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Sample records for high yielding mutants

  1. Root-determined hypernodulation mutant of Lotus japonicus shows high-yielding characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Keisuke; Li, Yong Yi; Hisatomi, Masahiro; Wang, Yanxu; Ishikawa, Kaori; Liu, Chi-Te; Suzuki, Shino; Aonuma, Kho; Aono, Toshihiro; Nakamoto, Tomomi; Oyaizu, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    Here we report the phenotypic characteristics of a novel hypernodulation mutant, Ljrdh1 (root-determined hypernodulation 1) of Lotus japonicus. At 12 weeks after rhizobial inoculation, there were no differences between the growth of Ljrdh1 and, wild-type. However, Ljrdh1 showed 2 to 3 times higher nitrogen-fixing activity, and seed and pod yields, were approximately 50% higher than the wild-type. This is the first report of a legume hypernodulation mutant showing normal growth and a high-yielding characteristic under optimal cultivation conditions.

  2. Stability analysis of a high fibre yield and low lignin content "thick stem" mutant in tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K

    2014-01-01

    A "thick stem" mutant of Corchorus olitorius L. was induced at M2 (0.50%, 4 h, EMS) and the true breeding mutant is assessed across generations (M5 to M7) considering morphometric traits as well as SEM analysis of pollen grains and raw jute fibres, stem anatomy, cytogenetical attributes, and lignin content in relation to control. Furthermore, single fibre diameter and tensile strength are also analysed. The objective is to assess the stability of mutant for its effective exploration for raising a new plant type in tossa jute for commercial exploitation and efficient breeding. The mutant trait is monogenic recessive to normal. Results indicate that "thick stem" mutant is stable across generations (2n = 14) with distinctive high seed and fibre yield and significantly low lignin content. Stem anatomy of the mutant shows significant enhancement in fibre zone, number of fibre pyramids and fibre bundles per pyramid, and diameter of fibre cell in relation to control. Moreover, tensile strength of mutant fibre is significantly higher than control fibre and the trait is inversely related to fibre diameter. However the mutant is associated with low germination frequency, poor seed viability, and high pollen sterility, which may be eliminated through mutational approach followed by rigorous selection and efficient breeding.

  3. Stability Analysis of a High Fibre Yield and Low Lignin Content “Thick Stem” Mutant in Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K.

    2014-01-01

    A “thick stem” mutant of Corchorus olitorius L. was induced at M2 (0.50%, 4 h, EMS) and the true breeding mutant is assessed across generations (M5 to M7) considering morphometric traits as well as SEM analysis of pollen grains and raw jute fibres, stem anatomy, cytogenetical attributes, and lignin content in relation to control. Furthermore, single fibre diameter and tensile strength are also analysed. The objective is to assess the stability of mutant for its effective exploration for raising a new plant type in tossa jute for commercial exploitation and efficient breeding. The mutant trait is monogenic recessive to normal. Results indicate that “thick stem” mutant is stable across generations (2n = 14) with distinctive high seed and fibre yield and significantly low lignin content. Stem anatomy of the mutant shows significant enhancement in fibre zone, number of fibre pyramids and fibre bundles per pyramid, and diameter of fibre cell in relation to control. Moreover, tensile strength of mutant fibre is significantly higher than control fibre and the trait is inversely related to fibre diameter. However the mutant is associated with low germination frequency, poor seed viability, and high pollen sterility, which may be eliminated through mutational approach followed by rigorous selection and efficient breeding. PMID:24860822

  4. Genetic engineering of the complete carotenoid pathway towards enhanced astaxanthin formation in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous starting from a high-yield mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassel, Sören; Breitenbach, Jürgen; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is one of the rare organisms which can synthesize the commercially interesting carotenoid astaxanthin. However, astaxanthin yield in wild-type and also in classical mutants is still too low for an attractive bioprocess. Therefore, we combined classical mutagenesis with genetic engineering of the complete pathway covering improved precursor supply for carotenogenesis, enhanced metabolite flow into the pathway, and efficient conversion of intermediates into the desired end product astaxanthin. We also constructed new transformation plasmids for the stepwise expression of the genes of 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, phytoene synthase/lycopene cyclase, and astaxanthin synthase. Starting from two mutants with a 15-fold higher astaxanthin, we obtained transformants with an additional 6-fold increase in the final step of pathway engineering. Thus, a maximum astaxanthin content of almost 9 mg per g dry weight was reached in shaking cultures. Under optimized fermenter conditions, astaxanthin production with these engineered transformants should be comparable to Haematococcus pluvialis, the leading commercial producer of natural astaxanthin.

  5. RNA-Seq transcriptomic analysis with Bag2D software identifies key pathways enhancing lipid yield in a high lipid-producing mutant of the non-model green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lina; Tan, Tin Wee; Ng, Yi-Kai; Ban, Kenneth Hon Kim; Shen, Hui; Lin, Huixin; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2015-01-01

    For many years, increasing demands for fossil fuels have met with limited supply. As a potential substitute and renewable source of biofuel feedstock, microalgae have received significant attention. However, few of the current algal species produce high lipid yields to be commercially viable. To discover more high yielding strains, next-generation sequencing technology is used to elucidate lipid synthetic pathways and energy metabolism involved in lipid yield. When subjected to manipulation by genetic and metabolic engineering, enhancement of such pathways may further enhance lipid yield. In this study, transcriptome profiling of a random insertional mutant with enhanced lipid production generated from a non-model marine microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta is presented. D9 mutant has a lipid yield that is 2- to 4-fold higher than that of wild type. Using novel Bag2D-workflow scripts developed and reported here, the non-redundant transcripts from de novo assembly were annotated based on the best hits in five model microalgae, namely Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Coccomyxa subellipsoidea C-169, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Volvox carteri, Chlorella variabilis NC64A and a high plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. The assembled contigs (~181 Mb) includes 481,381 contigs, covering 10,185 genes. Pathway analysis showed that a pathway from inositol phosphate metabolism to fatty acid biosynthesis is the most significantly correlated with higher lipid yield in this mutant. Herein, we described a pipeline to analyze RNA-Seq data without pre-existing transcriptomic information. The draft transcriptome of D. tertiolecta was constructed and annotated, which offered useful information for characterizing high lipid-producing mutants. D. tertiolecta mutant was generated with an enhanced photosynthetic efficiency and lipid production. RNA-Seq data of the mutant and wild type were compared, providing biological insights into the expression patterns of contigs associated with energy

  6. Ascorbate, added after irradiation, reduces the mutant yield and alters the spectrum of CD59- mutations in A(L) cells irradiated with high LET carbon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Akiko; Vannais, Diane; Lenarczyk, Marek; Waldren, Charles A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    It has been reported that X-ray induced HPRT- mutation in cultured human cells is prevented by ascorbate added after irradiation. Mutation extinction is attributed to neutralization by ascorbate, of radiation-induced long-lived radicals (LLR) with half-lives of several hours. We here show that post-irradiation treatment with ascorbate (5 mM added 30 min after radiation) reduces, but does not eliminate, the induction of CD59- mutants in human-hamster hybrid A(L) cells exposed to high-LET carbon ions (LET of 100 KeV/microm). RibCys, [2(R,S)-D-ribo-1',2',3',4'-Tetrahydroxybutyl]-thiazolidene-4(R)-ca riboxylic acid] (4 mM) gave a similar but lesser effect. The lethality of the carbon ions was not altered by these chemicals. Preliminary data are presented that ascorbate also alters the spectrum of CD59- mutations induced by the carbon beam, mainly by reducing the incidence of small mutations and mutants displaying transmissible genomic instability (TGI), while large mutations are unaffected. Our results suggest that LLR are important in initiating TGI.

  7. Generation of a catR deficient mutant of P. putida KT2440 that produces cis, cis-muconate from benzoate at high rate and yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, J.B.J.H. van; Wijte, D.; Leprince, A.; Karge, B.; Puchalka, J.; Wery, J.; Dos Santos, V.A.P.M.; Eggink, G.; Mars, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1 was derived from P. putida KT2440 after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG)-mutagenesis and exposure to 3-fluorobenzoate (3-FB). The mutant was no longer able to grow using benzoate as a sole carbon source, but co-metabolized benzoate to cis, cis-muconate during

  8. High-yield production of aryl alcohol oxidase under limited growth conditions in small-scale systems using a mutant Aspergillus nidulans strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Prade, Rolf A; Wilkins, Mark R

    2017-02-01

    Aryl alcohol oxidase (MtGloA) is an enzyme that belongs to the ligninolytic consortium and can play an important role in the bioenergy industry. This study investigated production of an MtGloA client enzyme by a mutant strain of Aspergillus nidulans unable to synthesize its own pyridoxine. Pyridoxine limitation can be used to control cell growth, diverting substrate to protein production. In agitated culture, enzyme production was similar when using media with 1 mg/L and without pyridoxine (26.64 ± 6.14 U/mg mycelia and 26.14 ± 8.39 U/mg mycelia using media with and without pyridoxine, respectively). However, the treatment lacking pyridoxine had to be supplemented with pyridoxine after 156 h of fermentation to sustain continued enzyme production. Use of extremely diluted pyridoxine levels allowed reduced fungal growth while maintaining steady enzyme production. Concentrations of 9 and 13.5 µg/L pyridoxine allowed MtGloA production with a growth rate of only 5% of that observed when using the standard 1 mg/L pyridoxine media.

  9. 盐霉素自身抗性高产突变菌株筛选%Screening of high- salinomycin- yield mutants ofStreptomyces albus by self-resistance methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋; 杭海峰; 储消和; 郭美锦; 储炬; 庄英萍; 张嗣良

    2012-01-01

    目的 筛选出具有自身次级代谢产物盐霉素(salinomycin)抗性并且遗传稳定性好的菌株,提高摇瓶效价.方法 采用常规化学试剂甲基磺酸乙酯诱变处理盐霉素生产菌株Streptomyces albusS-13孢子,通过系列salinomycin浓度梯度平板进行筛选.结果 获得了比生产对照菌株高38%的突变株S-E-6.传代实验表明:S-E-6具有较好的遗传稳定性.同时,通过对盐霉素梯度筛选突变株的单菌落直径与效价进行了统计分析,结果表明突变株菌落直径与盐霉素效价具有正相关特性,线性相关系数(R2)为0.95.%Objective To obtain high-yield and genetic stable mutants of Streptomyces albus using a self-resisitance secreening method. Methods Spores of a Streptomyces albus strain S-13 for industrial production of salinomycin were treated by a chemical mutagen of ethylmethane sulfonate(EMS) and then secreen mutants grown on the salinomycin gradient plates. Results A mutant, designated S-E-6, was successfully selected using a salinomycin gradient plate method. The mean salinomycin titer of S-E-6 was 38% higher than that of the parent strain in flask culture. Also, the production level of the mutant S-E-6 was stable after successive 3-generation subcultures, indicating that the selected mutant has a good genetic stability for salinomycin biosynthesis. Besides, the correlation between the radius of colonies grown on salinomycin gradient plates and their corresponding titers was analyzed, the results show that there is a linear relationship with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9546.

  10. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres (176,000...

  11. High Persister Mutants in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Torrey

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis forms drug-tolerant persister cells that are the probable cause of its recalcitrance to antibiotic therapy. While genetically identical to the rest of the population, persisters are dormant, which protects them from killing by bactericidal antibiotics. The mechanism of persister formation in M. tuberculosis is not well understood. In this study, we selected for high persister (hip mutants and characterized them by whole genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis. In parallel, we identified and characterized clinical isolates that naturally produce high levels of persisters. We compared the hip mutants obtained in vitro with clinical isolates to identify candidate persister genes. Genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, carbon metabolism, toxin-antitoxin systems, and transcriptional regulators were among those identified. We also found that clinical hip isolates exhibited greater ex vivo survival than the low persister isolates. Our data suggest that M. tuberculosis persister formation involves multiple pathways, and hip mutants may contribute to the recalcitrance of the infection.

  12. Short communication. Evaluation of castor (Ricinus communis L.) induced mutants for possible selection in the improvement of seed yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarwar, G.; Boota Chaudhry, M.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine selection criteria suitable for developing castor ideotypes with high yield potentials. Nineteen M4 generation castor mutants were obtained by gamma irradiation (100 to 1000 Gy) of DS30 castor seeds, and evaluated alongside this reference variety over 2006-07 for their possible use in the improvement of castor seed yield. Days to ripening, plant height, number of spikes/plant, length of main spike, number of main spike capsules, capsule weight, 100-seed weight and seed yield per plant were recorded for each mutant. Correlation coefficients were calculated, path analyses performed, and the genetic features of the different traits were determined. A significant, positive correlation was seen between capsule weight and seed yield. The 100-seed weight showed a positive but non-significant phenotypic relationship plus a significant genotypic relationship with seed yield. Capsule weight also showed a strong direct effect on seed yield, plus a strong positive and significant genotypic correlation with this variable. More than 50% heritability was observed for all the traits studied except the 100-seed weight and capsule weight. The number of main spike capsules showed the greatest genetic advance, followed by spike length and number of spikes. Traits such as the number of capsules, spike length and number of spikes showed strong heritability and good genetic advance. These traits are therefore governed by additive genes, and for the improvement of seed yield selection may be based directly on these attributes. In conclusion, for the improvement of seed yield the main emphasis should be placed on the number of spikes and capsule weight, via the selection of the highest yielding mutants among those tested. However, spike length and 100-seed weight should also be taken into account. (Author) 18 refs.

  13. Changes in Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Rice Mutants Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Cheng-ke; LI Gui-shuang; PENG Chang-lian; DUAN Jun

    2003-01-01

    Three mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L. ), Mutant 1, Mutant 2and Mutant 3, which were selected by high hydrostatic pressure (75 MPa), and their parent Yuexiangzhan were used to study the changes in chlorophyll fluorescence during different growth stages. In all the three mutants, the function of PSⅡ was improved, Fy/Fm ratio of mutants increased compared to their parent at tillering and heading stage, and φPS Ⅱ also improved except for Mutant 2 at heading stage. Similar to their parent, the mutants exhibited slight photoinhibition at noon and almost complete recovery to initial levels of 6:00 after 18:00 at heading stage. At milking stage, the photoinhibition in the mutants was obvious, and recovered rapidly compared to the parent. Yields of individual plant and grain/straw ratio were also higher in three mutants than the parent. Results indicated that characteristics of chlorophyll fluorescence in leaves of mutants and their photoinhibition in the field had changed. It is suggested that high hydrostatic pressure induction could be applied as a new effective approach in high-yield rice breeding in the future.

  14. Enhancement of butanol tolerance and butanol yield in Clostridium acetobutylicum mutant NT642 obtained by nitrogen ion beam implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Bo; Gu, Qiu-Ya; Yu, Xiao-Bin; Luo, Wei

    2012-12-01

    As a promising alternative biofuel, biobutanol can be produced through acetone/butanol/ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Currently, ABE fermentation is still a small-scale industry due to its low production and high input cost. Moreover, butanol toxicity to the Clostridium fermentation host limits the accumulation of butanol in the fermentation broth. The wild-type Clostridium acetobutylicum D64 can only produce about 13 g butanol/L and tolerates less than 2% (v/v) butanol. To improve the tolerance of C. acetobutylicum D64 for enhancing the production of butanol, nitrogen ion beam implantation was employed and finally five mutants with enhanced butanol tolerance were obtained. Among these, the most butanol tolerant mutant C. acetobutylicum NT642 can tolerate above 3% (v/v) butanol while the wide-type strain can only withstand 2% (v/v). In batch fermentation, the production of butanol and ABE yield of C. acetobutylicum NT642 was 15.4 g/L and 22.3 g/L, respectively, which were both higher than those of its parental strain and the other mutants using corn or cassava as substrate. Enhancing butanol tolerance is a great precondition for obtaining a hyper-yield producer. Nitrogen ion beam implantation could be a promising biotechnology to improve butanol tolerance and production of the host strain C. acetobutylicum.

  15. Yield of two mutant lines of soybean for human consumption;Rendimiento de dos lineas mutantes de soya para consumo humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron E, J.; Mastache L, A. A.; Diaz V, G. E.; Valencia E, F.; Ranfla C, R.; Melendez P, M. [Colegio Superior Agropecuario del Estado de Guerrero, Vicente Guerrero No. 81, Col. Centro, 40000 Iguala, Guerrero (Mexico); Cervantes S, T. [Instituto de Recursos Geneticos y Productividad, Colegio de Postgraduados, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco Km. 36.5, Montecillo, 56230 Texcoco, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); De la Cruz T, E.; Garcia A, J. M.; Falcon B, T., E-mail: csaegro@prodigy.net.m [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The present work has the objective of to evaluate the yield and the agronomic behavior of 2 mutant lines of soybean for human consumption, obtained by means of a process of recurrent irradiation of soybean seed ISAAEG-BM{sub 2} with gammas of Co{sup 60} and selection in the generation R{sub 4}M{sub 18}. For the variable yield significant statistical differences were not observed, but considering the rest of the evaluated agronomic characteristics the mutant lines L{sub 6} and Bombona they were excellent with values of 3,934.6 and 3,806.8 Kg ha-{sup 1} to 15% of grain humidity, they also possess excellent genetic characteristics result of the irradiations and selections of these new genetic materials. (Author)

  16. PREOVULATORY FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT IN HIGH YIELDING COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Tomášek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the development of preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows. The treatment by supergestran and oestrophan was used to synchronize the estrous cycle. Ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. The linear increase of preovulatory follicles was observed in pregnant (P < 0,001 and non-pregnant (P < 0,001 cows during 8 days before ovulation. In conclusion, preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows developed similarly.

  17. Modified Starch of Sorghum Mutant Line Zh-30 for High Fiber Muffin Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D.S. Santosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum mutant line Zh-30 is a breeding line developed at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, BATAN by using mutation techniques. Gamma irradiation with the dose of 300 Gy was used to induce sorghum genetic variation. Through selection processes in several generations, the mutant line Zh-30 was identified to have better agronomic characteristics, better grain quality and higher grain yield than the original variety. Research on modified starch quality of this mutant line was done to identify its potential use in food industry. Functionality of pregelatinized, hydroxypropyl and crosslinked starch of this mutant line (Mutant TexInstant 30 has been studied for its use in high fiber muffin products. Characteristics of high fiber muffins containing 1.50; 3.50 and 5.50% of Mutant Tex-Instant 30 replacement levels to wheat flour were evaluated using both sensory panel and physical test methods. With regard to the sensory parameters, the high fiber muffins containing 1.50 - 5.50 % Mutant Tex-Instant 30 in general were not significantly different compared to the standard reference muffin. Results of physical evaluations showed that all Mutant Tex-Instant 30 containing products retained more moisture during baking than the standard reference. Tenderness of all products decreased at similar rate following 24 and 48 hr of room temperature storage and seven days at freezer temperature. These results suggested that sorghum mutant line Zh-30 starch could be modified and potentially used in food industry as a subtitute of wheat flour.

  18. Methods for high yield production of terpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchan, Toni; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-03

    Provided are enhanced high yield production systems for producing terpenes in plants via the expression of fusion proteins comprising various combinations of geranyl diphosphate synthase large and small subunits and limonene synthases. Also provided are engineered oilseed plants that accumulate monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in their seeds, as well as methods for producing such plants, providing a system for rapidly engineering oilseed crop production platforms for terpene-based biofuels.

  19. Methods for high yield production of terpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-03

    Provided are enhanced high yield production systems for producing terpenes in plants via the expression of fusion proteins comprising various combinations of geranyl diphosphate synthase large and small subunits and limonene synthases. Also provided are engineered oilseed plants that accumulate monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in their seeds, as well as methods for producing such plants, providing a system for rapidly engineering oilseed crop production platforms for terpene-based biofuels.

  20. Development of high-yield influenza A virus vaccine viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J.S.; Nidom, Chairul A.; Ghedin, Elodie; Macken, Catherine A.; Fitch, Adam; Imai, Masaki; Maher, Eileen A.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways to prevent infection. Influenza vaccines propagated in cultured cells are approved for use in humans, but their yields are often suboptimal. Here, we screened A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus mutant libraries to develop vaccine backbones (defined here as the six viral RNA segments not encoding haemagglutinin and neuraminidase) that support high yield in cell culture. We also tested mutations in the coding and regulatory regions of the virus, and chimeric haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. A combination of high-yield mutations from these screens led to a PR8 backbone that improved the titres of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H7N9 vaccine viruses in African green monkey kidney and Madin–Darby canine kidney cells. This PR8 backbone also improves titres in embryonated chicken eggs, a common propagation system for influenza viruses. This PR8 vaccine backbone thus represents an advance in seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine development. PMID:26334134

  1. Determination of Essential Fatty Acid Composition among Mutant Lines of Canola (Brassica napus), through High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Raza; Aquil Siddique; Imtiaz Ahmad Khan; Muhammed Yasin Ashraf; Abdullah Khatri

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the methyl esters of lenoleic acid (LA), γ-lenolenic acid (LNA) and oleic acid (OL) in the oil of Brassica napus mutants. Five stable mutants (ROO-75/1, ROO-100/6, ROO-125/12, ROO-125/14, and ROO-125/17)of B. napus cv. 'Rainbow' (P) and three mutants (W97-95116, W97-0.75/11 and W97-.075/13) of B. napus cv. 'Westar' (P) at M6 stage, exhibiting better yield and yield components, were analyzed for essential fatty acids. The highest seed yield was observed in the mutant (ROO-100/6) followed by ROO-125/14 of Rainbow, that is, 34% and 32% higher than their parent plants, respectively. Westar mutant W97-75/11 also showed 30% higher seed yield than its parent plant. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the composition of fatty acids indicated that OL was the most dominant fatty acid, ranging from 39.1 to 66.3%; LA was second (15.3-41.6%) and LNA was third (18.1-28.9%). Mutant ROO-125/14 showed higher OL contents than parent (Rainbow). These results are expected to support the approval of ROO-125/14 in the National Uniform Varietal Yield Trials (NUVYT) as a new variety based on high oil quality.

  2. Pre-thymic somatic mutation leads to high mutant frequency at hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jett, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    While characterizing the background mutation spectrum of the Hypoxathine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene in a healthy population, an outlier with a high mutant frequency of thioguanine resistant lymphocytes was found. When studied at the age of 46, this individual had been smoking 60 cigarettes per day for 38 years. His mutant frequency was calculated at 3.6 and 4.2x10{sup {minus}4} for two sampling periods eight months apart. Sequencing analysis of the HPRT gene in his mutant thioguanine resistant T lymphocytes was done to find whether the cells had a high rate of mutation, or if the mutation was due to a single occurrence of mutation and, if so, when in the T lymphocyte development the mutation occurred. By T-cell receptor analysis it has been found that out of 35 thioguanine resistant clones there was no dominant gamma T cell receptor gene rearrangement. During my appointment in the Science & Engineering Research Semester, I found that 34 of those clones have the same base substitution of G{yields}T at cDNA position 197. Due to the consistent mutant frequency from both sampling periods and the varying T cell receptors, the high mutant frequency cannot be due to recent proliferation of a mature mutant T lymphocyte. From the TCR and DNA sequence analysis we conclude that the G{yields}T mutation must have occurred in a T lymphocyte precursor before thymic differentiation so that the thioguanine resistant clones share the same base substitution but not the same gamma T cell receptor gene.

  3. Development of high-yield influenza B virus vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-20

    The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six "internal" influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production.

  4. Selection and Characterization of a Lysine Yielding Mutant of Corynebacterium glutamicum - a Soil Isolate from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib-ur-Rehman§٭, Abdul Hameed and Safia Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available L-lysine is the second limiting amino acid for poultry and supplemented in broiler feed for optimal performance. Lysine can be produced by inducing mutation in glutamate producing bacteria. The study was conducted to enhance lysine production from a local strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The bacterium was mutated by exposure to UV. Mutants resistant to s-2-aminoethyle L-cystein (AEC and showing auxotrophy for L-homoserine were screened for lysine production qualitatively and quantitatively. A mutant showing highest production of lysine (8.2 mg/mL was selected for optimization of physical and nutritional parameters for maximum production of lysine in shake flask. An initial pH 7.6, 30˚C temperature, 300 rpm and 60 h incubation time were the optimized values of physical requirements. Cane molasses and corn starch hydrolysate were required at 15% (w/v in the fermentation media which provided around 9% total sugars to produce maximum lysine (17 to 18 mg/mL. When amonium sulphate was used at 3.5% (w/v level in molasses or corn starch hydrolysate based fermentation media, production of lysine slightly increased above 18 mg/mL. It is concluded that industrial by products like cane molasses, corn steep liquor, and corn starch hydrolysate can be used as carbon and organic nitrogen sources in fermentation medium for scale up process of lysine production and this lysine enriched broth may be used in broiler feed later. However, more potent lysine producing mutant and additional in vivo trials would be required to commercialize this product.

  5. Identification of Differentially Senescing Mutants of Wheat and Impacts on Yield, Biomass and Nitrogen Partitioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adinda P. Derkx; Simon Orford; Simon Griffiths; M. John Foulkes; Malcolm J.Hawkesford

    2012-01-01

    Increasing photosynthetic capacity by extending canopy longevity during grain filling using slow senescing stay-green genotypes is a possible means to improve yield in wheat.Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutated wheat lines (Triticum aestivum L.cv.Paragon) were screened for fast and slow canopy senescence to investigate the impact on yield and nitrogen partitioning.Stay-green and fast-senescing lines with similar anthesis dates were characterised in detail.Delayed senescence was only apparent at higher nitrogen supply with low nitrogen supply enhancing the rate of senescence in all lines.In the stay-green line 3 (SG3),on a whole plant basis,tiller and seed number increased whilst thousand grain weight (TGW) decreased; although a greater N uptake was observed in the main tiller,yield was not affected.In fast-senescing line 2 (FS2),yield decreased,principally as a result of decreased TGW.Analysis of N-partitioning in the main stem indicated that although the slow-senescing line had lower biomass and consequently less nitrogen in all plant parts,the proportion of biomass and nitrogen in the flag leaf was greater at anthesis compared to the other lines; this contributed to the grain N and yield of the slow-senescing line at maturity in both the main tiller and in the whole plant.A field trial confirmed senescence patterns of the two lines,and the negative impact on yield for FS2 and a positive impact for SG3 at low N only.The lack of increased yield in the slow-senescing line was likely due to decreased biomass and additionally a possible sink limitation.

  6. Combining high biodiversity with high yields in tropical agroforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Yann; Barkmann, Jan; Juhrbandt, Jana; Kessler, Michael; Wanger, Thomas Cherico; Anshary, Alam; Buchori, Damayanti; Cicuzza, Daniele; Darras, Kevin; Putra, Dadang Dwi; Erasmi, Stefan; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Schmidt, Carsten; Schulze, Christian H.; Seidel, Dominik; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stenchly, Kathrin; Vidal, Stefan; Weist, Maria; Wielgoss, Arno Christian; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-01-01

    Local and landscape-scale agricultural intensification is a major driver of global biodiversity loss. Controversially discussed solutions include wildlife-friendly farming or combining high-intensity farming with land-sparing for nature. Here, we integrate biodiversity and crop productivity data for smallholder cacao in Indonesia to exemplify for tropical agroforests that there is little relationship between yield and biodiversity under current management, opening substantial opportunities for wildlife-friendly management. Species richness of trees, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates did not decrease with yield. Moderate shade, adequate labor, and input level can be combined with a complex habitat structure to provide high biodiversity as well as high yields. Although livelihood impacts are held up as a major obstacle for wildlife-friendly farming in the tropics, our results suggest that in some situations, agroforests can be designed to optimize both biodiversity and crop production benefits without adding pressure to convert natural habitat to farmland. PMID:21536873

  7. Photosynthesis, light use efficiency, and yield of reduced-chlorophyll soybean mutants in field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing chlorophyll (chl) content may improve the conversion efficiency of absorbed radiation into biomass (ec) and therefore yield in dense monoculture crops by improving light penetration and distribution within the canopy. Modeling suggests that reducing chl content may also reduce leaf temperat...

  8. Low Odor, High Yield Kraft Pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.T. McKean

    2000-12-15

    In laboratory cooks pure oxygen was profiled into the circulation line of a batch digester during two periods of the cooking cycle: The first injection occurred during the heating steps for the purpose of in-situ generation of polysulfide. This chip treatment was studied to explore stabilization against alkaline induced carbohydrate peeling and to increase pulp yield. Under optimum conditions small amounts of polysulfide were produced with yield increase of about 0.5% These increases fell below earlier reports suggesting that unknown differences in liquor composition may influence the relative amounts of polysulfide and thiosulfate generated during the oxidation. Consequently, further studies are required to understand the factors that influence the ratios of those two sulfur species.

  9. Integrated process for high conversion and high yield protein PEGylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, David; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decades, PEGylation has become a powerful technique to increase the in vivo circulation half-life of therapeutic proteins while maintaining their activity. The development of new therapeutic proteins is likely to require further improvement of the PEGylation methods to reach even better selectivity and yield for reduced costs. The intensification of the PEGylation process was investigated through the integration of a chromatographic step in order to increase yield and conversion for the production of mono-PEGylated protein. Lysozyme was used as a model protein to demonstrate the feasibility of such approach. In the integrated reaction/separation process, chromatography was used as fractionation technique in order to isolate and recycle the unreacted protein from the PEGylated products. This allows operating the reactor with short reaction times so as to minimize the production of multi-PEGylated proteins (i.e., conjugated to more than one polymer). That is, the reaction is stopped before the desired product (i.e., the mono-PEGylated protein) can further react, thus leading to limited conversion but high yield. The recycling of the unreacted protein was then considered to drive the protein overall conversion to completion. This approach has great potential to improve processes whose yield is limited by the further reaction of the product leading to undesirable by-products. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1711-1718. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. High-throughput identification of protein mutant stability computed from a double mutant fitness landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nicholas C; Olson, C Anders; Sun, Ren

    2016-02-01

    The effect of a mutation on protein stability is traditionally measured by genetic construction, expression, purification, and physical analysis using low-throughput methods. This process is tedious and limits the number of mutants able to be examined in a single study. In contrast, functional fitness effects can be measured in a high-throughput manner by various deep mutational scanning tools. Using protein GB 1, we have recently demonstrated the feasibility of estimating the mutational stability effect ( ΔΔG) of single-substitution based on the functional fitness profile of all double-substitutions. The principle is to identify genetic backgrounds that have an exhausted stability margin. The functional effect of an additional substitution on these genetic backgrounds can then be used to compute the mutational ΔΔG based on the biophysical relationship between functional fitness and thermodynamic stability. However, to identify such genetic backgrounds, the approach described in our previous study required a benchmark dataset, which is a set of known mutational ΔΔG. In this study, a benchmark-independent approach is developed. The genetic backgrounds of interest are identified using k-means clustering with the integration of structural information. We further demonstrated that a reasonable approximation of ΔΔG can also be obtained without taking structural information into account. In summary, this study describes a novel method for computing ΔΔG from double-substitution functional fitness profiles alone, without relying on any known mutational ΔΔG as a benchmark.

  11. Characterization and mapping of QTLs on chromosome 2D for grain size and yield traits using a mutant line induced by EMS in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guizhi; Zhang; Yingying; Wang; Ying; Guo; Yan; Zhao; Fanmei; Kong; Sishen; Li

    2015-01-01

    Production of mutants with altered phenotypes is a powerful approach for determining the biological functions of genes in an organism. In this study, a high-grain-weight mutant line M8008 was identified from a library of mutants of the common wheat cultivar YN15 treated with ethylmethane sulfonate(EMS). F2 and F2:3generations produced from crosses of M8008 × YN15(MY) and M8008 × SJZ54(MS) were used for genetic analysis. There were significant differences between M8008 and YN15 in plant height(PH), spike length(SL),fertile spikelet number per spike(FSS), grain width(GW), grain length(GL), GL/GW ratio(GLW), and thousand-grain weight(TGW). Most simple correlation coefficients were significant for the investigated traits, suggesting that the correlative mutations occurred in M8008. Approximately 21% of simple sequence repeat(SSR) markers showed polymorphisms between M8008 and YN15, indicating that EMS can induce a large number of mutated loci. Twelve quantitative trait loci(QTLs) forming QTL clusters(one in MY and two in MS) were detected. The QTL clusters coinciding with(MY population) or near(MS population) the marker wmc41 were associated mainly with grain-size traits, among which the M8008 locus led to decreases in GW, factor form density(FFD), and TGW and to increases in GLW. The cluster in the wmc25–barc168 interval in the MS population was associated with yield traits, for which the M8008 locus led to decreased PH, spike number per plant(SN), and SL.

  12. Characterization and mapping of QTLs on chromosome 2D for grain size and yield traits using a mutant line induced by EMS in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guizhi Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of mutants with altered phenotypes is a powerful approach for determining the biological functions of genes in an organism. In this study, a high-grain-weight mutant line M8008 was identified from a library of mutants of the common wheat cultivar YN15 treated with ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS. F2 and F2:3 generations produced from crosses of M8008 × YN15 (MY and M8008 × SJZ54 (MS were used for genetic analysis. There were significant differences between M8008 and YN15 in plant height (PH, spike length (SL, fertile spikelet number per spike (FSS, grain width (GW, grain length (GL, GL/GW ratio (GLW, and thousand-grain weight (TGW. Most simple correlation coefficients were significant for the investigated traits, suggesting that the correlative mutations occurred in M8008. Approximately 21% of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers showed polymorphisms between M8008 and YN15, indicating that EMS can induce a large number of mutated loci. Twelve quantitative trait loci (QTLs forming QTL clusters (one in MY and two in MS were detected. The QTL clusters coinciding with (MY population or near (MS population the marker wmc41 were associated mainly with grain-size traits, among which the M8008 locus led to decreases in GW, factor form density (FFD, and TGW and to increases in GLW. The cluster in the wmc25–barc168 interval in the MS population was associated with yield traits, for which the M8008 locus led to decreased PH, spike number per plant (SN, and SL.

  13. A forward genetic screen with a thalamocortical axon reporter mouse yields novel neurodevelopment mutants and a distinct emx2 mutant phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vock Vita M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dorsal thalamus acts as a gateway and modulator for information going to and from the cerebral cortex. This activity requires the formation of reciprocal topographic axon connections between thalamus and cortex. The axons grow along a complex multistep pathway, making sharp turns, crossing expression boundaries, and encountering intermediate targets. However, the cellular and molecular components mediating these steps remain poorly understood. Results To further elucidate the development of the thalamocortical system, we first created a thalamocortical axon reporter line to use as a genetic tool for sensitive analysis of mutant mouse phenotypes. The TCA-tau-lacZ reporter mouse shows specific, robust, and reproducible labeling of thalamocortical axons (TCAs, but not the overlapping corticothalamic axons, during development. Moreover, it readily reveals TCA pathfinding abnormalities in known cortical mutants such as reeler. Next, we performed an unbiased screen for genes involved in thalamocortical development using random mutagenesis with the TCA reporter. Six independent mutant lines show aberrant TCA phenotypes at different steps of the pathway. These include ventral misrouting, overfasciculation, stalling at the corticostriatal boundary, and invasion of ectopic cortical cell clusters. An outcross breeding strategy coupled with a genomic panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms facilitated genetic mapping with small numbers of mutant mice. We mapped a ventral misrouting mutant to the Emx2 gene, and discovered that some TCAs extend to the olfactory bulbs in this mutant. Mapping data suggest that other lines carry mutations in genes not previously known for roles in thalamocortical development. Conclusions These data demonstrate the feasibility of a forward genetic approach to understanding mammalian brain morphogenesis and wiring. A robust axonal reporter enabled sensitive analysis of a specific axon tract inside the

  14. Repairing the Sickle Cell mutation. II. Effect of psoralen linker length on specificity of formation and yield of third strand-directed photoproducts with the mutant target sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosova, Olga; Broitman, Steven L; Fresco, Jacques R

    2003-08-15

    Three identical deoxyoligonucleotide third strands with a 3'-terminal psoralen moiety attached by linkers that differ in length (N = 16, 6 and 4 atoms) and structure were examined for their ability to form triplex-directed psoralen photoproducts with both the mutant T residue of the Sickle Cell beta-globin gene and the comparable wild-type sequence in linear duplex targets. Specificity and yield of UVA (365 nm) and visible (419 nm) light-induced photoadducts were studied. The total photoproduct yield varies with the linker and includes both monoadducts and crosslinks at various available pyrimidine sites. The specificity of photoadduct formation at the desired mutant T residue site was greatly improved by shortening the psoralen linker. In particular, using the N-4 linker, psoralen interaction with the residues of the non-coding duplex strand was essentially eliminated, while modification of the Sickle Cell mutant T residue was maximized. At the same time, the proportion of crosslink formation at the mutant T residue upon UV irradiation was much greater for the N-4 linker. The photoproducts formed with the wild-type target were fully consistent with its single base pair difference. The third strand with the N-4 linker was also shown to bind to a supercoiled plasmid containing the Sickle Cell mutation site, giving photoproduct yields comparable with those observed in the linear mutant target.

  15. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400 MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8 h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly in...

  16. High-biomass sorghum yield estimate with aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Ruixiu; Hartley, Brandon E.; Gibson, John M.; Yang, Chenghai; Thomasson, J. Alex; Searcy, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    To reach the goals laid out by the U.S. Government for displacing fossil fuels with biofuels, high-biomass sorghum is well-suited to achieving this goal because it requires less water per unit dry biomass and can produce very high biomass yields. In order to make biofuels economically competitive with fossil fuels it is essential to maximize production efficiency throughout the system. The goal of this study was to use remote sensing technologies to optimize the yield and harvest logistics of high-biomass sorghum with respect to production costs based on spatial variability within and among fields. Specific objectives were to compare yield to aerial multispectral imagery and develop predictive relationships. A 19.2-ha high-biomass sorghum field was selected as a study site and aerial multispectral images were acquired with a four-camera imaging system on July 17, 2009. Sorghum plant samples were collected at predetermined geographic coordinates to determine biomass yield. Aerial images were processed to find relationships between image reflectance and yield of the biomass sorghum. Results showed that sorghum biomass yield in early August was closely related (R2 = 0.76) to spectral reflectance. However, in the late season the correlations between the biomass yield and spectral reflectance were not as positive as in the early season. The eventual outcome of this work could lead to predicted-yield maps based on remotely sensed images, which could be used in developing field management practices to optimize yield and harvest logistics.

  17. Willow yield is highly dependent on clone and site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Use of high-yielding genotypes is one of the means to achieve high yield and profitability in willow (Salix spp.) short rotation coppice. This study investigated the performance of eight willow clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) on five Danish sites......, differing considerably in soil type, climatic conditions and management. Compared to the best clone, the yield was up to 36 % lower for other clones across sites and up to 51 % lower within sites. Tordis was superior to other clones with dry matter yields between 5.2 and 10.2 Mg ha−1 year−1 during the first...... 3-year harvest rotation, and it consistently ranked as the highest yielding clone on four of the five sites and not significantly lower than the highest yielding clone on the fifth site. The ranking of the other clones was more dependent on site with significant interaction between clone and site...

  18. Nutritive Equilibrium in Rice Plant Populations for High Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGBOLUN; LIUXINAN; 等

    1999-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium application level,seed rate and transplanting density on the growth and development of rice plants were studied to find out nutrient status in high-yielding rice plants and to increase grain yield by adequate fertilization.There was an equilibrium relationship among nutrient elements for high-yielding rice plant populations.The equilibrium index of nutrient amount ,content and distribution in high-yielding rice plants should be generally greater than-2 but less than 2.The optimum nutritive proportion of nitrogen:phosphorus:potassium assimilated by the plants was about 10:2:9 at the ripening stage.But the content and the proportion varied with the growth stages,Therefore,the nutrient in rice plant populations should be in a dynamic equilibrium.So as to achieve high yield.

  19. High yield, single droplet electrode arrays for nanoscale printed electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caironi, Mario; Gili, Enrico; Sakanoue, Tomo; Cheng, Xiaoyang; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2010-03-23

    In this work we demonstrate two building blocks of a scalable manufacturing technology for nanoscale electronic devices based on direct-write printing: an architecture for high-yield printing of electrode gaps with 100 nm dimension and a low-temperature silver complex ink for integration of organic materials with high conductivity metal interconnects. We use single printed droplets that are made to dewet slowly from each other to allow reliable, high yield patterning even in the presence of certain surface defects.

  20. Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for high-yield L-valine production under oxygen deprivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Suda, Masako; Uematsu, Kimio; Natsuma, Yumi; Hiraga, Kazumi; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    We previously demonstrated efficient L-valine production by metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen deprivation. To achieve the high productivity, a NADH/NADPH cofactor imbalance during the synthesis of l-valine was overcome by engineering NAD-preferring mutant acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase (AHAIR) and using NAD-specific leucine dehydrogenase from Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Lactate as a by-product was largely eliminated by disrupting the lactate dehydrogenase gene ldhA. Nonetheless, a few other by-products, particularly succinate, were still produced and acted to suppress the L-valine yield. Eliminating these by-products therefore was deemed key to improving theL-valine yield. By additionally disrupting the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene ppc, succinate production was effectively suppressed, but both glucose consumption and L-valine production dropped considerably due to the severely elevated intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio. In contrast, this perturbed intracellular redox state was more than compensated for by deletion of three genes associated with NADH-producing acetate synthesis and overexpression of five glycolytic genes, including gapA, encoding NADH-inhibited glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Inserting feedback-resistant mutant acetohydroxy acid synthase and NAD-preferring mutant AHAIR in the chromosome resulted in higher L-valine yield and productivity. Deleting the alanine transaminase gene avtA suppressed alanine production. The resultant strain produced 1,280 mM L-valine at a yield of 88% mol mol of glucose(-1) after 24 h under oxygen deprivation, a vastly improved yield over our previous best.

  1. Identification of rice ethylene-response mutants and characterization of MHZ7/OsEIN2 in distinct ethylene response and yield trait regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; He, Si-Jie; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Yin, Cui-Cui; Chen, Hui; Yang, Chao; Xiong, Qing; Song, Qing-Xin; Lu, Xiang; Chen, Hao-Wei; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Lu, Tie-Gang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2013-11-01

    Ethylene plays essential roles in adaptive growth of rice plants in water-saturating environment; however, ethylene signaling pathway in rice is largely unclear. In this study, we report identification and characterization of ethylene-response mutants based on the specific ethylene-response phenotypes of etiolated rice seedlings, including ethylene-inhibited root growth and ethylene-promoted coleoptile elongation, which is different from the ethylene triple-response phenotype in Arabidopsis. We establish an efficient system for screening and a set of rice mutants have been identified. Genetic analysis reveals that these mutants form eight complementation groups. All the mutants show insensitivity or reduced sensitivity to ethylene in root growth but exhibit differential responses in coleoptile growth. One mutant group mhz7 has insensitivity to ethylene in both root and coleoptile growth. We identified the corresponding gene by a map-based cloning method. MHZ7 encodes a membrane protein homologous to EIN2, a central component of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Upon ethylene treatment, etiolated MHZ7-overexpressing seedlings exhibit enhanced coleoptile elongation, increased mesocotyl growth and extremely twisted short roots, featuring enhanced ethylene-response phenotypes in rice. Grain length was promoted in MHZ7-transgenic plants and 1000-grain weight was reduced in mhz7 mutants. Leaf senescent process was also affected by MHZ7 expression. Manipulation of ethylene signaling may improve adaptive growth and yield-related traits in rice.

  2. High yield DNA fragmentation using cyclical hydrodynamic shearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Sparreboom, Wouter; Spang, Peter; Roeser, Tina; Nieto, Benjamin; Guasch, Francesc; Corbera, Antoni Homs; van den Berg, Albert; Carlen, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We report a new DNA fragmentation technique that significantly simplifies conventional hydrodynamic shearing fragmentation by eliminating the need for sample recirculation while maintaining high fragmentation yield and low fragment length variation, and therefore, reduces instrument complexity and c

  3. High yield DNA fragmentation using cyclical hydrodynamic shearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Sparreboom, Wouter; Spang, Peter; Roeser, Tina; Nieto, Benjamin; Guasch, Francesc; Corbera, Antoni Homs; van den Berg, Albert; Carlen, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We report a new DNA fragmentation technique that significantly simplifies conventional hydrodynamic shearing fragmentation by eliminating the need for sample recirculation while maintaining high fragmentation yield and low fragment length variation, and therefore, reduces instrument complexity and

  4. [Study on High-yield Cultivation Measures for Arctii Fructus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-yong; Jiang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Tao; Sun, Ji-ye; Hu, Shang-qin; Zhang, Li

    2015-02-01

    To find out the high yield cultivation measures for Arctii Fructus. Completely randomized block experiment design method was used in the field planting, to analyze the effect of different cultivation way on agronomic characters, phenological phase,quality and quantity of Arctii Fructus. Arctium lappa planted on August 28 had the best results of plant height, thousand seeds weight and yield. The highest yield of Arctii Fructus was got at the density of 1,482 plants/667 m2. Arctiin content was in an increase trend with the planting time delay and planting density increasing. The plant height, thousand seeds weight, yield and arctiin content by split application of fertilizer were significantly higher than that by one-time fertilization. Compared with open field Arctium lappa, plant height, yield, arctiin content and relative water content of plastic film mulching Arctium lappa was higher by 7.74%, 10.87%, 6.38% and 24.20%, respectively. In the topping Arctium lappa, the yield was increased by 11.09%, with 39. 89% less branching number. Early planting time and topping shortened the growth cycle of Arctium lappa plant. The high-yield cultivation measures of Arctii Fructus are: around August 28 to sowing, planting density of 1 482 plants/667 m2, split application of fertilizer for four times, covering film on surface of the soil and topping in bolting.

  5. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content.

  6. BRS Pampeira: new irrigated rice cultivar with high yield potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariano Martins de Magalhães Júnior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS Pampeira is a rice cultivar developed by Embrapa, recommended for irrigated cultivation in Brazil. It shows modern architecture, with high tillering and tolerance to lodging. It stands out for its high yield potential, medium cycle and good grain quality.

  7. Nonstop Selection for High and Stable Crop Yield by Two Prognostic Equations to Reduce Yield Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysia A. Fasoula

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Yield losses occurring at the field level, whether due to plant diseases or abiotic stresses, reveal reduced stability of the crop yield potential. The paper argues that the stability of crop yield potential is a trait with a clear genetic component, which can be successfully selected for at the single-plant level and incorporated into high-yielding cultivars. Two novel selection equations with prognostic power are presented, capable to objectively phenotype and evaluate individual plants in real field conditions in the absence of the masking effects of interplant competition and soil heterogeneity. The equations predict performance at the crop stand through the key concept of coefficient of homeostasis and are equally useful for early generation selection and for nonstop selection within finished cultivars in order to continuously incorporate the adaptive (genetic or epigenetic responses of plants. Exploitation of adaptive responses acquires particular importance in view of the climate change effects on crop productivity and the changing biotic or abiotic micro-environments. Cotton is used as a case study to highlight the potential of nonstop selection for increasing crop yield and for the gradual build-up of disease resistance. In addition, the paper envisions and proposes the formation of international networks of researchers focusing on specific diseases as, for example, the cereal root-rot or the cotton Verticillium wilt that will concurrently use the proposed strategy in their respective environments to select for resistant genotypes, while gaining a deeper understanding of the nature of the genetic or epigenetic changes at the phenotypic and genomic levels.

  8. Extractive Fermentation of Sugarcane Juice to Produce High Yield and Productivity of Bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofiqah, U.; Widjaja, T.; Altway, A.; Bramantyo, A.

    2017-04-01

    Ethanol production by batch fermentation requires a simple process and it is widely used. Batch fermentation produces ethanol with low yield and productivity due to the accumulation of ethanol in which poisons microorganisms in the fermenter. Extractive fermentation technique is applied to solve the microorganism inhibition problem by ethanol. Extractive fermentation technique can produce ethanol with high yield and productivity. In this process raffinate still, contains much sugar because conversion in the fermentation process is not perfect. Thus, to enhance ethanol yield and productivity, recycle system is applied by returning the raffinate from the extraction process to the fermentation process. This raffinate also contains ethanol which would inhibit the performance of microorganisms in producing ethanol during the fermentation process. Therefore, this study aims to find the optimum condition for the amount of solvent to broth ratio (S: B) and recycle to fresh feed ratio (R: F) which enter the fermenter to produce high yield and productivity. This research was carried out by experiment. In the experiment, sugarcane juice was fermented using Zymomonasmobilis mutant. The fermentation broth was extracted using amyl alcohol. The process was integrated with the recycle system by varying the recycle ratio. The highest yield and productivity is 22.3901% and 103.115 g / L.h respectively, obtained in a process that uses recycle to fresh feed ratio (R: F) of 50:50 and solvents to both ratio of 1.

  9. Simulation of DSB yield for high LET radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, T; Durante, M; Scholz, M

    2015-09-01

    A simulation approach for the calculation of the LET-dependent yield of double-strand breaks (DSB) is presented. The model considers DSB formed as two close-lying single-strand breaks (SSB), whose formation is mediated by both intra-track processes (single electrons) or at local doses larger than about 1000 Gy in particle tracks also by electron inter-track processes (two independent electron tracks). A Monte Carlo algorithm and an analytical formula for the DSB yield are presented. The approach predicts that the DSB yield is enhanced after charged particle irradiation of high LET compared with X-ray or gamma radiation. It is used as an inherent part of the local effect model, which is applied to estimate the relative biological effectiveness of high LET radiation.

  10. Creation of High-Yield Polyhydroxyalkanoates Engineered Strains by Low Energy Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shiquan; Cheng, Ying; Zhu, Suwen; Cheng, Beijiu

    2008-12-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), as a candidate for biodegradable plastic materials, can be synthesized by numerous microorganisms. However, as its production cost is high in comparison with those of chemically synthesized plastics, a lot of research has been focused on the efficient production of PHAs using different methods. In the present study, the mutation effects of PHAs production in strain pCB4 were investigated with implantation of low energy ions. It was found that under the implantation conditions of 7.8 × 1014 N+/cm2 at 10 keV, a high-yield PHAs strain with high genetic stability was generated from many mutants. After optimizing its fermentation conditions, the biomass, PHAs concentration and PHAs content of pCBH4 reached 2.26 g/L, 1.81 g/L, and 80.08% respectively, whereas its wild type controls were about 1.24 g/L, 0.61 g/L, and 49.20%. Moreover, the main constituent of PHAs was identified as poly-3-hydroxybutyrates (PHB) in the mutant stain and the yield of this compound was increased up to 41.33% in contrast to that of 27.78% in the wild type strain.

  11. Creation of High-Yield Polyhydroxyalkanoates Engineered Strains by Low Energy Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Shiquan; CHENG Ying; ZHU Suwen; CHENG Beijiu

    2008-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), as a candidate for biodegradable plastic materials, can be synthesized by numerous microorganisms. However, as its production cost is high in comparison with those of chemically synthesized plastics, a lot of research has been focused on the efficient production of PHAs using different methods. In the present study, the mutation effects of PHAs production in strain pCB4 were investigated with implantation of low energy ions. It was found that under the implantation conditions of 7.8×1014 N+/cm2 at 10 keV, a high-yield PHAs strain with high genetic stability was generated from many mutants. After optimizing its fermentation conditions, the biomass, PHAs concentration and PHAs content of pCBH4reached 2.26 g/L, 1.81 g/L, and 80.08% respectively, whereas its wild type controls were about 1.24 g/L, 0.61 g/L, and 49.20%. Moreover, the main constituent of PHAs was identified as poly-3-hydroxybutyrates (PHB) in the mutant stain and the yield of this compound was increased up to 41.33% in contrast to that of 27.78% in the wild type strain.

  12. Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes

    2009-12-01

    To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate “High-Yield Scenario” (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

  13. Alterations in DNA methylation and genome structure in two rice mutant lines induced by high pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN; Sile; WANG; Zhenwei; SHAN; Xiaohui; WANG; Hua; LI; Ling; LIN; Xuyun; LONG; Likun; WENG; Kenan; LIU; Bao; ZOU; Guangtian

    2006-01-01

    By using high-pressure treatment, two mutant lines were obtained from a genetically stable japonica rice cultivar Bijing38. Genomic DNA of the mutant lines, together with the original line (Bijing38), was either undigested or digested by Hpa II/Msp I, and then subjected to molecular analysis using two markers, ISSR and RAPD. Results indicated that changes in the PCR amplification profiles of both markers are apparent in the two mutant lines compared with the original rice cultivar, suggesting that there had been both sequence changes and DNA methylation modifications in the mutant lines. Southern blot analysis using diverse sequences, including two cellular genes (S2 and S3), a set of retrotransposons (Osr7, Osr36, Tos19 and more), and a MITE transposon family (mPing and Pong), confirmed the results, and indicated that changes in DNA methylation pattern, genomic structure, and possible activation of some transposons indeed occurred in the mutant lines. Moreover, these changes are stably maintained through selfed generations and in different organs. Thus, our results indicate that it is possible to obtain stable mutants in rice by high pressure treatments, and the molecular basis of the mutants may include both genetic and epigenetic changes. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure seems a promising approach for plant mutagenesis.

  14. Stereotypical behaviour at high yielding dairy cows farms - "tongue rolling"

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanović Radiša; Kirovski Danijela; Vujanac Ivan; Nešić Ksenija; Janevski Aleksandar; Marić Jovan; Kukrić Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine if there was a connection between stereotypical behaviour of high yielding dairy cows breeds and values of biochemical blood parameters. The investigation was carried out in august at loose-housing type of farms, in 30 heads of cattle from four groups: drying (15 to 7 days before calving), puerperium (up to 40 days after calving, early lactation (up to 120 days after calving) and late lactation (200 to 300 days af...

  15. Studies on Mutation Breeding of High-Yielding Xylanase Strains by Low-Energy Ion Beam Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shichang; YAO Jianming; YU Zhengling

    2007-01-01

    As a new mutagenetic method,low-energy ion implantation has been used widely in many research areas in recent years.In order to obtain some industrial strains with high xylanase yield,the wild type strain Aspergillus niger A3 was mutated by means of nitrogen ions implantation (10 keV,2.6 × 1014~1.56 × 1015 ions/cm2) and a mutant N212 was isolated subsequently.However,it was found that the initial screening means of the high-yielding xylanase strains such as transparent halos was unfit for first screening.Compared with that of the wild type strain,xylanase production of the mutant N212 was increased from 320 IU/ml to 610 IU/ml,and the optimum fermentation temperature was increased from 28 ℃ to 30 ℃.

  16. High-content screening of yeast mutant libraries by shotgun lipidomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarasov, Kirill; Stefanko, Adam; Casanovas, Albert;

    2014-01-01

    To identify proteins with a functional role in lipid metabolism and homeostasis we designed a high-throughput platform for high-content lipidomic screening of yeast mutant libraries. To this end, we combined culturing and lipid extraction in 96-well format, automated direct infusion nanoelectrosp......To identify proteins with a functional role in lipid metabolism and homeostasis we designed a high-throughput platform for high-content lipidomic screening of yeast mutant libraries. To this end, we combined culturing and lipid extraction in 96-well format, automated direct infusion...... factor KAR4 precipitated distinct lipid metabolic phenotypes. These results demonstrate that the high-throughput shotgun lipidomics platform is a valid and complementary proxy for high-content screening of yeast mutant libraries....

  17. Laser heating challenges of high yield MagLIF targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutz, Stephen; Sefkow, Adam; Vesey, Roger

    2014-10-01

    The MagLIF (Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion) concept is predicted by numerical simulation to produce fusion yields of about 100 kJ, when driven by 25 MA from the existing Z accelerator [S. A. Slutz et al. Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] and much higher yields with future accelerators delivering higher currents [Slutz and Vesey PRL 108, 025003 (2012)]. The fuel must be heated before compression to obtain significant fusion yields due to the relatively slow implosion velocities (~ 100 km/s) of magnetically driven liners. Lasers provide a convenient means to accomplish this pre-compressional heating of the fusion fuel, but there are challenges. The laser must penetrate a foil covering the laser entrance hole and deposit 20-30 kJ within the ~1 cm length of the liner in fuel at 6-12 mg/cc. Such high densities could result in beam scattering due to refraction and laser plasma interactions. Numerical simulations of the laser heating process are presented, which indicate that energies as high as 30 kJ could be deposited in the fuel by using two laser pulses of different wavelengths. Simulations of this process will be presented as well of results for a MagLIF design for a potential new machine delivering 50 MA of current. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. A high constitutive catalase activity confers resistance to methyl viologen-promoted oxidative stress in a mutant of the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirangthem, Lakshmipyari Devi; Bhattacharya, Sudeshna; Stensjö, Karin; Lindblad, Peter; Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy

    2014-04-01

    A spontaneous methyl viologen (MV)-resistant mutant of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 was isolated and the major enzymatic antioxidants involved in combating MV-induced oxidative stress were evaluated. The mutant displayed a high constitutive catalase activity as a consequence of which, the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species in the mutant was lower than the wild type (N. punctiforme) in the presence of MV. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity that consisted of a SodA (manganese-SOD) and a SodB (iron-SOD) was not suppressed in the mutant following MV treatment. The mutant was, however, characterised by a lower peroxidase activity compared with its wild type, and its improved tolerance to externally added H₂O₂ could only be attributed to enhanced catalase activity. Furthermore, MV-induced toxic effects on the wild type such as (1) loss of photosynthetic performance assessed as maximal quantum yield of photosystem II, (2) nitrogenase inactivation, and (3) filament fragmentation and cell lysis were not observed in the mutant. These findings highlight the importance of catalase in preventing MV-promoted oxidative damage and cell death in the cyanobacterium N. punctiforme. Such oxidative stress resistant mutants of cyanobacteria are likely to be a better source of biofertilisers, as they can grow and fix nitrogen in an unhindered manner in agricultural fields that are often contaminated with the herbicide MV, also commonly known as paraquat.

  19. High Yield Preparation Method of Thermally Stable Cellulose Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Zhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of nanocellulose fibers (NFs is achieved through pretreating cellulose in a NaOH/urea/thiourea solution, and then defibrillating the fibers through ultrasonication, resulting in a high yield of 85.4%. Extensive work has been done to optimize the preparation parameters. The obtained NFs are about 30 nm in diameter with cellulose II crystal structure. They possess high thermal stability with an onset of thermal degradation at 270 °C and a maximum degradation temperature of 370 °C. Such NFs have potential applications in transistors and batteries with high thermal stability. NFs-H were obtained by homogenizing undefibrillated fibers separated from the preparation of NFs. NFs-H were also in cellulose II crystal form but with lower thermal stability due to low crystallinity. They can be applied to make highly transparent paper.

  20. Projecting crop yield in northern high latitude area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kanichiro

    2014-01-01

    Changing climatic conditions on seasonal and longer time scales influence agricultural production. Improvement of soil and fertilizer is a strong factor in agricultural production, but agricultural production is influenced by climate conditions even in highly developed countries. It is valuable if fewer predictors make it possible to conduct future projections. Monthly temperature and precipitation, wintertime 500hPa geopotential height, and the previous year's yield are used as predictors to forecast spring wheat yield in advance. Canadian small agricultural divisions (SAD) are used for analysis. Each SAD is composed of a collection of Canadian Agricultural Regions (CAR) of similar weather and growing conditions. Spring wheat yields in each CAR are forecast from the following variables: (a) the previous year's yield, (b) earlier stages of the growing season's climate conditions and, (c) the previous year's wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height field. Arctic outflow events in the Okanagan Valley in Canada are associated with episodes of extremely low temperatures during wintertime. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied for wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height anomalies. The spatial PCA mode1 is defined as Arctic Oscillation and it influences prevailing westerlies. The prevailing westerlies meanders and influences climatic conditions. The spatial similarity between wintertime top 5 Arctic outflow event year's composites of 500hPa geopotential height anomalies and mode 3's spatial pattern is found. Mode 3's spatial pattern looks like the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern which describes the variation of atmospheric circulation pattern over the Pacific Ocean and North America. Climate conditions from April to June, May to July, mode 3's time coefficients, and previous year's yield are used for forecasting spring wheat yield in each SAD. Cross-validation procedure which generates eight sets of models for the eight

  1. A high-yield saponification of galactosylceramide I(3)-sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, K M; Boggs, J M

    1982-12-01

    A method for the deacylation of galactosylceramide I(3)-sulphate using aqueous methanolic KOH is described. The combination of a relatively low concentration of the alkali (0.3 M) and a moderate reaction temperature (reflux point of 90% methanol) results in the formation of galactosylsphingosine I(3)-sulphate in consistently high yields (61%) with a minimum of side reactions. The product was purified by column chromatography and its identity established by thin layer chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, determination of galactose content and organic sulphate assay using established methods or their modifications.

  2. Increase in ethanol yield via elimination of lactate production in an ethanol-tolerant mutant of Clostridium thermocellum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Ranjita [ORNL; Prabhu, Sandeep [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Guss, Adam M [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuel is a potential solution to sustainably meet global energy needs. One-step consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a potentially advantageous approach for the production of biofuels, but requires an organism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to sugars and fermenting the sugars to ethanol at commercially viable titers and yields. Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, can ferment cellulosic biomass to ethanol and organic acids, but low yield, low titer, and ethanol sensitivity remain barriers to industrial production. Here, we deleted the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in ethanol tolerant strain of C. thermocellum adhE*(EA) in order to allow use of previously developed gene deletion tools, then deleted lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) to redirect carbon flux towards ethanol. Upon deletion of ldh, the adhE*(EA) ldh strain produced 30% more ethanol than wild type on minimal medium. The adhE*(EA) ldh strain retained tolerance to 5% v/v ethanol, resulting in an ethanol tolerant platform strain of C. thermocellum for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  3. Increase in ethanol yield via elimination of lactate production in an ethanol-tolerant mutant of Clostridium thermocellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjita Biswas

    Full Text Available Large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuel is a potential solution to sustainably meet global energy needs. One-step consolidated bioprocessing (CBP is a potentially advantageous approach for the production of biofuels, but requires an organism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to sugars and fermenting the sugars to ethanol at commercially viable titers and yields. Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, can ferment cellulosic biomass to ethanol and organic acids, but low yield, low titer, and ethanol sensitivity remain barriers to industrial production. Here, we deleted the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in ethanol tolerant strain of C. thermocellum adhE*(EA in order to allow use of previously developed gene deletion tools, then deleted lactate dehydrogenase (ldh to redirect carbon flux towards ethanol. Upon deletion of ldh, the adhE*(EA Δldh strain produced 30% more ethanol than wild type on minimal medium. The adhE*(EA Δldh strain retained tolerance to 5% v/v ethanol, resulting in an ethanol tolerant platform strain of C. thermocellum for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  4. High yield neutron generators using the DD reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainionpaa, J. H.; Harris, J. L.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Williams, D. L.; Apodaca, M. D.; Cremer, J. T. [Adelphi technology, 2003 E. Bayshore Rd. 94061, Redwood City, CA (United States); Ji, Qing; Ludewigt, B. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jones, G. [G and J Enterprise, 1258 Quary Ln, Suite F, Pleasanton California 94566 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    A product line of high yield neutron generators has been developed at Adelphi technology inc. The generators use the D-D fusion reaction and are driven by an ion beam supplied by a microwave ion source. Yields of up to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} n/s have been achieved, which are comparable to those obtained using the more efficient D-T reaction. The microwave-driven plasma uses the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) to produce a high plasma density for high current and high atomic ion species. These generators have an actively pumped vacuum system that allows operation at reduced pressure in the target chamber, increasing the overall system reliability. Since no radioactive tritium is used, the generators can be easily serviced, and components can be easily replaced, providing essentially an unlimited lifetime. Fast neutron source size can be adjusted by selecting the aperture and target geometries according to customer specifications. Pulsed and continuous operation has been demonstrated. Minimum pulse lengths of 50 {mu}s have been achieved. Since the generators are easily serviceable, they offer a long lifetime neutron generator for laboratories and commercial systems requiring continuous operation. Several of the generators have been enclosed in radiation shielding/moderator structures designed for customer specifications. These generators have been proven to be useful for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and fast neutron radiography. Thus these generators make excellent fast, epithermal and thermal neutron sources for laboratories and industrial applications that require neutrons with safe operation, small footprint, low cost and small regulatory burden.

