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Sample records for high yield f-18

  1. Fully automated synthesis module for the high yield one-pot preparation of 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-DOPA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; Luurtsema, G; Brussermann, M; Elsinga, PH; Vaalburg, W

    1999-01-01

    A fully automated one-pot synthesis of 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-DOPA, an important radiopharmaceutical for studies on the presynaptic dopamine metabolism with positron emission tomography,is described. 6-[F-18]Fluoro-L-DOPA was prepared in high radiochemical yield (33 +/- 4%, c.f.d.) and radiochemical

  2. F-18 high alpha research vehicle surface pressures - Initial in-flight results and correlation with flow visualization and wind-tunnel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David F.; Banks, Daniel W.; Richwine, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Flight tests with the NASA F-18 high-alpha research vehicle (HARV) have yielded pressure distributions at angles of attack from 10 to 50 deg, at Mach 0.23 to 0.6, at five fuselage forebody stations and three on the leading-edge extensions (LEXs). Correlations are made between these data and both previously obtained HARV flow visualizations and wind tunnel model test results. The general trend is one in which the forebody's maximum suction pressure peaks increase in magnitude, after their first appearance at alpha of about 19 deg, with increasing alpha. LEX pressure-distribution trends involve the inward progression of the maximum suction peaks, an increase in the magnitude of the maximum pressure peaks up to pressure core breakdown, and the decrease and general flattening of the pressure distribution beyond the LEX primary vortex breakdown.

  3. Semi-Quantitative Calculations of Primary Tumor Metabolic Activity Using F-18 FDG PET/CT as a Predictor of Survival in 92 Patients With High-Grade Bone or Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Fuglo, Hanna Maria; Rasmussen, Sine Hvid;

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prognostic value of primary tumor metabolic activity in patients with high-grade bone sarcomas (BS) or soft tissue sarcomas (STS) using F-18 FDG PET/CT. A single-site, retrospective study including 92 patients with high-grade BS or STS. Pretreatment F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was performed...... metabolic activity with pretherapeutic SUVmax using F-18 FDG PET/CT demonstrates independent properties beyond histologic grading for prediction of survival in patients with high-grade STS, but not with high-grade BS....

  4. F-18 high alpha research vehicle surface pressures: Initial in-flight results and correlation with flow visualization and wind-tunnel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David F.; Banks, Daniel W.; Richwine, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Pressure distributions measured on the forebody and the leading-edge extensions (LEX's) of the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) were reported at 10 and 50 degree angles of attack and at Mach 0.20 to 0.60. The results were correlated with HARV flow visualization and 6-percent scale F-18 wind-tunnel-model test results. The general trend in the data from the forebody was for the maximum suction pressure peaks to first appear at an angle of attack (alpha) of approximately 19 degrees and increase in magnitude with angle of attack. The LEX pressure distribution general trend was the inward progression and increase in magnitude of the maximum suction peaks up to vortex core breakdown and then the decrease and general flattening of the pressure distribution beyond that. No significant effect of Mach number was noted for the forebody results. However, a substantial compressibility effect on the LEX's resulted in a significant reduction in vortex-induced suction pressure as Mach number increased. The forebody primary and the LEX secondary vortex separation lines, from surface flow visualization, correlated well with the end of pressure recovery, leeward and windward, respectively, of maximum suction pressure peaks. The flight to wind-tunnel correlations were generally good with some exceptions.

  5. Flight-Determined Subsonic Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) with Thrust Vectoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1997-01-01

    The subsonic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from dynamic flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. The technique uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion in their continuous/discrete form and accounts for state and measurement noise as well as thrust-vectoring effects. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft, particularly at high angles of attack. Thrust vectoring was implemented using electrohydraulically-actuated nozzle postexit vanes and a specialized research flight control system. During maneuvers, a control system feature provided independent aerodynamic control surface inputs and independent thrust-vectoring vane inputs, thereby eliminating correlations between the aircraft states and controls. Substantial variations in control excitation and dynamic response were exhibited for maneuvers conducted at different angles of attack. Opposing vane interactions caused most thrust-vectoring inputs to experience some exhaust plume interference and thus reduced effectiveness. The estimated stability and control derivatives are plotted, and a discussion relates them to predicted values and maneuver quality.

  6. Synthesis of F-18 labeled raloxifene derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. C.; Moon, B. S.; Jun, K. S. [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. H.; Ji, D. Y. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Raloxifene, [6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl) benzo [b] thiophen-3-yl]-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)phenyl] methanone, a tissue-selective estrogen mixed agonist/antagonist, classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), is currently under clinical evaluation for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, breast cancer, uterine dysfunction, and other disorders of the female reproductive system. Based on SAR studies of substituted raloxifenes, we synthesized 3 kinds of fluoroalkylated raloxifene derivatives. These compounds show high relative binding affinities (RBA) to the estrogen receptor in vitro (RBA of estradiol = 100%). The RBA values for compounds 1, 2 and 3 are 89, 60, and 45%, respectively, which are all higher than that of raloxifene itself (34%). Among these compounds, we selected to take the best RBA value one and F-18 labeled. Using 2 kinds of labeling method ; 1) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 10 min at 120 .deg. C. 2) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 15 min at 120 .deg. C in ionic liquid, [bmim][OTf]. Deprotection step added 1N HCl and reacted for 3 min at 120 .deg. C. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative obtained 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield by HPLC system (C18 xterra, 10 i, 34% Acetonitrile/0.1 M formate buffer, flow rate: 4 mL/1 min, collection time : 28-29 min) and total time was around 70 min. Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative has the best RBA value among the other synthesized derivatives and chose it for radiolabeling. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative prepared 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield. This preparation is on going for labeling optimizing and preparing of in vitro and in vivo test.

  7. Volume-Based F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging Markers Provide Supplemental Prognostic Information to Histologic Grading in Patients With High-Grade Bone or Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Fuglo, Hanna Maria; Rasmussen, Sine Hvid;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the prognostic value of different volume-based calculations of tumor metabolic activity in the initial assessment of patients with high-grade bone sarcomas (BS) and soft tissue sarcomas (STS) using F-18 FDG PET/CT.A single-site, retrospective study from 2002...... to 2012 including 92 patients with histologically verified high-grade BS (N = 37) or STS (N = 55). All patients underwent a pretreatment F-18 FDG PET/CT scan. Clinical data were registered. Measurements of the accuracy of metabolic tumor volume with a preset threshold of 40% of the maximum standardized.......05, HR 3.37 [95% CI 1.02-11.11]). No significant results were demonstrated for MTV40%.Volume-based F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging markers in terms of pretreatment estimation of TLG provide supplemental prognostic information to histologic grading, with significant independent properties for prediction...

  8. F-18 labeled 3-fluorodiazepam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxen, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    3-Fluorodiazepam is a new and potent antianxiety agent with prolonged action. The authors found that molecular fluorine (0.5% in Ne) reacts cleanly with diazepam in freon or chloroform at room temperature to produce 3-fluorodiazepam in good yields. Successful syntheses have employed 2:1 to 5:1 molar ratios diazepam: fluorine to minimize the formation of byproducts. (/sup 18/F) 3-Fluorodiazepam, a potential candidate for PET studies, (specific activity 3-5 Ci/mmol) has been synthesized from /sup 18/F-F/sub 2/ using the same procedure, followed by column chromatographic purification (Silicagel, dichloromethane: ethyl acetate, 5:1) with a radiochemical yield of 12-20% (50% maximum) and a chemical and radiochemical purity >99% as judged by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (Ultrasyl octyl column, 10 ..mu.. m, 4.6 x 250 mm i.d., 60% MeOH 40% water; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min; retention time for (/sup 18/F) fluorodiazepam, 11.4 min; for diazepam, 13.5 min; radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors). Lower radiochemical yields (5-7%), and significant formation of by-products were observed when (/sup 18/F)acetylhypofluorite, prepared in the gasphase, was used as the reagent. Readily accessible routes to /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines of higher specific activity were also investigated. Approaches to the synthesis of high specific activity (>200 Ci/mmol) (/sup 18/F)3-fluorodiazepam involve nucleophilic displacement at carbon-3 (e.g. from 3-chlorodiazepam) with (/sup 18/F)fluoride ion. The results presented here demonstrate the synthetic accessibility of /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines for application in neurotransmitter ligand studies with PET.

  9. Synthesis of [F-18]fluoroatipamezole. Biodistribution in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solin, O.; Enas, J.D.; Bergman, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Fluoroatipamezole, an analogue of the {alpha}2 adrenoreceptor antagonist atipamezole, is a potential candidate for mapping adrenergic innervation in the human brain with PET. As a nucleophilic route failed, F-18-labelling was achieved by electrophillic fluorination of a stannylated precursor. The fluorinated compound was injected into rats, and the uptake in various organs was studied as a function of time (30, 60, 120 min). Also autoradiographic images of microtome slices of rat brain were recorded and analysed. The synthesis yield was {approximately} 3% (decay-corrected) as calculated from the F-18-fluoride produced. The specific radioactivity was {approximately} 350 mCi/{mu}mole at EOS.

  10. Comparison of F-18-FLT PET and F-18-FDG PET in esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westreenen, HL; Cobben, DCP; Jager, PL; van Dullemen, HM; Wesseling, J; Elsinga, PH; Plukker, JT

    F-18-FDG PET has gained acceptance for staging of esophageal cancer. However, FDG is not tumor specific and false-positive results may occur by accumulation of FDG in benign tissue. The tracer F-18-fluoro-3'-deoxy-3'-L-fluorothymidine (F-18-FLT) might not have these drawbacks. The aim of this study

  11. F-18 production with the TOP linac injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianfarani, Cesidio [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Cisbani, Evaristo [ISS, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome (Italy); Orlandi, Gianluca [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Frullani, Salvatore [ISS, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: salvatore.frullani@iss.infn.it; Picardi, Luigi [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Ronsivalle, Concetta [ENEA, Via E. Fermi 45, Frascati (Rome) (Italy)

    2006-06-23

    ENEA and ISS (Italian National Institute of Health), are collaborating to develop a dedicated proton medical accelerator, TOP (Oncological Therapy with Protons) linac, consisting of a sequence of three pulsed linear accelerators. The 7 MeV injector can be used in three operating modes: Protontherapy and Radiobiology Mode-injecting low current proton beam into the TOP linac accelerating sections; Radioisotope Mode-generating an intense proton beam (8-10 mA, 50-100 {mu}s, 30-100 Hz) to produce the positron-emitting radionuclide F18 for PET analyses. In the high current mode, at the exit of the injector the beam is guided through a magnetic quadrupoles channel to a target composed by a thin chamber (0.5 mm thick and 1 in. diameter) containing water enriched with O18. Production yield as well as total activity similar to these achieved with higher energy cyclotrons have been obtained. Environmental doses measured give indications on the shielding required for operation under current radioprotection regulations. Improvements are foreseen to optimize the production yield, the useful beam current and to better characterize gamma and neutron dose rates in the different operational modes.

  12. F-18-FLT PET for visualization of laryngeal cancer : Comparison with F-18-FDG PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, DCP; van der Laan, BFAM; Maas, B; Vaalburg, W; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hoekstra, HJ; Jager, PL; Elsinga, PH

    The feasibility of F-18-3'-fluoro-3'-deoxy-L-thymidine PET (FLT PET) for detecting laryngeal cancer was investigated and compared with F-18-FDG PET. Methods: Eleven patients diagnosed with or strongly suspected of having recurrent laryngeal cancer and 10 patients with histologically proven primary

  13. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres (176,000...

  14. Impact of [F-18]-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine PET imaging on target definition for radiation therapy of high-grade glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    af Rosenschold, Per Munck; Costa, Junia; Engelholm, Svend Aage

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to assess the impact of amino-acid (18)F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine (FET) positron emission tomography (PET) on the volumetric target definition for radiation therapy of high-grade glioma versus the current standard using MRI alone. Specifically, we investigated the influence...

  15. 76 FR 37129 - Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F-18) Injection, 10 to 200 Millicuries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F... Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (sodium fluoride F-18) injection, 10... FLUORIDE F 18 injection, 10 to 200 mCi/mL, if all other legal and regulatory requirements are met. FOR...

  16. A Novel imaging agent for acetylcholinesterase: 2-[F-18]fluoro-CP-118,954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Y. K.; Choi, Y. S; Baek, J. Y.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, E. Y.; Kim, Y. R.; Kim, S. E [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    AcetyIcholinesterase (AChE) is an important cholinergic marker for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Although many AChE inhibitors were developed as radioligands for AChE imaging, most of them showed a uniform regional brain distribution. In this study, 2-fluoro-CP-118,954 with excellent anti-AChE activity (IC{sub 50} = 0.74 nM) was prepared as the radioligand, 2-[F-18]fluoro-CP-118,954 ([F-l8]) and evaluated for AChE imaging. [F-l8] was prepared by reductive alkylation of CP-144,885 (Pfizer Inc. U.S.A.) with 2-[F-l8]fIuorobenzaldehyde at 130 .deg. for 15 min, followed by HPLC purification. Mice were injected with the radioligand [F-18] via tail vein. At the indicated time points (5, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min), samples of bone and brain tissues were removed, weighed, and counted. Blocking experiments were carried out in mice by coinjection of the radioligand with, a dopamine receptor antagonist, or a sigma receptor agonist, and samples of brain tissues were collected at 60 min postinjection, weighed and counted. The radioligand [F-l8] was synthesized in 20-35% radiochemical yield and with high specific activity (40-42 GBq/mol). Tissue distribution studies demonstrated that the regional brain distribution of [F-18] was welI correlated with the known density of AChE in mouse brain, with the highest striatum to cerebellum uptake ratio (4.5) at 60 min postinjection. The high level of uptake was also shown at all time points in the olfactory tubercle that is known to have the dopaminergic neurons and also have high AChE staining in rat brain. The uptake in both the striatum and olfactory tubercle was not blocked by either dopamine receptor antagonists or a sigma receptor agonist. On the other hand, significant blocking of the uptake by suggested high specific binding of [F-l8] to AChE. This study demonstrated that [F-18] is a suitable imaging agent for AChE.

  17. Metabolism of F18, a Derivative of Calanolide A, in Human Liver Microsomes and Cytosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangmeng Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available 10-Chloromethyl-11-demethyl-12-oxo-calanolide (F18, an analog of calanolide A, is a novel potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor against HIV-1. Here, we report the metabolic profile and the results of associated biochemical studies of F18 in vitro and in vivo. The metabolites of F18 were identified based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and/or nuclear magnetic resonance. Twenty-three metabolites of F18 were observed in liver microsomes in vitro. The metabolism of F18 involved 4-propyl chain oxidation, 10-chloromethyl oxidative dechlorination and 12-carbonyl reduction. Three metabolites (M1, M3-1, and M3-2 were also found in rat blood after oral administration of F18 and the reduction metabolites M3-1 and M3-2 were found to exhibit high potency for the inhibition of HIV-1 in vitro. The oxidative metabolism of F18 was mainly catalyzed by cytochrome P450 3A4 in human microsomes, whereas flavin-containing monooxygenases and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were found to be involved in its carbonyl reduction. In human cytosol, multiple carbonyl reductases, including aldo-keto reductase 1C, short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases and quinone oxidoreductase 1, were demonstrated to be responsible for F18 carbonyl reduction. In conclusion, the in vitro metabolism of F18 involves multiple drug metabolizing enzymes, and several metabolites exhibited anti-HIV-1 activities. Notably, the described results provide the first demonstration of the capability of FMOs for carbonyl reduction.

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of 4-[F-18]fluoro thalidomide for the in vivo studies of angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Jeong, K. H.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Thalidomide has been recently rediscovered for its possible utility as an antitumor agent, although it was marketed as a sedative in the 1950s and later found to be a potent teratogen. In this study, therefore, F-18 labeled thalidomide was synthesized and evaluated for the in vivo studies of angiogenesis. 4-[F-18]Fluoro thalidomide ([F-18]1) was prepared by labeling of 4-trimethylammonium thalidomide triflate with TBA[F-18]F in DMSO (90 .deg. C, 10 min) and purified by HPLC. The triflate salt was prepared from 3-fluoro phthalic anhydride in 3 steps. [F-18]1 was incubated with HUVEC cells at 37 .deg. C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min, respectively. Dynamic PET images of [F-18]1 was obtained in mice implanted with LLC cells. In vitro metabolism study of [F-18]1 was carried out using mouse, rabbit, or human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, and the metabolites obtained from the mouse liver microsomal incubation of 1 were analyzed using LC-MS. Radiochemical yield of [F-18]1 was 50-60%, and the specific activity was 42-120 GBq/imol. The HUVEC cell uptake of [F-18]1 increased with time (100% at 15 min and 241% at 120 min). PET images showed that the radioactivity was accumulated in the liver, the kidneys and the bladder of the mice, and brain uptake was shown from 40 min postinjection. However, there was low level of radioactivity uptake in tumor. [F-18]1 was not metabolized by mouse, rabbit, or human liver microsomes but was hydrolyzed significantly at physiological pH. The hydrolyzed product was further analyzed by LC-MS, showing a mass peak corresponding to that of 4-fluoro-N-(o-carboxybenzoyl)glutamic acid imide. This result suggests that [F-18]1 is easily hydrolyzed at physiological pH and thus may not be suitable for the in vivo studies of tumor angiogenesis at least in rodents, although it was reported that the hydrolysis product of thalidomide may be responsible for its angiogenesis activity in humans.

  19. [F-18]-AV-1451 binding correlates with postmortem neurofibrillary tangle Braak staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquié, Marta; Siao Tick Chong, Michael; Antón-Fernández, Alejandro; Verwer, Eline E; Sáez-Calveras, Nil; Meltzer, Avery C; Ramanan, Prianca; Amaral, Ana C; Gonzalez, Jose; Normandin, Marc D; Frosch, Matthew P; Gómez-Isla, Teresa

    2017-06-13

    [F-18]-AV-1451, a PET tracer specifically developed to detect brain neurofibrillary tau pathology, has the potential to facilitate accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), staging of brain tau burden and monitoring disease progression. Recent PET studies show that patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD dementia exhibit significantly higher in vivo [F-18]-AV-1451 retention than cognitively normal controls. Importantly, PET patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 correlate well with disease severity and seem to match the predicted topographic Braak staging of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in AD, although this awaits confirmation. We studied the correlation of autoradiographic binding patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 and the stereotypical spatiotemporal pattern of progression of NFTs using legacy postmortem brain samples representing different Braak NFT stages (I-VI). We performed [F-18]-AV-1451 phosphor-screen autoradiography and quantitative tau measurements (stereologically based NFT counts and biochemical analysis of tau pathology) in three brain regions (entorhinal cortex, superior temporal sulcus and visual cortex) in a total of 22 cases: low Braak (I-II, n = 6), intermediate Braak (III-IV, n = 7) and high Braak (V-VI, n = 9). Strong and selective [F-18]-AV-1451 binding was detected in all tangle-containing regions matching precisely the observed pattern of PHF-tau immunostaining across the different Braak stages. As expected, no signal was detected in the white matter or other non-tangle containing regions. Quantification of [F-18]-AV-1451 binding was very significantly correlated with the number of NFTs present in each brain region and with the total tau and phospho-tau content as reported by Western blot and ELISA. [F-18]-AV-1451 is a promising biomarker for in vivo quantification of brain tau burden in AD. Neuroimaging-pathologic studies conducted on postmortem material from individuals imaged while alive are now needed to confirm these observations.

  20. F-18 fluoride positron emission tomography-computed tomography for detecting atherosclerotic plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Won Jun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    A large number of major cardiovascular events occur in patients due to minimal or some lumen narrowing of the coronary artery. Recent biological studies have shown that the biological composition or vulnerability of the plaque is more critical for plaque rupture compared to the degree of stenosis. To overcome the limitations of anatomical images, molecular imaging techniques have been suggested as promising imaging tools in various fields. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), which is widely used in the field of oncology, is an example of molecular probes used in atherosclerotic plaque evaluation. FDG is a marker of plaque macrophage glucose utilization and inflammation, which is a prominent characteristic of vulnerable plaque. Recently, F-18 fluoride has been used to visualize vulnerable plaque in clinical studies. F-18 fluoride accumulates in regions of active microcalcification, which is normally observed during the early stages of plaque formation. More studies are warranted on the accumulation of F-18 fluoride and plaque formation/vulnerability; however, due to high specific accumulation, low background activity, and easy accessibility, F-18 fluoride is emerging as a promising non-invasive imaging probe to detect vulnerable plaque.

  1. PREOVULATORY FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT IN HIGH YIELDING COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Tomášek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the development of preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows. The treatment by supergestran and oestrophan was used to synchronize the estrous cycle. Ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. The linear increase of preovulatory follicles was observed in pregnant (P < 0,001 and non-pregnant (P < 0,001 cows during 8 days before ovulation. In conclusion, preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows developed similarly.

  2. F-18 Labeled Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Analogue in the PET Imaging of Colon Carcinoma in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As large amount of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP receptors are expressed in various tumors and VIP-related diseases, radiolabeled VIP provides a potential PET imaging agent for VIP receptor. However, structural modification of VIP is required before being radiolabeled and used for VIP receptor imaging due to its poor in vivo stability. As a VIP analogue, [R8, 15, 21, L17]-VIP exhibited improved stability and receptor specificity in preliminary studies. In this study, F-18 labeled [R8,15,21, L17]-VIP was produced with the radiochemical yield being as high as 33.6%±3% (decay-for-corrected, n=5 achieved within 100 min, a specific activity of 255 GBq/μmol, and a radiochemical purity as high as 99% as characterized by radioactive HPLC, TLC, and SDS-Page radioautography. A biodistribution study in normal mice also demonstrated fast elimination of F-18 labeled [R8,15,21, L17]-VIP in the blood, liver, and gastrointestinal tracts. A further micro-PET imaging study in C26 colon carcinoma bearing mice confirmed the high tumor specificity, with the tumor/muscle radioactivity uptake ratio being as high as 3.03 at 60 min following injection, and no apparent radioactivity concentration in the intestinal tracts. In addition, blocking experiment and Western Blot test further confirmed its potential in PET imaging of VIP receptor-positive tumor.

  3. Stimulation of Escherichia coli F-18Col- Type-1 fimbriae synthesis by leuX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Joseph V.; Burghoff, Robert L.; Pallesen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli F-18, a normal human fecal isolate, is an excellent colonizer of the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine. E. coli F-18Col-, a derivative of E. coli F-18 which no longer makes the E. coli F-18 colicin, colonizes the large intestine as well as E. coli F-18 when fed to mice a...

  4. Improved methods to determine radionuclidic purity of F-18 compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas; Micheelsen, Mille Ankerstjerne; Jensen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Current revisions of monographs for F-18 pharmaceuticals in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) (Ph. Eur., 2011) call for a radionuclidic purity (RNP) of or better than 99.9%. However, the current method is not sufficient nor effective for testing this required RNP level. We present a theoretical...... model leading to a practical procedure for a simple test of RNP for F-18 compounds that tells whether or not the sample is pure with a statistical confidence of 97.5% (P=0.975). (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF 1'-[F-18]FLUOROMETOPROLOL AS A POTENTIAL TRACER FOR THE VISUALIZATION OF BETA-ADRENOCEPTORS WITH PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGROOT, TJ; VANWAARDE, A; ELSINGA, PH; VISSER, GM; BRODDE, OE; VAALBURG, W

    (+/-)-1'-[F-18]Fluorometoprol 4 was prepared from desisopropylmetoprolol and [F-18]fluoroisopropyl tosylate 2 with a radiochemical yield of 2% [corrected for decay to end of bombardment (EOB), synthesis time 90 min]. Synthon 2 was prepared from (S)-1,2-propanediol di(p-toluenesulfonate) in 45%

  6. Quantifying [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the arterial wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Bashyam, A.; Ramachandran, A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The human arterial wall is smaller than the spatial resolution of current positron emission tomographs. Therefore, partial volume effects should be considered when quantifying arterial wall F-18-FDG uptake. We evaluated the impact of a novel method for partial volume effect (PVE) correcti...

  7. Activity-based costing evaluation of [F-18]-fludeoxyglucose production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krug, Bruno; Van Zanten, Annie; Pirson, Anne-Sophie; Crott, Ralph; Borght, Thierry Vander

    2008-01-01

    Introduction As healthcare expenses are escalating in many countries, the sector faces a new challenge of becoming more cost efficient. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of healthcare procedures. The cost of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [F-18]-fludeoxyglucose (F-

  8. Activity-based costing evaluation of [F-18]-fludeoxyglucose production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krug, Bruno; Van Zanten, Annie; Pirson, Anne-Sophie; Crott, Ralph; Borght, Thierry Vander

    2008-01-01

    Introduction As healthcare expenses are escalating in many countries, the sector faces a new challenge of becoming more cost efficient. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of healthcare procedures. The cost of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [F-18]-fludeoxyglucose (F-

  9. F-18 FDG PET in Detecting Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ak, I.; Can, C. [Osmangazi Univ. Medical Faculty, Eskisehir (Turkey). Depts. of Nuclear Medicine and Urology

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of F-18 FDG imaging with a dual head coincidence mode gamma camera (Co-PET) in the detection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients with renal masses. Material and Methods: An F-18 FDG Co-PET study was performed in 19 patients (7 F, 12 M; mean age 58.15{+-}2.5 years, age range 45-79 years) with suspected primary renal tumors based on conventional imaging techniques, including computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) before nephrectomy or surgical resection of the mass. Results: Histologically documented RCC was present in 15 patients. Of the 19 patients with suspected primary renal tumors, F-18 FDG Co-PET was true-positive in 13, false-negative in 2, true-negative in 3, and false-positive in 1 patient. Twangiomyolipomas and one renal mass due to infarction and hemorrhage showed a true-negative Co-PET result. The patient with false-positive FDG Co-PET study was diagnosed as xantogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FDG Co-PET for RCC were 86% (13/15), 75% (3/4), and 84% (16/19), respectively. Positive predictive value for RCC was 92% and negative predictive value 60%. Conclusion: These findings suggest that F-18 FDG Co-PET may have a role in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with RCC and primary staging of disease. Positive F-18 FDG study may be predictive of the presence of RCC. However, a negative study does not exclude the RCC.

  10. Expression of key glycosphingolipid biosynthesis-globo series pathway genes in Escherichia coli F18-resistant and Escherichia coli F18-sensitive piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W H; Dai, C H; Sun, L; Wang, J; Sun, S Y; Zhu, G Q; Wu, S L; Bao, W B

    2016-08-01

    A pioneering study showed that the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis-globo series pathway genes (FUT1, FUT2, ST3GAL1, HEXA, HEXB, B3GALNT1 and NAGA) may play an important regulatory role in resistance to Escherichia coli F18 in piglets. Therefore, we analysed differential gene expression in 11 tissues of two populations of piglets sensitive and resistant respectively to E. coli F18 and the correlation of differential gene expression in duodenal and jejunal tissues. We found that the mRNA expression of the seven genes was relatively high in spleen, liver, lung, kidney, stomach and intestinal tract; the levels in thymus and lymph nodes were lower, with the lowest levels in heart and muscle. FUT2 gene expression in the duodenum and jejunum of the resistant population was significantly lower than that in the sensitive group (P gene expression was also significantly lower in the duodenum of the resistant population than in the sensitive group (P genes. The expression level of FUT1 was extremely significantly positively correlated with FUT2 and B3GALNT1 expression (P < 0.01) and also had a significant positive correlation with NAGA expression (P < 0.05). The expression level of FUT2 had extremely significant positive correlations with FUT1, ST3GAL1 and B3GALNT1 (P < 0.01). These results suggest that FUT2 plays an important role in E. coli F18 resistance in piglets. FUT1, ST3GAL1, B3GALNT1 and NAGA may also participate in the mechanism of resistance to E. coli F18.

  11. Methods for high yield production of terpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchan, Toni; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-03

    Provided are enhanced high yield production systems for producing terpenes in plants via the expression of fusion proteins comprising various combinations of geranyl diphosphate synthase large and small subunits and limonene synthases. Also provided are engineered oilseed plants that accumulate monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in their seeds, as well as methods for producing such plants, providing a system for rapidly engineering oilseed crop production platforms for terpene-based biofuels.

  12. Methods for high yield production of terpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-03

    Provided are enhanced high yield production systems for producing terpenes in plants via the expression of fusion proteins comprising various combinations of geranyl diphosphate synthase large and small subunits and limonene synthases. Also provided are engineered oilseed plants that accumulate monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in their seeds, as well as methods for producing such plants, providing a system for rapidly engineering oilseed crop production platforms for terpene-based biofuels.

  13. Pathological correlations of [F-18]-AV-1451 imaging in non-alzheimer tauopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquié, Marta; Normandin, Marc D; Meltzer, Avery C; Siao Tick Chong, Michael; Andrea, Nicolas V; Antón-Fernández, Alejandro; Klunk, William E; Mathis, Chester A; Ikonomovic, Milos D; Debnath, Manik; Bien, Elizabeth A; Vanderburg, Charles R; Costantino, Isabel; Makaretz, Sara; DeVos, Sarah L; Oakley, Derek H; Gomperts, Stephen N; Growdon, John H; Domoto-Reilly, Kimiko; Lucente, Diane; Dickerson, Bradford C; Frosch, Matthew P; Hyman, Bradley T; Johnson, Keith A; Gómez-Isla, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that positron emission tomography (PET) tracer AV-1451 exhibits high binding affinity for paired helical filament (PHF)-tau pathology in Alzheimer's brains. However, the ability of this ligand to bind to tau lesions in other tauopathies remains controversial. Our goal was to examine the correlation of in vivo and postmortem AV-1451 binding patterns in three autopsy-confirmed non-Alzheimer tauopathy cases. We quantified in vivo retention of [F-18]-AV-1451 and performed autoradiography, [H-3]-AV-1451 binding assays, and quantitative tau measurements in postmortem brain samples from two progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) cases and a MAPT P301L mutation carrier. They all underwent [F-18]-AV-1451 PET imaging before death. The three subjects exhibited [F-18]-AV-1451 in vivo retention predominantly in basal ganglia and midbrain. Neuropathological examination confirmed the PSP diagnosis in the first two subjects; the MAPT P301L mutation carrier had an atypical tauopathy characterized by grain-like tau-containing neurites in gray and white matter with heaviest burden in basal ganglia. In all three cases, autoradiography failed to show detectable [F-18]-AV-1451 binding in multiple brain regions examined, with the exception of entorhinal cortex (reflecting incidental age-related neurofibrillary tangles) and neuromelanin-containing neurons in the substantia nigra (off-target binding). The lack of a consistent significant correlation between in vivo [F-18]-AV-1541 retention and postmortem in vitro binding and tau measures in these cases suggests that this ligand has low affinity for tau lesions primarily made of straight tau filaments. AV-1451 may have limited utility for in vivo selective and reliable detection of tau aggregates in these non-Alzheimer tauopathies. ANN NEUROL 2017;81:117-128. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  14. Imaging the pharmacokinetics of [F-18]FAU in patients with tumors: PET studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haihao; Collins, Jerry M; Mangner, Thomas J; Muzik, Otto; Shields, Anthony F

    2006-02-01

    FAU (1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D: -arabinofuranosyl) uracil) can be phosphorylated by thymidine kinase, methylated by thymidylate synthase, followed by DNA incorporation and thus functions as a DNA synthesis inhibitor. This first-in-human study of [F-18]FAU was conducted in cancer patients to determine its suitability for imaging and also to understand its pharmacokinetics as a potential antineoplastic agent. Six patients with colorectal (n = 3) or breast cancer (n = 3) were imaged with [F-18]FAU. Serial blood and urine samples were analyzed using HPLC to determine the clearance and metabolites. Imaging showed that [F-18]FAU was concentrated in breast tumors and a lymph node metastasis (tumor-to-normal-breast-tissue-ratio 3.7-4.7). FAU retention in breast tumors was significantly higher than in normal breast tissues at 60 min and retained in tumor over 2.5 h post-injection. FAU was not retained above background in colorectal tumors. Increased activity was seen in the kidney and urinary bladder due to excretion. Decreased activity was seen in the bone marrow with a mean SUV 0.6. Over 95% of activity in the blood and urine was present as intact [F-18]FAU at the end of the study. Increased [F-18]FAU retention was shown in the breast tumors but not in colorectal tumors. The increased retention of FAU in the breast compared to bone marrow indicates that FAU may be useful as an unlabeled antineoplastic agent. The low retention in the marrow indicates that unlabeled FAU might lead to little marrow toxicity; however, the images were not of high contrast to consider FAU for diagnostic clinical imaging.

