated by using a visual analog scale (maximal possible score = 16) based on overall performance (OPS) and depth perception (DPS). A general linear model was used to correlate depth perception defects and hand-eye dominance with assessment scores for OPS and DPS. Students with depth perception defects scored significantly lower on their initial performance than did those with normal depth perception (OPS, 4.80 vs. 7.16, P=0.0008; DPS, 5.25 vs. 6.93, P=0.0195). After training, the depth perception defect group continued to have lower scores compared with the normal depth perception group. However, the 2 groups showed similar increases in pre- to posttraining performance scores (OPS, 3.84 vs. 3.18, P=0.0732). Hand-eye dominance did not significantly affect scores. Depth perception defects appear to compromise an individual's ability to perform basic laparoscopic skills. Individuals with defects can improve their skills by a proportion comparable to that of people with uncompromised depth perception. Differences in hand-eye dominance do not correlate with performance differences in basic laparoscopic skills. Although further research is necessary, the findings indicate that training can be tailored for individuals with depth perception defects to improve laparoscopic performance.

  13. Neurotransmitters affecting time perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It has been demonstrated that dopamine and acetylcholine are the main neurotransmitters that affect time perception,which is also affected by other neurotransmitters.OBJECTIVE:To summarize how the neurotransmitter affect the time perception,and put forward the perspectives for further study on time perception.RETRIEVE STRATEGY:An online search for related literatures published in English was conducted in Elsevier SDOL(ScienceDirect Online)database from May 1990 to March 2007 using key words of "timing neurotransmitter".Totally 69 literatures were collected,and they were primarily checked.Inclusive criteria:Reviews and experimental studies;correlative studies of timing neurotransmitter.Exclusive criteria:Repeated studies.LITERATURE EVALUATION:The literatures were mainly sourced from Cognitive Brain Research and Neuroscience,and they were analyzed according to the inclusive criteria.Nineteen of them were involved,and all were experimental studies and reviews.DATA SYNTHESIS:The studies on time perception are developed mainly concentrating on dopamine and acetylcholine.Dopamine D2 receptors mainly affect the speed of internal clock.Dopamine receptors play an important role in both timing excitation and inhibition,which suggests the bi-directional regulation of dopamine.Injection of dopamine agonist can affect the attention to timing information.Injection of BW813U(antagonist of acetylcholine) can induce memory disorder,which indicates the effect of acetylcholine on timing memory,and further study shows that it is the effect of acetylcholine in precentral medial area.In a word,the study on the neurotransmitters affecting time perception is still at the primary stage.CONCLUSION:Dopamine and acetylcholine are the neurotransmitters known to be related to time perception.Dopamine in the basal ganglia is related to internal-clock in the range of seconds and minutes;Acetylcholine in prefrontal cortex is related to the mechanisms of temporal memory and attention

  14. Distance perception in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Yadav, Naveen K; Han, Esther; Ludlam, Diana P; Peddle, Angela; Hulse, Paul; Walter, Suzanne; Han, Jennifer

    2012-04-30

    The purpose of this study was to assess monocular and binocular distance perception, and stereoacuity, in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) who reported the symptom of "poor depth perception"; Ten patients with mTBI were tested and compared with ten visually-normal asymptomatic individuals in the following areas: perceived distance, stereoacuity at distance (3 meters) and near (40 cm), and a 9-item 5-point rating-scale questionnaire related to distance perception. Distance perception was assessed under monocular and binocular viewing conditions in both clustered and isolated static environments. Magnitude estimation was used to obtain the distance perception response function of physical versus perceived distance using common objects positioned at distances of 0.77 to 12.84 meters. The mean distance perception response function slopes were not significantly different in the two groups for any of the test conditions. Stereoacuity (sec arc) was slightly reduced at both near and distance in the individuals with mTBI (36 ± 24.58 and 84 ± 68.34, respectively) as compared with the normal subjects (20 ± 0 and 51 ± 9.93, respectively). The mTBI group mean symptom score was 3.24 ± 0.26 indicating a moderate problematic level; Similarity of the mean distance response functions in the mTBI group under monocular and binocular viewing conditions suggested that their misperception of distance was not due to a "binocular vergence" problem. Similarly, the slightly reduced stereoacuity in the mTBI group was not sufficient to explain their symptom of "poor depth perception." Thus, it is speculated that this problem reflects a higher-level cortical perceptual phenomenon related to diffuse brain damage in areas dealing with visuo-spatial mapping. American Optometric Association.

  15. The quality perception gap between employees and patients in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Jurgen; Ingerfurth, Stefan

    2016-12-15

    To assess hospital performance, quality perceptions of various stakeholders are increasingly taken into account. However, because of substantial background differences, various stakeholder groups might have different and even contrasting quality perceptions. We test the hypothesis that an overall perception gap exists between employees and patients with respect to perceived hospital quality. We additionally elaborate on how various employee groups differ from each other and from patients. We use primary survey data on perceived hospital quality from 9,979 patients and 4,306 employees from 11 German hospitals. With a multilevel regression and variance analysis, we test the impact of respondent type (employee or patient) on quality perception scores and test the interaction with hospital size. We additionally contrast different employee groups and test differences for various quality dimensions. Hospital employees score hospital quality consistently lower than patients and are also more heterogeneous in their assessments. This makes it from a managerial point of view relevant to subdivide employees in more homogeneous subgroups. Hospital size has no clear effect on the perception gap. Doctors compared to patients and other employee groups have substantially different perceptions on hospital quality. Our findings fuel the practical and ethical debate on the extent that perception gaps could and should be allowed in the context of high-quality and transparent hospital performance. Furthermore, we recommend that the quality perception gap is a substantial part of the overall hospital evaluation for ethical reasons but also to enable managers to better understand the (mis)match between employees' priorities and patients' preferences. However, we do warn practitioners that perceptions are only to a limited extent related to the organizational level (in contrast to the individual level), and only minimal improvements can thus be reached by differentiating from other

  16. Someone to Look Up To : Executive-Follower Ethical Reasoning and Perceptions of Ethical Leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, Jennifer; Brown, Michael E.; Trevino, Linda K.; Finkelstein, Sydney; Brown, M.K.

    Despite a business environment that highlights the importance of executives' ethical leadership, the individual antecedents of ethical leadership remain largely unknown. In this study, the authors propose that follower perceptions of ethical leadership depend on the executive leader's cognitive

  17. Perception of dynamic facial emotional expressions in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Spee, P.S.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown deficits in the perception of static emotional facial expressions in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but results are inconclusive. Possibly, using dynamic facial stimuli expressing emotions at different levels of intensities may produce more robust

  18. Perception of dynamic facial emotional expressions in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Spee, P.; Hendriks, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown deficits in the perception of static emotional facial expressions in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but results are inconclusive. Possibly, using dynamic facial stimuli expressing emotions at different levels of intensities may produce more robust

  19. Someone to Look Up To : Executive-Follower Ethical Reasoning and Perceptions of Ethical Leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, Jennifer; Brown, Michael E.; Trevino, Linda K.; Finkelstein, Sydney; Brown, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a business environment that highlights the importance of executives' ethical leadership, the individual antecedents of ethical leadership remain largely unknown. In this study, the authors propose that follower perceptions of ethical leadership depend on the executive leader's cognitive mora

  20. Malaysian Students' Perceptions of Flipped Classroom: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Zamzami; Attaran, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a class in University of Malaya where flipped learning was applied, and to examine students' perceptions and feedback towards flipped classroom. Data were collected using both quantitative and qualitative methods, i.e. survey, focus group and individual interviews. The results indicated that most students…