  5. High yield neutron generators using the DD reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainionpaa, J. H.; Harris, J. L.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Williams, D. L.; Apodaca, M. D.; Cremer, J. T.; Ji, Qing; Ludewigt, B. A.; Jones, G.

    2013-04-01

    A product line of high yield neutron generators has been developed at Adelphi technology inc. The generators use the D-D fusion reaction and are driven by an ion beam supplied by a microwave ion source. Yields of up to 5 × 109 n/s have been achieved, which are comparable to those obtained using the more efficient D-T reaction. The microwave-driven plasma uses the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) to produce a high plasma density for high current and high atomic ion species. These generators have an actively pumped vacuum system that allows operation at reduced pressure in the target chamber, increasing the overall system reliability. Since no radioactive tritium is used, the generators can be easily serviced, and components can be easily replaced, providing essentially an unlimited lifetime. Fast neutron source size can be adjusted by selecting the aperture and target geometries according to customer specifications. Pulsed and continuous operation has been demonstrated. Minimum pulse lengths of 50 μs have been achieved. Since the generators are easily serviceable, they offer a long lifetime neutron generator for laboratories and commercial systems requiring continuous operation. Several of the generators have been enclosed in radiation shielding/moderator structures designed for customer specifications. These generators have been proven to be useful for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and fast neutron radiography. Thus these generators make excellent fast, epithermal and thermal neutron sources for laboratories and industrial applications that require neutrons with safe operation, small footprint, low cost and small regulatory burden.

  6. Functional and fluorochrome analysis of an exocytotic mutant yields evidence of store-operated Ca2+ influx in Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, I; Klauke, N; Hentschel, J; Cohen, J; Plattner, H

    2002-05-01

    A non-discharge mutant of Paramecium tetraurelia (nd12-35 degrees C, lacking exocytotic response upon stimulation with the nonpermeable polycationic secretagogue aminoethyldextran, AED), in the pawnA genetic context (d4-500r, lacking ciliary voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx), was shown to lack (45)Ca2+ entry from outside upon AED stimulation. In contrast, cells grown at 25 degrees C behave like the wildtype. To check the functional properties in more detail, fluorochrome-loaded 35 degrees C cells were stimulated, not only with AED (EC(100) = 10(-6) M in wildtype cells), but also with 4-chloro-meta-cresol, (4CmC, 0.5 mM), a permeable activator of ryanodine receptor-type Ca2+ release channels, usually at extracellular [Ca2+] of 50 microM, and eventually with a Ca2+ chelator added. We confirm that pwA-nd12(35 degrees C) cells lack any Ca2+ influx and any exocytosis of trichocysts in response to any stimulus. As we determined by x-ray microanalysis, total calcium content in alveolar sacs (subplasmalemmal stores) known to be mobilized upon exocytosis stimulation in wild-type cells, contain about the same total calcium in 35 degrees C as in 25 degrees C cells, and Ca2+ mobilization from alveoli by AED or 4CmC is also nearly the same. Due to the absence of any AED-induced Ca2+ influx in 35 degrees C cells and normal Ca2+ release from stores found by x-ray microanalysis one can exclude a "CICR"-type mechanism (Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release) and imply that normally a store-operated Ca2+ ("SOC") influx would occur (as in 25 degrees C cells). Furthermore, 35 degrees C cells display a significantly lower basal intracellular [Ca2+], so that any increase upon stimulation may be less expressed or even remain undetected. Under these conditions, any mobilization of Ca2+ from stores cannot compensate for the lack of Ca2+ influx, particularly since normally both components have to cooperate to achieve full exocytotic response. Also striking is our finding that 35 degrees C cells are unable

  7. Copper ligation to soluble oligomers of the English mutant of the amyloid-β peptide yields a linear Cu(I) site that is resistant to O2 oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Kristy L; Clewett, Heather S; Schmitt, Jennifer C; Shearer, Jason

    2013-05-25

    Copper coordination to soluble oligomers of the English (AβH(6)R) mutant of the amyloid-β peptide is probed. Cu(II) coordination yields a square planar (N/O)4 coordination environment, while reduction yields an O2 inert linear bis-His Cu(I) centre.

  8. Film quantum yields of EUV& ultra-high PAG photoresists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, Elsayed; Higgins, Craig; Naulleau, Patrick; Matyi, Richard; Gallatin, Greg; Denbeaux, Gregory; Antohe, Alin; Thackery, Jim; Spear, Kathleen; Szmanda, Charles; Anderson, Christopher N.; Niakoula, Dimitra; Malloy, Matthew; Khurshid, Anwar; Montgomery, Cecilia; Piscani, Emil C.; Rudack, Andrew; Byers, Jeff; Ma, Andy; Dean, Kim; Brainard, Robert

    2008-01-10

    Base titration methods are used to determine C-parameters for three industrial EUV photoresist platforms (EUV-2D, MET-2D, XP5496) and twenty academic EUV photoresist platforms. X-ray reflectometry is used to measure the density of these resists, and leads to the determination of absorbance and film quantum yields (FQY). Ultrahigh levels ofPAG show divergent mechanisms for production of photo acids beyond PAG concentrations of 0.35 moles/liter. The FQY of sulfonium PAGs level off, whereas resists prepared with iodonium PAG show FQY s that increase beyond PAG concentrations of 0.35 moles/liter, reaching record highs of 8-13 acids generatedlEUV photons absorbed.

  9. [Isolation of a high hydrogen-producing mutant TB34 generated by transposon insertion and analysis of hydrogen production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Yan; Wang, Guang-Ce; Shi, Liu-Yang; Zhu, Da-Ling

    2012-07-01

    To increase the hydrogen-producing capacity of Pantoea agglomerans BH18, isolated from mangrove sludge, we constructed a stable transposon mutagenesis library of this strain. A Tn7-based transposon was randomly inserted into the genomic DNA. Mutants were screened by kanamycin resistance and identified by amplification of the inserted transposon sequences. A mutant strain TB34 was isolated, whose hydrogen production capacity was significantly improved compared to the wild type strain. In seawater-containing medium supplemented with 10 g x L(-1) glucose and had an initial pH of 7.0, the hydrogen yield (H2/glucose) of the mutant strain was (2.04 +/- 0.04) mol x mol(-1), which was 43% higher than that of the wild type strain. The mutant TB34 showed steady hydrogen production capacity for five consecutive passages. Different carbon sources were tested in the hydrogen production by the mutant TB34 and the results showed that both the mutant strain TB34 and the wild type strain BH18 were able to produce hydrogen on sucrose, glucose and fructose. However, different from the wild type strain, the mutant strain TB34 was also able to produce hydrogen using xylose as substrate, with a hydrogen yield (H2/xylose) of (1.34 +/- 0.09) mol x mol(-1), indicating a broader substrate spectrum in the mutant.

  10. A high throughput DNA extraction method with high yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhanguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparation of large quantity and high quality genomic DNA from a large number of plant samples is a major bottleneck for most genetic and genomic analyses, such as, genetic mapping, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome, and next-generation sequencing directly from sheared genomic DNA. A variety of DNA preparation methods and commercial kits are available. However, they are either low throughput, low yield, or costly. Here, we describe a method for high throughput genomic DNA isolation from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] leaves and dry seeds with high yield, high quality, and affordable cost. Results We developed a high throughput DNA isolation method by combining a high yield CTAB extraction method with an improved cleanup procedure based on MagAttract kit. The method yielded large quantity and high quality DNA from both lyophilized sorghum leaves and dry seeds. The DNA yield was improved by nearly 30 fold with 4 times less consumption of MagAttract beads. The method can also be used in other plant species, including cotton leaves and pine needles. Conclusion A high throughput system for DNA extraction from sorghum leaves and seeds was developed and validated. The main advantages of the method are low cost, high yield, high quality, and high throughput. One person can process two 96-well plates in a working day at a cost of $0.10 per sample of magnetic beads plus other consumables that other methods will also need.

  11. Analysis of the trade-off between high crop yield and low yield instability at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2016-10-01

    Yield dynamics of major crops species vary remarkably among continents. Worldwide distribution of cropland influences both the expected levels and the interannual variability of global yields. An expansion of cultivated land in the most productive areas could theoretically increase global production, but also increase global yield instability if the most productive regions are characterized by high interannual yield variability. In this letter, we use portfolio analysis to quantify the tradeoff between the expected values and the interannual variance of global yield. We compute optimal frontiers for four crop species i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat and show how the distribution of cropland among large world regions can be optimized to either increase expected global crop production or decrease its interannual variability. We also show that a preferential allocation of cropland in the most productive regions can increase global expected yield at the expense of yield stability. Theoretically, optimizing the distribution of a small fraction of total cultivated areas can help find a good compromise between low instability and high crop yields at the global scale.

  12. Starch and Prolamin Level in Single and Double High-Lysine Barley Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreis, M.; Doll, Hans

    1980-01-01

    At maturity the high-lysine barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Ris0 mutants 1508, 527 and 29 kernels contained about 20% less starch and twice as much free sugars as the parent varieties Bomi and Carlsberg II. An enhanched effect on starch reduction and free sugar accumulation was observed during kernel...

  13. Study on the Theory and Technology of High Yield Culture of Compact Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi; ZHANG Rong-da; WU Sheng-li; SONG Bi; ZHANG Bang-kun; JIANG Long; WANG Song; HU Jian-feng

    2002-01-01

    Using the split plot and multi-quadric regressive orthogonal cross-course rotary combination design, corn variety Denghai 6's yield and yield components, important colony quality and physiological index, microclimate index in field and technical planting for high yield were studied. Cultivation for high yield showed that Denghai 6 had the great potential of increase yield. The average yield of two years was 12510kg/ha for 13.85ha, the highest grain yield (754.7m2) was 15477kg/ha. The climatic conditions can meet the needs for high yield during the whole growth stage of corn in the mountain area of Northwest Guizhou.

  14. A cDNA Clone-Launched Platform for High-Yield Production of Inactivated Zika Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A purified inactivated vaccine (PIV using the Zika virus (ZIKV Puerto Rico strain PRVABC59 showed efficacy in monkeys, and is currently in a phase I clinical trial. High-yield manufacture of this PIV is essential for its development and vaccine access. Here we report an infectious cDNA clone-launched platform to maximize its yield. A single NS1 protein substitution (K265E was identified to increase ZIKV replication on Vero cells (a cell line approved for vaccine production for both Cambodian FSS13025 and Puerto Rico PRVABC59 strains. The NS1 mutation did not affect viral RNA synthesis, but significantly increased virion assembly through an increased interaction between NS1 and NS2A (a known regulator of flavivirus assembly. The NS1 mutant virus retained wild-type virulence in the A129 mouse model, but decreased its competence to infect Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. To further increase virus yield, we constructed an infectious cDNA clone of the clinical trial PIV strain PRVABC59 containing three viral replication-enhancing mutations (NS1 K265E, prM H83R, and NS3 S356F. The mutant cDNA clone produced >25-fold more ZIKV than the wild-type parent on Vero cells. This cDNA clone-launched manufacture platform has the advantages of higher virus yield, shortened manufacture time, and minimized chance of contamination.

  15. Selection of the Mutants with High Hydroquinone Degradation Ability of Serratia Marcesscen by Plasma Mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Risheng; YOU Qidong; HE Weijing; ZHU Huixia

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an efficient way by plasma induced mutation was applied to improve the hydroquinone degradation capacity of Serratia marcescens AB 90027 (SM27). The results showed that combined with the selection of hydroquinone tolerance, the mutant with high hy-droquinone degradation ability induced by plasma could be achieved. The best dose for plasma mutation was 15 s, which showed a 47.0% higher positive mutation ratio. Besides, the aimed mutant was markedly different from the parent strain (SM27) in colonial traits while cultivated on Kings media. Finally, the hydroquinone degradation ratio reached 70.5% using the induced mutant strain with 1500 mg/L hydroquinone (HQ) after 15 days of cultivation as the selective conditions; however, it was only 46.7% for SM27. The improvement of the degradation capacity by the induced mutant with a high concentration of HQ selection was attributed to its faster growth and higher hydroquinone tolerance compared with that of the parent strain.

  16. High-throughput transformation method for Yarrowia lipolytica mutant library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leplat, Christophe; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Rossignol, Tristan

    2015-09-01

    As a microorganism of major biotechnological importance, the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is subjected to intensive genetic engineering and functional genomic analysis. Future advancements in this area, however, require a system that will generate a large collection of mutants for high-throughput screening. Here, we report a rapid and efficient method for high-throughput transformation of Y. lipolytica in 96-well plates. We developed plasmids and strains for the large-scale screening of overexpression mutant strains, using Gateway® vectors that were adapted for specific locus integration in Y. lipolytica. As an example, a collection of mutants that overexpressed the alkaline extracellular protease (AEP) was obtained in a single transformation experiment. The platform strain that we developed to receive the overexpression cassette was designed to constitutively express a fluorescent protein as a convenient growth reporter for screening in non-translucid media. An example of growth comparison in skim milk-based medium between AEP overexpression and deletion mutants is provided.

  17. Produção e qualidade de frutos de tomateiros portadores de alelos mutantes de amadurecimento e coloração Yield and fruit quality of tomato hybrids heterozygous for ripening and color mutant alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Carvalho de Andrade Júnior

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sete híbridos de tomateiros quase-isogênicos, à exceção dos locos norª/nor, rin, og c e hp, com as linhagens parentais FloraDade e Mospomorist, e dois híbridos comerciais heterozigotos no loco rin (Carmen F1 e Chronos F1 foram avaliados quanto às características de produção e qualidade de frutos e quanto aos possíveis efeitos do background genotípico empregado nas mesmas características. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e dez plantas por parcela. Os genótipos nor+/nor e rin+/rin não afetaram as características de produção. O genótipo nor+/norª atuou diminuindo a massa média por fruto. Os genótipos nor+/norª, nor+/nor e rin+/rin, isoladamente, atrasaram a perda de firmeza e a chegada da coloração vermelha nos frutos. O tamanho relativo da cicatriz peduncular não foi afetado significativamente por esses genótipos. A combinação og c+/og c hp+/hp proporcionou maior produção total e maior massa média por fruto no híbrido nor+/norª. A firmeza e a coloração dos frutos nor+/norª não foram afetadas pela combinação og c+/og c hp+/hp. O genótipo nor+/norª reduziu a produção precoce de frutos og c+/og c hp+/hp e aumentou a meia-vida da firmeza desses frutos. O background genotípico e a interação background x mutante de amadurecimento devem ser considerados na produção de híbridos F1 de tomateiro.Seven nearly isogenic tomato hybrids, except for their genotypic constitutions in loci norª/nor, rin, og c and hp, were tested for fruit yield and quality traits along the parental background lines FloraDade and Mosporist and two commercial rin+/rin tomato hybrids (Carmen F1 and Chronos F1. The role of the different genotypic backgrounds on these fruit traits was also studied. The genotypes were tested using a randomized complete block design with four replicates and ten plants per plot. The genotypic constitutions nor+/nor or rin+/rin had no effect on yield related

  18. A fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based strategy for rapid isolation of high-lipid Chlamydomonas mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Mia; Freeman, Elizabeth S; Jinkerson, Robert E; Jonikas, Martin C

    2015-01-01

    There is significant interest in farming algae for the direct production of biofuels and valuable lipids. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the leading model system for studying lipid metabolism in green algae, but current methods for isolating mutants of this organism with a perturbed lipid content are slow and tedious. Here, we present the Chlamydomonas high-lipid sorting (CHiLiS) strategy, which enables enrichment of high-lipid mutants by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of pooled mutants stained with the lipid-sensitive dye Nile Red. This method only takes 5 weeks from mutagenesis to mutant isolation. We developed a staining protocol that allows quantification of lipid content while preserving cell viability. We improved separation of high-lipid mutants from the wild type by using each cell's chlorophyll fluorescence as an internal control. We initially demonstrated 20-fold enrichment of the known high-lipid mutant sta1 from a mixture of sta1 and wild-type cells. We then applied CHiLiS to sort thousands of high-lipid cells from a pool of about 60,000 mutants. Flow cytometry analysis of 24 individual mutants isolated by this approach revealed that about 50% showed a reproducible high-lipid phenotype. We further characterized nine of the mutants with the highest lipid content by flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry lipidomics. All mutants analyzed had a higher triacylglycerol content and perturbed whole-cell fatty acid composition. One arbitrarily chosen mutant was evaluated by microscopy, revealing larger lipid droplets than the wild type. The unprecedented throughput of CHiLiS opens the door to a systems-level understanding of green algal lipid biology by enabling genome-saturating isolation of mutants in key genes.

  19. Nutritional status of high yielding crossbred cow around parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yousuf

    2016-03-01

    Materials and methods: Nutritional status of cows around the peri-parturient period was investigated for six months in dairy farm. Seven to eight months' pregnant cows were selected for this study. Blood samples from 24 randomly selected cows were collected at stage-1, -2 and -3. The serum was stored at -20C until analyzing glucose, total protein (TP, albumin (Alb, triglycerides (Tg, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg and phosphorus (P. Results: An increasing trend of glucose level was evidenced (P=0.07 during stage-1. Instead, higher levels of TP were found during stage-3 as compared to the stage-1 and -2. The Alb levels differed significantly (P<0.01 among different stages. A significantly increased (P<0.01 cholesterol, Tg, and HDL were found after parturition (stage-2 and -3 than before parturition (stage-1. LDL was significantly (P=0.02 increased during stage-2 and -3. A significantly higher level of Ca (P<0.01, Mg (P<0.01 and P (P=0.03 were present during stage-1. Glucose, TP, cholesterol and Tg were significantly higher (P<0.01 in cows two months after parturition, while Alb was found to be the highest (P<0.01 in cows immediately after parturition. An increasing trend of LDL (P=0.07 and HDL (P=0.07 were found in the cows two months after parturition. However, Ca levels were significantly (P=0.04 higher in cows two months after parturition. Conclusion: The results indicate that there is alteration of biochemical levels among the study population at three different stages, and these data may be helpful in using the necessary nutrients to the the high yielding cows around their parturition. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 68-74

  20. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  1. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Papazi

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939 and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  2. Lichen Symbiosis: Nature's High Yielding Machines for Induced Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont’s and photobiont’s consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont’s hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  3. Production of Highly Sialylated Recombinant Glycoproteins Using Ricinus communis Agglutinin-I-Resistant CHO Glycosylation Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, John S Y; Chan, Kah Fai; Song, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    The degree of sialylation of therapeutic glycoproteins affects its circulatory half-life and efficacy because incompletely sialylated glycoproteins are cleared from circulation by asialoglycoprotein receptors present in the liver cells. Mammalian expression systems, often employed in the production of these glycoprotein drugs, produce heterogeneously sialylated products. Here, we describe how to produce highly sialylated glycoproteins using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell glycosylation mutant called CHO-gmt4 with human erythropoietin (EPO) as a model glycoprotein. The protocol describes how to isolate and characterize the CHO glycosylation mutants and how to assess the sialylation of the recombinant protein using isoelectric focusing (IEF). It further describes how to inactivate the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene in these cells using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology to enable gene amplification and the generation of stable cell lines producing highly sialylated EPO.

  4. Mutagenesis and selection of high efficiency hydrogen producing mutants by ultraviolet radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is an ideal, clean and sustainable energy source for the future because of its high conversion and nonpolluting nature. Biohydrogen production by dark-fermentation appears to have a great potential to be developed for practical application. However, one limiting factor affecting the development of hydrogen-production industrialization is that the hydrogen-producing capacity of bacteria is lower, so how to increase bacteria's hydrogen-producing ability will be an urgent issue. In this experiment, 2 mutants, namely UV3 and UV7,were obtained by ultra-violet radiation. They grew and produced hydrogen efficiently on iron-containing medium. The hydrogen evolution of UV3 and UV7 were 2 356. 68 ml/L and 2 219. 62 ml/L at a glucose concentration of 10 g/L, respectively. With wild parent strain Ethanoligenens sp. ZGX4, the hydrogen evohution was 1 806. 02 ml/L under the same conditions. Mutants' hydrogen-producing capacities were about 29. 71% and 22.22% higher than that of wild parent strain ZGX4. The maximum H2 production rate by mutants UV3 and UV7 were estimated to be 32. 57 mmol H2/g cell h and 31.19 mmol H2/g cell h, respectively, which were 38. 18% and 34. 78% higher than the control (23.57 mmol H2/g cell h). The abundant products of UV3 and UV7 were ethanol and acetic, which accounted for 95% -98% of total soluble microbial products. In each case, mutant strains UV3 and UV7 evolved hydrogen at a higher rate than the wild type, showing a possible potential for commercial hydrogen production. Another mutant named UV20' was also gained whose main end metabolites were butyric acid and acetic acid. This would provide researched material for a discussion of metabolic pathways of hydrogen-producing bacteria.

  5. Extracting DNA from 'jaws': High yield and quality from archived tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) skeletal material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Morgan, J. A T; Maher, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). Protocols were compared for DNA yield and quality using a qPCR approach. For jaw swarf, all methods provided relatively high DNA yield and quality, while large differences in yield between protocols were observed for vertebrae. Similar results were obtained from samples...... and vertebrae are potential high-yield sources of DNA for genomic-scale analysis. It also highlights that even for similar tissue types, a careful evaluation of extraction protocols can vastly improve DNA yield....

  6. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  7. CG FARRAPO: a sudangrass cultivar with high biomass and grain yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ghisleni Arenhardt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The new sudangrass cultivar [Sorghum sudanense (Piper Stapf.] was developed by the method of selection of individual plants with progeny testing. The most important traits are high biomass yield with high grain yield.

  8. Analysis of SSLP and Soluble Protein Contents in Leaves of Mutants Induced by High Pressure in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiu-ying; XU Shi-ping; LIAO Yao-ping; MAO Xing-xue; WENG Ke-nan; CHEN Zhao-ming; CHEN Yue-han; XIAO Wan-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Rice variety Yuexiangzhan and its mutants induced by high pressure were studied using microsatellite markers and soluble protein content analyses. Eleven of the 88 microsatellite primer pairs showed evident polymorphisms repeatedly, and the polymorphic frequencies were 3.4-11.3% between the mutants and Yuexiangzhan. The polymorphic markers were randomly located on chromosomes. The more similar the plant types of the mutants like their original variety, the less polymorphic loci were detected. In addition, there was variation in the soluble protein contents among the leaves of mutants,and the contents were significantly lower than those of the original variety.

  9. Stereotypical behaviour at high yielding dairy cows farms - "tongue rolling"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Radiša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine if there was a connection between stereotypical behaviour of high yielding dairy cows breeds and values of biochemical blood parameters. The investigation was carried out in august at loose-housing type of farms, in 30 heads of cattle from four groups: drying (15 to 7 days before calving, puerperium (up to 40 days after calving, early lactation (up to 120 days after calving and late lactation (200 to 300 days after calving. Assessment of stereotypical behaviour (tongue rolling was carried out by the method of careful observation of all the tested animals 2 to 4 hours after morning feeding. Blood samples were taken by puncture of jugular vein from 8 cows out of each animal group. In these blood samples there was determined the concentration of glucose, beta hydroxy-butyric acid (BHBA, total protein (TP, albumin, urea, total bilirubin (TBI, Ca, P, and Mg as well as AST and ALT activities. During the period up to 40 days after calving (puerperium, behavioral disorder in the form of „tongue rolling“ was found out in 4 out of 30 observed animals (13.33%. Average concentrations of all the tested blood parameters during the drying period as well as in early and late lactation were within physiological values for cattle. During puerperium there were found significantly lower values of glycaemia, proteinemia, albuminemia, uremia and magnesiemia in regard to antepartal values (p<0.05, where the values of glycaemia and magnesiemia were below the physiological limit. A the same time, in this group of cows the values of TBI and AST activities were higher than physiological values. Frequent appearance of „tongue rolling“ phenomenon only among cows in the group with deviation of biochemical parameters values, points out to a possible connection between the stereotypical behaviour and biochemical composition of blood. It seems that hypomagnesiemia could be a significant etiopathogenetic factor causing the

  10. Evaluation of high yielding soybean germplasm under water limitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvas J. Prince; Henry T. Nguyen; Mackensie Murphy; Raymond N. Mutava; Zhengzhi Zhang; Na Nguyen; Yoon Ha Kim; Safiullah M. Pathan; Grover J. Shannon; Babu Valliyodan

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available for soybean root traits and their plasticity under drought stress. To date, no studies have focused on examining diverse soybean germ-plasm for regulation of shoot and root response under water limited conditions across varying soil types. In this study, 17 genetically diverse soybean germplasm lines were selected to study root response to water limited conditions in clay (trial 1) and sandy soil (trial 2) in two target environments. Physiological data on shoot traits was measured at multiple crop stages ranging from early vegetative to pod filling. The phenotypic root traits, and biomass accumulation data are collected at pod filling stage. In trial 1, the number of lateral roots and forks were positively correlated with plot yield under water limitation and in trial 2, lateral root thickness was positively correlated with the hill plot yield. Plant Introduction (PI) 578477A and 088444 were found to have higher later root number and forks in clay soil with higher yield under water limitation. In sandy soil, PI458020 was found to have a thicker lateral root system and higher yield under water limitation. The genotypes identified in this study could be used to enhance drought tolerance of elite soybean cultivars through improved root traits specific to target environments.

  11. Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchang YANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses approaches to simultaneously increase grain yield and resource use efficiency in rice. Breeding nitrogen efficient cultivars without sacrificing rice yield potential, improving grain fill in later-flowering inferior spikelets and enhancing harvest index are three important approaches to achieving the dual goal of high grain yield and high resource use efficiency. Deeper root distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic N use efficiency at lower N rates could be used as selection criteria to develop N-efficient cultivars. Enhancing sink activity through increasing sugar-spikelet ratio at the heading time and enhancing the conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch though increasing the ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene in grains during grain fill could effectively improve grain fill in inferior spikelets. Several practices, such as post-anthesis controlled soil drying, an alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime during the whole growing season, and non-flooded straw mulching cultivation, could substantially increase grain yield and water use efficiency, mainly via enhanced remobilization of stored carbon from vegetative tissues to grains and improved harvest index. Further research is needed to understand synergistic interaction between water and N on crop and soil and the mechanism underlying high resource use efficiency in high-yielding rice.

  12. Analysis on the DNA Fingerprinting of Aspergillus Oryzae Mutant Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; ZHANG Jian; YANG Fan; WANG Kai; SHEN Si-Le; LIU Bing-Bing; ZOU Bo; ZOU Guang-Tian

    2011-01-01

    The mutant strains of aspergillus oryzae (HP300a) are screened under 300 Mpa for 20min. Compared with the control strains, the screened mutant strains have unique properties such as genetic stability, rapid growth, lots of spores, and high protease activity. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) are used to analyze the DNA fingerprinting of HP300a and the control strains. There are 67.9% and 51.3% polymorphic bands obtained by these two markers, respectively, indicating significant genetic variations between HP300a and the control strains. In addition, comparison of HP300a and the control strains, the genetic distances of random sequence and simple sequence repeat of DNA are 0.51 and 0.34, respectively.

  13. A high-throughput microfluidic method for generating and characterizing transcription factor mutant libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertz, Marcel; Rockel, Sylvie; Maerkl, Sebastian J

    2012-01-01

    Characterizing libraries of mutant proteins is a challenging task, but can lead to detailed functional insights on a specific protein, and general insights for families of proteins such as transcription factors. Challenges in mutant protein screening consist in synthesizing the necessary expression-ready DNA constructs and transforming them into a suitable host for protein expression. Protein purification and characterization are also non-trivial tasks that are not easily scalable to hundreds or thousands of protein variants. Here we describe a method based on a high-throughput microfluidic platform to screen and characterize the binding profile of hundreds of transcription factor variants. DNA constructs are synthesized by a rapid two-step PCR approach without the need of cloning or transformation steps. All transcription factor mutants are expressed on-chip followed by characterization of their binding specificities against 64 different DNA target sequences. The current microfluidic platform can synthesize and characterize up to 2,400 protein-DNA pairs in parallel. The platform method is also generally applicable, allowing high-throughput functional studies of proteins.

  14. Enhanced transpiration rate in the high pigment 1 tomato mutant and its physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, R F; Aidar, S T; Azevedo, R A; Dodd, I C; Peres, L E P

    2011-05-01

    Tomato high pigment (hp) mutants represent an interesting horticultural resource due to their enhanced accumulation of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamin C. Since hp mutants are known for their exaggerated light responses, the molecules accumulated are likely to be antioxidants, recruited to deal with light and others stresses. Further phenotypes displayed by hp mutations are reduced growth and an apparent disturbance in water loss. Here, we examined the impact of the hp1 mutation and its near isogenic line cv Micro-Tom (MT) on stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E), CO(2) assimilation (A) and water use efficiency (WUE). Detached hp1 leaves lost water more rapidly than control leaves, but this behaviour was reversed by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), indicating the ability of hp1 to respond to this hormone. Although attached hp1 leaves had enhanced gs, E and A compared to control leaves, genotypic differences were lost when water was withheld. Both instantaneous leaf-level WUE and long-term whole plant WUE did not differ between hp1 and MT. Our results indicate a link between exaggerated light response and water loss in hp1, which has important implications for the use of this mutant in both basic and horticultural research.

  15. An improved quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of tumor specific mutant proteins at high sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppen-Cañás, Isabel; López-Casas, Pedro P; García, Fernando; Ximénez-Embún, Pilar; Muñoz, Manuel; Morelli, M Pia; Real, Francisco X; Serna, Antonio; Hidalgo, Manuel; Ashman, Keith

    2012-05-01

    New disease specific biomarkers, especially for cancer, are urgently needed to improve individual diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment selection, that is, for personalized medicine. Genetic mutations that affect protein function drive cancer. Therefore, the detection of such mutations represents a source of cancer specific biomarkers. Here we confirm the implementation of the mutant protein specific immuno-SRM (where SRM is selective reaction monitoring) mass spectrometry method of RAS proteins reported by Wang et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2011, 108, 2444-2449], which exploits an antibody to simultaneously capture the different forms of the target protein and the resolving power and sensitivity of LC-MS/MS and improve the technique by using a more sensitive mass spectrometer. The mutant form G12D was quantified by SRM on a QTRAP 5500 mass spectrometer and the MIDAS workflow was used to confirm the sequence of the targeted peptides. This assay has been applied to quantify wild type and mutant RAS proteins in patient tumors, xenografted human tissue, and benign human epidermal tumors at high sensitivity. The limit of detection for the target proteins was as low as 12 amol (0.25 pg). It requires low starting amounts of tissue (ca.15 mg) that could be obtained from a needle aspiration biopsy. The described strategy could find application in the clinical arena and be applied to the study of expression of protein variants in disease.

  16. Cell sorting enriches Escherichia coli mutants that rely on peptidoglycan endopeptidases to suppress highly aberrant morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubacher, Mary E; Melquist, Amy L; Chandramohan, Lakshmi; Young, Kevin D

    2013-02-01

    Bacterial morphology imparts physiological advantages to cells in different environments and, judging by the fidelity with which shape is passed to daughter cells, is a tightly regulated characteristic. Surprisingly, only in the past 10 to 15 years has significant headway been made in identifying the mechanisms by which cells create and maintain particular shapes. One reason for this is that the relevant discoveries have relied heavily on the arduous, somewhat subjective process of manual microscopy. Here, we show that flow cytometry, coupled with the sorting capability of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), can detect, quantify, and enrich bacteria with morphological alterations. The light scattering properties of several highly aberrant morphological mutants of Escherichia coli were characterized by flow cytometry. Cells from a region that overlapped the distribution of normal rod-shaped cells were collected by FACS and reincubated. After 4 to 15 iterations of this enrichment process, suppressor mutants were isolated that returned almost all the population to a near-normal shape. Suppressors were successfully isolated from strains lacking three or four penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) but not from a mutant lacking a total of seven PBPs. The peptidoglycan endopeptidase, AmpH, was identified as being important for the suppression process, as was a related endopeptidase, MepA. The results validate the use of cell sorting as a means for studying bacterial morphology and identify at least one new class of enzymes required for the suppression of cell shape defects.

  17. Engineering a high-performance, metagenomic-derived novel xylanase with improved soluble protein yield and thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Changli; Liu, Ning; Yan, Xing; Wang, Qian; Zhou, Zhihua; Wang, Qianfu

    2015-03-01

    The novel termite gut metagenomic-derived GH11 xylanase gene xyl7 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, and the purified XYL7 enzyme exhibited high specific activity (6340U/mg) and broad pH active range of 5.5-10.0. Directed evolution was employed to enhance the thermostability of XYL7; two mutants (XYL7-TC and XYL7-TS) showed a 250-fold increase in half-life at 55°C, with a 10°C increase in optimal temperature compared to that of wild-type XYL7. A truncated enzyme (XYL7-Tr3) acquired by protein engineering showed similar catalytic properties as the wild-type, with a tenfold increase in soluble protein yield by the mutant. The reducing sugar produced by XYL7-TC was about fourfold greater than that produced by their parents when incubated with xylan at 60°C for 4h. The engineered novel xylanase exhibited superior enzymatic performance and showed promise as an excellent candidate for industrial application due to its high specific activity, stability and soluble protein yield.

  18. CD 150 - short wheat cultivar with high quality and high yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial quality and lodging resistance of CD 150, a cross between CD104 and CD108, are high and the plant heightis short. The average yield was 10 % higher than of the controls in the regions II, III and IV. It is suitable for cultivation in the states of PR,SP, MS and GO, MG, and DF.

  19. Microbial Carbon Substrate Utilization Differences among High- and Average-Yield Soybean Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor C. Adams; Kristofor R. Brye; Mary C. Savin; Jung Ae Lee; Edward E. Gbur

    2017-01-01

    Since soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr.)) yields greater than 6719 kg ha−1 have only recently and infrequently been achieved, little is known about the soil microbiological environment related to high-yield soybean production...

  20. High yield neutron generator based on a high-current gasdynamic electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalyga, V.; Sidorov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanova St., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S. [Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanova St., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Strelkov, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2015-09-07

    In present paper, an approach for high yield compact D-D neutron generator based on a high current gasdynamic electron cyclotron resonance ion source is suggested. Results on dense pulsed deuteron beam production with current up to 500 mA and current density up to 750 mA/cm{sup 2} are demonstrated. Neutron yield from D{sub 2}O and TiD{sub 2} targets was measured in case of its bombardment by pulsed 300 mA D{sup +} beam with 45 keV energy. Neutron yield density at target surface of 10{sup 9} s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} was detected with a system of two {sup 3}He proportional counters. Estimations based on obtained experimental results show that neutron yield from a high quality TiD{sub 2} target bombarded by D{sup +} beam demonstrated in present work accelerated to 100 keV could reach 6 × 10{sup 10} s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. It is discussed that compact neutron generator with such characteristics could be perspective for a number of applications like boron neutron capture therapy, security systems based on neutron scanning, and neutronography.

  1. Harvester development for new high yielding SRC crops and markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Mark

    2005-07-01

    This report describes the development of harvesting equipment for short rotation cultivation (SRC) crops produced in the UK that can produce fuel to a required specification in a single pass at a cost that is profitable for the grower while minimising the cost of the product. Details are given of the manufacture and installation of new components for large crop harvesting, and production of fuel suitable for co-firing in a coal combustion system using pulverised fuel and fuel suitable for gasification. The development of the drive chain to cope with the higher yielding crops, field tests on SRC crops, and determination of the most economic harvesting system are discussed along with the remanufacture of the chipping drum, and production of market chip samples. Harvesting guidance and an economic analysis of harvesting systems are presented.

  2. A highly sensitive quantitative real-time pcr assay for determination of mutant jak2 exon 12 allele burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, L.; Riley, C.H.; Westman, M.

    2012-01-01

    present a highly sensitive real-time quantitative PCR assay for determination of the mutant allele burden of JAK2 exon 12 mutations. In combination with high resolution melting analysis and sequencing the assay identified six patients carrying previously described JAK2 exon 12 mutations and one novel...... mutation. Two patients were homozygous with a high mutant allele burden, whereas one of the heterozygous patients had a very low mutant allele burden. The allele burden in the peripheral blood resembled that of the bone marrow, except for the patient with low allele burden. Myeloid and lymphoid cell...... populations were isolated by cell sorting and quantitative PCR revealed similar mutant allele burdens in CD16+ granulocytes and peripheral blood. The mutations were also detected in B-lymphocytes in half of the patients at a low allele burden. In conclusion, our highly sensitive assay provides an important...

  3. Restoring de novo coenzyme Q biosynthesis in Caenorhabditis elegans coq-3 mutants yields profound rescue compared to exogenous coenzyme Q supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Fernando; Saiki, Ryoichi; Chin, Randall; Srinivasan, Chandra; Clarke, Catherine F

    2012-09-10

    Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone or Q) is an essential lipid component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. In Caenorhabditis elegans Q biosynthesis involves at least nine steps, including the hydroxylation of the hydroquinone ring by CLK-1 and two O-methylation steps mediated by COQ-3. We characterize two C. elegans coq-3 deletion mutants, and show that while each has defects in Q synthesis, their phenotypes are distinct. First generation homozygous coq-3(ok506) mutants are fertile when fed the standard lab diet of Q-replete OP50 Escherichia coli, but their second generation homozygous progeny does not reproduce. In contrast, the coq-3(qm188) deletion mutant remains sterile when fed Q-replete OP50. Quantitative PCR analyses suggest that the longer qm188 deletion may alter expression of the flanking nuo-3 and gdi-1 genes, located 5' and 3', respectively of coq-3 within an operon. We surmise that variable expression of nuo-3, a subunit of complex I, or of gdi-1, a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor, may act in combination with defects in Q biosynthesis to produce a more severe phenotype. The phenotypes of both coq-3 mutants are more drastic as compared to the C. elegans clk-1 mutants. When fed OP50, clk-1 mutants reproduce for many generations, but show reduced fertility, slow behaviors, and enhanced life span. The coq-3 and clk-1 mutants all show arrested development and are sterile when fed the Q-deficient E. coli strain GD1 (harboring a mutation in the ubiG gene). However, unlike clk-1 mutant worms, neither coq-3 mutant strain responded to dietary supplementation with purified exogenous Q(10). Here we show that the Q(9) content can be determined in lipid extracts from just 200 individual worms, enabling the determination of Q content in the coq-3 mutants unable to reproduce. An extra-chromosomal array expressing wild-type C. elegans coq-3 rescued fertility of both coq-3 mutants and partially restored steady-state levels of COQ-3 polypeptide and Q(9

  4. Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in high and low- yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Jafari Dehkordi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiography (ECG may be used to recognize cardiac disorders. Levels of milk production may change the serum electrolytes which its imbalance has a role in cardiac arrhythmia. Fifty high yielding and fifty low yielding Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Electrocardiography was recorded by base-apex lead and blood samples were collected from jugular vein for measurement of serum elements such as sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. Cardiac dysrhythmias were detected more frequent in low yielding Holstein cows (62.00% compared to high yielding Holstein cows (46.00%. The cardiac dysrhythmias that were observed in low yielding Holstein cows included sinus arrhythmia (34.70%, wandering pacemaker (22.45 %, bradycardia (18.37%, tachycardia (10.20%, atrial premature beat (2.04%, sinoatrial block (2.04%, atrial fibrillation (8.16% and atrial tachycardia (2.04%. The cardiac dysrhythmias were observed in high yielding Holstein cows including, sinus arrhythmia (86.95% and wandering pacemaker (13.05%. Also, notched P wave was observed to be 30% and 14% in high- and low- yielding Holstein cows respectively. The serum calcium concentration of low yielding Holstein cows was significantly lower than that of high yielding Holstein cows. There was not any detectable significant difference in other serum elements between high- and low- yielding Holstein cows. Based on the result of present study, could be concluded that low serum concentration of calcium results to more frequent dysrhythmias in low yielding Holstein cows.

  5. Gluconacetobacter hansenii subsp. nov., a high-yield bacterial cellulose producing strain induced by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Han-Jing; Du, Shuang-Kui; Lin, De-Hui; Zhang, Jun-Na; Xiang, Jin-Le; Li, Zhi-Xi

    2011-12-01

    Strain M(438), deposited as CGMCC3917 and isolated from inoculums of bacterial cellulose (BC) producing strain screened in homemade vinegar and then induced by high hydrostatic pressure treatment (HHP), has strong ability to produce BC more than three times as that of its initial strain. It is the highest yield BC-producing strain ever reported. In this paper, M(438) was identidied as Gluconacetobacter hansenii subsp. nov. on the basis of the results obtained by examining it phylogenetically, phenotypically, and physiologically-biochemically. Furthermore, the genetic diversity of strain M(438) and its initial strain was examined by amplified fragment length polymorphism. The results indicated that strain M(438) was a deletion mutant induced by HHP, and the only deleted sequence showed 99% identity with 24,917-24,723 bp in the genome sequence of Ga. hansenii ATCC23769, and the complement gene sequence was at 24,699-25,019 bp with local tag GXY_15142, which codes small multidrug resistance (SMR) protein. It can be inferred that SMR might be related to inhibiting BC production to a certain extent.

  6. Separating heat stress from moisture stress: analyzing yield response to high temperature in irrigated maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth K.; Melkonian, Jeff; Riha, Susan J.; Shaw, Stephen B.

    2016-09-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that high air temperatures are limiting maize (Zea mays L.) yields in the US Corn Belt and project significant yield losses with expected increases in growing season temperatures. Further work has suggested that high air temperatures are indicative of high evaporative demand, and that decreases in maize yields which correlate to high temperatures and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) likely reflect underlying soil moisture limitations. It remains unclear whether direct high temperature impacts on yields, independent of moisture stress, can be observed under current temperature regimes. Given that projected high temperature and moisture may not co-vary the same way as they have historically, quantitative analyzes of direct temperature impacts are critical for accurate yield projections and targeted mitigation strategies under shifting temperature regimes. To evaluate yield response to above optimum temperatures independent of soil moisture stress, we analyzed climate impacts on irrigated maize yields obtained from the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) corn yield contests for Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. In irrigated maize, we found no evidence of a direct negative impact on yield by daytime air temperature, calculated canopy temperature, or VPD when analyzed seasonally. Solar radiation was the primary yield-limiting climate variable. Our analyses suggested that elevated night temperature impacted yield by increasing rates of phenological development. High temperatures during grain-fill significantly interacted with yields, but this effect was often beneficial and included evidence of acquired thermo-tolerance. Furthermore, genetics and management—information uniquely available in the NCGA contest data—explained more yield variability than climate, and significantly modified crop response to climate. Thermo-acclimation, improved genetics and changes to management practices have the potential to partially or completely

  7. High-harmonic generation: Ultrafast lasers yield X-rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKinnie, Iain; Kapteyn, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Table-top sources that generate both extreme ultraviolet light and soft X-rays through high-harmonic generation of ultrafast infrared laser pulses look set to perform tasks previously accessible using only large-scale synchrotrons.

  8. High School Student Physics Research Experience Yields Positive Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a…

  9. High-level production of astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous mutant JH1 using statistical experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kang, Seong-Woo; Kim, Seung-Wook; Chang, Hyo-Ihl

    2005-09-01

    Medium composition was optimized for high-level production of astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous mutant JH1 using statistical experimental designs. Glucose and yeast extract were the most important factors affecting astaxanthin production. Glucose 3.89%, yeast extract 0.29%, KH2PO4 0.25%, MgSO4 0.05%, MnSO4 0.02%, and CaCl2 0.01% were optimum for high-level production of astaxanthin. Under optimized conditions, the maximum concentration of astaxanthin obtained after 7 d of cultivation was 36.06 mg/l. The concentration of astaxanthin predicted by a polynomial model was 36.16 mg/l.

  10. Controllable preparation of high-yield magnetic polymer latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Chao; Kong, Xiang-Ming; Yang, Hai-Long

    2011-09-01

    In order to overcome the low conversion and complex post-treatment, four different polymerization procedures were adopted to prepare the magnetic polymer latexes. The results clearly show that the strategy using magnetic emulsion template-dosage is the most effective and feasible. Based on the optimized procedure, various factors including the type of initiators such as oil soluble initiator, water soluble initiator, redox initiator system, crosslinking agent, functional monomers etc. were systematically studied. Magnetic polymer latex with high monomer conversion of 83% and high magnet content of 31.8% was successfully obtained. Besides, core-shell structured magnetic polymer latex with good film forming property was also prepared, which is promising for potential applications such as magnetic coatings and modification of cementitious materials with controlled polymer location.

  11. High school student physics research experience yields positive results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a small scale research project while in high school gives them the hands on experience and ultimately prepares them more for the college experience. SUNY Plattsburgh’s Physics department started a five-week summer program for high school students in 2012. This program has proved not only beneficial for students while in the program, but also as they continue on in their development as scientists/engineers. Independent research, such as that offered by SUNY Plattsburgh’s five-week summer program, offers students a feel and taste of the culture of doing research, and life as a scientist. It is a short-term, risk free way to investigate whether a career in research or a particular scientific field is a good fit.

  12. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Johan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chute, Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balakireva, Lyudmila [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  13. The Prospects for High-Yield ICF with a Z-Pinch Driven Dynamic Hohlraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHANDLER, GORDON A.; CHRIEN, R.; COOPER, GARY WAYNE; DERZON, MARK S.; DOUGLAS, MELISSA R.; HEBRON, DAVID E.; LASH, JOEL S.; LEEPER, RAMON J.; MATZEN, M. KEITH; MEHLHORN, THOMAS A.; NASH, THOMAS J.; OLSON, RICHARD E.; PETERSON, D.L.; RUIZ, CARLOS L.; SANFORD, THOMAS W. L.; SLUTZ, STEPHEN A.

    1999-09-07

    Recent success with the Sandia Z machine has renewed interest in utilizing fast z-pinenes for ICF. One promising concept places the ICF capsule internal to the imploding z-pinch. At machine parameters relevant to achieving high yield, the imploding z-pinch mass has sufficient opacity to trap radiation giving rise to a dynamic hohlraum. The concept utilizes a 12 MJ, 54 MA z-pinch driver producing a capsule drive temperature exceeding 300 eV to realize a 550 MJ thermonuclear yield. They present the current high-yield design and its development that supports high-yield ICF with a z-pinch driven dynamic hohlraum.

  14. Characterization of high-oleic peanut natural mutants derived from an intersectional cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang, X. Z.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As compared with its normal oleate counterpart, high oleate peanuts have better storage quality and several health benefits, and are therefore preferred by peanut shellers and consumers. High oleate has now become one of the main breeding objectives of peanuts. Thus far, over 50 high oleate peanut cultivars have been registered. Yet high oleate peanut breeding relies heavily on a limited number of high oleate genotypes. In this paper, we reported, for the first time, high peanut oleate natural mutants with large seeds derived from an intersectional cross, which were identified with near infra-red spectroscopy and confirmed by gas chromatography. Sequencing of FAD2 from the high-oleic hybrids along with their normal oleate parents indicated that a 448G >A mutation in FAD2A coupled with a 441_442ins A or G in FAD2B together caused high oleate phenotypes in these peanut hybrids.En comparación con su homólogo con contenido normal de oleico, el maní alto oleato mantiene una mejor calidad durante la conservación y tiene beneficios para la salud, y de ahí que sea preferido por desgranadoras de maní y por los consumidores. El alto oleato se ha convertido actualmente en uno de los principales objetivos para la mejora del maní. Hasta el momento, más de 50 cultivares de maní alto oleato han sido registrados. Sin embargo, la reproducción de maní alto oleato se basa principalmente en un número limitado de genotipos alto oleato. En este trabajo se presentan por primera vez mutantes naturales de maní alto oleato con semillas derivadas de un cruce de intersecciones, que fue identificado mediante espectroscopia de infrarrojo cercano y se confirma me diante cromatografía de gases. La secuenciación de FAD2 de los híbridos de alto oleico junto con sus progenitores oleato normal, indicó que la mutación 448G >A en FAD2A unido a un 441_442ins A o G en FAD2B juntos da lugar a fenotipos alto oleato en estos híbridos de maní.

  15. High Precision and High Yield Fabrication of Dense Nanoparticle Arrays onto DNA Origami at Statistically Independent Binding Sites †

    OpenAIRE

    Takabayashi, Sadao; Klein, William P.; Onodera, Craig; Rapp, Blake; Flores-Estrada, Juan; Lindau, Elias; Snowball, Lejmarc; Sam, Joseph Tyler; Padilla, Jennifer E.; Lee, Jeunghoon; Knowlton, William B.; Graugnard, Elton; Yurke, Bernard; Kuang, Wan; Hughes, William L.

    2014-01-01

    High precision, high yield, and high density self-assembly of nanoparticles into arrays is essential for nanophotonics. Spatial deviations as small as a few nanometers can alter the properties of near-field coupled optical nanostructures. Several studies have reported assemblies of few nanoparticle structures with controlled spacing using DNA nanostructures with variable yield. Here, we report multi-tether design strategies and attachment yields for homo- and hetero-nanoparticle arrays templa...

  16. High confinement, high yield Si3N4 waveguides for nonlinear optical application

    CERN Document Server

    Epping, Jörn P; Mateman, Richard; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René G; van Rees, Albert; van der Slot, Peter J M; Lee, Chris J; Boller, Klaus-J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel fabrication technique for silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides with a thickness of up to 900 nm, which are suitable for nonlinear optical applications. The fabrication method is based on etching trenches in thermally oxidized silicon and filling the trenches with Si3N4. Using this technique no stress-induced cracks in the Si3N4 layer were observed resulting in a high yield of devices on the wafer. The propagation losses of the obtained waveguides were measured to be as low as 0.4 dB/cm at a wavelength of around 1550 nm.

  17. A natural variant of NAL1, selected in high-yield rice breeding programs, pleiotropically increases photosynthesis rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Toshiyuki; Adachi, Shunsuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Sanoh-Arai, Yumiko; Iwasawa, Norio; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Hirose, Sakiko; Taniguchi, Yojiro; Yamanouchi, Utako; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Ikka, Takashi; Ando, Tsuyu; Kono, Izumi; Ito, Sachie; Shomura, Ayahiko; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Yano, Masahiro; Kondo, Motohiko; Yamamoto, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of leaf photosynthesis is an important strategy for greater crop productivity. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus GPS (GREEN FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) controls photosynthesis rate by regulating carboxylation efficiency. Map-based cloning revealed that GPS is identical to NAL1 (NARROW LEAF1), a gene previously reported to control lateral leaf growth. The high-photosynthesis allele of GPS was found to be a partial loss-of-function allele of NAL1. This allele increased mesophyll cell number between vascular bundles, which led to thickened leaves, and it pleiotropically enhanced photosynthesis rate without the detrimental side effects observed in previously identified nal1 mutants, such as dwarf plant stature. Furthermore, pedigree analysis suggested that rice breeders have repeatedly selected the high-photosynthesis allele in high-yield breeding programs. The identification and utilization of NAL1 (GPS) can enhance future high-yield breeding and provides a new strategy for increasing rice productivity. PMID:23985993

  18. High yield polyol synthesis of round- and sharp-end silver nanowires with high aspect ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekahi, A.; Marashi, S.P.H., E-mail: pmarashi@aut.ac.ir; Fatmesari, D. Haghshenas

    2016-12-01

    Long silver nanowires (average length of 28 μm, average aspect ratio of 130) with uniform diameter along their length were produced by polyol synthesis of AgNO{sub 3} in ethylene glycol in the presence of PVP as preferential growth agent. Nanowires were produced with no addition of chloride salts such as NaCl or CuCl{sub 2} (or other additives such as Na{sub 2}S) which are usually used for lowering reduction rate of Ag ions by additional etchant of O{sub 2}/Cl{sup −}. Lower reduction rate was obtained by increasing the injection time of PVP and AgNO{sub 3} solutions, which was the significant factor in the formation of nanowires. Therefore, there was enough time for reduced Ag atoms to be deposited preferentially in the direction of PVP chains, resulting in high yield (the fraction of nanowires in the products) of nanowires (more than 95%) with high aspect ratio. The produced nanowires had both round- and sharp-ends with pentagonal cross section. Higher energy level of Ag atoms in borders of MTPs, which increases the dissolution rate of precipitated atoms, in addition to partial melting of MTPs at high synthesis temperatures, leads to the curving of the surfaces of exposed (111) crystalline planes in some MTPs and the formation of round-end silver nanowires. - Highlights: • Long silver nanowires with high aspect ratio of 130 were produced. • More than 95% nanowires were produced in products. • The produced nanowires had round- and sharp-ends with pentagonal cross section. • Additives were needed neither for high yield synthesis nor for round-end nanowires. • Melting and etching of MTPs in high energy borders resulted to round-end nanowires.

  19. Breeding of Zhongyouza 8, a Canola Variety with Large Seeds and High Oil Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-chang; HU Qiong; MEI De-sheng; LI Ying-de; XU Yu-song

    2006-01-01

    High oil yield resulted from a combination of high grain yield and high oil content is a prerequisite for the high efficient oilseed rape production. By using irradiation induced mutation and sexual hybridization combined with paired test cross,the fertility, yield and oil content of the three lines of cytoplasmic male sterility have been improved and a new hybrid variety Zhongyouza 8 with high oil yield was developed. It has been testified that the yield of Zhongyouza 8 was significantly higher than that of the control variety Zhongyou 821 with 9.82 and 10.64% increase in the regional trials of Hubei Province and nationwide, respectively. The oil content and oil yield of Zhongyouza 8 were the highest among all the lines involved in Hubei provincial trials, being 42.77% and 1 051.05 kg ha-1 which was raised by 3% and 161.25 kg ha-1compared to the control Zhongyou 821, respectively. The genetic basis for the strong heterosis, and the factors contributing to the yield and oil content increase of Zhongyouza 8 as well as the strategy for high oil yielding variety improvement through increasing seed size were also discussed in this paper.

  20. A highly sensitive quantitative real-time PCR assay for determination of mutant JAK2 exon 12 allele burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Kjær

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 gene have become an important identifier for the Philadelphia-chromosome negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. In contrast to the JAK2V617F mutation, the large number of JAK2 exon 12 mutations has challenged the development of quantitative assays. We present a highly sensitive real-time quantitative PCR assay for determination of the mutant allele burden of JAK2 exon 12 mutations. In combination with high resolution melting analysis and sequencing the assay identified six patients carrying previously described JAK2 exon 12 mutations and one novel mutation. Two patients were homozygous with a high mutant allele burden, whereas one of the heterozygous patients had a very low mutant allele burden. The allele burden in the peripheral blood resembled that of the bone marrow, except for the patient with low allele burden. Myeloid and lymphoid cell populations were isolated by cell sorting and quantitative PCR revealed similar mutant allele burdens in CD16+ granulocytes and peripheral blood. The mutations were also detected in B-lymphocytes in half of the patients at a low allele burden. In conclusion, our highly sensitive assay provides an important tool for quantitative monitoring of the mutant allele burden and accordingly also for determining the impact of treatment with interferon-α-2, shown to induce molecular remission in JAK2V617F-positive patients, which may be a future treatment option for JAK2 exon 12-positive patients as well.

  1. Azotobacter vinelandii lacking the Na(+)-NQR activity: a potential source for producing alginates with improved properties and at high yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytán, Itzel; Peña, Carlos; Núñez, Cinthia; Córdova, María S; Espín, Guadalupe; Galindo, Enrique

    2012-08-01

    The mutant ATCN4 strain of Azotobacter vinelandii, which lacks the Na(+)-NQR activity and results in an alginate overproduction (highly mucoid phenotype), was cultured in shake flasks in minimal and rich medium, and the chemical composition and rheological properties of the alginate were determined. Mutant ATCN4 exhibited a high efficiency for sucrose conversion to alginate and PHB accumulation, reaching yields that were 3.6- and 1.6-fold higher than those obtained from the wildtype cultures in minimal medium (Burk's sucrose, BS). The alginate produced by ATCN4 in the minimal medium had a high degree of acetylation (≥4 %) and a low G/M ratio (=2) with respect to the polymer synthesised in the rich medium (BS with yeast extract) (degree of acetylation = 0 % and G/M ratio of 4.5). The alginate produced in the minimal medium exhibited a pronounced pseudoplastic behaviour and a higher G* module in comparison to that observed in the alginate obtained in the cultures using a rich medium. The ATCN4 mutant culture in the minimal medium promoted the synthesis of a polymer of improved rheological quality in terms of its mechanical properties. These characteristics make this mutant a valuable source for producing alginates with improved or special properties.

  2. Protein interaction analysis of senataxin and the ALS4 L389S mutant yields insights into senataxin post-translational modification and uncovers mutant-specific binding with a brain cytoplasmic RNA-encoded peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig L Bennett

    Full Text Available Senataxin is a large 303 kDa protein linked to neuron survival, as recessive mutations cause Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia type 2 (AOA2, and dominant mutations cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 4 (ALS4. Senataxin contains an amino-terminal protein-interaction domain and a carboxy-terminal DNA/RNA helicase domain. In this study, we focused upon the common ALS4 mutation, L389S, by performing yeast two-hybrid screens of a human brain expression library with control senataxin or L389S senataxin as bait. Interacting clones identified from the two screens were collated, and redundant hits and false positives subtracted to yield a set of 13 protein interactors. Among these hits, we discovered a highly specific and reproducible interaction of L389S senataxin with a peptide encoded by the antisense sequence of a brain-specific non-coding RNA, known as BCYRN1. We further found that L389S senataxin interacts with other proteins containing regions of conserved homology with the BCYRN1 reverse complement-encoded peptide, suggesting that such aberrant protein interactions may contribute to L389S ALS4 disease pathogenesis. As the yeast two-hybrid screen also demonstrated senataxin self-association, we confirmed senataxin dimerization via its amino-terminal binding domain and determined that the L389S mutation does not abrogate senataxin self-association. Finally, based upon detection of interactions between senataxin and ubiquitin-SUMO pathway modification enzymes, we examined senataxin for the presence of ubiquitin and SUMO monomers, and observed this post-translational modification. Our senataxin protein interaction study reveals a number of features of senataxin biology that shed light on senataxin normal function and likely on senataxin molecular pathology in ALS4.

  3. Molecular characterization of two high-palmitic-acid mutant loci induced by X-ray irradiation in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anai, Toyoaki; Hoshino, Tomoki; Imai, Naoko; Takagi, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Palmitic acid is the most abundant (approx. 11% of total fatty acids) saturated fatty acid in conventional soybean seed oil. Increasing the saturated acid content of soybean oil improves its oxidative stability and plasticity. We have developed three soybean mutants with high palmitic acid content by X-ray irradiation. In this study, we successfully identified the mutated sites of two of these high-palmitic-acid mutants, J10 and M22. PCR-based mutant analysis revealed that J10 has a 206,203-bp-long deletion that includes the GmKASIIA gene and 16 other predicted genes, and M22 has a 26-bp-long deletion in the sixth intron of GmKASIIB. The small deletion in M22 causes mis-splicing of GmKASIIB transcripts, which should result in nonfunctional products. In addition, we designed co-dominant marker sets for these mutant alleles and confirmed the association of genotypes and palmitic acid contents in F(2) seeds of J10 X M22. This information will be useful in breeding programs to develop novel soybean cultivars with improved palmitic acid content. However, in the third mutant, KK7, we found no polymorphism in either GmKASIIA or GmKASIIB, which suggests that several unknown genes in addition to GmKASIIA and GmKASIIB may be involved in elevating the palmitic acid content of soybean seed oil.

  4. Optimal yield-related attributes of irrigated rice for high yield potential based on path analysis and stability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganghua Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of yield in rice (Oryza sativa L. is vital for ensuring food security in China. Both rice breeders and growers need an improved understanding of the relationship between yield and yield-related traits. New indica cultivars (53 in 2007 and 48 in 2008 were grown in Taoyuan, Yunnan province, to identify important components contributing to yield. Additionally, two standard indica rice cultivars with similar yield potentials, II You 107 (a large-panicle type and Xieyou 107 (a heavy-panicle type, were planted in Taoyuan, Yunnan province and Nanjing, Jiangsu province, from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the stability of yield and yield-related attributes. Growth duration (GD, leaf area index (LAI, panicles per m2 (PN, and spikelets per m2 (SM were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield (GY over all years. Sequential path analysis identified PN and panicle weight (PW as important first-order traits that influenced grain yield. All direct effects were significant, as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Yield potential varied greatly across locations but not across years. Plant height (PH, days from heading to maturity (HM, and grain weight (GW were stable traits that showed little variation across sites or years, whereas GD (mainly the pre-heading period, PHP and PN varied significantly across locations. To achieve a yield of 15 t ha− 1, a cultivar should have a PH of 110–125 cm, a long GD with HM of approximately 40 days, a PN of 300–400 m− 2, and a GW of 29–31 mg.

  5. Optimal yield-related attributes of irrigated rice for high yield potential based on path analysis and stability analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganghua; Li; Jun; Zhang; Congdang; Yang; Yunpan; Song; Chengyan; Zheng; Shaohua; Wang; Zhenghui; Liu; Yanfeng; Ding

    2014-01-01

    Improvement of yield in rice(Oryza sativa L.) is vital for ensuring food security in China. Both rice breeders and growers need an improved understanding of the relationship between yield and yield-related traits. New indica cultivars(53 in 2007 and 48 in 2008) were grown in Taoyuan,Yunnan province, to identify important components contributing to yield. Additionally, two standard indica rice cultivars with similar yield potentials, II You 107(a large-panicle type) and Xieyou 107(a heavy-panicle type), were planted in Taoyuan, Yunnan province and Nanjing,Jiangsu province, from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the stability of yield and yield-related attributes.Growth duration(GD), leaf area index(LAI), panicles per m2(PN), and spikelets per m2(SM) were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield(GY) over all years. Sequential path analysis identified PN and panicle weight(PW) as important first-order traits that influenced grain yield. All direct effects were significant, as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Yield potential varied greatly across locations but not across years. Plant height(PH), days from heading to maturity(HM), and grain weight(GW) were stable traits that showed little variation across sites or years, whereas GD(mainly the pre-heading period, PHP) and PN varied significantly across locations. To achieve a yield of 15 t ha-1, a cultivar should have a PH of 110–125 cm, a long GD with HM of approximately 40 days, a PN of 300–400 m-2, and a GW of 29–31 mg.