  15. Radiosynthesis of F-18 DPA-714, a selective radioligand for imaging the translocator protein (18 kDa) with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damont, A.; Hinnen, F.; Kuhnast, B.; Schollhorn-Peyronneau, M.A.; Tavitian, B.; Dolle, F. [CEA, I2BM, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Laboratoired' Imagerie Moleculaire Experimentale, F-91401 Orsay (France); James, M.; Luus, C. [University of Sydney, Department of Pharmacology, NSW 2006 (Australia); James, M.; Luus, C.; Kassiou, M. [University of Sydney, Brain and Mind Research Institute, NSW 2050 (Australia); Tavitian, B. [INSERM, U803, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, F-91401 Orsay (France); Kassiou, M. [University of Sydney, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, NSW 2006 (Australia); Kassiou, M. [University of Sydney, School of Chemistry, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Recently, a novel series of 2-phenyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-acetamides has been reported as selective ligands of the translocator protein (18 kDa). Within this series, DPA-714 (NN-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide, K-i=7.0 nM) is a compound, which had been designed with a fluorine atom in its structure, allowing labelling with fluorine-18 (half-life: 109.8 min) and in vivo imaging using positron emission tomography. DPA-714 and its tosyl-oxy derivative (NN-diethyl-2- (2- (4- (2-toluene-sulfonyl-oxy-ethoxy)phenyl) -5,7-dimethyl-pyrazolo [1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl) acetamide) as precursor for the labelling with fluorine-18 were synthesized in two steps from DPA-713 (N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin -3-yl)acetamide) and obtained in 32 and 42% yields, respectively. [(18)FIDPA-714 was synthesized using a simple one-step process (a tosyl-oxy-for-fluorine nucleophilic aliphatic substitution), which has been fully automated on our Zymate-XP robotic system. It involves: (A) reaction of K[F-18]F-Kryptofix 222 with the tosyl-oxy precursor (4.5-5.0 mg, 8.2-9.1 {mu}mol) at 165 degrees C for 5 min in dimethyl sulfoxide (0.6 ml) followed by (B) C18 PrepSep cartridge pre-purification and finally (C) semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification on a Waters X-Terra(TM) RP18. Typically, 5.6-7.4 GBq of [F-18]DPA-714 ({>=} 95% chemically and radiochemically pure) could be obtained with specific radioactivities ranging from 37 to 111 GBq/{mu}mol within 85-90 min (HPLC purification and SepPak (R)-based formulation included), starting from a 37 GBq[F-18]fluoride batch (overall non-decay-corrected and isolated radiochemical yield: 15-20%). (authors)

  16. Giant cell tumor of the rib: Two cases of F-18 FDG PET/CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Lim; Yoo, Le Ryung; Lee, Yeong Joo; Jung, Chan Kwon [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of MedicineThe Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sonya Young Ju [Molecular Imaging Program, Dept. of Radiology, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Stanford (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    We report two cases of giant cell tumor arising from the rib and their F-18 FDG PET/CT findings. The two patients complained of chest wall pain, and large lobulated soft tissue masses with intense FDG uptake were seen on F-18 FDG PET/CT. A malignant tumor such as osteosarcoma or chondrosarcoma was suspected due to the large size of the mass, bony destruction, and intense FDG uptake. En bloc resection was performed and final pathologic results revealed giant cell tumor of the rib. Giant cell tumor of the rib is very rare, and larger lesions with high FDG uptake can be misdiagnosed as an intrathoracic malignancy arising from the rib, pleura, or chest wall.

  17. An efficient in vitro method for metabolism studies of F-18 labeled radiotracers using mouse liver S9 fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, E. K.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, D. H.; Ko, B. H.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Metabolism studies are prerequisite for characterization of novel radiotracers. In this study, in vitro metabolism method using mouse liver S9 fraction was established and evaluated using model radiotracers, and the results were compared with those of in vivo method and in vitro method using liver microsomes. 1-(4-[F-18] fluoro methylbenzyl)- ([F-18]1) and 1-(4-[F-18]fluorobenzyl)-4-phen ylpiperazine ([F-18]2) were synthesized and purified by HPLC. Liver S9 fraction and microsomes were prepared from mice. In the in vivo method, mice were injected with the radiotracer, and the bone and blood were collected at 1, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min postinjection. In the in vitro method, the radiotracer was incubated with either S9 fraction or microsomes in the presence of NADPH. The metabolites were analyzed by radio-TLC. Metabolic defluorination was also measured from the incubation of the metabolites with calcium phosphate. [F-18]1 and [F-18]2 were synthesized in 25-35% yield. In the in vivo method, [F-18]1 underwent severe metabolic defluorination based on the increase of bone uptake with time and appearance of [F-18]fluoride ion on radio-TLC in the blood samples. This result was consistent with the in vitro metabolism using either S9 fraction or microsomes, which showed a significant uptake by calcium phosphate. [F-18]2 was converted into unidentified polar metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. There was no increasing uptake by either bone or calcium phosphate with time. The in vitro metabolism of these radiotracers using S9 fraction gave the similar patterns to those using the blood as well as microsomes. This result demonstrated that liver S9 fraction can be used in place of microsomes as well as the blood for the metabolism studies of radiotracers. Moreover, the use of liver S9 fraction has advantages in that it is easily obtained during the early stage of liver microsomal preparation and contains both microsomal and cytosolic fractions.

  18. Combining high biodiversity with high yields in tropical agroforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Yann; Barkmann, Jan; Juhrbandt, Jana; Kessler, Michael; Wanger, Thomas Cherico; Anshary, Alam; Buchori, Damayanti; Cicuzza, Daniele; Darras, Kevin; Putra, Dadang Dwi; Erasmi, Stefan; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Schmidt, Carsten; Schulze, Christian H.; Seidel, Dominik; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stenchly, Kathrin; Vidal, Stefan; Weist, Maria; Wielgoss, Arno Christian; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-01-01

    Local and landscape-scale agricultural intensification is a major driver of global biodiversity loss. Controversially discussed solutions include wildlife-friendly farming or combining high-intensity farming with land-sparing for nature. Here, we integrate biodiversity and crop productivity data for smallholder cacao in Indonesia to exemplify for tropical agroforests that there is little relationship between yield and biodiversity under current management, opening substantial opportunities for wildlife-friendly management. Species richness of trees, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates did not decrease with yield. Moderate shade, adequate labor, and input level can be combined with a complex habitat structure to provide high biodiversity as well as high yields. Although livelihood impacts are held up as a major obstacle for wildlife-friendly farming in the tropics, our results suggest that in some situations, agroforests can be designed to optimize both biodiversity and crop production benefits without adding pressure to convert natural habitat to farmland. PMID:21536873

  19. Differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism using dual phase F 18 FP CIT PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, So Young; Oh, Min Young; Ok, Seung Jun; Oh, Jung Su; Lee, Sang Ju; Chung, Sun Ju; Lee, Chong Sik; Kim, Jae Seung [Univ. of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging can demonstrate presynaptic dopaminergic neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, differentiating atypical parkinsonism (APD) from PD is often difficult. We investigated the usefulness of dual phase F 18 FP CIT positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. Ninety eight subjects [five normal, seven drug induced parkinsonism (DIP), five essential tremor (ET), 24 PD, 20 multiple system atrophy parkinson type (MSA-P), 13 multiple system atrophy cerebellar type (MSA-C), 13 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and 11 dementia with Lewy bodies(DLB)] underwent F 18 FP CIT PET. PET images were acquired at 5 min (early phase) and 3 h (late phase) after F 18 FP CIT administration (185MBq). Regional uptake pattern of cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres was assessed on early phase images, using visual, quantitative, and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses. Striatal DAT binding was normal in normal, ET, DIP, and MSA C groups, but abnormal in PD, MSA P PSP, and DLB groups. No difference was found in regional uptake on early phase images among normal DAT binding groups, except in the MSA C group. Abnormal DAT binding groups showed different regional uptake pattern on early phase images compared with PD in SPM analysis (FDR<0.05). When discriminating APD from PD, visual interpretation of the early phase image showed high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity (75.4% and 100%, respectively). Regarding the ability to distinguish specific APD, sensitivities were 81% for MSA P, 77% for MSA C, 23% for PSP, and 54.5% for DLB. Dual phase F 18 FP CIT PET imaging is useful in demonstrating striatal DAT loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonism, and also in differentiating APD, particularly MSA, from PD.

  20. A Rationale for the Use of F18-FDG PET/CT in Fever and Inflammation of Unknown Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balink, H.; Verberne, H. J.; Bennink, R. J.; van Eck-Smit, B. L. F.

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the diagnostic value of hybrid F18-FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized tomography (PET/CT) in fever of unknown origin (FUO) and inflammation of unknown origin (IUO). Due to the wide range of possible causes both FUO and IUO remain a clinical challenge for both patients and physicians. In addition, the aetiology of IUO shows the same variation in diseases as the FUO spectrum and probably requires the same diagnostic approach as FUO. There are numerous historically used diagnostic approaches incorporating invasive and non-invasive, and imaging techniques, all with relative high specificity but limited sensitivity. This hampers the generalization of these diagnostic approaches. However, recently published reports show that F18-FDG PET/CT in FUO and IUO has a high sensitivity and a relative non-specificity for malignancy, infection and inflammation. This makes F18-FDG PET/CT an ideal diagnostic tool to start the diagnostic process and to guide subsequent focused diagnostic approaches with higher specificity. In addition, F18-FDG PET/CT has a relative high negative predictive value. Therefore F18 FDG PET/CT should be incorporated in the routine diagnostic work-up of patients with FUO and IUO, preferably at an early stage in the diagnostic process. PMID:23316356

  1. A Rationale for the Use of F18-FDG PET/CT in Fever and Inflammation of Unknown Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Balink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the diagnostic value of hybrid F18-FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized tomography (PET/CT in fever of unknown origin (FUO and inflammation of unknown origin (IUO. Due to the wide range of possible causes both FUO and IUO remain a clinical challenge for both patients and physicians. In addition, the aetiology of IUO shows the same variation in diseases as the FUO spectrum and probably requires the same diagnostic approach as FUO. There are numerous historically used diagnostic approaches incorporating invasive and non-invasive, and imaging techniques, all with relative high specificity but limited sensitivity. This hampers the generalization of these diagnostic approaches. However, recently published reports show that F18-FDG PET/CT in FUO and IUO has a high sensitivity and a relative non-specificity for malignancy, infection and inflammation. This makes F18-FDG PET/CT an ideal diagnostic tool to start the diagnostic process and to guide subsequent focused diagnostic approaches with higher specificity. In addition, F18-FDG PET/CT has a relative high negative predictive value. Therefore F18 FDG PET/CT should be incorporated in the routine diagnostic work-up of patients with FUO and IUO, preferably at an early stage in the diagnostic process.

  2. Unusual Soft Tissue Uptake of F-18 Sodium Fluoride in Three Patients Undergoing F-18 NaF PET/CT Bone Scans for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Andrew S; Howard, Brandon A

    2017-09-01

    Three males aged 71 to 80 years with known stage IV metastatic prostate cancer underwent F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) PET/CT to assess osseous metastatic disease burden and stability. In addition to F-18 NaF avid known osseous metastases, each patient also exhibited increased F-18 NaF activity in soft tissues. The first patient exhibited multiple F-18 NaF avid enlarged retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes on consecutive PET/CT scans. The second patient demonstrated an F-18 NaF avid thyroid nodule on consecutive PET/CT scans. The third patient exhibited increased F-18 NaF activity in a hepatic metastasis.

  3. Experiments With Recirculating Target for F-18 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, M. Y.

    2003-08-01

    Approximately 10 ml of O-18 water was loaded in an apparatus containing a 5 ml storage vessel, pump, silver target attached to a cyclotron, filter, backpressure regulator, conductivity meter, several valves and ion exchange cartridges. The water was continuously pumped through the target during proton bombardment at a rate 5 ml/min. Continuous irradiation with beam current ranging from 10 to 50 uA was conducted while pressure, temperature and conductivity were continuously monitored. The results indicate that recirculating of the target water can increase production of F-18 in relation to consumed O-18 water material. It can also increase productivity by eliminating idle periods for re-filling the target. A backpressure regulator can precisely control target pressure. This method also allows for continuous monitoring of the target material temperature, pressure, conductivity and accumulated radioactivity. Results of these observations provide important information about target performance and physical processes taking place inside the target.

  4. Low Odor, High Yield Kraft Pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.T. McKean

    2000-12-15

    In laboratory cooks pure oxygen was profiled into the circulation line of a batch digester during two periods of the cooking cycle: The first injection occurred during the heating steps for the purpose of in-situ generation of polysulfide. This chip treatment was studied to explore stabilization against alkaline induced carbohydrate peeling and to increase pulp yield. Under optimum conditions small amounts of polysulfide were produced with yield increase of about 0.5% These increases fell below earlier reports suggesting that unknown differences in liquor composition may influence the relative amounts of polysulfide and thiosulfate generated during the oxidation. Consequently, further studies are required to understand the factors that influence the ratios of those two sulfur species.

  5. Integrated process for high conversion and high yield protein PEGylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, David; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decades, PEGylation has become a powerful technique to increase the in vivo circulation half-life of therapeutic proteins while maintaining their activity. The development of new therapeutic proteins is likely to require further improvement of the PEGylation methods to reach even better selectivity and yield for reduced costs. The intensification of the PEGylation process was investigated through the integration of a chromatographic step in order to increase yield and conversion for the production of mono-PEGylated protein. Lysozyme was used as a model protein to demonstrate the feasibility of such approach. In the integrated reaction/separation process, chromatography was used as fractionation technique in order to isolate and recycle the unreacted protein from the PEGylated products. This allows operating the reactor with short reaction times so as to minimize the production of multi-PEGylated proteins (i.e., conjugated to more than one polymer). That is, the reaction is stopped before the desired product (i.e., the mono-PEGylated protein) can further react, thus leading to limited conversion but high yield. The recycling of the unreacted protein was then considered to drive the protein overall conversion to completion. This approach has great potential to improve processes whose yield is limited by the further reaction of the product leading to undesirable by-products. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1711-1718. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. F-18-FDG-PET for differential diagnosis of pleural processes; F-18-FDG-PET zur Primaerdiagnostik und Dignitaetsbeurteilung pleuraler Prozesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmann, I.; Guhlmann, C.A.; Schirrmeister, H.; Kotzerke, J.; Buck, A.; Reske, S.N. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Nuklearmedizin; Elsner, K. [Ulm Univ. (DE). Abt. Radiologie 2 (Strahlentherapie); Gfroerer, W. [Universitaetsklinik Ulm (Germany). Abt. fuer Allgemeinchirurgie

    1999-07-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been shown to be accurate for differentiating benign from malignant pulmonary lesions. Therefore, we evaluated the capability of FDG-PET in the characterisation of pleural lesions. Patients and methods: PET was performed in thirteen patients with pleural or intrapulmonal tumors (three with additional pleural effusion) and in three patients with aetiologically unclear pleural effusion demonstrated by CT. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed histologically. The PET-imaging was carried out in fasted patients 50 minutes after injection of 400-670 MBq F-18-FDG without attenuation correction. Results: Twelve patients were found to have pleural or pulmonal malignomas (9 pleural mesotheliomas, 3 bronchogenic adenocarcinoma with carcinomatous pleurisy). Four patients had benign pleural changes (1 fibroma, 1 tuberculous pleurisy, 1 pleural fibrosis, 1 empyema). With FDG-PET, all 12 pleural or intrapulmonal malignomas had high FDG-uptake and were classified correctly. Due to very low or virtually deficient FDG-uptake, four histologically benign lesions were correctly interpreted as nonmalignant. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that FDG-PET is accurate in detecting malignant pleural tumors. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Zahlreiche Studien belegen die hohe Treffsicherheit der Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) mit 2-[F-18]-Fluoro-2-desoxy-D-Glukose (FDG) bei der Dignitaetsbeurteilung nicht-verkalkter Lungenrundherde. Ziel dieser Untersuchung war die Evaluation der Wertigkeit der FDG-PET in der Primaerdiagnostik und Dignitaetsbeurteilung pleuraler Veraenderungen. Patienten/Methode: Dreizehn Patienten mit computertomographisch bekannten pleuralen Raumforderungen, von denen drei zusaetzlich einen Pleuraerguss aufwiesen, sowie drei Patienten mit aetiologisch unklarem Pleuraerguss wurden einer FDG-PET unterzogen. Die PET wurde 50 min nach i.v. Injektion von 400-670 MBq F-18-FDG in

  7. F-18 FDG uptake in respiratory muscle mimicking metastasis in patients with gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Jin; Hyun, In Young [Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Ho [Gachon Medical School Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-08-15

    A 67-year-old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for staging of gastric cancer. The projection images of F-18 FDG PET/CT showed intensely increased F-18 FDG uptake in the anterior neck, chest wall, and upper abdomen. We suspected distant metastases of cervical lymph nodes, ribs, and peritoneum in gastric cancer. However, the transaxial images of F-18 FDG PET/CT showed abnormal F-18 FDG uptake in scalene muscles of anterior neck, intercostal muscles of chest wall, and diaphragm of upper abdomen. Patients with COPD use respiratory muscles extensively on the resting condition. These excessive physiologic use of respiratory muscles causes increased F-18 FDG uptake as a result of increased glucose metabolism. The F-18 FDG uptake in respiratory muscles of gastric cancer patient with COPD mimicked distant metastases in cervical lymph nodes, ribs, and peritoneum.

  8. Myocardial glucose metabolism in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Assessment by F-18-FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Toshiisa [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School; Ishida, Yoshio; Hayashida, Kohei [and others

    1998-04-01

    In an investigation of myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic myocardium, the myocardial glucose metabolism was evaluated with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 32 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the results were compared with those in 9 patients with hypertensive heart disease. F-18-FDG PET study was performed in the fasting and glucose-loading states. The myocardial regional %dose uptake was calculated quantitatively. The average regional %dose uptake in the fasting state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was significantly higher than that in the patients with hypertensive heart disease (0.75{+-}0.34%, 0.65{+-}0.25%, and 0.43{+-}0.22%/100 g myocardium, respectively). In contrast, the average %dose uptake in the glucose-loading state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was not significantly different from that in patients with hypertensive heart disease (1.17{+-}0.49%, 0.80{+-}0.44% and 0.99{+-}0.45%, respectively). The patients with apical hypertrophy had also low %dose uptake in the fasting state (0.38{+-}0.21%) as in the hypertensive heart disease patients, so that the characteristics of asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are considered to be high FDG uptake throughout the myocardium in the fasting state. Patients with apical hypertrophy are considered to belong to other disease categories metabolically. F-18-FDG PET study is useful in the evaluation of the pathophysiologic diagnosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (author)

  9. F-18 FDG PET/CT in Bilateral Diffuse Pulmonary Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil, Raja; Parghane, Rahul; Kashyap, Raghava; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Resaarch, Chandigarh (India)

    2012-06-15

    A 51-year-old female patient, who had undergone left-sided modified radical mastectomy for left breast carcinoma 4 years ago, presented with dyspnea of 4 months duration F-18 FDG PET/CT of this patient showed diffusely in-creased FDG uptake in the bilateral lung fields along the thickened bronchovascular bundles. SUVmax of lymphangitic lung was 5.2. The standardized uptake ratio (SUR) of mediastinal blood pool to lymphangitic lung was 0.44. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the same patient showed thickening of interlobular septa and bronchovaseular bundles, with preservation of normal parenchymal architecture. Multiple intrapulmonary nodules and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy with pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis (PLC). The lungs are the second most common sites for metastases after lymph nodes. These metastases are usually nodular on radiologic images. PLC with interstitial involvement constitutes only 7% of pulmonary metastastases. The most common primary sites, in order of frequency, are adenocarcinoma of the lung, breast, stomach, colon, and prostrate. HRCT has been the modality of choice in the radiologic diagnosis of PLC. Only a few studies have de-scribed the F-18 FDG PET/CT findings in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis. These studies have shown diffusely increased FDG uptake corresponding to the typical changes in the CT as the most common finding. One study has reported that F-18 FDG PET/CT is 100% specific and 86% sensitive in diagnosing PLC by subjective analysis. The mean SUV in the region of pulmonary lymphangitic lung was 1.26{+-}0.45 and that of blood pool to normal lung was 3.78{+-}1.37.

  10. A comparison of conventional and click labeling approaches to the synthesis of F-18 labeled glucopyranosyl triazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, J. Y.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Radiolabeled glucose analogs are attractive targets for in vivo imaging of glucose metabolism. In the present study, F-18 labeled glucopyranosyl triazole was synthesized using conventional and click labeling approaches, and their results were compared in terms of radiochemical yield, specific activity, and synthesis time. 4-[(2-Fluoroethyl)-1-(-D-glucopyranosyl)]-1H-1, 2, 3-triazole (1) was synthesized by the Cu(I)-catalyzed 1, 3-cycloaddition of tetraacetyl glucopyranosyl azide and 3-butyn-1-ol, hydroxy group fluorination, tetraacetyl group deprotection, and subsequent neutralization. [F-18]1 was synthesized using two conventional radiofluorination of tetraacetyl triazole tosylate precursor, followed by tetraacetyl group deprotection and Cu(I)-catalyzed 1, 3-cycloaddition of F-18 labeled butyne and glucopyranosyl azide. The radiotracer was purified by reverse phase HPLC and co-injected with 1 into a HPLC system to confirm its identity. Non-radiolabeled standard 1 was synthesized in overall 33% yield. In the synthesis of [F-18]1, the click labeling approach was superior to the conventional approach, due to a higher decay-corrected radiochemical yield (30% vs. 21%), higher specific activity (59.9 GBq/mol vs. 23.5 GBq/mol), and shorter synthesis time (75-80 min vs. 95-100 min). In addition, protection of the hydroxy groups of glucopyranosyl azide was not required in the former method. The radiotracer was identified by co-elution with 1 on HPLC. These results demonstrate that click labeling approach is a rapid and efficient method which does not require the protection of functional groups, and that it can readily be applied to the preparation of other radiotracers.

  11. Association between the porcine Escherichia coli F18 receptor genotype and phenotype and susceptibility to colonisation and postweaning diarrhoea caused by E-coli O138 : F18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendahl, K.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2003-01-01

    Porcine postweaning Escherichia coli enteritis is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in pigs worldwide, and effective prevention remains an unsolved problem. This study examined the correlation between susceptibility of pigs to experimental infection with an E. coli F18 strain...... and the porcine intestinal F18 receptor genotypes. Thirty-one pigs classified as either belonging to the susceptible or the resistant genotype were inoculated with cultures of an E. coli 0138:F18 isolated from a pig with postweaning diarrhoea. Susceptibility to colonisation and diarrhoea was assessed by clinical...... and heterozygotic susceptible pigs. Faecal shedding of the challenge strain correlated with the genetic receptor profile. Twenty pigs examined immunohistochemically revealed focal to extensive small intestinal mucosal colonisation by E. coli O138:F18 in nine of 10 susceptible and three of 10 resistant pigs. Results...

  12. False-positive F-18 FDG uptake in PET/CT studies in pediatric patients with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riad, Raef; Omar, Walid; Sidhom, Iman; Zamzam, Manal; Zaky, Iman; Hafez, Magdy; Abdel-Dayem, Hussein M

    2010-03-01

    In pediatric patients with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma, the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract and abdominal lymph nodes are the main presenting feature of the disease. Chemotherapy is the main treatment modality and could be preceded by surgical excision of the abdominal masses. To achieve cure or long-term disease-free survival a balance has to be struck between aggressive chemotherapy and the probability of tumor necrosis secondary to treatment complicated by acute infections, perforation or intestinal bleeding. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) has been recommended over conventional imaging modalities for the follow-up of these patients and for monitoring treatment response. As the incidences of postchemotherapy complications are high, the positive predictive value of PET/CT studies in these patients is very low and the false-positive rate is high from acute infections and tumor necrosis. Accordingly, histopathological confirmation of positive lesions on F-18 FDG-PET/CT studies is essential. This is especially important as post-therapy complications might present with nonspecific and nonurgent symptoms. At the same time initiating a second course of salvage chemotherapy is risky. Retrospectively reviewed F-18 FDG-PET/CT studies for 28 pediatric patients with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after their treatment with chemotherapy or surgery. Four positive studies were found. All had pathological verification and were because of acute inflammation and tumor necrosis and there was no evidence of viable tumor cells. One patient had multiple recurrent lesions in the abdomen after the initial surgical excision and before starting chemotherapy. The incidence of acute complications in this series is 10.7%. This study confirms the high incidence of tumor necrosis and inflammation after chemotherapy for the abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma and consequently, the incidence of true

  13. A New F-18 Labeled PET Agent For Imaging Alzheimer's Plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Padmakar V.; Vasdev, Neil; Hao, Guiyang; Arora, Veera; Long, Michael; Slavine, Nikolai; Chiguru, Srinivas; Qu, Bao Xi; Sun, Xiankai; Bennett, Michael; Antich, Peter P.; Bonte, Frederick J.

    2011-06-01

    Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Advances in development of imaging agents have focused on targeting amyloid plaques. Notable success has been the development of C-11 labeled PIB (Pittsburgh Compound) and a number of studies have demonstrated the utility of this agent. However, the short half life of C-11 (t1/2: 20 min), is a limitation, thus has prompted the development of F-18 labeled agents. Most of these agents are derivatives of amyloid binding dyes; Congo red and Thioflavin. Some of these agents are in clinical trials with encouraging results. We have been exploring new class of agents based on 8-hydroxy quinoline, a weak metal chelator, targeting elevated levels of metals in plaques. Iodine-123 labeled clioquinol showed affinity for amyloid plaques however, it had limited brain uptake and was not successful in imaging in intact animals and humans. We have been successful in synthesizing F-18 labeled 8-hydroxy quinoline. Small animal PET/CT imaging studies with this agent showed high (7-10% ID/g), rapid brain uptake and fast washout of the agent from normal mice brains and delayed washout from transgenic Alzheimer's mice. These promising results encouraged us in further evaluation of this class of compounds for imaging AD plaques.

  14. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400 MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8 h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly in...

  15. High-biomass sorghum yield estimate with aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Ruixiu; Hartley, Brandon E.; Gibson, John M.; Yang, Chenghai; Thomasson, J. Alex; Searcy, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    To reach the goals laid out by the U.S. Government for displacing fossil fuels with biofuels, high-biomass sorghum is well-suited to achieving this goal because it requires less water per unit dry biomass and can produce very high biomass yields. In order to make biofuels economically competitive with fossil fuels it is essential to maximize production efficiency throughout the system. The goal of this study was to use remote sensing technologies to optimize the yield and harvest logistics of high-biomass sorghum with respect to production costs based on spatial variability within and among fields. Specific objectives were to compare yield to aerial multispectral imagery and develop predictive relationships. A 19.2-ha high-biomass sorghum field was selected as a study site and aerial multispectral images were acquired with a four-camera imaging system on July 17, 2009. Sorghum plant samples were collected at predetermined geographic coordinates to determine biomass yield. Aerial images were processed to find relationships between image reflectance and yield of the biomass sorghum. Results showed that sorghum biomass yield in early August was closely related (R2 = 0.76) to spectral reflectance. However, in the late season the correlations between the biomass yield and spectral reflectance were not as positive as in the early season. The eventual outcome of this work could lead to predicted-yield maps based on remotely sensed images, which could be used in developing field management practices to optimize yield and harvest logistics.

  16. Willow yield is highly dependent on clone and site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Use of high-yielding genotypes is one of the means to achieve high yield and profitability in willow (Salix spp.) short rotation coppice. This study investigated the performance of eight willow clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) on five Danish sites......, differing considerably in soil type, climatic conditions and management. Compared to the best clone, the yield was up to 36 % lower for other clones across sites and up to 51 % lower within sites. Tordis was superior to other clones with dry matter yields between 5.2 and 10.2 Mg ha−1 year−1 during the first...... 3-year harvest rotation, and it consistently ranked as the highest yielding clone on four of the five sites and not significantly lower than the highest yielding clone on the fifth site. The ranking of the other clones was more dependent on site with significant interaction between clone and site...

  17. Nutritive Equilibrium in Rice Plant Populations for High Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGBOLUN; LIUXINAN; 等

    1999-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium application level,seed rate and transplanting density on the growth and development of rice plants were studied to find out nutrient status in high-yielding rice plants and to increase grain yield by adequate fertilization.There was an equilibrium relationship among nutrient elements for high-yielding rice plant populations.The equilibrium index of nutrient amount ,content and distribution in high-yielding rice plants should be generally greater than-2 but less than 2.The optimum nutritive proportion of nitrogen:phosphorus:potassium assimilated by the plants was about 10:2:9 at the ripening stage.But the content and the proportion varied with the growth stages,Therefore,the nutrient in rice plant populations should be in a dynamic equilibrium.So as to achieve high yield.

  18. High yield, single droplet electrode arrays for nanoscale printed electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caironi, Mario; Gili, Enrico; Sakanoue, Tomo; Cheng, Xiaoyang; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2010-03-23

    In this work we demonstrate two building blocks of a scalable manufacturing technology for nanoscale electronic devices based on direct-write printing: an architecture for high-yield printing of electrode gaps with 100 nm dimension and a low-temperature silver complex ink for integration of organic materials with high conductivity metal interconnects. We use single printed droplets that are made to dewet slowly from each other to allow reliable, high yield patterning even in the presence of certain surface defects.

  19. [F-18]FLT-PET in oncology : current status and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmeijer, AJH; Cobben, DCP; Jager, PL; Hoekstra, HJ; Elsinga, PH

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, [F-18]-fluoro-3'-deoxy-3'-L-fluorothymidine ([F-18]FLT) has been developed as a proliferation tracer. Imaging and measurement of proliferation with PET could provide us with a non-invasive staging tool and a tool to monitor the response to anticancer treatment. In this review, the b

  20. A simple method for the quality control of [F-18]FDG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziorowski, J.

    2010-01-01

    Most automated synthesis modules produce [F-18]FDG within half an hour, but the quality control involving up to three separate methods and three different analytical systems is time consuming. The use of HPLC, TLC, and GC for the quality control of [F-18]FDG is both time consuming and expensive...

  1. High yield DNA fragmentation using cyclical hydrodynamic shearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Sparreboom, Wouter; Spang, Peter; Roeser, Tina; Nieto, Benjamin; Guasch, Francesc; Corbera, Antoni Homs; van den Berg, Albert; Carlen, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We report a new DNA fragmentation technique that significantly simplifies conventional hydrodynamic shearing fragmentation by eliminating the need for sample recirculation while maintaining high fragmentation yield and low fragment length variation, and therefore, reduces instrument complexity and c

  2. High yield DNA fragmentation using cyclical hydrodynamic shearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Sparreboom, Wouter; Spang, Peter; Roeser, Tina; Nieto, Benjamin; Guasch, Francesc; Corbera, Antoni Homs; van den Berg, Albert; Carlen, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We report a new DNA fragmentation technique that significantly simplifies conventional hydrodynamic shearing fragmentation by eliminating the need for sample recirculation while maintaining high fragmentation yield and low fragment length variation, and therefore, reduces instrument complexity and

  3. Clinical utility of F-18 FDG PET-CT in the initial evaluation of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Henning; Holdgaard, Paw Christian; Buck Christensen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is a resource-demanding imaging modality with increasing popularity in the workup of patients with suspected or proven lung cancer. METHODS: To review the clinical usefulness of this imaging modality in the diagnosis, staging...... the predefined criteria and were read in full to identify relevant original articles on F-18 FDG PET-CT (1) in the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules (n = 14), (2) in curative-intent treatment trials (n = 9), and (3) in planning of invasive procedures (n = 18). RESULTS: We found the following important...... results from the literature review: 1) PET-CT can rule out malignancy in most solitary pulmonary nodules due to high sensitivity (recommendation level A). 2) PET-CT reduces the number of futile treatment trials (recommendation level A). 3) The sensitivity of PET-CT in general is insufficient to rule out...

  4. Isolated thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis discovered on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, Sophie [CHU Sainte-Justine, Nuclear Medicine, Montreal (Canada); Carret, Anne-Sophie [CHU Sainte-Justine, Hemato-Oncology, Montreal (Canada); Dubois, Josee [CHU Sainte-Justine, Radiology, Montreal (Canada); Buteau, Chantal [CHU Sainte-Justine, Infectious Diseases, Montreal (Canada); Patey, Natalie [CHU Sainte-Justine, Pathology, Montreal (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    The thymic infiltration in young patients with multisystemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis and its radiologic features are well known. However, isolated thymic disease has seldom been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 10-month-old child admitted for fever of unknown origin. Whole-body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) was performed to identify a focus of infection. It demonstrated an unusual aspect of the thymus, which led to further investigation and revealed isolated infiltration of the thymus by Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The patient was treated accordingly and is now disease free. As evaluation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis patients with F-18 FDG PET/CT is becoming more frequent, it is important to be aware of the scintigraphical characteristics of thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis. (orig.)

  5. [Study on High-yield Cultivation Measures for Arctii Fructus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-yong; Jiang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Tao; Sun, Ji-ye; Hu, Shang-qin; Zhang, Li

    2015-02-01

    To find out the high yield cultivation measures for Arctii Fructus. Completely randomized block experiment design method was used in the field planting, to analyze the effect of different cultivation way on agronomic characters, phenological phase,quality and quantity of Arctii Fructus. Arctium lappa planted on August 28 had the best results of plant height, thousand seeds weight and yield. The highest yield of Arctii Fructus was got at the density of 1,482 plants/667 m2. Arctiin content was in an increase trend with the planting time delay and planting density increasing. The plant height, thousand seeds weight, yield and arctiin content by split application of fertilizer were significantly higher than that by one-time fertilization. Compared with open field Arctium lappa, plant height, yield, arctiin content and relative water content of plastic film mulching Arctium lappa was higher by 7.74%, 10.87%, 6.38% and 24.20%, respectively. In the topping Arctium lappa, the yield was increased by 11.09%, with 39. 89% less branching number. Early planting time and topping shortened the growth cycle of Arctium lappa plant. The high-yield cultivation measures of Arctii Fructus are: around August 28 to sowing, planting density of 1 482 plants/667 m2, split application of fertilizer for four times, covering film on surface of the soil and topping in bolting.

  6. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography/computed tomography imaging for diagnosing ovarian small cell carcinoma of the hypercalcaemic type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Ah; Kim, Hun Soo [Wonkwang University School of Medicine and Institute of Wonkwang Medical Science, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Oldan, Jorge Daniel [Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging at the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland (United States)

    2016-03-15

    A 19-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain. Laboratory results showed elevated levels of ionized calcium 1.85 mmol/1, and total calcium, 3.75 mmol/1, but a low level of parathyroid hormone, 1.2 ng/l. This F-18 FDG PET/CT study demonstrated a hypermetabolic unilateral complex mass, composed of solid and necrotic portions, with a concomitant increase in FDG uptake on osteolytic lesions throughout the axial breakdown of bone. In young women, pelvic neoplasms are often difficult to characterize with imaging, because it is often difficult to classify a tumor as benign or malignant based on its appearance on imaging studies. Therefore, features such as ovarian masses in girl and adolescents, a high calculcium level, and the diffuse FDG-avid asterolytic lesions on F-18 FDG PET/CT are probably suggestive of a malignant OSCCHT secreting the PTH-rP.

  7. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content.

  8. BRS Pampeira: new irrigated rice cultivar with high yield potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariano Martins de Magalhães Júnior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS Pampeira is a rice cultivar developed by Embrapa, recommended for irrigated cultivation in Brazil. It shows modern architecture, with high tillering and tolerance to lodging. It stands out for its high yield potential, medium cycle and good grain quality.