  6. CR Dhan 407, a high-yielding rice cultivar released for the rainfed shallow lowland ecosystem of eastern India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, P S; Patnaik, S S C; Patnaik, A; Rao, G J N; Singh, O N

    2015-01-01

    .... Development and release of CR Dhan 407, a high-yielding cultivar, with a potential yield of more than 5 tons per hectare and non-lodging plant type, can address the problem of yield stagnation...

  7. Characterization of a novel high-tillering dwarf 3 mutant in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bosen Zhang; Feng Tian; Lubin Tan; Daoxin Xie; Chuanqing Sun

    2011-01-01

    Tiller number and culm length are important components of plant architecture and determinate grain production in rice.A line SIL046,derived from an introgression lines population developed by an accession of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) and a high-yielding indica cultivar Guichao 2 (Oryza sativa L.).exhibits a higher tiller number and shorter culm length phenotype than the recipient parent Guichao 2 (GC2).Genetic analysis showed that the high-tillering dwarf phenotype was controlled by a novel single recessive gene,referred to as the high-tillering dwarf3 (htd3),which located within the genetic distance of 13.4 cM between SSR makers RM7003 and RM277 on chromosome 12.By means of fine-mapping strategy,we mapped HTD3 gene within the genetic distance of 2.5 cM and the physical distance of 3100 kb in the centromere of chromosome 12.Further identification of HTD3 gene would provide a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism of the development of culm and tiller,two important components of yields in rice.

  8. Neutron and fission yields from high-energy deuterons in infinite /sup 238/U targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canfield, E.

    1965-06-28

    Early work on the interaction of high energy deuterons with large /sup 238/U targets is reexamined and current theoretical study is discussed. Results of fission and neutron yield calculations are compared with experiment. (SDF)

  9. Mid-Season High-Resolution Satellite Imagery for Forecasting Site-Specific Corn Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahuel R. Peralta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A timely and accurate crop yield forecast is crucial to make better decisions on crop management, marketing, and storage by assessing ahead and implementing based on expected crop performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high-resolution satellite imagery data collected at mid-growing season for identification of within-field variability and to forecast corn yield at different sites within a field. A test was conducted on yield monitor data and RapidEye satellite imagery obtained for 22 cornfields located in five different counties (Clay, Dickinson, Rice, Saline, and Washington of Kansas (total of 457 ha. Three basic tests were conducted on the data: (1 spatial dependence on each of the yield and vegetation indices (VIs using Moran’s I test; (2 model selection for the relationship between imagery data and actual yield using ordinary least square regression (OLS and spatial econometric (SPL models; and (3 model validation for yield forecasting purposes. Spatial autocorrelation analysis (Moran’s I test for both yield and VIs (red edge NDVI = NDVIre, normalized difference vegetation index = NDVIr, SRre = red-edge simple ratio, near infrared = NIR and green-NDVI = NDVIG was tested positive and statistically significant for most of the fields (p < 0.05, except for one. Inclusion of spatial adjustment to model improved the model fit on most fields as compared to OLS models, with the spatial adjustment coefficient significant for half of the fields studied. When selected models were used for prediction to validate dataset, a striking similarity (RMSE = 0.02 was obtained between predicted and observed yield within a field. Yield maps could assist implementing more effective site-specific management tools and could be utilized as a proxy of yield monitor data. In summary, high-resolution satellite imagery data can be reasonably used to forecast yield via utilization of models that include spatial adjustment to

  10. Fast and green synthesis of biologically important quinoxalines with high yields in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ghafuri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimal method were developed for the green synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives based on the highly efficient and simple condensation reaction of various aromatic 1,2-diketones and 1,2-diamines in nearly quantitative yields in water. In this method we did not use any catalyst. The very mild reaction conditions, the high yields of the products, and the absence of any catalyst make this methodology an efficient and green route for synthesis of quinoxalines.

  11. Divisional compound hierarchical classification method for regionalization of high, medium and low yield croplands of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliang, Qiao; Ying, Wang; Jinchun, Liu

    This is an introduction to the method of classifying high, medium and low yield croplands by remote sensing and GIS, which is the result of a key project of The Scientific and Industry Technology Committee of National Defence. In the study, special information related to high, medium and low yield cropland was compounded with TM data. The development of the method of compound hierarchy classification improved accuracy of remote sensing classification greatly.

  12. Relationships between fruit exocarp antioxidants in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) high pigment-1 mutant during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Preston K.; Fahy, Deirdre A.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2004-04-01

    Development-dependent changes in fruit antioxidants were examined in the exocarp (epidermal and hypodermal tissues) of the monogenic recessive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) mutant high pigment (hp-1) and its wild-type parent 'Rutgers' grown under non-stress conditions in a greenhouse. The hp-1 mutant was chosen for this study because the reportedly higher lycopene and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents of the fruit may alter its tolerance to photooxidative stress. Throughout most of fruit development, reduced AsA concentrations in the exocarp of hp-1 were 1.5 to 2.0 times higher than in 'Rutgers', but total glutathione concentrations were similar in both genotypes. Only in ripe red fruit were reduced AsA and total glutathione concentrations lower in hp-1 than in 'Rutgers'. The redox ratios (reduced : reduced + oxidized) of AsA in hp-1 and 'Rutgers' exocarps were similar and usually > 0.9, however, the redox ratio of glutathione was lower in hp-1 than in 'Rutgers' throughout development. Lycopene concentrations in ripe red fruit were about 5 times higher in hp-1 than in 'Rutgers'. Large increases in the specific enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR; EC 1.6.5.4) occurred during fruit development in both genotypes, with an inverse relationship between the activities of these enzymes and chlorophyll content. Glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) and MDHAR-specific activities were higher in hp-1 than 'Rutgers' only at the later stages of fruit development. Dehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5.1) activities, however, were usually higher in 'Rugters' than in hp-1. Catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activities increased with fruit development until the fruit were orange/light red, when CAT was higher in 'Rutgers' than in hp-1, but then declined in the ripe red fruit of both genotypes. These results suggest that elevated AsA in the exocarp of hp-1 fruit early in fruit development may

  13. Screening of Saccharomyces Strains Highly Producing Glutathione and Breeding of Its Ethionine-resistant Mutants%高产谷胱甘肽酵母菌株的筛选及其抗乙硫氨酸诱变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冮洁; 单立峰; 吴耘红; 张鹭

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to screen Saccharomyces for glutathione over-production. [Method] Ethionine-resistant mutants were obtained through UV mutagenesis and rational screening. [Result] A high GSH-producing strain HSJB1 was isolated from soil, and the biomass for this strain by flask shaking fermentation was 3.87 g/L while the GSH yield was 91.87 mg/L. According to the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of cells, this strain was primarily identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An ethionine-resistant mutant YBS77 was obtained through UV mutagenesis of the original strain HSJB1, and the biomass for this strain by flask shaking fermentation was 7.60 g dry cell weight/L while the GSH yield was 211.96 mg/L. [Conclusion] The biomass of the mutant obtained by breeding is increased by 96.38% than that of the original strain, and the GSH yield of the mutant obtained by breeding is increased by 130.72% than that from the original strain, which indicates that the breeding method is feasible.

  14. A proteomic study of rice cultivar TNG67 and its high aroma mutant SA0420.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Da-Gin; Chou, Szu-Yi; Wang, Arthur Z; Wang, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Shu-Ming; Lai, Chien-Chen; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Wang, Chang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Fragrance is a very important economic trait for rice cultivars. To identify the aroma genes in rice, we performed a proteomics analysis of aroma-related proteins between Tainung 67 (TNG67) and its high aroma mutant SA0420. Seventeen of the differentially identified proteins were close related with the aroma phenotype of SA0420. Among them, 9 were found in leaves and 8 were found in grains. One protein (L3) was identified as the chloroplastic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase B (OsGAPDHB) which was less abundant in SA0420 than TNG67. Sequence analysis demonstrated that this protein in SA0420 carries a P425S mutation in the C-terminal extension domain, which might hinder the formation of holoenzyme, thereby changing the profile of aroma compounds. The protein profile of OsGAPDHB showed only a weak correlation to its transcription profile. This result indicated that the reduction of OsGAPDHB in SA0420 is regulated by post-translational processes and can only be analyzed by proteomics approach. Transgenic lines suppressing OsGAPDHB through RNAi harbored more fragrance than TNG67 but less than SA0420. With betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase as the only fragrance gene identified in rice to date, OsGAPDHB may serve as the second protein known to contribute to the aroma phenotype.

  15. Rapid and high throughput detection of HBV YMDD mutants with fluorescence polarization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yui-Jie Bai; Jin-Rong Zhao; Guan-Ting Lv; Wen-Hong Zhang; Yan Wang; Xiao-Jun Yan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To develop a simple and rapid detection of HBV gene variants and prediction of lamivudine-resistance in patients.METHODS: Initially, plasmids harboring the wild-type or mutant HBV DNA fragments were used in a model system.The technique was then applied to clinical samples for an analysis of YMDD mutations. The sera were extracted from chronic hepatitis patients who had received lamivudine treatment for more than one year. P region gene of HBV was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The excess primers and dNTPs in PCR products were removed by cleaning-up reagents. Template-directed dye-terminator incorporation reaction was performed and R110 or TAMRA labeled acyclo-terminator was added on the 3' end of TDIprimer specifically. Fluorescence polarization value was measured with Victor 2 multilabel counter and the genotypes of HBV were analyzed.RESULTS: The YMDD genotypes in recombined positive plasmid and 56 serum samples of HBV infected patients were analyzed by using our TDI-FP method and the specificity and sensitivity were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Five of 56 serum samples showed YVDD phenotype (9%), including 1 YMDD and YVDD mixed infection. Four of 56 showed YIDD phenotype (7.1%).CONCLUSION: This is a simple, rapid, low cost and high throughput assay to detect HBV polymerase gene variants and suitable for large-scale screening and prediction of the lamivudine-resistance in clinical samples.

  16. Exposure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to high level biocide challenge can select multidrug resistant mutants in a single step.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah N Whitehead

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biocides are crucial to the prevention of infection by bacteria, particularly with the global emergence of multiply antibiotic resistant strains of many species. Concern has been raised regarding the potential for biocide exposure to select for antibiotic resistance due to common mechanisms of resistance, notably efflux. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was challenged with 4 biocides of differing modes of action at both low and recommended-use concentration. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the physiological state of the cells after biocide challenge. After 5 hours exposure to biocide, live cells were sorted by FACS and recovered. Cells recovered after an exposure to low concentrations of biocide had antibiotic resistance profiles similar to wild-type cells. Live cells were recovered after exposure to two of the biocides at in-use concentration for 5 hours. These cells were multi-drug resistant and accumulation assays demonstrated an efflux phenotype of these mutants. Gene expression analysis showed that the AcrEF multidrug efflux pump was de-repressed in mutants isolated from high-levels of biocide. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data show that a single exposure to the working concentration of certain biocides can select for mutant Salmonella with efflux mediated multidrug resistance and that flow cytometry is a sensitive tool for identifying biocide tolerant mutants. The propensity for biocides to select for MDR mutants varies and this should be a consideration when designing new biocidal formulations.

  17. Efficient production of a gene mutant cell line through integrating TALENs and high-throughput cell cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changhong; Fan, Yu; Li, Juan; Wang, Gancheng; Zhang, Hanshuo; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff

    2015-02-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are becoming powerful DNA-targeting tools in a variety of mammalian cells and model organisms. However, generating a stable cell line with specific gene mutations in a simple and rapid manner remains a challenging task. Here, we report a new method to efficiently produce monoclonal cells using integrated TALE nuclease technology and a series of high-throughput cell cloning approaches. Following this method, we obtained three mTOR mutant 293T cell lines within 2 months, which included one homozygous mutant line.

  18. Starch and Free Sugars during Kernel Development of Bomi Barley and its High-Lysine Mutant 1508

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreis, Michael

    1978-01-01

    At maturity the high-lysine barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Ris0 mutants 1508, 527 and 29 kernels contained about 20% less starch and twice as much free sugars as the parent varieties Bomi and Carlsberg II. An enhanched effect on starch reduction and free sugar accumulation was observed during kernel...

  19. Enhanced electron yield from a laser-plasma accelerator using high-Z gas jet targets

    CERN Document Server

    Mirzaie, Mohammad; Li, Song; Sokollik, Thomas; He, Fei; Cheng, Ya; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    An investigation of the multi-hundred MeV electron beam yield (charge) form helium, nitrogen, neon and argon gas jet plasmas in a laser-plasma wakefield acceleration experiment was carried out. The charge measurement has been made via imaging the electron beam intensity profile on a fluorescent screen into a 14-bit charge coupled device (CCD) which was cross-calibrated with nondestructive electronics-based method. Within given laser and plasma parameters, we found that laser-driven low Z- gas jet targets generate high-quality and well-collimated electron beams with reasonable yields at the level of 10-100 pC. On the other hand, filamentary electron beams which were observed from high-Z gas jets at higher densities reached much higher yield. Evidences for cluster formation were clearly observed in high-Z gases, especially in the argon gas jet target where we received the highest yield of ~ 3 nC

  20. Commercial Practice on Technology for High- Temperature Cracking of C4 Fraction to Increase Propylene Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Darong; Zhang Zhigang

    2003-01-01

    This article refers to the results of small-scale and commercial tests on high-temperature cracking of C4 fraction in FCC unit to increase the propylene yield. The bench tests revealed that the conversion rate of C4 fraction during high-temperature cracking reached 37.38 % and propylene yield was equal to 15.60 % with the conversion rate of C4 olefins equating around 50%. The results of commercial application showed that adoption of the technology for high-temperature cracking of C4 fraction in FCC unit had led to an increase of propylene yield by 2.16 % with no remarkable changes in the yields and properties of other products.

  1. High-yield synthesis of bioactive ethyl cinnamate by enzymatic esterification of cinnamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dong-Hao; Zhang, Jiang-Yan; Chen, Na; Zhi, Gao-Ying

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, Lipozyme TLIM-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl cinnamate through esterification of cinnamic acid with ethanol was studied. In order to increase the yield of ethyl cinnamate, several media, including acetone, isooctane, DMSO and solvent-free medium, were investigated in this reaction. The reaction showed a high yield by using isooctane as reaction medium, which was found to be much higher than the yields reported previously. Furthermore, several parameters such as shaking rate, water activity, reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio and enzyme loading had important influences on this reaction. For instance, when temperature increased from 10 to 50 °C, the initial reaction rate increased by 18 times and the yield of ethyl cinnamate increased by 6.2 times. Under the optimum conditions, lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl cinnamate gave a maximum yield of 99%, which was of general interest for developing industrial processes for the preparation of ethyl cinnamate.

  2. Neglecting rice milling yield and quality underestimates economic losses from high-temperature stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel B Lyman

    Full Text Available Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1 °C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers.

  3. Neglecting rice milling yield and quality underestimates economic losses from high-temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Nathaniel B; Jagadish, Krishna S V; Nalley, L Lanier; Dixon, Bruce L; Siebenmorgen, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable) rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1 °C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers.

  4. Compartmentalized self-replication under fast PCR cycling conditions yields Taq DNA polymerase mutants with increased DNA-binding affinity and blood resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezi, Bahram; McKinney, Nancy; Hansen, Connie; Cayouette, Michelle; Fox, Jeffrey; Chen, Keith; Lapira, Jennifer; Hamilton, Sarah; Hogrefe, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Faster-cycling PCR formulations, protocols, and instruments have been developed to address the need for increased throughput and shorter turn-around times for PCR-based assays. Although run times can be cut by up to 50%, shorter cycle times have been correlated with lower detection sensitivity and increased variability. To address these concerns, we applied Compartmentalized Self Replication (CSR) to evolve faster-cycling mutants of Taq DNA polymerase. After five rounds of selection using progressively shorter PCR extension times, individual mutations identified in the fastest-cycling clones were randomly combined using ligation-based multi-site mutagenesis. The best-performing combinatorial mutants exhibit 35- to 90-fold higher affinity (lower Kd ) for primed template and a moderate (2-fold) increase in extension rate compared to wild-type Taq. Further characterization revealed that CSR-selected mutations provide increased resistance to inhibitors, and most notably, enable direct amplification from up to 65% whole blood. We discuss the contribution of individual mutations to fast-cycling and blood-resistant phenotypes.

  5. Compartmentalized Self-Replication under fast PCR cycling conditions yields Taq DNA polymerase mutants with increased DNA-binding affinity and blood resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram eArezi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Faster-cycling PCR formulations, protocols, and instruments have been developed to address the need for increased throughput and shorter turn-around times for PCR-based assays. Although run times can be cut by up to 50%, shorter cycle times have been correlated with lower detection sensitivity and increased variability. To address these concerns, we applied Compartmentalized Self Replication (CSR to evolve faster-cycling mutants of Taq DNA polymerase. After five rounds of selection using progressively shorter PCR extension times, individual mutations identified in the fastest-cycling clones were randomly combined using ligation-based multi-site mutagenesis. The best-performing combinatorial mutants exhibit 35- to 90-fold higher affinity (lower Kd for primed template and a moderate (2-fold increase in extension rate compared to wild-type Taq. Further characterization revealed that CSR-selected mutations provide increased resistance to inhibitors, and most notably, enable direct amplification from up to 65% whole blood. We discuss the contribution of individual mutations to fast-cycling and blood-resistant phenotypes.

  6. Analysis on differential expressed genes of ovarian tissue between high- and low-yield laying hen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Song, Ling-Jun; Zeng, Yong-Qing; Yang, Yun; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate molecular genetic mechanism of laying hen reproduction at the transcriptional level and the structure of significantly differential genes, the mRNA differential display and reverse northern dot-blot were used to detect the differential expression of genes in the ovary tissue of low-yield laying hens and high-yield laying hens in the present study. Sixteen 32-week-old CAU-pink laying hens divided into two groups were used and the laying performance was measured. The results showed that only the egg numbers were significantly different between the two groups; and from 15 primer pairs, a total of 336 bands were displayed of which 59 cDNA bands were found to be differentially expressed in both high-yield and low-yield laying hen. The sequence analysis indicated that the expression of such bands as H-AP5, H-P5, and H-P4 was significantly potentiated in high-yield laying hen using primer pairs AP5/HT11G, P5/HT11G and P4/HT11G and these transcripts had high homology (98%) to HoxDb, HoxCa, and HoxBa, respectively. The differentially expressed gene fragments may be relevant to the progression of the high-yield hens to the egg-laying stage. And further study is required to elucidate the molecular function to improve the productivity of laying hens.

  7. Fed-Batch Enzymatic Saccharification of High Solids Pretreated Lignocellulose for Obtaining High Titers and High Yields of Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yang, Jungwoo; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2017-01-11

    To reduce the distillation costs of cellulosic ethanol, it is necessary to produce high sugar titers in the enzymatic saccharification step. To obtain high sugar titers, high biomass loadings of lignocellulose are necessary. In this study, to overcome the low saccharification yields and the low operability of high biomass loadings, a fed-batch saccharification process was developed using an enzyme reactor that was designed and built in-house. After optimizing the cellulase and biomass feeding profiles and the agitation speed, 132.6 g/L glucose and 76.0% theoretical maximum glucose were obtained from the 60 h saccharification of maleic acid-pretreated rice straw at a 30% (w/v) solids loading with 15 filter paper units (FPU) of Cellic CTec2/g glucan. This study demonstrated that through the proper optimization of fed-batch saccharification, both high sugar titers and high saccharification yields are possible, even with using the high solids loading (i.e., ≥30%) with the moderate enzyme loading (i.e., high solids saccharification process in cellulosic fuel and chemical production.

  8. Development and genetic characterization of high-functional Rubus coreanus mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Hong

    2008-07-15

    The gamma irradiation as a 100 Gy lead to mutate Bokbunja seed as well as induction of germination, in addition, the optimum condition for inducing mutation is that H2SO4 should be treated after gamma irradiation in vivo. In order to breed the useful mutants in black raspberry, cultivated in Gochanggun, 2-year-old nursery stocks were irradiated with 70 (264 lines) and 120 Gy (360 lines) of gamma-ray. The LD50 dose was identified as 70 Gy. Morphological characteristics of the variants were observed such as stem variation, no. of thorn and no. of sucker compared with donor cultivar. The comparison of morphological and chemical characteristics between Rubus coreanus and Rubus occidentalis was carried out and these two species are quite different that is, number of cortex cells in Rubus occidentalis are much higher than Rubus coreanus. Rubus occidentalis highly contained glucose, xylose, and arabinose, and well developed secondary cell wall compared with Rubus coreanus. We carried out to obtain phylogenetic information on Korean cultivated bramble (KCB) by comparing its specific and random genomic and chloroplast sequences. The characteristics of nuclear and chloroplast genomes of KCB accessions are significantly different from those of other Rubus species. Phylogentic relationship inferred from these molecular features suggest that KCB accessions are relatively more closely related to black raspberry than to R. coreanus. Rubus are classified into 4 developing fruit stages such as green, yellow, red, and black color. The anthocyanin content was increased together with maturation, that is black color fruit is the highest anthocyanin content and highly correlated the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes sunch as C4H, F3H. In addition, the expression of genes involved in the anthocynin biosynthesis is modulated by chitosan resulting in enhanced anthocyanin content in ripen fruit

  9. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  10. Investigation of Ozone Yield of Air Fed Ozonizer by High Pressure Homogeneous Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    field strength in the discharge. In order to clarify this phenomenon, further study on the gas analysis within the ozone gas by an FTIR spectrometer...31st ICPIG, July 14-19, 2013, Granada, Spain Investigation of ozone yield of air fed ozonizer by high pressure homogeneous dielectric barrier... ozonizer and found that the ozone yield is higher by the homogeneous discharge mode than by the conventional filamentary discharge mode in larger

  11. High-resistance controlled yielding supporting technique in deep-well oil shale roadways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang; Bai Jianbiao; Wang Xiangyu; Wang Junde; Xue Shizhi; Xu Ke

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid the deep-well oil shale roadway being deformed, damaged, or difficult to maintain after excavating and supporting in Haishiwan coal mine, this paper has analyzed the characteristics of the deformed roadway and revealed its failure mechanism by taking comprehensively the methods of field geological investigation, displacement monitoring of surrounding rock, rock properties and hydration properties experiments and field application tests. Based on this work, the high-resistance controlled yielding supporting principle is proposed, which is:to‘resist’ by high pre-tightening force and high stiff-ness in the early stage, to‘yield’ by making use of the controlled deformation of a yielding tube in the middle stage, and to‘fix’ by applying total-section Gunite in the later stage. A high-resistance controlled yielding supporting technique of‘high pre-tightening force yielding anchor bolt+small-bore pre-tight-ening force anchor cable+rebar ladder beam+rhombic metal mesh+lagging gunite’ has been estab-lished, and industrial on site testing implemented. The practical results show that the high-resistance controlled yielding supporting technique can effectively control the large deformation and long-time rhe-ology of deep-well oil shale roadways and can provide beneficial references for the maintenance of other con-generic roadways.

  12. Conidiation color mutants of Aspergillus fumigatus are highly pathogenic to the heterologous insect host Galleria mellonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Jackson

    Full Text Available The greater wax moth Galleria mellonella has been widely used as a heterologous host for a number of fungal pathogens including Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. A positive correlation in pathogenicity of these yeasts in this insect model and animal models has been observed. However, very few studies have evaluated the possibility of applying this heterologous insect model to investigate virulence traits of the filamentous fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, the leading cause of invasive aspergillosis. Here, we have examined the impact of mutations in genes involved in melanin biosynthesis on the pathogenicity of A. fumigatus in the G. mellonella model. Melanization in A. fumigatus confers bluish-grey color to conidia and is a known virulence factor in mammal models. Surprisingly, conidial color mutants in B5233 background that have deletions in the defined six-gene cluster required for DHN-melanin biosynthesis caused enhanced insect mortality compared to the parent strain. To further examine and confirm the relationship between melanization defects and enhanced virulence in the wax moth model, we performed random insertional mutagenesis in the Af293 genetic background to isolate mutants producing altered conidia colors. Strains producing conidia of previously identified colors and of novel colors were isolated. Interestingly, these color mutants displayed a higher level of pathogenicity in the insect model compared to the wild type. Although some of the more virulent color mutants showed increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide, overall phenotypic characterizations including secondary metabolite production, metalloproteinase activity, and germination rate did not reveal a general mechanism accountable for the enhanced virulence of these color mutants observed in the insect model. Our observations indicate instead, that exacerbated immune response of the wax moth induced by increased exposure of PAMPs (pathogen

  13. Growth and development characteristics of super-high-yielding mid-season japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jianchang; DU Yong; WU Changfu; LIU Lijun; WANG Zhiqin; ZHU Qingsen

    2007-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops in China.The realization of the super-high-yielding (SHY)type has great significance in ensuring food security in this country.This study investigated the growth and development characteristics of the super-high-yielding rice (grain yield>11 t/hm2).Four mid-season japonica rice cultivars (including lines):Lianjiajing 2,Huajing 5,0026 and 9823,were grown in the paddy field.Growth analysis was performed during the growth period,and yield components were determined at maturity.Results showed that SHY rice had more sipkelets per panicle and higher filled-grain percentage than the high-yielding rice (CK,grain yield 8.98-9.16 t/hm2).There was no significant difference in the 1 000-grain weight between the super-high-yielding and the CK.Super-high-yield rice exhib ited fewer tillers at the early growth stage (from transplanting to jointing),with a higher ratio of productive tillers to total tillers,when compared with the CK.The leaf area index (LAI),photosynthetic potential and dry matter accumulation were lower for the SHY rice than those for the CK at the early growth stage,and the differences were not significant between the two rice types at heading,but were greater in the former than the latter after heading.The root-shoot ratio at each growth stage,root bleedings from heading to maturity,grain-leaf ratio,translocation percentage of the matter from stems and sheaths and harvest index of super-high-yielding rice were greater than those of CK.The indexes for the growth and development of SHY mid-season rice population were suggested,i.e.total spikelets>4.5×104/m2,filled-grain percentage>90%,1 000-grain weight>26 g;ratio of productive tillers>80%,leaf area index at heading 7.5-8.0,photosynthetic potential during the whole growth period >22 t/hm2,harvest index>0.51;grain-leaf ratio (number of spikelets per cm2 leaf area)>0.58;root-shoot ratio at heading tion approaches and key cultivation techniques for raising the

  14. High-throughput genotyping of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutants using fluorescent PCR-capillary gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlee, Muhammad Khairul; Yan, Tingdong; Cheung, Alice M. S.; Chuah, Charles T. H.; Li, Shang

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the engineering of sequence-specific synthetic nucleases provide enormous opportunities for genetic manipulation of gene expression in order to study their cellular function in vivo. However, current genotyping methods to detect these programmable nuclease-induced insertion/deletion (indel) mutations in targeted human cells are not compatible for high-throughput screening of knockout clones due to inherent limitations and high cost. Here, we describe an efficient method of genotyping clonal CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutants in a high-throughput manner involving the use of a direct lysis buffer to extract crude genomic DNA straight from cells in culture, and fluorescent PCR coupled with capillary gel electrophoresis. This technique also allows for genotyping of multiplexed gene targeting in a single clone. Overall, this time- and cost-saving technique is able to circumvent the limitations of current genotyping methods and support high-throughput screening of nuclease-induced mutants. PMID:26498861

  15. Nitrogen detected TROSY at high field yields high resolution and sensitivity for protein NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Koh [National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Molecular Profiling Research Center for Drug Discovery (Japan); Arthanari, Haribabu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Shimada, Ichio, E-mail: shimada@iw-nmr.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp [National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Molecular Profiling Research Center for Drug Discovery (Japan); Wagner, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard-wagner@hms.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Detection of {sup 15}N in multidimensional NMR experiments of proteins has sparsely been utilized because of the low gyromagnetic ratio (γ) of nitrogen and the presumed low sensitivity of such experiments. Here we show that selecting the TROSY components of proton-attached {sup 15}N nuclei (TROSY {sup 15}N{sub H}) yields high quality spectra in high field magnets (>600 MHz) by taking advantage of the slow {sup 15}N transverse relaxation and compensating for the inherently low {sup 15}N sensitivity. The {sup 15}N TROSY transverse relaxation rates increase modestly with molecular weight but the TROSY gain in peak heights depends strongly on the magnetic field strength. Theoretical simulations predict that the narrowest line width for the TROSY {sup 15}N{sub H} component can be obtained at 900 MHz, but sensitivity reaches its maximum around 1.2 GHz. Based on these considerations, a {sup 15}N-detected 2D {sup 1}H–{sup 15}N TROSY-HSQC ({sup 15}N-detected TROSY-HSQC) experiment was developed and high-quality 2D spectra were recorded at 800 MHz in 2 h for 1 mM maltose-binding protein at 278 K (τ{sub c} ∼ 40 ns). Unlike for {sup 1}H detected TROSY, deuteration is not mandatory to benefit {sup 15}N detected TROSY due to reduced dipolar broadening, which facilitates studies of proteins that cannot be deuterated, especially in cases where production requires eukaryotic expression systems. The option of recording {sup 15}N TROSY of proteins expressed in H{sub 2}O media also alleviates the problem of incomplete amide proton back exchange, which often hampers the detection of amide groups in the core of large molecular weight proteins that are expressed in D{sub 2}O culture media and cannot be refolded for amide back exchange. These results illustrate the potential of {sup 15}N{sub H}-detected TROSY experiments as a means to exploit the high resolution offered by high field magnets near and above 1 GHz.

  16. High Yield Synthesis of Aspect Ratio Controlled Graphenic Materials from Anthracite Coal in Supercritical Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Henry, Lucile; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Huang, Kai; Das, Riddha; Giroire, Baptiste; Marre, Samuel; Rotello, Vincent M; Penicaud, Alain; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2016-05-24

    This paper rationalizes the green and scalable synthesis of graphenic materials of different aspect ratios using anthracite coal as a single source material under different supercritical environments. Single layer, monodisperse graphene oxide quantum dots (GQDs) are obtained at high yield (55 wt %) from anthracite coal in supercritical water. The obtained GQDs are ∼3 nm in lateral size and display a high fluorescence quantum yield of 28%. They show high cell viability and are readily used for imaging cancer cells. In an analogous experiment, high aspect ratio graphenic materials with ribbon-like morphology (GRs) are synthesized from the same source material in supercritical ethanol at a yield of 6.4 wt %. A thin film of GRs with 68% transparency shows a surface resistance of 9.3 kΩ/sq. This is apparently the demonstration of anthracite coal as a source for electrically conductive graphenic materials.

  17. High Resolution Melt (HRM analysis is an efficient tool to genotype EMS mutants in complex crop genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochlainn Seosamh Ó

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted Induced Loci Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING is increasingly being used to generate and identify mutations in target genes of crop genomes. TILLING populations of several thousand lines have been generated in a number of crop species including Brassica rapa. Genetic analysis of mutants identified by TILLING requires an efficient, high-throughput and cost effective genotyping method to track the mutations through numerous generations. High resolution melt (HRM analysis has been used in a number of systems to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and insertion/deletions (IN/DELs enabling the genotyping of different types of samples. HRM is ideally suited to high-throughput genotyping of multiple TILLING mutants in complex crop genomes. To date it has been used to identify mutants and genotype single mutations. The aim of this study was to determine if HRM can facilitate downstream analysis of multiple mutant lines identified by TILLING in order to characterise allelic series of EMS induced mutations in target genes across a number of generations in complex crop genomes. Results We demonstrate that HRM can be used to genotype allelic series of mutations in two genes, BraA.CAX1a and BraA.MET1.a in Brassica rapa. We analysed 12 mutations in BraA.CAX1.a and five in BraA.MET1.a over two generations including a back-cross to the wild-type. Using a commercially available HRM kit and the Lightscanner™ system we were able to detect mutations in heterozygous and homozygous states for both genes. Conclusions Using HRM genotyping on TILLING derived mutants, it is possible to generate an allelic series of mutations within multiple target genes rapidly. Lines suitable for phenotypic analysis can be isolated approximately 8-9 months (3 generations from receiving M3 seed of Brassica rapa from the RevGenUK TILLING service.

  18. Metabolic characterization of high- and low-yielding strains of Penicillium chrysogenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke; Thykær, Jette; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed method for analyzing metabolic networks using C-13-labels was employed for investigating the metabolism of a high- and a low-yielding strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. Under penicillin-producing conditions, the flux through the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway in the high...

  19. January 2012 DMM Podcast: histopathology in high-throughput phenotyping of mutant mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Paul Schofield, of Cambridge University, discusses the advantages of including histopathological analysis in large-scale mouse mutant phenotyping pipelines. Narrated by Sarah E. Allan. To listen to this podcast, visit http://www.biologists.com/DMM/podcasts/index.html.

  20. Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanger, Paul; Klassen, Stephen; Mojica, Julius P.; Lovell, John T.; Moyers, Brook T.; Baraoidan, Marietta; Naredo, Maria Elizabeth B.; McNally, Kenneth L.; Poland, Jesse; Bush, Daniel R.; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E.; McKay, John K.

    2017-01-01

    To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar (IR64) with a landrace (Aswina), identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution. PMID:28220807

  1. Sputtering yields of carbon based materials under high particle flux with low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Nagase, A.; Dairaku, M.; Akiba, M.; Araki, M.; Okumura, Y.

    1995-04-01

    A new ion source which can produce high particle flux beams at low energies has been developed. This paper presents preliminary results on the sputtering yield of the carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFCs) measured with the new ion source. The sputtering yields of 1D and 2D CFCs, which are candidate materials for the divertor armour tiles, have been measured by the weight loss method under the hydrogen and deuterium particle fluxes of 2 ˜ 7 × 10 20/m 2 s at 50 ˜ 150 eV. Preferential sputtering of the matrix was observed on CFCs which included the matrix of 40 ˜ 60 w%. The energy dependence of the sputtering yields was weak. The sputtering yields of CFCs normally irradiated with deuterium beam were from 0.073 to 0.095, and were around three times larger than those with hydrogen beam.

  2. Introgression of High Yield Genes from Lycopersicon hirsutum acc. LA1777 Using CAPS Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong; WANG Xiao-xuan; SONG Ming; GAO Jian-chang; GUO Yan-mei; ZHU De-wei; DAI Shan-shu; DU Yong-chen

    2007-01-01

    The idea behind this study is to show that using high yield genes from a wild tomato can enrich tomato breeding resources and accelerate tomato breeding programs. In this study, the near-isogenic line TA1229 containing a 24-cM introgression at the bottom of chromosome 1 from Lycopersicon acc. LA1777, affects several higher yield traits. The TA1229 × 9706 BC1population was analyzed by marker-assisted selection and the traits of the population were evaluated. Twenty-three recombinant individuals that carried a shorter segment than TA1229 were obtained. Among them, 16 lines with the chromosome 1 recombinant segment can increase tomato yield and a QTL affecting yield was found between TG53 and TG158. Sixteen recombinant lines are useful to improve the tomato variety.

  3. Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanger, Paul; Klassen, Stephen; Mojica, Julius P; Lovell, John T; Moyers, Brook T; Baraoidan, Marietta; Naredo, Maria Elizabeth B; McNally, Kenneth L; Poland, Jesse; Bush, Daniel R; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E; McKay, John K

    2017-02-21

    To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar (IR64) with a landrace (Aswina), identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution.

  4. A cytochrome c mutant with high electron transfer and antioxidant activities but devoid of apoptogenic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaev, Ziedulla Kh; Bodrova, Marina E; Chernyak, Boris V; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Kluck, Ruth M; Pereverzev, Mikhail O; Arseniev, Alexander S; Efremov, Roman G; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Mokhova, Elena N; Newmeyer, Donald D; Roder, Heinrich; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2002-01-01

    A cytochrome c mutant lacking apoptogenic function but competent in electron transfer and antioxidant activities has been constructed. To this end, mutant species of horse and yeast cytochromes c with substitutions in the N-terminal alpha-helix or position 72 were obtained. It was found that yeast cytochrome c was much less effective than the horse protein in activating respiration of rat liver mitoplasts deficient in endogenous cytochrome c as well as in inhibition of H(2)O(2) production by the initial segment of the respiratory chain of intact rat heart mitochondria. The major role in the difference between the horse and yeast proteins was shown to be played by the amino acid residue in position 4 (glutamate in horse, and lysine in yeast; horse protein numbering). A mutant of the yeast cytochrome c containing K4E and some other "horse" modifications in the N-terminal alpha-helix, proved to be (i) much more active in electron transfer and antioxidant activity than the wild-type yeast cytochrome c and (ii), like the yeast cytochrome c, inactive in caspase stimulation, even if added in 400-fold excess compared with the horse protein. Thus this mutant seems to be a good candidate for knock-in studies of the role of cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis, in contrast with the horse K72R, K72G, K72L and K72A mutant cytochromes that at low concentrations were less active in apoptosis than the wild-type, but were quite active when the concentrations were increased by a factor of 2-12. PMID:11879204

  5. Controlled Fabrication of High-Yield CdS Nanostructures by Compartment Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Green

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High-yield, high-purity CdS nanostructures were synthesized in a turf-like configuration using an improved vapor-liquid-solid method. To increase the yield, a compartment arrangement was employed. The specific kind of nanostructure fabricated was found to be directly dependent on the temperature in the compartment. Along with the high-yield growth of CdS nanorods, nanowires, and nanobelts, intertwined structures were also observed, and the electron field emission property of the intertwined structures was investigated and compared with that of other type of nanostructures. Photoluminescence measurements at 10 K showed a peak emission from the CdS nanostructures at 485 nm.

  6. A quantitative method for defining high-arched palate using the Tcof1(+/-) mutant mouse as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Zachary R; Hague, Molly; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Dixon, Jill; Dixon, Michael J; Trainor, Paul A

    2016-07-15

    The palate functions as the roof of the mouth in mammals, separating the oral and nasal cavities. Its complex embryonic development and assembly poses unique susceptibilities to intrinsic and extrinsic disruptions. Such disruptions may cause failure of the developing palatal shelves to fuse along the midline resulting in a cleft. In other cases the palate may fuse at an arch, resulting in a vaulted oral cavity, termed high-arched palate. There are many models available for studying the pathogenesis of cleft palate but a relative paucity for high-arched palate. One condition exhibiting either cleft palate or high-arched palate is Treacher Collins syndrome, a congenital disorder characterized by numerous craniofacial anomalies. We quantitatively analyzed palatal perturbations in the Tcof1(+/-) mouse model of Treacher Collins syndrome, which phenocopies the condition in humans. We discovered that 46% of Tcof1(+/-) mutant embryos and new born pups exhibit either soft clefts or full clefts. In addition, 17% of Tcof1(+/-) mutants were found to exhibit high-arched palate, defined as two sigma above the corresponding wild-type population mean for height and angular based arch measurements. Furthermore, palatal shelf length and shelf width were decreased in all Tcof1(+/-) mutant embryos and pups compared to controls. Interestingly, these phenotypes were subsequently ameliorated through genetic inhibition of p53. The results of our study therefore provide a simple, reproducible and quantitative method for investigating models of high-arched palate.

  7. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization on population dynamics and yield of high-yielding wheat and on alteration of soil nitrogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, You-Liang; Wang, Gui-Liang; Zhu, Yun-Ji; Li, Huan-Huan; Huang, Yu-Fang

    2010-02-01

    Taking wheat varieties Yumai 49-198 (multi-spike phenotype) and Lankao Aizao 8 (large-spike phenotype) as test materials, field experiments were conducted at Wenxian and Lankao sites of Henan Province to study the effects of nitrogen fertilization on their population dynamics and yield and on the alteration of soil nitrogen. Five nitrogen application rates, i. e., 0, 90, 180, 270, and 360 N kg x hm(-2) were installed. The population amount of the two test varieties were all increased after emergence, reached the highest at jointing stage, and decreased afterwards. As for Yumai 49-198, its population amount had no significant differences at wintering and turning-green stages among the five nitrogen application rates and two experimental sites, but differed significantly after jointing stage with the nitrogen application rates. For Lankao Aizao 8, its population amount had no significant differences among the nitrogen application rates during whole growth period. The grain yield of the two varieties increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilization rate, but excessive nitrogen fertilization decreased the grain yield. Yumai 49-198 had the highest yield at 270 N kg x hm(-2), being 9523 and 9867 kg x hm(-2) at Wenxian and Lanako sites, respectively, while Lankao Aizao 8 had the highest yield at 180 N kg x hm(-2), being 9258 and 9832 kg x hm(-2) at Wenxian and Lanako sites, respectively. With the increase of nitrogen fertilization rate, soil nitrate N concentration and apparent nitrogen loss increased. At Wenxian and Lankao sites, the apparent soil nitrogen loss for Yumai 49-198 was 32.56% - 51.84% and - 16.7% - 42.6% of fertilized nitrogen, and that for Lankao Aizao 8 was 18.58% - 52.94% and - 11.5% - 45.8% of fertilized nitrogen, respectively. Considering the yield and environmental effect comprehensively, the nitrate N concentration in 0-90 cm soil layer in our case should not be exceeded 120 - 140 kg x hm(-2), and the maximal nitrogen application rate should not

  8. A New High-Yielding Two-line Hybrid Rice Variety - Peiliang You 981

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Peiliang You 981 (also called 98 Guangzhi 1 or Peiliang You Guangzhi 1) is a late-season two-line indica hybrid rice variety with high yield and late maturity. Pei'ai 64S is the female parent and R981 (Guang 1) is the male parent of Peiliang You 981. The hybrid showed its characters of high and stable yield and wide adaptability in the variety trials and demonstration production in the recent years, and it was released in March 2002 by Hunan Crop Varieties Release Committee.

  9. Property Evaluation Method Using Spherical Indentation for High-Yield Strength Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Youngsick; Marimuthu, Karuppasamy Pandian; Lee, Hyungyil [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Haeng [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we propose a method to evaluate the material properties of high-yield strength materials exceeding 10GPa from spherical indentation. Using a regression equation considering four indentation variables, we map the load displacement relation into a stress-strain relation. To calculate the properties of high-strength materials, we then write a program that produces material properties using the loading / unloading data from the indentation test. The errors in material properties computed by the program are within 0.3, 0.8, and 6.4 for the elastic modulus, yield strength, and hardening coefficient, respectively.

  10. Property evaluation method using spherical indentation for high-yield strength materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Sick; Marimuthu, Karuppasamy Pandian; Lee, Hyung Yil [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Haeng [Reactor Mechanical Engineering Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we propose a method to evaluate the material properties of high-yield strength materials exceeding 10 GPa from spherical indentation. Using a regression equation considering four indentation variables, we map the load displacement relation into a stress-strain relation. To calculate the properties of high-strength materials, we then write a program that produces material properties using the loading / unloading data from the indentation test. The errors in material properties computed by the program are within 0.3, 0.8, and 6.4 for the elastic modulus, yield strength, and hardening coefficient, respectively.

  11. Characterization of high-yield performance as affected by genotype and environment in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song CHEN; Fang-rong ZENG; Zong-zhi PAO; Guo-ping ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    We characterized yield-relevant characters and their variations over genotypes and environments (locations and years) by examining two rice varieties (9746 and Jinfeng) with high yield potential.9746 and Jinfeng were planted in two locations of Shanghai,China,during 2005 and 2006.The results show that there was a large variation in grain yield between locations and years.The realization of high yield potential for the two types of rice was closely related to the improved sink size,such as more panicles per square meter or grains per panicle.Stem and leaf biomasses were mainly accumulated from tillering stage to heading stage,and showed slow decline during grain filling.Meanwhile,some photosynthetic characters including net photosynthesis rate (Pn),leaf area index (LAI),specific leaf area (SLA),fluorescence parameter (maximum quantum yield of PSII,Fv/Fm),chlorophyll content (expressed as SPAD value),as well as nutrient (N,P,K) uptake were also measured to determine their variations over genotypes and environments and their relationships with grain yield.Although there were significant differences between years or locations for most measurements,SLA at tillering and heading stages,Fv/Fm and LAI at heading stage,stem biomass at heading and maturity stages,and leaf nitrogen concentration at tillering and heading stages remained little changed,indicating their pos-sible applications as selectable characters in breeding programs.It was also found that stem nitrogen accumulation at tillering stage is one of the most important and stable traits for high yield formation.

  12. Yield behaviour associated with stacking faults in a high-temperature annealed ultra-low carbon high manganese steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Liming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Fan, Likun [Shanghai Research Institute of Materials, 99 Handan Road, Shanghai, 200437 (China); Li, Zhigang; Sun, Nairong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Wang, Huanrong; Wang, Wei [Baosteel Research Institute, 889 Fujin Road, Shanghai, 201900 (China); Shan, Aidang, E-mail: adshan@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2013-10-10

    This paper investigated the tensile behaviour of high-temperature annealed ultra-low carbon high manganese steel with 42 vol% delta-ferrite. The results show that the tensile stress-strain curve of plastic deformation exhibits three distinct stages of deformation: a yielding stage with a remarkably large elongation and a positive strain-hardening rate, a second stage in which the strain-hardening rate rapidly increases, and a third stage in which the strain-hardening rate slowly increase. The yield plateau is intrinsically associated with the increasing formation of strain-induced stacking faults. The stacking faults quickly form during yield deformation, and the yield elongation monotonically increases with the extent of the stacking faults. The localised strain concentration of delta-ferrite and the heterogeneous strain partitioning between harder delta-ferrite and softer austenite play important roles in the rapid formation of stacking faults during strain at the yield plateau, which is an important prerequisite for this yielding phenomenon. The results and analysis demonstrate that the rapid and then slow hardening deformation after the yield plateau result from strain-induced transformation and deformation twinning, respectively.

  13. Membrane Vesicles Released by a hypervesiculating Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 tolR Mutant Are Highly Heterogeneous and Show Reduced Capacity for Epithelial Cell Interaction and Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cruz, Carla; Cañas, María-Alexandra; Giménez, Rosa; Badia, Josefa; Mercade, Elena; Aguilera, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Membrane vesicles (MVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria are being explored for novel clinical applications due to their ability to deliver active molecules to distant host cells, where they can exert immunomodulatory properties. MVs released by the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are good candidates for testing such applications. However, a drawback for such studies is the low level of MV isolation from in vitro culture supernatants, which may be overcome by the use of mutants in cell envelope proteins that yield a hypervesiculation phenotype. Here, we confirm that a tolR mutation in EcN increases MV production, as determined by protein, LPS and fluorescent lipid measurements. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of negatively stained MVs did not reveal significant differences with wild type EcN MVs. Conversely, TEM observation after high-pressure freezing followed by freeze substitution of bacterial samples, together with cryo-TEM observation of plunge-frozen hydrated isolated MVs showed considerable structural heterogeneity in the EcN tolR samples. In addition to common one-bilayer vesicles (OMVs) and the recently described double-bilayer vesicles (O-IMVs), other types of MVs were observed. Time-course experiments of MV uptake in Caco-2 cells using rhodamine- and DiO-labelled MVs evidenced that EcN tolR MVs displayed reduced internalization levels compared to the wild-type MVs. The low number of intracellular MVs was due to a lower cell binding capacity of the tolR-derived MVs, rather than a different entry pathway or mechanism. These findings indicate that heterogeneity of MVs from tolR mutants may have a major impact on vesicle functionality, and point to the need for conducting a detailed structural analysis when MVs from hypervesiculating mutants are to be used for biotechnological applications. PMID:28036403

  14. Cloning and Expression of Gene Responsible for High-Tillering Dwarf Phenotype in Indica Rice Mutant gsor23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-jiang YUAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High-tillering dwarf mutant gsor23 was generated from an indica rice variety Indica9 radiatied by γ-ray. Genetic analysis showed that this phenotype was controlled by one single recessive gene, which was mapped within a physical distance of 386 kb between two insertion-deletion (InDel markers C1-WT2 and C1-WT4 on the long arm of chromosome 1. There is a known gene D10 within this region, the mutation of which causes high-tillering in rice. Sequence analysis of the D10 allele in gsor23 revealed that the base cytosine (C at the 404th position in the coding region was deleted, which would cause frameshift mutation after the 134th amino acids. The mutation site and indica background of gsor23 were different from the previously reported japonica mutants d10-1 and d10-2. Therefore, gsor23 is a novel allelic mutant of D10 which encodes the carotenoid-cleaving dioxygenase 8 (CCD8, a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the new plant hormone strigolactones (SLs. After treatment with GR24, a synthetic analogue of SLs, the high-tillering phenotype of gsor23 was restored to normal. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that D10 expression was high in roots, but low in leaves. Compared with the wild type Indica9, the expression of the SL biosynthesis gene D10 was upregulated, while genes likely involved in the SL signal transduction pathway such as D3 and D14 were down-regulated in the gsor23 mutant.

  15. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the OLE-1 high-oleic castor seed (Ricinus communis L.) mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Sánchez, Rosario; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2016-07-01

    The natural OLE-1 high-oleic castor mutant has been characterized, demonstrating that point mutations in the FAH12 gene are responsible for the high-oleic phenotype. The contribution of each mutation was evaluated by heterologous expression in yeast, and lipid studies in developing OLE-1 seeds provided new evidence of unusual fatty acids channeling into TAGs. Ricinus communis L. is a plant of the Euphorbiaceae family well known for producing seeds whose oil has a very high ricinoleic (12-hydroxyoctadecenoic) acid content. Castor oil is considered the only commercially renewable source of hydroxylated fatty acids, which have many applications as chemical reactants. Accordingly, there has been great interest in the field of plant lipid biotechnology to define how ricinoleic acid is synthesized, which could also provide information that might serve to increase the content of other unusual fatty acids in oil crops. Accordingly, we set out to study the biochemistry of castor oil synthesis by characterizing a natural castor bean mutant deficient in ricinoleic acid synthesis (OLE-1). This mutant accumulates high levels of oleic acid and displays remarkable alterations in its seed lipid composition. To identify enzymes that are critical for this phenotype in castor oil, we cloned and sequenced the oleate desaturase (FAD2) and hydroxylase (FAH12) genes from wild-type and OLE-1 castor bean plants and analyzed their expression in different tissues. Heterologous expression in yeast confirmed that three modifications to the OLE-1 FAH12 protein were responsible for its weaker hydroxylase activity. In addition, we studied the expression of the genes involved in this biosynthetic pathway at different developmental stages, as well as that of other genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, both in wild-type and mutant seeds.

  16. Mechanical model for yield strength of nanocrystalline materials under high strain rate loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱荣涛; 周剑秋; 马璐; 张振忠

    2008-01-01

    To understand the high strain rate deformation mechanism and determine the grain size,strain rate and porosity dependent yield strength of nanocrystalline materials,a new mechanical model based on the deformation mechanism of nanocrystalline materials under high strain rate loading was developed.As a first step of the research,the yield behavior of the nanocrystalline materials under high strain rate loading was mainly concerned in the model and uniform deformation was assumed for simplification.Nanocrystalline materials were treated as composites consisting of grain interior phase and grain boundary phase,and grain interior and grain boundary deformation mechanisms under high strain rate loading were analyzed,then Voigt model was applied to coupling grain boundary constitutive relation with mechanical model for grain interior phase to describe the overall yield mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline materials.The predictions by the developed model on the yield strength of nanocrysatlline materials at high strain rates show good agreements with various experimental data.Further discussion was presented for calculation results and relative experimental observations.

  17. High-throughput quantitative analysis with cell growth kinetic curves for low copy number mutant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, James Z; Gabos, Stephan; Huang, Biao; Pan, Tianhong; Huang, Min; Chen, Jie

    2012-10-01

    The mutation rate in cells induced by environmental genotoxic hazards is very low and difficult to detect using traditional cell counting assays. The established genetic toxicity tests currently recognized by regulatory authorities, such as conventional Ames and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) assays, are not well suited for higher-throughput screening as they require large amounts of test compounds and are very time consuming. In this study, we developed a novel cell-based assay for quantitative analysis of low numbers of cell copies with HPRT mutation induced by an environmental mutagen. The HPRT gene mutant cells induced by the mutagen were selected by 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and the cell's kinetic growth curve monitored by a real-time cell electronic sensor (RT-CES) system. When a threshold is set at a certain cell index (CI) level, samples with different initial mutant cell copies take different amounts of time in order for their growth (or CI accumulation) to cross this threshold. The more cells that are initially seeded in the test well, the faster the cell accumulation and therefore the shorter the time required to cross this threshold. Therefore, the culture time period required to cross the threshold of each sample corresponds to the original number of cells in the sample. A mutant cell growth time threshold (MT) value of each sample can be calculated to predict the number of original mutant cells. For mutagenesis determination, the RT-CES assay displayed an equal sensitivity (p > 0.05) and coefficients of variation values with good correlation to conventional HPRT mutagenic assays. Most importantly, the RT-CES mutation assay has a higher throughput than conventional cellular assays.

  18. Use of Iron Powder to Obtain High Yields of Leptothrix Sheaths in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Suzuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Leptothrix species, Fe-oxidizing bacteria, produce an extracellular, microtubular sheath with a complicated organic–inorganic hybrid nature. We have discovered diverse industrial functions for this material, e.g., electrode material for Li-ion batteries, catalyst enhancers, pigments, plant growth promoters, and plant protectants. To consistently obtain material with the qualitative and quantitative stability needed for industrial applications, we focused on developing an optimum culture system for sheath synthesis by the Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1. Although we have used Fe plates as an Fe source in the liquid silicon-glucose-peptone medium (SGP, the plates do not yield a consistent quality or precise mass, and formation of Fe-encrusted sheath is restricted to a surface of the plates, which limits harvest yield. In this study, to obtain a high yield of sheaths, we cultured OUMS1 in SGP supplemented with Fe powders. The addition of Fe powders to the medium (up to 14.0 g/L did not adversely influence growth of OUMS1. The final yield of sheaths was about 10-fold greater than in the Fe plate culture. The sheaths also maintained a microtubular form and crystalline texture similar to those produced on Fe plates in SGP. The results proved the usefulness of Fe powder for consistently high yields of Fe-encrusted sheaths of stable quality.

  19. Nuclear, Virescent Mutants of Zea mays L. with High Levels of Chlorophyll (a/b) Light-Harvesting Complex during Thylakoid Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacco, M L; Chang, M T; Neuffer, M G

    1985-04-01

    We have found nuclear, recessive mutants in Zea mays L. where assembly of the major chlorophyll (a/b) light-harvesting complex (LHC) was not delayed relative to most other thylakoid protein complexes during thylakoid biogenesis. This contrasts with the normal development of maize chloroplasts (NR Baker, R Leech 1977 Plant Physiol 60: 640-644). All four mutants examined were allelic and virescent, and displayed visibly higher yields of leaf Chl fluorescence during greening. Fully greened mutants had normal leaf Chl fluorescence yield and normal levels of LHC, and grew to maturity under field conditions. Therefore, delayed LHC assembly is not an obligate feature of thylakoid differentiation.Assigning the molecular basis for the mutation should provide information concerning reguation of LHC assembly. Several possibilities are discussed. The pleiotropic mutant phenotype is not attributable to defects in thylakoid glycerolipid synthesis. Thylakoids isolated from greening mutant leaf sections had elevated glycerolipid/Chl ratios. In addition, both the molar distribution and acyl composition of four major glycerolipids were normal for developing mutant thylakoids.

  20. Nuclear, Virescent Mutants of Zea mays L. with High Levels of Chlorophyll (a/b) Light-Harvesting Complex during Thylakoid Assembly 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacco, Mary L.; Chang, M. T.; Neuffer, M. Gerald

    1985-01-01

    We have found nuclear, recessive mutants in Zea mays L. where assembly of the major chlorophyll (a/b) light-harvesting complex (LHC) was not delayed relative to most other thylakoid protein complexes during thylakoid biogenesis. This contrasts with the normal development of maize chloroplasts (NR Baker, R Leech 1977 Plant Physiol 60: 640-644). All four mutants examined were allelic and virescent, and displayed visibly higher yields of leaf Chl fluorescence during greening. Fully greened mutants had normal leaf Chl fluorescence yield and normal levels of LHC, and grew to maturity under field conditions. Therefore, delayed LHC assembly is not an obligate feature of thylakoid differentiation. Assigning the molecular basis for the mutation should provide information concerning reguation of LHC assembly. Several possibilities are discussed. The pleiotropic mutant phenotype is not attributable to defects in thylakoid glycerolipid synthesis. Thylakoids isolated from greening mutant leaf sections had elevated glycerolipid/Chl ratios. In addition, both the molar distribution and acyl composition of four major glycerolipids were normal for developing mutant thylakoids. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16664140

  1. Analysis of SSLP and Soluble Protein Contents in Leaves of Mutants Induced by High Pressure in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEXiu-ying; XuShi-ping; LIAoYao-ping; MAOXing-xue; WENGKe-nan; CHENZhao-ming; CHENYue-han; XIAOWan-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Rice variety Yuexiangzhan and its mutants induced by high pressure were studied using microsatellite markers and soluble protein content analyses. Eleven of the 88 microsatellite primer pairs showed evident polymorphisms repeatedly, and the polymorphic frequencies wcrc 3.4-11.3% between the mutants and Yuexiangzhan. The polymorphic markers were randomly located on chromosomes. The more similar the plant types of the mutants like their original variety., the less polymorphic loci were detected. In addition, there was variation in the soluble protein contents among the leaves of mutants, and the contents were significantly lower than those of the original variety.

  2. 板栗丰产栽培技术%High-yield Cultivation Technology of Chestnuts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明杰; 于海洋; 孙少娟; 吴岩

    2011-01-01

    In view of the biological characteristics of chestnuts, several key technical points of high-yield cultivation of chestnuts are presented.%针对板栗的生物学特性,对栗树的丰产栽培提出几项技术要点。

  3. Surrogate models for identifying robust, high yield regions of parameter space for ICF implosion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbird, Kelli; Peterson, J. Luc; Brandon, Scott; Field, John; Nora, Ryan; Spears, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Next-generation supercomputer architecture and in-transit data analysis have been used to create a large collection of 2-D ICF capsule implosion simulations. The database includes metrics for approximately 60,000 implosions, with x-ray images and detailed physics parameters available for over 20,000 simulations. To map and explore this large database, surrogate models for numerous quantities of interest are built using supervised machine learning algorithms. Response surfaces constructed using the predictive capabilities of the surrogates allow for continuous exploration of parameter space without requiring additional simulations. High performing regions of the input space are identified to guide the design of future experiments. In particular, a model for the yield built using a random forest regression algorithm has a cross validation score of 94.3% and is consistently conservative for high yield predictions. The model is used to search for robust volumes of parameter space where high yields are expected, even given variations in other input parameters. Surrogates for additional quantities of interest relevant to ignition are used to further characterize the high yield regions. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL-ABS-697277.

  4. Comparing high density LIDAR and medium resolution GPS generated elevation data for predicting yield stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    High density light detection and ranging (LIDAR) imaging has been shown to be able to define yield stability areas of a field for multi-cropping. Since LIDAR imaging is expensive and not widely available, we hypothesized that medium resolution GPS elevation data which is commonly collected with var...

  5. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  6. 31 CFR 356.21 - How are awards at the high yield or discount rate calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are awards at the high yield or discount rate calculated? 356.21 Section 356.21 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT SALE...

  7. Engineering of High Yield Production of L-serine in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundhada, Hemanshu; Schneider, Konstantin; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre

    2016-01-01

    L-serine is a widely used amino acid that has been proposed as a potential building block biochemical. The high theoretical yield from glucose makes a fermentation based production attractive. In order to achieve this goal, serine degradation to pyruvate and glycine in E. coli MG1655 was prevente...

  8. Lab-on-Chip platform for high-yield electrofusion in droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeman, R.M.; Braak, ter P.M.; Bomer, J.G.; Berg, van den A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a microfluidic device, consisting of a microchannel structure in PDMS bonded to a glass substrate with recessed platinum electrodes. Our device is capable of successive high-yield single cell encapsulation in droplets, with additional droplet pairing, fusion, shrinkage an

  9. Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas Production from Organic Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logan, B.E.; Call, D.; Cheng, S.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Rozendal, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of electrochemically active bacteria to break down organic matter, combined with the addition of a small voltage (>0.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few

  10. Barbarasul: a high-yielding and lodging-resistant white oat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Irajá Félix de Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The white-oat cultivar Barbarasul was developed by the Universidade Federal de Pelotas. It resulted from across between UPF18 and CTC5. It is adapted to the southern region of Brazil, with excellent grain yield potential, shortstature and high lodging tolerance.

  11. Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas Production from Organic Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logan, B.E.; Call, D.; Cheng, S.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Rozendal, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of electrochemically active bacteria to break down organic matter, combined with the addition of a small voltage (>0.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few

  12. Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam : report of a workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, A.P.; Lee, van der J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of the workshop "Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam" which was held with Vietnamese stakeholders on January 17-18, 2013 in Ho Chi Minh City as part of the project "Forage and Grass Production for Dairy Development in Vietnam" funded by the

  13. High yield synthesis of high-silica chabazite by combining the role of zeolite precursors and tetraethylammonium: SCR of NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Nuria; Moliner, Manuel; Corma, Avelino

    2015-06-21

    The synthesis of chabazite with high solid yields is achieved by the rational combination of directing effects of a source of Si and Al coming from USY zeolites and the inexpensive tetraethylammonium. Moreover, Cu-CHA materials prepared by post-synthetic and "one-pot" methodologies show high activity and stability for SCR of NOx.

  14. Stable high-level transgene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana using gene silencing mutants and matrix attachment regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butaye, Katleen M J; Goderis, Inge J W M; Wouters, Piet F J; Pues, Jonathan M-T G; Delauré, Stijn L; Broekaert, Willem F; Depicker, Ann; Cammue, Bruno P A; De Bolle, Miguel F C

    2004-08-01

    Basic and applied research involving transgenic plants often requires consistent high-level expression of transgenes. However, high inter-transformant variability of transgene expression caused by various phenomena, including gene silencing, is frequently observed. Here, we show that stable, high-level transgene expression is obtained using Arabidopsis thaliana post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) sgs2 and sgs3 mutants. In populations of first generation (T1) A. thaliana plants transformed with a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) driven by the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (p35S), the incidence of highly expressing transformants shifted from 20% in wild type background to 100% in sgs2 and sgs3 backgrounds. Likewise, when sgs2 mutants were transformed with a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 6 gene under control of p35S, all transformants showed a clear phenotype typified by serrated leaves, whereas such phenotype was only observed in about one of five wild type transformants. p35S-driven uidA expression remained high and steady in T2 sgs2 and sgs3 transformants, in marked contrast to the variable expression patterns observed in wild type T2 populations. We further show that T-DNA constructs flanked by matrix attachment regions of the chicken lysozyme gene (chiMARs) cause a boost in GUS activity by fivefold in sgs2 and 12-fold in sgs3 plants, reaching up to 10% of the total soluble proteins, whereas no such boost is observed in the wild type background. MAR-based plant transformation vectors used in a PTGS mutant background might be of high value for efficient high-throughput screening of transgene-based phenotypes as well as for obtaining extremely high transgene expression in plants.

  15. High throughput screening for small molecule therapy for Gaucher disease using patient tissue as the source of mutant glucocerebrosidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Goldin

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD, the most common lysosomal storage disorder, results from the inherited deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase. Previously, wildtype GCase was used for high throughput screening (HTS of large collections of compounds to identify small molecule chaperones that could be developed as new therapies for GD. However, the compounds identified from HTS usually showed reduced potency later in confirmatory cell-based assays. An alternate strategy is to perform HTS on mutant enzyme to identify different lead compounds, including those enhancing mutant enzyme activities. We developed a new screening assay using enzyme extract prepared from the spleen of a patient with Gaucher disease with genotype N370S/N370S. In tissue extracts, GCase is in a more native physiological environment, and is present with the native activator saposin C and other potential cofactors. Using this assay, we screened a library of 250,000 compounds and identified novel modulators of mutant GCase including 14 new lead inhibitors and 30 lead activators. The activities of some of the primary hits were confirmed in subsequent cell-based assays using patient-derived fibroblasts. These results suggest that primary screening assays using enzyme extracted from tissues is an alternative approach to identify high quality, physiologically relevant lead compounds for drug development.

  16. High Throughput Sequencing Identifies Misregulated Genes in the Drosophila Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein (hephaestus) Mutant Defective in Spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Vinod; Heimiller, Joseph; Robida, Mark D; Singh, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (dmPTB or hephaestus) plays an important role during spermatogenesis. The heph2 mutation in this gene results in a specific defect in spermatogenesis, causing aberrant spermatid individualization and male sterility. However, the array of molecular defects in the mutant remains uncharacterized. Using an unbiased high throughput sequencing approach, we have identified transcripts that are misregulated in this mutant. Aberrant transcripts show altered expression levels, exon skipping, and alternative 5' ends. We independently verified these findings by reverse-transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Our analysis shows misregulation of transcripts that have been connected to spermatogenesis, including components of the actomyosin cytoskeletal apparatus. We show, for example, that the Myosin light chain 1 (Mlc1) transcript is aberrantly spliced. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis reveals that Mlc1 contains a high affinity binding site(s) for dmPTB and that the site is conserved in many Drosophila species. We discuss that Mlc1 and other components of the actomyosin cytoskeletal apparatus offer important molecular links between the loss of dmPTB function and the observed developmental defect in spermatogenesis. This study provides the first comprehensive list of genes misregulated in vivo in the heph2 mutant in Drosophila and offers insight into the role of dmPTB during spermatogenesis.

  17. Biogas production from high-yielding energy crops in boreal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppala, M.

    2013-11-01

    In this thesis, the methane production potential of traditional and novel energy crops was evaluated in boreal conditions. The highest methane yield per hectare was achieved with maize (4 000-9 200 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}) and the second highest with brown knapweed (2 700-6 100 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}). Recently, the most feasible energy crop, grass, produced 1 200-3 600 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}. The specific methane yields of traditional and novel energy crops varied from 170-500 l kg{sup -1} volatile solid (VS). The highest specific methane yields were obtained with maize, while the novel energy crops were at a lower range. The specific methane yields decreased in the later harvest time with maize and brown knapweed, and the specific methane yield of the grasses decreased from the 1st to 2nd harvests. Maize and brown knapweed produced the highest total solid (TS) yields per hectare 13-23 tTS ha{sup -1}, which were high when compared with the TS yields of grasses (6-13 tTS ha{sup -1}). The feasibility of maize and brown knapweed in co-digestion with liquid cow manure, in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR), was evaluated. According to the CSTR runs, maize and brown knapweed are suitable feeds and have stable processes, producing the highest methane yields (organic loading rate 2 kgVS m{sup -3}d{sup -1}), with maize at 259 l kgVS{sup -1} and brown knapweed at 254 l kgVS{sup -1}. The energy balance (input/output) of the cultivation of the grasses, maize and brown knapweed was calculated in boreal conditions, and it was better when the digestate was used as a fertilizer (1.8-4.8 %) than using chemical fertilizers (3.7-16.2 %), whose production is the most energy demanding process in cultivation. In conclusion, the methane production of maize, grasses and novel energy crops can produce high methane yields and are suitable feeds for anaerobic digestion. The cultivation managements of maize and novel energy crops for

  18. Enhancement of the sterile neutrinos yield at high matter density and at increasing the medium neutronization

    CERN Document Server

    Khruschov, V V; Nadyozhin, D K; Fomichev, S V

    2014-01-01

    The relative yields of active and sterile neutrinos in the matter with a high density and different degree of neutronization are calculated. A significant increase in the proportion of sterile neutrinos produced in superdense matter when approaching the medium neutronization degree to value of two is found. The results obtained can be used in the calculations of the neutrino fluxes for media with a high density and different neutronization degrees in astrophysical processes such as the formation of protoneutron core of a supernova.

  19. Microbial electrolysis cells for high yield hydrogen gas production from organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Bruce E; Call, Douglas; Cheng, Shaoan; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Sleutels, Tom H J A; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Rozendal, René A

    2008-12-01

    The use of electrochemically active bacteria to break down organic matter, combined with the addition of a small voltage (> 0.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few years ago, rapid developments have led to hydrogen yields approaching 100%, energy yields based on electrical energy input many times greater than that possible by water electrolysis, and increased gas production rates. MECs used to make hydrogen gas are similar in design to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that produce electricity, but there are important differences in architecture and analytical methods used to evaluate performance. We review here the materials, architectures, performance, and energy efficiencies of these MEC systems that show promise as a method for renewable and sustainable energy production, and wastewater treatment.

  20. Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas Production from Organic Matter

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2008-12-01

    The use of electrochemically active bacteria to break down organic matter, combined with the addition of a small voltage (>0.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few years ago, rapid developments have led to hydrogen yields approaching 100%, energy yields based on electrical energy input many times greater than that possible by water electrolysis, and increased gas production rates. MECs used to make hydrogen gas are similar in design to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that produce electricity, but there are important differences in architecture and analytical methods used to evaluate performance. We review here the materials, architectures, performance, and energy efficiencies of these MEC systems that show promise as a method for renewable and sustainable energy production, and wastewater treatment. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  1. Differential metabolite profiles during fruit development in high-yielding oil palm mesocarp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey Fang Teh

    Full Text Available To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes.

  2. Rice Breeding for High Grain Yield under Drought: A Strategic Solution to a Complex Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalabh Dixit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect rice production in rainfed areas. Recent trends in climate change have predicted a further increase in drought intensity, making the development of new drought-tolerant rice cultivars critical to sustain rice production in this ecosystem. The use of grain yield as a selection criterion at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, through proper population development and precise phenotyping techniques, has allowed the development of several high-yielding rice cultivars that have been released in major rainfed rice-growing areas. This strategy has also allowed the identification of several major quantitative trait loci (QTLs that show large effects under drought across environments and genetic backgrounds. These QTLs are being pyramided together to develop drought-tolerant versions of popular drought-susceptible varieties. The near-isogenic lines (NILs developed can replace the popular, high-yielding but drought-susceptible varieties in rainfed areas prone to drought. Additionally, these NILs serve as suitable genetic material for the study of molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying these QTLs. This may provide a better understanding of plant functions responsible for high grain yield under drought and lead to the identification of new traits and genes.

  3. High-Yield Production of Levulinic Acid from Pretreated Cow Dung in Dilute Acid Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialei Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste cow dung was used as feedstock for the production of a high value–added chemical levulinic acid (LA in dilute acid aqueous solutions. A high LA yield of 338.9 g/kg was obtained from the pretreated cow dung, which was much higher than that obtained from the crude cow dung (135 g/kg, mainly attributed to the breakage of the lignin fraction in the lignocellulose structure of the cow dung by potassium hydroxide (KOH pretreatment, and thus enhanced the accessibility of cow dung to the acid sites in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, another value-added chemical formic acid could be obtained with a yield of ca. 160 g/kg in the process, implying a total production of ca. 500 g/kg yield for LA and formic acid from the pretreated cow dung with the proposed process. The developed process was shown to be tolerant to high initial substrate loading with a satisfied LA yield. This work provides a promising strategy for the value-increment utilization of liglocellulosic agricultural residues.

  4. Screening of High Yield Strain for Tylosin%泰乐菌素高产菌株的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明明; 万丹; 徐玉崇; 刘迎宾; 张小红

    2015-01-01

    以弗氏链霉菌( Streptomyces fradiae ) TP-116菌株作为出发菌株,采用紫外线、氯化锂和微波三重复合诱变,通过泰乐菌素抗性定向筛选,获得一株高产菌株YBT-06,并对其进行了遗传稳定性试验,结果表明突变株YBT-06生产代谢旺盛,遗传稳定性好,发酵效价比出发菌株提高了25%,达到11066μg/mL。%Taking TP-116 strain of Streptomyces fradiae as a starting strain , using UV, lithium chloride and microwave triple compound mutagenesis , a high yield strainYBT-06 was got through the resistance of tylosin directional selection .The results on the genetic stability test showed that the mutant strain YBT -06 production metabolism exuberant , genetic stability was good , fermentation effect price had improved 25%than starting strains , reached 11066 μg/mL.

  5. Mapping of barley alpha-amylases and outer subsite mutants reveals dynamic high-affinity subsites and barriers in the long substrate binding cleft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandra, L.; Abou Hachem, Maher; Gyemant, G.;

    2006-01-01

    as binding barriers. Barley a-amylase I mutants Y105A and T212Y at subsite -6 and +4 resulted in release or anchoring of bound substrate, thus modifying the affinities of other high-affinity subsites (-2 and +2) and barriers. The double mutant Y105A-T212Y displayed a hybrid subsite affinity profile...

  6. Selected wild strains of Agaricus bisporus produce high yields of mushrooms at 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pilar; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    To cultivate the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus in warm countries or during summer in temperate countries, while saving energy, is a challenge that could be addressed by using the biological diversity of the species. The objective was to evaluate the yield potential of eight wild strains previously selected in small scale experiments for their ability to produce mature fruiting bodies at 25°C and above. Culture units of 8 kg of compost were used. The yield expressed as weight or number per surface unit and earliness of fruiting were recorded during cultivation in climatic rooms at 17, 25 or 30°C. Only strains of A. bisporus var. burnettii were able to fruit at 30°C. At 25°C they produced the highest yields (27 kg m(-2)) and had best earliness. The yields at 25°C for the strains of A. bisporus var. bisporus ranged from 12 to 16 kg m(-2). The yield ratios 25°C/17°C ranged from 0.8 to 1.2. The variety burnettii originated in the Sonoran Desert in California showed adaptation for quickly producing fruiting bodies at high temperature when humidity conditions were favorable. Strains of the variety bisporus showed interesting potentials for their ability to produce mature fruiting bodies at higher temperature than present cultivars and might be used in breeding programs. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of Lactococcus lactis mutants with improved performance at high temperatures and potential dairy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun

    (TM29) capable of growing at 40ºC was successfully isolated. By determining the temperature dependent growth rate profile, a shift of the optimum temperature from 30ºC to 36ºC was observed for TM29. Meanwhile, metabolic flux analysis revealed that TM29 was able to hold higher glucose consumption...... microarray analysis revealed apparent differences in the transcriptional response to heat between the mutant and parent. It was found that SNPs preceding gene groESL and ribU resulted in over-expression of chaperone proteins GroES-GroEL, and membrane associated riboflavin transporter protein RibU in TM29...

  8. Flow “Fine” Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The concept of flow “fine” synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow “fine” synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society. PMID:26337828

  9. Ultra-broadband nonlinear saturable absorption of high-yield MoS2 nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Zhang, Hang; Hu, Zhongliang; Qiao, Tian; He, Xin; Guo, Qiangbing; Tian, Xiangling; Chen, Zhi; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-07-29

    High-yield MoS2 nanosheets with strong nonlinear optical (NLO) responses in a broad near-infrared range were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The observation of saturable absorption, which was excited by the light with photon energy smaller than the gap energy of MoS2, can be attributed to the enhancement of the hybridization between the Mo d-orbital and S p-orbital by the oxygen incorporation into MoS2. High-yield MoS2 nanosheets with high modulation depth and large saturable intensity generated a stable, passively Q-switched fiber laser pulse at 1.56 μm. The high output power of 1.08 mW can be attained under a very low pump power of 30.87 mW. Compared to recently reported passively Q-switched fiber lasers utilizing exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets, the efficiency of the laser for our passive Q-switching operation is larger and reaches 3.50%. This research may extend the understanding on the NLO properties of MoS2 and indicate the feasibility of the high-yield MoS2 nanosheets to passively Q-switched fiber laser effectively at low pump strengths.

  10. Quantitative digital image analysis of chromogenic assays for high throughput screening of alpha-amylase mutant libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Manoharan; Priyadharshini, Ramachandran; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2009-08-01

    An image analysis-based method for high throughput screening of an alpha-amylase mutant library using chromogenic assays was developed. Assays were performed in microplates and high resolution images of the assay plates were read using the Virtual Microplate Reader (VMR) script to quantify the concentration of the chromogen. This method is fast and sensitive in quantifying 0.025-0.3 mg starch/ml as well as 0.05-0.75 mg glucose/ml. It was also an effective screening method for improved alpha-amylase activity with a coefficient of variance of 18%.

  11. Surface studies and implanted helium measurements following NOVA high-yield DT experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, M.A.; Hudson, G.B.

    1997-02-18

    This paper presents the results of three March 6, 1996 direct-drive high-yield DT NOVA experiments and provides `proof-of-principal` results for the quantitative measurement of energetic He ions. Semiconductor quality Si wafers and an amorphous carbon wafer were exposed to NOVA high-yield implosions. Surface damage was sub-micron in general, although the surface ablation was slightly greater for the carbon wafer than for the Si wafers. Melting of a thin ({approx} 0.1{mu}) layer of Si was evident from microscopic investigation. Electron microscopy indicated melted blobs of many different metals (e.g. Al, Au, Ta, Fe alloys, Cu and even Cd) on the surfaces. The yield measured by determining the numbers of atoms of implanted {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He indicate the number of DT fusions to be 9.1({plus_minus}2.3) X 10{sup 12} and DD fusions to be 4.8({plus_minus}1.0) x 10{sup 10}, respectively. The helium DT fusion yield is slightly lower than that of the Cu activation measurement, which was 1.3({plus_minus}0.l) x 10{sup 13} DT fusions.

  12. Use of a highly transparent zebrafish mutant for investigations in the development of the vertebrate auditory system (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniowiecki, Anna M.; Mattison, Scott P.; Kim, Sangmin; Riley, Bruce; Applegate, Brian E.

    2016-03-01

    Zebrafish, an auditory specialist among fish, offer analogous auditory structures to vertebrates and is a model for hearing and deafness in vertebrates, including humans. Nevertheless, many questions remain on the basic mechanics of the auditory pathway. Phase-sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography has been proven as valuable technique for functional vibrometric measurements in the murine ear. Such measurements are key to building a complete understanding of auditory mechanics. The application of such techniques in the zebrafish is impeded by the high level of pigmentation, which develops superior to the transverse plane and envelops the auditory system superficially. A zebrafish double mutant for nacre and roy (mitfa-/- ;roya-/- [casper]), which exhibits defects for neural-crest derived melanocytes and iridophores, at all stages of development, is pursued to improve image quality and sensitivity for functional imaging. So far our investigations with the casper mutants have enabled the identification of the specialized hearing organs, fluid-filled canal connecting the ears, and sub-structures of the semicircular canals. In our previous work with wild-type zebrafish, we were only able to identify and observe stimulated vibration of the largest structures, specifically the anterior swim bladder and tripus ossicle, even among small, larval specimen, with fully developed inner ears. In conclusion, this genetic mutant will enable the study of the dynamics of the zebrafish ear from the early larval stages all the way into adulthood.

  13. Dosage effect of high-amylose modifier gene(s) on the starch structure of maize amylose-extender mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongxin; Campbell, Mark; Wu, Yusheng; Du, Shuangkui; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2015-01-21

    The objective of this study was to investigate how dosages of high-amylose modifier (HAM) gene(s) affected the structure of maize amylose extender (ae) mutant starch. GEMS-0067 (G), a homozygous mutant of ae and the HAM gene(s), and H99ae (H), an ae single mutant, were self-pollinated or inter-crossed to produce maize endosperms of G/G, G/H, H/G, and H/H with 3, 2, 1, and 0 doses of HAM gene(s), respectively. Endosperm starch was fractionated into amylopectin, amylose, and intermediate component (IC) of large and small molecular weights using 1-butanol precipitation of amylose followed by gel-permeation chromatography. Increases in the dosage of HAM gene(s) from 0 to 3 decreased the amylopectin content. The HAM-gene dosage significantly changed the branch chain-length of small-molecular-weight IC, but had little effect on the branch chain-length distributions of amylopectin and large-molecular-weight IC and the molecular structure of amylose.

  14. Facile Alkaline Lysis of Escherichia coli Cells in High-Throughput Mode for Screening Enzyme Mutants: Arylsulfatase as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mei; Yang, Xiaolan; Li, Yuwei; Liu, Hongbo; Pu, Jun; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Liao, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Facile alkaline lysis of Escherichia coli cells in high-throughput (HTP) mode for screening enzyme mutants was tested with Pseudomonas aeruginosa arylsulfatase (PAAS). The alkaline lysis buffer was 1.0 M Tris-HCl at pH 9.0 plus 0.1 % Tween-20 and 2.0 mM 4-aminobenzamidine, mixed with cell suspension at 8:1 to 12:1 ratio for continuous agitation of mixtures in 96-well plates under room temperature; enzymatic activity in lysates was measured with 96-well microplate. PAAS activity tolerated final 0.1 % Tween-20. Individual clones were amplified for 12 h in 0.50 mL TB medium with 48-well plates to enhance the repeatability of induced expression. During continuous agitation of the mixture of cells and the lysis buffer, PAAS activities in lysates were steady from 3 to 9 h and comparable to sonication treatment but better than freezing-thawing. Coefficients of variation of activities of PAAS/mutants in lysates after treatment for 7 h reached ∼22 %. The mutant M72Q had specific activity 2-fold of G138S. By HTP lysis of cells, M72Q was recognized as a positive mutant over G138S with the area under the curve of 0.873. Therefore, for enzymes tolerating concentrated alkaline buffers, the proposed alkaline lysis approach may be generally applicable for HTP lysis of host cells during directed evolution.

  15. Study on Plant Morphological Traits and Production Characteristics of Super High-Yielding Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AO Xue; XIE Fu-ti; HAN Xiao-ri; ZHAO Ming-hui; ZHU Qian; LI Jie; ZHANG Hui-jun; WANG Hai-ying; YU Cui-mei; LI Chun-hong; YAO Xing-dong

    2013-01-01

    Super high-yielding soybean cultivar Liaodou 14, soybean cultivars from Ohio in the United States, and the common soybean cultivars from Liaoning Province, China, with similar geographic latitudes and identical pod-bearing habits were used as the study materials for a comparison of morphological traits and production characteristics to provide a theoretical basis for the breeding of improved super high-yielding soybean cultivars. Using a randomized block design, different soybean cultivars from the same latitude were compared under conventional and unconventional treatments for their production characteristics, including morphological traits, leaf area index (LAI), net photosynthesis rate, and dry matter accumulation. The specific characteristics of the super high-yielding soybean cultivar Liaodou 14 were analyzed. The results showed that the plant height of Liaodou 14 was significantly lower than that of the common cultivars from Liaoning, whereas the number of its main-stem nodes was higher than that of the cultivars from Ohio or Liaoning. A high pod density was observed in Liaodou 14 under conventional treatments. Under both conventional and unconventional treatments, the branch number of Liaodou 14 was markedly higher than that of the common cultivars from Liaoning, and its branch length and leaf inclination angle were significantly higher than those of common cultivars from Liaoning or Ohio. Only small changes in the leaf inclination angle were observed in Liaodou 14 treated with conventional or unconventional methods. Under each treatment, Liaodou 14 exhibited the lowest amplitude of reduction in SPAD values and net photosynthesis rates from the grain-filling to ripening stages;the cultivars from Ohio and the common cultivars from Liaoning exhibited more significant reductions. Liaodou 14 reached its peak LAI later than the other cultivars but maintained its LAI at a higher level for a longer duration. Under both conventional and unconventional treatments

  16. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-02-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications.

  17. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H. J.; Lim, J. H.; Woo, S. M.; Hwang, M. J.; Pyo, S. H.; Woo, J. S. [Phygen Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0{approx}2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0{approx}2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia

  18. High-Yield Solvothermal Formation of Magnetic CoPt Alloy Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zongtao [ORNL; Blom, Douglas Allen [ORNL; Gai, Zheng [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Shen, Jian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2003-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) magnetic nanomaterials have attracted much attention recently because of their applications in magnetic recording and spintronics. Nevertheless, it remains a challenge to prepare free-standing magnetic nanowires in high yield. This Communication reports the successful high-yield synthesis of an interesting 1D ferromagnetic CoPt alloy by direct decomposition of platinum acetylacetonate and cobalt carbonyl compound in ethylenediamine solvent through a solvothermal reaction. The CoPt alloy nanowires obtained have a tunable diameter of 10-50 nm and a length along the longitudinal axis of up to several microns, depending on crystallization temperature and reaction time. A unique formation mechanism involving coarsening and ripening under solvothermal conditions was discovered. This research opens new opportunities in synthesizing nanomaterials through low-temperature solvothermal processes.

  19. [Molecular ecological basis of high-yielding formation of rice and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenxiong; Liang, Kangjing; Guo, Yuchun; He, Huaqin; Wang, Jingyuan; Liang, Yiyuan; Chen, Fangyu

    2003-12-01

    This paper introduced the developmental genetics and its molecular ecological basis of high yielding formation of rice in the past decade, and analyzed the advantage and the shortage of comparative physiological approach traditionally used in the research work on crop cultivation. It was emphasized to actively introduce the research contents and its methodology from relative disciplines to deeply understand the scientific issue, and suggested that the key to realize stable and high yielding of rice was to develop a rational cultivation system based on the properties of genetic effects on the traits in different developmental stages by controlling and regulating the traits governed by dominant effect genes and additive effect genes x environment in same direction, which was considered as the main characteristics and the technological innovation of modern crop genetic ecological cultivation science. Finally, the development trend of crop cultivation science shifting to molecular crop cultivation science was predicted and discussed.

  20. Extracting DNA from 'jaws': High yield and quality from archived tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) skeletal material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Morgan, J. A T; Maher, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Archived specimens are highly valuable sources of DNA for retrospective genetic/genomic analysis. However, often limited effort has been made to evaluate and optimize extraction methods, which may be crucial for downstream applications. Here, we assessed and optimized the usefulness of abundant...... archived skeletal material from sharks as a source of DNA for temporal genomic studies. Six different methods for DNA extraction, encompassing two different commercial kits and three different protocols, were applied to material, so-called bio-swarf, from contemporary and archived jaws and vertebrae...... and vertebrae are potential high-yield sources of DNA for genomic-scale analysis. It also highlights that even for similar tissue types, a careful evaluation of extraction protocols can vastly improve DNA yield....

  1. High yield fabrication of chemically reduced graphene oxide field effect transistors by dielectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Daeha; Chunder, A; Zhai, Lei; Khondaker, Saiful I, E-mail: saiful@mail.ucf.edu [Nanoscience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States)

    2010-04-23

    We demonstrate high yield fabrication of field effect transistors (FET) using chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The RGO sheets suspended in water were assembled between prefabricated gold source and drain electrodes using ac dielectrophoresis. With the application of a backgate voltage, 60% of the devices showed p-type FET behavior, while the remaining 40% showed ambipolar behavior. After mild thermal annealing at 200 deg. C, all ambipolar RGO FET remained ambipolar with increased hole and electron mobility, while 60% of the p-type RGO devices were transformed to ambipolar. The maximum hole and electron mobilities of the devices were 4.0 and 1.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} respectively. High yield assembly of chemically derived RGO FET will have significant impact in scaled up fabrication of graphene based nanoelectronic devices.

  2. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Crow, Susan [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); DeBeryshe, Barbara [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ha, Richard [Hamakua Springs County Farms, Hilo, HI (United States); Jakeway, Lee [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Khanal, Samir [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Nakahata, Mae [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Ogoshi, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shimizu, Erik [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stern, Ivette [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turano, Brian [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yanagida, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  3. Prediction of failure strain and burst pressure in high yield-to-tensile strength ratio linepipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, M. [Institute of Materials and Engineering Science, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: mlx@ansto.gov.au; Bowie, G. [BlueScope Steel Ltd., Level 11, 120 Collins St, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia)

    2007-08-15

    Failure pressures and strains were predicted for a number of burst tests as part of a project to explore failure strain in high yield-to-tensile strength ratio linepipe. Twenty-three methods for predicting the burst pressure and six methods of predicting the failure strain are compared with test results. Several methods were identified which gave accurate and reliable estimates of burst pressure. No method of accurately predicting the failure strain was found, though the best was noted.

  4. Mutagenesis and Screening of High Yield Xylanase Production Strain of Aspergillus usamii by Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永泉; 陈时飞; 岑沛霖

    2003-01-01

    A high yield xylanase producing strain, A. usamii L336-23, was screened out from its parent strain A.usamii L336 after microwave irradiation. Its productivity of xylanase activity increased by 35.7% from 21000μ·m1-1 to 28500μ·m1-1 and was stable after frequent subcultures and storage for more than two months.The mechanism of microwave mutation was also discussed.

  5. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-09-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (phepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables.

  6. A novel medium devoid of ruminant peptone for high yield growth of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hiren; Mackintosh, David; Ayling, Roger D; Nicholas, Robin A J; Fielder, Mark D

    2008-03-18

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is considered an emerging veterinary pathogen causing pneumonia in sheep and goats worldwide. Currently it has not been possible to define a growth medium that yields the maximum growth of M. ovipneumoniae within a short incubation period. Growth yields of M. ovipneumoniae in Eaton's medium are variable and not as consistently high as those seen with other Mycoplasma spp. This study investigated the ability of different M. ovipneumoniae field strains to grow in various media formulations, where PPLO broth was replaced by a vegetable protein source, and comparisons were made in terms of strain viability in Eaton's medium. Studies were also conducted to determine the optimal carbohydrate source for use in the M. ovipneumoniae medium. Generally, it was found that different strains showed good growth in all media tested, with growth yields at 24h in TSB-1 medium higher than those observed with Eaton's medium. Growth yields reached 10(8) to 10(9)cfu ml(-1) within 24h for particular field strains, with all strains achieving this growth level within 48-72h.

  7. Some critical considerations on rice high-yielding breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lihong

    2007-01-01

    Views and comments concerning rice highyielding breeding in China had been touched upon:(1) historical development of rice breeding in China and its prominent contributions recounted;current challenges evolved from rapid population increase,erosion of key natural resources and socioeconomic changes envisaged;(2) concept of extra or super high-yielding rice breeding and related ideas embraced nowadays in the main rice-producing countries assessed;the conception of so-called superrice in China could have been misled and misunderstood,and no substantial genetical differences could be affirmed yet between superrice and modern high-yielding rice;(3) two strategical approaches of rice production and breeding in China would have been persistent in the construction of most favorable-to-growth rice fields to plant rice varieties with high-yielding potentiality as well as renovation and rejuvenation of less favorable rice fields to plant most adaptableto-ecoenvironment varieties with promising productivity;in addition,breeding for rice varieties compatible with the specific rice regions ridden by adverse ecoenvironments;(4) overview of the relationship between the development of genetical researches and the perspective of rice breeding;integration of the classical genetical principles and breeding methods and techniques wherefrom with molecular biotechniques underscored.Finally,appeal to the breeders to adhere to due attentions to the development of genetics and promote pragmatism and traditional ethic solemnly so as to live up to implementing the national rice breeding mandates.

  8. Synthesis of Luminescent Graphene Quantum Dots with High Quantum Yield and Their Toxicity Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jiang

    Full Text Available High fluorescence quantum yield graphene quantum dots (GQDs have showed up as a new generation for bioimaging. In this work, luminescent GQDs were prepared by an ameliorative photo-Fenton reaction and a subsequent hydrothermal process using graphene oxide sheets as the precursor. The as-prepared GQDs were nanomaterials with size ranging from 2.3 to 6.4 nm and emitted intense green luminescence in water. The fluorescence quantum yield was as high as 24.6% (excited at 340 nm and the fluorescence was strongest at pH 7. Moreover, the influences of low-concentration (12.5, 25 μg/mL GQDs on the morphology, viability, membrane integrity, internal cellular reactive oxygen species level and mortality of HeLa cells were relatively weak, and the in vitro imaging demonstrated GQDs were mainly in the cytoplasm region. More strikingly, zebrafish embryos were co-cultured with GQDs for in vivo imaging, and the results of heart rate test showed the intake of small amounts of GQDs brought little harm to the cardiovascular of zebrafish. GQDs with high quantum yield and strong photoluminescence show good biocompatibility, thus they show good promising for cell imaging, biolabeling and other biomedical applications.

  9. Economics of fertility in high-yielding dairy cows on confined TMR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, V E

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this review paper was to summarise the latest findings in dairy cattle reproductive economics with an emphasis on high yielding, confined total mixed ration systems. The economic gain increases as the reproductive efficiency improves. These increments follow the law of diminishing returns, but are still positive even at high reproductive performance. Reproductive improvement results in higher milk productivity and, therefore, higher milk income over feed cost, more calf sales and lower culling and breeding expenses. Most high-yielding herds in the United States use a combination of timed artificial insemination (TAI) and oestrous detection (OD) reproductive programme. The ratio of achievable pregnancies between OD and TAI determines the economic value difference between both and their combinations. Nonetheless, complex interactions between reproductive programme, herd relative milk yield, and type of reproductive programme are reported. For example, higher herd relative milk yield would favour programme relying more on TAI. In addition, improved reproductive efficiency produces extra replacements. The availability of additional replacements could allow more aggressive culling policies (e.g. less services for non-pregnant cows) to balance on-farm supply and demand of replacements. Balancing heifer replacement availability in an efficient reproductive programme brings additional economic benefits. New technologies such as the use of earlier chemical tests for pregnancy diagnosis could be economically effective depending on the goals and characteristics of the farm. Opportunities for individual cow reproductive management within defined reproductive programme exist. These decisions would be based on economic metrics derived from the value of a cow such as the value of a new pregnancy, the cost of a pregnancy loss, or the cost of an extra day open.

  10. Diagnostic Yield of High-Resolution Breast Sonography in Detecting Microcalcifications Compared to Mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ahmadinejad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Mammography remains the most suitable screening test in detecting microcalcifications as the earliest manifestation of breast malignancy. By means of highfrequency transducers yielding high-resolution breast imaging, some researchers have reported that ultrasonography is capable of depicting microcalcifications in the breast tissue. Therefore, this study has been designed to compare the diagnostic yield of high-resolution"nbreast ultrasonography (HRS versus conventional mammography."nPatients and Methods: Seventy-four consecutive patients who had breast microcalcifications (hyperdense foci < 0.5mm according to standard mammograms, without a prior history of breast disease, surgery, biopsy, chest wall radiation or systemic chemotherapy were enrolled. Considering mammograms as a reference, 46 patients without a mass, voluntarily underwent high-resolution bilateral breast ultrasonography."nResults: The mean age was 50.7±10 years (range, 35-85 years. The upper outer quadrant of the breast was the commonest place where microcalcifications were detected (36.9%. A relative frequency of 45.7% was reported for microcalcifications with breast imaging reporting"nand data system (BIRADS score 3. An overall 82.6% diagnostic yield was discovered for HRS in detecting microcalcifications; it detected all microcalcifications with BIRADS score 4 and 5, but 57.1% and 90.5% of microcalcifications with BIRADS score 2 and 3, respectively. Cluster microcalcification was the most common pattern (43.5%."nConclusion: Considering the 82.6% diagnostic yield of HRS compared to mammography, it can be proposed as the surrogate modality in locating microcalcifications in procedures such as biopsies and hook-wiring, with the advantage of reducing radiation exposure. HRS may be the future screening modality as a result of feasibility, safety, compliance and accuracy.

  11. Engineering of high yield production of L-serine in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhada, Hemanshu; Schneider, Konstantin; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2016-04-01

    L-serine is a widely used amino acid that has been proposed as a potential building block biochemical. The high theoretical yield from glucose makes a fermentation based production attractive. In order to achieve this goal, serine degradation to pyruvate and glycine in E. coli MG1655 was prevented by deletion of three L-serine deaminases sdaA, sdaB, and tdcG, as well as serine hydroxyl methyl transferase (SHMT) encoded by glyA. Upon overexpression of the serine production pathway, consisting of a feedback resistant version of serA along with serB and serC, this quadruple deletion strain showed a very high serine production yield (0.45 g/g glucose) during small-scale batch fermentation in minimal medium. Serine, however, was found to be highly toxic even at low concentrations to this strain, which lead to slow growth and production during fed batch fermentation, resulting in a serine production of 8.3 g/L. The production strain was therefore evolved by random mutagenesis to achieve increased tolerance towards serine. Additionally, overexpression of eamA, a cysteine/homoserine transporter was demonstrated to increase serine tolerance from 1.6 g/L to 25 g/L. During fed batch fermentation, the resulting strain lead to the serine production titer of 11.7 g/L with yield of 0.43 g/g glucose, which is the highest yield reported so far for any organism.

  12. A shutoff and exonuclease mutant of murine gammaherpesvirus-68 yields infectious virus and causes RNA loss in type I interferon receptor knockout cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Victoria; Polychronopoulos, Louise; Dutia, Bernadette M; Ebrahimi, Bahram

    2014-05-01

    Significant loss of RNA followed by severely reduced cellular protein pool, a phenomenon termed host shutoff, is associated with a number of lytic virus infections and is a critical player in viral pathogenesis. Until recently, viral DNA exonucleases were associated only with processing of viral genomic DNA and its encapsidation. However, recent observations have identified host shutoff and exonuclease function for the highly conserved viral exonucleases in γ-herpesviruses, which include Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus and the mouse model murine gammaherpesvirus-68, also referred to as MHV-68. In this study, we show that although ablation of the MHV-68 exonuclease ORF37 caused a restrictive phenotype in WT IFN-α/β receptor-positive cells such as NIH 3T3, lack of ORF37 was tolerated in cells lacking the IFN-α/β receptor: the ORF37Stop virus was capable of forming infectious particles and caused loss of mRNA in IFN-α/β receptor knockout cells. Moreover, ORF37Stop virus was able to establish lytic infection in the lungs of mice lacking the IFN-α/β receptor. These observations provide evidence that lytic MHV-68 infection and subsequent loss of mRNA can take place independently of ORF37. Moreover, efficient growth of ORF37Stop virus also identifies a role for this family of viral nucleases in providing a window of opportunity for virus growth by overcoming type I IFN-dependent responses.

  13. High Titer and Yields Achieved with Novel, Low-Severity Pretreatment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    NREL researchers obtained high concentration sugar syrups in enzymatic hydrolysis that are fermentable to ethanol and other advanced biofuels and intermediate products at high yields. The novel DMR process is simpler and bypasses all severe pretreatment methods, thus reducing the environmental impact. The results are unprecedented. Researchers achieved a high concentration of sugars (230g/L of monomeric sugar and 270 g/L total sugar) and this low toxicity, highly fermentable syrup yielded 86 g/L ethanol (> 90 percent conversion). In addition, the lignin streams from this process can readily be converted to jet or renewable diesel blendstocks through a hydrodeoxygenation step. The NREL-developed, low severity DMR process may potentially replace higher severity chemical pretreatments and associated expensive reactors constructed of exotic alloys with a simpler process, using commercial-scale equipment commonly associated with the pulp and paper industry, to produce high concentration, low toxicity sugar streams and highly reactive lignin streams from non-food renewable biomass for biological and catalytic upgrading to advanced biofuels and chemicals. The simpler DMR process with black liquor recycling could reduce environmental and life-cycle impacts, and repurpose shuttered pulp and paper mills to help revitalize rural economies.

  14. Biomolecular analyses of starch and starch granule proteins in the high-amylose rice mutant Goami 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butardo, Vito M; Daygon, Venea Dara; Colgrave, Michelle L; Campbell, Peter M; Resurreccion, Adoracion; Cuevas, Rosa Paula; Jobling, Stephen A; Tetlow, Ian; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Melissa

    2012-11-21

    Elevated proportions of amylose in cereals are commonly associated with either the loss of starch branching or starch synthase activity. Goami 2 is a high-amylose mutant of the temperate japonica rice variety Ilpumbyeo. Genotyping revealed that Goami 2 and Ilpumbyeo carry the same alleles for starch synthase IIa and granule-bound starch synthase I genes. Analyses of granule-bound proteins revealed that SSI and SSIIa accumulate inside the mature starch granules of Goami 2, which is similar to the amylose extender mutant IR36ae. However, unlike the amylose extender mutants, SBEIIb was still detectable inside the starch granules of Goami 2. Detection of SBEIIb after protein fractionation revealed that most of the SBEIIb in Goami 2 accumulates inside the starch granules, whereas most of it accumulates at the granule surface in Ilpumbyeo. Exhaustive mass spectrometric characterisations of granule-bound proteins failed to detect any peptide sequence mutation or major post-translational modifications in Goami 2. Moreover, the signal peptide was found to be cleaved normally from the precursor protein, and there is no apparent N-linked glycosylation. Finally, no difference was found in the SBEIIb structural gene sequence of Goami 2 compared with Ilpumbyeo. In contrast, a G-to-A mutation was detected in the SBEIIb gene of IR36ae located at the splice site between exon and intron 11, which could potentially introduce a premature stop codon and produce a truncated form of SBEIIb. It is suggested that the mutation responsible for producing high amylose in Goami 2 is not due to a defect in SBEIIb gene as was observed in IR36ae, even though it produces a phenotype analogous to the amylose extender mutation. Understanding the molecular genetic basis of this mutation will be important in identifying novel targets for increasing amylose and resistant starch contents in rice and other cereals.

  15. Enhanced electron yield from laser-driven wakefield acceleration in high-Z gas jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaie, Mohammad; Hafz, Nasr A M; Li, Song; Liu, Feng; He, Fei; Cheng, Ya; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    An investigation of the electron beam yield (charge) form helium, nitrogen, and neon gas jet plasmas in a typical laser-plasma wakefield acceleration experiment is carried out. The charge measurement is made by imaging the electron beam intensity profile on a fluorescent screen into a charge coupled device which was cross-calibrated with an integrated current transformer. The dependence of electron beam charge on the laser and plasma conditions for the aforementioned gases are studied. We found that laser-driven wakefield acceleration in low Z-gas jet targets usually generates high-quality and well-collimated electron beams with modest yields at the level of 10-100 pC. On the other hand, filamentary electron beams which are observed from high-Z gases at higher densities reached much higher yields. Evidences for cluster formation were clearly observed in the nitrogen gas jet target, where we received the highest electron beam charge of ∼1.7 nC. Those intense electron beams will be beneficial for the applications on the generation of bright X-rays, gamma rays radiations, and energetic positrons via the bremsstrahlung or inverse-scattering processes.

  16. Advances and Prospects in Breeding Japonica Rice for Super High Yield in the Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wen-fu; XU Zheng-jin; ZHANG Wen-zhong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, advances and prospects in breeding japonica rice for super high yield in the northern China were analyzed comprehensively in terms of breeding theories, techniques and practices. The author holds that developing and spreading super rice is an important way to enhance the overall yielding ability of japonica rice and attaining immense expansion of rice production. After theories and technical guidelines for super rice breeding were formulated, which involved the creation of new plant morphology and strong hybrid vigor through crossing indica with japonica subspecies, the optimization of combination of desirable traits via multiple crossing or backcrossing, the assemblage of favorable genes and the integration of ideal plant morphology with the utilization of vigor-major breakthroughs have been made in conventional breeding of japonica super rice. A batch of new super rice varieties marked by superior rice quality and high disease resistance, such as Shennong 265, Shennong 606, and Jijing 88, etc., have been developed and released. In comparison with the advancement in conventional breeding of super rice, progress in hybrid japonica super rice breeding is slower because of climatic and ecological constraint in northern China. Therefore, solving the contradictions between vigor and growth duration, between yield and rice quality, and boosting vastly seed production are still serious challenges for breeders of hybrid japonica rice. Physiological and genetic problems in japonica super rice breeding are also discussed in this paper.

  17. Enhanced electron yield from laser-driven wakefield acceleration in high-Z gas jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaie, Mohammad; Hafz, Nasr A. M., E-mail: nasr@sjtu.edu.cn; Li, Song; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Jie [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MOE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); He, Fei; Cheng, Ya [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-10-15

    An investigation of the electron beam yield (charge) form helium, nitrogen, and neon gas jet plasmas in a typical laser-plasma wakefield acceleration experiment is carried out. The charge measurement is made by imaging the electron beam intensity profile on a fluorescent screen into a charge coupled device which was cross-calibrated with an integrated current transformer. The dependence of electron beam charge on the laser and plasma conditions for the aforementioned gases are studied. We found that laser-driven wakefield acceleration in low Z-gas jet targets usually generates high-quality and well-collimated electron beams with modest yields at the level of 10-100 pC. On the other hand, filamentary electron beams which are observed from high-Z gases at higher densities reached much higher yields. Evidences for cluster formation were clearly observed in the nitrogen gas jet target, where we received the highest electron beam charge of ∼1.7 nC. Those intense electron beams will be beneficial for the applications on the generation of bright X-rays, gamma rays radiations, and energetic positrons via the bremsstrahlung or inverse-scattering processes.

  18. High-yielding Cultivation and Fertilization Technology of Lvhan No.1 in Angola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research high-yielding cultivation and fertilization technology for Lvhan No.l, a new Chinese rice cultivar, in Angola. [Method] In rainy season of 2012, high-yielding cultivation and fertilization technology of Lvhan No.l, a new cultivar of earlier ripe and drought resistant rice, was researched in CATETE farm of Luanda suburb with pot experiment method. [Result] In CATETE farm, Lvhan No.1 rice were directly sown in black clay and the rice can be significantly improved in plant height, grain weight of single plant, biological yield of single plant, ear length, total grain number per ear, number of filled grain per ear and thousand seed weight, as well as economic coefficient and ratio of grain to straw, if applied with base fertilizer made up of DAP (N:P2Os=14:43), or compound fertilizer of N, P and K (N:P2Os:K~O=15:15:15) and with Duannai fertilizer and ear-grain fertilizer made up of urea. If DAP is taken as base fertilizer, the optimal quantity is 300 kg/hm2. If compound fertilizer of N, P and K is taken as base fertilizer, the optimal quantity is 450 kg/hm2, but urea at 75 kg/hm2 should be applied as Duannai fertilizer and ear- grain fertilizer, respectively, on time. [Conclusion] The research provides technical ref- erences for planting of Chinese rice cultivars in Angola.

  19. Research Advances in High-Yielding Cultivation and Physiology of Super Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing; YANG Jian-chang

    2012-01-01

    In 1996,China launched a program to breed super rice or super hybrid rice by combining intersubspecific heterosis with ideal plant types.Today,approximately 80 super rice varieties have been released and some of them show high grain yields of 12-21 t/hm2 in field experiments.The main reasons for the high yields of super rice varieties,compared with those of conventional varieties,can be summarized as follows:more spikelets per panicle and larger sink size (number of spikelets per square meter); larger leaf area index,longer duration of green leaf,greater photosynthetic rate,higher lodging resistance,greater dry matter accumulation before the heading stage,greater remobilization of pre-stored carbohydrates from stems and leaves to grains during the grain-filling period; and larger root system and greater root activity.However,there are two main problems in super rice production:poor grain-filling of the later-flowering inferior spikelets (in contrast to earlier-flowering superior spikelets),and low and unstable seed-setting rate.Here,we review recent research advances in the crop physiology of super rice,focusing on biological features,formation of yield components,and population quality.Finally,we suggest further research on crop physiology of super rice.

  20. Responses of Yield Characteristics to High Temperature During Flowering Stage in Hybrid Rice Guodao 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Guan-fu; TAO Long-xing; SONG Jian; WANG Xi; CAO Li-yong; CHENG Shi-hua

    2008-01-01

    By sowing at different dates during 2005 and 2006 both in paddy fields and greenhouse, a super hybrid rice combination Guodao 6 and a conventional hybrid rice combination Xieyou 46 (as control) were used to analyze the differences in heat injury index, seed setting rate, grain yield and its components. Guodao 6 showed more stable yield and spikelet fertility, and lower heat injury index than Xieyou 46. Further studies indicated that the spikelet sterility is positively correlated with the average daily temperature and the maximum daily temperature, with the coefficients of 0.8604 and 0.9850 (P<0.05) respectively in Guodao 6. The effect of high temperature injury on seed setting caused by maximum daily temperature was lower than that by average daily temperature during the grain filling stage.

  1. Shock-Ignited High Gain/Yield Targets for the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L. J.; Lafortune, K. N.; Bedrosiian, P.; Tabak, M.; Miles, A.; Dixit, S.; Betti, R.; Anderson, K.; Zhou, C.

    2006-10-01

    Shock-ignition, a new concept for ICF ignition [C.Zhou, R.Betti Bull APS, v50, 2005], is being studied as a future option for efficiently achieving high gains in large laser facilities such as NIF. Accordingly, this offers the potential for testing: (1)High yield (up to 200MJ), reactor-relevant targets for inertial fusion energy (2)High fusion yield targets for DOE NNSA stockpile application (3)Targets with appreciable gain at low laser drive energies (gains of 10's at 150kJ) (4)Ignition of simple, non-cryo (room temperature) single shell gas targets at (unity gain). By contrast to conventional hotspot ignition, we separate the assembly and ignition phases by initially imploding a massive cryogenic shell on a low adiabat (alpha 0.7) at low velocity (less than 2e7cm/s) using a direct drive pulse of modest total energy. The assembled fuel is then separately ignited by a strong, spherically convergent shock driven by a high intensity spike at the end of the pulse and timed to reach the center as the main fuel is stagnating and starting to rebound. Like fast ignition, shock ignition can achieve high gains with low drive energy, but has the advantages of requiring only a single laser with less demanding timing and spatial focusing requirements.

  2. Optimization of Escherichia coli cultivation methods for high yield neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Montag, Cindy; Berndt, Sandra; Huster, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    The recombinant expression of human G protein-coupled receptors usually yields low production levels using commonly available cultivation protocols. Here, we describe the development of a high yield production protocol for the human neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 (Y2R), which provides the determination of expression levels in a time, media composition, and process parameter dependent manner. Protein was produced by Escherichia coli in a defined medium composition suitable for isotopic labeling required for investigations by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The Y2 receptor was fused to a C-terminal 8x histidine tag by means of the pET vector system for easy one-step purification via affinity chromatography, yielding a purity of 95-99% for every condition tested, which was determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. The Y2 receptor was expressed as inclusion body aggregates in complex media and minimal media, using different carbon sources. We investigated the influences of media composition, temperature, pH, and set specific growth rate on cell behavior, biomass wet weight specific and culture volume specific amounts of the target protein, which had been identified by inclusion body preparation, solubilization, followed by purification and spectrometric determination of the protein concentration. The developed process control strategy led to very high reproducibility of cell growth and protein concentrations with a maximum yield of 800 μg purified Y2 receptor per gram wet biomass when glycerol was used as carbon source in the mineral salt medium composition (at 38 °C, pH 7.0, and a set specific growth rate of 0.14 g/(gh)). The maximum biomass specific amount of purified Y2 receptor enabled the production of 35 mg Y2R per liter culture medium at an optical density (600 nm) of 25.

  3. Repair effects of laser on mutants of filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yansheng; Xiao, Canpeng; Qian, Hailun; Su, Baoliang; Hu, Yujun; Deng, Jianhui

    1999-09-01

    The paper reports that penicillin-producing strains and lovastatin-producing strains were irradiated by UV and subsequently by laser (632.8 nm), and the reparation rate reached 297% and 264%. High-yield mutant was selected with improved potency of 24.5% and 30%, respectively; Gibberellin producing strains were treated with chemical agent LiCl, and then irradiated with 632.8 nm laser. One mutant with 189.6% increased potency was obtained. The experimental results indicated that using laser irradiation after UV or chemical agent mutation was a new useful method in breeding high-yield strains.

  4. High-rate, high-yield production of methanol by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Edris; Chandran, Kartik

    2013-04-02

    The overall goal of this study was to develop an appropriate biological process for achieving autotrophic conversion of methane (CH(4)) to methanol (CH3OH). In this study, we employed ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to selectively and partially oxidize CH(4) to CH(3)OH. In fed-batch reactors using mixed nitrifying enrichment cultures from a continuous bioreactor, up to 59.89 ± 1.12 mg COD/L of CH(3)OH was produced within an incubation time of 7 h, which is approximately ten times the yield obtained previously using pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europaea. The maximum specific rate of CH(4) to CH(3)OH conversion obtained during this study was 0.82 mg CH(3)OH COD/mg AOB biomass COD-d, which is 1.5 times the highest value reported with pure cultures. Notwithstanding these positive results, CH(4) oxidation to CH(3)OH by AOB was inhibited by NH(3) (the primary substrate for the oxidative enzyme, ammonia monooxygenase, AMO) as well as the product, CH(3)OH, itself. Further, oxidation of CH(4) to CH(3)OH by AOB was also limited by reducing equivalents supply, which could be overcome by externally supplying hydroxylamine (NH(2)OH) as an electron donor. Therefore, a potential optimum design for promoting CH(4) to CH(3)OH oxidation by AOB could involve supplying NH(3) (needed to maintain AMO activity) uncoupled from the supply of NH(2)OH and CH(4). Partial oxidation of CH(4)-containing gases to CH3OH by AOB represents an attractive platform for the conversion of a gaseous mixture to an aqueous compound, which could be used as a commodity chemical. Alternately, the nitrate and CH(3) OH thus produced could be channeled to a downstream anoxic zone in a biological nitrogen removal process to effect nitrate reduction to N(2), using an internally produced organic electron donor.

  5. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  6. HIGH YIELD AND RAPID SYNTHESES METHODS FOR PRODUCING METALLO-ORGANIC SALTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    A new method for preparing salts of metal cations and organic acids, especially divalent salts of alkaline earth metal ions from group II of the periodic system and carboxylic acids. The method comprising the use of a high temperature (about 90° or more) and, optionally. high pressure, in order t...... to obtain a higher yield, purity and faster reaction speed than obtained with known synthesis methods. In particular, the present invention relates to the production of strontium salts of carboxylic acids. Novel strontium salts are also provided by the present method.......A new method for preparing salts of metal cations and organic acids, especially divalent salts of alkaline earth metal ions from group II of the periodic system and carboxylic acids. The method comprising the use of a high temperature (about 90° or more) and, optionally. high pressure, in order...

  7. High yield expression of catalytically active USP18 (UBP43 using a Trigger Factor fusion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basters Anja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Covalent linkage of the ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 interferes with viral infection and USP18 is the major protease which specifically removes ISG15 from target proteins. Thus, boosting ISG15 modification by protease inhibition of USP18 might represent a new strategy to interfere with viral replication. However, so far no heterologous expression system was available to yield sufficient amounts of catalytically active protein for high-throughput based inhibitor screens. Results High-level heterologous expression of USP18 was achieved by applying a chaperone-based fusion system in E. coli. Pure protein was obtained in a single-step on IMAC via a His6-tag. The USP18 fusion protein exhibited enzymatic activity towards cell derived ISG15 conjugated substrates and efficiently hydrolyzed ISG15-AMC. Specificity towards ISG15 was shown by covalent adduct formation with ISG15 vinyl sulfone but not with ubiquitin vinyl sulfone. Conclusion The results presented here show that a chaperone fusion system can provide high yields of proteins that are difficult to express. The USP18 protein obtained here is suited to setup high-throughput small molecule inhibitor screens and forms the basis for detailed biochemical and structural characterization.

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis using high papaverine mutant of Papaver somniferum reveals pathway and uncharacterized steps of papaverine biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumya Pathak

    Full Text Available The benzylisoquinoline alkaloid papaverine, synthesized in low amount in most of the opium poppy varieties of Papaver somniferum, is used as a vasodilator muscle relaxant and antispasmodic. Papaverine biosynthesis remains controversial as two different routes utilizing either (S-coclaurine or (S-reticuline have been proposed with uncharacterized intermediate steps. In an attempt to elucidate papaverine biosynthesis and identify putative genes involved in uncharacterized steps, we carried out comparative transcriptome analysis of high papaverine mutant (pap1 and normal cultivar (BR086 of P. somniferum. This natural mutant synthesizes more than 12-fold papaverine in comparison to BR086. We established more than 238 Mb transcriptome data separately for pap1 and BR086. Assembly of reads generated 127,342 and 106,128 unigenes in pap1 and BR086, respectively. Digital gene expression analysis of transcriptomes revealed 3,336 differentially expressing unigenes. Enhanced expression of (S-norcoclaurine-6-O-methyltransferase (6OMT, (S-3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4'-O-methyltransferase (4'OMT, norreticuline 7-O-methyltransferase (N7OMT and down-regulation of reticuline 7-O-methyltransferase (7OMT in pap1 in comparison to BR086 suggest (S-coclaurine as the route for papaverine biosynthesis. We also identified several methyltransferases and dehydrogenases with enhanced expression in pap1 in comparison to BR086. Our analysis using natural mutant, pap1, concludes that (S-coclaurine is the branch-point intermediate and preferred route for papaverine biosynthesis. Differentially expressing methyltransferases and dehydrogenases identified in this study will help in elucidating complete biosynthetic pathway of papaverine. The information generated will be helpful in developing strategies for enhanced biosynthesis of papaverine through biotechnological approaches.

  9. A novel high-throughput in vivo molecular screen for shade avoidance mutants identifies a novel phyA mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; Roig-Villanova, Irma; Khan, Safina; Shanahan, Hugh; Quail, Peter H; Martinez-Garcia, Jaime F; Devlin, Paul F

    2011-05-01

    The shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) allows plants to anticipate and avoid shading by neighbouring plants by initiating an elongation growth response. The phytochrome photoreceptors are able to detect a reduction in the red:far red ratio in incident light, the result of selective absorption of red and blue wavelengths by proximal vegetation. A shade-responsive luciferase reporter line (PHYB::LUC) was used to carry out a high-throughput screen to identify novel SAS mutants. The dracula 1 (dra1) mutant, that showed no avoidance of shade for the PHYB::LUC response, was the result of a mutation in the PHYA gene. Like previously characterized phyA mutants, dra1 showed a long hypocotyl in far red light and an enhanced hypocotyl elongation response to shade. However, dra1 additionally showed a long hypocotyl in red light. Since phyB levels are relatively unaffected in dra1, this gain-of-function red light phenotype strongly suggests a disruption of phyB signalling. The dra1 mutation, G773E within the phyA PAS2 domain, occurs at a residue absolutely conserved among phyA sequences. The equivalent residue in phyB is absolutely conserved as a threonine. PAS domains are structurally conserved domains involved in molecular interaction. Structural modelling of the dra1 mutation within the phyA PAS2 domain shows some similarity with the structure of the phyB PAS2 domain, suggesting that the interference with phyB signalling may be the result of non-functional mimicry. Hence, it was hypothesized that this PAS2 residue forms a key distinction between the phyA and phyB phytochrome species.

  10. Characterization of neutron yield and x-ray spectra of a High Flux Neutron Generator (HFNG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamani, Nnaemeka; HFNG Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The High Flux Neutron Generator (HFNG) is a DD plasma-based source, with a self-loading target intended for fundamental science and engineering applications, including 40 Ar/39 Ar geochronology, neutron cross section measurements, and radiation hardness testing of electronics. Our first estimate of the neutron yield, based on the population of the 4.486 hour 115 In isomer gave a neutron yield of the order 108 n/sec; optimization is ongoing to achieve the design target of 1011 n/sec. Preliminary x-ray spectra showed prominent energy peaks which are likely due to atomic line-emission from back-streaming electrons accelerated up to 100 keV impinging on various components of the HFNG chamber. Our x-ray and neutron diagnostics will aid us as we continue to evolve the design to suppress back-streaming electrons, necessary to achieve higher plasma beam currents, and thus higher neutron flux. This talk will focus on the characterization of the neutron yield and x-ray spectra during our tests. A collimation system is being installed near one of the chamber ports for improved observation of the x-ray spectra. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. EAR-0960138, U.S. DOE LBNL Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, U.S. DOE LLNL Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and the UC Office of the President Award 12-LR-238745.

  11. Simple and high yield access to octafunctional azido, amine and urea group bearing cubic spherosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Sandra; Kickelbick, Guido

    2016-12-20

    Spherosilicates and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes represent unique well-defined rigid building blocks for molecular and hybrid materials. Drawbacks in their synthesis are often low yields and the restricted presence of functional groups either based on incomplete transformation of all corners or the reactivity of the functional groups. Particularly amine-functionalization reveals some synthetic challenges. In this study we report the synthesis of a new class of octafunctionalized hydrogen bond forming spherosilicates via a facile route based on octabromo alkyl functionalized cubic spherosilicates. Four different alkyl chain lengths, namely C4, C5, C6 and C11, were realized starting from ω-alkenylbromides via hydrosilylation of Q8M8(H). Using sodium azide in a mixture of acetonitrile : DMF = 10 : 1, the octaazide was obtained quantitatively and could be rapidly transformed in an octaamine cube via catalytic hydrogenation over Pd/C in absolute ethanol. The following reaction to hydrogen bond forming spherosilicates was performed in situ by adding propyl isocyanate. All transformations proceed quantitatively at the eight corners of the cube, which was evidenced by NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS measurements. The Q8-target compound can be separated after each reaction step over simple chemical workup while no cage rearrangement was observed. The structures were confirmed using (1)H, (13)C, (29)Si-NMR, FT-IR, elemental analysis and ESI-MS. The method opens a high yield route (overall isolated yield 83-88%) for structural building blocks in hybrid materials.

  12. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes with tunable structure and high yield produced by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Ionescu, Mihnea Ioan; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2011-06-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CN x) were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis from mixtures of imidazole and acetonitrile. Imidazole, as an additive, was used to control the structure and nitrogen doping in CN x by adjusting its concentration in the mixtures. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the addition of imidazole increased the nanotube growth rate and yield, while decreased the nanotube diameter. Transmission electron microscopy study indicated that the addition of imidazole promoted the formation of a dense bamboo-like structure in CN x. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that the nitrogen content varied from 3.2 to 5.2 at.% in CN x obtained with different imidazole concentrations. Raman spectra study showed that the intensity ratio of D to G bands gradually increased, while that of 2D to G bands decreased, due to increasing imidazole concentration. The yield of CN x made from mixtures of imidazole and acetonitrile can reach 192 mg in 24 min, which is 15 times that of CN x prepared from only acetonitrile. The aligned CN x, with controlled nitrogen doping, tunable structure and high yield, may find applications in developing non-noble catalysts and novel catalyst supports for fuel cells.

  13. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes with tunable structure and high yield produced by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jian; Zhang Yong; Ionescu, Mihnea Ioan; Li Ruying [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B9 (Canada); Sun Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CN{sub x}) were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis from mixtures of imidazole and acetonitrile. Imidazole, as an additive, was used to control the structure and nitrogen doping in CN{sub x} by adjusting its concentration in the mixtures. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the addition of imidazole increased the nanotube growth rate and yield, while decreased the nanotube diameter. Transmission electron microscopy study indicated that the addition of imidazole promoted the formation of a dense bamboo-like structure in CN{sub x}. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that the nitrogen content varied from 3.2 to 5.2 at.% in CN{sub x} obtained with different imidazole concentrations. Raman spectra study showed that the intensity ratio of D to G bands gradually increased, while that of 2D to G bands decreased, due to increasing imidazole concentration. The yield of CN{sub x} made from mixtures of imidazole and acetonitrile can reach 192 mg in 24 min, which is 15 times that of CN{sub x} prepared from only acetonitrile. The aligned CN{sub x}, with controlled nitrogen doping, tunable structure and high yield, may find applications in developing non-noble catalysts and novel catalyst supports for fuel cells.

  14. High diagnostic yield of clinical exome sequencing in Middle Eastern patients with Mendelian disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavarna, Tarunashree; Al-Dewik, Nader; Al-Mureikhi, Mariam; Ali, Rehab; Al-Mesaifri, Fatma; Mahmoud, Laila; Shahbeck, Noora; Lakhani, Shenela; AlMulla, Mariam; Nawaz, Zafar; Vitazka, Patrik; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg

    2015-09-01

    Clinical exome sequencing (CES) has become an increasingly popular diagnostic tool in patients with heterogeneous genetic disorders, especially in those with neurocognitive phenotypes. Utility of CES in consanguineous populations has not yet been determined on a large scale. A clinical cohort of 149 probands from Qatar with suspected Mendelian, mainly neurocognitive phenotypes, underwent CES from July 2012 to June 2014. Intellectual disability and global developmental delay were the most common clinical presentations but our cohort displayed other phenotypes, such as epilepsy, dysmorphism, microcephaly and other structural brain anomalies and autism. A pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutation, including pathogenic CNVs, was identified in 89 probands for a diagnostic yield of 60%. Consanguinity and positive family history predicted a higher diagnostic yield. In 5% (7/149) of cases, CES implicated novel candidate disease genes (MANF, GJA9, GLG1, COL15A1, SLC35F5, MAGE4, NEUROG1). CES uncovered two coexisting genetic disorders in 4% (6/149) and actionable incidental findings in 2% (3/149) of cases. Average time to diagnosis was reduced from 27 to 5 months. CES, which already has the highest diagnostic yield among all available diagnostic tools in the setting of Mendelian disorders, appears to be particularly helpful diagnostically in the highly consanguineous Middle Eastern population.

  15. Particle Concentration and Yield Stress of Biomass Slurries During Enzymatic Hydrolysis at High-Solids Loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, C. M.; Dibble, C. J.; Knutsen, J. S.; Stickel, J. J.; Liberatore, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    Effective and efficient breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass remains a primary barrier for its use as a feedstock for renewable transportation fuels. A more detailed understanding of the material properties of biomass slurries during conversion is needed to design cost-effective conversion processes. A series of enzymatic saccharification experiments were performed with dilute acid pretreated corn stover at initial insoluble solids loadings of 20% by mass, during which the concentration of particulate solids and the rheological property yield stress ({tau}{sub y}) of the slurries were measured. The saccharified stover liquefies to the point of being pourable ({tau}{sub y} {le} 10 Pa) at a total biomass conversion of about 40%, after roughly 2 days of saccharification for a moderate loading of enzyme. Mass balance and semi-empirical relationships are developed to connect the progress of enzymatic hydrolysis with particle concentration and yield stress. The experimental data show good agreement with the proposed relationships. The predictive models developed here are based on established physical principles and should be applicable to the saccharification of other biomass systems. The concepts presented, especially the ability to predict yield stress from extent of conversion, will be helpful in the design and optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis processes that operate at high-solids loadings.

  16. A high throughput DNA extraction method with high yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Preparation of large quantity and high quality genomic DNA from a large number of plant samples is a major bottleneck for most genetic and genomic analyses, such as, genetic mapping, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome), and next-generation sequencing directly from sheared ...

  17. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity.

  18. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Abou Rajab

    Full Text Available One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species in Sulawesi (Indonesia with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1, total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity.

  19. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change.