  9. Nonstop Selection for High and Stable Crop Yield by Two Prognostic Equations to Reduce Yield Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysia A. Fasoula

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Yield losses occurring at the field level, whether due to plant diseases or abiotic stresses, reveal reduced stability of the crop yield potential. The paper argues that the stability of crop yield potential is a trait with a clear genetic component, which can be successfully selected for at the single-plant level and incorporated into high-yielding cultivars. Two novel selection equations with prognostic power are presented, capable to objectively phenotype and evaluate individual plants in real field conditions in the absence of the masking effects of interplant competition and soil heterogeneity. The equations predict performance at the crop stand through the key concept of coefficient of homeostasis and are equally useful for early generation selection and for nonstop selection within finished cultivars in order to continuously incorporate the adaptive (genetic or epigenetic responses of plants. Exploitation of adaptive responses acquires particular importance in view of the climate change effects on crop productivity and the changing biotic or abiotic micro-environments. Cotton is used as a case study to highlight the potential of nonstop selection for increasing crop yield and for the gradual build-up of disease resistance. In addition, the paper envisions and proposes the formation of international networks of researchers focusing on specific diseases as, for example, the cereal root-rot or the cotton Verticillium wilt that will concurrently use the proposed strategy in their respective environments to select for resistant genotypes, while gaining a deeper understanding of the nature of the genetic or epigenetic changes at the phenotypic and genomic levels.

  10. A Case of Acute Q Fever Hepatitis Diagnosed by F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beak, Sora [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Minyoung; Lee, Sand-Oh; Yu, Eunsil; Ryu Jin-Sook [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    A 53-year-old man with fever of unknown origin underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) as a workup for a fever of unknown origin. On presentation, he complained of fever, chills, and myalgia. The F-18 FDG PET/CT scan showed diffusely increased uptake of the liver with mild hepatomegaly. A liver biopsy then revealed fibrin-ring granulomas typically seen in Q fever. The patient was later serologically diagnosed as having acute Q fever as the titers for C. IgM and IgG were 64:1 and -16:1, respectively. He recovered completely following administration of doxycycline. This indicates that F-18 FDG PET/CT may be helpful for identifying hepatic involvement in Q fever as a cause of fever of unknown origin.

  11. Correlation of Glut-1 and Glut-3 expression with F-18 FDG uptake in pulmonary inflammatory lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen Guang; Yu, Ming Ming; Han, Yu; Wu, Feng Yu; Yang, Guang Jie; Li, Da Cheng; Liu, Si Min

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) and glucose transporter-3 (Glut-3) expression with F-18 FDG uptake in pulmonary inflammatory lesions.Twenty-two patients with pulmonary inflammatory lesions underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination preoperatively, and Glut-1 and Glut-3 expression were detected by immunohistochemistry in these lesions. Correlations of Glut-1 and Glut-3 with F-FDG uptake were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation test.The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of pulmonary inflammatory lesions in 22 patients was 0.50 to 7.50, with a mean value of 3.66 ± 1.62. Immunohistochemical staining scores of Glut-1 and Glut-3 were 2.18 ± 0.96 and 2.82 ± 1.37, respectively. The expression of Glut-1 and Glut-3 was positively correlated with F-18 FDG uptake. Glut-3 expression was evidently higher than Glut-1 expression in 22 patients.Glut-1 and Glut-3 expressions are high in pulmonary inflammatory lesions, and Glut-3 plays a more important role in F-18 FDG uptake in pulmonary inflammatory lesions.

  12. The findings of F-18 FDG camera-based coincidence PET in acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S. N.; Joh, C. W.; Lee, M. H. [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of F-18 FDG coincidence PET (CoDe-PET) using a dual-head gamma camera in the assessment of patients with acute leukemia. F-18 FDG CoDE-PET studies were performed in 5 patients with acute leukemia (6 ALL and 2 AML) before or after treatment. CoDe-PET was performed utilizing a dual-head gamma camera equipped with 5/8 inch NaI(Tl) crystal. Image acquisition began 60 minutes after the injection of F-18 FDG in the fasting state. A whole trunk from cervical to inguinal regions or selected region were scanned. No attenuation correction was made and image reconstruction was done using filtered back-projection. CoDe-PET studies were evaluated visually. F-18 FDG image performed in 5 patients with ALL before therapy depicted multiple lymph node involvement and diffuse increased uptake involving axial skeleton, pelvis and femurs. F-18 FDG image done in 2 AML after chemotherapy showed only diffuse increased uptake in sternum, ribs, spine, pelvis and proximal femur and these may be due to G-CSF stimulation effect in view of drug history. But bone marrow histology showed scattered blast cell suggesting incomplete remission in one and completer remission in another. F-18 image done in 1 ALL after therapy showed no abnormal uptake. CoDe-PET with F-18 FDG in acute lymphoblastic lymphoma showed multiple lymphnode and bone marrow involvement in whole body. Therefore we conclude that CoDe-PET with F-18 FDG usefulness for evaluation of extent in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. But there was a limitation to assess therapy effectiveness during therapy due to reactive bone marrow.

  13. Simulation of DSB yield for high LET radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, T; Durante, M; Scholz, M

    2015-09-01

    A simulation approach for the calculation of the LET-dependent yield of double-strand breaks (DSB) is presented. The model considers DSB formed as two close-lying single-strand breaks (SSB), whose formation is mediated by both intra-track processes (single electrons) or at local doses larger than about 1000 Gy in particle tracks also by electron inter-track processes (two independent electron tracks). A Monte Carlo algorithm and an analytical formula for the DSB yield are presented. The approach predicts that the DSB yield is enhanced after charged particle irradiation of high LET compared with X-ray or gamma radiation. It is used as an inherent part of the local effect model, which is applied to estimate the relative biological effectiveness of high LET radiation.

  14. Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes

    2009-12-01

    To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate “High-Yield Scenario” (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

  15. Energy dependence of the total reaction cross section of isomeric F-18(m) on silicon below 400 MeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, DA; Becchetti, FD; Janecke, J; Lee, MY; O'Donnell, TW; Pham, K; Warner, RE; Ronningen, RM; Wilschut, HW

    2002-01-01

    A 25 MeV/nucleon primary O-17 beam was used to produce an isomeric state F-18(m) beam via the single-nucleon transfer reaction O-17 (C-12, B-11)F-18(m). The total nuclear reaction cross section, sigma(R), of F-18(m) (metastable) on silicon was measured using a stack of silicon surface barrier detect

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of (S)-[F-18]-fluoroethylcarazolol for in vivo beta-adrenoceptor imaging in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doze, P; van Waarde, A; Tewson, TJ; Vaalburg, W; Elsinga, PH

    The beta-adrenergic receptor ligand (S)-4-(3-(2'-[F-18]-fluoroethylamino)-2-hydroxypropoxy)-carbazol ((S)-[F-18]-fluoroethylcarazolol) was prepared by reaction of [F-18]-fluoroethylamine with the corresponding (S)-epoxide and was evaluated in rats by studying its pharmacokinetics and its binding

  17. The Clinical Utility of Rectal Gas Distension F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of rectal gas distension F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging for the differentiation of the rectal focal uptake lesions. Twenty four patients (M:F=11:13, Age 62.8{+-}12.4 years) underwent rectal gas distension F-18 FDG PET/CT, prospectively: initial image at 50-60 min after the intravenous injection of F-18 FDG and rectal distension image after the infusion of air through the anus. Focally increased uptake lesions on initial images but disappeared on rectal distension images defined a physiological uptake. For the differential evaluation of persistent focal uptake lesions on rectal distension images, colonoscopy and histopathologic examination were performed. Among the 24 patients, 27 lesions of focal rectal uptake were detected on initial images of F-18 FDG PET/CT. Of these, 7 lesions were able to judge with physiological uptake because the focal increased uptake disappeared from rectal distension image. Remaining 3 lesions were non-rectal lesions (2 lesions: rectovesical space, 1 lesion: uterine myoma). Among 17 lesions which was showed persistent increased uptake in rectal distension image, 15 lesions were confirmed as the malignant tumor (SUVmax=15.9{+-}6.8) and 2 lesions were confirmed as the benign lesions including adenoma and inflammatory disease. The rectal distension F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging could be an important noninvasive method for the differentiation of malignant and benign focal rectal uptake lesions including physiologic uptake.

  18. SPECT Imaging of Epilepsy: An Overview and Comparison with F-18 FDG PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy surgery is highly effective in treating refractory epilepsy, but requires accurate presurgical localization of the epileptogenic focus. Briefly, localization of the region of seizure onset traditionally dependents on seizure semiology, scalp EEG recordings and correlation with anatomical imaging modalities such as MRI. The introduction of noninvasive functional neuroimaging methods, including single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and positron emission tomography (PET has dramatically changed the method for presurgical epilepsy evaluation. These imaging modalities have become powerful tools for the investigation of brain function and are an essential part of the evaluation of epileptic patients. Of these methods, SPECT has the practical capacity to image blood flow functional changes that occur during seizures in the routine clinical setting. In this review we present the basic principles of epilepsy SPECT and PET imaging. We discuss the properties of the SPECT tracers to be used for this purpose and imaging acquisition protocols as well as the diagnostic performance of SPECT in addition to SPECT image analysis methods. This is followed by a discussion and comparison to F-18 FDG PET acquisition and imaging analysis methods.

  19. Stereotypical behaviour at high yielding dairy cows farms - "tongue rolling"

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanović Radiša; Kirovski Danijela; Vujanac Ivan; Nešić Ksenija; Janevski Aleksandar; Marić Jovan; Kukrić Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine if there was a connection between stereotypical behaviour of high yielding dairy cows breeds and values of biochemical blood parameters. The investigation was carried out in august at loose-housing type of farms, in 30 heads of cattle from four groups: drying (15 to 7 days before calving), puerperium (up to 40 days after calving, early lactation (up to 120 days after calving) and late lactation (200 to 300 days af...

  20. Primary Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Mimicking Peritoneal Carcinomatosis on F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    Malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum is a rare neoplasm with a rapidly fatal course. The tumour arises from the mesothelial cells lining the pleura and peritoneum or, rarely, in the pericardium or tunica vaginalis. This neoplasm is characterized by being difficult to diagnose, having a rapid evolution and a poor response to therapy. Mesothelioma is very glucose avid, and malignant pleural mesothelioma has been reported concerning the utility of F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT. But little has been known about the imaging finding of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma on F-18 FDG PET/CT. We report a case of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma mimicking peritoneal carcinomatosis of F-18 FDG PET/CT.

  1. Retroperitoneal Pleomorphic Lipo sarcoma Mimicking Adrenal Cancer in F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Minki; Kim, Seogjoon [Good Samaritan Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Lipo sarcoma is the second most common type of soft tissue sarcoma, but pleomorphic lipo sarcoma is the least common subtype. We present the case of a 42-year-old man who had experienced intermittent left flank pain for a month. A large soft-tissue mass was detected by ultrasonography in a local clinic, and he was referred for further evaluation. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) showed intense uptake in the retroperitoneal mass, which mimicked an adrenal cancer. The patient underwent left radical nephroadrenalectomy, and the tumor was revealed to be a pleomorphic lipo sarcoma upon pathological examination. When there is a large retroperitoneal mass with intense F-18 FDG activity, the possibility of a pleomorphic lipo sarcoma should be considered.

  2. Growing cardiac hemangioma on serial F18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Yoon, Hyun Jin; Kang, Do Young [Dong A Univ. Medical Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Cardiac hemangiomas are extremely rare, benign tumors, which can occur anywhere in the heart. Symptoms are variable according to the size, extension and tumor location, but most cases are asymptomatic and are detected incidentally. They may grow, remain stable and regress; therefore, the natural course of the tumors is unpredictable. Diagnosis mainly depends upon echocardiography, CT, MRI and angiography. Reports of detection by F18 FDG PET/CT are very limited. We report a case of cardiac hemangioma attached to the right ventricle, compressing the ventricle. It was revealed incidentally on F18 FDG PET/CT for routine evaluation of thyroid cancer. During two serial F18 FDG PET/CTs, it grew from 2.8cm to 4.0cm with mild FDG uptake. After surgery, the patient remained stable without any complications.

  3. 1,2-Fucosyllactose Does Not Improve Intestinal Function or Prevent Escherichia coli F18 Diarrhea in Newborn Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Sangild, Per Torp; Jensen, Michael Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

     = 24) without (control) or with inoculation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F18 (7.5 × 1010/day for 8 days) fed either no (F18) or 10 g/L 2′-FL (2FL-F18). Results: In vitro studies revealed decreased pathogen adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells with 2′-FL (5 g/L; P ... of mucosa and activities of some brush border enzymes in the proximal small intestine. In situ abundance of α-1,2-fucose and E coli was similar between groups, whereas sequencing showed higher abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in F18, Enterococcus in control and Lachnospiraceae in 2FL-F18 pigs. Conclusions: 2......′-FL inhibited in vitro adhesion of E coli F18 to epithelial cells, but had limited effects on diarrhea and mucosal health in newborn pigs challenged with E coli F18...

  4. NaF18-PET/CT imaging of second hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win, Aung Zaw; Aparici, Carina Mari [San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Franciso (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The patient was a 59-year-old man with a history of hypertension and end-stage renal disease for 14 years. An NaF-18 positron emission tomography/CT bone scan was ordered to rule out osteosarcoma or other possible bone malignancies. A lesion representing a brown tumor was observed on the left femoral shaft. The incidence of ESRD is about 400 cases per million in the United States and it has risen fastest in older individuals. This is the second paper to report the use of NaF18-PET/CT to image secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, mixed renal ostedystrophy and adyanmic bone disease.

  5. Factors Associated with Diffusely Increased Splenic F-18 FDG Uptake in Patients with Cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keunyoung; Kim, Seongjang; Kim, Injoo; Kim, Dong Uk; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Sojung; Ahn, Sang Hyun [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Although diffuse splenic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) uptake exceeding hepatic activity, is considered abnormal, its clinical significance is rarely discussed in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the contributing factors causing diffusely increased splenic FDG uptake in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. From January 2010 to March 2013, 140 patients (84 men, 56 women) were enrolled in this study. All patients had been diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma and underwent F-18 FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the pretreatment staging work up. Clinical records were reviewed retrospectively. Various hematological parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, CEA, CA19-9, pancreatic enzymes and liver function tests were conducted within 2 days after the F-18 FDG PET/CT study. Diffuse splenic uptake was observed in 23 patients (16.4%). Of those, 19 patients (82.6%) underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreastography (ERCP) 7 days before F-18 FDG PET/CT. The CRP level (p <0.001) and white blood cell count (p =0.023) were significantly higher in the group of patients with diffuse splenic FDG uptake. The hemoglobin (p <0.001) and the hematocrit (p <0.001) were significantly lower in patients with diffuse splenic FDG uptake. Pancreatic enzymes, liver function test results, and tumor markers were not significantly different between the patients who did or did not have diffusely increased splenic FDG uptake. The significant factors for diffuse splenic F-18 FDG uptake exceeding hepatic F-18 FDG uptake on multivariate analysis included: performing ERCP before F-18 FDG PET-CT (odds ratio [OR], 77.510; 95% CI, 7.624-132.105), and the presence of leukocytosis (OR, 12.436; 95% CI, 2.438-63.445) or anemia (OR, 1.211; 95% CI, 1.051-1.871). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that concurrent inflammation could be associated with diffusely increased splenic FDG uptake. We suggest that performing ERCP before F-18 FDG PET

  6. Chorea in systemic lupus erythematosus: evidence for bilateral putaminal hypermetabolism on F-18 FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Wook Jang; Chung, Son Mi; Koh, Su Jin; Lee, Chang Keun; Yoo, Bin; Moon, Hee Bom [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung; Im, Joo Hyuk [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    We describe a 54-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who suddenly presented with chorea and had positive antiphospholipid antibodies. F-18 FDG PET showed abnormally increased glucose metabolism in bilateral putamen and primary motor cotex. Tc-99m ECD SPECT also showed abnormally increased regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral putamen. She was treated with corticosteroid and aspirin after which the symptoms improved. Four months later, follow up F-18 FDG PET showed improvement with resolution of hypermetabolism in bilateral putamen. This case suggests that striatal hypermetabolism is associated with chorea in SLE.

  7. Pretreatment F-18 FDG PET/CT Parameters to Evaluate Progression-Free Survival in Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeonghun; Lim, Seok Tae; Na, Chang Ju; Han, Yeonhee; Kim, Chanyoung; Jeong, Hwanjeong; Sohn, Myunghee [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We performed this study to evaluate the predictive value of pretreatment F-18 FDG PET/CT for progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with gastric cancer. Of 321 patients with a diagnosis of gastric cancer, we retrospectively enrolled 97 patients (men:women = 61:36, age 59.8±13.2 years), who underwent pretreatment F-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) from January 2009 to December 2009. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was measured for each case with detectable primary lesions. In the remaining non-detectable cases, SUVmax was measured from the corresponding site seen on gastroduodenoscopy for analysis. In subgroup analysis, metabolic tumor volume (MTV) was measured in 50 patients with clearly distinguishable primary lesions. SUVmax, stage, depth of tumor invasion and presence of lymph node metastasis were analyzed in terms of PFS. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to find optimal cutoff values of SUVmax and MTV for disease progression. The relationship between SUVmax, MTV and PFS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier with log-rank test and Cox's proportional hazard regression methods. Of 97 patients, 15 (15.5 %) had disease progression. The mean follow-up duration was 29.6±10.2 months. The mean PFS of low SUVmax group (≤5.74) was significantly longer than that of the high SUVmax group (>5.74) (30.9±8.0 vs 24.3±13.6 months, p =0.008). In univariate analysis, stage (I vs II, III, IV), depth of tumor invasion (T1 vs T2, T3, T4), presence of lymph node metastasis and SUVmax (>5.74 vs ≤5.74) were significantly associated with recurrence. In multivariate analysis, high SUVmax (>5.74) was the only poor prognostic factor for PFS (p =0.002, HR 11.03, 95% CI 2.48.49.05). Subgroup multivariate analysis revealed that high MTV (>16.42) was the only poor prognostic factor for PFS (p =0.034, HR 3.59, 95 % CI 1.10.11.71). In gastric cancer, SUVmax measured by pretreatment F-18

  8. Development of high-yield influenza A virus vaccine viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J.S.; Nidom, Chairul A.; Ghedin, Elodie; Macken, Catherine A.; Fitch, Adam; Imai, Masaki; Maher, Eileen A.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways to prevent infection. Influenza vaccines propagated in cultured cells are approved for use in humans, but their yields are often suboptimal. Here, we screened A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus mutant libraries to develop vaccine backbones (defined here as the six viral RNA segments not encoding haemagglutinin and neuraminidase) that support high yield in cell culture. We also tested mutations in the coding and regulatory regions of the virus, and chimeric haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. A combination of high-yield mutations from these screens led to a PR8 backbone that improved the titres of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H7N9 vaccine viruses in African green monkey kidney and Madin–Darby canine kidney cells. This PR8 backbone also improves titres in embryonated chicken eggs, a common propagation system for influenza viruses. This PR8 vaccine backbone thus represents an advance in seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine development. PMID:26334134

  9. Laser heating challenges of high yield MagLIF targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutz, Stephen; Sefkow, Adam; Vesey, Roger

    2014-10-01

    The MagLIF (Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion) concept is predicted by numerical simulation to produce fusion yields of about 100 kJ, when driven by 25 MA from the existing Z accelerator [S. A. Slutz et al. Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] and much higher yields with future accelerators delivering higher currents [Slutz and Vesey PRL 108, 025003 (2012)]. The fuel must be heated before compression to obtain significant fusion yields due to the relatively slow implosion velocities (~ 100 km/s) of magnetically driven liners. Lasers provide a convenient means to accomplish this pre-compressional heating of the fusion fuel, but there are challenges. The laser must penetrate a foil covering the laser entrance hole and deposit 20-30 kJ within the ~1 cm length of the liner in fuel at 6-12 mg/cc. Such high densities could result in beam scattering due to refraction and laser plasma interactions. Numerical simulations of the laser heating process are presented, which indicate that energies as high as 30 kJ could be deposited in the fuel by using two laser pulses of different wavelengths. Simulations of this process will be presented as well of results for a MagLIF design for a potential new machine delivering 50 MA of current. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. High Yield Preparation Method of Thermally Stable Cellulose Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Zhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of nanocellulose fibers (NFs is achieved through pretreating cellulose in a NaOH/urea/thiourea solution, and then defibrillating the fibers through ultrasonication, resulting in a high yield of 85.4%. Extensive work has been done to optimize the preparation parameters. The obtained NFs are about 30 nm in diameter with cellulose II crystal structure. They possess high thermal stability with an onset of thermal degradation at 270 °C and a maximum degradation temperature of 370 °C. Such NFs have potential applications in transistors and batteries with high thermal stability. NFs-H were obtained by homogenizing undefibrillated fibers separated from the preparation of NFs. NFs-H were also in cellulose II crystal form but with lower thermal stability due to low crystallinity. They can be applied to make highly transparent paper.

  11. Rare Thyroid Cartilage and Diaphragm Metastases from Lung Cancer Visualized on F-18 FDG-PET/CT Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Özcan Kara

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG has evolved as a useful imaging modality in the assessment of a variety of cancers, especially for tumor staging and post treatment monitoring. It provides metabolic information. Although, when used alone, relative lack of anatomic landmarks, is a major limitation of PET imaging, this limitation of PET imaging is overcome by the availability of integrated PET/CT imaging. PET and CT images are acquired in one procedure, yielding fused anatomical and functional data sets. Studies with integrated PET/CT imaging have shown promising results. In this case, we present an interesting integrated PET/CT imaging in a lung cancer patient with rare, diaphragm and thyroid cartilage metastases. (MIRT 2011;20:70-72

  12. Projecting crop yield in northern high latitude area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kanichiro

    2014-01-01

    Changing climatic conditions on seasonal and longer time scales influence agricultural production. Improvement of soil and fertilizer is a strong factor in agricultural production, but agricultural production is influenced by climate conditions even in highly developed countries. It is valuable if fewer predictors make it possible to conduct future projections. Monthly temperature and precipitation, wintertime 500hPa geopotential height, and the previous year's yield are used as predictors to forecast spring wheat yield in advance. Canadian small agricultural divisions (SAD) are used for analysis. Each SAD is composed of a collection of Canadian Agricultural Regions (CAR) of similar weather and growing conditions. Spring wheat yields in each CAR are forecast from the following variables: (a) the previous year's yield, (b) earlier stages of the growing season's climate conditions and, (c) the previous year's wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height field. Arctic outflow events in the Okanagan Valley in Canada are associated with episodes of extremely low temperatures during wintertime. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied for wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height anomalies. The spatial PCA mode1 is defined as Arctic Oscillation and it influences prevailing westerlies. The prevailing westerlies meanders and influences climatic conditions. The spatial similarity between wintertime top 5 Arctic outflow event year's composites of 500hPa geopotential height anomalies and mode 3's spatial pattern is found. Mode 3's spatial pattern looks like the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern which describes the variation of atmospheric circulation pattern over the Pacific Ocean and North America. Climate conditions from April to June, May to July, mode 3's time coefficients, and previous year's yield are used for forecasting spring wheat yield in each SAD. Cross-validation procedure which generates eight sets of models for the eight

  13. Hepatosplenic Cat-Scratch Disease in Children and the Positive Contribution of F-18-FDG Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraft, Karianne E.; Doedens, Rienus A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Two patients were referred to our hospital because of suspected malignancy. In patient 1, a 4-year-old boy, a F-18-FDG PET scan showed an enlarged liver with multiple FDG-positive nodular lesions. In patient 2, a 16-year-old boy, a FDG PET-(low-dose) CT showed an enlarged liver and spleen with multi

  14. CYP4F18-Deficient Neutrophils Exhibit Increased Chemotaxis to Complement Component C5a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Vaivoda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CYP4Fs were first identified as enzymes that catalyze hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4. CYP4F18 has an unusual expression in neutrophils and was predicted to play a role in regulating LTB4-dependent inflammation. We compared chemotaxis of wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout neutrophils using an in vitro assay. There was no significant difference in the chemotactic response to LTB4, but the response to complement component C5a increased 1.9–2.25-fold in knockout cells compared to wild-type (P < 0.01. This increase was still observed when neutrophils were treated with inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis. There were no changes in expression of other CYP4 enzymes in knockout neutrophils that might compensate for loss of CYP4F18 or lead to differences in activity. A mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate colitis was used to investigate the consequences of increased C5a-dependent chemotaxis in vivo, but there was no significant difference in weight loss, disease activity, or colonic tissue myeloperoxidase between wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout mice. This study demonstrates the limitations of inferring CYP4F function based on an ability to use LTB4 as a substrate, points to expanding roles for CYP4F enzymes in immune regulation, and underscores the in vivo challenges of CYP knockout studies.

  15. [F-18] FDG-PET/CT parameters as predictors of outcome in inoperable NSCLC patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nappi Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. We evaluated the prognostic significance of standardized uptake value (SUVmax, metabolic tumour volume (MTV, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG in [F-18] FDG PET/CT findings in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC.

  16. Nanobody mediated inhibition of attachment of F18 Fimbriae expressing Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof Moonens

    Full Text Available Post-weaning diarrhea and edema disease caused by F18 fimbriated E. coli are important diseases in newly weaned piglets and lead to severe production losses in farming industry. Protective treatments against these infections have thus far limited efficacy. In this study we generated nanobodies directed against the lectin domain of the F18 fimbrial adhesin FedF and showed in an in vitro adherence assay that four unique nanobodies inhibit the attachment of F18 fimbriated E. coli bacteria to piglet enterocytes. Crystallization of the FedF lectin domain with the most potent inhibitory nanobodies revealed their mechanism of action. These either competed with the binding of the blood group antigen receptor on the FedF surface or induced a conformational change in which the CDR3 region of the nanobody displaces the D″-E loop adjacent to the binding site. This D″-E loop was previously shown to be required for the interaction between F18 fimbriated bacteria and blood group antigen receptors in a membrane context. This work demonstrates the feasibility of inhibiting the attachment of fimbriated pathogens by employing nanobodies directed against the adhesin domain.

  17. N-[F-18]-FLUOROALKYLATION OF NORAPORPHINES - MICROWAVE VERSUS THERMAL-TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, S; DEGROOT, TJ; KOK, LP; VISSER, GM; VAALBURG, W

    1995-01-01

    A comparable study of microwave versus thermal heating is described for the N-[F-18]-fluoroalkylation of noraporphines. As compared to thermal treatment, different products were obtained during microwave treatment. Thermal treatment resulted in the loss of the protection of the catechol functionalit

  18. Comparison of C-11-methionine PET and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET in differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Ha T. T.; Jager, Pieter L.; Plukker, John T. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Links, Thera P.

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective study is to evaluate the possibility of C-11-methionine (Met) PET compared with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET for the detection of recurrent or metastatic disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Materials and methods Twenty patient

  19. Impact of [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on surgical management of melanoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaannet, E; Oyen, WJG; Meijer, S; Hoekstra, OS; Wobbes, T; Jager, PL; Hoekstra, HJ

    Background: Several studies have shown adequate sensitivity and specificity of [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for the detection of metastases from melanoma, but few have addressed its impact on treatment. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the impact

  20. Predictive value of early F-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography in chemosensitive relapsed lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, B; van Imhoff, G; Pruim, J; Sluiter, W; Vaalburg, W; Vellenga, E

    2003-01-01

    F-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) might be a better tool than computerized tomography (CT) in predicting long-term treatment outcome in patients with relapsed chemosensitive lymphoma who are candidates for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We studied patien

  1. A high-yield saponification of galactosylceramide I(3)-sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, K M; Boggs, J M

    1982-12-01

    A method for the deacylation of galactosylceramide I(3)-sulphate using aqueous methanolic KOH is described. The combination of a relatively low concentration of the alkali (0.3 M) and a moderate reaction temperature (reflux point of 90% methanol) results in the formation of galactosylsphingosine I(3)-sulphate in consistently high yields (61%) with a minimum of side reactions. The product was purified by column chromatography and its identity established by thin layer chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, determination of galactose content and organic sulphate assay using established methods or their modifications.

  2. Imaging of accidental contamination with F-18-solution; a quick trouble-shooting procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi Kairemo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge, imaging of accidental exposure to radioactive fluorine-18 (F-18 due to liquid spill has not been described earlier in the scientific literature. The short half-life of F-18 (t½=110 min, current radiation safety requirements, and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP regulations on radiopharmaceuticals have restrained the occurrence of these incidents. The possibility of investigating this type of incidents by gamma and positron imaging is also quite limited. Additionally, a quick and precise analysis of radiochemical contamination is cumbersome and sometimes challenging if the spills of radioactive materials are low in activity. Herein, we report a case of accidental F-18 contamination in a service person during a routine cyclotron maintenance procedure. During target replacement, liquid F-18 was spilled on the person responsible for the maintenance. The activities of spills were immediately measured using contamination detectors, and the photon spectrum of contaminated clothes was assessed through gamma spectroscopy. Despite protective clothing, some skin areas were contaminated, which were then thoroughly washed. Later on, these areas were imaged, using positron emission tomography (PET, and a gamma camera (including spectroscopy. Two contaminated skin areas were located on the hand (9.7 and 14.7 cm2, respectively, which showed very low activities (19.0 and 22.8 kBq respectively at the time of incident. Based on the photon spectra, F-18 was confirmed as the main present radionuclide. PET imaging demonstrated the shape of these contaminated hot spots. However, the measured activities were very low due to the use of protective clothing. With prompt action and use of proper equipments at the time of incident, minimal radionuclide activities and their locations could be thoroughly analyzed. The cumulative skin doses of the contaminated regions were calculated at 1.52 and 2.00 mSv, respectively. In the follow-up, no skin

  3. F-18 FDG PET scan findings in patients with pulmonary involvement in the hypereosinophilic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-08-15

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is an infiltrative disease of eosinophils affecting multiple organs including the lung. F-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection, making interpretation of whole body PET scan difficult in patients with cancer. This study was to evaluate the PET findings of HES with lung involvement and to find out differential PET features between lung malignancy and HES with lung involvement. F-18 FDG PET and low dose chest CT scan was performed for screening of lung cancer. Eight patients who showed ground-glass attenuation (GGA) and consolidation on chest CT scan with peripheral blood eosinophilia were included in this study. The patients with history of parasite infection, allergy and collagen vascular disease were excluded. CT features and FDG PET findings were meticulously evaluated for the distribution of GGA and consolidation and nodules on CT scan and mean and maximal SUV of abnormalities depicted on F-18 FDG PET scan. In eight patients, follow-up chest CT scan and FDG PET scan were done one or two weeks after initial study. F-18 FDG PET scan identified metabolically active lesions in seven out of eight patients. Maximal SUV was ranged from 2.8 to 10.6 and mean SUV was ranged from 2.2 to 7.2. Remaining one patient had maximal SUV of 1.3. On follow-up FDG PET scan taken on from one to four weeks later showed decreased degree of initially noted FDG uptakes or migration of previously noted abnormal FDG uptakes. Lung involvement in the HES might be identified as abnormal uptake foci on FDG PET scan mimicking lung cancer. Follow-up FDG PET and CT scan for the identification of migration or resolution of abnormalities and decrement of SUV would be of help for the differentiation between lung cancer and HES with lung involvement.

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of novel F-18 labeled quinazoline derivatives with low lipophilicity for tumor PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yan; Chang, Jin; Zhao, Wenwen; He, Yong; Li, Yuqiao; Zhang, Huabei; Qi, Chuanmin

    2017-08-18

    Four novel F-18 labeled quinazoline derivatives with low lipophilicity, [(18) F]4-(2-fluoroethoxy)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline ([(18) F]I), [(18) F]4-(3-((4-(2-fluoroethoxy)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl)oxy)propyl)morpholine ([(18) F]II), [(18) F]4-(2-fluoroethoxy)-7-methoxy-6-(2-methoxyethoxy)quinazoline ([(18) F]III) and [(18) F]4-(2-fluoroethoxy)-6,7-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)quinazoline ([(18) F]IV), were synthesized via a two-step radiosynthesis procedure with an overall radiochemical yield of 10-38% (without decay correction) and radiochemical purities of > 98%. The lipophilicity and stability of labeled compounds were tested in vitro. The log P values of the four radiotracers ranged from 0.52 to 1.07. We then performed ELISA to measure their affinities to EGFR-TK. ELISA assay results indicated that each inhibitor was specifically bound to EGFR-TK in a dose-dependent manner. The EGFR-TK autophosphorylation IC50 values of [(18) F]I, [(18) F]II, [(18) F]III, and [(18) F]IV were 7.732 μM, 0.4698 μM, 0.1174 μM, and 0.1176 μM, respectively. All labeled compounds were evaluated via cellular uptake and blocking studies in HepG2 cell lines in vitro. Cellular uptake and blocking experiment results indicated that [(18) F]I and [(18) F]III had excellent cellular uptake at 120 min post-injection in HepG2 carcinoma cells (51.80±3.42 %ID/mg protein and 27.31±1.94 %ID/mg protein, respectively). Additionally, biodistribution experiments in S180 tumor-bearing mice in vivo indicated that [(18) F]I had a very fast clearance in blood and a relatively high uptake ratio of tumor to blood (4.76) and tumor to muscle (1.82) at 60 min post-injection. [(18) F]III had a quick clearance in plasma, and its highest uptake ratio of tumor to muscle was 2.55 at 15 min post-injection. These experimental results and experiences were valuable for the further exploration of novel radiotracers of quinazoline derivatives. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of high-yield influenza B virus vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-20

    The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six "internal" influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production.