  20. High yield simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production under extreme-thermophilic (70 C) mixed culture environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chenxi [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Patthalung 93110 (Thailand); Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The effect of pH and medium composition on extreme-thermophilic (70 C) dark fermentative simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production (process performance and microbial ecology) was investigated. Hydrogen and ethanol yields were optimized with respect to glucose, peptone, FeSO{sub 4}, NaHCO{sub 3}, yeast extract, trace mineral salts, vitamins, and phosphate buffer concentrations as well as initial pH as independent variables. A combination of low levels of both glucose ({<=}2 g/L) and vitamin solutions ({<=}1 mL/L) and high levels of initial pH ({>=}7), mineral salts solution ({>=}5 mL/L) and FeSO{sub 4} ({>=}100 mg/L) stimulated the hydrogen production, while high level of glucose ({>=}5 g/L) and low levels of both initial pH ({<=}5.5) and mineral salts solution ({<=}1 mL/L) enhanced the ethanol production. High yield of simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production (1.58 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose combined with an ethanol yield of 0.90 mol ethanol/mol glucose) was achieved under extreme-thermophilic mixed culture environment. Results obtained showed that the shift of the metabolic pathways favouring either hydrogen or ethanol production was affected by the change in cultivation conditions (pH and medium composition). The mixed culture in this study demonstrated flexible ability for simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production, depending on pH and nutrients formulation. The microorganisms involved could be regarded as simultaneous hydrogen/ethanol producers, as hydrogen and ethanol fermentation under all conditions was carried out by a group of extreme-thermophilic bacterial species related to Thermoanaerobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium and Caldanaerobacter. (author)

  1. Controlled fabrication of individual silicon quantum rods yielding high intensity, polarized light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Benjamin; Valenta, Jan; Linnros, Jan

    2009-12-01

    Elongated silicon quantum dots (also referred to as rods) were fabricated using a lithographic process which reliably yields sufficient numbers of emitters. These quantum rods are perfectly aligned and the vast majority are spatially separated well enough to enable single-dot spectroscopy. Not only do they exhibit extraordinarily high linear polarization with respect to both absorption and emission, but the silicon rods also appear to luminesce much more brightly than their spherical counterparts. Significantly increased quantum efficiency and almost unity degree of linear polarization render these quantum rods perfect candidates for numerous applications.

  2. Production of carbon nanofibers in high yields using a sodium chloride support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Junfeng; Kinloch, Ian A; Singh, Charanjeet; Golovko, Vladimir B; Johnson, Brian F G; Shaffer, Milo S P; Li, Yali; Windle, Alan H

    2005-09-08

    A new route for the highly convenient scalable production of carbon nanofibers on a sodium chloride support has been developed. Since the support is nontoxic and soluble in water, it can be easily removed without damage to the nanofibers and the environment. Nanofiber yields of up to 6500 wt % relative to the nickel catalyst have been achieved in a growth time of 15 min. Electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the catalytically grown carbon had relatively little thermal over-growth and possessed either a herringbone or a semi-ordered nanostructure, depending on the growth conditions.

  3. Delta-Doping at Wafer Level for High Throughput, High Yield Fabrication of Silicon Imaging Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shoulch (Inventor); Jones, Todd J. (Inventor); Greer, Frank (Inventor); Carver, Alexander G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods for producing high quantum efficiency silicon devices. A silicon MBE has a preparation chamber that provides for cleaning silicon surfaces using an oxygen plasma to remove impurities and a gaseous (dry) NH3 + NF3 room temperature oxide removal process that leaves the silicon surface hydrogen terminated. Silicon wafers up to 8 inches in diameter have devices that can be fabricated using the cleaning procedures and MBE processing, including delta doping.

  4. Neutron temporal diagnostic for high-yield deuterium-tritium cryogenic implosions on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, C.; Boni, R.; Ehrne, F.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Lonobile, D. J.; Magoon, J.; Regan, S. P.; Shoup, M. J.; Sorce, A.; Sorce, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Weiner, D.

    2016-05-01

    A next-generation neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD) capable of recording high-quality data for the highest anticipated yield cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) implosion experiments was recently installed at the Omega Laser Facility. A high-quality measurement of the neutron production width is required to determine the hot-spot pressure achieved in inertial confinement fusion experiments—a key metric in assessing the quality of these implosions. The design of this NTD is based on a fast-rise-time plastic scintillator, which converts the neutron kinetic energy to 350- to 450-nm-wavelength light. The light from the scintillator inside the nose-cone assembly is relayed ˜16 m to a streak camera in a well-shielded location. An ˜200× reduction in neutron background was observed during the first high-yield DT cryogenic implosions compared to the current NTD installation on OMEGA. An impulse response of ˜40 ± 10 ps was measured in a dedicated experiment using hard x-rays from a planar target irradiated with a 10-ps short pulse from the OMEGA EP laser. The measured instrument response includes contributions from the scintillator rise time, optical relay, and streak camera.

  5. Genome shuffling and ribosome engineering of Streptomyces actuosus for high-yield nosiheptide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingling; Zhang, Dong; Li, Yudong; Zhang, Fuming; Wang, Cao; Liang, Xinle

    2014-07-01

    Nosiheptide is one of the EU-approved sulfur-containing peptides in feed industry to inhibit the growth of the majority of Gram-positive bacteria. The main purpose of this study is directed to breed the high nosiheptide-producers by genome shuffling and ribosome engineering in Streptomyces actuosus AW7. The starting population for shuffling was generated by combining (60)Coγ-irradiation with LiCl mutagenesis treatments on the spores. After four rounds of protoplast fusion exposed to streptomycin as adaptive pressure, a high-yield recombinant strain D92 was obtained. In a 10-L fermenter, nosiheptide production reached 1.54 g/L which was 9.20-fold compared to that of the parental strain. Hyphae development, metabolic process, and ribosomal protein S12 sequence were investigated to characterize the differentiation among the recombinants. Several mutations in S12 were believed to be responsible to streptomycin resistance in the tested strain. The results demonstrated that the combination of genome shuffling and ribosome engineering is an efficient approach to breed high-yield industrial strains.

  6. Flow "Fine" Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shū

    2016-02-18

    The concept of flow "fine" synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow "fine" synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  7. Improvement of bleached wheat straw pulp properties by using aspen high-yield pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjie; Li, Jianguo; Hu, Huiren; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2012-09-01

    The bleached wheat straw pulp (BWSP) accounts for about 25% of the virgin fiber supply in the Chinese Pulp and Paper Industry. As a non-wood chemical pulp, BWSP is known to have low bulk, low light scattering coefficient and poor drainage due to its high content of parenchyma cells. In this study, a high-quality aspen high-yield pulp (HYP) was used to improve the BWSP properties at the laboratory scale. The results indicate that adding 5-20% aspen HYP into unrefined or refined BWSP can minimize many of the drawbacks associated with the BWSP: improving its drainage, bulk, light scattering coefficient and opacity. The addition of a small amount (up to 20%) of aspen HYP can also significantly increase the tear index of BWSP with only a slight decrease of the tensile index.

  8. Problems in Fast-growing and High-yield Plantation Ecosystem Management and Their Countermeasures in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzed the basic characteristics of fast-growing and high-yield plantation, classified and identified the ecological problems in its development, and finally proposed the basic principles and corresponding technical measures for fast-growing and high-yield plantation ecosystem management based on these problems.

  9. Water mobility in the endosperm of high beta-glucan barley mutants as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; van den Berg, Frans; Klöckenberger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    1H NMR imaging (MRI) was used as a noninvasive technique to study water distribution and mobility in hydrated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds of accessions with varying content of beta glucan (BG), a highly hygroscopic cell wall component. High contents of BG in barley are unfavorable in malting...... were related to content and location of BG. Water mobility was investigated by following the rate and mode of desiccation in hydrated single seeds. In order to determine the different water components, a multispin echo experiment was set up to reveal the T2 transverse relaxation rates of water within...... desiccation. The embryo retained water even after 36 h of drying, whereas the endosperm showed low and heterogeneous mobility of the water after drying. The relaxation time constants indicated that the BG mutants had regions of much higher water mobility around the ventral crease compared to the control...

  10. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high- vs low-yield pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Henze

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitrogen oxide (NO or hydroperoxy radical (HO2 to yield semi- or non-volatile products, respectively. Aromatic species yield more SOA when they react with OH in regions where the [NO]/[HO2] ratios are lower. The SOA yield thus depends upon the distribution of aromatic emissions, with biomass burning emissions being in areas with lower [NO]/[HO2] ratios, and the reactivity of the aromatic with respect to OH, as a lower initial reactivity allows transport away from industrial source regions, where [NO]/[HO2] ratios are higher, to more remote regions, where this ratio is lower and, hence, the ultimate yield of SOA is higher. As a result, benzene is estimated to be the most important aromatic species with regards to formation of SOA, with a total production nearly equal that of toluene and xylene combined. In total, while only 39% percent of the aromatic species react via the low-NOx pathway, 72% of the aromatic SOA is formed via this mechanism. Predicted SOA concentrations from aromatics in the Eastern United States and Eastern Europe are actually largest during the summer, when the [NO]/[HO2] ratio is lower. Global production of SOA from aromatic sources is estimated at 3.5 Tg/yr, resulting in a global burden of 0.08 Tg, twice as large as previous estimates. The contribution of these largely anthropogenic sources to global SOA is still small relative to biogenic sources, which are estimated to comprise 90% of the global SOA burden, about half of which comes from isoprene. Compared to recent observations, it would appear there are additional pathways beyond those

  11. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high- vs. low-yield pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Henze

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitric oxide (NO or hydroperoxy radical (HO2 to yield semi- or non-volatile products, respectively. Aromatic species yield more SOA when they react with OH in regions where the [NO]/[HO2] ratios are lower. The SOA yield thus depends upon the distribution of aromatic emissions, with biomass burning emissions being in areas with lower [NO]/[HO2] ratios, and the reactivity of the aromatic with respect to OH, as a lower initial reactivity allows transport away from industrial source regions, where [NO]/[HO2] ratios are higher, to more remote regions, where this ratio is lower and, hence, the ultimate yield of SOA is higher. As a result, benzene is estimated to be the most important aromatic species with regards to global formation of SOA, with a total production nearly equal that of toluene and xylene combined. Global production of SOA from aromatic sources via the mechanisms identified here is estimated at 3.5 Tg/yr, resulting in a global burden of 0.08 Tg, twice as large as previous estimates. The contribution of these largely anthropogenic sources to global SOA is still small relative to biogenic sources, which are estimated to comprise 90% of the global SOA burden, about half of which comes from isoprene. Uncertainty in these estimates owing to factors ranging from the atmospheric relevance of chamber conditions to model deficiencies result in an estimated range of SOA production from aromatics of 2–12 Tg/yr. Though this uncertainty range affords a significant anthropogenic contribution to global SOA, it is evident from comparisons to recent observations that additional pathways for

  12. High yield sample preconcentration using a highly ion-conductive charge-selective polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Honggu; Chung, Taek Dong; Ramsey, J Michael

    2010-07-15

    The development and analysis of a microfluidic sample preconcentration system using a highly ion-conductive charge-selective polymer [poly-AMPS (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid)] is reported. The preconcentration is based on the phenomenon of concentration polarization which develops at the boundaries of the poly-AMPS with buffer solutions. A negatively charged polymer, poly-AMPS, positioned between two microchannels efficiently extracts cations through its large cross section, resulting in efficient anion sample preconcentration. The present work includes the development of a robust polymer that is stable over a wide range of buffers with varying chemical compositions. The sample preconcentration effect remains linear to over 3 mM (0.15 pmol) and 500 microM (15 fmol) for fluorescein and TRITC-tagged albumin solutions, respectively. The system can potentially be used for concentrating proteins on microfluidic devices with subsequent analysis for proteomic applications.

  13. High process yield rates of thermoplastic nanofluidic devices using a hybrid thermal assembly technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, Franklin I; Hu, Bo; Weerakoon-Ratnayake, Kumuditha; Oliver-Calixte, Nyote; Soper, Steven A

    2015-02-21

    Over the past decade, thermoplastics have been used as alternative substrates to glass and Si for microfluidic devices because of the diverse and robust fabrication protocols available for thermoplastics that can generate high production rates of the desired structures at low cost and with high replication fidelity, the extensive array of physiochemical properties they possess, and the simple surface activation strategies that can be employed to tune their surface chemistry appropriate for the intended application. While the advantages of polymer microfluidics are currently being realized, the evolution of thermoplastic-based nanofluidic devices is fraught with challenges. One challenge is assembly of the device, which consists of sealing a cover plate to the patterned fluidic substrate. Typically, channel collapse or substrate dissolution occurs during assembly making the device inoperable resulting in low process yield rates. In this work, we report a low temperature hybrid assembly approach for the generation of functional thermoplastic nanofluidic devices with high process yield rates (>90%) and with a short total assembly time (16 min). The approach involves thermally sealing a high T(g) (glass transition temperature) substrate containing the nanofluidic structures to a cover plate possessing a lower T(g). Nanofluidic devices with critical feature sizes ranging between 25-250 nm were fabricated in a thermoplastic substrate (T(g) = 104 °C) and sealed with a cover plate (T(g) = 75 °C) at a temperature significantly below the T(g) of the substrate. Results obtained from sealing tests revealed that the integrity of the nanochannels remained intact after assembly and devices were useful for fluorescence imaging at high signal-to-noise ratios. The functionality of the assembled devices was demonstrated by studying the stretching and translocation dynamics of dsDNA in the enclosed thermoplastic nanofluidic channels.

  14. Yield gains of coffee plants from phosphorus fertilization may not be generalized for high density planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Vasconcelos Valadares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Inconclusive responses of the adult coffee plant to phosphorus fertilization have been reported in the literature, especially when dealing with application of this nutrient in high density planting systems. Thus, this study was carried out for the purpose of assessing the response of adult coffee plants at high planting density in full production (in regard to yield and their biennial cycle/stability to the addition of different sources and application rates of P in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experiment with coffee plants of the Catucaí Amarelo 6/30 variety was carried out over four growing seasons. Treatments were arranged in a full factorial design [(4 × 3 + 1] consisting of four P sources (monoammonium phosphate, simple superphosphate, natural reactive rock phosphate from Algeria (Djebel-Onk, and FH 550®, three P rates (100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1 year-1 of P2O5, and an additional treatment without application of the nutrient (0 kg ha-¹ year-¹. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replicates. The four seasons were evaluated as subplots in a split plot experiment. The P contents in soil and leaves increased with increased rates of P application. However, there was no effect from P application on the yield and its biennial cycle/stability regardless of the source used over the four seasons assessed.

  15. Functionalization of quinoxalines by using TMP bases: preparation of tetracyclic heterocycles with high photoluminescene quantum yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafe, Julia; Herbert, Simon; Auras, Florian; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Bein, Thomas; Knochel, Paul

    2015-01-12

    Tetracyclic heterocycles that exhibit high photoluminescence quantum yields were synthesized by anellation reactions of mono-, di-, and trifunctionalized 2,3-dichloroquinoxalines. Thus, treatment of 2,3-dichloroquinoxaline with TMPLi (TMP = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidyl) allows a regioselective lithiation in position 5. Quenching with various electrophiles (iodine, (BrCl2 C)2 , allylic bromide, acid chloride, aryl iodide) leads to 5-functionalized 2,3-dichloroquinoxalines. Further functionalization in positions 6 and 8 can be achieved by using TMPLi or TMPMgCl⋅LiCl furnishing a range of new di- and tri-functionalized 2,3-dichloroquinoxalines. The chlorine atoms are readily substituted by anellation with 1,2-diphenols or 1,2-dithiophenols leading to a series of new tetracyclic compounds. These materials exhibit strong, tunable optical absorption and emission in the blue and green spectral region. The substituted O-heterocyclic compounds exhibit particularly high photoluminescence quantum yields of up to 90%, which renders them interesting candidates for fluorescence imaging applications.

  16. High yield recombinant production of a self-assembling polycationic peptide for silica biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerfaß, Christian; Braukmann, Sandra; Nietzsche, Sandor; Hobe, Stephan; Paulsen, Harald

    2015-04-01

    We report the recombinant bacterial expression and purification at high yields of a polycationic oligopeptide, P5S3. The sequence of P5S3 was inspired by a diatom silaffin, a silica precipitating peptide. Like its native model, P5S3 exhibits silica biomineralizing activity, but furthermore has unusual self-assembling properties. P5S3 is efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion with ketosteroid isomerase (KSI), which causes deposition in inclusion bodies. After breaking the fusion by cyanogen bromide reaction, P5S3 was purified by cation exchange chromatography, taking advantage of the exceptionally high content of basic amino acids. The numerous cationic charges do not prevent, but may even promote counterion-independent self-assembly which in turn leads to silica precipitation. Enzymatic phosphorylation, a common modification in native silica biomineralizing peptides, can be used to modify the precipitation activity.

  17. Radiation Hard and High Light Yield Scintillator Search for CMS Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Tiras, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    The CMS detector at the LHC requires a major upgrade to cope with the higher instantaneous luminosity and the elevated radiation levels. The active media of the forward backing hadron calorimeters is projected to be radiation-hard, high light yield scintillation materials or similar alternatives. In this context, we have studied various radiation-hard scintillating materials such as Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN), High Efficiency Mirror (HEM) and quartz plates with various coatings. The quartz plates are pure Cerenkov radiators and their radiation hardness has been confirmed. In order to increase the light output, we considered organic and inorganic coating materials such as p-Terphenyl (pTp), Anthracene and Gallium-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO Ga) that are applied as thin layers on the surface of the quartz plates. Here, we present the results of the related test beam activities, laboratory measurements and recent developments.

  18. High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE) reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blink, J.A.; Hogam, W.J.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, E.R.; Pitts, J.H. (comps.)

    1985-12-23

    The High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept to convent inertial confinement fusion energy into electric power has undergone intensive research and refinement at LLNL since 1978. This paper reports on the final HYLIFE design, focusing on five major areas: the HYLIFE reaction chamber (which includes neutronics, liquid-metal jet-array hydrocynamics, and structural design), supporting systems, primary steam system and balance of plant, safety and environmental protection, and costs. An annotated bibliography of reports applicable to HYLIFE is also provided. We conclude that HYLIFE is a particularly viable concept for the safe, clean production of electrical energy. The liquid-metal jet array, HYLIFE's key design feature, protects the surrounding structural components from x-rays, fusion fuel-pellet debris, neutron damage and activation, and high temperatures and stresses, allowing the structure to last for the plant's entire 30-year lifetime without being replaced. 127 refs., 18 figs.

  19. Radiation Hard & High Light Yield Scintillator Search for CMS Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081071

    2015-01-01

    The CMS detector at the LHC requires a major upgrade to cope with the higher instantaneous luminosity and the elevated radiation levels. The active media of the forward backing hadron calorimeters is projected to be radiation-hard, high light yield scintillation materials or similar alternatives. In this context, we have studied various radiation-hard scintillating materials such as Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN), High Efficiency Mirror (HEM) and quartz plates with various coatings. The quartz plates are pure Cerenkov radiators and their radiation hardness has been confirmed. In order to increase the light output, we considered organic and inorganic coating materials such as p-Terphenyl (pTp), Anthracene and Gallium-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO:Ga) that are applied as thin layers on the surface of the quartz plates. Here, we present the results of the related test beam activities, laboratory measurements and recent developments.

  20. Reaching High-Yield Fusion with a Slow Plasma Liner Compressing a Magnetized Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D D; Parks, P B

    2008-03-18

    Dynamics of the compression of a magnetized plasma target by a heavy liner made of partially ionized high high-Z material is discussed. A 'soft-landing' (shockless) mode of the liner deceleration is analyzed. Conclusion is drawn that such mode is possible for the liners whose thickness at the time of the first contact with the target is smaller than, roughly, 10% of the initial (un-compressed) target radius. A combination of the plasma liner with one or two glide cones allows for a direct access to the area near the center of the reactor chamber. One can then generate plasma target inside the plasma liner at the optimum time. The other advantage of the glide cones is that they can be used to deliver additional fuel to the center of the target near the point of a maximum compression and thereby increase the fusion yield.

  1. Catalytic oxidative conversion of cellulosic biomass to formic acid and acetic acid with exceptionally high yields

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2014-09-01

    Direct conversion of raw biomass materials to fine chemicals is of great significance from both economic and ecological perspectives. In this paper, we report that a Keggin-type vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalyst, namely H4PVMo11O40, is capable of converting various biomass-derived substrates to formic acid and acetic acid with high selectivity in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere. Under optimized reaction conditions, H4PVMo11O40 gave an exceptionally high yield of formic acid (67.8%) from cellulose, far exceeding the values achieved in previous catalytic systems. Our study demonstrates that heteropoly acids are generally effective catalysts for biomass conversion due to their strong acidities, whereas the composition of metal addenda atoms in the catalysts has crucial influence on the reaction pathway and the product selectivity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  2. High-throughput Screening of the Enantioselectivity of Hyperthermophilic Mutant Esterases from Archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1 for Resolution of (R,S)-2-Octanol Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gui-rong; GAO Ren-jun; ZHANG Ai-jun; RAO Lang; CAO Shu-gui

    2007-01-01

    To identify the desired hyperthermophilic variants within a mutant esterase library for the resolution of (R,S)-2-octanol acetate, a simple, reliable, and versatile method was developed in this study. We built a screening strategy including two steps, first we selected agar plate with substrate to screen the enzymatic activity; secondly we used a pH indicator to screen the enantioselectivity. This method could rapidly detect favorable mutants with high activity and enantioselectivity. A total of 96.2% of tedious screening work can be precluded using this screening strategy. It is an effective screening for alkyl ester and can be applied to relative screening researches. The four improved mutants were screened from the mutant esterase library. Their enantioselectivities, activities, and structures were investigated at different temperatures.

  3. Micro-compartmentalized cultivation of cyanobacteria for mutant screening using glass slides with highly water-repellent mark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayuri Arai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria have attracted attention for their potential to produce biofuels and biochemicals directly from CO2. Cell isolation by colony has conventionally been used for selecting target cells. Colony isolation methods require a significant amount of time for cultivation, and the colony-forming ratio is potentially low for cyanobacteria. Here, we overcome such limitations by encapsulating and culturing cells in droplets with an overlay of dodecane using glass slides printed with highly water-repellent mark. In the compartmentalized culture, the oil phase protects the small volume of culture medium from drying and increases the CO2 supply. Since a difference in cell growth was observed with and without the addition of antibiotics, this compartmentalized culture method could be a powerful tool for mutant selection.

  4. Characterization of the endosperm starch and the pleiotropic effects of biosynthetic enzymes on their properties in novel mutant rice lines with high resistant starch and amylose content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yuuki; Crofts, Naoko; Abe, Misato; Hosaka, Yuko; Fujita, Naoko

    2017-05-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is beneficial to human health. In order to reduce the current prevalence of diabetes and obesity, several transgenic and mutant crops containing high RS content are being developed. RS content of steamed rice with starch-branching enzyme (BE)IIb-deficient mutant endosperms is considerably high. To understand the mechanisms of RS synthesis and to increase RS content, we developed novel mutant rice lines by introducing the gene encoding starch synthase (SS)IIa and/or granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS)I from an indica rice cultivar into a japonica rice-based BEIIb-deficient mutant line, be2b. Introduction of SSIIa from an indica rice cultivar produced higher levels of amylopectin chains with degree of polymerization (DP) 11-18 than those in be2b; the extent of the change was slight due to the shortage of donor chains for SSIIa (DP 6-12) owing to BEIIb deficiency. The introduction of GBSSI from an indica rice cultivar significantly increased amylose content (by approximately 10%) in the endosperm starch. RS content of the new mutant lines was the same as or slightly higher than that of the be2b parent line. The relationship linking starch structure, RS content, and starch biosynthetic enzymes in the new mutant lines has also been discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancing biomass energy yield from pilot-scale high rate algal ponds with recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of recycling on biomass energy yield in High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs). Two 8 m(3) pilot-scale HRAPs treating primary settled sewage were operated in parallel and monitored over a 2-year period. Volatile suspended solids were measured from both HRAPs and their gravity settlers to determine biomass productivity and harvest efficiency. The energy content of the biomass was also measured. Multiplying biomass productivity and harvest efficiency gives the 'harvestable biomass productivity' and multiplying this by the energy content defines the actual 'biomass energy yield'. In Year 1, algal recycling was implemented in one of the ponds (HRAPr) and improved harvestable biomass productivity by 58% compared with the control (HRAPc) without recycling (HRAPr: 9.2 g/m(2)/d; HRAPc: 5.8 g/m(2)/d). The energy content of the biomass grown in HRAPr, which was dominated by Pediastrun boryanum, was 25% higher than the control HRAPc which contained a mixed culture of 4-5 different algae (HRAPr: 21.5 kJ/g; HRAPc: 18.6 kJ/g). In Year 2, HRAPc was then seeded with the biomass harvested from the P. boryanum dominated HRAPr. This had the effect of shifting algal dominance from 89% Dictyosphaerium sp. (which is poorly-settleable) to over 90% P. boryanum in 5 months. Operation of this pond was then switched to recycling its own harvested biomass, which maintained P. boryanum dominance for the rest of Year 2. This result confirms, for the first time in the literature, that species control is possible for similarly sized co-occurring algal colonies in outdoor HRAP by algal recycling. With regard to the overall improvement in biomass energy yield, which is a critical parameter in the context of algal cultivation for biofuels, the combined improvements that recycling triggered in biomass productivity, harvest efficiency and energy content enhanced the harvested biomass energy yield by 66% (HRAPr: 195 kJ/m(2)/day; HRAPc: 118 kJ/m(2)/day). Copyright © 2013

  6. Photoisomerization dynamics of a rhodopsin-based molecule (potential molecular switch) with high quantum yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Roland; Jiang, Chen-Wei; Zhang, Xiu-Xing; Fang, Ai-Ping; Li, Hong-Rong; Xie, Rui-Hua; Li, Fu-Li

    2015-03-01

    It is worthwhile to explore the detailed reaction dynamics of various candidates for molecular switches, in order to understand, e.g., the differences in quantum yields and switching times. Here we report density-functional-based simulations for the rhodopsin-based molecule 4-[4-Methylbenzylidene]-5-p-tolyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole (MDP), synthesized by Sampedro et al. We find that the photoisomerization quantum yields are remarkably high: 82% for cis-to-trans, and 68% for trans-to-cis. The lifetimes of the S1 excited state in cis-MDP in our calculations are in the range of 900-1800 fs, with a mean value of 1270 fs, while the range of times required for full cis-to-trans isomerization are 1100-2000 fs, with a mean value of 1530 fs. In trans-MDP, the calculated S1 excited state lifetimes are 860-2140 fs, with a mean value of 1330 fs, and with the full trans-to-cis isomerization completed about 200 fs later. In both cases, the dominant reaction mechanism is rotation around the central C =C bond (connected to the pyrroline ring), and de-excitation occurs at an avoided crossing between the ground state and the lowest singlet state, near the midpoint of the rotational pathway. Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; Robert A. Welch Foundation; National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  7. JLT-408 A New High Yielding Sesame Variety for Maharashtra State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Jadhav, G.B.Chaudhari,T. R. Patil, and S. C. Patil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sesame variety JLT-408 is developed through hybridization followed by advance generation selection from the cross Padma x Yuzhi-8 by pedigree method at Oilseeds Research Station, Jalgaon. This variety gave 29.9 % and 20.8% higher yield than checks JLT-7 and JLT-26, respectively. It has medium maturity period (81-85 days, white bold seed and found superior in quality viz. high oil content (53.2%, low in free fatty acid (1.46% and its Iodine value is 107.0. This new variety is moderately resistant to major diseases like Phyllody, Cercospora leaf spot, Alternaria leaf spot, Powdery mildew and Macrophomina stem/ root rot and it is moderately tolerant to leaf roller /capsule borer and tolerant to gall fly under field conditions. Considering merits in respect of yield, oil content and quality parameters JLT-408 has been released for cultivation in kharif season in North Maharashtra and adjoining areas of Vidarbha and Marathwada regions in Maharashtra.

  8. Engineering a high-yield glutathione strain of Hansenula polymorpha using ion beam implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Weidong; Fu, Yunfang; Cai, Changlong

    2013-01-01

    To generate an industrial strain of Hansenula polymorpha capable of yielding greater levels of glutathione (GSH), wild strain H. polymorpha DL-1 cells were mutated using a nitrogen ion beam, a novel mutagen. At an energy level of 20 keV and dose of 2.13 × 10(16) ions/cm(2), H. polymorpha strain 28 (HP28) with a high-yield of GSH was screened. HP28 intracellular GSH levels reached 337.16 mg/L by ion beam implantation, 1.56 times greater than that of the wild type strain when the fermentation time was shortened from 48 hr to 42 hr, greatly improving efficiency and reducing the cost of industrial-scale production. The enhanced efficiency of HP28 is promising for GSH production from lignocellulosic materials. Therefore, the ion beam implantation would be a cost-effective alternative to the conventional mutation method for engineering yeast and improving its utility.

  9. High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, D. G.; Bonsi, C. K.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Morris, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). 'Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mM Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 degrees C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 micromoles-m-2s-1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.

  10. High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, D. G.; Bonsi, C. K.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Morris, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). 'Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mM Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 degrees C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 micromoles-m-2s-1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.

  11. Yields of AGB and SAGB models with chemistry of low- and high-metallicity Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, P; Carini, R; D'Antona, F

    2013-01-01

    We present yields from stars of mass in the range Mohigh-Z Globular Clusters. The yields are based on full evolutionary computations, following the evolution of the stars from the pre-Main Sequence through the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase, until the external envelope is lost. Independently of metallicity, stars with M<3Mo are dominated by Third Dredge-Up, thus ejecting into their surroundings gas enriched in carbon and nitrogen. Conversely, Hot Bottom Burning is the main responsible for the modification of the surface chemistry of more massive stars, whose mass exceeds 3Mo: their gas shows traces of proton-capture nucleosynthesis. The extent of Hot Bottom Burning turns out to be strongly dependent on metallicity. In this paper we analyze the consequences of this fact. These results can be used to understand the role played by intermediate mass stars in the self-enrichment scenario of globular clusters: the resu...

  12. The yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Ignasi [Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Pediatric Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Boston, MA (United States); Wilson, Celeste R. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of General Pediatrics, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-06

    Skeletal surveys are routinely performed in cases of suspected child abuse, but there are limited data regarding the yield of high-detail skeletal surveys in infants. To determine the diagnostic yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse. We reviewed the high-detail American College of Radiology standardized skeletal surveys performed for suspected abuse in 567 infants (median: 4.4 months, SD 3.47; range: 4 days-12 months) at a large urban children's hospital between 2005 and 2013. Skeletal survey images, radiology reports and medical records were reviewed. A skeletal survey was considered positive when it showed at least one unsuspected fracture. In 313 of 567 infants (55%), 1,029 definite fractures were found. Twenty-one percent (119/567) of the patients had a positive skeletal survey with a total of 789 (77%) unsuspected fractures. Long-bone fractures were the most common injuries, present in 145 children (26%). The skull was the site of fracture in 138 infants (24%); rib cage in 77 (14%), clavicle in 24 (4.2%) and uncommon fractures (including spine, scapula, hands and feet and pelvis) were noted in 26 infants (4.6%). Of the 425 infants with neuroimaging, 154 (36%) had intracranial injury. No significant correlation between positive skeletal survey and associated intracranial injury was found. Scapular fractures and complex skull fractures showed a statistically significant correlation with intracranial injury (P = 0.029, P = 0.007, respectively). Previously unsuspected fractures are noted on skeletal surveys in 20% of cases of suspected infant abuse. These data may be helpful in the design and optimization of global skeletal imaging in this vulnerable population. (orig.)

  13. Lipid metabolites in seeds of diverse Gossypium accessions: Molecular identification of a high oleic mutant allele

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domestication and breeding of cotton for elite, high-fiber cultivars has led to reduced genetic variation of seed constituents within currently cultivated upland Cotton genotypes. However, a recent screen of the genetically diverse U.S. National Cotton Germplasm Collection identified Gossypium ...

  14. BRS 369RF and BRS 370RF: Glyphosate tolerant, high-yielding upland cotton cultivars for central Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo de Lelis Morello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS 369RF and BRS 370RF were developed by the EMBRAPA as a part of efforts to create high-yielding germplasm with combinations of transgenic traits. BRS 369RF and BRS 370RF are midseason cultivars and have yield stability, adaptation to the central Brazilian savanna, good fiber quality and tolerance to glyphosate herbicide.

  15. BRS FC402: high-yielding common bean cultivar with carioca grain, resistance to anthracnose and fusarium wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cunha Melo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS FC402 is a common bean cultivar of the carioca-grain group with commercial grain quality, suitable for cultivation in 21 Brazilian states. Cultivar has a normal cycle (85-94 days, high yield potential (4479 kg ha-1, 10.1% higher mean yield than the controls (2462 kg ha-1 and resistance to fusarium wilt and anthracnose.

  16. High-Yield Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Precipitation in a High-Aqueous Phase Content Reverse Microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Sosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles were precipitated at 70°C in a reverse microemulsion containing a high concentration of 0.5 M silver nitrate aqueous solution, toluene as organic phase, and a mixture of surfactants sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate/sodium dodecyl sulfate (2/1, w/w. Nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In spite of the high-water/surfactant molar ratio and concentration of silver nitrate solution used in this study, characterizations demonstrated that nanoparticles were silver crystals (purity >99% with 8.6–8.8 nm in average diameter and 2.9–4.7 nm in standard deviation. It is proposed that slow dosing rate of aqueous solution of precipitating agent and the small molecular volume of toluene attenuated both particle aggregation and polydispersity widening. Experimental yield of silver nanoparticles obtained in this study was much higher than theoretical yields calculated from available data in the literature on preparation of silver nanoparticles in reverse microemulsions.

  17. The addition of submergence-tolerant Sub1 gene into high yielding MR219 rice variety and analysis of its BC2F3 population in terms of yield and yield contributing characters to select advance lines as a variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross was made between MR219 (high yielding but submergence intolerant and Swarna-Sub1 (submergence tolerant to produce submergence-tolerant rice variety using the marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC method to protect the farmers of low-lying land from flash floods during rain. Knowledge of yield and yield contributing factors plays a vital role in the selection process of a variety. This experim ent was designed to determine the genetic diversity among recently produced different lines of BC2F3 population and also to compare all the lines with MR219 to find the best one. Agronomical, yield and yield contributing data were taken, while genotypic and phenotypic coefficients, variance components and heritability were estimated. Introgression of the target gene, Sub1, was done using tightly linked marker, and also background recovery was measured using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers in different generations. The observed recurrent parent genome (RPG recovery of BC2F2 generation was 95.37%, which indicates high-level similarity between the recurrent parent (MR219 and the resulting lines. Thirty newly developed lines of BC2F3 population, resulting backcross of MR219 and Swarna-Sub1, were planted with four replications following randomised complete block design (RCBD. Newly developed lines were grouped into four clusters based on traits with UPGMA dendrogram and cluster analysis to select the 10 best plants. This study will help the future researchers to select the best plants of a breeding programme after introgression of a gene considering phenotype performances to develop new varieties.

  18. Molecular signature of high yield (growth influenza a virus reassortants prepared as candidate vaccine seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojkumar Ramanunninair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human influenza virus isolates generally grow poorly in embryonated chicken eggs. Hence, gene reassortment of influenza A wild type (wt viruses is performed with a highly egg adapted donor virus, A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8, to provide the high yield reassortant (HYR viral 'seeds' for vaccine production. HYR must contain the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of wt virus and one to six 'internal' genes from PR8. Most studies of influenza wt and HYRs have focused on the HA gene. The main objective of this study is the identification of the molecular signature in all eight gene segments of influenza A HYR candidate vaccine seeds associated with high growth in ovo. METHODOLOGY: The genomes of 14 wt parental viruses, 23 HYRs (5 H1N1; 2, 1976 H1N1-SOIV; 2, 2009 H1N1pdm; 2 H2N2 and 12 H3N2 and PR8 were sequenced using the high-throughput sequencing pipeline with big dye terminator chemistry. RESULTS: Silent and coding mutations were found in all internal genes derived from PR8 with the exception of the M gene. The M gene derived from PR8 was invariant in all 23 HYRs underlining the critical role of PR8 M in high yield phenotype. None of the wt virus derived internal genes had any silent change(s except the PB1 gene in X-157. The highest number of recurrent silent and coding mutations was found in NS. With respect to the surface antigens, the majority of HYRs had coding mutations in HA; only 2 HYRs had coding mutations in NA. SIGNIFICANCE: In the era of application of reverse genetics to alter influenza A virus genomes, the mutations identified in the HYR gene segments associated with high growth in ovo may be of great practical benefit to modify PR8 and/or wt virus gene sequences for improved growth of vaccine 'seed' viruses.

  19. Novel fully-BODIPY functionalized cyclotetraphosphazene photosensitizers having high singlet oxygen quantum yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenkuytu, Elif; Eçik, Esra Tanrıverdi

    2017-07-01

    Novel fully-BODIPY functionalized dendrimeric cyclotetraphosphazenes (FBCP 1 and 2) have been synthesized and characterized by 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopies. The photophysical and photochemical properties of FBCP 1 and 2 are investigated in dichloromethane solution. The effectiveness of singlet oxygen generation was measured for FBCP 1 and 2 by UV-Vis spectra monitoring of the solution of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF), which is a well-known trapping molecule used in detection of singlet oxygen. FBCP 1 and 2 show high molar extinction coefficients in the NIR region, good singlet oxygen quantum yields and appropriate photo degradation. The data presented in the work indicate that the dendrimeric cyclotetraphosphazenes are effective singlet oxygen photosensitizers that might be used for various areas of applications such as photodynamic therapy and photocatalysis.

  20. Improvement of production of high-yield poplar varieties seedlings by mycorrhiza application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galić Zoran A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research related to the effects of treatment by mycorrhiza preparations Ectovit, Rhodovit (preparations Symbio-m Ltd., Czech Rep. and their combination on growth of four high-yield poplar clones of Populus deltoides and one variety of Populus x euramericana are presented in this paper. In order to make more accurate assessment of mycorrhiza effect, soil characteristics such as morphology, texture and chemical composition were determined. The study results indicate that mycorrhized cuttings had the same or the better survival in all the study clones compared to the control. The application of the preparation Ectovit and Rhodovit resulted averagely in the first class planting stock of all the study clones. The combination of the preparations Ectovit and Rhodovit produced averagely the first class planting stock only of the clone Populus x euramericana.

  1. High-yield production of manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and versatile peroxidase in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Guzmán-Ortiz, Doralinda A; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2014-11-01

    The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium secretes extracellular oxidative enzymes during secondary metabolism, but lacks versatile peroxidase, an enzyme important in ligninolysis and diverse biotechnology processes. In this study, we report the genetic modification of a P. chrysosporium strain capable of co-expressing two endogenous genes constitutively, manganese peroxidase (mnp1) and lignin peroxidase (lipH8), and the codon-optimized vpl2 gene from Pleurotus eryngii. For this purpose, we employed a highly efficient transformation method based on the use of shock waves developed by our group. The expression of recombinant genes was verified by PCR, Southern blot, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and assays of enzymatic activity. The production yield of ligninolytic enzymes was up to four times higher in comparison to previously published reports. These results may represent significant progress toward the stable production of ligninolytic enzymes and the development of an effective fungal strain with promising biotechnological applications.

  2. High-yield synthesis of silicon carbide nanowires by solar and lamp ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-bo; Chan, Benjamin C. Y.; Wang, Xiaolin; Tong Chua, Hui; Raston, Colin L.; Albu-Yaron, Ana; Levy, Moshe; Popowitz-Biro, Ronit; Tenne, Reshef; Feuermann, Daniel; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

    2013-08-01

    We report a reasonably high yield (∼50%) synthesis of silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires from silicon oxides and carbon in vacuum, by novel solar and lamp photothermal ablation methods that obviate the need for catalysis, and allow relatively short reaction times (∼10 min) in a nominally one-step process that does not involve toxic reagents. The one-dimensional core/shell β-SiC/SiOx nanostructures—characterized by SEM, TEM, HRTEM, SAED, XRD and EDS—are typically several microns long, with core and outer diameters of about 10 and 30 nm, respectively. HRTEM revealed additional distinctive nanoscale structures that also shed light on the formation pathways.

  3. Modeling Integrated High-Yield IFE Target Explosions in Xenon Filled Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatenejad, Milad; Moses, Gregory

    2010-11-01

    We will present the results of several radiation-hydrodynamics simulations which model the aftermath of an exploding high yield (200 MJ) indirect drive target in a xenon filled reactor chamber. The goal is to determine the radial extent to which debris from the target and hohlraum expands into the target chamber. The 1D radiation-hydrodynamics code BUCKY is used to perform integrated simulations of the target explosion beginning from ignition and includes interactions between the chamber gas and tungsten first wall. The 3D radiation-hydrodynamics code Cooper will be used to model the growth of fluid instabilities as the target material expands into the xenon gas. Cooper will also be used to investigate the early-time interaction between the burning target and hohlraum shortly after ignition.

  4. Maximising high solid loading enzymatic saccharification yield from acid-catalysed hydrothermally-pretreated brewers spent grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Wilkinson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme saccharification of pretreated brewers spent grains (BSG was investigated, aiming at maximising glucose production. Factors investigated were; variation of the solids loadings at different cellulolytic enzyme doses, reaction time, higher energy mixing methods, supplementation of the cellulolytic enzymes with additional enzymes (and cofactors and use of fed-batch methods. Improved slurry agitation through aerated high-torque mixing offered small but significant enhancements in glucose yields (to 53 ± 2.9 g/L and 45% of theoretical yield compared to only 41 ± 4.0 g/L and 39% of theoretical yield for standard shaking methods (at 15% w/v solids loading. Supplementation of the cellulolytic enzymes with additional enzymes (acetyl xylan esterases, ferulic acid esterases and α-L- arabinofuranosidases also boosted achieved glucose yields to 58 – 69 ± 0.8 - 6.2 g/L which equated to 52 - 58% of theoretical yield. Fed-batch methods also enhanced glucose yields (to 58 ± 2.2 g/L and 35% of theoretical yield at 25% w/v solids loading compared to non-fed-batch methods. From these investigations a novel enzymatic saccharification method was developed (using enhanced mixing, a fed-batch approach and additional carbohydrate degrading enzymes which further increased glucose yields to 78 ± 4.1 g/L and 43% of theoretical yield when operating at high solids loading (25% w/v.

  5. A high loading overland flow system: Impacts on soil characteristics, grass constituents, yields and nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C G; Chen, T H; Hsu, F H; Lu, C H; Lin, J B; Chang, C H; Chang, S P; Lee, C S

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are to determine effects of different grass species and their harvests on pollutant removal, elucidate impacts on soil characteristics and grass constituents, observe grass yield and quantify nutrient uptake by vegetation in an overland flow system (OLFS). Polluted creek water was applied to eight channels in the OLFS, which were planted with Paragrass, Nilegrass, Cattail, and Vetiver, with each two channels being randomly planted with a given grass species. The grass in one channel was harvested while that in the other channel was not. At a high rate of 27.8 m d(-1) hydraulic loading, the removal efficiencies of conventional pollutants such as BOD, COD, suspended solids (SS), and total coliforms in wastewater are not affected by the type of the grasses species, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus are affected by different species. Overall average removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, SS, ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total coliforms through the OLFS are 42%, 48%, 78%, 47%, 40%, 33% and 89%, respectively. The concentration of nitrate, however, increases due to nitrification. Soil characteristics in OLFS have been changed significantly; specific conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable magnesium, extractable copper and zinc in soils all increase with time while pHs decrease. During the winter season, there is a significant accumulation of nitrate in grass with the subsequent reduction during the active growing season (Spring). The contents of nitrate and phosphorus in grass tissue are higher than those of grass in general pastureland, probably due to nutrient luxury uptake by grass. The overall grass yield, growth rate and nutrient uptake are quantified and implication of such high rate OLFS discussed.

  6. 高产γ-氨基丁酸乳酸菌菌株的筛选及诱变育种研究%Study on screening and mutation breeding of high-yield y-aminobuyric acid Lactobacillus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴非; 边鑫; 李良; 吴海波; 郭丽

    2012-01-01

    以乳酸菌作为出发菌株,将其接入豆浆(大豆∶水=1∶8)进行发酵,根据发酵过程中γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)产量,筛选出GABA的高产乳酸菌菌株,然后利用紫外线对高产菌株进行诱变处理,筛选得到稳定高产GABA突变菌株.结果表明,保加利亚乳杆菌L2为高产GABA乳酸菌菌株.GABA产量达到1.066 g·L-1.对L2进行紫外诱变处理的最佳照射时间为50 s,在此照射时间下,获得高产GABA突变菌株L2-4,其在含有1% L-谷氨酸的改良MRS培养基和豆浆中的GABA产量分别为4.235和1.394g·L-1,比原菌株的GABA产量分别提高了25.63%和30.77%.%Soya-bean milk (soybean: water=1: 8) were fermented by Lactobac/l/us. High-yield GABA strain was screened according to the y-aminobuyric acid (GABA) accumulation amount during soya-bean milk fermentation. The high-yield GABA stable mutant strain was obtained by ultraviolet mutagenesis. The results showed that Lactobacillus bulgaricus L2 was high-yield GABA strain by the screening of GABA-yield Lactobacillus, GABA yield reached 1.066 g·L'. The optimum mutagenesis time of L2 by ultraviolet was 50 s. In this condition, a high-yield GABA stable mutant strain named L2-4 was obtained, and the GABA yields were 4.235 g·L' in reformed MRS (containing 1% L-glutamic acid) and 1.394 g·L-1 in soya-bean milk. Compared to the Initial strain, GABA yield of mutant strain increased 25.63% in reformed MRS (containing 1% L-glutamic acid) and 30.77% in soya-bean milk.

  7. A Microfluidic Platform for High-Throughput Screening of Small Mutant Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji Won; Shin, Kwang Soo; Moon, Jaemin; Lee, Sung Kuk; Kim, Taesung

    2016-05-17

    The screening and isolation of target microorganisms from mutated recombinant libraries are crucial for the advancement of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. However, conventional screening tools present several limitations in throughput, cost, and labor. Herein, we describe a novel microfluidic high-throughput screening (HTS) platform with several advantages. The platform utilizes a fluid array to compartmentalize bacterial cells in well-ordered separated microwells and allows long-term cell culture with high throughput. The platform enables the extraction of selected target cells from the fluid array for additional culture and postanalysis by using a capillary-driven sample relocation method. To confirm the feasibility of the platform, we demonstrated two different types of HTS methods based on the levels of reporter gene expression and cellular growth rate difference. For the reporter gene-based HTS, a spike recovery approach was taken to demonstrate that target cells are successfully screened out from a mixture containing nontarget cells by repeating the culture and extraction processes. Additionally, the same platform allowed us to screen and sort target cells according to their cellular growth rate difference, which seems hard in conventional screening methods. Hence, the platform could be used for various microbiological assays, including the detection of cell-excreted metabolites, microbial biosensors, and other HTS systems.

  8. GPCR engineering yields high-resolution structural insights into beta2-adrenergic receptor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Cherezov, Vadim; Hanson, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    crystallization, we engineered a beta2AR fusion protein in which T4 lysozyme (T4L) replaces most of the third intracellular loop of the GPCR ("beta2AR-T4L") and showed that this protein retains near-native pharmacologic properties. Analysis of adrenergic receptor ligand-binding mutants within the context...

  9. High-yield Synthesis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube by Mechanothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manafi SA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports on the mechanothermal synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs from elemental graphite powder. Initially, high ultra-active graphite powder can be obtained by mechanical milling under argon atmosphere. Finally, the mechanical activation product is heat-treated at 1350°C for 2–4 h under argon gas flow. After heat-treatment, active graphite powders were successfully changed into MWCNTs with high purity. The XRD analyses showed that in the duration 150 h of milling, all the raw materials were changed to the desired materials. From the broadening of the diffraction lines in the XRD patterns, it was concluded that the graphite crystallites were nanosized, and raising the milling duration resulted in the fineness of the particles and the increase of the strain. The structure and morphology of MWCNTs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The yield of MWCNTs was estimated through SEM and TEM observations of the as-prepared samples was to be about 90%. Indeed, mechanothermal method is of interest for fundamental understanding and improvement of commercial synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs. As a matter of fact, the method of mechanothermal guarantees the production of MWCNTs suitable for different applications.

  10. High-yield Synthesis of Nanohybrid Shish-kebab Polyethylene-carbon Nanotube Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Chaojie; QIAN Weizhong; ZHAO Mengqiang; XU Guanghui; NIE Jingqi; JIA Xilai; WEI Fei

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel method to prepare nanohybrid shish-kebab (NHSK) structure of polyethylene (PE) and carbon nanotube (CNT),Pristine CNTs without surface modification with high concentration was effectively dispersed in xylene solution by a simple shearing method,which induces the quick crystallization of PE in xylene to form a novel NHSK structure with more dense and smaller PE kebab on CNT axis.The flocculated NHSK product was transferred quickly from the xylene solution to the ethanol solution,in order to shorten the preparation time.The freeze-drying method was used in vacuum instead of high-temperature drying to avoid the aggregation of NHSK product.These improvements allow the formation of NHSK with an absolute yield of 200 mg·h-1,which is 2000 folds of that reported previously.It is favorable to apply this structured material in high performance nanocomposite,by improving the compatibility of CNTs in polymer and the interracial force between CNTs and polymer.

  11. High-resolution mapping and genetic characterization of the Lazy-2 gravitropic mutant of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, F. J.; Lomax, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    Mutation of the Lazy-2 (Lz-2) gene in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.) produces a phytochrome-dependent reversal of shoot gravitropism, providing a unique genetic resource for investigating how signals from light modulate gravitropism. We mapped the Lz-2 gene using RFLPs and a PCR-based technique to assess the feasibility of positional cloning. Analysis of a 1338 plant backcross population between L. esculentum and L. pennellii placed Lz-2 within a 1.2 cM interval on chromosome 5, 0.4 cM from TG504-CT201A interval. The inabililty to resolve these markers indicates that Lz-2 resides in a centromeric region in which recombination is highly suppressed. Lazy-2 is tightly linked to but does not encode the gene for ACC4, an enzyme involved in ethylene biosynthesis. We also observed that Lz-2 is partially dominant under certain conditions and stages of development.

  12. RNA mutagenesis yields highly diverse mRNA libraries for in vitro protein evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobric Nada

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In protein drug development, in vitro molecular optimization or protein maturation can be used to modify protein properties. One basic approach to protein maturation is the introduction of random DNA mutations into the target gene sequence to produce a library of variants that can be screened for the preferred protein properties. Unfortunately, the capability of this approach has been restricted by deficiencies in the methods currently available for random DNA mutagenesis and library generation. Current DNA based methodologies generally suffer from nucleotide substitution bias that preferentially mutate particular base pairs or show significant bias with respect to transitions or transversions. In this report, we describe a novel RNA-based random mutagenesis strategy that utilizes Qβ replicase to manufacture complex mRNA libraries with a mutational spectrum that is close to the ideal. Results We show that Qβ replicase generates all possible base substitutions with an equivalent preference for mutating A/T or G/C bases and with no significant bias for transitions over transversions. To demonstrate the high diversity that can be sampled from a Qβ replicase-generated mRNA library, the approach was used to evolve the binding affinity of a single domain VNAR shark antibody fragment (12Y-2 against malarial apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1 via ribosome display. The binding constant (KD of 12Y-2 was increased by 22-fold following two consecutive but discrete rounds of mutagenesis and selection. The mutagenesis method was also used to alter the substrate specificity of β-lactamase which does not significantly hydrolyse the antibiotic cefotaxime. Two cycles of RNA mutagenesis and selection on increasing concentrations of cefotaxime resulted in mutants with a minimum 10,000-fold increase in resistance, an outcome achieved faster and with fewer overall mutations than in comparable studies using other mutagenesis strategies

  13. Metabolic engineering of a thermophilic bacterium to produce ethanol at high yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A Joe; Podkaminer, Kara K; Desai, Sunil G; Bardsley, John S; Rogers, Stephen R; Thorne, Philip G; Hogsett, David A; Lynd, Lee R

    2008-09-16

    We report engineering Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that ferments xylan and biomass-derived sugars, to produce ethanol at high yield. Knockout of genes involved in organic acid formation (acetate kinase, phosphate acetyltransferase, and L-lactate dehydrogenase) resulted in a strain able to produce ethanol as the only detectable organic product and substantial changes in electron flow relative to the wild type. Ethanol formation in the engineered strain (ALK2) utilizes pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase with electrons transferred from ferredoxin to NAD(P), a pathway different from that in previously described microbes with a homoethanol fermentation. The homoethanologenic phenotype was stable for >150 generations in continuous culture. The growth rate of strain ALK2 was similar to the wild-type strain, with a reduction in cell yield proportional to the decreased ATP availability resulting from acetate kinase inactivation. Glucose and xylose are co-utilized and utilization of mannose and arabinose commences before glucose and xylose are exhausted. Using strain ALK2 in simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation experiments at 50 degrees C allows a 2.5-fold reduction in cellulase loading compared with using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 37 degrees C. The maximum ethanol titer produced by strain ALK2, 37 g/liter, is the highest reported thus far for a thermophilic anaerobe, although further improvements are desired and likely possible. Our results extend the frontier of metabolic engineering in thermophilic hosts, have the potential to significantly lower the cost of cellulosic ethanol production, and support the feasibility of further cost reductions through engineering a diversity of host organisms.

  14. Does high yield spread dampen economic growth? : the case of US-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kurihara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the relationship between the United States' and Japan's yield spread of interest rates and economic growth in Japan. The yield spread is defined in this article as the difference between the Japanese government bond yield minus the US government bond yield. Some studies have tackled this issue and found a negative relationship between the yield spread and economic growth; however, recent studies have shown no or a weak relationship. This problem has not yet consensus in spite of its importance. As the Japanese interest rate has been quite low since the adoption of the zero interest rate policy at the end of 1990s, the situation may change the results. The empirical results show that reliability of yield spread as a leading indicator of output growth exists in Japan; however, term structure of interest rate is not related to economic growth.

  15. Enhanced ethanol production at commercial scale from molasses using high gravity technology by mutant S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad; Hussain, Tariq; Iqbal, Munawar; Abbas, Mazhar

    2017-02-16

    Very high gravity (VHG) technology was employed on industrial scale to produce ethanol from molasses (fermented) as well as by-products formation estimation. The effect of different Brix° (32, 36 and 40) air-flow rates (0.00, 0.20, 0.40, and 0.60vvm) was studied on ethanol production. The maximum ethanol production was recorded to be 12.2% (v/v) at 40 Brix° with 0.2vvm air-flow rate. At optimum level aeration and 40 Brix° VHG, the residual sugar level was recorded in the range of 12.5-18.5g/L, whereas the viable cell count remained constant up to 50h of fermentation and dry matter production increased with fermentation time. Both water and steam consumption reduced significantly under optimum conditions of Brix° and aeration rate with compromising the ethanol production. Results revealed VHG with continuous air flow is viable technique to reduce the ethanol production cost form molasses at commercial scale.

  16. High amplitude phase resetting in rev-erbalpha/per1 double mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Jud

    Full Text Available Over time, organisms developed various strategies to adapt to their environment. Circadian clocks are thought to have evolved to adjust to the predictable rhythms of the light-dark cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth around its own axis. The rhythms these clocks generate persist even in the absence of environmental cues with a period of about 24 hours. To tick in time, they continuously synchronize themselves to the prevailing photoperiod by appropriate phase shifts. In this study, we disrupted two molecular components of the mammalian circadian oscillator, Rev-Erbalpha and Period1 (Per1. We found that mice lacking these genes displayed robust circadian rhythms with significantly shorter periods under constant darkness conditions. Strikingly, they showed high amplitude resetting in response to a brief light pulse at the end of their subjective night phase, which is rare in mammals. Surprisingly, Cry1, a clock component not inducible by light in mammals, became slightly inducible in these mice. Taken together, Rev-Erbalpha and Per1 may be part of a mechanism preventing drastic phase shifts in mammals.

  17. Breeding of a high yielding chamomile variety (Matricaria recutita L. with improved traits for machine harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A more productive variety of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., which is more efficient in machine processing with consistent quality traits, will benefit the viability of german products in the global market. Breeding of an enhanced chamomile variety is part of a german multi-network project called KAMEL whose research aims on Matricaria recutita L., Valeriana officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L. The agronomic and qualitative improvement of these speciality crops are the basis for further economic prosperity of medicinal and aromatic plant cultivation in Germany. The main breeding goals of a new variety of chamomile are the increase of blossom product yield (Matricariae flos to 6 dt/ha in up to three harvest stages through a homogenous flower horizon (pick height, an even flowering time, large flower heads and a high regeneration rate after each harvest stage. The upgrade of the content of essential oil content to a minimum of 0.8 % with its compostion according to Ph. Eur. and a chamazulene content of min. 25 % are further objectives of the breeding process. In addition to these quality traits, high tolerances against common fungal diseases are of particular interest. Development of an innovative chamomile variety is realized over nine years in three stages (2010 - 2019.

  18. Propagation method for persistent high yield of diverse Listeria phages on permissive hosts at refrigeration temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Devon R; Ahmadi, Hanie; Leon-Velarde, Carlos G; Balamurugan, Sampathkumar

    2016-10-01

    The efficient production of a high concentration of bacteriophage in large volumes has been a limiting factor in the exploration of the true potential of these organisms for biotechnology, agriculture and medicine. Traditional methods focus on generating small volumes of highly concentrated samples as the end product of extensive mechanical and osmotic processing. To function at an industrial scale mandates extensive investment in infrastructure and input materials not feasible for many smaller facilities. To address this, we developed a novel, scalable, generic method for producing significantly higher titer psychrophilic phage (P Listeria, Yersinia and their phages grow in equilibrium. Diverse Yersinia and Listeria phages tested yielded averages of 3.49 × 10(8) to 3.36 × 10(12) PFU/ml/day compared to averages of 1.28 × 10(5) to 1.30 × 10(10) PFU/ml/day by traditional methods. Host growth and death kinetics made this method ineffective for extended propagation of mesophilic phages.

  19. Study of a High-Yield Cellulase System Created by Heavy-Ion Irradiation-Induced Mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger and Mixed Fermentation with Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Yang; Jiang, Bo-Ling; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Ji-Hong; Li, Wen-Jian; Liu, Jing; Hu, Wei; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Dong, Miao-Yin; Wang, Yu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the efficiency of 12C6+ irradiation of Aspergillus niger (A. niger) or mutagenesis via mixed Trichoderma viride (T. viride) culturing as well as a liquid cultivation method for cellulase production via mixed Trichoderma reesei (T. reesei) and A. niger culture fermentation. The first mutagenesis approach was employed to optimize yield from a cellulase-producing strain via heavy-ion mutagenesis and high-throughput screening, and the second was to effectively achieve enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulase from a mixed culture of mutant T. viride and A. niger. We found that 12C6+-ion irradiation induced changes in cellulase biosynthesis in A. niger but had no effect on the time course of the synthesis. It is notable that the exoglucanases (CBH) activities of A. niger strains H11-1 and H differed (6.71 U/mL vs. 6.01 U/mL) and were significantly higher than that of A. niger mutant H3-1. Compared with strain H, the filter paper assay (FPA), endoglucanase (EG) and β-glucosidase (BGL) activities of mutant strain H11-1 were increased by 250.26%, 30.26% and 34.91%, respectively. A mixed culture system was successfully optimized, and the best ratio of T. reesei to A. niger was 5:1 for 96 h with simultaneous inoculation. The BGL activity of the mixed culture increased after 72 h. At 96 h, the FPA and BGL activities of the mixed culture were 689.00 and 797.15 U/mL, respectively, significantly higher than those of monocultures, which were 408.70 and 646.98 U/mL for T. reesei and 447.29 and 658.89 U/mL for A. niger, respectively. The EG activity of the mixed culture was 2342.81 U/mL, a value that was significantly higher than that of monocultures at 2206.57 U/mL for T. reesei and 1727.62 U/mL for A. niger. In summary, cellulose production and hydrolysis yields were significantly enhanced by the proposed combination scheme.

  20. Study of a High-Yield Cellulase System Created by Heavy-Ion Irradiation-Induced Mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger and Mixed Fermentation with Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yang Wang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the efficiency of 12C6+ irradiation of Aspergillus niger (A. niger or mutagenesis via mixed Trichoderma viride (T. viride culturing as well as a liquid cultivation method for cellulase production via mixed Trichoderma reesei (T. reesei and A. niger culture fermentation. The first mutagenesis approach was employed to optimize yield from a cellulase-producing strain via heavy-ion mutagenesis and high-throughput screening, and the second was to effectively achieve enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulase from a mixed culture of mutant T. viride and A. niger. We found that 12C6+-ion irradiation induced changes in cellulase biosynthesis in A. niger but had no effect on the time course of the synthesis. It is notable that the exoglucanases (CBH activities of A. niger strains H11-1 and H differed (6.71 U/mL vs. 6.01 U/mL and were significantly higher than that of A. niger mutant H3-1. Compared with strain H, the filter paper assay (FPA, endoglucanase (EG and β-glucosidase (BGL activities of mutant strain H11-1 were increased by 250.26%, 30.26% and 34.91%, respectively. A mixed culture system was successfully optimized, and the best ratio of T. reesei to A. niger was 5:1 for 96 h with simultaneous inoculation. The BGL activity of the mixed culture increased after 72 h. At 96 h, the FPA and BGL activities of the mixed culture were 689.00 and 797.15 U/mL, respectively, significantly higher than those of monocultures, which were 408.70 and 646.98 U/mL for T. reesei and 447.29 and 658.89 U/mL for A. niger, respectively. The EG activity of the mixed culture was 2342.81 U/mL, a value that was significantly higher than that of monocultures at 2206.57 U/mL for T. reesei and 1727.62 U/mL for A. niger. In summary, cellulose production and hydrolysis yields were significantly enhanced by the proposed combination scheme.

  1. Fast co-pyrolysis of waste newspaper with high-density polyethylene for high yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Shi, Shukai; Chen, Minzhi; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2017-09-01

    Waste newspaper (WP) was first co-pyrolyzed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to enhance the yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons. The effects of WP: HDPE feed ratio (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100) and temperature (500-800°C) on products distribution were investigated and the interaction mechanism during co-pyrolysis was also proposed. Maximum yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons reached 85.88% (feed ratio 50:50wt.%, 600°C). Hydrogen supplements and deoxidation by HDPE and subsequently fragments recombination result in the conversion of aldehydes and ketones into branched hydrocarbons. Radicals from WP degradation favor the secondary crack for HDPE products resulting in the formation of linear hydrocarbons with low carbon number. Hydrocarbons with activated radical site from HDPE degradation were interacted with hydroxyl from WP degradation promoting the formation of linear long chain alcohols. Moreover, co-pyrolysis significantly enhanced condensable oil qualities, which were close to commercial diesel No. 0. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Facile Growth of High-Yield Gold Nanobipyramids Induced by Chloroplatinic Acid for High Refractive Index Sensing Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Caihong; Zhao, Guili; Xiao, Yanling; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Zijun; Geng, Baoyou

    2016-11-01

    Au nanobipyramids (NBPs) have attracted great attention because of their unique localized surface plasmon resonance properties. However, the current growth methods always have low yield or suffer tedious process. Developing new ways to direct synthesis of high-yield Au NBPs using common agents is therefore desirable. Here, we employed chloroplatinic acid as the key shape-directing agent for the first time to grow Au NBPs using a modified seed-mediated method at room temperature. H2PtCl6 was added both during the seed preparation and in growth solution. Metallic Pt, reduced from chloroplatinic acid, will deposit on the surface of the seed nanoparticles and the Au nanocrystals and thus plays a critical role for the formation of Au NBPs. Additionally, the reductant, precursor, and surfactant are all cheap and commonly used. Furthermore, the Au NBPs offer narrow size distribution, two sharp tips, and a shared basis. Au NBPs therefore show much higher refractive index sensitivities than that of the Au nanorods. The refractive index sensitivities and lager figure of merit values of Au NBPs exhibit an increase of 63% and 321% respectively compared to the corresponding values of Au nanorod sample.