  6. Clinical utility of F-18 FDG PET-CT in the initial evaluation of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Poul Henning [Vejle Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Vejle (Denmark); Holdgaard, Paw Christian [Vejle Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vejle (Denmark); Christensen, Janne Buck [Odense University Hospital/University of Southern Denmark, Department of Quality and Research/HTA, Odense University Hospital and Medical Research Library, Odense (Denmark); Hoeilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark)

    2016-10-15

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is a resource-demanding imaging modality with increasing popularity in the workup of patients with suspected or proven lung cancer. To review the clinical usefulness of this imaging modality in the diagnosis, staging, and pre-operative evaluation, we conducted a systematic literature search, review, and quality assessment using the rapid evidence assessment toolkit and the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine methodology. The literature search resulted in 4,208 records including 918 reviews, of which 139 met the predefined criteria and were read in full to identify relevant original articles on F-18 FDG PET-CT (1) in the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules (n = 14), (2) in curative-intent treatment trials (n = 9), and (3) in planning of invasive procedures (n = 18). We found the following important results from the literature review: (1) PET-CT can rule out malignancy in most solitary pulmonary nodules due to high sensitivity (recommendation level A). (2) PET-CT reduces the number of futile treatment trials (recommendation level A). (3) The sensitivity of PET-CT in general is insufficient to rule out mediastinal lymph node metastasis (recommendation level A). (1) With few exceptions, solitary pulmonary nodules can safely be considered benign if the PET-CT scan is negative. Exceptions consist of small (<1 cm) and non-solid, solitary pulmonary nodules. These abnormalities should be followed up by CT in a structured programme. (2) No curative-intent treatment should be commenced until a PET-CT scan has excluded occult distant metastases. (3) In general, lymph node metastasis in the mediastinum cannot be ruled out on the basis of a negative PET-CT, and confirmative invasive staging should be performed in most patients before mediastinal metastasis is confirmed or ruled out. (orig.)

  7. High yield neutron generators using the DD reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainionpaa, J. H.; Harris, J. L.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Williams, D. L.; Apodaca, M. D.; Cremer, J. T. [Adelphi technology, 2003 E. Bayshore Rd. 94061, Redwood City, CA (United States); Ji, Qing; Ludewigt, B. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jones, G. [G and J Enterprise, 1258 Quary Ln, Suite F, Pleasanton California 94566 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    A product line of high yield neutron generators has been developed at Adelphi technology inc. The generators use the D-D fusion reaction and are driven by an ion beam supplied by a microwave ion source. Yields of up to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} n/s have been achieved, which are comparable to those obtained using the more efficient D-T reaction. The microwave-driven plasma uses the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) to produce a high plasma density for high current and high atomic ion species. These generators have an actively pumped vacuum system that allows operation at reduced pressure in the target chamber, increasing the overall system reliability. Since no radioactive tritium is used, the generators can be easily serviced, and components can be easily replaced, providing essentially an unlimited lifetime. Fast neutron source size can be adjusted by selecting the aperture and target geometries according to customer specifications. Pulsed and continuous operation has been demonstrated. Minimum pulse lengths of 50 {mu}s have been achieved. Since the generators are easily serviceable, they offer a long lifetime neutron generator for laboratories and commercial systems requiring continuous operation. Several of the generators have been enclosed in radiation shielding/moderator structures designed for customer specifications. These generators have been proven to be useful for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and fast neutron radiography. Thus these generators make excellent fast, epithermal and thermal neutron sources for laboratories and industrial applications that require neutrons with safe operation, small footprint, low cost and small regulatory burden.

  8. High yield neutron generators using the DD reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainionpaa, J. H.; Harris, J. L.; Piestrup, M. A.; Gary, C. K.; Williams, D. L.; Apodaca, M. D.; Cremer, J. T.; Ji, Qing; Ludewigt, B. A.; Jones, G.

    2013-04-01

    A product line of high yield neutron generators has been developed at Adelphi technology inc. The generators use the D-D fusion reaction and are driven by an ion beam supplied by a microwave ion source. Yields of up to 5 × 109 n/s have been achieved, which are comparable to those obtained using the more efficient D-T reaction. The microwave-driven plasma uses the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) to produce a high plasma density for high current and high atomic ion species. These generators have an actively pumped vacuum system that allows operation at reduced pressure in the target chamber, increasing the overall system reliability. Since no radioactive tritium is used, the generators can be easily serviced, and components can be easily replaced, providing essentially an unlimited lifetime. Fast neutron source size can be adjusted by selecting the aperture and target geometries according to customer specifications. Pulsed and continuous operation has been demonstrated. Minimum pulse lengths of 50 μs have been achieved. Since the generators are easily serviceable, they offer a long lifetime neutron generator for laboratories and commercial systems requiring continuous operation. Several of the generators have been enclosed in radiation shielding/moderator structures designed for customer specifications. These generators have been proven to be useful for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA) and fast neutron radiography. Thus these generators make excellent fast, epithermal and thermal neutron sources for laboratories and industrial applications that require neutrons with safe operation, small footprint, low cost and small regulatory burden.

  9. Film quantum yields of EUV& ultra-high PAG photoresists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, Elsayed; Higgins, Craig; Naulleau, Patrick; Matyi, Richard; Gallatin, Greg; Denbeaux, Gregory; Antohe, Alin; Thackery, Jim; Spear, Kathleen; Szmanda, Charles; Anderson, Christopher N.; Niakoula, Dimitra; Malloy, Matthew; Khurshid, Anwar; Montgomery, Cecilia; Piscani, Emil C.; Rudack, Andrew; Byers, Jeff; Ma, Andy; Dean, Kim; Brainard, Robert

    2008-01-10

    Base titration methods are used to determine C-parameters for three industrial EUV photoresist platforms (EUV-2D, MET-2D, XP5496) and twenty academic EUV photoresist platforms. X-ray reflectometry is used to measure the density of these resists, and leads to the determination of absorbance and film quantum yields (FQY). Ultrahigh levels ofPAG show divergent mechanisms for production of photo acids beyond PAG concentrations of 0.35 moles/liter. The FQY of sulfonium PAGs level off, whereas resists prepared with iodonium PAG show FQY s that increase beyond PAG concentrations of 0.35 moles/liter, reaching record highs of 8-13 acids generatedlEUV photons absorbed.

  10. A high throughput DNA extraction method with high yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhanguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparation of large quantity and high quality genomic DNA from a large number of plant samples is a major bottleneck for most genetic and genomic analyses, such as, genetic mapping, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome, and next-generation sequencing directly from sheared genomic DNA. A variety of DNA preparation methods and commercial kits are available. However, they are either low throughput, low yield, or costly. Here, we describe a method for high throughput genomic DNA isolation from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] leaves and dry seeds with high yield, high quality, and affordable cost. Results We developed a high throughput DNA isolation method by combining a high yield CTAB extraction method with an improved cleanup procedure based on MagAttract kit. The method yielded large quantity and high quality DNA from both lyophilized sorghum leaves and dry seeds. The DNA yield was improved by nearly 30 fold with 4 times less consumption of MagAttract beads. The method can also be used in other plant species, including cotton leaves and pine needles. Conclusion A high throughput system for DNA extraction from sorghum leaves and seeds was developed and validated. The main advantages of the method are low cost, high yield, high quality, and high throughput. One person can process two 96-well plates in a working day at a cost of $0.10 per sample of magnetic beads plus other consumables that other methods will also need.

  11. Analysis of the trade-off between high crop yield and low yield instability at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2016-10-01

    Yield dynamics of major crops species vary remarkably among continents. Worldwide distribution of cropland influences both the expected levels and the interannual variability of global yields. An expansion of cultivated land in the most productive areas could theoretically increase global production, but also increase global yield instability if the most productive regions are characterized by high interannual yield variability. In this letter, we use portfolio analysis to quantify the tradeoff between the expected values and the interannual variance of global yield. We compute optimal frontiers for four crop species i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat and show how the distribution of cropland among large world regions can be optimized to either increase expected global crop production or decrease its interannual variability. We also show that a preferential allocation of cropland in the most productive regions can increase global expected yield at the expense of yield stability. Theoretically, optimizing the distribution of a small fraction of total cultivated areas can help find a good compromise between low instability and high crop yields at the global scale.

  12. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with AIDS on F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyung Sook; Choi, Byung Wook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The distinction between primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and nonmalignant lesions due to opportunistic infections, in particular cerebral toxoplasmosis, is important because of the different treatments involved. A 32-year-old patient with AIDS was hospitalized for intermittent headaches. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small well-enhanced nodular lesion in the right frontal lobe. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) position emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) scan showed moderate FDG uptake in the nodular lesion of the right frontal lobe. We present a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of the cerebral toxoplasmosis will be discussed.

  13. F18-FDG PET/CT Scanning in Angiosarcoma: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel TOKMAK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcomas are uncommon tumors and constitute less than 5% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They are aggressive tumors with poor prognosis, therefore, it is quite important to determine disease extension and detect local recurrence and/or distant metastases for appropriate therapy management. In this paper, we aimed to demonstrate the potential role of 1F18-FDG PET/CT imaging by reporting two cases with angiosarcoma (MIRT 2011;20:63-66

  14. Data Impact of the DMSP F18 SSULI UV Data on the Operational GAIM Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandenault, P. B.; Metzler, C. A.; Nicholas, A. C.; Coker, C.; Budzien, S. A.; Chua, D. H.; Finne, T. T.; Dymond, K.; Walker, P. W.; Schunk, R. W.; Scherliess, L.; Gardner, L. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed five ultraviolet remote sensing instruments for the United States Air Force (USAF) Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The DMSP satellites are launched in a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of approximately 830 km. Each Special Sensor Ultraviolet Limb Imager (SSULI) instrument measures vertical profiles of the natural airglow radiation from atoms, molecules and ions in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere by viewing the earth's limb within a tangent altitude range of approximately 50 km to 750 km. Limb observations are made from the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to the far ultraviolet (FUV) over the wavelength range of 80 nm to 170 nm, with 1.8 nm resolution. Data products from SSULI observations include nightglow and dayglow Sensor Data Records (SDRs), as well as Environmental Data Records (EDRs) which contain vertical profiles of electron (Ne) densities, N2, O2, O, O+, and Temperature, hmF2, NmF2 and vertical Total Electron Content (TEC). On October 18, 2009, the third SSULI sensor launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base aboard the DMSP F18 spacecraft. The Calibration and Validation of the F18 instrument has completed and the SSULI program is scheduled to go operational at the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) in Fall 2011. The SSULI F18 data are ingested by the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) space weather model, which was developed by Utah State University and has been used operationally at AFWA since February 2006. A brief overview of the SSULI F18 SDR data assimilation process with GAIM is provided and the impact of the SSULI 1356 Å emission on the GAIM model is examined for spring and summer 2011 nightside data in the low-latitude region.

  15. Normal SUV values measured from NaF18- PET/CT bone scan studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Zaw Win

    Full Text Available Cancer and metabolic bone diseases can alter the SUV. SUV values have never been measured from healthy skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans. The primary aim of this study was to measure the SUV values from normal skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans.A retrospective study was carried out involving NaF18- PET/CT bone scans that were done at our institution between January 2010 to May 2012. Our excluding criteria was patients with abnormal real function and patients with past history of cancer and metabolic bone diseases including but not limited to osteoporosis, osteopenia and Paget's disease. Eleven studies met all the criteria.The average normal SUVmax values from 11 patients were: cervical vertebrae 6.84 (range 4.38-8.64, thoracic vertebrae 7.36 (range 6.99-7.66, lumbar vertebrae 7.27 (range 7.04-7.72, femoral head 2.22 (range 1.1-4.3, humeral head 1.82 (range 1.2-2.9, mid sternum 5.51 (range 2.6-8.1, parietal bone 1.71 (range 1.3-2.4.According to our study, various skeletal sites have different normal SUV values. SUV values can be different between the normal bones and bones with tumor or metabolic bone disease. SUV can be used to quantify NaF-18 PET/CT studies. If the SUV values of the normal skeleton are known, they can be used in the characterization of bone lesions and in the assessment of treatment response to bone diseases.

  16. F-18 HARV yaw rate expansion flight #125 with Inverted Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, used an F-18 Hornet fighter aircraft as its High Angle-of-Attack (Alpha) Research Vehicle (HARV) in a three-phased flight research program lasting from April 1987 until September 1996. The aircraft completed 385 research flights and demonstrated stabilized flight at angles of attack between 65 and 70 degrees using thrust vectoring vanes, a research flight control system, and (eventually) forebody strakes (hinged structures on the forward side of the fuselage to provide control by interacting with vortices, generated at high angles of attack, to create side forces). This combination of technologies provided carefree handling of a fighter aircraft in a part of the flight regime that was otherwise very dangerous. Flight research with the HARV increased our understanding of flight at high angles of attack (angle of the wings with respect to the direction in which the aircraft was heading), enabling designers of U.S. fighter aircraft to design airplanes that will fly safely in portions of the flight envelope that pilots previously had to avoid. Flight 125 with the HARV involved yaw rate expansion up to 50 degrees per second (moving the nose to the left or right at that rate). NASA research pilot Ed Schneider was the pilot, and the purpose of the flight was to look at the spin characteristics of the HARV. The sequence in this particular video clip includes the first and second maneuvers in the flight. On the first maneuver, the pilot attempted to achieve a yaw rate of 40 degrees per second and actually went to 47 degrees. The spin was oscillatory in pitch (up and down) and roll (rotating around the longitudinal axis). Recovery was normal. On the second maneuver of the flight in which Schneider tried to achieve a yaw rate of 40 degrees per second, the aircraft overshot to 54 degrees per second during an oscillatory spin. In the course of the recovery, the aircraft rolled after a large sideslip buildup. Moderate aft stick

  17. In vivo characterization of chronic traumatic encephalopathy using [F-18]FDDNP PET brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Jorge R; Small, Gary W; Wong, Koon-Pong; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Liu, Jie; Merrill, David A; Giza, Christopher C; Fitzsimmons, Robert P; Omalu, Bennet; Bailes, Julian; Kepe, Vladimir

    2015-04-21

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is an acquired primary tauopathy with a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and motor symptoms linked to cumulative brain damage sustained from single, episodic, or repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI). No definitive clinical diagnosis for this condition exists. In this work, we used [F-18]FDDNP PET to detect brain patterns of neuropathology distribution in retired professional American football players with suspected CTE (n = 14) and compared results with those of cognitively intact controls (n = 28) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) (n = 24), a disease that has been cognitively associated with CTE. [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging results in the retired players suggested the presence of neuropathological patterns consistent with models of concussion wherein brainstem white matter tracts undergo early axonal damage and cumulative axonal injuries along subcortical, limbic, and cortical brain circuitries supporting mood, emotions, and behavior. This deposition pattern is distinctively different from the progressive pattern of neuropathology [paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and amyloid-β] in AD, which typically begins in the medial temporal lobe progressing along the cortical default mode network, with no or minimal involvement of subcortical structures. This particular [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging pattern in cases of suspected CTE also is primarily consistent with PHF-tau distribution observed at autopsy in subjects with a history of mild TBI and autopsy-confirmed diagnosis of CTE.

  18. Study on the Theory and Technology of High Yield Culture of Compact Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi; ZHANG Rong-da; WU Sheng-li; SONG Bi; ZHANG Bang-kun; JIANG Long; WANG Song; HU Jian-feng

    2002-01-01

    Using the split plot and multi-quadric regressive orthogonal cross-course rotary combination design, corn variety Denghai 6's yield and yield components, important colony quality and physiological index, microclimate index in field and technical planting for high yield were studied. Cultivation for high yield showed that Denghai 6 had the great potential of increase yield. The average yield of two years was 12510kg/ha for 13.85ha, the highest grain yield (754.7m2) was 15477kg/ha. The climatic conditions can meet the needs for high yield during the whole growth stage of corn in the mountain area of Northwest Guizhou.

  19. Response Assessment and Prediction in Esophageal Cancer Patients via F-18 FDG PET/CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Kyle J.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to utilize F-18 FDG PET/CT scans to determine an indicator for the response of esophageal cancer patients during radiation therapy. There is a need for such an indicator since local failures are quite common in esophageal cancer patients despite modern treatment techniques. If an indicator is found, a patient's treatment strategy may be altered to possibly improve the outcome. This is investigated with various standard uptake volume (SUV) metrics along with image texture features. The metrics and features showing the most promise and indicating response are used in logistic regression analysis to find an equation for the prediction of response. Materials and Methods: 28 patients underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans prior to the start of radiation therapy (RT). A second PET/CT scan was administered following the delivery of ~32 Gray (Gy) of dose. A physician contoured gross tumor volume (GTV) was used to delineate a PET based GTV (GTV-pre-PET) based on a threshold of >40% and >20% of the maximum SUV value in the GTV. Deformable registration was used in VelocityAI software to register the pre-treatment and intra-treatment CT scans so that the GTV-pre-PET contours could be transferred from the pre to intra scans (GTV-intra-PET). The fractional decrease in the maximum, mean, volume to the highest intensity 10%-90%, and combination SUV metrics of the significant previous SUV metrics were compared to post-treatment pathologic response for an indication of response. Next for the >40% threshold, texture features based on a neighborhood gray-tone dimension matrix (NGTDM) were analyzed. The fractional decrease in coarseness, contrast, busyness, complexity, and texture strength were compared to the pathologic response of the patients. From these previous two types of analysis, SUV and texture features, the two most significant results were used in logistic regression analysis to find an equation to predict the probability of a non

  20. Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) with F-18-Labeled Compounds: the Influence of Prosthetic Groups on Tumor Uptake and Clearance Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Vincent; Wuest, Melinda; Bailey, Justin J; Bergman, Cody; Janzen, Nancy; Valliant, John F; Wuest, Frank

    2017-06-21

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an important biomarker expressed in the majority of prostate cancers. The favorable positron emission tomography (PET) imaging profile of the PSMA imaging agent 2-(3-(1-carboxy-5-[(6-[(18)F]fluoro-pyridine-3-carbonyl)-amino]-pentyl)-ureido)-pentane-dioic acid [(18)F]DCFPyL in preclinical prostate cancer models and in prostate cancer patients stimulated the development and validation of other fluorine-containing PSMA inhibitors to further enhance pharmacokinetics and simplify production methods. Here, we describe the synthesis and radiopharmacological evaluation of various F-18-labeled PSMA inhibitors which were prepared through different prosthetic group chemistry strategies. Prosthetic groups N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB), 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzaldehyde, and 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) were used for bioconjugation reactions to PSMA-binding lysine-urea-glutamate scaffold via acylation and oxime formation. All fluorine-containing PSMA inhibitors were tested for their PSMA inhibitory potency in an in vitro competitive binding assay in comparison to an established reference compound [(125)I]TAAG-PSMA. Tumor uptake and clearance profiles of three F-18-labeled PSMA inhibitors ([(18)F]4, [(18)F]7, and [(18)F]8) were studied with dynamic PET imaging using LNCaP tumor-bearing mice. F-18-labeled PSMA inhibitors were synthesized in 32-69 % radiochemical yields using (1) acylation reaction at the primary amino group of the lysine residue with [(18)F]SFB and (2) oxime formation with 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzaldehyde and [(18)F]FDG using the respective aminooxy-functionalized lysine residue. Compound 7 displayed an IC50 value of 6 nM reflecting very high affinity for PSMA. Compounds 4 and 8 showed IC50 values of 13 and 62 nM, respectively. The IC50 value of reference compound DCFPyL was 13 nM. Dynamic PET imaging revealed the following SUV60min for radiotracer uptake in PSMA(+) LNCaP tumors: 0

  1. α1,2-Fucosyllactose Does Not Improve Intestinal Function or Prevent Escherichia coli F18 Diarrhea in Newborn Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Sangild, Per Torp; Jensen, Michael Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    of mucosa and activities of some brush border enzymes in the proximal small intestine. In situ abundance of α-1,2-fucose and E. coli was similar between groups, whereas sequencing showed higher abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in F18, Enterococcus in Control and Lachnospiraceae in 2FL-F18 pigs. CONCLUSIONS...

  2. Pharmacologic Activation of Tumor Hypoxia : A Means to Increase Tumor 2-Deoxy-2-[F-18]Fluoro-D-Glucose Uptake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, Gilles; Dierckx, Rudi; Vangestel, Christel; Laukens, Debby; Van Damme, Nancy; Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia and tumor metabolism are linked through the activation of metabolic genes following hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activation. This raises the question of whether this relationship can be exploited to improve 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ([F-18]FDG-

  3. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass

  4. F-18 FDG PET Images of the Cervix at Various Time Points after the Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Shin Young [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Joon [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    F-18 FDG PET is useful for monitoring residual or recurrent tumors after surgical resection. We describe five F-18 FDG PET images of three patients who had cervical carcinoma and then underwent a loop electro surgical excision procedure (LEEP). Two of the images were taken within 15 days and three at least 2 months after LEEP. The earlier F-18 FDG PET images revealed linear hypermetabolic lesions in the cervix that were produced by inflammation. This was confirmed by pathological analysis. The later F-18 FDG PET images did not reveal any remarkable hypermetabolism in the cervix without any treatment. These observations suggest that, to determine the response to LEEP therapy, F-18 FDG PET should not be performed within 15 days of the procedure.

  5. Discrepancy of bone metastases between F-18 FDG PET/CT and bone scan in a patient with prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Jin; Kim, Chul Soo; Byun, Sung Su; Hyun, In Young [Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    We report the case of a 73-year-old man who had prostate cancer with bone metastases. Tc-99m HDP Whole body bone scan revealed multiple areas of increased bony uptake consistent with widespread bone metastases. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) demonstrated mild F-18 FDG uptake in the lymph nodes of neck, abdomen, and pelvis. However, abnormal F-18 FDG uptake was not seen in the skeletal system. Biopsy and immunohistochemical stains of left supraclavicular mass showed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. Currently, there are a few reported cases of F-18 FDG PET/CT evaluation of bone metastases in prostate cancer. We discuss the discrepancy between F-18 FDG PET/CT and bone scan in the detection of osseous metastases of prostate cancer.

  6. F-18 FDG PET/CT Findings of Subcutaneous Panniculitis - Like T- Cell Lymphoma : A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Eun Jung; Cho, Ihn Ho; Chun, Kyung Ah; Bae, Yeung Kyung; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Hyun, Myung Soo [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    F-18 FDG PET is a metabolic imaging modality that is efficacious in staging and assessment of treatment response for variety of lymphomas. We report usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in evaluating severity of the disease and response to therapy in a patient with subcutaneous panniculitis- like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL). Here we describe a case of SPTCL in 24-year-old man who had wide spread firm and tender nodular lesions with increased F-18 FDG uptake. After chemotherapy follow up F-18 FDG PET/CT image shows disseminated malignancy and then the patient died with hemophagocytic syndrome. This report suggests that F-18 FDG PET/CT may be useful in determining disease activity at the time of initial diagnosis, after treatment, and evaluating a suspected outcome of SPTCL.

  7. Nutritional status of high yielding crossbred cow around parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yousuf

    2016-03-01

    Materials and methods: Nutritional status of cows around the peri-parturient period was investigated for six months in dairy farm. Seven to eight months' pregnant cows were selected for this study. Blood samples from 24 randomly selected cows were collected at stage-1, -2 and -3. The serum was stored at -20C until analyzing glucose, total protein (TP, albumin (Alb, triglycerides (Tg, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg and phosphorus (P. Results: An increasing trend of glucose level was evidenced (P=0.07 during stage-1. Instead, higher levels of TP were found during stage-3 as compared to the stage-1 and -2. The Alb levels differed significantly (P<0.01 among different stages. A significantly increased (P<0.01 cholesterol, Tg, and HDL were found after parturition (stage-2 and -3 than before parturition (stage-1. LDL was significantly (P=0.02 increased during stage-2 and -3. A significantly higher level of Ca (P<0.01, Mg (P<0.01 and P (P=0.03 were present during stage-1. Glucose, TP, cholesterol and Tg were significantly higher (P<0.01 in cows two months after parturition, while Alb was found to be the highest (P<0.01 in cows immediately after parturition. An increasing trend of LDL (P=0.07 and HDL (P=0.07 were found in the cows two months after parturition. However, Ca levels were significantly (P=0.04 higher in cows two months after parturition. Conclusion: The results indicate that there is alteration of biochemical levels among the study population at three different stages, and these data may be helpful in using the necessary nutrients to the the high yielding cows around their parturition. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 68-74

  8. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  9. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Papazi

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939 and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  10. Lichen Symbiosis: Nature's High Yielding Machines for Induced Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont’s and photobiont’s consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont’s hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  11. Pelvic congestion syndrome initially detected by contrast enhanced F 18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Weung; Kim, Myoung Hyoung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Chang Guhn [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) is said to occur as a result of retrograde flow in an incompetent ovarian vein. Ovarian vein incompetence is seen in approximately 10% of women, and up to 60% with this abnormality can develop PCS. The etiology of PCS is poorly understood and is likely to be multifactorial. Absence of ovarian vein valves is an important factor in its development. The causes of ovarian varicoceles are multifactorial, involving both mechanical and hormonal factors. Dilatation of the ovarian veins can result in vascular incompetence and retrograde blood flow. On either CT or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies, pelvic varices in PCS appear as dilated, tortuous, enhancing tubular structures near the ovaries and uterus. In addition, the extension of varices to the broad ligament and paravaginal venous plexus can be appreciated. With CT, the tubular nature of these structures and the pattern of enhancement after intravenous contrast medium administration distinguish them from lymphadenopathy or adnexal masses. Unlike such masses, pelvic varices appear isodense with other veins after contrast enhancement. Contrast enhanced CT data as part of the combined PET/CT examination provide additional information when compared with non enhanced PET/CT. Because CT data supply the anatomic background for PET, the most important benefit relates to more precise anatomic localization of pathology by differentiation of the lesion from its surrounding structures. By supporting lesion detection and characterization, CT contrast agents can be of additional value in F 18 FDG non avid disease. As in the presented case, careful review of CT images in contrast enhanced PET/CT enables the detection of F 18 FDG non avid disease such as PCS. As contrast enhanced F 18 FDG PET/CT had been performed frequently, being familiar with the findings of PCS on the contrast enhanced CT images would have been helpful for the nuclear medicine physicians.

  12. F-18 FDG PET findings for Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Lim; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Park Sonya Young Ju [Dept. of of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of MedicineThe Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease is a rare multisystemic granulomatous autoimmune disorder affecting pigmented tissues such as the choroid, meninges, inner ear, and the skin. Neurologic symptoms are usually mild. Clinical manifestations include generalized muscle weakness, headache, meningismus, vertigo, decreased visual acuity, hearing loss and mental changes ranging from mild confusion to psychosis, hemiparesis, dysarthria, and aphasia. Seizures are very rare. We describe a case of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and software-fused PET-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease with seizure.

  13. New Cyclotron Targetry to Enhance F-18 clinical Position Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Michael Doster

    2008-12-19

    This project proposes to develop cyclotron targets that produce F-18 for clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) at significantly higher rates than that available from current targetry. This production rate of 18F is directly proportional to the beam current. Higher beam currents would result in increased 18F production but would be accompanied by higher heat loads to the target. The beam power available in most commercial cyclotrons exceeds the heat removal capacity of current target technology by a factor of two to four, significantly limiting the production rate of Fluorine-18.

  14. Extracting DNA from 'jaws': High yield and quality from archived tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) skeletal material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Morgan, J. A T; Maher, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). Protocols were compared for DNA yield and quality using a qPCR approach. For jaw swarf, all methods provided relatively high DNA yield and quality, while large differences in yield between protocols were observed for vertebrae. Similar results were obtained from samples...... and vertebrae are potential high-yield sources of DNA for genomic-scale analysis. It also highlights that even for similar tissue types, a careful evaluation of extraction protocols can vastly improve DNA yield....

  15. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  16. CG FARRAPO: a sudangrass cultivar with high biomass and grain yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ghisleni Arenhardt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The new sudangrass cultivar [Sorghum sudanense (Piper Stapf.] was developed by the method of selection of individual plants with progeny testing. The most important traits are high biomass yield with high grain yield.

  17. Stereotypical behaviour at high yielding dairy cows farms - "tongue rolling"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Radiša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine if there was a connection between stereotypical behaviour of high yielding dairy cows breeds and values of biochemical blood parameters. The investigation was carried out in august at loose-housing type of farms, in 30 heads of cattle from four groups: drying (15 to 7 days before calving, puerperium (up to 40 days after calving, early lactation (up to 120 days after calving and late lactation (200 to 300 days after calving. Assessment of stereotypical behaviour (tongue rolling was carried out by the method of careful observation of all the tested animals 2 to 4 hours after morning feeding. Blood samples were taken by puncture of jugular vein from 8 cows out of each animal group. In these blood samples there was determined the concentration of glucose, beta hydroxy-butyric acid (BHBA, total protein (TP, albumin, urea, total bilirubin (TBI, Ca, P, and Mg as well as AST and ALT activities. During the period up to 40 days after calving (puerperium, behavioral disorder in the form of „tongue rolling“ was found out in 4 out of 30 observed animals (13.33%. Average concentrations of all the tested blood parameters during the drying period as well as in early and late lactation were within physiological values for cattle. During puerperium there were found significantly lower values of glycaemia, proteinemia, albuminemia, uremia and magnesiemia in regard to antepartal values (p<0.05, where the values of glycaemia and magnesiemia were below the physiological limit. A the same time, in this group of cows the values of TBI and AST activities were higher than physiological values. Frequent appearance of „tongue rolling“ phenomenon only among cows in the group with deviation of biochemical parameters values, points out to a possible connection between the stereotypical behaviour and biochemical composition of blood. It seems that hypomagnesiemia could be a significant etiopathogenetic factor causing the

  18. Evaluation of high yielding soybean germplasm under water limitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvas J. Prince; Henry T. Nguyen; Mackensie Murphy; Raymond N. Mutava; Zhengzhi Zhang; Na Nguyen; Yoon Ha Kim; Safiullah M. Pathan; Grover J. Shannon; Babu Valliyodan

    2016-01-01

    Limited information is available for soybean root traits and their plasticity under drought stress. To date, no studies have focused on examining diverse soybean germ-plasm for regulation of shoot and root response under water limited conditions across varying soil types. In this study, 17 genetically diverse soybean germplasm lines were selected to study root response to water limited conditions in clay (trial 1) and sandy soil (trial 2) in two target environments. Physiological data on shoot traits was measured at multiple crop stages ranging from early vegetative to pod filling. The phenotypic root traits, and biomass accumulation data are collected at pod filling stage. In trial 1, the number of lateral roots and forks were positively correlated with plot yield under water limitation and in trial 2, lateral root thickness was positively correlated with the hill plot yield. Plant Introduction (PI) 578477A and 088444 were found to have higher later root number and forks in clay soil with higher yield under water limitation. In sandy soil, PI458020 was found to have a thicker lateral root system and higher yield under water limitation. The genotypes identified in this study could be used to enhance drought tolerance of elite soybean cultivars through improved root traits specific to target environments.

  19. Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchang YANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses approaches to simultaneously increase grain yield and resource use efficiency in rice. Breeding nitrogen efficient cultivars without sacrificing rice yield potential, improving grain fill in later-flowering inferior spikelets and enhancing harvest index are three important approaches to achieving the dual goal of high grain yield and high resource use efficiency. Deeper root distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic N use efficiency at lower N rates could be used as selection criteria to develop N-efficient cultivars. Enhancing sink activity through increasing sugar-spikelet ratio at the heading time and enhancing the conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch though increasing the ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene in grains during grain fill could effectively improve grain fill in inferior spikelets. Several practices, such as post-anthesis controlled soil drying, an alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime during the whole growing season, and non-flooded straw mulching cultivation, could substantially increase grain yield and water use efficiency, mainly via enhanced remobilization of stored carbon from vegetative tissues to grains and improved harvest index. Further research is needed to understand synergistic interaction between water and N on crop and soil and the mechanism underlying high resource use efficiency in high-yielding rice.

  20. Myocardial Fibrosis in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Demonstrated by Integrated Cardiac F-18 FDG PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Eunjung; Lee, Sanghee; Cho, Ihnho [Yeungnam Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common condition defined as a diffuse or segmental left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy with a nondilated and hyperdynamic chamber as well as cardiac arrhythmias. Cardiac MR (CMR) imaging is a key modality for evaluation of HCM. In addition to the assessment of LV wall thickness, LV function and aortic flow, CMR is capable of estimation of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in affected myocardium which has been shown to have a direct correlation with incidence and severity of arrhythmias in HCM. In patients with HCM, LGE on CMR is presumed to represent intramyocardial fibrosis. Meanwhile, F-18 FDG myocardial PET has been sporadically studied in HCM, mostly for evaluation of the metabolic status of a hypertrophic myocardial segment, especially after interventions or to demonstrate partial myocardial fibrosis. We presented here the case of a 25-year-old male patient referred for simultaneous F-18 FDG cardiac PET/MR for the evaluation of septal hypertrophy. The PET/MR revealed myocardial fibrosis in the septum associated with FDG-defect and LGE.

  1. [Investigations of radiation exposure of the medical personnel during F-18-FDG PET studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linemann, H; Will, E; Beuthien-Baumann, B

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was the identification of those working steps with the highest radiation exposure for the medical personnel during F-18-FDG-PET studies and to evaluate the effectiveness of radiation protection devices and instructions developed in our PET-center. The personal dose and hand dose were measured for each working procedure during F-18-FDG-PET studies using electronic personal dosimeters and thermoluminescent dosimeters respectively. Additionally, measurements of the radiation level near the patient were taken. The mean personal dose resulting from syringe preparation was 1 microSv/syringe, from injection 3 microSv/patient, from blood sampling during quantitative studies 6 microSv/study, and from positioning and handling of the patient 6 microSv/study. The mean hand dose per syringe preparation was 710 microSv for each hand. The mean hand dose during injection was 13 microSv for the right hand and 27 microSv for the left hand. All above mentioned values were measured applying the routine radiation shielding in use in our PET center. With the developed radiation shielding and means to reduce radiation exposure applied the allowed annual dose for medical personnel are not exceeded. One exception is the hand dose resulting from syringe preparation. An automatic or remote filling device should be used at this working step.

  2. Impact of F-18 FDG-PET for the Clinical Multidisciplinary Evaluation of Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prakash, Vineet; Vestergård, Karsten; Frost, Majbritt;

    .                       CONCLUSION            F-18 FDG-PET changed management in 44 % of patients seen in a specialist mutlidisciplinary dementia clinic.PET has promising clinical value for management decisions in patients where clinical evaluations combined with lab CSF results and dedicated MR imaging are equivocal for Alzheimers......PURPOSE            Dementia is a challenging clinical diagnosis. Compared with conventional clinical evaluations, F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET has been reported to improve not only the diagnostic accuracy of dementia but also help better define the underlying  type. This is because FDG PET...... demonstrates metabolic patterns reflecting neuronal function specific to different dementias.To assess the impact of PET on a multidisciplinary  dementia clinic for patients with suspected dementia by comparing it with the initial clinical evaluation and paraclinical tests.                       METHOD...

  3. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT and post hoc PET/MRI in a case of primary meningeal melanomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hong Je [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (DIRAMS), Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Hwang, Seong Wook; Kim, Hae Won; Lee, Sang Woo; Hwang, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Jae Tae [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Suk Kyong [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Primary meningeal melanomatosis is a rare, aggressive variant of primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system, which arises from melanocytes within the leptomeninges and carries a poor prognosis. We report a case of primary meningeal melanomatosis in a 17-year-old man, which was diagnosed with 1{sup 8F}-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) PET/CT, and post hoc F-18 FDG PET/MRI fusion images. Whole-body F-18 FDG PET/CT was helpful in ruling out the extracranial origin of melanoma lesions, and in assessing the therapeutic response. Post hoc PET/MRI fusion images facilitated the correlation between PET and MRI images and demonstrated the hypermetabolic lesions more accurately than the unenhanced PET/CT images. Whole body F-18 FDG PET/CT and post hoc PET/MRI images might help clinicians determine the best therapeutic strategy for patients with primary meningeal melanomatosis.

  4. A significant discrepancy of uptake between I-131 MIBG and F-18 FDG in a patient with malignant paraganglioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Su; Kim, Hyun Keun; Choi, Kyu Young; Park, Hyung Ki; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Yun Kwon; Kim, So Yon [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    A 38-year-old man who was diagnosed with malignant paraganglioma underwent computed tomography (CT) and I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan. CT showed extensive lymph node enlargement in right iliac area and retroperitoneum with severe hydronephrosis and mass on posterior bladder wall. However, I-131 MIBG scan didn't showed abnormal uptake. He also underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT for localizing accurate tumor site. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed multiple metastases of left supraclavicular, hilar, mediastinal para-aortic, inguinal, right iliac lymph nodes, lung, vertebrae, and pelvis. There are a few reports showing that the F-18 FDG PET/CT is helpful for staging and localizing tumor site of patients who are diagnosed with negative on the MIBG scans. Thus, we report a case with paraganglioma which showed negative I-131 MIBG scan, but revealed multiple intense hypermetabolic foci in F-18 FDG PET/CT.

  5. Histomorphometric characteristics of immune cells in small intestine of pigs perorally immunized with vaccine candidate F18ac+ nonenterotoxigenic E. coli strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Valpotic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Colidiarrhea and colienterotoxemia caused by F4+ and/or F18+ enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC strains are the most prevalent infections of suckling and weaned pigs. Here we tested the immunogenicity and protective effectiveness of attenuated F18ac+ non-ETEC vaccine candidate strain against challenge infection with F4ac+ ETEC strain by quantitative phenotypic analysis of small intestinal leukocyte subsets in weaned pigs. We also evaluated levamisole as an immune response modifier (IRM and its adjuvanticity when given in the combination with the experimental vaccine. The pigs were parenterally immunized with either levamisole (at days -2, -1 and 0 or with levamisole and perorally given F18ac+ non-ETEC strain (at day 0, and challenged with F4ac+ ETEC strain 7 days later. At day 13 the pigs were euthanatized and sampled for immunohistological/histomorphometrical analyses. Lymphoid CD3+, CD45RA+, CD45RC+, CD21+, IgA+ and myeloid SWC3+ cell subsets were identified in jejunal and ileal epithelium, lamina propria and Peyer’s patches using the avidin-biotin complex method, and their numbers were determined by computer-assisted histomorphometry. Quantitative immunophenotypic analyses showed that levamisole treated pigs had highly increased numbers of jejunal CD3+, CD45RC+ and SWC3+ cells (p<0.05 as compared to those recorded in nontreated control pigs. In the ileum of these pigs we have recorded that only CD21+ cells were significantly increased (p<0.01. The pigs that were treated with levamisole adjuvanted experimental vaccine had significantly increased numbers of all tested cell subsets in both segments of the small intestine. It was concluded that levamisole adjuvanted F18ac+ non-ETEC vaccine was a requirement for the elicitation of protective gut immunity in this model; nonspecific immunization with levamisole was less effective, but confirmed its potential as an IRM.

  6. Preliminary study on the evaluation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis using F-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose PET/CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Wenlan; Wu Hubing; Han Yanjiang; Wang Shaobo; Dong Ye; Wang Quanshi

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited number of studies have been reported regarding the utilization of F-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (F-18-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18-FDG PET/CT) in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH).The aim of this study was to assess the role of F-18-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis and treatment of LCH.Methods Eight newly diagnosed and seven recurrent patients with LCH received F-18-FDG PET/CT scans.The diagnosis of LCH was established by pathology,multi-modality imaging,and clinical follow-up.Results F-18-FDG PET/CT was positive in 14 patients with 13 true positives and one false positive.All 45 LCH lesions were F-18-FDG avid including six small bone lesions <1.0 cm in diameter.The mean maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was 7.13±4.91.F-18-FDG uptake showed no significant difference between newly diagnosed lesions vs recurrent lesions (SUVmax:6.50±2.97 vs.7.93±6.60,t=-0.901,P=0.376).Among 45 LCH lesions,68.9% (31/45) were found in bones and 31.1% (14/45) in soft tissue.The most commonly involved bones were the pelvis and vertebrae.There was no significant difference in F-18-FDG uptake between bone lesions vs.non-bone lesions (SUVmax:6.30±2.87 vs.8.97±7.58,t=1.277,P=0.221).In two patients,changes in F-18-FDG uptake on serial PET/CT scans reflected response of lesions to treatment.Conclusions The present study suggests that F-18-FDG PET/CT may be useful for diagnosis and assessing the treatment response of LCH.Because of the small sample size,further research is warranted to confirm our findings.

  7. Supplementation with Lactobacillus paracasei or Pediococcus pentosaceus does not prevent diarrhoea in neonatal pigs infected with Escherichia coli F18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    caesarean-delivered, colostrum-deprived term piglets on parenteral nutrition for the first 15 h, were used as models for sensitive newborn infants. A commercially available probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LAP, 2·6x108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg per d) and a novel LAB isolate, Pediococcus...... increased diarrhoea and density of F18 in the intestinal mucosa (Prelative to F18 alone (P

  8. CD 150 - short wheat cultivar with high quality and high yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial quality and lodging resistance of CD 150, a cross between CD104 and CD108, are high and the plant heightis short. The average yield was 10 % higher than of the controls in the regions II, III and IV. It is suitable for cultivation in the states of PR,SP, MS and GO, MG, and DF.

  9. Microbial Carbon Substrate Utilization Differences among High- and Average-Yield Soybean Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor C. Adams; Kristofor R. Brye; Mary C. Savin; Jung Ae Lee; Edward E. Gbur

    2017-01-01

    Since soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr.)) yields greater than 6719 kg ha−1 have only recently and infrequently been achieved, little is known about the soil microbiological environment related to high-yield soybean production...

  10. Relationship between the expression level of SLA-DQA and Escherichia coli F18 infection in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wen-bin; Ye, Lan; Zi, Chen; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Jing; Pan, Zhang-yuan; Zhu, Guo-qiang; Huang, Xue-gen; Wu, Sheng-long

    2012-02-15

    The expression of SLA-DQA was assayed by Real-time PCR to analyze the differential expression between ETEC F18-resistant and -sensitive post-weaning piglets, and then to compare the expression levels of SLA-DQA in 11 different tissues from 8-, 18-, 30- and 35-day-old ETEC F18-resistant piglets, which aimed at discussing the role of SLA-DQA in resistance to ETEC F18. The results showed that SLA-DQA is broadly expressed in 11 tissues with the highest expression level in lymph nodes, and a relatively higher expression level in lung, spleen, jejunum, and duodenum. In tissues of lymph node, lung, spleen, jejunum, and duodenum, the mRNA expression of SLA-DQA in resistant individuals was significantly higher than that in sensitive ones (PSLA-DQA increased from 8 to 18 and 30 days (weaning day), and increased persistently to 35 days of post-weaning. Expression levels of SLA-DQA on 35 days in most tissues were significant higher than that on 8, 18 and 30 days (PSLA-DQA to a certain extent. The analysis suggested that SLA-DQA may be not the direct immune factor that resisted the Escherichia coli F18, but perhaps enhanced humoral immunity and cell immunity to reduce the transmembrane signal transduction of ETEC F18 bacterial LPS and then led to the resistance to ETEC F18 in piglets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neural responses of rats in the forced swimming test: [F-18]FDG micro PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong-Pyo; Lee, So-Hee; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Park, Chan-Woong; Cho, Zang-Hee; Kim, Young-Bo

    2009-10-12

    The forced swimming test (FST) is a widely used tool in the assessment of behavioral despair and prediction of response to antidepressants. However, the neural mechanisms underlying behavioral changes between pretest and test sessions of the FST remain unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in rat brain activity during the FST using [F-18]Fluorodeoxyglucose micro PET. In both pretest and test sessions, the activity of the cerebellum and striatum increased, whereas significant deactivation was observed in the hippocampus, inferior colliculus, orbital cortex, and insula. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) region activated markedly in the pretest session, but did not activate in the test session. There was a significant increase in immobility and a decrease in climbing during the behavioral analysis test session. These results suggest that the PAG region may play an important role in the modulation of FST coping strategies subsequent to failure of the escape response during the pretest session.

  12. Discordant Findings of Skeletal Metastasis Between Tc99m MDP Bone Scans and F18 FDG PET/CT Imaging for Advanced Breast and Lung Cancers—Two Case Reports and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Tc99m methyl diphosphate (MDP bone scintigraphy provides high-sensitivity detection of skeletal metastasis from breast and lung cancers in regular follow-up. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT, based on the glucose metabolism of malignant cells, plays a role in describing rumor growth, proliferation of neoplasm and the extent of metastasis. In general, concordant findings of skeletal metastasis are seen on both types of image, especially in cases of breast and lung cancer. However, there were extremely discordant findings of skeletal metastasis between bone scans and F18 FDG PET/CT imaging in two cases among 300 consecutive F18 FDG PET/CT follow-up exams of patients with malignancies, during the past year, in our center. Both cases, one of breast cancer and one of lung cancer, had negative bone scintigraphic findings, but a diffusely high grade of F18 FDG avid marrow infiltration in the axial spine, leading to the diagnosis of stage IV disease in both cases. Owing to variant genetic aberrance of malignance, F18 FDG PET/CT reveals direct evidence of diffuse, rapid neoplasm metabolism in the bone marrow of the spine, but not of secondary osteoblastic reactions in vivo. F18 FDG PET/CT should always be employed in the follow-up of patients with malignancies.

  13. High yield neutron generator based on a high-current gasdynamic electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalyga, V.; Sidorov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanova St., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S. [Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanova St., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Strelkov, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2015-09-07

    In present paper, an approach for high yield compact D-D neutron generator based on a high current gasdynamic electron cyclotron resonance ion source is suggested. Results on dense pulsed deuteron beam production with current up to 500 mA and current density up to 750 mA/cm{sup 2} are demonstrated. Neutron yield from D{sub 2}O and TiD{sub 2} targets was measured in case of its bombardment by pulsed 300 mA D{sup +} beam with 45 keV energy. Neutron yield density at target surface of 10{sup 9} s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} was detected with a system of two {sup 3}He proportional counters. Estimations based on obtained experimental results show that neutron yield from a high quality TiD{sub 2} target bombarded by D{sup +} beam demonstrated in present work accelerated to 100 keV could reach 6 × 10{sup 10} s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. It is discussed that compact neutron generator with such characteristics could be perspective for a number of applications like boron neutron capture therapy, security systems based on neutron scanning, and neutronography.

  14. Cranberry extract inhibits in vitro adhesion of F4 and F18(+)Escherichia coli to pig intestinal epithelium and reduces in vivo excretion of pigs orally challenged with F18(+) verotoxigenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddens, Annelies; Loos, Michaela; Vanrompay, Daisy; Remon, Jean Paul; Cox, Eric

    2017-04-01

    F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli infections are an important threat for pig industry worldwide. Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infected piglets, but the emerging development of resistance against antibiotics raises major concerns. Hence, alternative therapies to prevent pigs from F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli infections need to be developed. Since cranberry previously showed anti-adhesive activity against uropathogenic E. coli, we aimed to investigate whether cranberry extract could also inhibit binding of F4(+)E. coli and F18(+)E. coli to pig intestinal epithelium. Using the in vitro villus adhesion assay, we found that low concentrations of cranberry extract (20μg or 100μg/ml) have strong inhibitory activity on F4(+)E. coli (75.3%, S.D.=9.31 or 95.8%, S.D.=2.56, respectively) and F18(+)E. coli adherence (100% inhibition). This effect was not due to antimicrobial activity. Moreover, cranberry extract (10mg or 100mg) could also abolish in vivo binding of F4 and F18 fimbriae to the pig intestinal epithelium in ligated loop experiments. Finally, two challenge experiments with F18(+)E. coli were performed to address the efficacy of in-feed or water supplemented cranberry extract. No effect could be observed in piglets that received cranberry extract only in feed (1g/kg or 10g/kg). However, supplementation of feed (10g/kg) and drinking water (1g/L) significantly decreased excretion and diarrhea. The decreased infection resulted in a decreased serum antibody response indicating reduced exposure to F18(+)E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Atmospheric histories and growth trends of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Weiss

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The first atmospheric observations and trends are presented for the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs: decafluorobutane (C4F10, dodecafluoropentane (C5F12, tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14, hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16 and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18. Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 38 Northern Hemisphere and 46 Southern Hemisphere archived air samples collected between 1973 to 2011 using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE "Medusa" preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. A new calibration scale was prepared for each PFC, with estimated accuracies of 6.8% for C4F10, 7.8% for C5F12, 4.0% for C6F14, 6.6% for C7F16 and 7.9% for C8F18. Based on our observations the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these heavy PFCs are: 0.18 parts-per-trillion (ppt, i.e., parts per 1012 for C4F10, 0.12 ppt for C5F12, 0.28 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. These atmospheric mole fractions combine to contribute to a global average radiative forcing of 0.35 mW m−2, which is 3.6% of the total PFC radiative forcing. The globally averaged mean atmospheric growth rates of these PFCs during 1973–2011 are 4.58 parts per quadrillion (ppq, i.e., parts per 1015 per year (yr for C4F10, 3.29 ppq yr−1 for C5F12, 7.50 ppq yr−1 for C6F14, 3.19 ppq yr−1 for C7F16 and 2.51 ppq yr−1 for C8F18. The growth rates of the heavy perfluorocarbons were largest in the early 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12 and in the mid-to-late 1990s for C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18. The more recent slow down in the growth rates of the high molecular weight PFCs suggests that emissions are declining as compared to the 1980s and 1990s. Nevertheless continued monitoring of these potent, extremely long-lived greenhouse gases is necessary to verify that global PFC emissions continue to decline.

  16. Harvester development for new high yielding SRC crops and markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Mark

    2005-07-01

    This report describes the development of harvesting equipment for short rotation cultivation (SRC) crops produced in the UK that can produce fuel to a required specification in a single pass at a cost that is profitable for the grower while minimising the cost of the product. Details are given of the manufacture and installation of new components for large crop harvesting, and production of fuel suitable for co-firing in a coal combustion system using pulverised fuel and fuel suitable for gasification. The development of the drive chain to cope with the higher yielding crops, field tests on SRC crops, and determination of the most economic harvesting system are discussed along with the remanufacture of the chipping drum, and production of market chip samples. Harvesting guidance and an economic analysis of harvesting systems are presented.

  17. Clinical Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in papillary thyroid cancer with negative radioiodine scan and elevated thyroglobulin level or positive anti-thyroglobulin antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Su Jung; Jung, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sun Seong; Park, Yun Soo; Lee, Seok Mo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Kyun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels, along with a negative radioiodine scan, present a clinical problem for the diagnosis of recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients. The purpose of this study was to assess (1) the usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for PTC patients with negative diagnostic radioiodine scan and elevated serum Tg level or positive anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and (2) the effect of endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (ETS) on detecting recurrence in these circumstances. Eighty-four patients with negative diagnostic radioiodine scan and elevated serum Tg or positive TgAb under ETS were included. Correlation with clinicopathological features and recurrence, detectability of FDG PET/CT and cut-off value of serum Tg for recurrence in PTC patients with these circumstance were assessed. In addition, detectability of F-18 FDG PET/CT under ETS and suppression were compared. In Cox regression analysis, only serum Tg level was significantly associated with recurrence (P<0.001, HR  = 1.13; 95 % CI, 1.061–1.208). The cut-off level of Tg was 21.5 ng/mL (AUC, 0.919; P < 0.001) for discriminating the recurrence in the patients with positive PET/CT finding. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of F-18 FDG PET/CT for detecting recurrence were 64 %, 94 %, 86 %, 81 %, and 83 %. In the analysis of F-18 FDG PET/CT under ETS, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy was 64 %, 94 %, 88 %, 81 % and 83 %. Those under TSH suppression were 67 %, 92 %, 80 %, 85 % and 83 %. F-18 FDG PET/CT, although less sensitive, showed high specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy and therefore can be useful for the patients with negative diagnostic radioiodine scan and elevated serum Tg or positive TgAb. In addition, FDG PET/CT under ETS does not seem to have an additive role in detecting recurrence in these patients.

  18. Atmospheric histories and growth trends of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Weiss

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric observations and trends are presented for the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs: decafluorobutane (C4F10, dodecafluoropentane (C5F12, tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14, hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16 and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18. Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 36 Northern Hemisphere and 46 Southern Hemisphere archived air samples collected between 1973 to 2011 using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE "Medusa" preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. A new calibration scale was prepared for each PFC, with estimated accuracies of 6.8% for C4F10, 7.8% for C5F12, 4.0% for C6F14, 6.6% for C7F16 and 7.9% for C8F18. Based on our observations the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these heavy PFCs are: 0.17 parts-per-trillion (ppt, i.e., parts per 1012 for C4F10, 0.12 ppt for C5F12, 0.27 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. These atmospheric mole fractions combine to contribute to a global average radiative forcing of 0.35 mW m−2, which is 6% of the total anthropogenic PFC radiative forcing (Montzka and Reimann, 2011; Oram et al., 2012. The growth rates of the heavy perfluorocarbons were largest in the late 1990s peaking at 6.2 parts per quadrillion (ppq, i.e., parts per 1015 per year (yr for C4F10, at 5.0 ppq yr−1 for C5F12 and 16.6 ppq yr−1 for C6F14 and in the early 1990s for C7F16 at 4.7 ppq yr−1 and in the mid 1990s for C8F18 at 4.8 ppq yr−1. The 2011 globally averaged mean atmospheric growth rates of these PFCs are subsequently lower at 2.2 ppq yr−1 for C4F10, 1.4 ppq yr−1 for C5F12, 5.0 ppq yr−1 for C6F14, 3.4 ppq yr−1 for C7F16 and 0.9 ppq yr−1 for C8F18. The more recent slowdown in the growth rates suggests that emissions are declining as compared to the 1980s and 1990s.

  19. Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in high and low- yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Jafari Dehkordi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiography (ECG may be used to recognize cardiac disorders. Levels of milk production may change the serum electrolytes which its imbalance has a role in cardiac arrhythmia. Fifty high yielding and fifty low yielding Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Electrocardiography was recorded by base-apex lead and blood samples were collected from jugular vein for measurement of serum elements such as sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. Cardiac dysrhythmias were detected more frequent in low yielding Holstein cows (62.00% compared to high yielding Holstein cows (46.00%. The cardiac dysrhythmias that were observed in low yielding Holstein cows included sinus arrhythmia (34.70%, wandering pacemaker (22.45 %, bradycardia (18.37%, tachycardia (10.20%, atrial premature beat (2.04%, sinoatrial block (2.04%, atrial fibrillation (8.16% and atrial tachycardia (2.04%. The cardiac dysrhythmias were observed in high yielding Holstein cows including, sinus arrhythmia (86.95% and wandering pacemaker (13.05%. Also, notched P wave was observed to be 30% and 14% in high- and low- yielding Holstein cows respectively. The serum calcium concentration of low yielding Holstein cows was significantly lower than that of high yielding Holstein cows. There was not any detectable significant difference in other serum elements between high- and low- yielding Holstein cows. Based on the result of present study, could be concluded that low serum concentration of calcium results to more frequent dysrhythmias in low yielding Holstein cows.

  20. Separating heat stress from moisture stress: analyzing yield response to high temperature in irrigated maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth K.; Melkonian, Jeff; Riha, Susan J.; Shaw, Stephen B.

    2016-09-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that high air temperatures are limiting maize (Zea mays L.) yields in the US Corn Belt and project significant yield losses with expected increases in growing season temperatures. Further work has suggested that high air temperatures are indicative of high evaporative demand, and that decreases in maize yields which correlate to high temperatures and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) likely reflect underlying soil moisture limitations. It remains unclear whether direct high temperature impacts on yields, independent of moisture stress, can be observed under current temperature regimes. Given that projected high temperature and moisture may not co-vary the same way as they have historically, quantitative analyzes of direct temperature impacts are critical for accurate yield projections and targeted mitigation strategies under shifting temperature regimes. To evaluate yield response to above optimum temperatures independent of soil moisture stress, we analyzed climate impacts on irrigated maize yields obtained from the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) corn yield contests for Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. In irrigated maize, we found no evidence of a direct negative impact on yield by daytime air temperature, calculated canopy temperature, or VPD when analyzed seasonally. Solar radiation was the primary yield-limiting climate variable. Our analyses suggested that elevated night temperature impacted yield by increasing rates of phenological development. High temperatures during grain-fill significantly interacted with yields, but this effect was often beneficial and included evidence of acquired thermo-tolerance. Furthermore, genetics and management—information uniquely available in the NCGA contest data—explained more yield variability than climate, and significantly modified crop response to climate. Thermo-acclimation, improved genetics and changes to management practices have the potential to partially or completely

  1. High-harmonic generation: Ultrafast lasers yield X-rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKinnie, Iain; Kapteyn, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Table-top sources that generate both extreme ultraviolet light and soft X-rays through high-harmonic generation of ultrafast infrared laser pulses look set to perform tasks previously accessible using only large-scale synchrotrons.

  2. High School Student Physics Research Experience Yields Positive Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a…

  3. Controllable preparation of high-yield magnetic polymer latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Chao; Kong, Xiang-Ming; Yang, Hai-Long

    2011-09-01

    In order to overcome the low conversion and complex post-treatment, four different polymerization procedures were adopted to prepare the magnetic polymer latexes. The results clearly show that the strategy using magnetic emulsion template-dosage is the most effective and feasible. Based on the optimized procedure, various factors including the type of initiators such as oil soluble initiator, water soluble initiator, redox initiator system, crosslinking agent, functional monomers etc. were systematically studied. Magnetic polymer latex with high monomer conversion of 83% and high magnet content of 31.8% was successfully obtained. Besides, core-shell structured magnetic polymer latex with good film forming property was also prepared, which is promising for potential applications such as magnetic coatings and modification of cementitious materials with controlled polymer location.

  4. High school student physics research experience yields positive results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a small scale research project while in high school gives them the hands on experience and ultimately prepares them more for the college experience. SUNY Plattsburgh’s Physics department started a five-week summer program for high school students in 2012. This program has proved not only beneficial for students while in the program, but also as they continue on in their development as scientists/engineers. Independent research, such as that offered by SUNY Plattsburgh’s five-week summer program, offers students a feel and taste of the culture of doing research, and life as a scientist. It is a short-term, risk free way to investigate whether a career in research or a particular scientific field is a good fit.

  5. False-positive axillary lymph node on F-18 FDG PET/CT due to moxibustion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ji Hyoung [Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    A 30-year-old female was diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer and underwent total thyroidectomy and high-dose radioiodine ablation. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for recurrence detection of thyroid carcinoma was performed at 3 years after total thyroidectomy. Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy using moxa or the mugwort herb. Moxibustion is the burning of a small, thimble-sized, smoldering plug of dried leaves such as moxa or mugwort on the skin at an acupuncture point. Acupuncture and moxibustion induce hyperemia and a local inflammatory reaction. Complications associated with moxibustion such as skin bums or infection of the site have been reported previously. False-positive FDG uptake in PET may result from inflammation, infection, and variations in physiological uptake. In the present case, the hypermetabolic axillary lymph node disappeared without any treatment. Well-known of false-positive FDG uptake in axillary lymph noes such as arthritis of the upper extremity, extravasation of injected FDG, and vaccination were not found. Thus, left axillary lymph node uptake was

  6. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Johan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chute, Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balakireva, Lyudmila [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  7. The Prospects for High-Yield ICF with a Z-Pinch Driven Dynamic Hohlraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHANDLER, GORDON A.; CHRIEN, R.; COOPER, GARY WAYNE; DERZON, MARK S.; DOUGLAS, MELISSA R.; HEBRON, DAVID E.; LASH, JOEL S.; LEEPER, RAMON J.; MATZEN, M. KEITH; MEHLHORN, THOMAS A.; NASH, THOMAS J.; OLSON, RICHARD E.; PETERSON, D.L.; RUIZ, CARLOS L.; SANFORD, THOMAS W. L.; SLUTZ, STEPHEN A.

    1999-09-07

    Recent success with the Sandia Z machine has renewed interest in utilizing fast z-pinenes for ICF. One promising concept places the ICF capsule internal to the imploding z-pinch. At machine parameters relevant to achieving high yield, the imploding z-pinch mass has sufficient opacity to trap radiation giving rise to a dynamic hohlraum. The concept utilizes a 12 MJ, 54 MA z-pinch driver producing a capsule drive temperature exceeding 300 eV to realize a 550 MJ thermonuclear yield. They present the current high-yield design and its development that supports high-yield ICF with a z-pinch driven dynamic hohlraum.

  8. Current concepts in F18 FDG PET/CT-based Radiation Therapy planning for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy eLee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is an important component of cancer therapy for early stage as well as locally advanced lung cancer. The use of F18 FDG PET/CT has come to the forefront of lung cancer staging and overall treatment decision-making. FDG PET/CT parameters such as standard uptake value and metabolic tumor volume provide important prognostic and predictive information in lung cancer. Importantly, FDG PET/CT for radiation planning has added biological information in defining the gross tumor volume as well as involved nodal disease. For example, accurate target delineation between tumor and atelectasis is facilitated by utilizing PET and CT imaging. Furthermore, there has been meaningful progress in incorporating metabolic information from FDG PET/CT imaging in radiation treatment planning strategies such as radiation dose escalation based on standard uptake value thresholds as well as using respiratory gated PET and CT planning for improved target delineation of moving targets. In addition, PET/CT based follow-up after radiation therapy has provided the possibility of early detection of local as well as distant recurrences after treatment. More research is needed to incorporate other biomarkers such as proliferative and hypoxia biomarkers in PET as well as integrating metabolic information in adaptive, patient-centered, tailored radiation therapy.

  9. Radiation assessment to paediatric with F-18-FDG undergo whole-body PET/CT examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhalisa, H., E-mail: dhalisa82@gmail.com; Rafidah, Z. [Kluster Oncology Science and Radiology, Advanced Medical Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Bertam, Penang (Malaysia); Mohamad, A. S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Cancer Institute, No 4 Jalan P7, Presint 7, Putrajaya (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This study was carried out on wholebody radiation dose assessment to paediatrics patient who undergo PET/CT scanner at Institut Kanser Negara. Consist of 68 patients with varies of malignancies and epilepsy disease case covering age between 2 years to 12 years old. This is a retrospective study from 2010-2014. The use of PET/CT scanner as an advanced tool has been proven to give an extra radiation dose to the patient. It is because of the radiation exposure from the combination of both CT and PET scans rather than a single CT or PET scan. Furthermore, a study on radiation dose to paediatric patient undergoing PET/CT is rare in Malaysia. So, the aim of this study is to estimate the wholebody effective dose to paediatric patient in Malaysia. Effective dose from PET scan was calculated based on the activity of F18 FDG and dose coefficient reported in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 106. Effective dose from CT was determined using k coefficient as reported in ICRP publication 102 and Dose Length Product (DLP) value. The average effective dose from PET and CT were found to be 7.05mSv and 5.77mSv respectively. The mean wholebody effective dose received by a patient with combined PETCT examination was 12.78mSv. These results could be used as reference for dosimetry of a patient undergoing PETCT examination in Malaysia.

  10. F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging of primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Mitamura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors (PHNETs are extremely rare neoplasms. Herein, we report a case of a 70-year-old man with a hepatic mass. The non-contrast computed tomography (CT image showed a low-density mass, and dynamic CT images indicated the enhancement of the mass in the arterial phase and early washout in the late phase. F18- fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET and fused PET/CT images showed increased uptake in the hepatic mass. Whole-body 18F-FDG PET images showed no abnormal activity except for the liver lesion. Presence of an extrahepatic tumor was also ruled out by performing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, total colonoscopy, and chest and abdominal CT. A posterior segmentectomy was performed, and histologic examination confirmed a neuroendocrine tumor (grade 1. The patient was followed up for about 2 years after the resection, and no extrahepatic lesions were radiologically found. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with PHNET. To the best of our knowledge, no previous case of PHNET have been detected by 18F-FDG PET imaging.

  11. Evaluation of acetazolamine response in patients with cerebellar ataxia using dynamic quantitative F-18-FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. K.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, M. H.; Lee, K. M.; Yeo, J. S.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M. C. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Cerebellar Ataxia (CA) usually shows dramatic response to acetazolamide treatment. But few cases of acetazolamide unresponse CA were reported recently. Using dynamic FDG PET, we tried to evaluate the metabolic abnormality and its drug response in CA. Quantitative F-18-FDG PET was performed prior and after treatment of acetazolamide (250 mg qid for 10 days) in two patient suspected episodic cerebellar ataxia. Using Model-based clustering method, the regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate (rCMRglu) was calculated. Two patients showed different treatment response to acetazolamide. In one patient who showed markedly reduced frequency of the ataxic attack after treatment. FDG PET showed that mean cerebellar glucose metabolism was increased after treatment ({delta}rCMRglu:9%). However, in the other who showed poor response to acetazolamide, FDG PET showed the more decrease metabolism in cerebellar metabolism after treatment ({delta}rCMRglu:-17%). The change of the cerebellar glucose metabolism on FDG PET reflected the symptomatic improvement after acetazolamide in these two CA patients. We could expected that FDG PET might be a very useful tool to quantitatively predict the treatment response in CA and other neurologic disorder.

  12. F-18 FDG PET/CT Findings of a Patient with Takayasu Arteritis Before and After Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Sağer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vasculitis is defined as inflammation and necrosis with leukocytic infiltration of the blood vessel wall. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic inflammatory arteritis that primarily involves the aorta and its main branches. A 64-year-old female patient with a 2-month history of fever of unknown origin was presented to our clinic for F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging. Baseline PET/CT images demonstrated intense F-18 FDG uptake in the aorta, bilateral subclavian and brachiocephalic arteries consistent with Takayasu arteritis. After 2 months of immunosuppressive therapy, she was asymptomatic and follow-up FDG PET/CT scan showed almost complete disappearance of large vessels’ F-18 FDG uptake. FDG PET/CT is a sensitive technique for assessing presence of large-vessel vasculitis such as Takayasu arteritis, extent of large-vessel inflammation and disease activity after therapy. (MIRT 2012;21:32-34

  13. A Case of Urethral Metastasis from Sigmoid Colon Cancer Diagnostically and Prognostically Indicated by F 18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Han Seok; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Soyon; Im, Su Jin; Park, Yong Hyun; Lee, Ju Hyoung; Hur, So Chong [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Urethral metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare and is known to have a poor prognosis. A 72 year old man with a history of colectomy and colostomy due to sigmoid colon cancer was admitted to the emergency room with bowel distension, rectal bleeding and urinary symptoms. Computed tomography of the abdominopelvis showed sigmoid colon cancer with multiple metastases involving the liver. Positron emission tomography with F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) showed multiple hypermetabolic foci in the liver, penis and pubic bone, which otherwise could not be diagnosed. The lesions revealed no improvement with chemotherapy and urological surgery on follow up F 18 FDG PET/CT. We present a case of urethral metastasis of sigmoid colon cancer diagnostically and prognostically indicated by F 18 FDG PET/CT.

  14. Rapidly growing complex fibroadenoma with surrounding ductal hyperplasia mimics breast malignancy on serial F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makis, William; Ciarallo, Anthony; Hickeson, Marc; Derbekyan, Vilma

    2011-07-01

    A 30-year-old woman was referred for an F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT to rule out lymphoma, and was found to have an incidental FDG-avid right breast nodule that grew significantly in size and FDG uptake on a subsequent scan, raising suspicion of a growing breast malignancy. Histologic evaluation showed a complex fibroadenoma with adenosis and surrounding ductal hyperplasia. Although variable F-18 FDG uptake in fibroadenomas has been described, a distinction between simple and complex fibroadenomas has not been made in the PET literature, even though complex fibroadenomas have a higher propensity to develop into malignancies. This case shows that a rapidly growing complex fibroadenoma can mimic a breast malignancy on serial F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, showing significant increase in both size and FDG-avidity on follow-up studies.

  15. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M.; Baasandorj, M.; Burkholder, J. B.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-08-01

    Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model and an inverse method that includes a growth constraint on emissions. The observations used in the inversion are based on newly measured archived air samples that cover a 39-yr period, from 1973 to 2011, and include 36 Northern Hemispheric and 46 Southern Hemispheric samples. The derived emission estimates show that global emission rates were largest in the 1980s and 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12, and in the 1990s for C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18. After a subsequent decline, emissions have remained relatively stable, within 20%, for the last 5 yr. Bottom-up emission estimates are available from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGARv4.2) for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14 and C7F16, and inventories of C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 are reported to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The atmospheric measurement-based emission estimates are 20 times larger than EDGARv4.2 for C4F10 and over three orders of magnitude larger for C5F12 (with 2008 EDGARv4.2 estimates for C5F12 at 9.6 kg yr-1, as compared to 67±53 t yr-1 as derived in this study). The derived emission estimates for C6F14 largely agree with the bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.2. Moreover, the C7F16 emission estimates are comparable to those of EDGARv4.2 at their peak in the 1990s, albeit significant underestimation for the other time periods. There are no bottom-up emission estimates for C8F18, thus the emission rates reported here are the first for C8F18. The reported inventories for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 to UNFCCC are five to ten times lower than those

  16. High Precision and High Yield Fabrication of Dense Nanoparticle Arrays onto DNA Origami at Statistically Independent Binding Sites †

    OpenAIRE

    Takabayashi, Sadao; Klein, William P.; Onodera, Craig; Rapp, Blake; Flores-Estrada, Juan; Lindau, Elias; Snowball, Lejmarc; Sam, Joseph Tyler; Padilla, Jennifer E.; Lee, Jeunghoon; Knowlton, William B.; Graugnard, Elton; Yurke, Bernard; Kuang, Wan; Hughes, William L.