  3. Induction of embryogenic callus and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high yielding mature oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeedum, I.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus induction and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high-yielding mature oil palm were carried out using 10-year and 20-year-old trees from Thepa Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources,Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, and Trang Agricultural College, respectively. Culture media used in this experiment were Murashige and Skoog (1962 and Oil Palm supplemented with various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA or 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D or dicamba (Di and antioxidants.Young leaves from 6th to 11st frond were excised, sterilized, cut into 5x5 mm pieces and cultured in the dark at 26±4ºC or 28±0.5ºC for 3 months. The results revealed that MS medium with 200 mg/l ascorbic acid (As and 1 mg/l Di (MS-AsDi gave the highest callus induction percentage (7.93 after culture for 3 months at 28±0.5ºC. Leaf segments from 6th - 8th frond yielded callus forming percentage at 10% (averaged from 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/l Di containing MS medium. Ascorbic acid as an antioxidant at concentration of 200 mg/l supplemented in MS medium in the presence of 2.5 mg/l Di produced the highest callus induction percentage (11.2 and number of nodules (7.06. A high percentage of embryogenic callus formation (66.67 was obtained when the calli were transferred to the same medium component supplemented with 0.5 mg/l Di and 1,000 mg/l casein hydrolysate (CH (MS-AsDiCH. Haustorial-staged embryos were observed to be isolated as an individual embryo and germinated on MS medium without plant growth regulator (MS-free. Development of root could be classified into two distinct types, fibrous and tap root.

  4. Association between udder morphology and in vitro activity of milk leukocytes in high yielding crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Sharma (Buragohain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation was conducted to study the association between udder morphology and in vitro activity of milk leukocytes in high yielding crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 healthy high yielding crossbred cows were selected for the study. The udder configuration and teat/udder morphology were recorded before milking. Milk samples (100 ml/cow were collected aseptically. Milk somatic cell counts (SCC and milk differential leukocyte counts were performed microscopically. Milk leukocytes (viz., neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages were isolated from milk samples by density gradient centrifugation. Phagocytic index (PI of milk neutrophils and macrophages were evaluated by colorimetric nitro blue tetrazolium assay. Lymphocytes proliferation response was estimated by MTT assay and expressed as stimulation index. Results: There was a significant (p<0.01 positive correlation between milk SCC with mid teat diameter, teat base diameter and significant (p<0.05 negative correlation between milk SCC and the height of the teat from the ground. Milk SCC was found to be significantly (p<0.01 lower in bowl-shaped udder and higher (p<0.01 in pendulous type. Milk macrophage percentage was positively (p<0.01 correlated with udder circumference. PI of milk neutrophil was negatively (p<0.01 correlation between teat base diameter, and PI of milk macrophages was found to be positively (p<0.01 correlated with teat apex diameter. Both PI of milk neutrophils and macrophages was found to be significantly (p<0.01 lower in the animals having flat and round teat and pendulous type of udder. In vitro PI of milk neutrophils was found to be significantly (p<0.01 lower in flat teat. In vitro PI of milk macrophages was found to be significantly (p<0.01 lower in the round and flat teats compared to pointed and cylindrical teats. Conclusion: Udder risk factors such as teat shape and size, teat to floor distance, udder shape, and size may decrease

  5. High-yielding aquifers in crystalline basement: insights about the role of fault zones, exemplified by Armorican Massif, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Clément; Bour, Olivier; Aquilina, Luc; Dewandel, Benoît

    2016-12-01

    While groundwater constitutes a crucial resource in many crystalline-rock regions worldwide, well-yield conditions are highly variable and barely understood. Nevertheless, it is well known that fault zones may have the capacity to ensure sustainable yield in crystalline media, but there are only a few and disparate examples in the literature that describe high-yield conditions related to fault zones in crystalline rock basements. By investigating structural and hydraulic properties of remarkable yielding sites identified in the Armorican Massif, western France, this study discusses the main factors that may explain such exceptional hydrogeological properties. Twenty-three sites, identified through analysis of databases available for the region, are investigated. Results show that: (1) the highly transmissive fractures are related to fault zones which ensure the main water inflow in the pumped wells; (2) the probability of intersecting such transmissive fault zones does not vary significantly with depth, at least within the range investigated in this study (0-200 m); and (3) high yield is mainly controlled by the structural features of the fault zones, in particular the fault dip and the presence of a connected storage reservoir. Conceptual models that summarize the hydrological properties of high-yield groundwater resources related to fault zones in crystalline basement are shown and discussed.

  6. High-yield synthesis of few-layer graphene flakes through electrochemical expansion of graphite in propylene carbonate electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junzhong; Manga, Kiran Kumar; Bao, Qiaoliang; Loh, Kian Ping

    2011-06-15

    High-yield production of few-layer graphene flakes from graphite is important for the scalable synthesis and industrial application of graphene. However, high-yield exfoliation of graphite to form graphene sheets without using any oxidation process or super-strong acid is challenging. Here we demonstrate a solution route inspired by the lithium rechargeable battery for the high-yield (>70%) exfoliation of graphite into highly conductive few-layer graphene flakes (average thickness electrolyte of Li salts and organic solvents under high current density and exfoliated efficiently into few-layer graphene sheets with the aid of sonication. The dispersible graphene can be ink-brushed to form highly conformal coatings of conductive films (15 ohm/square at a graphene loading of <1 mg/cm(2)) on commercial paper.

  7. High-throughput and high-yield fabrication of uniaxially-aligned chitosan-based nanofibers by centrifugal electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Ariane E; Edmondson, Dennis; Chang, Fei-Chien; Wood, Dave; Gong, Alex; Levengood, Sheeny Lan; Zhang, Miqin

    2015-12-10

    The inability to produce large quantities of nanofibers has been a primary obstacle in advancement and commercialization of electrospinning technologies, especially when aligned nanofibers are desired. Here, we present a high-throughput centrifugal electrospinning (HTP-CES) system capable of producing a large number of highly-aligned nanofiber samples with high-yield and tunable diameters. The versatility of the design was revealed when bead-less nanofibers were produced from copolymer chitosan/polycaprolactone (C-PCL) solutions despite variations in polymer blend composition or spinneret needle gauge. Compared to conventional electrospinning techniques, fibers spun with the HTP-CES not only exhibited superior alignment, but also better diameter uniformity. Nanofiber alignment was quantified using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis. In addition, a concave correlation between the needle diameter and resultant fiber diameter was identified. This system can be easily scaled up for industrial production of highly-aligned nanofibers with tunable diameters that can potentially meet the requirements for various engineering and biomedical applications.

  8. High-pressure homogenization of raw and pasteurized milk modifies the yield, composition, and texture of queso fresco cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, D; Clark, S; Ganesan, V; Repiso, L; Waller, J; Harte, F

    2011-03-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) of milk was studied as an alternative processing operation in the manufacturing of queso fresco cheese. Raw and pasteurized (65°C for 30 min) milks were subjected to HPH at 0, 100, 200, and 300 MPa and then used to manufacture queso fresco. The cheeses were evaluated for yield, moisture content, titratable acidity, nitrogen content, whey protein content, yield force, yield strain, and tactile texture by instrumental or trained panel analyses. The combination of HPH and thermal processing of milk resulted in cheeses with increased yield and moisture content. The net amount of protein transferred to the cheese per kilogram of milk remained constant for all treatments except raw milk processed at 300 MPa. The highest cheese yield, moisture content, and crumbliness were obtained for thermally processed milk subjected to HPH at 300 MPa. The principal component analysis of all measured variables showed that the variables yield, moisture content, and crumbliness were strongly correlated to each other and negatively correlated to the variables yield strain, protein content (wet basis), and sensory cohesiveness. It is suggested that the combination of thermal processing and HPH promotes thermally induced denaturation of whey protein, together with homogenization-induced dissociation of casein micelles. The combined effect results in queso fresco containing a thin casein-whey matrix that is able to better retain sweet whey. These results indicate that HPH has a strong potential for the manufacture of queso fresco with excellent yield and textural properties.

  9. Single PA mutation as a high yield determinant of avian influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ilseob; Il Kim, Jin; Park, Sehee; Bae, Joon-Yong; Yoo, Kirim; Yun, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Joo-Yeon; Kim, Kisoon; Kang, Chun; Park, Man-Seong

    2017-01-01

    Human infection with an avian influenza virus persists. To prepare for a potential outbreak of avian influenza, we constructed a candidate vaccine virus (CVV) containing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of a H5N1 virus and evaluated its antigenic stability after serial passaging in embryonated chicken eggs. The passaged CVV harbored the four amino acid mutations (R136K in PB2; E31K in PA; A172T in HA; and R80Q in M2) without changing its antigenicity, compared with the parental CVV. Notably, the passaged CVV exhibited much greater replication property both in eggs and in Madin-Darby canine kidney and Vero cells. Of the four mutations, the PA E31K showed the greatest effect on the replication property of reverse genetically-rescued viruses. In a further luciferase reporter, mini-replicon assay, the PA mutation appeared to affect the replication property by increasing viral polymerase activity. When applied to different avian influenza CVVs (H7N9 and H9N2 subtypes), the PA E31K mutation resulted in the increases of viral replication in the Vero cell again. Taken all together, our results suggest the PA E31K mutation as a single, substantial growth determinant of avian influenza CVVs and for the establishment of a high-yield avian influenza vaccine backbone. PMID:28084423

  10. Identified particle yield associated with a high-$p_T$ trigger particle at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veldhoen, Misha; van Leeuwen, Marco

    Identified particle production ratios are important observables, used to constrain models of particle production in heavy-ion collisions. Measurements of the inclusive particle ratio in central heavy-ion collisions showed an increase of the baryon-to-meson ratio compared to proton-proton collisions at intermediate pT, the so-called baryon anomaly. One possible explanation of the baryon anomaly is that partons from the thermalized deconfined QCD matter hadronize in a different way compared to hadrons produced in a vacuum jet. In this work we extend on previous measurements by measuring particle ratios in the yield associated with a high-pT trigger particle. These measurements can potentially further constrain the models of particle production since they are sensitive to the difference between particles from a jet and particles that are produced in the bulk. We start by developing a particle identification method that uses both the specific energy loss of a particle and the time of flight. From there, we presen...

  11. A novel high yield method for dry functionalization of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S G

    2011-04-01

    A novel and high yield (> 80%) dry method to functionalize (dry functionalization) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using hydrothermal method, is reported here. The hydrothermal solution was prepared with HNO3, H2SO4 and H2O2 (1:3:2 vol. ratios) and reaction was carried out from 120 to 200 degrees C for 24 h. CNTs (multi wall) were kept in a way to avoid the direct contact with the solution. Treatment above 180 degrees C resulted in better functionalization of nanotubes as observed from Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. Field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) images showed that after functionalization, the nanotubes are seen with open ends, granular surface, twisted and are joined together. These clearly indicate the destruction of the graphite structure on the surface. This indicates that after treatment, CNTs reactivity has increased at the ends as well as at the side walls. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic (XPS) studies show a shift in the C 1s peak position, increase in O 1s peak intensity and appearance of an N 1s peak.

  12. High quantum yield graphene quantum dots decorated TiO2 nanotubes for enhancing photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ailan; Xie, Haolong; Xu, Xinmei; Zhang, Yangyu; Wen, Shengwu; Cui, Yifan

    2016-07-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with high quantum yield (about 23.6% at an excitation wavelength of 320 nm) and GQDs/TiO2 nanotubes (GQDs/TiO2 NTs) composites were achieved by a simple hydrothermal method at low temperature. Photoluminescence characterization showed that the GQDs exhibited the down-conversion PL features at excitation from 300 to 420 nm and up-conversion photoluminescence in the range of 600-800 nm. The photocatalytic activity of prepared GQDs/TiO2 NTs composites on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) was significantly enhanced compared with that of pure TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 NTs). For the composites coupling with 1.5%, 2.5% and 3.5% GQDs, the degradation of MO after 20 min irradiation under UV-vis light irradiation (λ = 380-780 nm) were 80.52%, 94.64% and 51.91%, respectively, which are much higher than that of pure TiO2 NTs (35.41%). It was inferred from the results of characterization that the improved photocatalytic activity of the GQDs/TiO2 NTs composites was attributed to the synergetic effect of up-conversion properties of the GQDs, enhanced visible light absorption and efficient separation of photogenerated electron-holes of the GQDs/TiO2 composite.

  13. High Quantum Yield Blue Emission from Lead-Free Inorganic Antimony Halide Perovskite Colloidal Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Yang, Ying; Deng, Hui; Farooq, Umar; Yang, Xiaokun; Khan, Jahangeer; Tang, Jiang; Song, Haisheng

    2017-09-26

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) of lead halide perovskite have recently received great attention owing to their remarkable performances in optoelectronic applications. However, their wide applications are hindered from toxic lead element, which is not environment- and consumer-friendly. Herein, we utilized heterovalent substitution of divalent lead (Pb(2+)) with trivalent antimony (Sb(3+)) to synthesize stable and brightly luminescent Cs3Sb2Br9 QDs. The lead-free, full-inorganic QDs were fabricated by a modified ligand-assisted reprecipitation strategy. A photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) was determined to be 46% at 410 nm, which was superior to that of other reported halide perovskite QDs. The PL enhancement mechanism was unraveled by surface composition derived quantum-well band structure and their large exciton binding energy. The Br-rich surface and the observed 530 meV exciton binding energy were proposed to guarantee the efficient radiative recombination. In addition, we can also tune the inorganic perovskite QD (Cs3Sb2X9) emission wavelength from 370 to 560 nm via anion exchange reactions. The developed full-inorganic lead-free Sb-perovskite QDs with high PLQY and stable emission promise great potential for efficient emission candidates.

  14. High yield production of myristoylated Arf6 small GTPase by recombinant N-myristoyl transferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Dominique; Zeghouf, Mahel; Traverso, José A.; Giglione, Carmela; Cherfils, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Small GTP-binding proteins of the Arf family (Arf GTPases) interact with multiple cellular partners and with membranes to regulate intracellular traffic and organelle structure. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms requires in vitro biochemical assays to test for regulations and functions. Such assays should use proteins in their cellular form, which carry a myristoyl lipid attached in N-terminus. N-myristoylation of recombinant Arf GTPases can be achieved by co-expression in E. coli with a eukaryotic N-myristoyl transferase. However, purifying myristoylated Arf GTPases is difficult and has a poor overall yield. Here we show that human Arf6 can be N-myristoylated in vitro by recombinant N-myristoyl transferases from different eukaryotic species. The catalytic efficiency depended strongly on the guanine nucleotide state and was highest for Arf6-GTP. Large-scale production of highly pure N-myristoylated Arf6 could be achieved, which was fully functional for liposome-binding and EFA6-stimulated nucleotide exchange assays. This establishes in vitro myristoylation as a novel and simple method that could be used to produce other myristoylated Arf and Arf-like GTPases for biochemical assays. PMID:23319116

  15. A zebrafish screen for craniofacial mutants identifies wdr68 as a highly conserved gene required for endothelin-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amsterdam Adam

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Craniofacial birth defects result from defects in cranial neural crest (NC patterning and morphogenesis. The vertebrate craniofacial skeleton is derived from cranial NC cells and the patterning of these cells occurs within the pharyngeal arches. Substantial efforts have led to the identification of several genes required for craniofacial skeletal development such as the endothelin-1 (edn1 signaling pathway that is required for lower jaw formation. However, many essential genes required for craniofacial development remain to be identified. Results Through screening a collection of insertional zebrafish mutants containing approximately 25% of the genes essential for embryonic development, we present the identification of 15 essential genes that are required for craniofacial development. We identified 3 genes required for hyomandibular development. We also identified zebrafish models for Campomelic Dysplasia and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. To further demonstrate the utility of this method, we include a characterization of the wdr68 gene. We show that wdr68 acts upstream of the edn1 pathway and is also required for formation of the upper jaw equivalent, the palatoquadrate. We also present evidence that the level of wdr68 activity required for edn1 pathway function differs between the 1st and 2nd arches. Wdr68 interacts with two minibrain-related kinases, Dyrk1a and Dyrk1b, required for embryonic growth and myotube differentiation, respectively. We show that a GFP-Wdr68 fusion protein localizes to the nucleus with Dyrk1a in contrast to an engineered loss of function mutation Wdr68-T284F that no longer accumulated in the cell nucleus and failed to rescue wdr68 mutant animals. Wdr68 homologs appear to exist in all eukaryotic genomes. Notably, we found that the Drosophila wdr68 homolog CG14614 could substitute for the vertebrate wdr68 gene even though insects lack the NC cell lineage. Conclusion This work represents a systematic

  16. EXTREME METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND METABOLIC PROFILE IN HIGH YIELDING HOLSTEINFRIESIAN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. GERGÁCZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of two years (2002 and 2003 with different summer temperature extremes on variation in metabolic profile was analyzed in blood and urine samples taken from healthy, primiparous (n = 371 and multiparous (n = 795 high yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. In this study main focus was lead on three most critical physiological phases, thus cows were assigned into three groups as follows: (1 dry cows for 10 days prior to calving; (2 cows 1-30 days after delivery, and (3 cows with more than 31 days post partum. Findings reveal clear response of the cows to heat in selected blood (hemoglobin, plasma aceto-acetic-acid, FFA, AST, glucose, urea and urine (pH, NABE and urea parameters. In the majority of cows, glucose and hemoglobin level, one of the most significant blood parameters, indicated symptoms of insufficient energy supply. Further metabolic indicators differed more or less from reference values depending on actual condition. Due to heat load dry matter intake has been decreased even by 10-15 per cent in primiparous cows. They were expected to increase body weight and size and simultaneously produce attain at large milk yields. In doing so that cows would have require large amount of nutrients. Out of parameters such as hemoglobin, glucose, FFA, AST and blood-urea differed from the reference values in most cases; however, this phenomenon seemed to be present in almost every case for hemoglobin and glucose. The lack of energy caused by heat stress can be contributed to the decrease of dry matter intake which has been indicated by the urea levels and pH both in blood and urine prevailing unfavorable and insufficient feeding practice. The results reconfirm the need to reconsider both the actual feeding practice (e.g. to increase of nutrient content in rations, reduce the intake of soluble proteins in rumen, pay attention of crude fiber in Total Mixed Rations (TMR, NDF and ADF, avoid overfeeding of inorganic buffers, to control moisture

  17. Effects of the Mutant with Low Chlorophyll Content on Photosynthesis and Yield in Rice%水稻低叶绿素含量突变对光合作用及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾骏飞; 周振翔; 李志康; 戴琪星; 孔祥胜; 王志琴; 杨建昌

    2016-01-01

    A chlorophyll-deficit rice mutant (YL) with ~51% chlorophyll of its wild type (WT) was 3.7%, 20.4%, and 39.1%higher in photosynthesis than WT under saturating light condition, in treatments of 0 kg N ha–1, 120 kg N ha–1, 240 kg N ha–1, respectively. In the field and pot experiments, we studied leaf Rubisco content, stomatal conductance, expression levels of aq-uaporin genes, chlorophyll fluorescence, light and electron micrographs at different levels of N application. The results showed that the decreased level of chlorophyll content in YL was compensated by a relatively higher quantum yield of PSII. The electron micrographs of chloroplasts showed that there were no differences in chloroplast development between YL and WT. The stomatal conductance was much higher in the mutant than in wild type, and expression levels of the aquaporin genes suggested a higher mesophyll conductance in YL. The higher CO2 conductance together with a higher Rubisco content in YL could be reasons for the higher photosynthetic rate. The yield of YL was similar to that of WT, but the growth duration in YL was much shorter, which could be caused by the different photosynthetic performance between YL and WT. All these results implicate that higher photo-synthetic rate does not necessitate higher chlorophyll content. Moderate chlorophyll content will benefit the leaf photosynthesis. Decreasing N investment in chlorophyll synthesis and optimizing N distribution among different photosynthetic compounds could potentially improve photosynthesis and yield. The YL material used in this study could be potentially used to improve photosyn-thetic efficiency in breeding programmes.%突变体水稻叶绿素含量仅是其野生型水稻的51%,但是其饱和光合值在低氮、中氮、高氮处理下,却比对照野生型水稻分别高3.7%、20.4%与39.1%。为了探究其生理学机制,分别在大田与盆栽试验中,不同氮肥水平下研究了突变体材

  18. Rational design of a live attenuated dengue vaccine: 2'-o-methyltransferase mutants are highly attenuated and immunogenic in mice and macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Züst

    Full Text Available Dengue virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and infects at least 100 million people every year. Progressive urbanization in Asia and South-Central America and the geographic expansion of Aedes mosquito habitats have accelerated the global spread of dengue, resulting in a continuously increasing number of cases. A cost-effective, safe vaccine conferring protection with ideally a single injection could stop dengue transmission. Current vaccine candidates require several booster injections or do not provide protection against all four serotypes. Here we demonstrate that dengue virus mutants lacking 2'-O-methyltransferase activity are highly sensitive to type I IFN inhibition. The mutant viruses are attenuated in mice and rhesus monkeys and elicit a strong adaptive immune response. Monkeys immunized with a single dose of 2'-O-methyltransferase mutant virus showed 100% sero-conversion even when a dose as low as 1,000 plaque forming units was administrated. Animals were fully protected against a homologous challenge. Furthermore, mosquitoes feeding on blood containing the mutant virus were not infected, whereas those feeding on blood containing wild-type virus were infected and thus able to transmit it. These results show the potential of 2'-O-methyltransferase mutant virus as a safe, rationally designed dengue vaccine that restrains itself due to the increased susceptibility to the host's innate immune response.

  19. Air-insufflated high-definition dacryoendoscopy yields significantly better image quality than conventional dacryoendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tsugihisa; Sounou, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Hideki; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    To facilitate the analysis of lacrimal conditions, we utilized high-definition dacryoendoscopy (HDD) and undertook observations with a pressure-controlled air-insufflation system. We report the safety and performance of HDD. In this retrospective, non-randomized clinical trial, 46 patients (14 males and 32 females; age range 39-91 years; mean age ± SD 70.3±12.0 years) who had lacrimal disorders were examined with HDD and conventional dacryoendoscopy (CD). The high-definition dacryoendoscope had 15,000 picture element image fibers and an advanced objective lens. Its outer diameter was 0.9-1.2 mm. Air insufflation was controlled at 0-20 kPa with a digital manometer-based pressure-controlled air-insufflation system to evaluate the quality of the image. The HDD had an air/saline irrigation channel between the outer sheath (outer diameter =1.2 mm) and the metal inner sheath of the endoscope. We used it and the CD in air, saline, and diluted milk saline with and without manual irrigation to quantitatively evaluate the effect of air pressure and saline irrigation on image quality. In vivo, the most significant improvement in image quality was demonstrated with air-insufflated (5-15 kPa) HDD, as compared with saline-irrigated HDD and saline-irrigated CD. No emphysema or damage was noted under observation with HDD. In vitro, no significant difference was demonstrated between air-insufflated HDD and saline-irrigated HDD. In vitro, the image quality of air-insufflated HDD was significantly improved as compared with that of saline-irrigated CD. Pressure-controlled (5-15 kPa) air-insufflated HDD is safe, and yields significantly better image quality than CD and saline-irrigated HDD.

  20. High-yield synthesis of conductive carbon nanotube tips for multiprobe scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, H; Murata, Y; Wongwiriyapan, W; Kishida, M; Tomita, K; Motoyoshi, K; Honda, S; Katayama, M; Yoshimoto, S; Kubo, K; Hobara, R; Matsuda, I; Hasegawa, S; Yoshimura, M; Lee, J-G; Mori, H

    2007-01-01

    We have established a fabrication process for conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) tips for multiprobe scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high yield. This was achieved, first, by attaching a CNT at the apex of a supporting W tip by a dielectrophoresis method, second, by reinforcing the adhesion between the CNT and the W tip by electron beam deposition of hydrocarbon and subsequent heating, and finally by wholly coating it with a thin metal layer by pulsed laser deposition. More than 90% of the CNT tips survived after long-distance transportation in air, indicating the practical durability of the CNT tips. The shape of the CNT tip did not change even after making contact with another metal tip more than 100 times repeatedly, which evidenced its mechanical robustness. We exploited the CNT tips for the electronic transport measurement by a four-terminal method in a multiprobe STM, in which the PtIr-coated CNT portion of the tip exhibited diffusive transport with a low resistivity of 1.8 kOmega/microm. The contact resistance at the junction between the CNT and the supporting W tip was estimated to be less than 0.7 kOmega. We confirmed that the PtIr thin layer remained at the CNT-W junction portion after excess current passed through, although the PtIr layer was peeled off on the CNT to aggregate into particles, which was likely due to electromigration or a thermally activated diffusion process. These results indicate that the CNT tips fabricated by our recipe possess high reliability and reproducibility sufficient for multiprobe STM measurements.

  1. Unravelling the mechanisms behind mixed catalysts for the high yield production of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetali, Sailaja; Zaka, Mujtaba; Schönfelder, Ronny; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Börrnert, Felix; Ibrahim, Imad; Lin, Jarrn H; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Warner, Jamie H; Büchner, Bernd; Rümmeli, Mark H

    2009-12-22

    The use of mixed catalysts for the high-yield production of single-walled carbon nanotubes is well-known. The mechanisms behind the improved yield are poorly understood. In this study, we systematically explore different catalyst combinations from Ni, Co, and Mo for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes via laser evaporation. Our findings reveal that the mixing of catalysts alters the catalyst cluster size distribution, maximizing the clusters' potential to form a hemispherical cap at nucleation and, hence, form a single-walled carbon nanotube. This process significantly improves the single-walled carbon nanotube yields.

  2. Isolation and analysis of two Escherichia coli K-12 ilv attenuator deletion mutants with high-level constitutive expression of an ilv-lac fusion operon.

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, D. C.; Umbarger, H E

    1984-01-01

    A lysogenizing lambda phage, lambda dilv-lac11, was constructed to carry an ilvD-lac operon fusion. Expression from the phage of the ilvE and lacZ genes is controlled by an intact ilv control region also carried by this phage. Two spontaneous mutants of lambda dilv-lac11 that have high-level constitutive expression of the ilv-lac fusion operon were isolated by growth on a beta-chloroalanine selective medium. The mutants were shown by nucleotide sequence determination to contain large deletion...

  3. Inactivation of ccmO in Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7942 Results in a Mutant Requiring High Levels of CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, E; Martinez, I; Ronen-Tarazi, M; Orus, M I; Kaplan, A

    1994-03-01

    Inactivation of ccmO in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 resulted in a mutant which possesses aberrant carboxysomes and a normal inorganic carbon uptake capability but a reduced ability to photosynthetically utilize the internal inorganic carbon pool. Consequently, it exhibits low apparent photosynthetic affinity for extracellular inorganic carbon and demands high levels of CO(2) for growth.

  4. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass

  5. Tailoring Wet Explosion Process Parameters for the Pretreatment of Cocksfoot Grass for High Sugar Yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is crucial for efficient subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. In this study, wet explosion (WEx) pretreatment was applied to cocksfoot grass and pretreatment conditions were tailored for maximizing the sugar yields using response...

  6. Enhancement of Biogas Yield of Poplar Leaf by High-Solid Codigestion with Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangliang, Li; Zhikai, Zhang; Guangwen, Xu

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the improvement of anaerobic biodegradability of organic fractions of poplar leaf from codigestion with swine manure (SM), thus biogas yield and energy recovery. When poplar leaf was used as a sole substrate, the cumulative biogas yield was low, about 163 mL (g volatile solid (VS))(-1) after 45 days of digestion with a substrate/inoculum ratio of 2.5 and a total solid (TS) of 22 %. Under the same condition, the cumulative biogas yield of poplar leaf reached 321 mL (g VS)(-1) when SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5 (based on VS). The SM/poplar leaf ratio can determine C/N ratio of the cosubstrate and thus has significant influence on biogas yield. When the SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5, C/N ratio was calculated to be 27.02, and the biogas yield in 45 days of digestion was the highest. The semi-continuous digestion of poplar leaf was carried out with the organic loading rate of 1.25 and 1.88 g VS day(-1). The average daily biogas yield was 230.2 mL (g VS)(-1) and 208.4 mL (g VS)(-1). The composition analysis revealed that cellulose and hemicellulose contributed to the biogas production.

  7. [Characteristics of canopy structure of super high yielding japonica hybrid rice community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinhong; Zhang, Guoping; Guo, Hengde; Mao, Guojuan

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of canopy structure, such as the numbers of seedling, panicle and grain, the distribution of dry matters in different canopy layers and different organs, and the distributions of LAI and of solar radiation in different canopy layers of super high yielding community of japonica hybrid rice were studied, in comparison with normal japonica rice. The results showed that the total the dry matter weight and the dry matter weight of layers below 40 cm, 40-60 cm, 60-80 cm and above 80 cm of japonica hybrid rice canopy were 32.29%, 29.12%, 13.95%, 16.45% and 100.17% higher those that of normal japonica rice, respectively. The ratios of dry leaf (photosynthetic organ) and of dry panicle (sink organ) weight to total dry weight were 24.8% and 12.8%, respectively, which were greater than those of normal japonica rice, while the ratios of dry sheath and stem (storage organs) weight were 33.6% and 28.9%, respectively, which were lower than those of normal japonica rice. The allotment of LAI in different layers of japonica hybrid rice canopy was reasonable, and the LAI of above 40 cm layer at full heading stage reached 5.44. The solar radiation was well-distributed inside japonica hybrid rice canopy, for example, the solar radiation in layers below 60 cm were 13.1%-37.0% higher, but 5.9%-12.2% lower above 60 cm than that of normal japonica rice. The extinction coefficients of solar radiation in layers below 20 cm, 20-40 cm, 40-60 cm and 60-80 cm of japonica hybrid rice canopy were 35.1%, 13.5%, 29.1% and 17.2% lower than that of normal japonica rice, respectively.

  8. Photoyellowing inhibition of bleached high yield pulps using novel water-soluble UV screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, D S; Halevy, P; Peng, P

    2000-02-01

    To address the deficiencies of benzophenone UV screens for preventing brightness reversion in high yield mechanical papers, we synthesized a new series of such materials with enhanced water solubility and compatibility with the lignocellulosic substrate. A series of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenones (DHB) were synthesized containing various Mannich bases at the C3 position of one of its rings. They possess the UV-screening ability of o-hydroxylbenzophenones, and they also contain tertiary nitrogen atoms that may function as radical scavengers. Aqueous solutions of the hydrochloride salt of 3-(dimethylaminomethylene)-2,4-dihydroxylbenzophenone (1), when applied on bleached chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) sheets, were significantly more efficient in preventing photoyellowing than the original DHB applied on the sheets from ethanol-water solutions. This confirmed our original hypothesis that increasing the compatibility of the UV screen with the lignocellulosic matrix would increase its efficiency in preventing photoyellowing. Compound 1, however, was found to be somewhat more effective than its hydrochloride salt toward preventing photoyellowing. This was attributed to the synergistic action of the free tertiary aminic center attached on the molecule with its UV-screening ability. To comprehend further the various parameters that influence the photoyellowing inhibition performance of these compounds and DHB with bleached CTMP pulp fibers, a series of handsheets were prepared at different pH. The interactions of the protonated compound 1 with pulp fibers were then evaluated by studying their kinetics of absorption and desorption to and from the fiber matrix. This part of our study found that the adsorption of protonated Mannich derivatives of DHB onto pulp is most likely governed by a cation-exchange mechanism involving the cationic amine group with the sulfonic and carboxylic acid groups located on the surface of the fibers. The pH the paper sheet was made from was also

  9. A high-yield double-purification proteomics strategy for the identification of SUMO sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Ivo A; Vertegaal, Alfred C O

    2016-09-01

    The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a protein modifier that is post-translationally coupled to thousands of lysines in more than a thousand proteins. An understanding of which lysines are modified by SUMO is critical in unraveling its function as a master regulator of all nuclear processes, as well as its involvement in diseases such as cancer. Here we describe a protocol for the lysine-deficient (K0) method for efficient identification of SUMOylated lysines by mass spectrometry (MS). To our knowledge, the K0 method is the only currently available method that can routinely identify >1,000 SUMO sites in mammalian cells under standard growth conditions. The K0 strategy relies on introducing a His10-tagged SUMO wherein all lysines have been substituted to arginines. Lysine deficiency renders the SUMO immune to digestion by the endoproteinase Lys-C, which in turn allows for stringent and high-yield tandem purification through the His10 tag. In addition, the His10-tagged SUMO also contains a C-terminal Q87R mutation, which accommodates generation of SUMO-site peptides with a QQTGG mass remnant after digestion with trypsin. This remnant possesses a unique mass signature and readily generates diagnostic ions in the fragment ion scans, which increases SUMO-site identification confidence. The K0 method can be applied in any mammalian cell line or in any model system that allows for integration of the K0-SUMO construct. From the moment of cell lysis, the K0 method takes ∼7 d to perform.

  10. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  11. A multi-region assessment of population rates of cardiac catheterization and yield of high-risk coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Fiona M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is variation in cardiac catheterization utilization across jurisdictions. Previous work from Alberta, Canada, showed no evidence of a plateau in the yield of high-risk disease at cardiac catheterization rates as high as 600 per 100,000 population suggesting that the optimal rate is higher. This work aims 1 To determine if a previously demonstrated linear relationship between the yield of high-risk coronary disease and cardiac catheterization rates persists with contemporary data and 2 to explore whether the linear relationship exists in other jurisdictions. Methods Detailed clinical information on all patients undergoing cardiac catheterization in 3 Canadian provinces was available through the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart (APPROACH disease and partner initiatives in British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Population rates of catheterization and high-risk coronary disease detection for each health region in these three provinces, and age-adjusted rates produced using direct standardization. A mixed effects regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk coronary disease detection. Results In the contemporary Alberta data, we found a linear relationship between the population catheterization rate and the high-risk yield. Although the yield was slightly less in time period 2 (2002-2006 than in time period 1(1995-2001, there was no statistical evidence of a plateau. The linear relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk yield was similarly demonstrated in British Columbia and Nova Scotia and appears to extend, without a plateau in yield, to rates over 800 procedures per 100,000 population. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a consistent finding, over time and across jurisdictions, of linearly increasing detection of high-risk CAD as population rates of cardiac catheterization increase. This internationally-relevant finding

  12. Comparative metabolic flux analysis of an Ashbya gossypii wild type strain and a high riboflavin-producing mutant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Bo-Young; Wittmann, Christoph; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the central metabolic pathway of an Ashbya gossypii wild type strain and a riboflavin over-producing mutant strain developed in a previous study in order to characterize the riboflavin over-production pathway. (13)C-Metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) was carried out in both strains, and the resulting data were fit to a steady-state flux isotopomer model using OpenFLUX. Flux to pentose-5-phosphate (P5P) via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) was 9% higher in the mutant strain compared to the wild type strain. The flux from purine synthesis to riboflavin in the mutant strain was 1.6%, while that of the wild type strain was only 0.1%, a 16-fold difference. In addition, the flux from the cytoplasmic pyruvate pool to the extracellular metabolites, pyruvate, lactate, and alanine, was 2-fold higher in the mutant strain compared to the wild type strain. This result demonstrates that increased guanosine triphosphate (GTP) flux through the PPP and purine synthesis pathway (PSP) increased riboflavin production in the mutant strain. The present study provides the first insight into metabolic flux through the central carbon pathway in A. gossypii and sets the foundation for development of a quantitative and functional model of the A. gossypii metabolic network.

  13. Defense-Related Calcium Signaling Mutants Uncovered via a Quantitative High-Throughput Screen in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefanie Ranf; Julia Grimmer; Yvonne P(o)schl; Pascal Pecher; Delphine Chinchilla; Dierk Scheel; Justin Lee

    2012-01-01

    Calcium acts as a second messenger for signaling to a variety of stimuli including MAMPs (Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns),such as flg22 and elf18 that are derived from bacterial flagellin and elongation factor Tu,respectively.Here,Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with changed calcium elevation (cce) in response to fig22 treatment were isolated and characterized.Besides novel mutant alleles of the flg22 receptor,FLS2 (Flagellin-Sensitive 2),and the receptor-associated kinase,BAK1 (Brassinosteroid receptor 1-Associated Kinase 1),the new cce mutants can be categorized into two main groups—those with a reduced or an enhanced calcium elevation.Moreover,cce mutants from both groups show differential phenotypes to different sets of MAMPs.Thus,these mutants will facilitate the discovery of novel components in early MAMP signaling and bridge the gaps in current knowledge of calcium signaling during plant-microbe interactions.Last but not least,the screening method is optimized for speed (covering 384 plants in 3 or 10 h) and can be adapted to genetically dissect any other stimuli that induce a change in calcium levels.

  14. High yield purification of full-length functional hERG K+ channels produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbaek, Karen; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    knowledge this is the first reported high-yield production and purification of full length, tetrameric and functional hERG. This significant breakthrough will be paramount in obtaining hERG crystal structures, and in establishment of new high-throughput hERG drug safety screening assays....

  15. In search of annual legumes to improve forage sorghum yield and nutritive value in the southern high plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock production is significant in the Southern High Plains of the USA and demand is increasing for greater forage dry matter (DM) yield with increased nutritive value. Forage sorghum (FS)[Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is commonly used, although, it is low in crude protein (CP) and high in fiber....

  16. The mysterious rescue of adg1-1/tpt-2 - an Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant impaired in acclimation to high light – by exogenously supplied sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eHeinrichs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant (adg1-1/tpt-2 defective in the day- and night-path of photoassimilate export from the chloroplast due to a knockout in the triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (TPT; tpt-2 and a lack of starch (mutation in ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase [AGPase]; adg1-1 exhibits severe growth retardation, a decrease in the photosynthetic capacity and a high chlorophyll fluorescence (HCF phenotype under high light conditions. These phenotypes could be rescued when the plants were grown on sucrose (Suc or glucose (Glc. Here we address the question whether Glc-sensing hexokinase1 (HXK1 defective in the Glc insensitiv2 (gin2-1 mutant is involved in the sugar-dependent rescue of adg1-1/tpt-2. Triple mutants defective in the TPT, AGPase and HXK1 (adg1-1/tpt-2/gin2-1 were established as homozygous lines and grown together with Col-0 and Ler wild-type plants, gin2-1, the adg1-1/tpt-2 double mutant and the adg1-1/tpt-2/gpt2-1 triple mutant (additionally defective in the glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator2 [GPT2] on agar in the presence or absence of 50 mM of each Glc, Suc or fructose (Fru. The growth phenotype of the double mutant and both triple mutants could be rescued to a similar extent only by Glc and Suc, but not by Fru, All three sugars were capable of rescuing the HCF- and photosynthesis phenotype, irrespectively of the presence or absence of HXK1. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of sugar responsive genes revealed that plastidial HXK (pHXK was up-regulated in adg1-1/tpt-2 plants grown on sugars, but showed no response in adg1-1/tpt-2/gin2-1. It appears likely that soluble sugars are directly taken up by the chloroplasts and enter further metabolism, which consumes ATP and NADPH from the photosynthetic light reaction and thereby rescues the photosynthesis phenotype of the double mutant. The implication of sugar turnover and probably signaling inside the chloroplasts for the concept of retrograde signaling is discussed.

  17. High Yield Technique of Virus-free Potato Favorite Planting in Paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-xia Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To screen the best combination cultivation factors, the orthogonal test was conducted on the 6 factors of virus-free potato Favorite including sowing time, density, urea, calcium superphosphate, potassium sulfate and zinc, planted in paddy field of Xian-ning, Luo-tian and Guang-shui. The results showed that: a experimental site had significant influence on growth period (F = 147.08>F0.01, sowing date had great significant influence on growth period (F = 15.68>F0.01, with the delay of sowing date, the growth period was short (R1 = 0.9851**. b Density had great significant influence on yield (F = 4.0>F0.01, the yield could be increased with the density increasing (R2 = 0.9782**, sowing date had significant influence on yield (F = 3.55>F0.05. c The maximum yield and economic return appeared at the treatment of seeding date December 10, seeding density 75000 plant/hm2, N 75 kg/hm2, phosphorus fertilizer 900 kg/hm2, potassium sulfate 450 kg/hm2 and zinc 22.5 kg/hm2, with the yield 31185 kg/hm2 and economic benefit 26833 Yuan/hm2.

  18. Practice and Thought on Developing Hybrid Rice for Super High Yield by Exploiting Inter-subspecific Heterosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Since the breakthrough of grain yield owing to the development of dwarf rice and three-line system hybrid rice, rice breeding for high yield hardly had showed significant progress in the next successive two decades. It was considered that utilizing heterosis between subspecific varieties (Oryza sativa L.) would be an effective approach to increase yield further. During 1987-1993,an indica-japonica hybrid Yayou 2 yielded as high as 10.5 t/ha; however, it failed to be commercialized because of seed purity problem due to non-uniform emasculation by chemical agent in seed production, and sensitivity of seed setting in F1 plants to environmental conditions. In the past decade, two inter-subspeific hybrids, Liangyoupeijiu (Peiai 64S/9311, javanica/indica) and Liangyou E32 (Peiai 64S/E32, javanica/japonica); both of them exhibited grain yield higher than 10.5 t/ha, and were widely judged as the pioneers of super hybrid rice. Liangyoupeijiu has been successfully popularized over 4 million hectare in wide climatic areas, while Liangyou E32 made a yield record and offered a model of plant ideotype for super hybrid rice. It was considered that in combination with plant ideotype, active physiological functions, and wide-range adaptability to ecological conditions, exploitation of indica-japonica heterosis would be the key approach for super hybrid rice breeding.

  19. Biosolar cells: global artificial photosynthesis needs responsive matrices with quantum coherent kinetic control for high yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, R L; de Groot, H J M

    2015-06-06

    propose that synergy gains by such processes form a basis for further progress towards high efficiency and yield for a global project on artificial photosynthesis. Finally, we look at artificial photosynthesis research in The Netherlands and use this as an example of how an interdisciplinary approach is beneficial to artificial photosynthesis research. We conclude with some of the potential societal consequences of a large-scale roll out of artificial photosynthesis.

  20. Biosolar cells: global artificial photosynthesis needs responsive matrices with quantum coherent kinetic control for high yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, R. L.; de Groot, H. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    . We propose that synergy gains by such processes form a basis for further progress towards high efficiency and yield for a global project on artificial photosynthesis. Finally, we look at artificial photosynthesis research in The Netherlands and use this as an example of how an interdisciplinary approach is beneficial to artificial photosynthesis research. We conclude with some of the potential societal consequences of a large-scale roll out of artificial photosynthesis. PMID:26052428

  1. Cavity as a source of conformational fluctuation and high-energy state: High-pressure NMR study of a cavity-enlarged mutant of T4 lysozyme

    CERN Document Server

    Maeno, Akihiro; Hirata, Fumio; Otten, Renee; Dahlquist, Frederick W; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Akasaka, Kazuyuki; Mulder, Frans A A; Kitahara, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Although the structure, function, conformational dynamics, and controlled thermodynamics of proteins are manifested by their corresponding amino acid sequences, the natural rules for molecular design and their corresponding interplay remain obscure. In this study, we focused on the role of internal cavities of proteins in conformational dynamics. We investigated the pressure-induced responses from the cavity-enlarged L99A mutant of T4 lysozyme, using high-pressure NMR spectroscopy. The signal intensities of the methyl groups in the 1H/13C HSQC spectra, particularly those around the enlarged cavity, decreased with the increasing pressure, and disappeared at 200 MPa, without the appearance of new resonances, thus indicating the presence of heterogeneous conformations around the cavity within the ground state ensemble. Above 200 MPa, the signal intensities of more than 20 methyl groups gradually decreased with the increasing pressure, without the appearance of new resonances. Interestingly, these residues closel...

  2. Cesium hafnium chloride: A high light yield, non-hygroscopic cubic crystal scintillator for gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Arnold, E-mail: aburger@fisk.edu [Department of Life and Physical Sciences, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee 37208 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Rowe, Emmanuel; Groza, Michael; Morales Figueroa, Kristle [Department of Life and Physical Sciences, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee 37208 (United States); Cherepy, Nerine J.; Beck, Patrick R.; Hunter, Steven; Payne, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    We report on the scintillation properties of Cs{sub 2}HfCl{sub 6} (cesium hafnium chloride or CHC) as an example of a little-known class of non-hygroscopic compounds having the generic cubic crystal structure of K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}. The crystals are easily growable from the melt using the Bridgman method with minimal precursor treatments or purification. CHC scintillation is centered at 400 nm, with a principal decay time of 4.37 μs and a light yield of up to 54 000 photons/MeV when measured using a silicon CCD photodetector. The light yield is the highest ever reported for an undoped crystal, and CHC also exhibits excellent light yield nonproportionality. These desirable properties allowed us to build and test CHC gamma-ray spectrometers providing energy resolution of 3.3% at 662 keV.

  3. Energy transfer and light yield properties of a new highly loaded indium(III) β-diketonate organic scintillator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, C.; Hartmann, F. X.; Motta, D.; Schoenert, S.

    2007-02-01

    We present combined experimental and model studies of the light yield and energy transfer properties of a newly developed high light yield scintillator based on indium(III)-tris(2,4-pentanedionate) in a 2-(4-biphenyl)-5-phenyloxazole (BPO), methoxybenzene organic liquid; of interest to the detection of solar electron neutrino oscillations. Optical measurements are made to understand the energy transfer properties and a model is advanced to treat the unusual conditions of high metal and fluor loadings. Such scintillator types are of interest to the exploration of novel luminescent materials and the development of large-scale detectors for studying fundamental properties of naturally occurring neutrinos.

  4. Innovations in papermaking: an LCA of printing and writing paper from conventional and high yield pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, B M Krishna; Blok, Kornelis; Patel, Martin K

    2012-11-15

    Pulp and paper industry is facing challenges such as resource scarcity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this research is to investigate whether the use of new coatings (micro or nano TiO(2)) and different pulp types could bring savings in wood, energy, GHG emissions and other environmental impacts in comparison with conventional printing and writing paper. We studied three types of pulp, namely i) unbleached virgin kraft pulp, ii) recovered fiber, and iii) high yield virgin chemithermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP). A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted from cradle to grave. Applying attributional modeling, we found that wood savings amount to 60% for the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper and 35% for the micro TiO(2) coated CTMP paper. According to the ReCiPe single score impact assessment method, the new product configurations allow the reduction of the environmental impacts by 10-35% compared to conventional kraft paper. Applying consequential modeling, we found larger energy and GHG emission savings compared to attributional modeling because the saved wood is used for producing energy, thereby replacing fossil fuels. The nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered savings of non-renewable energy use (NREU) by 100% (13GJ/ton paper) and GHG emission reduction by 75% (0.6 tonCO(2)eq./ton paper). Micro TiO(2) coated CTMP paper offered NREU savings by 25% (3GJ/ton paper) and savings of GHG emissions by 10% (0.1 tonCO(2)eq./ton paper). The taking into account of all environmental impacts with the ReCiPe single score method leads to comparable results as that of attributional modeling. We conclude that the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered the highest savings and lowest environmental impacts. However, human toxicity and ecotoxicity impacts of the nanoparticles were not included in this analysis and need further research. If this leads to the conclusion that the toxicity impacts of the nanoparticles are serious, then the

  5. Innovations in papermaking: An LCA of printing and writing paper from conventional and high yield pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manda, B.M. Krishna, E-mail: b.m.k.manda@uu.nl; Blok, Kornelis, E-mail: K.Blok@uu.nl; Patel, Martin K., E-mail: m.k.patel@uu.nl

    2012-11-15

    Pulp and paper industry is facing challenges such as resource scarcity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this research is to investigate whether the use of new coatings (micro or nano TiO{sub 2}) and different pulp types could bring savings in wood, energy, GHG emissions and other environmental impacts in comparison with conventional printing and writing paper. We studied three types of pulp, namely i) unbleached virgin kraft pulp, ii) recovered fiber, and iii) high yield virgin chemithermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP). A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted from cradle to grave. Applying attributional modeling, we found that wood savings amount to 60% for the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper and 35% for the micro TiO{sub 2} coated CTMP paper. According to the ReCiPe single score impact assessment method, the new product configurations allow the reduction of the environmental impacts by 10-35% compared to conventional kraft paper. Applying consequential modeling, we found larger energy and GHG emission savings compared to attributional modeling because the saved wood is used for producing energy, thereby replacing fossil fuels. The nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered savings of non-renewable energy use (NREU) by 100% (13 GJ/ton paper) and GHG emission reduction by 75% (0.6 ton CO{sub 2} eq./ton paper). Micro TiO{sub 2} coated CTMP paper offered NREU savings by 25% (3 GJ/ton paper) and savings of GHG emissions by 10% (0.1 ton CO{sub 2} eq./ton paper). The taking into account of all environmental impacts with the ReCiPe single score method leads to comparable results as that of attributional modeling. We conclude that the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered the highest savings and lowest environmental impacts. However, human toxicity and ecotoxicity impacts of the nanoparticles were not included in this analysis and need further research. If this leads to the conclusion that the toxicity impacts of the

  6. High Diagnostic Yield of Dedicated Pulmonary Screening before Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluijs, Anne Birgitta; van der Ent, Korstiaan; Boelens, Jaap J.; Wolfs, Tom; de Jong, Pim; Bierings, Marc B.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary complications are an important cause for treatment-related morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the yield of our pre-HCT pulmonary screening program. We also describe our management guidelines based on

  7. Scintillation light, ionization yield and scintillation decay times in high pressure xenon and xenon methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pushkin, K. N.; Akimov, D. Y.; Burenkov, A. A.; Dmitrenko, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Lebedenko, V. N.; Kuznetsov, I. S.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Tezuka, C.; Ulin, S. E.; Uteshev, Z. M.; Vlasik, K. F.

    2007-01-01

    Scintillation light, ionization yield and scintillation decay times have been measured in xenon and in its mixture with a 0.05% concentration of methane as a function of the reduced electric field (E/N)-the ratio of the electric field strength to the number density of gas-at a pressure of 21 atm. Th

  8. Nuclear Engineering of Microalgae for High Yield Secretion of Recombinant Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos Martinez, Erick Miguel

    to the glycomodules, accumulation of a fusion protein was dramatically increased by up to 12 folds, with the maximum yield of 15 mg L-1. Characterization of the secreted Venus showed the presence of glycosylations and increased resistance to proteolytic degradation. The results from this thesis demonstrate...

  9. Selection and design of high affinity DNA ligands for mutant single-chain derivatives of the bacteriophage 434 repressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Tiebing

    2001-01-01

    [1]Aggarwal, A. K., Rodgers, D. W., Drottar, M. et al., Recognition of a DNA operator by the repressor of phage 434: A view at high resolution, Science, 1988, 242: 899-907.[2]Anderson, J. E., Ptashne, M., Harrison, S. C., Structure of the repressor-operator complex of bacteriophage 434, Nature, 1987, 326: 846-852.[3]Bushman, F. D., The Bacteriophage 434 right operator roles of OR1, OR2 and OR3, J. Mol. Biol., 1993, 230: 28-40.[4]Bell, A. C., Koudelka, G. B., How 434 repressor discriminates between OR1 and OR3, J. Biological Chemistry, 1995, 270: 1205-1212.[5]Bell, A. C., Koudelka, G. B., Operator sequence context influences amino acid-base-pair interaction in 434 repressor-operator complexes, J. Mol. Biol., 1993, 234: 542-553.[6]Wharton, R. P., Ptashne, M., A new-specificity mutant of 434 repressor that defines an amino acid-base pair contact, Na-ture, 1987, 326: 888-891.[7]Wharton, R. P., Brown, E. L., Ptashne, M., Substituting an α-helix switches the sequence-specific DNA interaction of a repressor, Cell., 1984, 38: 361-369.[8]Hollis, M., Valenzuela, D., Pioli, D. et al., A repressor heterodimer binds to a chimeric operator, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1988, 85: 5834-5838.[9]Huang, L. -X., Sera, T., Schultz, P. G., A permutational approach toward protein-DNA recognition, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1994, 91: 3969-3973.[10]Percipalle, P., Simoncsits, A., Zakhariev, S. et al., Rationally designed helix-turn-helix proteins and their conformational changes upon DNA binding, EMBO J., 1995, 14: 3200-3205.[11]Simoncsits, A., Chen, J. -Q., Percipalle, P. et al., Single-chain repressors containing engineered DNA-binding domains of the phage 434 repressor recognize symmetric or asymmetric DNA operators, J. Mol. Biol., 1997, 267: 118-131.[12]Gates, C. M., Stemmer, W. P. C., Kaptein, R. et al., Affinity selective isolation of ligands from peptide libraries through display on a lac repressor "headpiece dimmer", J. Mol. Biol

  10. Development of a New Class of Scintillating Fibres with Very Short Decay Time and High Light Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borshchev, O.; Cavalcante, A. B. R.; Gavardi, L.; Gruber, L.; Joram, C.; Ponomarenko, S.; Shinji, O.; Surin, N.

    2017-05-01

    We present first studies of a new class of scintillating fibres which are characterised by very short decay times and high light yield. The fibres are based on a novel type of luminophores admixed to a polystyrene core matrix. These so-called Nanostructured Organosilicon Luminophores (NOL) have high photoluminescense quantum yield and decay times just above 1 ns. A blue and a green emitting prototype fibre with 250 μm diameter were produced and characterised in terms of attenuation length, ionisation light yield, decay time and tolerance to x-ray irradiation. The well-established Kuraray SCSF-78 and SCSF-3HF fibres were taken as references. Even though the two prototype fibres mark just an intermediate step in an ongoing development, their performance is already on a competitive level. In particular, their decay time constants are about a factor of two shorter than the fastest known fibres, which makes them promising candidates for time critical applications.

  11. 高产纤维素酶菌株筛选及诱变选育%Screening and Mutation Breeding of the Strains of High-yielding Celluase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志; 曾柏全; 宋睿

    2011-01-01

    为了得到高产纤维素酶的菌株,达到缓解纤维素酶活不高、纤维素酶供不应求现状的目的.从自然界中筛选出较优良的产纤维素酶菌株并对其进行紫外、60Co-射线诱变选育获得高产纤维素酶活的突变株.从自然界筛选出来的菌株通过菌落、菌丝体以及孢子丝的形态初步鉴定为放线菌并命名为XZ-33.对XZ-33进行复合诱变选育并根据致死率和诱变剂量以及正突变率的相互关系,得出合适的诱变剂量即:紫外照射7min,辐照剂量为0.6 KGy的γ射线对产纤维素酶的出发菌进行诱变,得到高产纤维素酶的突变株UV-Co16,其CMCase酶活达到66.15 IU/mL,以及PFAase酶活2.91 IU/mL,分别是出发菌的3.17倍和2.42倍.该突变株的获得为微生物发酵生产乙醇奠定了基础.%In order to get the strains of high-yielding cellulase, to alleviate the present bad situation: the activity of most cellulase is relatively low; the supply of cellulase has failed to keep pace with demand. Some higher cellulase-producing strain were picked from the nature and then carried them on mutation breeding under the UV light and 60 Co-γrays to obtained mutants of those high-produced. The original stains gained by screening had been preliminarily identified as the Actinomycete XZ-33 by observing the form of bacterial colony, mycelium and spores. According to the interrelation between the fatality rate, mutation doses and mutation rate, it could be deduced that the most appropriate conditions of induced mutation was that exposing them under UV-irradiation for 7 minute and γ rays-irradiation up to 0.6 Kgy. After a series of mutation breeding a high cellulase-producing mutant stain have been obtained, named as mutant UV-C016, its CMCase enzyme activity reached at the level of 66.15 IU/mb, and PFAase enzyme 2.91 IU/mL, it was respectively 3.17 times and 2.42 times higher than the original screened strains. The success to get a high cellulase

  12. Selection and design of high affinity DNA ligands for mutant single-chain derivatives of the bacteriophage 434 repressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Single-chain repressor RRTRES is a derivative of bacteriophage 434 repressor, which contains covalently dimerized DNA-binding domains (amino acids 1-69) of the phage 434 repressor. In this single-chain molecule, the wild type domain R is connected to the mutant domain RTRES by a recombinant linker in a head-to-tail arrangement. The DNA-contacting amino acids of RTRES at the -1, 1, 2, and 5 positions of the a3 helix are T, R, E, S respectively. By using a randomized DNA pool containing the central sequence -CATACAAGAAAGNNNNNNTTT-, a cyclic, in vitro DNA-binding site selection was performed. The selected population was cloned and the individual members were characterized by determining their binding affinities to RRTRES. The results showed that the optimal operators contained the TTAC or TTCC sequences in the underlined positions as above, and that the Kd values were in the 1×10-12 mol/L-1×10-11mol/L concentration range. Since the affinity of the natural 434 repressor to its natural operator sites is in the 1×10-9 mol/L range, the observed binding affinity increase is remarkable. It was also found that binding affinity was strongly affected by the flanking bases of the optimal tetramer binding sites, especially by the base at the 5′ position. We constructed a new homodimeric single-chain repressor RTRESRTRES and its DNA-binding specificity was tested by using a series of new operators designed according to the recog-nition properties previously determined for the RTRES domain. These operators containing the con-sensus sequence GTAAGAAARNTTACN or GGAAGAAARNTTCCN (R is A or G) were recognized by RTRESRTRES specifically, and with high binding affinity. Thus, by using a combination of random selection and rational design principles, we have discovered novel, high affinity protein-DNA inter-actions with new specificity. This method can potentially be used to obtain new binding specificity for other DNA-binding proteins.

  13. E151 (sym15), a pleiotropic mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L.), displays low nodule number, enhanced mycorrhizae, delayed lateral root emergence, and high root cytokinin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James M C; Clairmont, Lindsey; Macdonald, Emily S; Weiner, Catherine A; Emery, R J Neil; Guinel, Frédérique C

    2015-07-01

    In legumes, the formation of rhizobial and mycorrhizal root symbioses is a highly regulated process which requires close communication between plant and microorganism. Plant mutants that have difficulties establishing symbioses are valuable tools for unravelling the mechanisms by which these symbioses are formed and regulated. Here E151, a mutant of Pisum sativum cv. Sparkle, was examined to characterize its root growth and symbiotic defects. The symbioses in terms of colonization intensity, functionality of micro-symbionts, and organ dominance were compared between the mutant and wild type. The endogenous cytokinin (CK) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels and the effect of the exogenous application of these two hormones were determined. E151 was found to be a low and delayed nodulator, exhibiting defects in both the epidermal and cortical programmes though a few mature and functional nodules develop. Mycorrhizal colonization of E151 was intensified, although the fungal functionality was impaired. Furthermore, E151 displayed an altered lateral root (LR) phenotype compared with that of the wild type whereby LR emergence is initially delayed but eventually overcome. No differences in ABA levels were found between the mutant and the wild type, but non-inoculated E151 exhibited significantly high CK levels. It is hypothesized that CK plays an essential role in differentially mediating the entry of the two micro-symbionts into the cortex; whereas it would inhibit the entry of the rhizobia in that tissue, it would promote that of the fungus. E151 is a developmental mutant which may prove to be a useful tool in further understanding the role of hormones in the regulation of beneficial root symbioses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. High yield stress associated with capillary attraction between alumina surfaces in the presence of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, E-Jen; Leong, Yee-Kwong; Liu, Yinong; Craig, Vincent S J; Walsh, Rick B; Howard, Shaun C

    2010-03-02

    Adsorbed low molecular weight charged molecules are known to give rise to a range of surface forces that affect the rheological behavior of oxide dispersions. The behavior of dicarboxylic acid bolaform compounds in alumina slurry was investigated to determine the influence of the molecular structure on the nanoscale interactions between alumina surfaces and on the macroscopic properties of the slurry. The surface forces in dispersions and between a single particle and a flat surface were characterized by yield stress and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. Absorbed muconic acid increased the yield stress of the alumina system, which indicates an additional attractive interaction between the particles. Adsorbed trans,trans (TT) muconic acid resulted in a much higher yield stress than cis,cis (CC) muconic acid. Force-distance data obtained via AFM displayed features indicating the presence of a capillary force attraction at low pH between the alumina surfaces when TT and CC muconic acids were adsorbed at high surface coverage. This force appeared to explain the high yield stress at low pH (pH 3.6), but the absence of a net attractive force at higher pH (pH 5) did not correlate with the yield stress results. At low pH, the muconic acids become less soluble in the confined space between the interacting surfaces resulting in the formation of an "oily" muconic acid phase located between the interacting surfaces. The nanosized "oil" phase is the source of the capillary force.

  15. Gallium loading of gold seed for high yield of patterned GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, J. P.; Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R., E-mail: lapierr@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-08-25

    A method is presented for maximizing the yield and crystal phase purity of vertically aligned Au-assisted GaAs nanowires grown with an SiO{sub x} selective area epitaxy mask on GaAs (111)B substrates. The nanowires were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method in a gas source molecular beam epitaxy system. During annealing, Au VLS seeds will alloy with the underlying GaAs substrate and collect beneath the SiO{sub x} mask layer. This behavior is detrimental to obtaining vertically aligned, epitaxial nanowire growth. To circumvent this issue, Au droplets were pre-filled with Ga assuring vertical yields in excess of 99%.

  16. A high-yielding, strictly regioselective prebiotic purine nucleoside formation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sidney; Thoma, Ines; Deutsch, Amrei; Gehrke, Tim; Mayer, Peter; Zipse, Hendrik; Carell, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    The origin of life is believed to have started with prebiotic molecules reacting along unidentified pathways to produce key molecules such as nucleosides. To date, a single prebiotic pathway to purine nucleosides had been proposed. It is considered to be inefficient due to missing regioselectivity and low yields. We report that the condensation of formamidopyrimidines (FaPys) with sugars provides the natural N-9 nucleosides with extreme regioselectivity and in good yields (60%). The FaPys are available from formic acid and aminopyrimidines, which are in turn available from prebiotic molecules that were also detected during the Rosetta comet mission. This nucleoside formation pathway can be fused to sugar-forming reactions to produce pentosides, providing a plausible scenario of how purine nucleosides may have formed under prebiotic conditions.

  17. Fast and high light yield scintillation in the Ga2O3 semiconductor material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Okada, Go; Kato, Takumi; Nakauchi, Daisuke; Yanagida, Satoko

    2016-04-01

    We report the distinct scintillation properties of the well-known Ga2O3 semiconductor material. Under UV excitation, the photoluminescence (PL) emission peak appeared near a wavelength of 380 nm with a quantum yield of 6%, and fast decays of 8 and 793 ns were observed. In contrast, the X-ray-induced scintillation spectrum showed an intense emission band near a wavelength of 380 nm, whose decay curve was reproduced using two exponential decay components with time constants of 8 and 977 ns. The pulse height spectrum of 137Cs γ-rays measured using Ga2O3 showed a clear photoabsorption peak with a light yield of 15000 ± 1500 photons/MeV.