    2014-01-01

    High precision, high yield, and high density self-assembly of nanoparticles into arrays is essential for nanophotonics. Spatial deviations as small as a few nanometers can alter the properties of near-field coupled optical nanostructures. Several studies have reported assemblies of few nanoparticle structures with controlled spacing using DNA nanostructures with variable yield. Here, we report multi-tether design strategies and attachment yields for homo- and hetero-nanoparticle arrays templa...

  17. High confinement, high yield Si3N4 waveguides for nonlinear optical application

    CERN Document Server

    Epping, Jörn P; Mateman, Richard; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René G; van Rees, Albert; van der Slot, Peter J M; Lee, Chris J; Boller, Klaus-J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel fabrication technique for silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides with a thickness of up to 900 nm, which are suitable for nonlinear optical applications. The fabrication method is based on etching trenches in thermally oxidized silicon and filling the trenches with Si3N4. Using this technique no stress-induced cracks in the Si3N4 layer were observed resulting in a high yield of devices on the wafer. The propagation losses of the obtained waveguides were measured to be as low as 0.4 dB/cm at a wavelength of around 1550 nm.

  18. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Prinn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs: decafluorobutane (C4F10, dodecafluoropentane (C5F12, tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14, hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16 and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18. Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model and an inverse method that includes a growth constraint on emissions. The observations used in the inversion are based on newly measured archived air samples that cover a 39-yr period, from 1973 to 2011, and include 36 Northern Hemispheric and 46 Southern Hemispheric samples (Ivy et al., 2012. The derived emission estimates show that global emission rates were largest in the 1980s and 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12, and in the 1990s for C6F14,C7F16 and C8F18. After a subsequent decline, emissions have remained relatively stable, within 20%, for the last 5 yr. Bottom-up emission estimates are available from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGARv4.2 for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14 and C7F16, and inventories of C4F10, C5F12 andC6F14 are reported to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC by Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The atmospheric measurement based emission estimates are 20 times larger than EDGARv4.2 for C4F10 and over three orders of magnitude for C5F12. The derived emission estimates for C6F14 largely agree with the bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.2. Moreover, the C7F16 emission estimates are comparable to those of EDGARv4.2 at their peak in the 1990s, albeit significant underestimation for the other time periods. There are no bottom-up emission estimates for C8F18, thus the emission rates reported here are the first for C8F18. The reported inventories for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 to UNFCCC are five to ten times lower than those estimated in this study. In addition, we present measured infrared absorption spectra for C

  19. High yield polyol synthesis of round- and sharp-end silver nanowires with high aspect ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekahi, A.; Marashi, S.P.H., E-mail: pmarashi@aut.ac.ir; Fatmesari, D. Haghshenas

    2016-12-01

    Long silver nanowires (average length of 28 μm, average aspect ratio of 130) with uniform diameter along their length were produced by polyol synthesis of AgNO{sub 3} in ethylene glycol in the presence of PVP as preferential growth agent. Nanowires were produced with no addition of chloride salts such as NaCl or CuCl{sub 2} (or other additives such as Na{sub 2}S) which are usually used for lowering reduction rate of Ag ions by additional etchant of O{sub 2}/Cl{sup −}. Lower reduction rate was obtained by increasing the injection time of PVP and AgNO{sub 3} solutions, which was the significant factor in the formation of nanowires. Therefore, there was enough time for reduced Ag atoms to be deposited preferentially in the direction of PVP chains, resulting in high yield (the fraction of nanowires in the products) of nanowires (more than 95%) with high aspect ratio. The produced nanowires had both round- and sharp-ends with pentagonal cross section. Higher energy level of Ag atoms in borders of MTPs, which increases the dissolution rate of precipitated atoms, in addition to partial melting of MTPs at high synthesis temperatures, leads to the curving of the surfaces of exposed (111) crystalline planes in some MTPs and the formation of round-end silver nanowires. - Highlights: • Long silver nanowires with high aspect ratio of 130 were produced. • More than 95% nanowires were produced in products. • The produced nanowires had round- and sharp-ends with pentagonal cross section. • Additives were needed neither for high yield synthesis nor for round-end nanowires. • Melting and etching of MTPs in high energy borders resulted to round-end nanowires.

  20. Breeding of Zhongyouza 8, a Canola Variety with Large Seeds and High Oil Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-chang; HU Qiong; MEI De-sheng; LI Ying-de; XU Yu-song

    2006-01-01

    High oil yield resulted from a combination of high grain yield and high oil content is a prerequisite for the high efficient oilseed rape production. By using irradiation induced mutation and sexual hybridization combined with paired test cross,the fertility, yield and oil content of the three lines of cytoplasmic male sterility have been improved and a new hybrid variety Zhongyouza 8 with high oil yield was developed. It has been testified that the yield of Zhongyouza 8 was significantly higher than that of the control variety Zhongyou 821 with 9.82 and 10.64% increase in the regional trials of Hubei Province and nationwide, respectively. The oil content and oil yield of Zhongyouza 8 were the highest among all the lines involved in Hubei provincial trials, being 42.77% and 1 051.05 kg ha-1 which was raised by 3% and 161.25 kg ha-1compared to the control Zhongyou 821, respectively. The genetic basis for the strong heterosis, and the factors contributing to the yield and oil content increase of Zhongyouza 8 as well as the strategy for high oil yielding variety improvement through increasing seed size were also discussed in this paper.

  1. F18-FDG PET-CT analyses of small peripheral adenocarcinoma of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Takashima, Shodayu [Osaka Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Div. of Allied Health Sciences, Dept. of Diagnostic Radiological Imaging, Osaka (Japan)], e-mail: yoshi_seat_128@yahoo.co.jp; Watanabe, Shinichiro [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Tracer Kinetics, Osaka (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Background: Radiological discrimination of histologic subtypes of small peripheral adenocarcinoma of the lung is clinically important. Although there are many articles in which CT findings were used for this purpose, there are only a few reports on the capability of FDG PET-CT findings for histologic classification of this tumor. Purpose: To investigate the correlation between visual assessment or maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) on F18-FDG PET-CT and histology grading of small peripheral adenocarcinoma of the lung. Material and Methods: Proportions of positive PET-CT diagnoses and SUVmax were retrospectively reviewed on 96 solitary pulmonary nodules of {<=}2 cm in 90 consecutive patients. Tumors were classified into four groups according to Noguchi's classification (group 1 [n = 10], atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and type A tumors; group 2 [n = 12], type B tumors; group 3 [n = 42], type C tumors; group 4 [n = 32], types D, E, and F tumors). Proportions of positive PET-CT diagnoses and mean SUVmax of lesions among four groups were compared using trend tests to examine if there is a significant linear correlation with the progression of the histology grading of tumors. Then, an optimal threshold of SUVmax was proposed to best discriminate tumors of poor (groups 3 and 4) from good (groups 1 and 2) prognosis. Results: There was a significant linear trend for both visual assessment (P < 0.01) and SUVmax (P < 0.01). A SUVmax of 0.42 showed the highest accuracy of 84% with 95% sensitivity and 50% specificity for predicting tumors of poor prognosis. A SUVmax of 2.05 showed 100% specificity with 49% sensitivity, and 60% accuracy. Positive visual diagnoses showed accuracy of 83% with 90% sensitivity and 59% specificity. Conclusion: Visual assessment and SUVmax on PET-CT correlated well with the histology grading of small peripheral adenocarcinoma of the lung.

  2. Amyloid-β assessed by florbetapir F 18 PET and 18-month cognitive decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Reisa A.; Coleman, R. Edward; Johnson, Keith A.; Reiman, Eric M.; Davis, Mat D.; Grundman, Michael; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Sadowsky, Carl H.; Fleisher, Adam S.; Carpenter, Alan; Clark, Christopher M.; Joshi, Abhinay D.; Mintun, Mark A.; Skovronsky, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Florbetapir F 18 PET can image amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates in the brains of living subjects. We prospectively evaluated the prognostic utility of detecting Aβ pathology using florbetapir PET in subjects at risk for progressive cognitive decline. Methods: A total of 151 subjects who previously participated in a multicenter florbetapir PET imaging study were recruited for longitudinal assessment. Subjects included 51 with recently diagnosed mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 69 cognitively normal controls (CN), and 31 with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer disease dementia (AD). PET images were visually scored as positive (Aβ+) or negative (Aβ−) for pathologic levels of β-amyloid aggregation, blind to diagnostic classification. Cerebral to cerebellar standardized uptake value ratios (SUVr) were determined from the baseline PET images. Subjects were followed for 18 months to evaluate changes in cognition and diagnostic status. Analysis of covariance and correlation analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between baseline PET amyloid status and subsequent cognitive decline. Results: In both MCI and CN, baseline Aβ+ scans were associated with greater clinical worsening on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale–Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog (p < 0.01) and Clinical Dementia Rating–sum of boxes (CDR-SB) (p < 0.02). In MCI Aβ+ scans were also associated with greater decline in memory, Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (p < 0.05). In MCI, higher baseline SUVr similarly correlated with greater subsequent decline on the ADAS-Cog (p < 0.01), CDR-SB (p < 0.03), a memory measure, DSS, and MMSE (p < 0.05). Aβ+ MCI tended to convert to AD dementia at a higher rate than Aβ− subjects (p < 0.10). Conclusions: Florbetapir PET may help identify individuals at increased risk for progressive cognitive decline. PMID:22786606

  3. C11-Acetate and F-18 FDG PET for Men With Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Evan Y.; Muzi, Mark; Hackenbracht, Joy A.; Rezvani, Brian B.; Link, Jeanne M.; Montgomery, Robert Bruce; Higano, Celestia S.; Eary, Janet F.; Mankoff, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Report This study tested the feasibility of C11-acetate (acetate) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to assess response to therapy in men with bone metastatic prostate cancer and compared results for disease detection and response evaluation with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Materials and Methods Men with ≥3 prostate cancer bone metastases identified by Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy and/or computed tomography were enrolled in a prospective study of serial acetate and FDG PET imaging. Patients were imaged before and 6 to 12 weeks after initial androgen deprivation therapy for new metastatic prostate cancer or first-line chemotherapy with docetaxel for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Qualitative assessment and changes in the tumor:normal uptake ratio were used to assess response by both acetate and FDG PET. In addition, the detection of bone metastases pretherapy was compared for acetate and FDG PET. Results A total of 8 patients with documented bone metastases were imaged, of which 6 were imaged both pre- and post-therapy. Acetate PET detected bone metastases in all 8 patients, whereas FDG PET detected lesions in 6 of the 7 imaged patients. Acetate PET generally detected more metastases with a higher tumor:normal uptake ratio. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of post-treatment response correlated with composite clinical designations of response, stable disease, or progression in 6 of 6 and 5 of 6 by acetate and 4 of 5 and 3 of 5 by FDG PET, respectively. Conclusions In this pilot study, results indicate that acetate PET holds promise for response assessment of prostate cancer bone metastases and is complementary to FDG PET in bone metastasis detection. PMID:21285676

  4. F-18 fluoromisonidazole PET predicts early lesion progression in acute ischemic stroke patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, G. H.; Kim, J. S.; Oh, S. J.; Cho, A. H.; Cho, K. H.; Kang, D. H.; Kim, J. S.; Kwon, S. E. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    F-18 fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET has been known to image viable hypoxic area. We performed this study to define whether FMISO PET can reveal ischemic penumbra of acute ischemic stroke. We prospectively selected acute ischemic stroke patients with large diffusion-perfusion mismatch due to occlusion of MCA or ICA on MRI among patients who visited emergency room within 24 hours after stroke onset. FMISO PET and diffusion weighted MR image (DWI) performed within 48 hours after initial MRI. We excluded the patients who performed any reperfusion procedure. To define the final infarcted area, DWI was performed again 2 days after PET scan. Brain FMISO PET was performed 3 hour after the injection of FMISO (370 MBq). FMISO PET was assessed by visual and quantitative analysis. The extent of abnormally increased FMISO uptake was automatically calculated by the number and size of voxels having higher count than upper 3SD of the mean count of contralateral normal hemisphere. We compared the extent of abnormal FMISO uptake area with the change of the extent of ischemic lesions on DWI. Fifteen patients were enrolled in this study. Ten of these patients showed abnormally increased FMISO uptake in peri-infarct area. Ischemic lesion size on follow-up DWI significantly increased in all patients with abnormally increased FMISO uptake except one patient of whom the MCA spontaneously recanalized on follow up angiogram. Ischemic lesions on DWI increased in only one of five patients without abnormally increased FMISO uptake. The extent of abnormally increased FMISO uptake area was positively correlated with infarct size progression on DWI (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.757, p<0.01). FMISO uptake specifically and sensitively predicted early lesion progression in acute ischemic stroke patients with large diffusion-perfusion mismatch. Therefore, FMISO PET will be a good indicator of the revascularization or reperfusion procedure for acute ischemic stroke by defining ischemic

  5. Pyelo-cystic Reflux in F-18 FDG PET Scan Due to Ureteral Obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyhan, Mehmet [Baskent Univ., Adana (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    A 72-year-old woman with a history of cervical cancer was treated with brachytherapy and chemotherapy. Combined F-18 FDG PET/CT performed for restaging demonstrated increased FDG uptake in a hypodense cystic lesion at the posterior part of the right renal cortex and a hypermetabolic soft tissue mass at the right parailiac region suggestive of a metastatic lymph node causing ureteral obstruction. There had been no FDG uptake in the cystic lesion on the FDG PET/CT study performed 1 year before. These findings suggest that the increased FDG uptake in the cystic lesion was caused by pyelocystic reflux due to ureteral obstruction secondary to parailiac lymph node metastasis (Figs. 1 and 2). Several renal lesions may have increased metabolism, such as renal cell carcinoma, lymphoma, oncocytoma, adult Wilms' tumor, angiomyolipoma, metastatic lesions, xanthogranulo-matous pyelonephritis and infected cyst. Most of these lesions are solid. Some infected renal cysts may be FDG avid, but in this situation increased FDG uptake is observed on the wall of the cyst. In our case, FDG uptake was seen in the entire cystic lesion. The patient had no symptoms or laboratory findings related to infection. Cysts are the most common space-occupying lesions of the kidney. The vast majority of these are simple cysts that are usually unilateral and solitary. Simple cysts are asymptomatic, except when complications exist such as hemorrhage, infection or rupture. There have been a few reports on spontaneous communications between renal cysts and the pyelocaliceal system, in most cases involving ruptures of the cysts into the pyelocaliceal system due to increased intracystic pressure caused by bleeding or infection of the cyst. In the present case, the cause of the connection between the cystic cavity and the pyelocaliceal system is the increased pressure in the renal pelvic cavity due to the ureteral obstruction secondary to parailiac lymph node metastasis.

  6. In Vivo Responses of Human A375M Melanoma to a sigma Ligand : F-18-FDG PET Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybczynska, Anna A.; de Bruyn, Marco; K. Ramakrishnan, Nisha; de Jong, Johan R.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Helfrich, Wijnand; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; van Waarde, Aren

    2013-01-01

    sigma-ligands can kill tumor cells. Previously we have shown that a short in vitro incubation of C6 tumor cells with sigma-ligands (24 h) results in a dose-dependent increase of cellular F-18-FDG uptake and that the magnitude of this increase is predictive of subsequent cell death. Here, we aimed to

  7. F-18 Fluorodeoxy Glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Findings in a Rare Case of Penile Leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruva Manohar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is a rare entity accounting for only 0.4% all male malignancies. Penile leiomyosarcomas are even rarer with only around 35 cases reported in literature. We report a rare case of penile leiomyosarcoma illustrating F-18 Fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT features and histopathology correlation.

  8. Symmetric increased skeletal muscular uptake of F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose: A clue for the diagnosis of Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Kashyap, Raghava; Bhattacharya, Anish; Singh, Baljinder

    2011-07-01

    F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid and thymus is well reported in patients with Graves' disease. Incidental skeletal muscle uptake has also been reported in other non-musculoskeletal (benign and malignant) pathologies. We report a patient of Graves' disease showing symmetrical skeletal muscle uptake but no thyroidal or thymus uptake of FDG.

  9. Comparison of C-11-choline and F-18-FDG PET in primary diagnosis and staging of patients with thoracic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterman, RM; Que, TH; Elsinga, PH; Pruim, J; van Putten, JWG; Willemsen, ATM; Vaalburg, W; Groen, HJM

    PET with F-18-FDG is used for detection and staging of thoracic cancer; however, more specific PET radiopharmaceuticals would be welcome. C-11-labeled choline (CHOL) is a new radiopharmaceutical potentially useful for tumor imaging, since it is incorporated into cell membranes as

  10. Quantification of the beta-adrenoceptor ligand S-1'[F-18]fluorocarazolol in plasma of humans, rats and sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanWaarde, A; Posthumus, H; Elsinga, PH; Anthonio, RL; van Loenen - Weemaes, Anne-miek; Beaufort-Krol, Gertie C. M.; Paans, AMJ; Vaalburg, W; Visser, Thomas; Visser, Gerben

    1996-01-01

    Myocardial and pulmonary beta-adrenoceptors can be imaged with 2-(S)-(-)-(9H-carbazol-4-yl-oxy)-3-[1-(fluoromethyl)ethyl]amino-2-propanol (S-1'-[F-18]fluorocarazolol, I). Quantification of unmodified fluorocarazolol in plasma is necessary for analysis of PET images in terms of receptor densities. We

  11. Very low-dose adult whole-body tumor imaging with F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Andrzej; Naveed, Muhammad; McGrath, Mary; Lisi, Michele; Lavalley, Cathy; Feiglin, David

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if effective radiation dose due to PET component in adult whole-body tumor imaging with time-of-flight F-18 FDG PET/CT could be significantly reduced. We retrospectively analyzed data for 10 patients with the body mass index ranging from 25 to 50. We simulated F-18 FDG dose reduction to 25% of the ACR recommended dose via reconstruction of simulated shorter acquisition time per bed position scans from the acquired list data. F-18 FDG whole-body scans were reconstructed using time-of-flight OSEM algorithm and advanced system modeling. Two groups of images were obtained: group A with a standard dose of F-18 FDG and standard reconstruction parameters and group B with simulated 25% dose and modified reconstruction parameters, respectively. Three nuclear medicine physicians blinded to the simulated activity independently reviewed the images and compared diagnostic quality of images. Based on the input from the physicians, we selected optimal modified reconstruction parameters for group B. In so obtained images, all the lesions observed in the group A were visible in the group B. The tumor SUV values were different in the group A, as compared to group B, respectively. However, no significant differences were reported in the final interpretation of the images from A and B groups. In conclusion, for a small number of patients, we have demonstrated that F-18 FDG dose reduction to 25% of the ACR recommended dose, accompanied by appropriate modification of the reconstruction parameters provided adequate diagnostic quality of PET images acquired on time-of-flight PET/CT.

  12. The role of F18-FDG PET scans in predicting micropapillary thyroid cancer aggressiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, E. H.; Cho, H. J.; Kim, T. S.; Kang, W. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D. [Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The purpose is to evaluate F18-FDG PET in predicting micropapillary thyroid cancer aggressiveness. 41 patients (38 female, mean age 50y) who had PET before total thyroidectomy between 2002.1{approx}2007.8 were reviewed. Patients with thyroiditis and multiple nodules were excluded. Thyroid nodules were visually analyzed into groups with increased and no FDG uptake. Peak SUV ratio of liver-to-nodule (pSUV ratio) was taken. pSUV ratio was correlated with nodule size and micropapillary cancer aggressiveness. Perithyroid extension and/or LN metastasis was used as an indicator of micropapillary cancer aggressiveness 20 patients had 0.89 and nodules with increased FDG uptake, with an average pSUV ratio of 1.67 0.15. 21 patients had nodules that were not visible, average size of 0.66 cm 0.24. FDG uptake and nodule size correlation was with an average size of 0.52 cm significant (p=0.051). The nodules were divided into two groups using a cut-off value of pSUV ratio of 0.9. 19 patients had nodules with a pSUV ratio of 0.9 or higher, and 15 of the 19 patients had perithyroid extension and/or LN metastasis. 22 patients had nodules with pSUV ratio lower than 0.9 and 7 of these patients had perithyroid extension and/or LN metastasis. Patients with higher pSUV ratio showed more perithyroid extension or LN metastasis than those with lower pSUV ratio (p=0.01). A total of 8 patients had LN metastasis, but none were visualized on PET. Higher FDG uptake seems to be significantly correlated with tumor aggressiveness in micropapillary thyroid carcinomas. But FDG uptakes in primary tumors were also correlated with tumor size. In other words, larger nodules tend to show aggressive behavior in micropapillary thyroid carcinomas and FDG it self may not be an independent factor for tumor aggressiveness. Also, PET shows an extremely poor sensitivity for the detection of LN metastasis. Therefore, PET may not have any role in the evaluation of patients with micropapillary thyroid carcinomas.

  13. Optimal yield-related attributes of irrigated rice for high yield potential based on path analysis and stability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganghua Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of yield in rice (Oryza sativa L. is vital for ensuring food security in China. Both rice breeders and growers need an improved understanding of the relationship between yield and yield-related traits. New indica cultivars (53 in 2007 and 48 in 2008 were grown in Taoyuan, Yunnan province, to identify important components contributing to yield. Additionally, two standard indica rice cultivars with similar yield potentials, II You 107 (a large-panicle type and Xieyou 107 (a heavy-panicle type, were planted in Taoyuan, Yunnan province and Nanjing, Jiangsu province, from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the stability of yield and yield-related attributes. Growth duration (GD, leaf area index (LAI, panicles per m2 (PN, and spikelets per m2 (SM were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield (GY over all years. Sequential path analysis identified PN and panicle weight (PW as important first-order traits that influenced grain yield. All direct effects were significant, as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Yield potential varied greatly across locations but not across years. Plant height (PH, days from heading to maturity (HM, and grain weight (GW were stable traits that showed little variation across sites or years, whereas GD (mainly the pre-heading period, PHP and PN varied significantly across locations. To achieve a yield of 15 t ha− 1, a cultivar should have a PH of 110–125 cm, a long GD with HM of approximately 40 days, a PN of 300–400 m− 2, and a GW of 29–31 mg.

  14. Optimal yield-related attributes of irrigated rice for high yield potential based on path analysis and stability analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganghua; Li; Jun; Zhang; Congdang; Yang; Yunpan; Song; Chengyan; Zheng; Shaohua; Wang; Zhenghui; Liu; Yanfeng; Ding

    2014-01-01

    Improvement of yield in rice(Oryza sativa L.) is vital for ensuring food security in China. Both rice breeders and growers need an improved understanding of the relationship between yield and yield-related traits. New indica cultivars(53 in 2007 and 48 in 2008) were grown in Taoyuan,Yunnan province, to identify important components contributing to yield. Additionally, two standard indica rice cultivars with similar yield potentials, II You 107(a large-panicle type) and Xieyou 107(a heavy-panicle type), were planted in Taoyuan, Yunnan province and Nanjing,Jiangsu province, from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the stability of yield and yield-related attributes.Growth duration(GD), leaf area index(LAI), panicles per m2(PN), and spikelets per m2(SM) were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield(GY) over all years. Sequential path analysis identified PN and panicle weight(PW) as important first-order traits that influenced grain yield. All direct effects were significant, as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Yield potential varied greatly across locations but not across years. Plant height(PH), days from heading to maturity(HM), and grain weight(GW) were stable traits that showed little variation across sites or years, whereas GD(mainly the pre-heading period, PHP) and PN varied significantly across locations. To achieve a yield of 15 t ha-1, a cultivar should have a PH of 110–125 cm, a long GD with HM of approximately 40 days, a PN of 300–400 m-2, and a GW of 29–31 mg.

  15. CR Dhan 407, a high-yielding rice cultivar released for the rainfed shallow lowland ecosystem of eastern India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, P S; Patnaik, S S C; Patnaik, A; Rao, G J N; Singh, O N

    2015-01-01

    .... Development and release of CR Dhan 407, a high-yielding cultivar, with a potential yield of more than 5 tons per hectare and non-lodging plant type, can address the problem of yield stagnation...

  16. Neutron and fission yields from high-energy deuterons in infinite /sup 238/U targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canfield, E.

    1965-06-28

    Early work on the interaction of high energy deuterons with large /sup 238/U targets is reexamined and current theoretical study is discussed. Results of fission and neutron yield calculations are compared with experiment. (SDF)

  17. Mid-Season High-Resolution Satellite Imagery for Forecasting Site-Specific Corn Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahuel R. Peralta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A timely and accurate crop yield forecast is crucial to make better decisions on crop management, marketing, and storage by assessing ahead and implementing based on expected crop performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high-resolution satellite imagery data collected at mid-growing season for identification of within-field variability and to forecast corn yield at different sites within a field. A test was conducted on yield monitor data and RapidEye satellite imagery obtained for 22 cornfields located in five different counties (Clay, Dickinson, Rice, Saline, and Washington of Kansas (total of 457 ha. Three basic tests were conducted on the data: (1 spatial dependence on each of the yield and vegetation indices (VIs using Moran’s I test; (2 model selection for the relationship between imagery data and actual yield using ordinary least square regression (OLS and spatial econometric (SPL models; and (3 model validation for yield forecasting purposes. Spatial autocorrelation analysis (Moran’s I test for both yield and VIs (red edge NDVI = NDVIre, normalized difference vegetation index = NDVIr, SRre = red-edge simple ratio, near infrared = NIR and green-NDVI = NDVIG was tested positive and statistically significant for most of the fields (p < 0.05, except for one. Inclusion of spatial adjustment to model improved the model fit on most fields as compared to OLS models, with the spatial adjustment coefficient significant for half of the fields studied. When selected models were used for prediction to validate dataset, a striking similarity (RMSE = 0.02 was obtained between predicted and observed yield within a field. Yield maps could assist implementing more effective site-specific management tools and could be utilized as a proxy of yield monitor data. In summary, high-resolution satellite imagery data can be reasonably used to forecast yield via utilization of models that include spatial adjustment to

  18. Fast and green synthesis of biologically important quinoxalines with high yields in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ghafuri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimal method were developed for the green synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives based on the highly efficient and simple condensation reaction of various aromatic 1,2-diketones and 1,2-diamines in nearly quantitative yields in water. In this method we did not use any catalyst. The very mild reaction conditions, the high yields of the products, and the absence of any catalyst make this methodology an efficient and green route for synthesis of quinoxalines.

  19. Divisional compound hierarchical classification method for regionalization of high, medium and low yield croplands of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliang, Qiao; Ying, Wang; Jinchun, Liu

    This is an introduction to the method of classifying high, medium and low yield croplands by remote sensing and GIS, which is the result of a key project of The Scientific and Industry Technology Committee of National Defence. In the study, special information related to high, medium and low yield cropland was compounded with TM data. The development of the method of compound hierarchy classification improved accuracy of remote sensing classification greatly.

  20. The Diagnosis and Prevention of Florbetapir F18 in Alzheimer's Disease%略谈Florbetapir F18在阿尔茨海默病诊断和防治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雨平; 林伟

    2013-01-01

    阿尔茨海默病(AD)的临床诊断尚存在一定问题,确诊必须要有生物学诊断标准的辅助.正电子发射断层(PET)显像是诊断AD的一项极具临床应用前景的生物学检测方法,本文介绍Florbetapir F18(18F-AV-45)PET显像的研究进展.%The definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease(AD) are hampered by the lack of effective biomarkers of the underlying pathology. The positron emission tomographic (PET) is one of the most potential biomarker of clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. The progress of florbetapir F18(18F-AV-45)PET imaging to identify β-amyloid pathology in the brains of individuals during life were introduced.

  1. Enhanced electron yield from a laser-plasma accelerator using high-Z gas jet targets

    CERN Document Server

    Mirzaie, Mohammad; Li, Song; Sokollik, Thomas; He, Fei; Cheng, Ya; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    An investigation of the multi-hundred MeV electron beam yield (charge) form helium, nitrogen, neon and argon gas jet plasmas in a laser-plasma wakefield acceleration experiment was carried out. The charge measurement has been made via imaging the electron beam intensity profile on a fluorescent screen into a 14-bit charge coupled device (CCD) which was cross-calibrated with nondestructive electronics-based method. Within given laser and plasma parameters, we found that laser-driven low Z- gas jet targets generate high-quality and well-collimated electron beams with reasonable yields at the level of 10-100 pC. On the other hand, filamentary electron beams which were observed from high-Z gas jets at higher densities reached much higher yield. Evidences for cluster formation were clearly observed in high-Z gases, especially in the argon gas jet target where we received the highest yield of ~ 3 nC

  2. Commercial Practice on Technology for High- Temperature Cracking of C4 Fraction to Increase Propylene Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Darong; Zhang Zhigang

    2003-01-01

    This article refers to the results of small-scale and commercial tests on high-temperature cracking of C4 fraction in FCC unit to increase the propylene yield. The bench tests revealed that the conversion rate of C4 fraction during high-temperature cracking reached 37.38 % and propylene yield was equal to 15.60 % with the conversion rate of C4 olefins equating around 50%. The results of commercial application showed that adoption of the technology for high-temperature cracking of C4 fraction in FCC unit had led to an increase of propylene yield by 2.16 % with no remarkable changes in the yields and properties of other products.

  3. High-yield synthesis of bioactive ethyl cinnamate by enzymatic esterification of cinnamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dong-Hao; Zhang, Jiang-Yan; Chen, Na; Zhi, Gao-Ying

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, Lipozyme TLIM-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl cinnamate through esterification of cinnamic acid with ethanol was studied. In order to increase the yield of ethyl cinnamate, several media, including acetone, isooctane, DMSO and solvent-free medium, were investigated in this reaction. The reaction showed a high yield by using isooctane as reaction medium, which was found to be much higher than the yields reported previously. Furthermore, several parameters such as shaking rate, water activity, reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio and enzyme loading had important influences on this reaction. For instance, when temperature increased from 10 to 50 °C, the initial reaction rate increased by 18 times and the yield of ethyl cinnamate increased by 6.2 times. Under the optimum conditions, lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ethyl cinnamate gave a maximum yield of 99%, which was of general interest for developing industrial processes for the preparation of ethyl cinnamate.

  4. Neglecting rice milling yield and quality underestimates economic losses from high-temperature stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel B Lyman

    Full Text Available Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1 °C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers.

  5. Neglecting rice milling yield and quality underestimates economic losses from high-temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Nathaniel B; Jagadish, Krishna S V; Nalley, L Lanier; Dixon, Bruce L; Siebenmorgen, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable) rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1 °C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers.

  6. Radiosynthesis of [F-18]fluoxetine as a potential radiotracer for serotonin reuptake sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, M.K.; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1993-05-01

    Synthesis of 4-nitro-[alpha]-bromo-[alpha],[alpha]-difluorotoluene was accomplished in two steps starting from 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, with a 30% overall yield. Radiolabeling of 4-nitro-[alpha]-bromo-[alpha], [alpha]-difluorotoluene with no-carrier-added [[sup 18]F]fluoride provided 4-nitro-[alpha],[alpha]-difluoro-[alpha]-[[sup 18]F] fluorotoluene in 2-4% yields with a specific activity of 2590 GBq/mmol (70 Ci/mmol). The effect of the reaction temperature on the radiochemical yield and specific activity of the radiolabeling reaction was studied. Radiochemical yields increased, whereas specific activity decreased, with increasing temperature. Radiosynthesis of [[sup 18]F] fluoxetine involved coupling of 4-nitro-[alpha],[alpha]-difluoro-[alpha]-[[sup 18]F]fluorotoluene with the sodium alkoxide of (S)-3-(methylamino)-1-phenyl-1-propanol. The overall yield of HPLC purified [[sup 18]F]fluoxetine was 1-2% (decay-corrected; total radiosynthesis time, 150-180 min). The specific activity of the product was 1480 GBq/mmol (40 Ci/mmol). (Author).

  7. Analysis on differential expressed genes of ovarian tissue between high- and low-yield laying hen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Song, Ling-Jun; Zeng, Yong-Qing; Yang, Yun; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate molecular genetic mechanism of laying hen reproduction at the transcriptional level and the structure of significantly differential genes, the mRNA differential display and reverse northern dot-blot were used to detect the differential expression of genes in the ovary tissue of low-yield laying hens and high-yield laying hens in the present study. Sixteen 32-week-old CAU-pink laying hens divided into two groups were used and the laying performance was measured. The results showed that only the egg numbers were significantly different between the two groups; and from 15 primer pairs, a total of 336 bands were displayed of which 59 cDNA bands were found to be differentially expressed in both high-yield and low-yield laying hen. The sequence analysis indicated that the expression of such bands as H-AP5, H-P5, and H-P4 was significantly potentiated in high-yield laying hen using primer pairs AP5/HT11G, P5/HT11G and P4/HT11G and these transcripts had high homology (98%) to HoxDb, HoxCa, and HoxBa, respectively. The differentially expressed gene fragments may be relevant to the progression of the high-yield hens to the egg-laying stage. And further study is required to elucidate the molecular function to improve the productivity of laying hens.

  8. Fed-Batch Enzymatic Saccharification of High Solids Pretreated Lignocellulose for Obtaining High Titers and High Yields of Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yang, Jungwoo; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2017-01-11

    To reduce the distillation costs of cellulosic ethanol, it is necessary to produce high sugar titers in the enzymatic saccharification step. To obtain high sugar titers, high biomass loadings of lignocellulose are necessary. In this study, to overcome the low saccharification yields and the low operability of high biomass loadings, a fed-batch saccharification process was developed using an enzyme reactor that was designed and built in-house. After optimizing the cellulase and biomass feeding profiles and the agitation speed, 132.6 g/L glucose and 76.0% theoretical maximum glucose were obtained from the 60 h saccharification of maleic acid-pretreated rice straw at a 30% (w/v) solids loading with 15 filter paper units (FPU) of Cellic CTec2/g glucan. This study demonstrated that through the proper optimization of fed-batch saccharification, both high sugar titers and high saccharification yields are possible, even with using the high solids loading (i.e., ≥30%) with the moderate enzyme loading (i.e., high solids saccharification process in cellulosic fuel and chemical production.