  18. Production of high hydroxytyrosol yields via tyrosol conversion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized resting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouallagui, Zouhaier; Sayadi, Sami

    2006-12-27

    An immobilized whole cell system was successfully performed to produce the most powerful antioxidant, hydroxytyrosol. Bioconversion of tyrosol into hydroxytyrosol was achieved via the immobilization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resting cells in calcium alginate beads. Immobilization was advantageous as it allows immobilized cells to tolerate a greater tyrosol concentration than free cells. The bioconversion yield reached 86% in the presence of 5 g L-1 of tyrosol when cells immobilized in alginate beads were carried out in single batches. Evaluation of kinetic parameters showed the maintenance of the same catalytic efficiency expressed as Kcat/Km for both free and immobilized cells. The use of immobilized cells in repeated batches demonstrated a notable activity stabilization since the biocatalyst reusability was extended for at least four batches with a molar yield greater than 85%.

  19. High yield secretion of recombinant proteins from the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Martinez, E M; Fimognari, L; Sakuragi, Y

    2017-02-16

    Microalga-based biomanufacturing of recombinant proteins is attracting growing attention due to its advantages in safety, metabolic diversity, scalability, and sustainability. Secretion of recombinant proteins can accelerate the use of microalgal platforms by allowing post-translational modifications and easy recovery of products from the culture media. However, currently, the yields of secreted recombinant proteins are low, which hampers the commercial application of this strategy. This study aimed at expanding the genetic tools for enhancing secretion of recombinant proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a widely used green microalga as a model organism and a potential industrial biotechnology platform. We demonstrated that the putative signal sequence from C. reinhardtii gametolysin can assist the secretion of the yellow fluorescent protein Venus into the culture media. In order to increase the secretion yields, Venus was C-terminally fused with synthetic glycomodules comprised of tandem serine (Ser) and proline (Pro) repeats of 10 and 20 units [hereafter (SP)n, wherein n=10 or 20]. The yields of the (SP)n-fused Venus were higher than Venus without the glycomodule by up to 12 folds, with the maximum yield of 15 mg L(-1) . Moreover, the presence of the glycomodules confererred an enhanced proteolytic protein stability. The Venus-(SP)n proteins were shown to be glycosylated, and a treatment of the cells with Brefeldin A led to a suggestion that glycosylation of the (SP)n glycomodules starts in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Taken together, the results demonstrate the utility of the gametolysin signal sequence and (SP)n glycomodule to promote a more efficient biomanufacturing of microalgae-based recombinant proteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Temperature-dependent yield criterion for high strength steel sheets under warm-forming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Zhengyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests with cruciform specimens were conducted to investigate the deformation behaviour of dual phase steel sheet with a tensile strength of 590 MPa (DP590 under evaluated warm-forming temperatures (20–190 ∘C. Detailed analyses were then carried out to obtain the corresponding experimental yield loci. For the purpose of describing the temperature-dependent yield behaviour of DP590 appropriately, the Yld2000–2d yield function with temperature-dependent exponent was proposed. The identification procedures of the introduced parameters were then proposed based on Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm. Afterwards, the proposed model was implemented into ABAQUS as user subroutine VUMAT with NICE (Next Increment Corrects Error explicit integration scheme. The numerical simulations of biaxial tensile tests were then conducted to confirm the validity of the proposed model. It could be concluded that the flexibility and accuracy of the proposed model guarantee the applicability in warm-forming applications.

  1. High quantum yield ZnO quantum dots synthesizing via an ultrasonication microreactor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Yang, Huafang; Ding, Wenhao; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Le; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-11-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic microreactor. Ultrasonic radiation brought bubbles through ultrasonic cavitation. These bubbles built microreactor inside the microreactor. The photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots synthesized with different flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature were discussed. Flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature would influence the type and quantity of defects in ZnO quantum dots. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by those conditions as well. Flow rate affected the reaction time. With the increasing of flow rate, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots decreased and the quantum yields first increased then decreased. Ultrasonic power changed the ultrasonic cavitation intensity, which affected the reaction energy and the separation of the solution. With the increasing of ultrasonic power, sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased, while the quantum yields kept increasing. The effect of ultrasonic temperature on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots was influenced by the flow rate. Different flow rate related to opposite changing trend. Moreover, the quantum yields of ZnO QDs synthesized by ultrasonic microreactor could reach 64.7%, which is higher than those synthesized only under ultrasonic radiation or only by microreactor.

  2. A new copper containing MALDI matrix that yields high abundances of [peptide + Cu]+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoxiang; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco A; Perez, Lisa M; Russell, David H

    2009-07-01

    The dinuclear copper complex (alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) copper salt (CHCA)(4)Cu(2)), synthesized by reacting CHCA with copper oxide (CuO), yields increased abundances of [M + xCu - (x-1)H](+) (x = 1-6) ions when used as a matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (355 nm Nd:YAG laser). The yield of [M + xCu - (x-1)H](+) (x = 1 to approximately 6) ion is much greater than that obtained by mixing peptides with copper salts or directly depositing peptides onto oxidized copper surfaces. The increased ion yields for [M + xCu - (x-1)H](+) facilitate studies of biologically important copper binding peptides. For example, using this matrix we have investigated site-specific copper binding of several peptides using fragmentation chemistry of [M + Cu](+) and [M + 2Cu - H](+) ions. The fragmentation studies reveal interesting insight on Cu binding preferences for basic amino acids. Most notable is the fact that the binding of a single Cu(+) ion and two Cu(+) ions are quite different, and these differences are explained in terms of intramolecular interactions of the peptide-Cu ionic complex.

  3. Simulating evapotranspiration (ET) and corn yield response to irrigation management in the Texas High Plains using DSSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain corn (Zea mays L) continues to be a major irrigated crop in the northern Texas High Plains. Improvements in irrigation system efficiency, irrigation management, and plant genetics have increased average yields while decreasing seasonal water use in the last 40 years. However, declining water l...

  4. Yields in high density, short rotation intensive culture (SRIC)—plantations of Eucalyptus and Other Hardwood Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M. Sachs; C.B. Low

    1983-01-01

    Initial high density (17,200 trees ha-1, 6961 trees a-1) plantations of Eucalyptus grandis yielded up to 22 oven dry tons (ODT) ha-l yr-I (10 ta-1 yr-1) on an approximate 6 month rotation. Border effects could not be eliminated from the small sized plots used...

  5. 'Caro-Tex 312’ – An F1 Hybrid, High Yielding, Multiple Disease Resistant, Orange Habanero Pepper Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A&M University and the USDA-ARS U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC, have developed a new, F1 hybrid Habanero pepper cultivar. ‘Caro-Tex 312’ produces a large, orange-fruited Habanero pepper with typical shape and high pungency. It also possesses unique yield, early maturity and dise...

  6. Fully automated synthesis module for the high yield one-pot preparation of 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-DOPA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; Luurtsema, G; Brussermann, M; Elsinga, PH; Vaalburg, W

    1999-01-01

    A fully automated one-pot synthesis of 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-DOPA, an important radiopharmaceutical for studies on the presynaptic dopamine metabolism with positron emission tomography,is described. 6-[F-18]Fluoro-L-DOPA was prepared in high radiochemical yield (33 +/- 4%, c.f.d.) and radiochemical

  7. Stable and high-yielding intrinsic 59Fe-radiolabeling of the intravenous iron preparations Monofer and Cosmofer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Tue Ingemann; Severin, Gregory; Andreasen, Hans B.;

    2016-01-01

    of the supplements in the presence of [Fe-59]FeCl3 for 24h at 95 degrees C for Monofer, and 85 degrees C for Cosmofer, resulting in radiochemical yields greater than 94%. High performance size exclusion chromatography, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering were used to show that the supplements remained...

  8. Genetic, molecular and expression features of the Pervenets mutant leading to high oleic acid content of seed oil in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacombe Séverine

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pervenets is a sunflower population that displays seed oil with a high oleic acid content [HOAC]. Our aim is to reconcile all the data gathered on this mutant in a unique explanatory mechanism. All Pervenets-derived [HOAC] lines display no accumulation or a very reduced accumulation of the DELTA12-desaturase transcript in the embryos during the stages for oil accumulation. They also carry oleHOS specific RFLP markers revealed by an DELTA12-desaturase cDNA used as a probe. The linoleic or [LO] genotypes do not carry this RFLP marker, but another allele: oleLOR (oleHL locus. Linkage disequilibrium between the oleHOS allele and [HOAC] was verified. We studied the mode of inheritance of [HOAC] in two segregating populations. A F2 progenies revealed one dominant allele for [HOAC] that co-segregated with the oleHOS allele showing that the Pervenets mutation and oleHOS were closely linked. F6 recombinant inbred lines, showed the [HOAC] trait due to two independent loci: the locus carrying the oleHOS allele and another locus sup. One allele, supole, at this second locus may suppress the effect of the oleHOS allele on the [HOAC] trait. Northern analyses performed on [HOAC] lines and F1 ([HOAC] x [LO] hybrids revealed under-accumulation of DELTA12-desaturase transcript. Thus Pervenets mutation acts in trans. The oleHOS genomic region that may carry the Pervenets mutation was cloned. A genomic library was constructed in lambdafixII with the DNA from the RHA345 [HOAC] line and screened with a DELTA12-desaturase cDNA as a probe. Two overlapping clones were entirely sequenced and revealed carrying a gene for an DELTA12-desaturase probably located in the RE. This corresponds to the invariant part of the oleHL locus. Another clone (11.1 probably carries DELTA12-desaturase repeated sequences that cause instability of the clone. We showed that the 11.1 clone carries most of cDNA sequence, but due to its organization it is not yet sequenced. A mutation mechanism

  9. Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators Enhance the Morpho-Physiological Growth and Yield of Rice under High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ihsan, Zahid; Shah, Adnan N; Wu, Chao; Yousaf, Muhammad; Nasim, Wajid; Alharby, Hesham; Alghabari, Fahad; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT) and high night temperature (HNT). Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA), and triazoles (Tr) were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above-, and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  10. Exogenously applied plant growth regulators enhance the morpho-physiological growth and yield of rice under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT and high night temperature (HNT. Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc, alpha-tocopherol (Ve, brassinosteroids (Br, methyl jasmonates (MeJA and triazoles (Tr were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above- and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  11. Efficient and high yield one-pot synthesis of cyclometalated platinum(II) β-diketonates at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Zachary M; Blight, Barry A; Wang, Suning

    2012-04-06

    Cyclometalated Pt(II) β-diketonates are widely used as efficient luminescent materials but are typically prepared at high temperatures in low yields using excess reagents. A one-pot synthesis of these complexes is described employing stoichiometric reagents and short reaction times at ambient temperature, giving yields of up to 94%. The method is applicable to a broad range of substrates including N^C, P^C, and C^C chelate Pt(II) complexes and different β-diketonate ligands.

  12. Regulatory Mechanisms of a Highly Pectinolytic Mutant of Penicillium occitanis and Functional Analysis of a Candidate Gene in the Plant Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bravo-Ruiz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium occitanis is a model system for enzymatic regulation. A mutant strain exhibiting constitutive overproduction of different pectinolytic enzymes both under inducing (pectin or repressing conditions (glucose was previously isolated after chemical mutagenesis. In order to identify the molecular basis of this regulatory mechanism, the genomes of the wild type and the derived mutant strain were sequenced and compared, providing the first reference genome for this species. We used a phylogenomic approach to compare P. occitanis with other pectinolytic fungi and to trace expansions of gene families involved in carbohydrate degradation. Genome comparison between wild type and mutant identified seven mutations associated with predicted proteins. The most likely candidate was a mutation in a highly conserved serine residue of a conserved fungal protein containing a GAL4-like Zn2Cys6 binuclear cluster DNA-binding domain and a fungus-specific transcription factor regulatory middle homology region. To functionally characterize the role of this candidate gene, the mutation was recapitulated in the predicted orthologue Fusarium oxysporum, a vascular wilt pathogen which secretes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, including polygalacturonases, pectate lyases, xylanases and proteases, all of which contribute to infection. However, neither the null mutant nor a mutant carrying the analogous point mutation exhibited a deregulation of pectinolytic enzymes. The availability, annotation and phylogenomic analysis of the P. occitanis genome sequence represents an important resource for understanding the evolution and biology of this species, and sets the basis for the discovery of new genes of biotechnological interest for the degradation of complex polysaccharides.

  13. Productivity, Profitability and Resource Use Efficiency: A Comparative Analysis between Conventional and High Yielding Rice in Rajbari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Yahia Bapari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was analyzed the determinants, costs and benefits and resources allocation of both conventional and high yielding rice cultivation over the Rajbari district of Bangladesh. Data were accumulated from 300 regular rice growers of conventional and high yielding varieties and random sampling technique was applied for selecting the respondents from the study area from which information was collected through pre-tested questionnaire. Cobb – Douglas production function and gross margin were mainly used to determine the productivities and profits of both rice and the marginal value of the product was highly recommended to derive the optimal use of the resources. Results obtained by applying ordinary least square method showed that the most important factors of production in the study area were irrigation, labor, fertilizer and insecticide costs whose elasticities were 0.904, 0.048, 0.045 and 0.044 respectively and insignificant factors were seed and ploughing costs whose elasticities were – 0.009 and 0.030 respectively for high yielding rice. On the other hand, irrigation, insecticide, seed and ploughing costs of elasticities 0.880, 0.589, 0.116 and – 0.127 respectively were the important factors and minor role playing factors were labor and fertilizer costs whose elasticities were 0.098 and 0.077 respectively for conventional yielding rice. The core message from productivity analysis was that the irrigation was key variable which played a positive and vital role in producing rice of both varieties. All variables (resources were economically misallocated in the production activities of both varieties along the study area but high yielding rice was more profitable than conventional one. Results also showed that the farmers of the study area produced rice of both varieties in the inefficient range of production. Continuous supply of electricity, flexible credit and improving the existing resources were the prime policy recommendations of

  14. Tuning of ZIF-Derived Carbon with High Activity, Nitrogen Functionality, and Yield - A Case for Superior CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadipelli, Srinivas; Guo, Zheng Xiao

    2015-06-22

    A highly effective and facile synthesis route is developed to create and tailor metal-decorated and nitrogen-functionalized active microporous carbon materials from ZIF-8. Clear metal- and pyrrolic-N-induced enhancements of the cyclic CO2 uptake capacities and binding energies are achieved, particularly at a much lower carbonization temperature of 700 °C than those often reported (1000 °C). The high-temperature carbonization can enhance the porosity but only at the expense of considerable losses of sample yield and metal and N functional sites. The findings are comparatively discussed with carbons derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) reported previously. Furthermore, the porosity of the MOF-derived carbon is critically dependent on the structure of the precursor MOF and the crystal growth. The current strategy offers a new and effective route for the creation and tuning of highly active and functionalized carbon structures in high yields and with low energy consumption.

  15. Effects of Water Management, Arsenic and Phosphorus Levels on Rice Yield in High-Arsenic Soil-Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. S. M. H. M. TALUKDER; C. A. MEISNER; M. A. R. SARKAR; M. S. ISLAM; K. D. SAYRE

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation is considered an alternative production system to combat increased water scarcity and arsenic (As) contamination in the food chain. Pot experiments were conducted at the Wheat Research Centre, Dinajpur, Bangladesh to examine the role of water management (WM), As and phosphorus (P) on yield and yield attributes of boro (variety BRRI dhan 29) and aman (variety BRRI dhan 32) rice. A total of 18 treatment combinations of the three levels of As (0, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and P (0, 12.5 and 25.0 mg/kg) and two WM strategies (aerobic and anaerobic) were investigated. Yield attributes were significantly affected by increasing As levels. Grain yields of BRRI dhan 29 and BRRI dhan 32 were reduced from 63.0 to 7.7 and 35.0 to 16.5 g/pot with increasing As application, respectively, indicating a greater sensitivity of BRRI dhan 29 than BRRI dhan 32. Moreover, As toxicity was reduced with aerobic compared to anaerobic WM for all P levels. During early growth stages, phytotoxic symptoms appeared on BRRI dhan 29 and BRRI dhan 32 rice stems with increasing As levels without applying P under anaerobic WM. Under anaerobic and As-contaminated conditions, BRRI dhan 29 was highly susceptible to straighthead, which dramatically reduced grain yields. There were significant relationships between the number of effective tillers per pot and root dry weight, grain yield, and number of fertile and unfertile grains per pot for both BRRI dhan 29 and BRRI dhan 32 (P<0.001). Our findings indicate that rice could be grown aerobically in As-contaminated areas with a reduced risk of As toxicity and yield loss.

  16. Rapid high-yield expression of full-size IgG antibodies in plants coinfected with noncompeting viral vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Giritch, Anatoli; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Engler, Carola; van Eldik, Gerben; Botterman, Johan; Klimyuk, Victor; Gleba, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    Plant viral vectors allow expression of heterologous proteins at high yields, but so far, they have been unable to express heterooligomeric proteins efficiently. We describe here a rapid and indefinitely scalable process for high-level expression of functional full-size mAbs of the IgG class in plants. The process relies on synchronous coinfection and coreplication of two viral vectors, each expressing a separate antibody chain. The two vectors are derived from two different plant viruses tha...

  17. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 for the high-yield production of a biofuel composed of an isopropanol/butanol/ethanol mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusséaux, Simon; Croux, Christian; Soucaille, Philippe; Meynial-Salles, Isabelle

    2013-07-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum was metabolically engineered to produce a biofuel consisting of an isopropanol/butanol/ethanol mixture. For this purpose, different synthetic isopropanol operons were constructed and introduced on plasmids in a butyrate minus mutant strain (C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 Δcac15ΔuppΔbuk). The best strain expressing the isopropanol operon from the thl promoter was selected from batch experiments at pH 5. By further optimizing the pH of the culture, a biofuel mixture with almost no by-products was produced at a titer, a yield and productivity never reached before, opening the opportunities to develop an industrial process for alternative biofuels with Clostridial species. Furthermore, by performing in vivo and in vitro flux analysis of the synthetic isopropanol pathway, this flux was identified to be limited by the [acetate](int) and the high Km of CoA-transferase for acetate. Decreasing the Km of this enzyme using a protein engineering approach would be a good target for improving isopropanol production and avoiding acetate accumulation in the culture medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vineyard Yield Estimation Based on the Analysis of High Resolution Images Obtained with Artificial Illumination at Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinia Font

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for vineyard yield estimation based on the analysis of high-resolution images obtained with artificial illumination at night. First, this paper assesses different pixel-based segmentation methods in order to detect reddish grapes: threshold based, Mahalanobis distance, Bayesian classifier, linear color model segmentation and histogram segmentation, in order to obtain the best estimation of the area of the clusters of grapes in this illumination conditions. The color spaces tested were the original RGB and the Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV. The best segmentation method in the case of a non-occluded reddish table-grape variety was the threshold segmentation applied to the H layer, with an estimation error in the area of 13.55%, improved up to 10.01% by morphological filtering. Secondly, after segmentation, two procedures for yield estimation based on a previous calibration procedure have been proposed: (1 the number of pixels corresponding to a cluster of grapes is computed and converted directly into a yield estimate; and (2 the area of a cluster of grapes is converted into a volume by means of a solid of revolution, and this volume is converted into a yield estimate; the yield errors obtained were 16% and −17%, respectively.

  19. Comparative expression of wild-type and highly soluble mutant His103Leu of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashipour, Mohammad; Fukuta, Yasuhisa; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2011-05-01

    Low protein solubility and inclusion body formation represent big challenges in production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. We have recently reported functional expression of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta, MeHNL, in E. coli with high in vivo solubility and activity using directed evolution. As a part of attempts to clarify the mechanism of this phenomenon, we have described the possibility of expression of the highly active and soluble mutant MeHNL-His103Leu as well as wild-type enzyme in several expression systems. Methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, protozoan host Leishmania tarentolae and two cell-free translations, including an E. coli lysate (WakoPURE system) and wheat germ translation system were used to compare expression profiles of the genes. Two distinguishable protein expression patterns were observed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic-based systems. The wild-type and mutant enzyme showed high activity for both genes (up to 10 U/ml) in eukaryotic hosts P. pastoris and L. tarentolae, while those of E. coli exhibited about 1 and 15 U/ml, respectively. The different activity level in prokaryotic systems but the same level among the eukaryotic hosts indicate the phenomenon is specific to the E. coli system. Both the wild-type and mutant enzymes were functionally expressed in eukaryotic systems, probably using the folding assistants such as chaperones. Properties of expression systems used in this study were precisely compared, too.

  20. Physiological characteristics of high yield under cluster planting: photosynthesis and canopy microclimate of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton produces more biomass and economic yield when cluster planting pattern (three plants per hole than in a traditional planting pattern (one plant per hole, even at similar plant densities, indicating that individual plant growth is promoted by cluster planting. The causal factors for this improved growth induced by cluster planting pattern, the light interception, canopy microclimate and photosynthetic rate of cotton were investigated in an arid region of China. The results indicated that the leaf area index and light interception were higher in cluster planting, and significantly different from those in traditional planting during the middle and late growth stages. Cotton canopy humidity at different growth stages was increased but canopy temperatures were reduced by cluster planting. In the later growth stage of cluster planting, the leaf chlorophyll content was higher and the leaf net photosynthetic rate and canopy photosynthetic rate were significantly increased in comparing with traditional planting pattern. We concluded that differences in canopy light interception and photosynthetic rate were the primary factors responsible for increased biomass production and economic yield in cluster planting compared with the traditional planting of cotton.

  1. PopII 1/2 stars: very high N14 and low O16 yields

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschi, R

    2006-01-01

    Nine 20 Mo models were computed with metallicities ranging from solar, through $Z=10^{-5}$ ([Fe/H]=~-3.1) down to $Z=10^{-8}$ ([Fe/H]=~-6.1) and with initial rotational velocities between 0 and 600 km/s to study the impact of initial metallicity and rotational velocity. The very large amounts of N14 observed (~0.03 Mo) are only produced at $Z=10^{-8}$ (PopII 1/2). The strong dependence of the N14 yields on rotation and other parameters like the initial mass and metallicity may explain the large scatter in the observations of N14 abundance. The metallicity trends are best reproduced by the models with Omega_ini/Omega_c=~0.75, which is slightly above the mean observed value for OB solar metallicity stars. Indeed, in the model with Vini=600 km/s at $Z=10^{-8}$, the O16 yield is reduced due to strong mixing. This allows in particular to reproduce the upturn for C/O and a slightly decreasing [C/Fe], which are observed below [Fe/H]=~-3.

  2. High Resolution Structure of Deinococcus Bacteriophytochrome Yields New Insights into Phytochrome Architecture and Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Jeremiah R.; Zhang, Junrui; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Vierstra, Richard D.; Forest, Katrina T. (NWU); (UW)

    2010-03-08

    Phytochromes are red/far red light photochromic photoreceptors that direct many photosensory behaviors in the bacterial, fungal, and plant kingdoms. They consist of an N-terminal domain that covalently binds a bilin chromophore and a C-terminal region that transmits the light signal, often through a histidine kinase relay. Using x-ray crystallography, we recently solved the first three-dimensional structure of a phytochrome, using the chromophore-binding domain of Deinococcus radiodurans bacterial phytochrome assembled with its chromophore, biliverdin IX{alpha}. Now, by engineering the crystallization interface, we have achieved a significantly higher resolution model. This 1.45 {angstrom} resolution structure helps identify an extensive buried surface between crystal symmetry mates that may promote dimerization in vivo. It also reveals that upon ligation of the C3{sup 2} carbon of biliverdin to Cys{sup 24}, the chromophore A-ring assumes a chiral center at C2, thus becoming 2(R),3(E)-phytochromobilin, a chemistry more similar to that proposed for the attached chromophores of cyanobacterial and plant phytochromes than previously appreciated. The evolution of bacterial phytochromes to those found in cyanobacteria and higher plants must have involved greater fitness using more reduced bilins, such as phycocyanobilin, combined with a switch of the attachment site from a cysteine near the N terminus to one conserved within the cGMP phosphodiesterase/adenyl cyclase/FhlA domain. From analysis of site-directed mutants in the D. radiodurans phytochrome, we show that this bilin preference was partially driven by the change in binding site, which ultimately may have helped photosynthetic organisms optimize shade detection. Collectively, these three-dimensional structural results better clarify bilin/protein interactions and help explain how higher plant phytochromes evolved from prokaryotic progenitors.

  3. Gene transfer of mutant mouse cholinesterase provides high lifetime expression and reduced cocaine responses with no evident toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyi Geng

    Full Text Available Gene transfer of a human cocaine hydrolase (hCocH derived from butyrylcholinesterase (BChE by 5 mutations (A199S/F227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G has shown promise in animal studies for treatment of cocaine addiction. To predict the physiological fate and immunogenicity of this enzyme in humans, a comparable enzyme was created and tested in a conspecific host. Thus, similar mutations (A199S/S227A/S287G/A328W/Y332G were introduced into mouse BChE to obtain a mouse CocH (mCocH. The cDNA was incorporated into viral vectors based on: a serotype-5 helper-dependent adenovirus (hdAD with ApoE promoter, and b serotype-8 adeno-associated virus with CMV promoter (AAV-CMV or multiple promoter and enhancer elements (AAV-VIP. Experiments on substrate kinetics of purified mCocH expressed in HEK293T cells showed 30-fold higher activity (U/mg with (3H-cocaine and 25% lower activity with butyrylthiocholine, compared with wild type BChE. In mice given modest doses of AAV-CMV-mCocH vector (0.7 or 3 × 10(11 particles plasma hydrolase activity rose 10-fold above control for over one year with no observed immune response. Under the same conditions, transduction of the human counterpart continued less than 2 months and antibodies to hCocH were readily detected. The advanced AAV-VIP-mCocH vector generated a dose-dependent rise in plasma cocaine hydrolase activity from 20-fold (10(10 particles to 20,000 fold (10(13 particles, while the hdAD vector (1.7 × 10(12 particles yielded a 300,000-fold increase. Neither vector caused adverse reactions such as motor weakness, elevated liver enzymes, or disturbance in spontaneous activity. Furthermore, treatment with high dose hdAD-ApoE-mCocH vector (1.7 × 10(12 particles prevented locomotor abnormalities, other behavioral signs, and release of hepatic alanine amino transferase after a cocaine dose fatal to most control mice (120 mg/kg. This outcome suggests that viral gene transfer can yield clinically effective cocaine hydrolase

  4. Transcriptome analysis suggests that starch synthesis may proceed via multiple metabolic routes in high yielding potato cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacper Piotr Kaminski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose-6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM and normal levels of transcripts for other enzymes involved in starch metabolism in comparison with medium and low yielding cultivars as determined by DeepSAGE transcriptome profiling. The decrease in PGM activity in Kuras was confirmed by measuring the enzyme activity from potato tuber extracts. Contrary to expectations, this combination lead to a higher level of intracellular glucose-1-phosphate (G1P in Kuras suggesting that G1P is directly imported into plastids and can be quantitatively important for starch synthesis under normal conditions in high yielding cultivars. SIGNIFICANCE: This could open entirely new possibilities for metabolic engineering of the starch metabolism in potato via the so far uncharacterized G1P transporter. The perspectives are to increase yield and space efficiency of this important crop. In the light of the increasing demands imposed on agriculture to support a growing global population this presents an exciting new possibility.

  5. Toward Self-Assembled Plasmonic Devices: High-Yield Arrangement of Gold Nanoparticles on DNA Origami Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Fatih N; Schwarz, Friedrich W; Ye, Jingjing; Diez, Stefan; Schmidt, Thorsten L

    2016-05-24

    Plasmonic structures allow the manipulation of light with materials that are smaller than the optical wavelength. Such structures can consist of plasmonically active metal nanoparticles and can be fabricated through scalable bottom-up self-assembly on DNA origami templates. To produce functional devices, the precise and high-yield arrangement of each of the nanoparticles on a structure is of vital importance as the absence of a single particle can destroy the functionality of the entire device. Nevertheless, the parameters influencing the yield of the multistep assembly process are still poorly understood. To overcome this deficiency, we employed a test system consisting of a tubular six-helix bundle DNA origami with binding sites for eight oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanoparticles. We systematically studied the assembly yield as a function of a wide range of parameters such as ionic strength, stoichiometric ratio, oligonucleotide linker chemistry, and assembly kinetics by an automated high-throughput analysis of electron micrographs of the formed heterocomplexes. Our optimized protocols enable particle placement yields up to 98.7% and promise the reliable production of sophisticated DNA-based multiparticle plasmonic devices for applications in photonics, optoelectronics, and nanomedicine.

  6. High yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhui; Liu, Xiaoguang; Wei, Dong; Chen, Gu

    2015-09-01

    The fermentation process for high yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) was developed by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides. An efficient single-step enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse (CB) by cellulase was firstly developed to produce >30 g/L of reducing sugars. The concentrated CBH was subsequently applied in a batch culture, producing 7.9 g/L of dry biomass with yield of 0.44 g/g reducing sugar and 34.3 wt% of fatty acids and 48.6 wt% of neutral lipids. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation using CBH achieved higher yields of fatty acids (41.0 wt% and a titer of 5.83 g/L) and neutral lipids (58.4 wt% and yield of 0.22 g/g reducing sugar). Additionally, the fatty acid profile analysis showed that the intercellular lipid was suitable to prepare high-quality biodiesel. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using CBH as low-cost feedstock to produce crude algal oil for sustainable biodiesel production.

  7. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins expressed in tobacco cell culture with a designer glycopeptide tag: Process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Gonzalez, Maria; Savary, Brett; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Low-yield protein production remains the most significant economic hurdle with plant cell culture technology. Fusions of recombinant proteins with hydroxyproline-O-glycosylated designer glycopeptide tags have consistently boosted secreted protein yields. This prompted us to study the process development of this technology aiming to achieve productivity levels necessary for commercial viability. We used a tobacco BY-2 cell culture expressing EGFP as fusion with a glycopeptide tag comprised of 32 repeat of "Ser-Pro" dipeptide, or (SP)32 , to study cell growth and protein secretion, culture scale-up, and establishment of perfusion cultures for continuous production. The BY-2 cells accumulated low levels of cell biomass (~7.5 g DW/L) in Schenk & Hildebrandt medium, but secreted high yields of (SP)32 -tagged EGFP (125 mg/L). Protein productivity of the cell culture has been stable for 6.0 years. The BY-2 cells cultured in a 5-L bioreactor similarly produced high secreted protein yield at 131 mg/L. Successful operation of a cell perfusion culture for 30 days was achieved under the perfusion rate of 0.25 and 0.5 day(-1) , generating a protein volumetric productivity of 17.6 and 28.9 mg/day/L, respectively. This research demonstrates the great potential of the designer glycopeptide technology for use in commercial production of valuable proteins with plant cell cultures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Characterization of low-acetic-acid-producing yeast isolated from 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants and its application to high-gravity brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Akihiro; Tabei, Hideaki; Iwahuti, Masahumi

    2006-01-01

    We isolated a mutant with low acetic acid and high ethanol productivities from 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants of brewers' yeast NCYC1245 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). To determine the mechanism for these properties in the mutant (2DGR19) during fermentation, gene expression and enzyme activity related to acetic acid and ethanol production were investigated. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the transcriptional levels of many genes involved in glycolysis were higher in 2DGR19 than in NCYC1245. Among these transcriptional levels of 2DGR19 relative to NCYC1245, the expression level of ADH4 encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was highest, which corresponded to the high ADH activity in 2DGR19. Quantitative PCR analysis also revealed that the transcriptional level of ADH4 was the highest among ADH1 to ADH4. Although no significant differences in the transcriptional levels of ALD2 to ALD6 encoding acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD) between 2DGR19 and NCYC1245 were observed, ALD activity in 2DGR19 was lower. Using quantitative PCR analysis, ALD6 was found to be the most highly expressed among the ALD2 to ALD6 genes. These results indicate that ALD6 contributes to a low ALD activity, depending on post-transcriptional regulation. A high ADH activity appeared to be the major reason for the high ethanol productivity of 2DGR19. A low ALD activity was considered to be principally responsible for a low acetic acid productivity, although a high ADH activity also might have played a role. Beer brewed using 2DGR19 in pilot-scale high-gravity brewing contained about half as much acetic acid and 1.1% more ethanol compared with that brewed using NCYC1245. The use of 2DGR19 may overcome difficulties associated with high-gravity brewing.

  9. Enhanced lipid production in thermo-tolerant mutants of Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Neha; Gupta, Ravi Prakash; Mathur, Anshu Shankar; Tuli, Deepak Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to develop thermo-tolerant mutants of Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738 for high lipids production. For this, ethyl methane sulfonate was used, which generated two effective thermo-tolerant mutants, M18 and M24 of Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738, capable of surviving at temperature up to 47°C and showing improved lipid and biomass yields. They showed 59.62% and 50.75% increase, respectively in lipid content compared to wild type at 30°C, which could not grow at temperature above 35°C. The novelty of this study lied in incorporation of PAM Flurometry with mutagenesis to generate thermo-tolerant mutants of C. pyrenoidosa and investigating the reasons for increased yields of mutants at cellular and photosynthetic levels with the aim to use them for commercial biodiesel production.

  10. Growth and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) near a high voltage transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, G; Kunsch, B; Gerzabek, M; Reichenauer, T; Soja, A-M; Rippar, G; Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, H R

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an electromagnetic field from a high voltage transmission line on the yield of agricultural crops cultivated underneath and near the transmission line. For 5 years, experiments with winter wheat and corn were carried out near the 380 kV transmission line Dürnrohr (Austria)-Slavetice (Czech Republic). Different field strengths were tested by planting the crops at different distances from the transmission line. The plants were grown in experimental plots (1.77 m2), aligned to equal electric field strengths, and were cultivated according to standard agricultural practice. The soil for all plots was homogenized layer-specifically to a depth of 0.5 m to guarantee uniform soil conditions in the plant root environment. The soil was sampled annually for determinations of carbon content and the behavior of microbial biomass. During development of the vegetation, samples were collected at regular intervals for growth rate analyses. At physiological maturity, the plots (n = 8) were harvested for grain and straw yield determinations. The average electric and magnetic field strengths at four distances from the transmission line (nominal distances: 40, 14, 8, and 2 m) were between 0.2 and 4.0 kV/m and between 0.4 and 4.5 micro T, respectively. No effect of the field exposures on soil microbial biomass could be detected. The wheat grain yields were 7% higher (average of 5 years) in the plots with the lowest field exposure than in the plots nearer to the transmission line (P plants were more pronounced in years with drought episodes during grain filling than in humid years. No significant yield differences were found for corn yields. The extent of the yield variations attributed to the distance from the transmission line was small compared to the observed annual variations in climatic or soil specific site characteristics. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. High-yield production of biosugars from Gracilaria verrucosa by acid and enzymatic hydrolysis processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Won; Hong, Chae-Hwan; Jeon, Sung-Wan; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2015-11-01

    Gracilaria verrucosa, the red alga, is a suitable feedstock for biosugar production. This study analyzes biosugar production by the hydrolysis of G. verrucosa conducted under various conditions (i.e., various acid concentrations, substrate concentrations, reaction times, and enzyme dosages). The acid hydrolysates of G. verrucosa yielded a total of 7.47g/L (37.4%) and 10.63g/L (21.26%) of reducing sugars under optimal small (30mL) and large laboratory-scale (1L) hydrolysis processes, respectively. Reducing sugar obtained from acid and enzymatic hydrolysates were 10% higher, with minimum by-products, than those reported in other studies. The mass balance for the small laboratory-scale process showed that the acid and enzymatic hydrolysates had a carbohydrate conversion of 57.2%. The mass balance approach to the entire hydrolysis process of red seaweed for biosugar production can be applied to other saccharification processes.

  12. High-yield production and transfer of graphene flakes obtained by anodic bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldt, Thomas; Eckmann, Axel; Klar, Philipp; Morozov, Sergey V; Zhukov, Alexander A; Novoselov, Kostya S; Casiraghi, Cinzia

    2011-10-25

    We report large-yield production of graphene flakes on glass by anodic bonding. Under optimum conditions, we counted several tens of flakes with lateral size around 20-30 μm and a few tens of flakes with larger size. About 60-70% of the flakes have a negligible D peak. We show that it is possible to easily transfer the flakes by the wedging technique. The transfer on silicon does not damage graphene and lowers the doping. The charge mobility of the transferred flakes on silicon is on the order of 6000 cm(2)/V s (at a carrier concentration of 10(12) cm(-2)), which is typical for devices prepared on this substrate with exfoliated graphene.

  13. 贵州高产油菜的群体结构特征及高产栽培技术%The Group Structure Characteristics and High-yield Culture Technique of High-yield Rape in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯文豪; 冯泽蔚; 苏跃

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote the integration and application of high yield cultivation technology of rape,the rape yield and component features in high-yield fields were analyzed in 2010-2011. The results showed that; 1) the group structure characteristics with the yield of over 200 kg/667m2 were as follows; average cultivation density 6 099. 2 plants/667m2 , mean pod number 3. 509 106 per 667 m2, grains per pod 18. 5, 1 000-seed weight 3. 7 g, plant height 191. 4 cm, branch number 10. 9, main inflorescence length 72. 8 cm, average yield 216. 2 kg/667m2. 2) The high-yield cultivation techniques included sowing in September 5-10, cultivating strong seedlings, transplanting on moderate-fertility soil in October 10 ?20, fine preparation of soil, soil testing and formulated fertilization, in time irrigation, disease, pest and grass control.%为了促进贵州油菜高产栽培技术的集成和运用,对2010-2011年参加贵州省油菜高产创建活动的高产田块油菜产量及其群体构成特征进行分析.结果表明:1)产量为200 kg/667m2以上油菜群体的结构特征为平均栽培密度达6 099.2株/667m2,平均角果数3.509×106个/667m2,每果粒数18.5粒,千粒重3.7g,株高191.4 cm,分枝数10.9个,主花序长72.8 cm,平均产量达216.2 kg/667m2.2)高产田块的栽培措施为9月5-10日播种,培育壮苗,10月10-20日移栽,土壤肥力中等,精细整地,测土配方施肥,及时灌排水和防治病虫草害等.

  14. Use of Nonspecific, Glutamic Acid-Free, Media and High Glycerol or High Amylase as Inducing Parameters for Screening Bacillus Isolates Having High Yield of Polyglutamic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxi, Nandita N

    2014-01-01

    Out of fifty-five Bacillus isolates obtained from ten different regional locations and sources, seven showed the ability to consistently produce specific extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) on rich as well as synthetic but nonspecific media which did not contain glutamic acid. The isolates were identified as either Bacillus licheniformis or Bacillus subtilis. The EPS from all isolates was resistant to alpha protease, proteinase K, and was thus of high molecular weight. Further it was detected after SDS-PAGE by methylene blue but not by coomassie blue R staining as in case of proteins with high proportion of acidic amino acids. Cell-free EPS, after acid hydrolysis, showed absence of carbohydrates and presence of only glutamic acid. Thus the native the EPS from all seven isolates was confirmed to be gamma polyglutamic acid (PGA) and not exopolysaccharide. The Bacillus isolate T which produced maximum polymer on all media tested had higher amylase: protease activity as compared to other strains. If inoculum was developed in rich medium as compared to synthetic medium, the PGA produced increased by twofold in the subsequent synthetic production medium. Similarly, use of inoculum consisting of young and vegetative cells also increased the PGA production by twofold though amount of inoculum did not affect yield of PGA. Though PGA was produced in even in the absence of glutamic acid supplementation in the production medium by all isolates, the yield of PGA increased by fourfold in the presence glutamic acid and the maximum yield was 30 g/l for isolate K. The supplementation of glutamine instead of glutamic acid into the medium caused an increase in the viscosity of the non-Newtonian solution of PGA.

  15. Development and characterization of a high yield transportable pulsed neutron source with efficient and compact pulsed power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rishi; Mishra, Ekansh; Dhang, Prosenjit; Sagar, Karuna; Meena, Manraj; Shyam, Anurag

    2016-09-01

    The results of characterization experiments carried out on a newly developed dense plasma focus device based intense pulsed neutron source with efficient and compact pulsed power system are reported. Its high current sealed pseudospark switch based low inductance capacitor bank with maximum stored energy of ˜10 kJ is segregated into four modules of ˜2.5 kJ each and it cumulatively delivers peak current in the range of 400 kA-600 kA (corresponding to charging voltage range of 14 kV-18 kV) in a quarter time period of ˜2 μs. The neutron yield performance of this device has been optimized by discretely varying deuterium filling gas pressure in the range of 6 mbar-11 mbar at ˜17 kV/550 kA discharge. At ˜7 kJ/8.5 mbar operation, the average neutron yield has been measured to be in the order of ˜4 × 109 neutrons/pulse which is the highest ever reported neutron yield from a plasma focus device with the same stored energy. The average forward to radial anisotropy in neutron yield is found to be ˜2. The entire system is contained on a moveable trolley having dimensions 1.5 m × 1 m × 0.7 m and its operation and control (up to the distance of 25 m) are facilitated through optically isolated handheld remote console. The overall compactness of this system provides minimum proximity to small as well as large samples for irradiation. The major intended application objective of this high neutron yield dense plasma focus device development is to explore the feasibility of active neutron interrogation experiments by utilization of intense pulsed neutron sources.

  16. Study on the Practice and High-yielding Mechanism of Super-sparse-cultivation Associated with Maximum-tiller Seedling of Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; TAO Shi-shun

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new cultivation practice-super-sparse-cultivation associated with maximumtiller seedling (SSCMTS) of hybrid rice was proposed and its high-yielding mechanism was studied. The results showed that the practice of SSCMTS in hybrid rice could not only increase grain yield but also save seeds and labor. It was a new high-yielding way for the late transplanting seedlings and heavy panicle type hybrid rice cultivars to further utilize the high-yielding potential of hybrid rice cultivars. The increasing number of spikelets and ideal grain -filling were the direct factors for the high yield of SSCMTS in hybrid rice, and those high-yielding factors relied on high quality seedlings, sturdy individuals, high quality population and vigorous later growth.

  17. A Proposed Method for Measurement of Absolute Air Fluorescence Yield based on High Resolution Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gika, V; Maltezos, S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a method for absolute measurement of air fluorescence yield based on high resolution optical emission spectroscopy. The absolute measurement of the air fluorescence yield is feasible using the Cherenkov light, emitted by an electron beam simultaneously with the fluorescence light, as a "standard candle". The separation of these two radiations can be accomplished exploiting the "dark" spectral regions of the emission band systems of the molecular spectrum of nitrogen. In these "dark" regions the net Cherenkov light can be recorded experimentally and be compared with the calculated one. The instrumentation for obtaining the nitrogen molecular spectra in high resolution and the noninvasive method for monitoring the rotational temperature of the emission process are also described. For the experimental evaluation of the molecular spectra analysis we used DC normal glow discharges in air performed in an appropriate spectral lamp considered as an air-fluorescence light emulator. The propose...

  18. Transcriptome Analysis Suggests That Starch Synthesis May Proceed via Multiple Metabolic Routes in High Yielding Potato Cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Høgh Petersen, Annabeth; Sønderkær, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP...... independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose 6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. Principal Finding: Potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM) and normal...... to expectations, this combination lead to a higher level of intracellular glucose-1-phosphate (G1P) in Kuras suggesting that G1P is directly imported into plastids and can be quantitatively important for starch synthesis under normal conditions in high yielding cultivars. Significance: This could open entirely...

  19. Assessment on Carbon Sequestration Benefit of Fast-growing and High-yielding Forest Base Construction Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru Taoqin; Li Jiyue; Zhuo Weihua; Li Xiangdong; Zhang Wenjie

    2004-01-01

    Fast-growing and High-yielding Forests Base Construction Program is the only industrialization program of six key forestry programs. The main construction content is to plant 13.33 million hm fast-growing and high-yielding plantation in 18 provinces in China. According to the program planning and growth of different tree species, the biomass of this program is evaluated and the C sequestration is assessed in this paper. In the program period, the biomass of the program will reach 3.703 6×109 t, and the C storage will get 1.851 8×109 t. The program will have a great effect on raising the C pool function of forest vegetation.

  20. High dilutions of Sulphur and relationship with the onion thrips, downy mildew incidence and yield of onion in organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antonio de Souza Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate high dilutions of Sulphur on the incidence of onion thrips, downy mildew, chlorophyll content and yield of onion under organic production system. The study was carried out at Ituporanga Experiment Station of Epagri, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from August to December of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Treatments were foliar sprays of 0.5% Sulphur at high dilutions 6, 12 and 30 CH (CH, hahnemannian centesimal scale and untreated plot as control check. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four replications. The incidence and damage of onion thrips, reduction of the severity of downy mildew, chlorophyll index, total and commercial yield, bulb weight, postharvest conservation were not influenced by the treatments.

  1. Ultrastable green fluorescence carbon dots with a high quantum yield for bioimaging and use as theranostic carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu; Thomsen, Rasmus Peter; Ogaki, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    in biomedical applications. Oligoethylenimine (OEI)–β-cyclodextrin (βCD) Cdots were synthesised using a simple and fast heating method in phosphoric acid. The synthesised Cdots showed strong green fluorescence under UV excitation with a 30% quantum yield and exhibited superior stability over a wide pH range. We......Carbon dots (Cdots) have recently emerged as a novel platform of fluorescent nanomaterials. These carbon nanoparticles have great potential in biomedical applications such as bioimaging as they exhibit excellent photoluminescence properties, chemical inertness and low cytotoxicity in comparison...... to widely used semiconductor quantum dots. However, it remains a great challenge to prepare highly stable, water-soluble green luminescent Cdots with a high quantum yield. Herein we report a new synthesis route for green luminescent Cdots imbuing these desirable properties and demonstrate their potential...

  2. High-yield production of a stable Vero cell-based vaccine candidate against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Fangye; Zhou, Jian; Ma, Lei; Song, Shaohui; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Weidong; Jiang, Shude [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Yue, E-mail: euy-tokyo@umin.ac.jp [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yingxin Lane 100, Xicheng District, Beijing 100052, People' s Republic of China (China); Liao, Guoyang, E-mail: liaogy@21cn.com [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine with stable high yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable high yield derived from the YNVa H3N2 backbone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H5N1/YNVa has a similar safety and immunogenicity to H5N1delta. -- Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a global pandemic threat, for which rapid large-scale vaccine production technology is critical for prevention and control. Because chickens are highly susceptible to HPAI viruses, the supply of chicken embryos for vaccine production might be depleted during a virus outbreak. Therefore, developing HPAI virus vaccines using other technologies is critical. Meeting vaccine demand using the Vero cell-based fermentation process has been hindered by low stability and yield. In this study, a Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine candidate (H5N1/YNVa) with stable high yield was achieved by reassortment of the Vero-adapted (Va) high growth A/Yunnan/1/2005(H3N2) (YNVa) virus with the A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) attenuated influenza vaccine strain (H5N1delta) using the 6/2 method. The reassorted H5N1/YNVa vaccine maintained a high hemagglutination (HA) titer of 1024. Furthermore, H5N1/YNVa displayed low pathogenicity and uniform immunogenicity compared to that of the parent virus.

  3. High liquid fuel yielding biofuel processes and a roadmap for the future transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet R.

    In a fossil-fuel deprived world when crude oil will be scarce and transportation need cannot be met with electricity and transportation liquid fuel must be produced, biomass derived liquid fuels can be a natural replacement. However, the carbon efficiency of the currently known biomass to liquid fuel conversion processes ranges from 35-40%, yielding 90 ethanol gallon equivalents (ege) per ton of biomass. This coupled with the fact that the efficiency at which solar energy is captured by biomass (syngas derived from coal gasification (H2Bioil-C) or a natural gas reformer (H 2Bioil-NG) is used to supply the hydrogen and process heat for the biomass fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation. Another off-shoot of the H2Bioil process is the H2Bioil-B process, where hydrogen required for the hydropyrolysis is obtained from gasification of a fraction of the biomass. H2Bioil-B achieves the highest liquid fuel yield (126-146 ege/ton of biomass) reported in the literature for any self-contained conversion of biomass to biofuel. Finally, an integration of the H2Bioil process with the H2CAR process is suggested which can achieve 100% carbon efficiency (330 ege/ton of biomass) at the expense of 0.24 kg hydrogen/liter of oil. A sun-to-fuel efficiency analysis shows that extracting CO2 from air and converting it to liquid fuel is at least two times more efficient than growing dedicated fuel crops and converting them to liquid fuel even for the highest biomass growth rates feasible by algae. This implies that liquid fuel should preferably be produced from sustainably available waste (SAW) biomass first and if the SAW biomass is unable to meet the demand for liquid fuel, then, CO2 should be extracted from air and converted to liquid fuel, rather than growing biomass. Furthermore, based on the Sun-to-Wheels recovery for different transportation pathways, synergistic and complementary use of electricity, hydrogen and biomass, all derived from solar energy, is presented in an energy

  4. A high-yielding, generic fed-batch process for recombinant antibody production of GS-engineered cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Li; Zhao, Liang; Sun, Yating;

    2009-01-01

    An animal component-free and chemically defined fed-batch process for GS-engineered cell lines producing recombinant antibodies has been developed. The fed-batch process relied on supplying sufficient nutrients to match their consumption, simultaneously minimizing the accumulation of byproducts....... This generic and high-yielding fed-batch process would shorten development time, and ensure process stability, thereby facilitating the manufacture of therapeutic antibodies by GS-engineered cell lines....

  5. Organocatalytic azomethine imine-olefin click reaction: high-yielding stereoselective synthesis of spiroindane-1,3-dione-pyrazolidinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachary, Dhevalapally B; Prabhakar Reddy, T; Suresh Kumar, A

    2016-07-06

    In search of developing new useful "click reactions", herein we report the organocatalytic azomethine imine-olefin [3 + 2]-cycloaddition as a new click reaction for the synthesis of drug-like spiroindane-1,3-dione-pyrazolidinones from indane-1,3-diones, aldehydes and N,N-cyclic azomethine imines through amino acid-catalysis. The scope of this new click reaction is demonstrated using many examples with high reactivity, selectivity and yields.

  6. Biosynthesis of high yield fatty acids from Chlorella vulgaris NIES-227 under nitrogen starvation stress during heterotrophic cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Fei; Chu, Fei-Fei; Lam, Paul K S; Zeng, Raymond J

    2015-09-15

    In this study the heterotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris NIES-227 fed with glucose was investigated systematically using six media types; combinations of nitrogen repletion/depletion and phosphorus repletion/limitation/depletion. It was found that a high yield of fatty acids (0.88 of fed glucose-COD) and a high content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) (89% of dry weight) were obtained under nitrogen starved conditions. To our knowledge it is the first report on such high COD conversion yield and FAME content in microalgae. The dominant fatty acid (>50%) was methyl oleate (C18:1), a desirable component for biodiesel synthesis. FAME content under nitrogen starved conditions was significantly higher than under nitrogen sufficient conditions, while phosphorus had no significant influence, indicating that nitrogen starvation was the real "fatty acids trigger" in heterotrophic cultivation. These findings could simplify the downstream extraction process, such as the extrusion of oil from soybeans, and could reduce operating costs by improving the fatty acid yield from waste COD.

  7. crw1--A novel maize mutant highly susceptible to foliar damage by the western corn rootworm beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Puchakayala Venkata

    Full Text Available Western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, is the most destructive insect pest of corn (Zea mays L. in the United States. The adult WCR beetles derive their nourishment from multiple sources including corn pollen and silks as well as the pollen of alternate hosts. Conversely, the corn foliage is largely neglected as a food source by WCR beetles, leading to a perception of a passive interaction between the two. We report here a novel recessive mutation of corn that was identified and named after its foliar susceptibility to corn rootworm beetles (crw1. The crw1 mutant under field conditions was exceptionally susceptible to foliar damage by WCR beetles in an age-specific manner. It exhibits pleiotropic defects on cell wall biochemistry, morphology of leaf epidermal cells and lower structural integrity via differential accumulation of cell wall bound phenolic acids. These findings indicate that crw1 is perturbed in a pathway that was not previously ascribed to WCR susceptibility, as well as implying the presence of an active mechanism(s deterring WCR beetles from devouring corn foliage. The discovery and characterization of this mutant provides a unique opportunity for genetic analysis of interactions between maize and adult WCR beetles and identify new strategies to control the spread and invasion of this destructive pest.

  8. Experimental Determination of DT Yield in High Current DD Dense Plasma Focii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, D. R. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Hagen, E. C. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Meehan, B. T. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Springs, R. K. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; O' Brien, R. J. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2013-06-18

    Dense Plasma Focii (DPF), which utilize deuterium gas to produce 2.45 MeV neutrons, may in fact also produce DT fusion neutrons at 14.1 MeV due to the triton production in the DD reaction. If beam-target fusion is the primary producer of fusion neutrons in DPFs, it is possible that ejected tritons from the first pinch will interact with the second pinch, and so forth. The 2 MJ DPF at National Security Technologies’ Losee Road Facility is able to, and has produced, over 1E12 DD neutrons per pulse, allowing an accurate measurement of the DT/DD ratio. The DT/DD ratio was experimentally verified by using the (n,2n) reaction in a large piece of praseodymium metal, which has a threshold reaction of 8 MeV, and is widely used as a DT yield measurement system1. The DT/DD ratio was experimentally determined for over 100 shots, and then compared to independent variables such as tube pressure, number of pinches per shot, total current, pinch current and charge voltage.

  9. Influence of Glacier Retreat On The Water Yield From High Mountain Areas, Comparison Alps - Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagg, W.; Braun, L.

    The main objective of the study is the investigation of the link between glacier retreat and discharge in selected catchments in Central Asia and the comparison of these results with conditions in the Alps. For this purpose, the conceptual runoff model HBV-ETH has been applied in three glacierized basins in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyztan and China, which represent regions of different continentality. Operating only with air temperature and precipitation data, the model calculates discharge and other water balance components in a daily timestep. To evaluate the reaction of the simulated hydrograph to climate change, the meteorological model input has been modified, according to the results of regional climate modeling under the assumption of doubling of atmospheric CO2. These runoff scenarios were made for three different stages of deglacierization. The first results show a similar pattern as observed in the Alps in previous studies: under a present-day glacier extent the water yield rises drastically during the melting period, after a reduction of the glacierized area by 50 % the flood peaks are reduced to presently observed values, and after a complete disappearance of the glaciers the calculated runoff indicates a strong reduction of runoff during summer months, which would have a significant effect on the availability of water resources in these dry regions of Asia.

  10. Understanding scaling of ignition metrics for high-yield implosions on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Paul; Hurricane, Omar; Hammer, J. H.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Edwards, M. J.; Field, J. E.; Gaffney, J.; Grim, G. P.; Kritcher, A. L.; Ma, T.; Macphee, A. G.; Munro, D. H.; Nora, R. C.; Patel, P. K.; Peterson, L.; Spears, B.

    2016-10-01

    The self-heating condition for an imploding hotspot requires understanding the balance between mechanical work, heating via fusion reactions, and the radiative and conduction losses. A 3D cognizant Lawson ignition threshold metric is derived based on net fusion hotspot heating achieved when hotspot rho-r and ion temperature exceed critical values that depend on the temperature-dependent loss mechanisms. Key to understanding and scaling such analysis is an accurate determination of hotspot density and pressure, which are generally inferred using the yield, the thermal temperature, and other experimental data. 3D flow and its effect on neutron spectra can lead to overestimation of the temperature, and underestimation of hotspot rho-r, energy, and ignition margin. In this work, we analyze these effects in NIF data, and propose new methods to avoid them. These simple, analytical methods are tested using the largest 2D ICF simulation dataset ever produced. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA273.

  11. Discrete Electronic Bands in Semiconductors and Insulators: Potential High-Light-Yield Scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongliang; Du, Mao-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Bulk semiconductors and insulators typically have continuous valence and conduction bands. Here, we show that valence and conduction bands of a multinary semiconductor or insulator can be split to narrow discrete bands separated by large energy gaps. This unique electronic structure is demonstrated by first-principles calculations in several quaternary elpasolite compounds, i.e., Cs2NaInBr6 , Cs2NaBiCl6 , and Tl2NaBiCl6 . The narrow discrete band structure in these quaternary elpasolites is due to the large electronegativity difference among cations and the large nearest-neighbor distances in cation sublattices. We further use Cs2NaInBr6 as an example to show that the narrow bands can stabilize self-trapped and dopant-bound excitons (in which both the electron and the hole are strongly localized in static positions on adjacent sites) and promote strong exciton emission at room temperature. The discrete band structure should further suppress thermalization of hot carriers and may lead to enhanced impact ionization, which is usually considered inefficient in bulk semiconductors and insulators. These characteristics can enable efficient room-temperature light emission in low-gap scintillators and may overcome the light-yield bottleneck in current scintillator research.

  12. Design of a High Intensity Neutron Source for Neutron-Induced Fission Yield Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, M; Jokinen, A; Kolhinen, V S; Mattera, A; Penttilä, H; Pomp, S; Rakopoulos, V; Rinta-Antila, S; Solders, A

    2013-01-01

    The upgraded IGISOL facility with JYFLTRAP, at the accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyv\\"askyl\\"a, has been supplied with a new cyclotron which will provide protons of the order of 100 {\\mu}A with up to 30 MeV energy, or deuterons with half the energy and intensity. This makes it an ideal place for measurements of neutron-induced fission products from various actinides, in view of proposed future nuclear fuel cycles. The groups at Uppsala University and University of Jyv\\"askyl\\"a are working on the design of a neutron converter that will be used as neutron source in fission yield studies. The design is based on simulations with Monte Carlo codes and a benchmark measurement that was recently performed at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. In order to obtain a competitive count rate the fission targets will be placed very close to the neutron converter. The goal is to have a flexible design that will enable the use of neutron fields with different energy distributions. In the present paper, some co...

  13. A Mercury-Catalyzed, High-Yield System for the Oxidation of Methane to Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periana, Roy A.; Taube, Douglas J.; Evitt, Eric R.; Loffler, Daniel G.; Wentrcek, Paul R.; Voss, George; Masuda, Toshihiko

    1993-01-01

    A homogeneous system for the selective, catalytic oxidation of methane to methanol via methyl bisulfate is reported. The net reaction catalyzed by mercuric ions, Hg(II), is the oxidation of methane by concentrated sulfuric acid to produce methyl bisulfate, water, and sulfur dioxide. The reaction is efficient. At a methane conversion of 50 percent, 85 percent selectivity to methyl bisulfate (~43 percent yield; the major side product is carbon dioxide) was achieved at a molar productivity of 10-7 mole per cubic centimeter per second and Hg(II) turnover frequency of 10-3 per second. Separate hydrolysis of methyl bisulfate and reoxidation of the sulfur dioxide with air provides a potentially practical scheme for the oxidation of methane to methanol with molecular oxygen. The primary steps of the Hg(II)-catalyzed reaction were individually examined and the essential elements of the mechanism were identified. The Hg(II) ion reacts with methane by an electrophilic displacement mechanism to produce an observable species, CH_3HgOSO_3H, 1. Under the reaction conditions, 1 readily decomposes to CH_3OSO_3H and the reduced mercurous species, Hg_22+. The catalytic cycle is completed by the reoxidation of Hg_22+ with H_2SO_4 to regenerate Hg(II) and byproducts SO_2 and H_2O. Thallium(III), palladium(II), and the cations of platinum and gold also oxidize methane to methyl bisulfate in sulfuric acid.

  14. Template-particle stabilized bicontinuous emulsion yielding controlled assembly of hierarchical high-flux filtration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Samuel C; Kohll, A Xavier; Raso, Renzo A; Schumacher, Christoph M; Grass, Robert N; Stark, Wendelin J

    2015-01-14

    A novel solvent-evaporation-based process that exploits template-particle stabilized bicontinuous emulsions for the formation of previously unreached membrane morphologies is reported in this article. Porous membranes have a wide range of applications spanning from water filtration, pharmaceutical purification, and battery separators to scaffolds for tissue engineering. Different situations require different membrane morphologies including various pore sizes and pore gradients. However, most of the previously reported membrane preparation procedures are restricted to specific morphologies and morphology alterations require an extensive optimization process. The tertiary system presented in this article, which consists of a poly(ether sulfone)/dimethylacetamide (PES/DMAc) solution, glycerol, and ZnO-nanoparticles, allows simple and exact tuning of pore diameters ranging from sub-20 nm, up to 100 nm. At the same time, the pore size gradient is controlled from 0 up to 840%/μm yielding extreme asymmetry. In addition to structural analysis, water flux rates of over 5600 L m(-2) h(-1) are measured for membranes retaining 45 nm silica beads.

  15. Coxsackievirus mutants that can bypass host factor PI4KⅢβ and the need for high levels of PI4P lipids for replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hilde M van der Schaar; Lonneke van der Linden; Kjerstin H W Lanke; Jeroen R P M Strating; Gerhard Pürstinger; Erik de Vries; Cornelis A M de Haan; Johan Neyts; Frank J M van Kuppeveld

    2012-01-01

    RNA viruses can rapidly mutate and acquire resistance to drugs that directly target viral enzymes,which poses serious problems in a clinical context.Therefore,there is a growing interest in the development of antiviral drugs that target host factors critical for viral replication,since they are unlikely to mutate in response to therapy.We recently demonstrated that phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase Ⅲβ (PI4KⅢβ) and its product phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) are essential for replication of enteroviruses,a group of medically important RNA viruses including poliovirus (PV),coxsackievirus,rhinovirus,and enterovirus 71.Here,we show that enviroxime and GW5074 decreased PI4P levels at the Golgi complex by directly inhibiting PI4KⅢβ.Coxsackievirus mutants resistant to these inhibitors harbor single point mutations in the non-structural protein 3A.These 3A mutations did not confer compound-resistance by restoring the activity of PI4KⅢβ in the presence of the compounds.Instead,replication of the mutant viruses no longer depended on PI4KⅢβ,since their replication was insensitive to siRNA-mediated depletion of PI4KⅢβ.The mutant viruses also did not rely on other isoforms of PI4K.Consistently,no high level of PI4P could be detected at the replication sites induced by the mutant viruses in the presence of the compounds.Collectively,these findings indicate that through specific single point mutations in 3A,CVB3 can bypass an essential host factor and lipid for its propagation,which is a new example of RNA viruses acquiring resistance against antiviral compounds,even when they directly target host factors.

  16. Effects of field high temperature on grain yield and quality of a subtropical type japonica rice—Pon-Lai rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chien Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical japonica type rice is sensitive to high temperature. Pon-Lai rice is a special japonica type with adaptation to the subtropical climate in Taiwan. Facing climate change, rising temperatures would damage the yield and quality of rice production. This research was conducted using Pon-Lai rice in the field of a subtropical climate. We conducted 2 experiments, including a year-round experiment and collection of samples from different districts for building different temperature conditions. We analyzed the correlation between rising temperature and rice yield or quality. In our results, the critical period of temperature effect is 0–15 days after heading (H15. The threshold of high temperature damage in yield and appearance quality was 25–27 °C. Grain weight decreased about 2–6%, while the temperature of H15 was raised 1 °C above the thresholds. Perfect grain ratio and chalky grain ratio decreased and increased, respectively, while the temperature of H15 was raised above the thresholds. However, the high temperature in H15 affected the physicochemical characteristics. In addition, we found positive correlation between grain length to width ratio and perfect grain ratio. Grain length to width ratio could be an index of temperature effects for grain quality. In our study, when the temperature was below 30 °C, a rising temperature of H15 could damage rice yield and appearance quality, and change grain shape. Our results could provide reference for dealing with the warming future in other temperate rice-cultivated countries.

  17. Freezing point of milk in a herd of high yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Golc Teger

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting the freezing point of milk in a herd of 200 Black and White cows with the average milk yield of 8 386 kg in the lactation and 8 328 kg in the standard lactation were examinated. Over the period of one year (2002 and based upon 1 773 individual monthly collected milk samples with the average contents of 3.91% fat, 3.26% protein, 4.54% lactose, 33.4 mg/100 ml urea and 331000 somatic cells per ml in milk were determined. The average freezing point of milk (n = 1 680 was estimated to be –0.527 ºC, with a range from -0.562 ºC to -0.423 ºC. In 210 (12.5% samples was higher than -0.515 ºC. The lowest freezing point (-0.532 ºC was found in the samples collected in the first month after calving and highest (-0.522 ºC in the samples of 12th month of lactation. The differences between the freezing point of milk after the first and the second calving (-0.530 ºC; P < 0.05 and those after the fifth calving (-0.523 ºC; P < 0.05 were also significant. The samples collected in month from January to April (-0.538 ºC to -0.532 ºC were significantly lower in comparison to samples collected in May and June (-0.517 ºC and -0.519 ºC. The following statistically significant correlation coefficients between cows' properties, milk composition and the freezing point of milk were found: month of lactation r = 0.233 (P < 0.001; lactation number r = 0.196 (P < 0.001; age of cows (years r = 0.231 (P < 0.001; month of the year r = 0.0253 (P < 0.001; milk yield per milking day r = -0.106 (P < 0.001; fat corrected milk content (FCM per milking day r = -0.234 (P < 0.001; lactose % r = -0.530 (P < 0.001; fat % r = -0.351 (P < 0.001; protein % r = 0.058 (P < 0.05; urea mg/100 mL r = 0.091 (P < 0.001 and somatic cell count r = 0.154 (P < 0.001. The sum of effects (month of the year, lactation lenght and fat, protein and lactose content of milk was found to account for about 70% variability of the total depression of milk freezing point (R2 = 0.698.

  18. Embedded pitch adapters: A high-yield interconnection solution for strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullán, M., E-mail: miguel.ullan@imb-cnm.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Allport, P.P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department and Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Hommels, L.B.A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Fleta, C.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Quirion, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Gregor, I.M.; Lohwasser, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2016-09-21

    A proposal to fabricate large area strip sensors with integrated, or embedded, pitch adapters is presented for the End-cap part of the Inner Tracker in the ATLAS experiment. To implement the embedded pitch adapters, a second metal layer is used in the sensor fabrication, for signal routing to the ASICs. Sensors with different embedded pitch adapters have been fabricated in order to optimize the design and technology. Inter-strip capacitance, noise, pick-up, cross-talk, signal efficiency, and fabrication yield have been taken into account in their design and fabrication. Inter-strip capacitance tests taking into account all channel neighbors reveal the important differences between the various designs considered. These tests have been correlated with noise figures obtained in full assembled modules, showing that the tests performed on the bare sensors are a valid tool to estimate the final noise in the full module. The full modules have been subjected to test beam experiments in order to evaluate the incidence of cross-talk, pick-up, and signal loss. The detailed analysis shows no indication of cross-talk or pick-up as no additional hits can be observed in any channel not being hit by the beam above 170 mV threshold, and the signal in those channels is always below 1% of the signal recorded in the channel being hit, above 100 mV threshold. First results on irradiated mini-sensors with embedded pitch adapters do not show any change in the interstrip capacitance measurements with only the first neighbors connected.

  19. Embedded pitch adapters: A high-yield interconnection solution for strip sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullán, M.; Allport, P. P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Wilson, J. A.; Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Fleta, C.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Quirion, D.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Gregor, I. M.; Lohwasser, K.; Poley, L.; Tackmann, K.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mahboubi, K.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Clark, A.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez Sevilla, S.; Ashby, J.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Doherty, F.; McMullen, T.; McEwan, F.; O'Shea, V.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Chilingarov, A.; Fox, H.; Affolder, A. A.; Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Wonsak, S.; Wormald, M.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Gorelov, I.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Palni, P.; Seidel, S.; Taylor, A.; Toms, K.; Wang, R.; Hessey, N. P.; Valencic, N.; Hanagaki, K.; Dolezal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Bohm, J.; Mikestikova, M.; Bevan, A.; Beck, G.; Milke, C.; Domingo, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Hibbard-Lubow, D.; Liang, Z.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; To, K.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Parker, K.; Jinnouchi, O.; Hara, K.; Bernabeu, J.; Civera, J. V.; Garcia, C.; Lacasta, C.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Rodriguez, D.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz, C.; Soldevila, U.

    2016-09-01

    A proposal to fabricate large area strip sensors with integrated, or embedded, pitch adapters is presented for the End-cap part of the Inner Tracker in the ATLAS experiment. To implement the embedded pitch adapters, a second metal layer is used in the sensor fabrication, for signal routing to the ASICs. Sensors with different embedded pitch adapters have been fabricated in order to optimize the design and technology. Inter-strip capacitance, noise, pick-up, cross-talk, signal efficiency, and fabrication yield have been taken into account in their design and fabrication. Inter-strip capacitance tests taking into account all channel neighbors reveal the important differences between the various designs considered. These tests have been correlated with noise figures obtained in full assembled modules, showing that the tests performed on the bare sensors are a valid tool to estimate the final noise in the full module. The full modules have been subjected to test beam experiments in order to evaluate the incidence of cross-talk, pick-up, and signal loss. The detailed analysis shows no indication of cross-talk or pick-up as no additional hits can be observed in any channel not being hit by the beam above 170 mV threshold, and the signal in those channels is always below 1% of the signal recorded in the channel being hit, above 100 mV threshold. First results on irradiated mini-sensors with embedded pitch adapters do not show any change in the interstrip capacitance measurements with only the first neighbors connected.

  20. High-throughput screening of cellulase F mutants from multiplexed plasmid sets using an automated plate assay on a functional proteomic robotic workcell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Nasib

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The field of plasmid-based functional proteomics requires the rapid assay of proteins expressed from plasmid libraries. Automation is essential since large sets of mutant open reading frames are being cloned for evaluation. To date no integrated automated platform is available to carry out the entire process including production of plasmid libraries, expression of cloned genes, and functional testing of expressed proteins. Results We used a functional proteomic assay in a multiplexed setting on an integrated plasmid-based robotic workcell for high-throughput screening of mutants of cellulase F, an endoglucanase from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces PC-2. This allowed us to identify plasmids containing optimized clones expressing mutants with improved activity at lower pH. A plasmid library of mutagenized clones of the celF gene with targeted variations in the last four codons was constructed by site-directed PCR mutagenesis and transformed into Escherichia coli. A robotic picker integrated into the workcell was used to inoculate medium in a 96-well deep well plate, combining the transformants into a multiplexed set in each well, and the plate was incubated on the workcell. Plasmids were prepared from the multiplexed culture on the liquid handler component of the workcell and used for in vitro transcription/translation. The multiplexed expressed recombinant proteins were screened for improved activity and stability in an azo-carboxymethylcellulose plate assay. The multiplexed wells containing mutants with improved activity were identified and linked back to the corresponding multiplexed cultures stored in glycerol. Spread plates were prepared from the glycerol stocks and the workcell was used to pick single colonies from the spread plates, prepare plasmid, produce recombinant protein, and assay for activity. The screening assay and subsequent deconvolution of the multiplexed wells resulted in identification of improved Cel

  1. Effect of Admixtures on the Yield Stresses of Cement Pastes under High Hydrostatic Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jae Yim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When cement-based materials are transported at a construction site, they undergo high pressures during the pumping process. The rheological properties of the materials under such high pressures are unknown, and estimating the workability of the materials after pumping is a complex problem. Among various influential factors on the rheology of concrete, this study investigated the effect of mineral and chemical admixtures on the high-pressure rheology. A rheometer was fabricated that could measure the rheological properties while maintaining a high pressure to simulate the pumping process. The effects of superplasticizer, silica fume, nanoclay, fly ash, or ground granulated blast furnace slag were investigated when mixed with two control cement pastes. The water-to-cement ratios were 0.35 and 0.50.

  2. Ultrahigh Yield Strength Rhenium for High-Performance Combustion Chambers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The state-of-the-art material system for high-performance radiation-cooled liquid rocket engines is iridium/rhenium manufactured by chemical vapor deposition (CVD)....

  3. Effect of Admixtures on the Yield Stresses of Cement Pastes under High Hydrostatic Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hong Jae; Kim, Jae Hong; Kwon, Seung Hee

    2016-01-01

    When cement-based materials are transported at a construction site, they undergo high pressures during the pumping process. The rheological properties of the materials under such high pressures are unknown, and estimating the workability of the materials after pumping is a complex problem. Among various influential factors on the rheology of concrete, this study investigated the effect of mineral and chemical admixtures on the high-pressure rheology. A rheometer was fabricated that could measure the rheological properties while maintaining a high pressure to simulate the pumping process. The effects of superplasticizer, silica fume, nanoclay, fly ash, or ground granulated blast furnace slag were investigated when mixed with two control cement pastes. The water-to-cement ratios were 0.35 and 0.50. PMID:28773273

  4. Effects of Fluctuating Environments on the Selection of High Yielding Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J. R.; Tillett, D. M.

    1987-02-27

    Microalgae have the potential of producing biomass with a high content of lipids at high productivities using seawater or saline ground water resources. Microalgal lipids are similar to vegetable oils and suitable for processing to liquid fuels. Engineering cost analysis studies have concluded that, at a favorable site, microalgae cultivation for fuel production could be economically viable. The major uncertainties involve the microalgae themselves: biomass and lipid productivity and culture stability.

  5. Design and characterization of genetically engineered zebrafish aquaporin-3 mutants highly permeable to the cryoprotectant ethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubzens Esther

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing cell membrane permeability to water and cryoprotectants is critical for the successful cryopreservation of cells with large volumes. Artificial expression of water-selective aquaporins or aquaglyceroporins (GLPs, such as mammalian aquaporin-3 (AQP3, enhances cell permeability to water and cryoprotectants, but it is known that AQP3-mediated water and solute permeation is limited and pH dependent. To exploit further the possibilities of using aquaporins in cryobiology, we investigated the functional properties of zebrafish (Danio rerio GLPs. Results Water, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol permeability of zebrafish Aqp3a, -3b, -7, -9a, -9b, -10a and -10b, and human AQP3, was examined. Expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that the permeability of DrAqp3a and -3b to ethylene glycol was higher than for glycerol or propylene glycol under isotonic conditions, unlike other zebrafish GLPs and human AQP3, which were more permeable to glycerol. In addition, dose-response experiments and radiolabeled ethylene glycol uptake assays suggested that oocytes expressing DrAqp3b were permeated by this cryoprotectant more efficiently than those expressing AQP3. Water and ethylene glycol transport through DrAqp3a and -3b were, however, highest at pH 8.5 and completely abolished at pH 6.0. Point mutations in the DrAqp3b amino acid sequence rendered two constructs, DrAqp3b-T85A showing higher water and ethylene glycol permeability at neutral and alkaline pH, and DrAqp3b-H53A/G54H/T85A, no longer inhibited at acidic pH but less permeable than the wild type. Finally, calculation of permeability coefficients for ethylene glycol under concentration gradients confirmed that the two DrAqp3b mutants were more permeable than wild-type DrAqp3b and/or AQP3 at neutral pH, resulting in a 2.6- to 4-fold increase in the oocyte intracellular concentration of ethylene glycol. Conclusion By single or triple point mutations in the Dr

  6. 水稻高产创建栽培技术%High Yield and Create Cultivation Techniques of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜田英; 彭昌家

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the high yield and creates cultivation techniques of rice, such as the selection of seed, timely sowing, soil preparation,fertilization, specification transplanting, reasonable density planting, strengthen the man-agement of the field and timely harvest. To guide farmers to do scientific and reasonable rice super-high-yield strengthen-ing cultivation, improve the yield of rice and increase farmers' income, to ensure the rice production could continue to in-crease and ensure the safety of food production.%介绍了选用良种、适时播种、整好本田、配方施肥、规范移栽,合理密植、加强田间管理和适时收获等水稻高产创建栽培技术,旨在指导农民科学合理做好水稻超高产强化栽培,从而提高水稻单产,增加农民收益,确保水稻总产量持续增加,保障粮食生产安全。

  7. Preparation of carbon quantum dots with a high quantum yield and the application in labeling bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengpeng; Zhang, Changchang; Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liuxiang@ahut.edu.cn; Cui, Ping, E-mail: cokecp@sohu.com

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cheap carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with a high quantum yield were prepared. • The preparation process and surface functionalization on CQDs are rather facile. • Such functionalized CQDs can be attached to BSA covalently. • This predicts that some biomolecules can be labeled by the fluorescent CQDs. - Abstract: An economic and green approach of manufacturing carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with a high quantum yield (denoted with HQY-CQDs) and the application in labeling bovine serum albumin (BSA) were described in detail in this work. Firstly, the cheap resources of citric acid and glycine were pyrolysed in drying oven for preparing the CQDs. Then the product was immersed in tetrahydrofuran for 8 h. HQY-CQDs were obtained by removing tetrahydrofuran from the supernate and were evaluated that they possessed a much higher quantum yield compared with that without dealing with tetrahydrofuran and a wonderful photo-bleaching resistance. Such HQY-CQDs could be functionalized by N-hydroxysuccinimide and successively combined with BSA covalently. Thus fluorescent labeling on BSA was realized. The HQY-CQDs were demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy and the chemical modification with N-hydroxysuccinimide was proved by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectra. Labeling BSA with the HQY-CQDs was confirmed by gel electrophoresis and fluorescence imaging.

  8. Structure-Triggered High Quantum Yield Luminescence and Switchable Dielectric Properties in Manganese(II) Based Hybrid Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Xia; Li, Peng-Fei; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Tang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Two new manganese(II) based organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, C11H21Cl3MnN2 (1) and C11H22Cl4MnN2 (2), with prominent photoluminescence and dielectric properties were synthesized by solvent modulation. Compound 1 with novel trigonal bipyramidal geometry exhibits bright red luminescence with a lifetime of 2.47 ms and high quantum yield of 35.8 %. Compound 2 with tetrahedral geometry displays intense long-lived (1.54 ms) green light emission with higher quantum yield of 92.3 %, accompanied by reversible solid-state phase transition at 170 K and a distinct switchable dielectric property. The better performance of 2 results from the structure, including a discrete organic cation moiety and inorganic metal anion framework, which gives the cations large freedom of motion.

  9. Homogeneity analysis of high yield manufacturing process of mems-based pzt thick film vibrational energy harvesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Pedersen, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a high yield wafer scale fabrication of MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvesters aimed towards vibration sources with peak frequencies in the range of a few hundred Hz. By combining KOH etching with mechanical front side protection, SOI wafer...... to accurately define the thickness of the silicon part of the harvester and a silicon compatible PZT thick film screen-printing technique, we are able to fabricate energy harvesters on wafer scale with a yield higher than 90%. The characterization of the fabricated harvesters is focused towards the full wafer....../mass-production aspect; hence the analysis of uniformity in harvested power and resonant frequency....

  10. Proteomic Analysis of the Response of Liangyoupeijiu (Super High-Yield Hybrid Rice) Seedlings to Cold Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-Fang Yang; Xiao-Juan Li; Yu Liang; Yu-Xiang Jing; Shi-Hua Shen; Ting-Yun Kuang

    2006-01-01

    Liangyoupeijiu is a super high-yield hybrid rice. Despite its advantages with respect to yield and grain quality, it is sensitive to cold, which keeps it from being widely cultivated. We subjected Liangyoupeijiu seedlings to 4 ℃ cold treatment, then extracted the leaf proteins. After 2-D gel electrophoresis separation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, a series of differentially displayed proteins were identified. Some metabolism-associated proteins were found among the downregulated proteins, such as carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, transketolase 1, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The upregulated proteins included both stress-resistance proteins such as nucleoside diphosphate kinase Ⅰ and proteins that are negative for rice growth, such as FtsH-like protein, plastid fusion and/or translocation factor (Pftf) and actin. Our results indicate that cold may inhibit Liangyoupeijiu growth through decreasing metabolic activity and damaging cell structure.

  11. Powder, paper and foam of few-layer graphene prepared in high yield by electrochemical intercalation exfoliation of expanded graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liqiong; Li, Weiwei; Li, Peng; Liao, Shutian; Qiu, Shengqiang; Chen, Mingliang; Guo, Yufen; Li, Qi; Zhu, Chao; Liu, Liwei

    2014-04-09

    A facile and high-yield approach to the preparation of few-layer graphene (FLG) by electrochemical intercalation exfoliation (EIE) of expanded graphite in sulfuric acid electrolyte is reported. Stage-1 H2SO4-graphite intercalation compound is used as a key intermediate in EIE to realize the efficient exfoliation. The yield of the FLG sheets (graphene structures. Flexible and freestanding graphene papers made of the FLG flakes retain excellent conductivity (≈24,500 S m(-1)). Three-dimensional (3D) graphene foams with light weight are fabricated from the FLG flakes by the use of Ni foams as self-sacrifice templates. Furthermore, 3D graphene/Ni foams without any binders, which are used as supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolyte, provide the specific capacitance of 113.2 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1), retaining 90% capacitance after 1000 cycles.

  12. High yield synthesis of Ni-BTC metal-organic framework with ultrasonic irradiation: Role of polar aprotic DMF solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israr, Farrukh; Chun, Daye; Kim, Yeongmin; Kim, Duk Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Nickel based porous solid was synthesized with 20 kHz ultrasonic irradiation. The reaction of Ni(II) nitrate hexahydrate with 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxylic acid in N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) as the sole solvent under ultrasonic radiation produced porous Ni-BTC MOF. Choice of correct solvent for the ultrasonic treatment was proven important. The effect of varying ultrasonic powers (40%, 60% and 80% of 750 W) along with different temperature conditions (50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C) influenced the respective yield. A very high yield of 88% Ni-BTC MOF was obtained from 80% ultrasonic power at 60 °C. BET surface areas of the MOF crystals measured by N2 gas adsorption isotherms were in the range of 960-1000 m(2)/g.

  13. Neutron Yield and Ion Temperature from DD and DT Fusion in National Ignition Facility High-Foot Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauer, J. P.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Doeppner, T.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Munro, D. H.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Yeamans, C. B.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous measures of neutrons emitted from DT fusion implosions are postulated to provide insight into the fuel conditions during neutron emission. Neutron spectral diagnostics of National Ignition Facility ``high-foot'' implosions measure both the DT and DD fusion neutron spectra. Equivalent ion temperature is measured from the width of the DT and DD neutron emission and the respective yields from the peak areas. This work has focused on reasons for differing inferred temperatures from the DT and DD spectra and the yield ratio. Spatial and temporal averages of the DT and DD reactivities as corrections to the homogeneous and static temperature distributions are shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  14. A High Occurrence of Acquisition and/or Expansion of C-CBL Mutant Clones in the Progression of High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome to Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Wen Kao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS and its progression to secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML remain to be explored. Somatic C-CBL mutations were recently described in MDS. Our study aimed to determine the role of C-CBL mutations in the progression of MDS to sAML and sought to correlate with clinicohematological features and outcome. Bone marrow samples from 51 patients with high-risk MDS (13 with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, 19 with refractory anemia with excess blast 1, and 19 with refractory anemia with excess blast 2 were analyzed for C-CBL mutations at both diagnosis and sAML in the same individuals. Mutational analysis was performed for exons 7 to 9 of C-CBL gene. Of the 51 paired samples, C-CBL mutations were identified in 6 patients at the sAML phase. One patient retained the identical C-CBL mutation (G415S at sAML evolution and exhibited clonal expansion. The other five patients acquired C-CBL mutations (Y371S, F418S, L370_Y371 ins L, L399V, and C416W during sAML evolution. Three of the six patients harboring C-CBL mutations at sAML had additional gene mutations including JAK2V617F, PTPN11, or N-RAS. There was no significant difference in clinicohematological features and overall survival with respect to C-CBL mutation status. Our results show that C-CBL mutation is very rare (0.6% in MDS, but acquisition and/or expansion of C-CBL mutant clones occur in 11.8% of patients during sAML transformation. The findings suggest that C-CBL mutations play a role at least in part in a subset of MDS patients during sAML transformation.

  15. Influence of a High-Pressure Comminution Technology on Concentrate Yields in Copper Ore Flotation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saramak D.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the issues of flotation process effectiveness in relationship to the operating conditions of a high-pressure comminution process course. Experimental programme covering a flotation laboratory batch tests was a verification technique of a high-pressure crushing operations course. The most favorable values of flotation concentrate weight recoveries were obtained for the pressing force 6 kN and 4% of the feed moisture. It was also determined the model of the concentrate weight recovery as a function of pressing force in the press and feed moisture content. This model was the basis for the optimization of effects of copper ore flotation processes preceded in high-pressure crushing operation in roller presses.

  16. Development of an FPW Biosensor with Low Insertion Loss and High Fabrication Yield for Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Wei Lan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, various flexural plate-wave (FPW-based biosensors with low phase velocity, low operation frequency, high sensitivity, and short response time, have been developed. However, conventional FPW transducers have low fabrication yield because controlling the thickness of silicon/isolation/metal/piezoelectric multilayer floating thin-plate is difficult. Additionally, conventional FPW devices usually have high insertion loss because of wave energy dissipation to the silicon substrate or outside area of the output interdigital transducers (IDTs. These two disadvantages hinder the application of FPW devices. To reduce the high insertion loss of FPW devices, we designed two focus-type IDTs (fan-shaped and circular, respectively that can effectively confine the launched wave energy, and adopted a focus-type silicon-grooved reflective grating structure (RGS that can reduce the wave propagation loss. To accurately control the thickness of the silicon thin-plate and substantially improve the fabrication yield of FPW transducers, a 60 °C/27 °C two-step anisotropic wet etching process was developed. Compared with conventional FPW devices (with parallel-type IDTs and without RGS, the proposed FPW devices have lower insertion loss (36.04 dB and higher fabrication yield (63.88%. Furthermore, by using cystamine-based self-assembled monolayer (SAM nanotechnology, we used the improved FPW device to develop a novel FPW-based carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA biosensor for detection of colorectal cancer, and this FPW-CEA biosensor has a low detection limit (5 ng/mL, short response time (<10 min, high sensitivity (60.16–70.06 cm2/g, and high sensing linearity (R-square = 0.859–0.980.

  17. Electropolymerized Star-Shaped Benzotrithiophenes Yield π-Conjugated Hierarchical Networks with High Areal Capacitance

    KAUST Repository

    Ringk, Andreas

    2016-03-30

    High-surface-area π-conjugated polymeric networks have the potential to lend outstanding capacitance to supercapacitors because of the pronounced faradaic processes that take place across the dense intimate interface between active material and electrolytes. In this report, we describe how benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b’:5,6-b’’]trithiophene (BTT) and tris-EDOT-benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b’:5,6-b’’]trithiophene (TEBTT) can serve as 2D (trivalent) building blocks in the development of electropolymerized hierarchical π-conjugated frameworks with particularly high areal capacitance. In comparing electropolymerized networks of BTT, TEBTT, and their copolymers with EDOT, we show that P(TEBTT/EDOT)-based frameworks can achieve higher areal capacitance (e.g., as high as 443.8 mF cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2) than those achieved by their respective homopolymers (PTEBTT and PEDOT) in the same experimental conditions of electrodeposition (PTEBTT: 271.1 mF cm-2 (at 1 mA cm-2) and PEDOT: 12.1 mF cm-2 (at 1 mA cm-2)). For example, P(TEBTT/EDOT)-based frameworks synthesized in a 1:1 monomer-to-comonomer ratio show a ca. 35x capacitance improvement over PEDOT. The high areal capacitance measured for P(TEBTT/EDOT) copolymers can be explained by the open, highly porous hierarchical morphologies formed during the electropolymerization step. With >70% capacitance retention over 1,000 cycles (up to 89% achieved), both PTEBTT- and P(TEBTT/EDOT)-based frameworks are resilient to repeated electrochemical cycling and can be considered promising systems for high life cycle capacitive electrode applications.

  18. Lustrous copper nanoparticle film: Photodeposition with high quantum yield and electric conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Masaya; Yonemura, Mari; Tanaka, Hideki

    2016-11-01

    Cu nanoparticle (NP) film has attracted much attention due to its high electric conductivity. In the present study, we prepared a Cu NP film on a TiO2-coated substrate by photoreduction of copper acetate solution. The obtained film showed high electric conductivity and metallic luster by the successive deposition of Cu NP. Moreover, the film was decomposed on exposure to fresh air, and its decomposition reaction mechanisms were proposed. Hence, we concluded that the obtained lustrous film was composed of Cu NP, even though its physical properties was similar to bulk copper.

  19. Physiological Mechanisms Underlying the High-Grain Yield and High-Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Elite Rice Varieties under a Low Rate of Nitrogen Application in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lilian; Yuan, Shen; Huang, Liying; Sun, Fan; Zhu, Guanglong; Li, Guohui; Fahad, Shah; Peng, Shaobing; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Selecting rice varieties with a high nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) is the best approach to reduce N fertilizer application in rice production and is one of the objectives of the Green Super Rice (GSR) Project in China. However, the performance of elite candidate GSR varieties under low N supply remains unclear. In the present study, differences in the grain yield and NUE of 13 and 14 candidate varieties with two controls were determined at a N rate of 100 kg ha−1 in field experiments in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The grain yield for all of the rice varieties ranged from 8.67 to 11.09 t ha−1, except for a japonica rice variety YG29, which had a grain yield of 6.42 t ha−1. HY549 and YY4949 produced the highest grain yield, reflecting a higher biomass production and harvest index in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Total N uptake at maturity (TNPM) ranged from 144 to 210 kg ha−1, while the nitrogen use efficiency for grain production (NUEg) ranged from 35.2 to 62.0 kg kg−1. Both TNPM and NUEg showed a significant quadratic correlation with grain yield, indicating that it is possible to obtain high grain yield and NUEg with the reduction of TNPM. The correlation between N-related parameters and yield-related traits suggests that promoting pre-heading growth could increase TNPM, while high biomass accumulation during the grain filling period and large panicles are important for a higher NUEg. In addition, there were significant and negative correlations between the NUEg and N concentrations in leaf, stem, and grain tissues at maturity. Further improvements in NUEg require a reduction in the stem N concentration but not the leaf N concentration. The daily grain yield was the only parameter that significantly and positively correlated with both TNPMand NUEg. This study determined variations in the grain yield and NUE of elite candidate GSR rice varieties and provided plant traits that could be used as selection criteria in breeding N-efficient rice varieties

  20. Production of fuel by pyrolysis of the bagasse of grapes: yield and high thermal power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foussard, J.N.; Talayrach, B.; Besombes Vailhe, J.

    1979-01-01

    A liquid fuel of high calorific value was obtained by the pyrolysis of grape bagasse, with the pyrolysis temperature being the factor determining the product composition. Grape bagasse is produced in distilleries and is thus a practical and readily available material.

  1. High Yield Magnetic Nanoparticles Filled Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Using Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    plane magnetizations is the sharing produced by the demagnetizing field in the perpendicular direction. 1. INTRODUCTION Since its discovery in the...because of its large anisotropy and magnetostriction . The filling was carried out in high vacuum (2×10-7 Torr) where the polycrystalline CoFe2O4 was

  2. Critical parameters in cost-effective alkaline extraction for high protein yield from leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Leaves are potential resources for feed or food, but their applications are limited due to a high proportion of insoluble protein and inefficient processing. To overcome these problems, parameters of alkaline extraction were evaluated using green tea residue (GTR). Protein extraction could be maximi

  3. Production of aggregation prone human interferon gamma and its mutant in highly soluble and biologically active form by SUMO fusion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tileva, M; Krachmarova, E; Ivanov, I; Maskos, K; Nacheva, G

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli expression system is a preferable choice for production of recombinant proteins. A disadvantage of this system is the target protein aggregation in "inclusion bodies" (IBs) that further requires solubilisation and refolding, which is crucial for the properties and the yield of the final product. In order to prevent aggregation, SUMO fusion tag technology has been successfully applied for expression of eukaryotic proteins, including human interferon gamma (hIFNγ) that was reported, however, with no satisfactory biological activity. We modified this methodology for expression and purification of both the wild type hIFNγ and an extremely prone to aggregation mutant hIFNγ-K88Q, whose recovery from IBs showed to be ineffective upon numerous conditions. By expression of the N-terminal His-SUMO fusion proteins in the E. coli strain BL21(DE3)pG-KJE8, co-expressing two chaperone systems, at 24 °C a significant increase in solubility of both target proteins (1.5-fold for hIFNγ and 8-fold for K88Q) was achieved. Two-step chromatography (affinity and ion-exchange) with on-dialysis His-SUMO-tag cleavage was applied for protein purification that yielded 6.0-7.0mg/g wet biomass for both proteins with >95% purity and native N-termini. The optimised protocol led to increased yields from 5.5 times for hIFNγ up to 100 times for K88Q in comparison to their isolation from IBs. Purified hIFNγ showed preserved thermal stability and antiproliferative activity corresponding to that of the native reference sample (3 × 10(7)IU/mg). The developed methodology represents an optimised procedure that can be successfully applied for large scale expression and purification of aggregation-prone proteins in soluble native form.

  4. High-yield acetonitrile | water triple phase boundary electrolysis at platinised Teflon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, John D.; MacDonald, Stuart M.; Fordred, Paul S.; Bull, Steven D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Gu, Yunfeng; Yunus, Kamran; Fisher, Adrian C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Bulman-Page, Philip C. [School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Marken, Frank [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.marken@bath.ac.uk

    2009-11-30

    A dynamic acetonitrile | aqueous electrolyte phase boundary in contact with platinised Teflon working electrodes is investigated. High concentrations of salt in the aqueous phase (2 M NaCl and 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4}) ensure immiscibility and the polar nature of acetonitrile aids the formation of a well-behaved triple phase boundary reaction zone. The one-electron oxidation of tert-butylferrocene in the organic phase without intentionally added electrolyte is studied. The limiting current for the flowing triple phase boundary process is shown to be essentially volume flow rate independent. The process is accompanied by the transfer of perchlorate from the aqueous into the organic phase and the flux of anions is shown to be approximately constant along the dynamic acetonitrile | aqueous electrolyte | platinum line interface. A high rate of conversion (close to 100%) is achieved at slow volume flow rates and at longer platinum electrodes.

  5. Miniature high-throughput chemosensing of yield, ee, and absolute configuration from crude reaction mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Keith W.; Zhang, Peng; Wolf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput experimentation (HTE) has emerged as a widely used technology that accelerates discovery and optimization processes with parallel small-scale reaction setups. A high-throughput screening (HTS) method capable of comprehensive analysis of crude asymmetric reaction mixtures (eliminating product derivatization or isolation) would provide transformative impact by matching the pace of HTE. We report how spontaneous in situ construction of stereodynamic metal probes from readily available, inexpensive starting materials can be applied to chiroptical chemosensing of the total amount, enantiomeric excess (ee), and absolute configuration of a wide variety of amines, diamines, amino alcohols, amino acids, carboxylic acids, α-hydroxy acids, and diols. This advance and HTS potential are highlighted with the analysis of 1 mg of crude reaction mixtures of a catalytic asymmetric reaction. This operationally simple assay uses a robust mix-and-measure protocol, is amenable to microscale platforms and automation, and provides critical time efficiency and sustainability advantages over traditional serial methods. PMID:26933684

  6. Genomics approaches to unlock the high yield potential of cassava, a tropical model plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengkui ZHANG,Ping'an MA,Haiyan WANG,Cheng LU,Xin CHEN,Zhiqiang XIA,Meiling ZOU,Xinchen ZHOU,Wenquan WANG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, a tropical food, feed and biofuel crop, has great capacity for biomass accumulation and an extraordinary efficiency in water use and mineral nutrition, which makes it highly suitable as a model plant for tropical crops. However, the understanding of the metabolism and genomics of this important crop is limited. The recent breakthroughs in the genomics of cassava, including whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis, as well as advances in the biology of photosynthesis, starch biosynthesis, adaptation to drought and high temperature, and resistance to virus and bacterial diseases, are reviewed here. Many of the new developments have come from comparative analyses between a wild ancestor and existing cultivars. Finally, the current challenges and future potential of cassava as a model plant are discussed.

  7. Spray Drying of High Sugar Content Foods: Improving of Product Yield and Powder Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Koç; Figen Kaymak-Ertekin

    2016-01-01

    Spray drying is the most preferred drying method to produce powdered food in the food industry and it is also widely used to convert sugar-rich liquid foods to a powder form. During and/or after spray drying process of sugar-rich products, undesirable situation was appeared such as stickiness, high moisture affinity (hygroscopicity) and low solubility due to low molecular weight monosaccharides that found naturally in the structure. The basis of these problems was formed by low glass transiti...

  8. Protein high-force pulling simulations yield low-force results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Lichter

    Full Text Available All-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations are used to pull with extremely large constant force (750-3000 pN on three small proteins. The introduction of a nondimensional timescale permits direct comparison of unfolding across all forces. A crossover force of approximately 1100 pN divides unfolding dynamics into two regimes. At higher forces, residues sequentially unfold from the pulling end while maintaining the remainder of the protein force-free. Measurements of hydrodynamic viscous stresses are made easy by the high speeds of unfolding. Using an exact low-Reynolds-number scaling, these measurements can be extrapolated to provide, for the first time, an estimate of the hydrodynamic force on low-force unfolding. Below 1100 pN, but surprisingly still at extremely large applied force, intermediate states and cooperative unfoldings as seen at much lower forces are observed. The force-insensitive persistence of these structures indicates that decomposition into unfolded fragments requires a large fluctuation. This finding suggests how proteins are constructed to resist transient high force. The progression of [Formula: see text] helix and [Formula: see text] sheet unfolding is also found to be insensitive to force. The force-insensitivity of key aspects of unfolding opens the possibility that numerical simulations can be accelerated by high applied force while still maintaining critical features of unfolding.

  9. High yield hydrogen production in a single-chamber membrane-less microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yejie; Wang, Liyong; Chen, Yingwen; Zhu, Shemin; Shen, Shubao

    2010-01-01

    The single-chamber membrane-less MEC exerted much better hydrogen production performance while given higher applied voltages than it did at lower. High applied voltages that could shorten the reaction time and the exposure of anode to air for at least 30 min between cycles can significantly suppress methanogen and increase hydrogen production. At an applied voltage of 1.0 V, a hydrogen production rate of 1.02 m(3)/m(3)/day with a current density of 5.7 A/m(2) was achieved. Cathodic hydrogen recovery and coulombic efficiency were 63.4% and 69.3% respectively. The hydrogen concentration of mixture gas produced of 98.4% was obtained at 1.0 V, which was the best result of reports. The reasons that such a high hydrogen concentration can be achieved were probably the high electrochemical activity and hydrogen production capability of the active microorganisms. Increase in substrate concentrations could not improve MEC's performance, but increased the reaction times. Further, reactor configuration and operation factors optimisation should be considered to increase current density, hydrogen production rate and hydrogen recovery.

  10. Enhancement of yield point at high pressure high temperature wells by using polymer nanocomposites based on ZnO & CaCO3 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z. Noah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs and modified calcium carbonate (nano-CaCO3 nanoparticles were successfully prepared and added to polystyrene-butadiene rubber copolymer (PSBR matrix to prepare PSBR nanocomposites. The prepared nanomaterials (ZnO-NPs & nano-CaCO3 were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Furthermore, the prepared polymer nanocomposites and oil base mud were used for drilling in high pressure high temperature (HPHT wells. The consequence of using polymer nanocomposites based on different loading of ZnO-NPs and nano-CaCO3 on the rheological properties of oil base mud was evaluated and enhanced the yield point at high pressure high temperature wells (HPHT. The using of the polymer with different percentage from (0.5 in all percent the obtained results is very promising; this means that the increase of polymer is reasonable for the increase of apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity and yield point at high temperature. Correspondingly, polymer nanocomposites displayed rise of apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield point, decreased in fluid loss and increased in electrical stability at high pressure high temperature wells.

  11. Biocontrol potential of Halotolerant bacterial chitinase from high yielding novel Bacillus Pumilus MCB-7 autochthonous to mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishad, K S; Rebello, Sharrel; Shabanamol, P S; Jisha, M S

    2017-04-01

    The multifaceted role of chitinase in medicine, agriculture, environmental remediation and various other industries greatly demands the isolation of high yielding chitinase producing microorganisms with improved properties. The current study aimed to investigate the isolation, characterization and biocontrol prospective of chitinase producing bacterial strains autochthonous to the extreme conditions of mangrove ecosystems. Among the 51 bacterial isolates screened, Bacillus pumilus MCB-7 with highest chitinase production potential was identified and confirmed by 16S rDNA typing. Chitinase enzyme of MCB-7 was purified; the chitin degradation was evaluated by SEM and LC-MS. Unlike previously reported B.pumilus isolates, MCB-7 exhibited highest chitinase activity of 3.36U/mL, active even at high salt concentrations and temperature up to 60°C. The crude as well as purified enzyme showed significant antimycotic activity against agricultural pathogens such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Ceratorhiza hydrophila and Fusarium oxysporum. The enzyme also exhibited biopesticidal role against larvae of Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker). [Lep.: Pyralidae], a serious agricultural pest of rice. The high chitinolytic and antimycotic potential of MCB-7 increases the prospects of the isolate as an excellent biocontrol agent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high chitinase yielding Bacillus pumilus strain from mangrove ecosystem with a biocontrol role against phytopathogenic fungi and insect larval pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Collapsing high-end categories of comorbidity may yield misleading results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L Lash

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Timothy L LashDepartment of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkAbstract: Adequate control of comorbidity has long been recognized as a critical challenge in clinical epidemiology. Comorbidity scales reduce information about coexistent disease to a single index that is easy to comprehend and statistically efficient. These are the main advantages of an index over incorporating each disease into an analysis as an individual variable. Many study populations have a low prevalence of subjects with high comorbidity scores, so it is common to combine subjects with some score above a threshold into a single open-ended category. This paper examines the impact of collapsing comorbidity scores into these categories. It shows analytically and by synthetic example that collapsing the high-end categories of a comorbidity scale changes the pattern of effect of comorbidity. Furthermore, collapsing the high-end categories biases analyses that control for comorbidity as a confounder or analyze modification of an exposure’s effect by comorbidity. Each of these results specific to comorbidity scoring derives from more general epidemiologic principles. The appeal of collapsing categories to facilitate interpretation and statistical analysis may be offset by misleading results. Analysts should assure the uniformity of outcome risk in collapsed categories, informed by judgment and possibly statistical testing, or use analytic methods, such as restriction or spline regression, which can achieve similar goals without sacrificing the validity of results. Keywords: epidemiologic factors, comorbidity, epidemiologic factors, bias (epidemiology

  13. High yield combustion synthesis of nanomagnesia and its application for fluoride removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliyekkal, Shihabudheen M; Anshup; Antony, K R; Pradeep, T

    2010-04-15

    We describe a novel combustion synthesis for the preparation of Nanomagnesia (NM) and its application in water purification. The synthesis is based on the self-propagated combustion of the magnesium nitrate trapped in cellulose fibers. Various characterization studies confirmed that NM formed is crystalline with high phase purity, and the particle size varied in the range of 3-7nm. The fluoride scavenging potential of this material was tested as a function of pH, contact time and adsorbent dose. The result showed that fluoride adsorption by NM is highly favorable and the capacity does not vary in the pH range usually encountered in groundwater. The effects of various co-existing ions usually found in drinking water, on fluoride removal were also investigated. Phosphate was the greatest competitor for fluoride followed by bicarbonate. The presence of other ions studied did not affect the fluoride adsorption capacity of NM significantly. The adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order equation and the equilibrium data are well predicted by Frendlich equation. Our experimental evidence shows that fluoride removal happened through isomorphic substitution of fluoride in brucite. A batch household defluoridation unit was developed using precipitation-sedimentation-filtration techniques, addressing the problems of high fluoride concentration as well as the problem of alkaline pH of the magnesia treated water. The method of synthesis reported here is advantageous from the perspectives of small size of the nanoparticle, cost-effective recovery of the material and improvement in the fluoride adsorption capacity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear Engineering of Microalgae for High Yield Secretion of Recombinant Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos Martinez, Erick Miguel

    Photosynthetic microorganism like microalgae and cyanobacteria are considered as emerging biotechnology platforms for production of recombinant proteins and other high-value biomolecules with a wide range of applications. Moreover, microalgae offer significant advantages compared with other...... the potential of microalgae as a cell factory for secretion of recombinant proteins. The second research project presented in this thesis aimed to establish a new robust method to allow in vivo measurements of metabolic enzyme activities in cyanobacteria, with a hope that the method would facilitate further...

  15. High-yield production of canine parvovirus virus-like particles in a baculovirus expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongli; Xia, Xiaohong; Liu, Bing; Fu, Yu; Chen, Xianping; Wang, Huihui; Xia, Zhenqiang

    2016-03-01

    An optimized VP2 gene from the current prevalent CPV strain (new CPV-2a) in China was expressed in a baculovirus expression system. It was found that the VP2 proteins assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) with antigenic properties similar to those of natural CPV and with an especially high hemagglutination (HA) titer (1:2(20)). Dogs intramuscularly or orally immunized with VLPs produced antibodies against CPV with >1:80 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) units for at least 3 months. The CPV VLPs could be considered for use as a vaccine against CPV or as a platform for research on chimeric VLP vaccines against other diseases.

  16. High-yield synthesis of brookite TiO.sub.2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM; Monson, Todd C [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-05-17

    A method for forming non-agglomerated brookite TiO.sub.2 nanoparticles without the use of expensive organic surfactants or high temperature processing. Embodiments of this invention use titanium isopropoxide as the titanium precursor and isopropanol as both the solvent and ligand for ligand-stabilized brookite-phase titania. Isopropanol molecules serve as the ligands interacting with the titania surfaces that stabilize the titania nanoparticles. The isopropanol ligands can be exchanged with other alcohols and other ligands during or after the nanoparticle formation reaction.

  17. nSrDNA Appraisal of High Yield Flocculant Compound Bacteria and Their Application Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    High effect flocculant compound bacteria were screened out with the product bacteria of flocculant in soil. Their system appraising study shows that two were actionomyces and the other was microzyme among the three bacteria. According to nSrDNA, the three bacteria were marked at a molecule level and the system growth tree was established,ensuring the position of compound bacteria at the molecule level. The purificant which was made of the compound bacteria has spreading value because of its excellent clearing effect for organic and inorganic polluted water.

  18. Tailoring Wet Explosion Process Parameters for the Pretreatment of Cocksfoot Grass for High Sugar Yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    surface methodology. The WEx process parameters studied were temperature (160–210 °C), retention time (5–20 min), and dilute sulfuric acid concentration (0.2–0.5 %). The pretreatment parameter set E, applying 210 °C for 5 min and 0.5 % dilute sulfuric acid, was found most suitable for achieving a high...... when applying less severe pretreatment conditions C (160 °C, 5 min, 0.2 % dilute sulfuric acid). Therefore, the choice of the most suitable pretreatment conditions is depending on the main target product, i.e., hexose or pentose sugars....

  19. Hydrogen production with high yield and high evolution rate by self-flocculated cells of Enterobacter aerogenes in a packed-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachman, M.A.; Nakashimada, Y.; Kakizono, T.; Nishio, N. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Graduate Sch. of Eng.

    1998-09-01

    Continuous hydrogen gas evolution by self-flocculated cells of Enterobacter aerogenes, a natural isolate HU-101 and its mutant AY-2, was performed in a packed-bed reactor under glucose-limiting conditions in a minimal medium. The flocs that formed during the continuous culture were retained even when the dilution rate was increased to 0.9 h{sup -1}. The H{sub 2} production rate increased linearly with increases in the dilution rate up to 0.67 h{sup -1}, giving maximum H{sub 2} production rates of 31 and 58 mmol l{sup -1} h{sup -1} in HU-101 and AY-2 respectively, at a dilution rate of more than 0.67 h{sup -1}. The molar H{sub 2} yield from glucose in AY-2 was maintained at about 1.1 at dilution rates between 0.08 h{sup -1} and 0.67 h{sup -1}, but it decreased rapidly at dilution rates more than 0.8 h{sup -1}. (orig.)

  20. Kinetics of high-Level of ß-glucosidase production by a 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutant of Humicola lanuginosa in submerged fermentation Cinética de produção de ß-glucosidase por um mutante de Hemicola lanuginosa resistente a 2-deoxiglucose em fermentação submersa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ali Imran Bokhari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutant (M7 of Humicola lanuginosa was obtained by exposing conidia to γ-rays and permitting expression in broth containing 0.6% 2-deoxyglucose (DG and cellobiose (1% before plating on DG esculin-ferric ammonium citrate agar medium from which colonies showing faster and bigger blackening zones were selected. Kinetic parameters for enhanced ß-glucosidase (BGL synthesis by M7 were achieved when corncobs acted as the carbon source. The combination between corncobs and corn steep liquor was the best to support higher values of all product formation kinetic parameters. Effect of temperature on the kinetic and thermodynamic attributes of BGL production equilibrium in the wild organismand M7was studied using batch process at eight different temperatures in shake-flask studies. The best performance was found at 45ºC and 20 g L-1 corncobs in 64 h. Both growth and product formation (17.93 U mL-1 were remarkably high at 45ºC and both were coupled under optimum working conditions. Product yield of BGL from the mutant M7 (1556.5 U g-1 dry corncobs was significantly higher than the values reported on all fungal and bacterial systems. Mutation had thermo-stabilization influence on the organism and mutant required lower activation energy for growth and lower magnitudes of enthalpy and entropy for product formation than those demanded by the wild organism, other mesophilic and thermo-tolerant organisms. In the inactivation phase, the organisms needed lower values of activation energy, enthalpy and entropy for product formation equilibrium, confirming thermophilic nature of metabolic network possessed by the mutant organism.Um mutante de Hemicola lanuginosa resistente a 2-deoxiglucose(M7 foi obtido através de exposição de conídios a raios γ, permitindo a expressão em caldo contendo 0,6% de 2-deoxiglucose (DG e celobiose (1% antes da semeadura em ágar DG esculina citrato de ferro amoniacal, da qual foram selecionadas as col

  1. Simple room-temperature preparation of high-yield large-area graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N M; Lim, H N; Chia, C H; Yarmo, M A; Muhamad, M R

    2011-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much attention from researchers due to its interesting mechanical, electrochemical, and electronic properties. It has many potential applications such as polymer filler, sensor, energy conversion, and energy storage devices. Graphene-based nanocomposites are under an intense spotlight amongst researchers. A large amount of graphene is required for preparation of such samples. Lately, graphene-based materials have been the target for fundamental life science investigations. Despite graphene being a much sought-after raw material, the drawbacks in the preparation of graphene are that it is a challenge amongst researchers to produce this material in a scalable quantity and that there is a concern about its safety. Thus, a simple and efficient method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is greatly desired to address these problems. In this work, one-pot chemical oxidation of graphite was carried out at room temperature for the preparation of large-area GO with ~100% conversion. This high-conversion preparation of large-area GO was achieved using a simplified Hummer's method from large graphite flakes (an average flake size of 500 μm). It was found that a high degree of oxidation of graphite could be realized by stirring graphite in a mixture of acids and potassium permanganate, resulting in GO with large lateral dimension and area, which could reach up to 120 μm and ~8000 μm(2), respectively. The simplified Hummer's method provides a facile approach for the preparation of large-area GO.

  2. High yield production of D-xylonic acid from D-xylose using engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaiwei; Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Nisola, Grace M; Ramos, Kristine Rose M; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2012-07-01

    An engineered Escherichia coli was constructed to produce D-xylonic acid, one of the top 30 high-value chemicals identified by US Department of Energy. The native pathway for D-xylose catabolism in E. coli W3110 was blocked by disrupting xylose isomerase (XI) and xylulose kinase (XK) genes. The native pathway for xylonic acid catabolism was also blocked by disrupting two genes both encoding xylonic acid dehydratase (yagE and yjhG). Through the introduction of a D-xylose dehydrogenase from Caulobacter crescentus, a D-xylonic acid producing E. coli was constructed. The recombinant E. coli produced up to 39.2 g L(-1) D-xylonic acid from 40 g L(-1) D-xylose in M9 minimal medium. The average productivity was as high as 1.09 g L(-1) h(-1) and no gluconic acid byproduct was produced. These results suggest that the engineered E. coli has a promising application for the industrial-scale production of D-xylonic acid.

  3. Characteristics and Composition of a High Oil Yielding Castor Variety from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Tarique; Mahesar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Mahesar, Abdul Waheed; Kandhro, Aftab Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Laghari, Zahid Hussain; Chang, Abdul Sattar; Hussain Sherazi, Syed Tufail

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view the versatile applications of castor oil in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and recently as renewable source, the present work is a step towards the commercialization of castor on large scale in Pakistan. The current study introduces a castor variety with high oil content. Initially seeds were physically examined for some physical parameters. Seed moisture, ash content and linear dimensions such as length, width and thickness were found to be 4.53%, 6.44%, 12.24 mm, 8.31 mm and 5.67 mm, respectively. For oil extraction, Soxhlet method was used which resulted in the high oil content 54.0%. For quality assessment of oil, physicochemical parameters were checked according to official standard AOCS methods and compared with ASTM specifications. The determined parameters were as follows; specific gravity 0.953 g/cm(-3), refractive index 1.431, viscosity 672.0 mPas.s, moisture content 0.32%, FFA 0.14%, IV 83.61 gI2/100 g, PV 2.25 meq/Kg and SV 186.0 mgKOH/g. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis of oil showed that, most abundant fatty acid was ricinoleic acid 94.59%, followed by palmitic 0.31%, linoleic 1.84%, oleic (n-9) 2.05%, oleic (n-10) 0.22%, stearic 0.45% and eicosenoic acid 0.53%. The detected fatty acids were compared with registered variety and varieties of other regions.

  4. A comparison of continuum and kinetic simulations of microplasmas integrated with high secondary yield cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamatsaz, Arghavan; Verma, Abhishek Kumar; Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2016-10-01

    During the last two decades, microplasmas have become an active area of research in the field of low-temperature plasma science and engineering with a wide range of applications including electronics, nanomaterial synthesis and metamaterials to name a few. Kinetic and continuum methods are commonly employed numerical simulation techniques to study the low temperature plasmas. The uncertainty and imprecision associated with input parameters used in these models impose a constraint on fidelity of the simulation results. In this work, these computational techniques are compared in the context of modeling microplasmas driven by cathodes with high secondary electron emission coefficient. Simulations of argon microplasmas operating at a moderate pd (pressure*distance between electrodes) are performed using particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions (PIC-MCC), and fluid model using the full momentum equations for both electrons and ions. Results obtained for plasma density, potential, electric field and electron temperature using continuum simulations are compared with the corresponding PIC-MCC simulations as benchmark. These numerical experiments provide insights on importance of input parameters in fluid model for high fidelity simulation of microplasma applications.

  5. High biohydrogen yielding Clostridium sp. DMHC-10 isolated from sludge of distillery waste treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamalaskar, Leena B.; Dhakephalkar, P.K.; Meher, K.K.; Ranade, D.R. [Microbial Sciences Division, Agharkar Research Institute, G.G. Agarkar Road, Pune 411004 (India)

    2010-10-15

    A mesophilic high hydrogen producing strain DMHC-10 was isolated from a lab scale anaerobic reactor being operated on distillery wastewater for hydrogen production. DMHC-10 was identified as Clostridium sp. on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Various medium components (carbon and nitrogen sources) and environmental factors (initial pH, temperature of incubation) were optimized for hydrogen production by Clostridium sp. DMHC-10. The strain, in late exponential growth phase, showed maximum hydrogen production (3.35 mol-H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose utilized) at 37 C, pH 5.0 in a medium supplemented with organic nitrogen source. Butyric acid to acetic acid ratio was ca. 2.3. Hydrogen production declined when organic nitrogen was replaced with inorganic nitrogen. (author)

  6. Spray Drying of High Sugar Content Foods: Improving of Product Yield and Powder Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Koç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is the most preferred drying method to produce powdered food in the food industry and it is also widely used to convert sugar-rich liquid foods to a powder form. During and/or after spray drying process of sugar-rich products, undesirable situation was appeared such as stickiness, high moisture affinity (hygroscopicity and low solubility due to low molecular weight monosaccharides that found naturally in the structure. The basis of these problems was formed by low glass transition temperature of sugar-rich products. This review gives information about the difficulties in drying of sugar-rich products via spray dryer, actions need to be taken against these difficulties and drying of sugar-rich honey and fruit juices with spray drying method.

  7. High yield cultivation technology of summer corn%夏玉米优质高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭雪莲

    2011-01-01

    依据夏玉米各生育阶段的主攻目标,通过对夏玉米各生育阶段生长发育的调查、分析,总结出适合夏玉米高产稳产的管理及栽培技术。%On the basis of summer corn in different growth stages of the main attack target, through to summer maize at different growth stages of growth and development survey, analysis, summed up for summer maize high yield management and cultivation techniques.

  8. High-yield production of hydrophobins RodA and RodB from Aspergillus fumigatus in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Højgaard; Borodina, Irina; Moresco, Jacob Lange

    2011-01-01

    B on the surface of its conidia. RodA is known to be of importance to the pathogenesis of the fungus, while the biological role of RodB is currently unknown. Here, we report the successful expression of both hydrophobins in Pichia pastoris and present fed-batch fermentation yields of 200–300 mg/l fermentation...... broth. Protein bands of expected sizes were detected by SDS-PAGE and western blotting, and the identity was further confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Both proteins were purified using his-affinity chromatography, and the high level of purity was verified by silver-stained SDS-PAGE. Recombinant Rod...

  9. High-yield expression of human vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF(165) in Escherichia coli and purification for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Shelly A; Gunson, Jane; Field, Matthew J; Dinges, Rachel; Khoo, Stefanie; Dalal, Milind; Lee, Michael; Kaleas, Kimberly A; Moiseff, Kathryn; Garnick, Susan; Reilly, Dorothea E; Laird, Michael W; Schmelzer, Charles H

    2010-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF(165)) is a potent mitogen that induces angiogenesis and vascular permeability in vivo and has demonstrated potential in therapeutic applications for accelerating wound healing. An industrial production method that provides high yield as well as high purity, quality, and potency is needed. The process described in this report involves a bacterial expression system capable of producing approximately 9g of rhVEGF per liter of broth and a downstream purification process consisting of protein refolding and three chromatography steps prior to formulation of the drug substance. A high cell density (HCD) fed-batch fermentation process was used to produce rhVEGF in periplasmic inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies are harvested from the cell lysate and subjected to a single-step protein solubilization and refolding operation to extract the rhVEGF for purification. Overall recovery yields observed during development, including refolding and chromatography, were 30+/-6%. Host cell impurities are consistently cleared below target levels at both laboratory and large-scale demonstrating process robustness. The structure of the refolded and purified rhVEGF was confirmed by mass spectrometry, N-terminal sequencing, and tryptic peptide mapping while product variants were analyzed by multiple HPLC assays. Biological activity was verified by the proliferation of human umbilical vein derived endothelial cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An experimental study of a yielding support for roadways constructed in deep broken soft rock under high stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yinlong; Wang Lianguo; Zhang Bei

    2011-01-01

    A rationally designed support for deep roadways excavated in broken soft rock under high stress was investigated.The deformation and failure characteristics and the mechanism of “yielding support” was studied for anchor bolts and cables.The rail roadway of the 2-501 working face in the Liyazhuang Mine of the Huozhou coal area located in Shanxi province was used for field trials.The geological conditions used there were used during the design phase.The new “highly resistant,yielding” support system has a core of high strength,yielding bolts and anchor cables.The field tests show that this support system adapts well to the deformation and pressure in the deep broken soft rock.The support system effectively controls damage to the roadway and ensures the long term stability of the wall rock and safe production in the coal mine.This provides a remarkable economic and social benefit and has broad prospects for further application.

  11. Selection and Study of High-yield Aerobic Strains of Treating the Closed Circulation Wastewater for Regenerated Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yong-wen; FU Yan-fang; WAN Jin-quan

    2007-01-01

    Efficient and reliable removal of cellulose,hemicellulose and lignin,that are the major organic pollutants in the wastewater from regenerated fiber,is critically important to prevent toxicity discharge.Low-and high-pH stresses sometimes occur in the effluent treatment systems due to the use of a large amount of acid and alkaline in the pulping process.Using flat separation method to select high-yield strains from bio-contact oxidation basin,seeing configuration of the strains and doing some physiological experiments,we found that the strains contain two kinds of main bacteria,Zoogloea sp.and Pseudomona sp.We also discovered the best growing time by spectrophotometer.The best growing time is at 0~32h,the logarithmic phase is about at 12~32 h,and the stable growth phase is about 32~60 h.Furthermore,we concluded that the disposal ability of high-yield strain is better than the ordinary one by doing parallel experiment.Through onhogonal test we also confirmed that the best growing temperature and pH value are 29℃ and 7.3 respectively,The COD removal rate is about 93% when the biomembrane is in good condition.

  12. Are saturating pulses indeed saturating? Evidence for considerable PSII yield underestimation in leaves adapted to high levels of natural light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgou, Panagiota; Tziortzis, Iakovos; Manetas, Yiannis

    2007-10-01

    The "saturating pulse" method of in vivo Chl fluorescence measurement has been widely used by physiologists and especially ecophysiologists, as it allows a simple, rapid and non-invasive assessment of PSII function and the allocation of absorbed energy into photochemical and non-photochemical processes. It is based on the accurate determination of the so-called Fm('), i.e. the fluorescence signal emitted when a "saturating" light pulse closes all PSII centers. In this methodological investigation, we examined whether the saturating pulse intensities required to obtain maximal fluorescence yields differ between leaves of various species receiving varying actinic light irradiances. It was shown that, in leaves adapted to comparatively high (yet realistic) levels of natural irradiances, the saturating pulses usually applied are not able to close all PSII reaction centers. As a result, there is a high risk of considerable Fm(') underestimation. Accordingly, the derived values of effective PSII yields and linear electron transport rates (ETR) are also underestimated, even at the highest saturation pulse levels afforded by commercial instruments. Since the extent of underestimation increases with actinic irradiance, the ETR versus light curves are considerably distorted. The possible reasons for the apparent inability of "saturating" pulses to close all PSII centers at high actinic light and the practical implications, especially in field work, are discussed.

  13. High-yield expression of recombinant SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein in methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Shi Liu; Kun-Yu Yang; Jian Lin; Yi-Wei Lin; Zhi-Hong Zhang; Jun Zhang; Ning-Shao Xia

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Nucleocapsid (N) protein plays an important role in reproduction and pathological reaction of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SCoV), theantigenicity of the protein is better than spike (S) protein.This study was to find a highly specific and antigenic recombinant SCoV nucleocapsid (rSCoVN) protein, and to provide a basis for further researches on early diagnosis of SARS.METHODS: Full length cDNA of SCoV nucleocapsid (SCoVN)protein was amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into yeast expression vector pPIC3.5K to construct plasmid of pPIC3.5K-SCoVN. The plasmid was linearized and then transformed into Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) GS115 (HisMut+) by electroporation. His+Mut+recombinant strains were identified by PCR and cultivated on MM/MD plates. The influence of different factors on biomass and rSCoVN protein production during induction phase, such as various induction media, dissolved oxygen (DO) and different final concentrations of methanol, was subsequently studied. The expression level and activation were detected by SDS-PAGE and Western-blot respectively.RESULTS: All of the recombinants were His+Mut+ aftertransformation of P. pastoriswith linearized plasmids. The BMMY medium was optimal for recombinant ScoVN (rSCoVN)protein expression and growth of the recombinant strains.The final optimal concentration of methanol was 20 mL/L,the DO had a significant effect on rSCoVN protein expression and growth of recombinant strains. The rSCoVN protein expressed in recombinant strains was about 8% of the total cell protein, 520 mg/L of rSCoVN protein was achieved,and a maximum cell ,A at 600 nm of 62 was achieved in shake flask culture. The rSCoVN protein had a high specificity against mouse-anti-SARS-CoVN-mAb and SARS positive sera, but had no cross-reaction with normal human serum.The biological activity of rSCoVN expressed in P. pastoris was about 4-fold higher than that expressed in E.coliwhen the same rSCoVN protein

  14. Estimates of the Planet Yield from Ground-Based High-Contrast Imaging Observations as a Function of Stellar Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Crepp, Justin R

    2011-01-01

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the number of extrasolar planets that are directly detectable in the solar-neighborhood using current and forthcoming high-contrast imaging instruments. Our calculations take into account the important factors that govern the likelihood for imaging a planet, including the statistical properties of nearby stars, correlations between star and planet properties, observational effects, and selection criteria. We consider several different ground-based surveys and express the resulting yields as a function of stellar mass. Selecting targets based on their youth and visual brightness, we find that strong correlations between star mass and planet properties are required to reproduce high-contrast imaging results to date. Using the most recent empirical findings for the occurrence rate of planets from RV surveys, our simulations indicate that extrapolation of the Doppler planet population to separations accessible to high-contrast instruments provides excellent agreement bet...

  15. Metabolic engineering of tomato for high-yield production of astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun-Chao; Zhong, Yu-Juan; Liu, Jin; Sandmann, Gerhard; Chen, Feng

    2013-05-01

    Dietary carotenoids have been shown to be beneficial to health by decreasing the risk of many diseases. Attempts to enhance carotenoids in food crops have been successful although higher plants appear to resist big changes of carotenoid biosynthesis by metabolic engineering. Here we report the generation of a more nutritious tomato by modifying the intrinsic carotenes to astaxanthin, a high-value ketocarotenoid rarely found in plants. This was achieved by co-expression of the algal β-carotene ketolase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and β-carotene hydroxylase from Haematococcus pluvialis, a unique pair of enzymes identified to co-operate perfectly in converting β-carotene to astaxanthin by functional complementation in Escherichia coli. Expression of the two enzymes in tomato up-regulated most intrinsic carotenogenic genes, and efficiently directed carbon flux into carotenoids, leading to massive accumulations of mostly free astaxanthin in leaves (3.12mg/g) but esterified astaxanthin in fruits (16.1mg/g) and a 16-fold increase of total carotenoid capacity therein without affecting the plant normal growth and development. This study opened up the possibility of employing crop plants as green factories for economical production of astaxanthin.

  16. Controlled tip wear on high roughness surfaces yields gradual broadening and rounding of cantilever tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorselen, Daan; Kooreman, Ernst S.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Roos, Wouter H.

    2016-11-01

    Tip size in atomic force microscopy (AFM) has a major impact on the resolution of images and on the results of nanoindentation experiments. Tip wear is therefore a