  9. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  10. F18-FDG-PET/CT for evaluation of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN): a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagna, Francesco; Treglia, Giorgio; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Giubbini, Raffaele

    2013-04-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are intraductal mucin-producing neoplasms with tall columnar, mucin-containing epithelium, with or without papillary projections, involving the main pancreatic duct and/or major side branches. They account for approximately 25 % of all cystic neoplasms and can be subdivided into benign lesions, borderline lesions, and carcinoma. In this clinical scenario accurate preoperative diagnosis can eliminate unnecessary surgery, which is risky and potentially harmful, yet enable effective selection of patients who are candidates for surgery. In this review we try to provide a complete evaluation of the use of F18-FDG-PET/CT for diagnosis of this neoplasm on the basis of published papers. F18-FDG-PET/CT seems to be an useful technique for preoperative work-up of patients with suspected IPMN and is an improvement over conventional imaging in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions, especially for selecting patients for surgical treatment or for long-term follow-up.

  11. Correlation of Glut-1 and Glut-3 expression with F-18 FDG uptake in pulmonary inflammatory lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhen Guang; Yu, Ming Ming; Han, Yu; Wu, Feng Yu; Yang, Guang Jie; Li, Da Cheng; Liu, Si Min

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) and glucose transporter-3 (Glut-3) expression with F-18 FDG uptake in pulmonary inflammatory lesions. Twenty-two patients with pulmonary inflammatory lesions underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination preoperatively, and Glut-1 and Glut-3 expression were detected by immunohistochemistry in these lesions. Correlations of Glut-1 and Glut-3 with 18F-FDG uptake w...

  12. Investigation of Ozone Yield of Air Fed Ozonizer by High Pressure Homogeneous Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    field strength in the discharge. In order to clarify this phenomenon, further study on the gas analysis within the ozone gas by an FTIR spectrometer...31st ICPIG, July 14-19, 2013, Granada, Spain Investigation of ozone yield of air fed ozonizer by high pressure homogeneous dielectric barrier... ozonizer and found that the ozone yield is higher by the homogeneous discharge mode than by the conventional filamentary discharge mode in larger

  13. High-resistance controlled yielding supporting technique in deep-well oil shale roadways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang; Bai Jianbiao; Wang Xiangyu; Wang Junde; Xue Shizhi; Xu Ke

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid the deep-well oil shale roadway being deformed, damaged, or difficult to maintain after excavating and supporting in Haishiwan coal mine, this paper has analyzed the characteristics of the deformed roadway and revealed its failure mechanism by taking comprehensively the methods of field geological investigation, displacement monitoring of surrounding rock, rock properties and hydration properties experiments and field application tests. Based on this work, the high-resistance controlled yielding supporting principle is proposed, which is:to‘resist’ by high pre-tightening force and high stiff-ness in the early stage, to‘yield’ by making use of the controlled deformation of a yielding tube in the middle stage, and to‘fix’ by applying total-section Gunite in the later stage. A high-resistance controlled yielding supporting technique of‘high pre-tightening force yielding anchor bolt+small-bore pre-tight-ening force anchor cable+rebar ladder beam+rhombic metal mesh+lagging gunite’ has been estab-lished, and industrial on site testing implemented. The practical results show that the high-resistance controlled yielding supporting technique can effectively control the large deformation and long-time rhe-ology of deep-well oil shale roadways and can provide beneficial references for the maintenance of other con-generic roadways.

  14. Growth and development characteristics of super-high-yielding mid-season japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jianchang; DU Yong; WU Changfu; LIU Lijun; WANG Zhiqin; ZHU Qingsen

    2007-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops in China.The realization of the super-high-yielding (SHY)type has great significance in ensuring food security in this country.This study investigated the growth and development characteristics of the super-high-yielding rice (grain yield>11 t/hm2).Four mid-season japonica rice cultivars (including lines):Lianjiajing 2,Huajing 5,0026 and 9823,were grown in the paddy field.Growth analysis was performed during the growth period,and yield components were determined at maturity.Results showed that SHY rice had more sipkelets per panicle and higher filled-grain percentage than the high-yielding rice (CK,grain yield 8.98-9.16 t/hm2).There was no significant difference in the 1 000-grain weight between the super-high-yielding and the CK.Super-high-yield rice exhib ited fewer tillers at the early growth stage (from transplanting to jointing),with a higher ratio of productive tillers to total tillers,when compared with the CK.The leaf area index (LAI),photosynthetic potential and dry matter accumulation were lower for the SHY rice than those for the CK at the early growth stage,and the differences were not significant between the two rice types at heading,but were greater in the former than the latter after heading.The root-shoot ratio at each growth stage,root bleedings from heading to maturity,grain-leaf ratio,translocation percentage of the matter from stems and sheaths and harvest index of super-high-yielding rice were greater than those of CK.The indexes for the growth and development of SHY mid-season rice population were suggested,i.e.total spikelets>4.5×104/m2,filled-grain percentage>90%,1 000-grain weight>26 g;ratio of productive tillers>80%,leaf area index at heading 7.5-8.0,photosynthetic potential during the whole growth period >22 t/hm2,harvest index>0.51;grain-leaf ratio (number of spikelets per cm2 leaf area)>0.58;root-shoot ratio at heading tion approaches and key cultivation techniques for raising the

  15. Nitrogen detected TROSY at high field yields high resolution and sensitivity for protein NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Koh [National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Molecular Profiling Research Center for Drug Discovery (Japan); Arthanari, Haribabu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Shimada, Ichio, E-mail: shimada@iw-nmr.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp [National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Molecular Profiling Research Center for Drug Discovery (Japan); Wagner, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard-wagner@hms.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Detection of {sup 15}N in multidimensional NMR experiments of proteins has sparsely been utilized because of the low gyromagnetic ratio (γ) of nitrogen and the presumed low sensitivity of such experiments. Here we show that selecting the TROSY components of proton-attached {sup 15}N nuclei (TROSY {sup 15}N{sub H}) yields high quality spectra in high field magnets (>600 MHz) by taking advantage of the slow {sup 15}N transverse relaxation and compensating for the inherently low {sup 15}N sensitivity. The {sup 15}N TROSY transverse relaxation rates increase modestly with molecular weight but the TROSY gain in peak heights depends strongly on the magnetic field strength. Theoretical simulations predict that the narrowest line width for the TROSY {sup 15}N{sub H} component can be obtained at 900 MHz, but sensitivity reaches its maximum around 1.2 GHz. Based on these considerations, a {sup 15}N-detected 2D {sup 1}H–{sup 15}N TROSY-HSQC ({sup 15}N-detected TROSY-HSQC) experiment was developed and high-quality 2D spectra were recorded at 800 MHz in 2 h for 1 mM maltose-binding protein at 278 K (τ{sub c} ∼ 40 ns). Unlike for {sup 1}H detected TROSY, deuteration is not mandatory to benefit {sup 15}N detected TROSY due to reduced dipolar broadening, which facilitates studies of proteins that cannot be deuterated, especially in cases where production requires eukaryotic expression systems. The option of recording {sup 15}N TROSY of proteins expressed in H{sub 2}O media also alleviates the problem of incomplete amide proton back exchange, which often hampers the detection of amide groups in the core of large molecular weight proteins that are expressed in D{sub 2}O culture media and cannot be refolded for amide back exchange. These results illustrate the potential of {sup 15}N{sub H}-detected TROSY experiments as a means to exploit the high resolution offered by high field magnets near and above 1 GHz.

  16. High Yield Synthesis of Aspect Ratio Controlled Graphenic Materials from Anthracite Coal in Supercritical Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Henry, Lucile; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Huang, Kai; Das, Riddha; Giroire, Baptiste; Marre, Samuel; Rotello, Vincent M; Penicaud, Alain; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2016-05-24

    This paper rationalizes the green and scalable synthesis of graphenic materials of different aspect ratios using anthracite coal as a single source material under different supercritical environments. Single layer, monodisperse graphene oxide quantum dots (GQDs) are obtained at high yield (55 wt %) from anthracite coal in supercritical water. The obtained GQDs are ∼3 nm in lateral size and display a high fluorescence quantum yield of 28%. They show high cell viability and are readily used for imaging cancer cells. In an analogous experiment, high aspect ratio graphenic materials with ribbon-like morphology (GRs) are synthesized from the same source material in supercritical ethanol at a yield of 6.4 wt %. A thin film of GRs with 68% transparency shows a surface resistance of 9.3 kΩ/sq. This is apparently the demonstration of anthracite coal as a source for electrically conductive graphenic materials.

  17. Construction and evaluation of F-18 FDG PET probabilistic MAP for voxel based analysis of the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, K. C.; Kim, J. S.; Na, Y. S.; Moon, D. H.; Ryu, J. S. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop F-18 FDG PET and MRI template for normal rat brain. Also, feasibility of SPM in detailed regional analysis of molecular changes in the rat brain was explored for F-18 FDG PET imaging of a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten normal rats were scanned with PET and MRI. The PET images were acquired with 3D mode using microPET focus 120 scanner after injection of 37 MBq F-18 FDG. T2-weighted MR images were acquired using 4.7T MRI system. A MRI-based spatial normalization was used. The PET images were coregistered to T2-weighted MR images. Maximum mutual information (MMI) registrations and affine spatial normalizations were performed using SPM2. The spatial normalization of the MRI to the standard MRI was applied to the integral images. The normalized PET images were averaged voxel wise to create PET template. Eight TBI model rats were subjected to a moderate lateral fluid percussion injury. At 2 days, 1 week, 3 weeks and 5 weeks post FPI, PET images of 8 TBI rats were acquired 4 times. TBI PET images were realigned, spatially normalized to a created PET-template and smoothed (8 mm FWHM). To assess the extent and severity of significant hypo metabolic lesions in TBI compared to normal controls were obtained by a two-sided t-test of SPM (uncorrected p < 0.001, 50 voxels). Visually acceptable PET and MRI templates were created. Registration errors were negligible when MMI procedure was used to register a translated or rotated image volume. Thirty-two PET studies of 8 TBI model subjects were obtained. SPM analysis showed injured distribution of decrease F-18 FDG uptake in TBI rats compared with normal rats. In SPM analysis, the extent and severity of significant hypo metabolic lesions were decreased according to a significant effect of time. At 5 weeks injured animals showed F-18 FDG uptake recovery using SPM analysis. These results indicate that voxel-based method will be useful for future longitudinal studies of rat brain.

  18. A Randomised Controlled Trial Assessing the Effect of Oral Diazepam on F-18-FDG Uptake in the Neck and Upper Chest Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturkenboom, M.G.G.; Hoekstra, O.S.; Postema, E.J.; Zijlstra-Baalbergen, J.M.; Berkhof, J.; Franssen, E.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    A distinctive pattern of physiological symmetrical uptake of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) in the neck and upper chest region is a phenomenon that is sometimes observed on positron emission tomography (PET) scans of some oncologic patients. Initially, it was assumed to be muscle uptake secondar

  19. F-18 FLT PET : A Noninvasive Diagnostic Tool for Visualization of the Bone Marrow Compartment in Patients With Aplastic Anemia A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agool, Ali; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Kluin, Philip M.; de Wolf, Joost Th. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: A discordant relationship between bone marrow cellularity and peripheral blood findings is regularly noticed in patients with aplastic anemia (AA). Therefore, the feasibility of 3-F-18 fluoro-3-deoxy-L-thymidine (F-18 FLT PET was tested as a noninvasive tool to visualize the total distrib

  20. Manipulation of [C-11]-5-hydroxytryptophan and 6-[F-18]fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine accumulation in neuroendocrine tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neels, Oliver C.; Koopmans, Klaas P.; Jager, Pieter L.; Vercauteren, Laya; van Waarde, Aren; Doorduin, Janine; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Kema, Ido P.; Elsinga, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    [C-11]-5-Hydroxytryptophan ([C-11]HTP) and 6-[F-18]fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine [F-18]FDOPA) are used to image neuroendocrine tumors with positron emission tomography. The precise mechanism by which these tracers accumulate in tumor cells is unknown. We aimed to study tracer uptake via large

  1. [C-11]FMAU and [F-18]FHPG as PET tracers for herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase enzyme activity and human cytomegalovirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; van Waarde, A; Harmsen, MC; Mulder, NH; Vaalburg, W; Hospers, GAP

    [C-11]-2'-Fluoro-5-methyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil ([C-11]FMAU) and [F-18]-9-[(3-fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([F-18]FHPG), radiolabeled representatives of two classes of antiviral agents, were evaluated as tracers for measuring herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk)

  2. Metabolic characterization of high- and low-yielding strains of Penicillium chrysogenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke; Thykær, Jette; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed method for analyzing metabolic networks using C-13-labels was employed for investigating the metabolism of a high- and a low-yielding strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. Under penicillin-producing conditions, the flux through the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway in the high...

  3. Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanger, Paul; Klassen, Stephen; Mojica, Julius P.; Lovell, John T.; Moyers, Brook T.; Baraoidan, Marietta; Naredo, Maria Elizabeth B.; McNally, Kenneth L.; Poland, Jesse; Bush, Daniel R.; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E.; McKay, John K.

    2017-01-01

    To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar (IR64) with a landrace (Aswina), identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution. PMID:28220807

  4. Sputtering yields of carbon based materials under high particle flux with low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Nagase, A.; Dairaku, M.; Akiba, M.; Araki, M.; Okumura, Y.

    1995-04-01

    A new ion source which can produce high particle flux beams at low energies has been developed. This paper presents preliminary results on the sputtering yield of the carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFCs) measured with the new ion source. The sputtering yields of 1D and 2D CFCs, which are candidate materials for the divertor armour tiles, have been measured by the weight loss method under the hydrogen and deuterium particle fluxes of 2 ˜ 7 × 10 20/m 2 s at 50 ˜ 150 eV. Preferential sputtering of the matrix was observed on CFCs which included the matrix of 40 ˜ 60 w%. The energy dependence of the sputtering yields was weak. The sputtering yields of CFCs normally irradiated with deuterium beam were from 0.073 to 0.095, and were around three times larger than those with hydrogen beam.

  5. Introgression of High Yield Genes from Lycopersicon hirsutum acc. LA1777 Using CAPS Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong; WANG Xiao-xuan; SONG Ming; GAO Jian-chang; GUO Yan-mei; ZHU De-wei; DAI Shan-shu; DU Yong-chen

    2007-01-01

    The idea behind this study is to show that using high yield genes from a wild tomato can enrich tomato breeding resources and accelerate tomato breeding programs. In this study, the near-isogenic line TA1229 containing a 24-cM introgression at the bottom of chromosome 1 from Lycopersicon acc. LA1777, affects several higher yield traits. The TA1229 × 9706 BC1population was analyzed by marker-assisted selection and the traits of the population were evaluated. Twenty-three recombinant individuals that carried a shorter segment than TA1229 were obtained. Among them, 16 lines with the chromosome 1 recombinant segment can increase tomato yield and a QTL affecting yield was found between TG53 and TG158. Sixteen recombinant lines are useful to improve the tomato variety.

  6. Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanger, Paul; Klassen, Stephen; Mojica, Julius P; Lovell, John T; Moyers, Brook T; Baraoidan, Marietta; Naredo, Maria Elizabeth B; McNally, Kenneth L; Poland, Jesse; Bush, Daniel R; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E; McKay, John K

    2017-02-21

    To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar (IR64) with a landrace (Aswina), identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution.

  7. Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma: disease extent and treatment response evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Suk; Jeong, Young Jin; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Yim, Chang-Yeol

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND.: Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a rare form of cutaneous lymphomas, accounting for less than 1% of cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) findings of SPTCL before and after treatment were rarely reported. CASE REPORT.: We report a case of SPTCL in which F-18 FDG PET/CT showed increased FDG accumulations in numerous subcutaneous nodules without extracutaneous disease. Contrast-enhanced CT during F-18 FDG PET/CT showed multiple minimally enhancing nodules with an infiltrative pattern in the subcutaneous layer throughout the body. Follow-up F-18 FDG PET/CT after three cycles of CHOP chemotherapy showed a complete metabolic remission of the lesions. CONCLUSIONS.: F-18 FDG PET/CT is suggested to be useful in assessing the disease activity, extent and treatment response in SPTCL.

  8. Controlled Fabrication of High-Yield CdS Nanostructures by Compartment Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Green

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High-yield, high-purity CdS nanostructures were synthesized in a turf-like configuration using an improved vapor-liquid-solid method. To increase the yield, a compartment arrangement was employed. The specific kind of nanostructure fabricated was found to be directly dependent on the temperature in the compartment. Along with the high-yield growth of CdS nanorods, nanowires, and nanobelts, intertwined structures were also observed, and the electron field emission property of the intertwined structures was investigated and compared with that of other type of nanostructures. Photoluminescence measurements at 10 K showed a peak emission from the CdS nanostructures at 485 nm.

  9. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization on population dynamics and yield of high-yielding wheat and on alteration of soil nitrogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, You-Liang; Wang, Gui-Liang; Zhu, Yun-Ji; Li, Huan-Huan; Huang, Yu-Fang

    2010-02-01

    Taking wheat varieties Yumai 49-198 (multi-spike phenotype) and Lankao Aizao 8 (large-spike phenotype) as test materials, field experiments were conducted at Wenxian and Lankao sites of Henan Province to study the effects of nitrogen fertilization on their population dynamics and yield and on the alteration of soil nitrogen. Five nitrogen application rates, i. e., 0, 90, 180, 270, and 360 N kg x hm(-2) were installed. The population amount of the two test varieties were all increased after emergence, reached the highest at jointing stage, and decreased afterwards. As for Yumai 49-198, its population amount had no significant differences at wintering and turning-green stages among the five nitrogen application rates and two experimental sites, but differed significantly after jointing stage with the nitrogen application rates. For Lankao Aizao 8, its population amount had no significant differences among the nitrogen application rates during whole growth period. The grain yield of the two varieties increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilization rate, but excessive nitrogen fertilization decreased the grain yield. Yumai 49-198 had the highest yield at 270 N kg x hm(-2), being 9523 and 9867 kg x hm(-2) at Wenxian and Lanako sites, respectively, while Lankao Aizao 8 had the highest yield at 180 N kg x hm(-2), being 9258 and 9832 kg x hm(-2) at Wenxian and Lanako sites, respectively. With the increase of nitrogen fertilization rate, soil nitrate N concentration and apparent nitrogen loss increased. At Wenxian and Lankao sites, the apparent soil nitrogen loss for Yumai 49-198 was 32.56% - 51.84% and - 16.7% - 42.6% of fertilized nitrogen, and that for Lankao Aizao 8 was 18.58% - 52.94% and - 11.5% - 45.8% of fertilized nitrogen, respectively. Considering the yield and environmental effect comprehensively, the nitrate N concentration in 0-90 cm soil layer in our case should not be exceeded 120 - 140 kg x hm(-2), and the maximal nitrogen application rate should not

  10. Monitoring of Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Radio-Chemotherapy of Esophageal Carcinoma by F-18-FDG-PET%F-18-FDG-PET监测新辅助疗法食管癌的反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Theissen; Paul M.Schneider; Stephan E.Baldus; Alexandra Jost; Markus Dietlein; Rolf P.Müller; Arnulf H.H(o)lscher; Harald Schicha

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: For clinical assessment of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy of esophageal cancer reliable in-vivo methods are necessary. Therefore, the capabilities of F-18-Fluorodesoxyglucose-PET in comparison to histomorphological grading of tumor regression were studied. Methods: In 33 patients with locally advanced esophageal carcinoma (uT3, uN0-1, cM0) F-18-FDG-PET was performed before and 2weeks after radiochemotherapy. All tumors were resected by transthoracic en-bloc esophagectomy 3-4 weeks after induction therapy. A subgroup of 11 patients underwent weekly PET scan during neoadjuvant therapy.PET was performed in a dedicated scanner 1.3 h after administration of 370 MBq F-18-FDG. Data analysis based on maximum SUV data derived from individual regions of interest in pre- and posttherapeutic images. PET data were compared to histomorphological grading parameters for tumor regression whithin the resected tissues. Results: The comparison of histopathological tumor regression after neoadjuvant therapy and PET SUV differences showed a significant X2 P-value of 0.006. There was a significant decrease of the SUV data from 9.1±3.5 to 4.3±1.9 (P<0.0001). In therapy responders SUV was diminished by 59% and in non-responders by 34 %. Longitudinal SUV measurement during neoadjuvant therapy showed a strong SUV decrease already after one and two weeks (P=-0.021 and 0.003). Conclusion: The recent data of the FDG-PET follow-up after neoadjuvant therapy show that PET is able to predict therapy response.Longitudinal PET data advocate that it may be possible to recognize response also very early during radiochemotherapy.

  11. A New High-Yielding Two-line Hybrid Rice Variety - Peiliang You 981

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Peiliang You 981 (also called 98 Guangzhi 1 or Peiliang You Guangzhi 1) is a late-season two-line indica hybrid rice variety with high yield and late maturity. Pei'ai 64S is the female parent and R981 (Guang 1) is the male parent of Peiliang You 981. The hybrid showed its characters of high and stable yield and wide adaptability in the variety trials and demonstration production in the recent years, and it was released in March 2002 by Hunan Crop Varieties Release Committee.

  12. Property Evaluation Method Using Spherical Indentation for High-Yield Strength Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Youngsick; Marimuthu, Karuppasamy Pandian; Lee, Hyungyil [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Haeng [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we propose a method to evaluate the material properties of high-yield strength materials exceeding 10GPa from spherical indentation. Using a regression equation considering four indentation variables, we map the load displacement relation into a stress-strain relation. To calculate the properties of high-strength materials, we then write a program that produces material properties using the loading / unloading data from the indentation test. The errors in material properties computed by the program are within 0.3, 0.8, and 6.4 for the elastic modulus, yield strength, and hardening coefficient, respectively.

  13. Property evaluation method using spherical indentation for high-yield strength materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Sick; Marimuthu, Karuppasamy Pandian; Lee, Hyung Yil [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Haeng [Reactor Mechanical Engineering Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we propose a method to evaluate the material properties of high-yield strength materials exceeding 10 GPa from spherical indentation. Using a regression equation considering four indentation variables, we map the load displacement relation into a stress-strain relation. To calculate the properties of high-strength materials, we then write a program that produces material properties using the loading / unloading data from the indentation test. The errors in material properties computed by the program are within 0.3, 0.8, and 6.4 for the elastic modulus, yield strength, and hardening coefficient, respectively.

  14. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin instillation therapy: A potential cause of incidental F-18 FDG uptke in the prostate gland on F-18 FDG PET/CT in patients with bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Choon Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Choi, Seock Hwan; Son, Seung Hyun; Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [Kyungpook National University Medical Center and School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-induced granulomatous prostatitis can be a potential cause of benign F-18 FDG uptake. A total of 395 bladder cancer patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT (PET/CT) were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups according to BCG therapy status. Elapsed time after BCG therapy, serum PSA level, results of prostate biopsy, and the SUV{sub max} and uptake pattern in the prostate gland were reviewed. For patients who underwent follow-up PET/CT, the changes in SUV{sub max} were calculated. While 35 % of patients showed prostate uptake in the BCG therapy group, only 1 % showed prostate uptake in the non-BCG therapy group (p < 0.001). Among 49 patients with FDG-avid prostate lesions, none had suspected malignancy during the follow-up period (median: 16 months). Five patients revealed granulomatous prostatitis on biopsy. The incidence of FDG-avid prostate lesions was significantly higher if the elapsed time after BCG therapy was less than 1 year compared to more than 1 year (p < 0.001). Serum PSA was normal in 88 % of patients. All patients with incidental F-18 FDG uptake in the prostate gland showed focal or multifocal prostate uptake, and median SUV{sub max} was 4.7. In 16 patients who underwent follow-up PET/CT, SUV{sub max} was decreased in 14 patients (88 %) without treatment, and no patients demonstrated further increased prostate uptake (p < 0.001). BCG-induced granulomatous prostatitis can be a potential cause of benign F-18 FDG uptake, especially in those with a history of bladder cancer treated with BCG. In BCG-induced granulomatous prostatitis, focal or multifocal prostate uptake is frequently seen within 1 year after BCG therapy, and the intensity of prostate uptake is decreased on the follow-up PET/CT without any treatment.

  15. Characterization of high-yield performance as affected by genotype and environment in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song CHEN; Fang-rong ZENG; Zong-zhi PAO; Guo-ping ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    We characterized yield-relevant characters and their variations over genotypes and environments (locations and years) by examining two rice varieties (9746 and Jinfeng) with high yield potential.9746 and Jinfeng were planted in two locations of Shanghai,China,during 2005 and 2006.The results show that there was a large variation in grain yield between locations and years.The realization of high yield potential for the two types of rice was closely related to the improved sink size,such as more panicles per square meter or grains per panicle.Stem and leaf biomasses were mainly accumulated from tillering stage to heading stage,and showed slow decline during grain filling.Meanwhile,some photosynthetic characters including net photosynthesis rate (Pn),leaf area index (LAI),specific leaf area (SLA),fluorescence parameter (maximum quantum yield of PSII,Fv/Fm),chlorophyll content (expressed as SPAD value),as well as nutrient (N,P,K) uptake were also measured to determine their variations over genotypes and environments and their relationships with grain yield.Although there were significant differences between years or locations for most measurements,SLA at tillering and heading stages,Fv/Fm and LAI at heading stage,stem biomass at heading and maturity stages,and leaf nitrogen concentration at tillering and heading stages remained little changed,indicating their pos-sible applications as selectable characters in breeding programs.It was also found that stem nitrogen accumulation at tillering stage is one of the most important and stable traits for high yield formation.

  16. Yield behaviour associated with stacking faults in a high-temperature annealed ultra-low carbon high manganese steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Liming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Fan, Likun [Shanghai Research Institute of Materials, 99 Handan Road, Shanghai, 200437 (China); Li, Zhigang; Sun, Nairong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Wang, Huanrong; Wang, Wei [Baosteel Research Institute, 889 Fujin Road, Shanghai, 201900 (China); Shan, Aidang, E-mail: adshan@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2013-10-10

    This paper investigated the tensile behaviour of high-temperature annealed ultra-low carbon high manganese steel with 42 vol% delta-ferrite. The results show that the tensile stress-strain curve of plastic deformation exhibits three distinct stages of deformation: a yielding stage with a remarkably large elongation and a positive strain-hardening rate, a second stage in which the strain-hardening rate rapidly increases, and a third stage in which the strain-hardening rate slowly increase. The yield plateau is intrinsically associated with the increasing formation of strain-induced stacking faults. The stacking faults quickly form during yield deformation, and the yield elongation monotonically increases with the extent of the stacking faults. The localised strain concentration of delta-ferrite and the heterogeneous strain partitioning between harder delta-ferrite and softer austenite play important roles in the rapid formation of stacking faults during strain at the yield plateau, which is an important prerequisite for this yielding phenomenon. The results and analysis demonstrate that the rapid and then slow hardening deformation after the yield plateau result from strain-induced transformation and deformation twinning, respectively.

  17. Mechanical model for yield strength of nanocrystalline materials under high strain rate loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱荣涛; 周剑秋; 马璐; 张振忠

    2008-01-01

    To understand the high strain rate deformation mechanism and determine the grain size,strain rate and porosity dependent yield strength of nanocrystalline materials,a new mechanical model based on the deformation mechanism of nanocrystalline materials under high strain rate loading was developed.As a first step of the research,the yield behavior of the nanocrystalline materials under high strain rate loading was mainly concerned in the model and uniform deformation was assumed for simplification.Nanocrystalline materials were treated as composites consisting of grain interior phase and grain boundary phase,and grain interior and grain boundary deformation mechanisms under high strain rate loading were analyzed,then Voigt model was applied to coupling grain boundary constitutive relation with mechanical model for grain interior phase to describe the overall yield mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline materials.The predictions by the developed model on the yield strength of nanocrysatlline materials at high strain rates show good agreements with various experimental data.Further discussion was presented for calculation results and relative experimental observations.

  18. Preclinical testing of F-18 and I-123 radioligands involving autoradiography and a phosphor-imaging device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatley, S.J.; Pyatt, B.; Gifford, A.N. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    During the development and validation of a receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical it is necessary to assess its brain regional distribution. Film contact autoradiography (AR) points such distributions to be evaluated on a fine anatomical scale, and avoids the inherent risk a microdissection experiments of missing interesting localization pattern. However, in vivo film AR may require a 1000-fold higher activity of a F-18 or I-123 radioligand than microdissection. In addition to health physics considerations, problems with receptor saturation can easily occur after injecting, say, 10 mCi into a 250g rat. A less commonly appreciated problem even with in vitro AR, using slide-mounted brain sections, is that it may be impossible to use sufficient F-18 to obtain acceptable images using film, because of receptor saturation. Phosphorimaging is superior in sensitivity to film by a factor of 10-50, and so relaxes constraints on injected activities and specific activities. Furthermore, it is also superior to film in terms of dynamic range and linearity of response. We have recently used phosphorimaging in two situations where film AR gave unsatisfactory results. (1) the novel cannabinoid CB1 receptor radioligand, I-123 AM281, was injected intravenously at 800 microcurie per rat. Animals were sacrificed at 2 h, frozen and whole body sections prepared. I-123 was clearly visualized in discrete brain areas (substantia nigra, globus pallidus, entopeduncular nucleus , hippocampus and cerebellum) consistent with the distribution of CB1 receptors previously demonstrated only in in vitro studies. (2) Rat brain sections were thaw mounted on gelatin/alum coated glass and incubated with the novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand F-18 2{prime}-fluoro-2{prime} nor-chloroepibatidine (1 nM).

  19. Normal physiologic and Benign foci with F-18 FDG avidity on PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Ah; Lee, Kwang Man; Choi, Un Jong; Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hye Won; Song, Jeong Hoon [College of Medicine, Wonkwnag University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiologic and benign F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid foci in patients with breast cancer. On 309 F-18 FDG PET/CT scans of 241 women with breast cancer, the hypermetabolic lesions compared with the surrounding normal region were evaluated retrospectively. Available reports of other relevant radiological imaging medical records, and follow-up PET/CT were reviewed for explanations of the abnormal uptake. Among the 70 physiologic foci, muscular uptake of the lower neck following the surgical and/or radiation therapy of ipsilateral breast (29%), hypermetabolic ovaries (16%) and uterine (10%) uptake during the ovulatory and menstrual phases during the normal menstrual cycle were identified, and also hypermetabolic brown fat in cold-induced thermogenesis (7%), non-specific bowel uptake (35%) were observed. Among the 147 benign lesions, sequelae of the chest wall and breasts following surgical and/or radiation therapy, were often observed (27%). Hypermetabolic thyroid glands were noted as adenomas and chronic thyroiditis (18%). Reactive hyperplasia of cervical or mediastinal lymph nodes (32%), degenerative osteoarthritis and healed fractures (15%), hypermetabolic benign lung lesions (6%) were observed. Altered physiologic and benign F-18 FDG uptake in the cervical muscle and chest wall following ipsilateral breast surgery or radiotherapy were common, and also normal physiologic uptake in ovary and uterus, brown fat, thyroid were considered as predominant findings in women patients with breast cancer. Knowledge of these findings might aid in the interpretation of FDG PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

  20. Monitoring of Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Radio-Chemotherapy of Esophageal Carcinoma by F-18-FDG-PET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeterTheissen; PaulM.Schneider; StephanE.Baldus; AlexandraJost; MarkusDietlein; RolfP.Miiller; ArnulfH.Hoelscher; HaraldSchicha

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: For clinical assessment of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy of esophageal cancer reliable in-vivo methods are necessary. Therefore, the capabilities of F-18-Fluorodesoxyglucose-PET in comparison to histomorphological grading of tumor regression were studied. Methods: In 33 patients with locally advanced esophageal carcinoma (uT3, uN0-1, cM0) F-18-FDG-PET was performed before and 2 weeks after radiochemotherapy. All tumors were resected by transthoracic en-bloc esophagectomy 3-4 weeks after induction therapy. A subgroup of 11 patients underwent weekly PET scan during neoadjuvant therapy.PET was performed in a dedicated scanner 1.3 h after administration of 370 MBq F-18-FDG. Data analysis based on maximum SUV data derived from individual regions of interest in pre- and posttherapeutic images. PET data were compared to histomorphological grading parameters for tumor regression whithin the resected tissues. Results: The comparison of histopathological tumor regression after neoadjuvant therapy and PET SUV differences showed a significant x2 P-value of 0.006. There was a significant decrease of the SUV data from 9.14-3.5 to 4.3±1.9 (P<0.0001). In therapy responders SUV was diminished by 59% and in non-responders by 34 %. Longitudinal SUV measurement during neoadjuvant therapy showed a strong SUV decrease already after one and two weeks (P=0.021 and 0.003). Conclusion: The recent data of the FDG-PET follow-up after neoadjuvant therapy show that PET is able to predict therapy response.Longitudinal PET data advocate that it may be possible to recognize response also very early during radiochemotherapy.

  1. Extractive Fermentation of Sugarcane Juice to Produce High Yield and Productivity of Bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofiqah, U.; Widjaja, T.; Altway, A.; Bramantyo, A.

    2017-04-01

    Ethanol production by batch fermentation requires a simple process and it is widely used. Batch fermentation produces ethanol with low yield and productivity due to the accumulation of ethanol in which poisons microorganisms in the fermenter. Extractive fermentation technique is applied to solve the microorganism inhibition problem by ethanol. Extractive fermentation technique can produce ethanol with high yield and productivity. In this process raffinate still, contains much sugar because conversion in the fermentation process is not perfect. Thus, to enhance ethanol yield and productivity, recycle system is applied by returning the raffinate from the extraction process to the fermentation process. This raffinate also contains ethanol which would inhibit the performance of microorganisms in producing ethanol during the fermentation process. Therefore, this study aims to find the optimum condition for the amount of solvent to broth ratio (S: B) and recycle to fresh feed ratio (R: F) which enter the fermenter to produce high yield and productivity. This research was carried out by experiment. In the experiment, sugarcane juice was fermented using Zymomonasmobilis mutant. The fermentation broth was extracted using amyl alcohol. The process was integrated with the recycle system by varying the recycle ratio. The highest yield and productivity is 22.3901% and 103.115 g / L.h respectively, obtained in a process that uses recycle to fresh feed ratio (R: F) of 50:50 and solvents to both ratio of 1.

  2. Use of Iron Powder to Obtain High Yields of Leptothrix Sheaths in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Suzuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Leptothrix species, Fe-oxidizing bacteria, produce an extracellular, microtubular sheath with a complicated organic–inorganic hybrid nature. We have discovered diverse industrial functions for this material, e.g., electrode material for Li-ion batteries, catalyst enhancers, pigments, plant growth promoters, and plant protectants. To consistently obtain material with the qualitative and quantitative stability needed for industrial applications, we focused on developing an optimum culture system for sheath synthesis by the Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1. Although we have used Fe plates as an Fe source in the liquid silicon-glucose-peptone medium (SGP, the plates do not yield a consistent quality or precise mass, and formation of Fe-encrusted sheath is restricted to a surface of the plates, which limits harvest yield. In this study, to obtain a high yield of sheaths, we cultured OUMS1 in SGP supplemented with Fe powders. The addition of Fe powders to the medium (up to 14.0 g/L did not adversely influence growth of OUMS1. The final yield of sheaths was about 10-fold greater than in the Fe plate culture. The sheaths also maintained a microtubular form and crystalline texture similar to those produced on Fe plates in SGP. The results proved the usefulness of Fe powder for consistently high yields of Fe-encrusted sheaths of stable quality.

  3. Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in a case of Kaposi sarcoma with an unexpected bone lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morooka, Miyako; Ito, Kimiteru; Kubota, Kazuo; Yanagisawa, Kunio; Teruya, Katsuji; Hasuo, Kahehiro; Shida, Yoshitaka; Minamimoto, Rhogo; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi

    2011-03-01

    Bone lesions of Kaposi sarcoma are rare. A 56-year-old man who was HIV positive and was diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma on the basis of the results of a biopsy of skin lesions, underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scan for detecting Kaposi sarcoma lesions and other AIDS-related diseases. An abnormal uptake was observed in the lumbar spine. MRI showed a diffuse enhanced spine lesion, and Ga-67 and ²⁰¹Tl scanning were negative. As a result, the lesion was considered to be a Kaposi sarcoma, and the shrinkage of the lesion was noted after the therapy for Kaposi sarcoma.

  4. Recurrent proliferating trichilemmal tumor with malignant change on the f-18 fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography/computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Ha; Kim, Eun Ha; Kim, Young Jun; Yoo, Seol Bong; Nam, Kyung Hwa [Presbyterian Medical Center, Seonam University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan has been used for the diagnosis, assessment of treatment response, and follow-up of various neoplasms. Proliferating trichilemmal cyst or tumor (PTT) is a rare neoplasm, originated from the outer root sheath of a hair follicle. Because this tumor has unpredictable biological and clinical behavior, the long-term clinical follow-up is necessary to detect metastasis or recurrence. We reported a case of recurrent malignant PTT on scalp that showed increased FDG uptake.

  5. Role of F18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography in the management of Askin's tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Kashyap, Raghava; Bhattacharya, Anish; Kumar Jindal, Surinder; Rai Mittal, Bhagwant

    2013-07-01

    A primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the thoraco-abdominal region is one of a group of small round cell tumors usually found in children and young adults, originally described by Askin et al. Most cases arise in the soft-tissues of the thorax, but may rarely occur within the lung with the symptoms of chest wall pain, pleural effusion and dyspnea. The authors present two cases demonstrating the utility of F18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography in the staging and prognosis of PNET of the chest wall.

  6. Role of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the management of infected abdominal aortic aneurysm due to salmonella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Jin; Lee, Jin Soo; Cheong, Moon Hyun; Byun, Sung Su; Hyun, In Young [Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    We present a case of infected abdominal aortic aneurysm due to salmonella enteritidis. F-18 FDG PET/CT was performed to diagnosis and during follow-up after antibiotic treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is considered to be the best diagnostic imaging modality in infected aortic lesions. In this case, a combination of CT and FDG PET/CT provided accurate information for the diagnosis of infected abdominal aortic aneurysm. Moreover, FDG PET/CT made an important contribution of monitoring disease activity during antibiotic treatment.

  7. 板栗丰产栽培技术%High-yield Cultivation Technology of Chestnuts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明杰; 于海洋; 孙少娟; 吴岩

    2011-01-01

    In view of the biological characteristics of chestnuts, several key technical points of high-yield cultivation of chestnuts are presented.%针对板栗的生物学特性,对栗树的丰产栽培提出几项技术要点。

  8. Surrogate models for identifying robust, high yield regions of parameter space for ICF implosion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbird, Kelli; Peterson, J. Luc; Brandon, Scott; Field, John; Nora, Ryan; Spears, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Next-generation supercomputer architecture and in-transit data analysis have been used to create a large collection of 2-D ICF capsule implosion simulations. The database includes metrics for approximately 60,000 implosions, with x-ray images and detailed physics parameters available for over 20,000 simulations. To map and explore this large database, surrogate models for numerous quantities of interest are built using supervised machine learning algorithms. Response surfaces constructed using the predictive capabilities of the surrogates allow for continuous exploration of parameter space without requiring additional simulations. High performing regions of the input space are identified to guide the design of future experiments. In particular, a model for the yield built using a random forest regression algorithm has a cross validation score of 94.3% and is consistently conservative for high yield predictions. The model is used to search for robust volumes of parameter space where high yields are expected, even given variations in other input parameters. Surrogates for additional quantities of interest relevant to ignition are used to further characterize the high yield regions. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL-ABS-697277.

  9. Comparing high density LIDAR and medium resolution GPS generated elevation data for predicting yield stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    High density light detection and ranging (LIDAR) imaging has been shown to be able to define yield stability areas of a field for multi-cropping. Since LIDAR imaging is expensive and not widely available, we hypothesized that medium resolution GPS elevation data which is commonly collected with var...

  10. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  11. 31 CFR 356.21 - How are awards at the high yield or discount rate calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are awards at the high yield or discount rate calculated? 356.21 Section 356.21 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT SALE...

  12. Engineering of High Yield Production of L-serine in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundhada, Hemanshu; Schneider, Konstantin; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre

    2016-01-01

    L-serine is a widely used amino acid that has been proposed as a potential building block biochemical. The high theoretical yield from glucose makes a fermentation based production attractive. In order to achieve this goal, serine degradation to pyruvate and glycine in E. coli MG1655 was prevente...

  13. Lab-on-Chip platform for high-yield electrofusion in droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeman, R.M.; Braak, ter P.M.; Bomer, J.G.; Berg, van den A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a microfluidic device, consisting of a microchannel structure in PDMS bonded to a glass substrate with recessed platinum electrodes. Our device is capable of successive high-yield single cell encapsulation in droplets, with additional droplet pairing, fusion, shrinkage an

  14. Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas Production from Organic Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logan, B.E.; Call, D.; Cheng, S.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Rozendal, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of electrochemically active bacteria to break down organic matter, combined with the addition of a small voltage (>0.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few

  15. Barbarasul: a high-yielding and lodging-resistant white oat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Irajá Félix de Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The white-oat cultivar Barbarasul was developed by the Universidade Federal de Pelotas. It resulted from across between UPF18 and CTC5. It is adapted to the southern region of Brazil, with excellent grain yield potential, shortstature and high lodging tolerance.

  16. Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas Production from Organic Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logan, B.E.; Call, D.; Cheng, S.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Rozendal, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of electrochemically active bacteria to break down organic matter, combined with the addition of a small voltage (>0.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few

  17. Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam : report of a workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, A.P.; Lee, van der J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of the workshop "Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam" which was held with Vietnamese stakeholders on January 17-18, 2013 in Ho Chi Minh City as part of the project "Forage and Grass Production for Dairy Development in Vietnam" funded by the

  18. Solitary Plasmacytoma of the Sternum Mimicking Bone Metastasis in a Patient with a History of Breast Cancer Evaluated by F-18-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treglia, Giorgio; Luca, Giovanella [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Barbara, Muoio; Carmelo, Caldarella [Catholic Univ., Rome (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    A 65-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer (stage T2N0M0 treated with left breast conservative therapy 7 years previously followed by hormone therapy) underwent fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18-FDG PET/CT) for restaging due to increased serum tumour markers levels (CA15-3, 37 U/ml and CEA, 8 ng/ml). The patient presented thoracic pain before performing F-18-FDG PET/CT. PET/CT demonstrated an area of increased F-18-FDG uptake corresponding to an osteolytic lesion occupying the upper sternum suspicious for bone metastasis. No other areas of abnormal F-18-FDG uptake were detected in the rest of the body. Based on this PET/CT finding, the patient performed biopsy of the sternal lesion. Histology demonstrated the presence of a sternal plasmacytoma and the patient was addressed to radiation therapy. The role of F-18-FDG PET/CT in patients with multiple myeloma is well known, whereas only some articles evaluated the usefulness of this method in patients with solitary plasmacytomas. In particular, F-18-FDG PET/CT may be useful in demonstrating the evolution of solitary plasmacytomas in multiple myeloma. In our case F-18-FDG PET/CT was useful in detecting a solitary plasmacytoma of the sternum mimicking bone metastasis in a patient with history of breast cancer, correctly addressing to further histological evaluation.

  19. The differentiation of malignant and benign musculoskeletal tumors by F-18 FDG PET/CT studies-determination of maxSUV by analysis of ROC curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Eun Jung; Cho, Ihn Ho; Chun, Kyung Ah; Won, Kyu Chang; Lee, Hyung Woo; Choi, Jun Heok; Shin, Duk Seop [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    We evaluated the standard uptake value (SUV) of F-18 FDG at PET/CT for differentiation of benign from malignant tumor in primary musculoskeletal tumors. Forty-six tumors (11 benign and 12 malignant soft tissue tumors, 9 benign and 14 malignant bone tumors) were examined with F-18 FDG PET/CT (Discovery ST, GE) prior to tissue diagnosis. The maxSUV(maximum value of SUV) were calculated and compared between benign and malignant lesions. The lesion analysis was based on the transverse whole body image. The maxSUV with cutoff of 4.1 was used in distinguishing benign from malignant soft tissue tumor and 3.05 was used in bone tumor by ROC curve. There was a statistically significant difference in maxSUV between benign (n = 11; maxSUV 3.4 {+-} 3.2) and malignant (n = 12; maxSUV 14.8 {+-} 12.2) lesion in soft tissue tumor ({rho} = 0.001). Between benign bone tumor (n = 9; maxSUV 5.4 {+-} 4.0) and malignant bone tumor (n = 14; maxSUV 7.3 {+-} 3.2), there was not a significant difference in maxSUV. The sensitivity and specificity for differentiating malignant from benign soft tissue tumor was 83% and 91%, respectively. There were four false positive malignant bone tumor cases to include fibrous dysplasia, Langerhans-cell histiocytosis (n = 2) and osteoid osteoma. Also, one false positive case of malignant soft tissue tumor was nodular fasciitis. The maxSUV was useful for differentiation of benign from malignant lesion in primary soft tissue tumors. In bone tumor, the low maxSUV correlated well with benign lesions but high maxSUV did not always mean malignancy.

  20. High yield synthesis of high-silica chabazite by combining the role of zeolite precursors and tetraethylammonium: SCR of NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Nuria; Moliner, Manuel; Corma, Avelino

    2015-06-21

    The synthesis of chabazite with high solid yields is achieved by the rational combination of directing effects of a source of Si and Al coming from USY zeolites and the inexpensive tetraethylammonium. Moreover, Cu-CHA materials prepared by post-synthetic and "one-pot" methodologies show high activity and stability for SCR of NOx.

  1. Root-determined hypernodulation mutant of Lotus japonicus shows high-yielding characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Keisuke; Li, Yong Yi; Hisatomi, Masahiro; Wang, Yanxu; Ishikawa, Kaori; Liu, Chi-Te; Suzuki, Shino; Aonuma, Kho; Aono, Toshihiro; Nakamoto, Tomomi; Oyaizu, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    Here we report the phenotypic characteristics of a novel hypernodulation mutant, Ljrdh1 (root-determined hypernodulation 1) of Lotus japonicus. At 12 weeks after rhizobial inoculation, there were no differences between the growth of Ljrdh1 and, wild-type. However, Ljrdh1 showed 2 to 3 times higher nitrogen-fixing activity, and seed and pod yields, were approximately 50% higher than the wild-type. This is the first report of a legume hypernodulation mutant showing normal growth and a high-yielding characteristic under optimal cultivation conditions.

  2. Biogas production from high-yielding energy crops in boreal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppala, M.

    2013-11-01

    In this thesis, the methane production potential of traditional and novel energy crops was evaluated in boreal conditions. The highest methane yield per hectare was achieved with maize (4 000-9 200 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}) and the second highest with brown knapweed (2 700-6 100 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}). Recently, the most feasible energy crop, grass, produced 1 200-3 600 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}. The specific methane yields of traditional and novel energy crops varied from 170-500 l kg{sup -1} volatile solid (VS). The highest specific methane yields were obtained with maize, while the novel energy crops were at a lower range. The specific methane yields decreased in the later harvest time with maize and brown knapweed, and the specific methane yield of the grasses decreased from the 1st to 2nd harvests. Maize and brown knapweed produced the highest total solid (TS) yields per hectare 13-23 tTS ha{sup -1}, which were high when compared with the TS yields of grasses (6-13 tTS ha{sup -1}). The feasibility of maize and brown knapweed in co-digestion with liquid cow manure, in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR), was evaluated. According to the CSTR runs, maize and brown knapweed are suitable feeds and have stable processes, producing the highest methane yields (organic loading rate 2 kgVS m{sup -3}d{sup -1}), with maize at 259 l kgVS{sup -1} and brown knapweed at 254 l kgVS{sup -1}. The energy balance (input/output) of the cultivation of the grasses, maize and brown knapweed was calculated in boreal conditions, and it was better when the digestate was used as a fertilizer (1.8-4.8 %) than using chemical fertilizers (3.7-16.2 %), whose production is the most energy demanding process in cultivation. In conclusion, the methane production of maize, grasses and novel energy crops can produce high methane yields and are suitable feeds for anaerobic digestion. The cultivation managements of maize and novel energy crops for

  3. Enhancement of the sterile neutrinos yield at high matter density and at increasing the medium neutronization

    CERN Document Server

    Khruschov, V V; Nadyozhin, D K; Fomichev, S V

    2014-01-01

    The relative yields of active and sterile neutrinos in the matter with a high density and different degree of neutronization are calculated. A significant increase in the proportion of sterile neutrinos produced in superdense matter when approaching the medium neutronization degree to value of two is found. The results obtained can be used in the calculations of the neutrino fluxes for media with a high density and different neutronization degrees in astrophysical processes such as the formation of protoneutron core of a supernova.

  4. Microbial electrolysis cells for high yield hydrogen gas production from organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Bruce E; Call, Douglas; Cheng, Shaoan; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Sleutels, Tom H J A; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Rozendal, René A

    2008-12-01

    The use of electrochemically active bacteria to break down organic matter, combined with the addition of a small voltage (> 0.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few years ago, rapid developments have led to hydrogen yields approaching 100%, energy yields based on electrical energy input many times greater than that possible by water electrolysis, and increased gas production rates. MECs used to make hydrogen gas are similar in design to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that produce electricity, but there are important differences in architecture and analytical methods used to evaluate performance. We review here the materials, architectures, performance, and energy efficiencies of these MEC systems that show promise as a method for renewable and sustainable energy production, and wastewater treatment.

  5. Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas Production from Organic Matter

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2008-12-01

    The use of electrochemically active bacteria to break down organic matter, combined with the addition of a small voltage (>0.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few years ago, rapid developments have led to hydrogen yields approaching 100%, energy yields based on electrical energy input many times greater than that possible by water electrolysis, and increased gas production rates. MECs used to make hydrogen gas are similar in design to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that produce electricity, but there are important differences in architecture and analytical methods used to evaluate performance. We review here the materials, architectures, performance, and energy efficiencies of these MEC systems that show promise as a method for renewable and sustainable energy production, and wastewater treatment. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  6. Differential metabolite profiles during fruit development in high-yielding oil palm mesocarp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey Fang Teh

    Full Text Available To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes.

  7. Rice Breeding for High Grain Yield under Drought: A Strategic Solution to a Complex Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalabh Dixit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect rice production in rainfed areas. Recent trends in climate change have predicted a further increase in drought intensity, making the development of new drought-tolerant rice cultivars critical to sustain rice production in this ecosystem. The use of grain yield as a selection criterion at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI, through proper population development and precise phenotyping techniques, has allowed the development of several high-yielding rice cultivars that have been released in major rainfed rice-growing areas. This strategy has also allowed the identification of several major quantitative trait loci (QTLs that show large effects under drought across environments and genetic backgrounds. These QTLs are being pyramided together to develop drought-tolerant versions of popular drought-susceptible varieties. The near-isogenic lines (NILs developed can replace the popular, high-yielding but drought-susceptible varieties in rainfed areas prone to drought. Additionally, these NILs serve as suitable genetic material for the study of molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying these QTLs. This may provide a better understanding of plant functions responsible for high grain yield under drought and lead to the identification of new traits and genes.

  8. High-Yield Production of Levulinic Acid from Pretreated Cow Dung in Dilute Acid Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialei Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste cow dung was used as feedstock for the production of a high value–added chemical levulinic acid (LA in dilute acid aqueous solutions. A high LA yield of 338.9 g/kg was obtained from the pretreated cow dung, which was much higher than that obtained from the crude cow dung (135 g/kg, mainly attributed to the breakage of the lignin fraction in the lignocellulose structure of the cow dung by potassium hydroxide (KOH pretreatment, and thus enhanced the accessibility of cow dung to the acid sites in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, another value-added chemical formic acid could be obtained with a yield of ca. 160 g/kg in the process, implying a total production of ca. 500 g/kg yield for LA and formic acid from the pretreated cow dung with the proposed process. The developed process was shown to be tolerant to high initial substrate loading with a satisfied LA yield. This work provides a promising strategy for the value-increment utilization of liglocellulosic agricultural residues.

  9. Selected wild strains of Agaricus bisporus produce high yields of mushrooms at 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pilar; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    To cultivate the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus in warm countries or during summer in temperate countries, while saving energy, is a challenge that could be addressed by using the biological diversity of the species. The objective was to evaluate the yield potential of eight wild strains previously selected in small scale experiments for their ability to produce mature fruiting bodies at 25°C and above. Culture units of 8 kg of compost were used. The yield expressed as weight or number per surface unit and earliness of fruiting were recorded during cultivation in climatic rooms at 17, 25 or 30°C. Only strains of A. bisporus var. burnettii were able to fruit at 30°C. At 25°C they produced the highest yields (27 kg m(-2)) and had best earliness. The yields at 25°C for the strains of A. bisporus var. bisporus ranged from 12 to 16 kg m(-2). The yield ratios 25°C/17°C ranged from 0.8 to 1.2. The variety burnettii originated in the Sonoran Desert in California showed adaptation for quickly producing fruiting bodies at high temperature when humidity conditions were favorable. Strains of the variety bisporus showed interesting potentials for their ability to produce mature fruiting bodies at higher temperature than present cultivars and might be used in breeding programs. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of glucose metabolic abnormality in postlingually deaf patients using F-18-FDG positron emission tomography and statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Park, Kwang Suk; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    We have previously reported the prognostic relevance of cross-modal cortical plasticity in prelingual deaf patients revealed by F-18-FDG PET and SPM analysis. In this study, we investigated metabolic abnormality in postlingual deaf patients, whose clinical features are different from prelingual deafness. Nine postlingual deaf patients (age: 30.5 {+-}14.0) were performed on F-18-FDG brain PET. We compared their PET images with those of age-matched 20 normal controls (age: 27.1 {+-}8.6), and performed correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between glucose metabolism and deaf duration using SPM99. Glucose metabolism of deaf patients was significantly (p<0.05, corrected) decreased in both anterior cingulate, inferior frontal cortices, and superior temporal cortices, and left hippocampus. Metabolism in both superior temporal cortices and association area in inferior parietal cortices showed significant (p<0.01, uncorrected) positive correlation with deaf duration. Decreased metabolism in hippocampus accompanied with hypometabolism in auditory related areas can be explained by recent finding of anatomical connectivity between them, and may be the evidence indicating their functional connectivity. Metabolism recovery in auditory cortex after long deaf duration suggests that cortical plasticity takes place also in postlingual deafness.

  11. Flow “Fine” Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The concept of flow “fine” synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow “fine” synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society. PMID:26337828

  12. Ultra-broadband nonlinear saturable absorption of high-yield MoS2 nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Zhang, Hang; Hu, Zhongliang; Qiao, Tian; He, Xin; Guo, Qiangbing; Tian, Xiangling; Chen, Zhi; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-07-29

    High-yield MoS2 nanosheets with strong nonlinear optical (NLO) responses in a broad near-infrared range were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The observation of saturable absorption, which was excited by the light with photon energy smaller than the gap energy of MoS2, can be attributed to the enhancement of the hybridization between the Mo d-orbital and S p-orbital by the oxygen incorporation into MoS2. High-yield MoS2 nanosheets with high modulation depth and large saturable intensity generated a stable, passively Q-switched fiber laser pulse at 1.56 μm. The high output power of 1.08 mW can be attained under a very low pump power of 30.87 mW. Compared to recently reported passively Q-switched fiber lasers utilizing exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets, the efficiency of the laser for our passive Q-switching operation is larger and reaches 3.50%. This research may extend the understanding on the NLO properties of MoS2 and indicate the feasibility of the high-yield MoS2 nanosheets to passively Q-switched fiber laser effectively at low pump strengths.

  13. Surface studies and implanted helium measurements following NOVA high-yield DT experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, M.A.; Hudson, G.B.

    1997-02-18

    This paper presents the results of three March 6, 1996 direct-drive high-yield DT NOVA experiments and provides `proof-of-principal` results for the quantitative measurement of energetic He ions. Semiconductor quality Si wafers and an amorphous carbon wafer were exposed to NOVA high-yield implosions. Surface damage was sub-micron in general, although the surface ablation was slightly greater for the carbon wafer than for the Si wafers. Melting of a thin ({approx} 0.1{mu}) layer of Si was evident from microscopic investigation. Electron microscopy indicated melted blobs of many different metals (e.g. Al, Au, Ta, Fe alloys, Cu and even Cd) on the surfaces. The yield measured by determining the numbers of atoms of implanted {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He indicate the number of DT fusions to be 9.1({plus_minus}2.3) X 10{sup 12} and DD fusions to be 4.8({plus_minus}1.0) x 10{sup 10}, respectively. The helium DT fusion yield is slightly lower than that of the Cu activation measurement, which was 1.3({plus_minus}0.l) x 10{sup 13} DT fusions.

  14. Study on Plant Morphological Traits and Production Characteristics of Super High-Yielding Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AO Xue; XIE Fu-ti; HAN Xiao-ri; ZHAO Ming-hui; ZHU Qian; LI Jie; ZHANG Hui-jun; WANG Hai-ying; YU Cui-mei; LI Chun-hong; YAO Xing-dong

    2013-01-01

    Super high-yielding soybean cultivar Liaodou 14, soybean cultivars from Ohio in the United States, and the common soybean cultivars from Liaoning Province, China, with similar geographic latitudes and identical pod-bearing habits were used as the study materials for a comparison of morphological traits and production characteristics to provide a theoretical basis for the breeding of improved super high-yielding soybean cultivars. Using a randomized block design, different soybean cultivars from the same latitude were compared under conventional and unconventional treatments for their production characteristics, including morphological traits, leaf area index (LAI), net photosynthesis rate, and dry matter accumulation. The specific characteristics of the super high-yielding soybean cultivar Liaodou 14 were analyzed. The results showed that the plant height of Liaodou 14 was significantly lower than that of the common cultivars from Liaoning, whereas the number of its main-stem nodes was higher than that of the cultivars from Ohio or Liaoning. A high pod density was observed in Liaodou 14 under conventional treatments. Under both conventional and unconventional treatments, the branch number of Liaodou 14 was markedly higher than that of the common cultivars from Liaoning, and its branch length and leaf inclination angle were significantly higher than those of common cultivars from Liaoning or Ohio. Only small changes in the leaf inclination angle were observed in Liaodou 14 treated with conventional or unconventional methods. Under each treatment, Liaodou 14 exhibited the lowest amplitude of reduction in SPAD values and net photosynthesis rates from the grain-filling to ripening stages;the cultivars from Ohio and the common cultivars from Liaoning exhibited more significant reductions. Liaodou 14 reached its peak LAI later than the other cultivars but maintained its LAI at a higher level for a longer duration. Under both conventional and unconventional treatments

  15. N-(4-F-18-Fluorobenzoyl)Interleukin-2 for PET of Human-Activated T Lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Gialleonardo, Valentina; Signore, Alberto; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; De Vries, Erik F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL2) binds with high affinity to the IL2 receptors overexpressed on activated T lymphocytes in various pathologic conditions. Radiolabeling of IL2 with a positron-emitting isotope could provide a tool for noninvasive PET of activated T cells in immune-mediated diseases. We report the

  16. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-02-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications.

  17. Prognostic significance and predictive performance of volume-based parameters of F-18 FDG PET/CT in squamous cell head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Sager

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Metabolic tumor volume (MTV represents tumor burden, which shows F18-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and has a potential value in predicting short-term outcome and disease-free survival in patients with head and neck cancer.

  18. Comparison of the Prognostic Value of F-18 Pet Metabolic Parameters of Primary Tumors and Regional Lymph Nodes in Patients with Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Who Are Treated with Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun Oh Chong

    Full Text Available This study investigated the metabolic parameters of primary tumors and regional lymph nodes, as measured by pre-treatment F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT to compare the prognostic value for the prediction of tumor recurrence. This study also identified the most powerful parameter in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy.Fifty-six patients who were diagnosed with cervical cancer with pelvic and/or paraaortic lymph node metastasis were enrolled in this study. Metabolic parameters including the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax, the metabolic tumor volume (MTV, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG of the primary tumors and lymph nodes were measured by pre-treatment F-18 FDG PET/CT. Univariate and multivariate analyses for disease-free survival (DFS were performed using the clinical and metabolic parameters.The metabolic parameters of the primary tumors were not associated with DFS. However, DFS was significantly longer in patients with low values of nodal metabolic parameters than in those with high values of nodal metabolic parameters. A univariate analysis revealed that nodal metabolic parameters (SUVmax, MTV and TLG, paraaortic lymph node metastasis, and post-treatment response correlated significantly with DFS. Among these parameters, nodal SUVmax (hazard ratio [HR], 4.158; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-22.7; p = 0.041 and post-treatment response (HR, 7.162; 95% CI, 1.5-11.3; p = 0.007 were found to be determinants of DFS according to a multivariate analysis. Only nodal SUVmax was an independent pre-treatment prognostic factor for DFS, and the optimal cutoff for nodal SUVmax to predict progression was 4.7.Nodal SUVmax according to pre-treatment F-18 FDG PET/CT may be a prognostic biomarker for the prediction of disease recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer.

  19. High-Yield Solvothermal Formation of Magnetic CoPt Alloy Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zongtao [ORNL; Blom, Douglas Allen [ORNL; Gai, Zheng [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Shen, Jian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2003-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) magnetic nanomaterials have attracted much attention recently because of their applications in magnetic recording and spintronics. Nevertheless, it remains a challenge to prepare free-standing magnetic nanowires in high yield. This Communication reports the successful high-yield synthesis of an interesting 1D ferromagnetic CoPt alloy by direct decomposition of platinum acetylacetonate and cobalt carbonyl compound in ethylenediamine solvent through a solvothermal reaction. The CoPt alloy nanowires obtained have a tunable diameter of 10-50 nm and a length along the longitudinal axis of up to several microns, depending on crystallization temperature and reaction time. A unique formation mechanism involving coarsening and ripening under solvothermal conditions was discovered. This research opens new opportunities in synthesizing nanomaterials through low-temperature solvothermal processes.

  20. [Molecular ecological basis of high-yielding formation of rice and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenxiong; Liang, Kangjing; Guo, Yuchun; He, Huaqin; Wang, Jingyuan; Liang, Yiyuan; Chen, Fangyu

    2003-12-01

    This paper introduced the developmental genetics and its molecular ecological basis of high yielding formation of rice in the past decade, and analyzed the advantage and the shortage of comparative physiological approach traditionally used in the research work on crop cultivation. It was emphasized to actively introduce the research contents and its methodology from relative disciplines to deeply understand the scientific issue, and suggested that the key to realize stable and high yielding of rice was to develop a rational cultivation system based on the properties of genetic effects on the traits in different developmental stages by controlling and regulating the traits governed by dominant effect genes and additive effect genes x environment in same direction, which was considered as the main characteristics and the technological innovation of modern crop genetic ecological cultivation science. Finally, the development trend of crop cultivation science shifting to molecular crop cultivation science was predicted and discussed.

  1. Extracting DNA from 'jaws': High yield and quality from archived tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) skeletal material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Morgan, J. A T; Maher, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Archived specimens are highly valuable sources of DNA for retrospective genetic/genomic analysis. However, often limited effort has been made to evaluate and optimize extraction methods, which may be crucial for downstream applications. Here, we assessed and optimized the usefulness of abundant...... archived skeletal material from sharks as a source of DNA for temporal genomic studies. Six different methods for DNA extraction, encompassing two different commercial kits and three different protocols, were applied to material, so-called bio-swarf, from contemporary and archived jaws and vertebrae...... and vertebrae are potential high-yield sources of DNA for genomic-scale analysis. It also highlights that even for similar tissue types, a careful evaluation of extraction protocols can vastly improve DNA yield....

  2. High yield fabrication of chemically reduced graphene oxide field effect transistors by dielectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Daeha; Chunder, A; Zhai, Lei; Khondaker, Saiful I, E-mail: saiful@mail.ucf.edu [Nanoscience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States)

    2010-04-23

    We demonstrate high yield fabrication of field effect transistors (FET) using chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The RGO sheets suspended in water were assembled between prefabricated gold source and drain electrodes using ac dielectrophoresis. With the application of a backgate voltage, 60% of the devices showed p-type FET behavior, while the remaining 40% showed ambipolar behavior. After mild thermal annealing at 200 deg. C, all ambipolar RGO FET remained ambipolar with increased hole and electron mobility, while 60% of the p-type RGO devices were transformed to ambipolar. The maximum hole and electron mobilities of the devices were 4.0 and 1.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} respectively. High yield assembly of chemically derived RGO FET will have significant impact in scaled up fabrication of graphene based nanoelectronic devices.

  3. Effects of UAV Supervisory Control on F-18 Formation Flight Performance in a Simulator Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Melanie, Rebecca, Andrew and xviii David, please know that your love, and the love of Christ through you, is what has brought me through this. I only...alcohol while operating a high-fidelity driving simulator. They discovered that drivers using a hands-free cell phone device followed a lead car through...The section was “feet wet” over the water and would soon cross over into enemy land territory (see marker “A” on Figure 21). Initial conditions were

  4. Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma: disease extent and treatment response evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin-Suk; Jeong, Young Jin; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; KIM, Dong Wook; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Yim, Chang-Yeol

    2012-01-01

    Background. Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a rare form of cutaneous lymphomas, accounting for less than 1% of cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) findings of SPTCL before and after treatment were rarely reported. Case report. We report a case of SPTCL in which F-18 FDG PET/CT showed increased FDG accumulations in numerous subcutaneous nodules without extracutaneous disea...

  5. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Crow, Susan [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); DeBeryshe, Barbara [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ha, Richard [Hamakua Springs County Farms, Hilo, HI (United States); Jakeway, Lee [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Khanal, Samir [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Nakahata, Mae [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Ogoshi, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shimizu, Erik [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stern, Ivette [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turano, Brian [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yanagida, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  6. Prediction of failure strain and burst pressure in high yield-to-tensile strength ratio linepipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, M. [Institute of Materials and Engineering Science, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: mlx@ansto.gov.au; Bowie, G. [BlueScope Steel Ltd., Level 11, 120 Collins St, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia)

    2007-08-15

    Failure pressures and strains were predicted for a number of burst tests as part of a project to explore failure strain in high yield-to-tensile strength ratio linepipe. Twenty-three methods for predicting the burst pressure and six methods of predicting the failure strain are compared with test results. Several methods were identified which gave accurate and reliable estimates of burst pressure. No method of accurately predicting the failure strain was found, though the best was noted.

  7. Mutagenesis and Screening of High Yield Xylanase Production Strain of Aspergillus usamii by Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永泉; 陈时飞; 岑沛霖

    2003-01-01

    A high yield xylanase producing strain, A. usamii L336-23, was screened out from its parent strain A.usamii L336 after microwave irradiation. Its productivity of xylanase activity increased by 35.7% from 21000μ·m1-1 to 28500μ·m1-1 and was stable after frequent subcultures and storage for more than two months.The mechanism of microwave mutation was also discussed.

  8. Epidemiology and impact of Fasciola hepatica exposure in high-yielding dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Alison; Baylis, Matthew; Smith, Rob; Pinchbeck, Gina; Williams, Diana

    2015-09-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution and is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to F. hepatica in a group of high yielding dairy herds, to determine the risk factors and investigate their associations with production and fertility parameters. Bulk milk tank samples from 606 herds that supply a single retailer with liquid milk were tested with an antibody ELISA for F. hepatica. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the effect of farm management and environmental risk factors on F. hepatica exposure. Higher rainfall, grazing boggy pasture, presence of beef cattle on farm, access to a stream or pond and smaller herd size were associated with an increased risk of exposure. Univariable regression was used to look for associations between fluke exposure and production-related variables including milk yield, composition, somatic cell count and calving index. Although causation cannot be assumed, a significant (phepatica exposure and estimated milk yield at the herd level, representing a 15% decrease in yield for an increase in F. hepatica exposure from the 25th to the 75th percentile. This remained significant when fertility, farm management and environmental factors were controlled for. No associations were found between F. hepatica exposure and any of the other production, disease or fertility variables.

  9. A novel medium devoid of ruminant peptone for high yield growth of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hiren; Mackintosh, David; Ayling, Roger D; Nicholas, Robin A J; Fielder, Mark D

    2008-03-18

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is considered an emerging veterinary pathogen causing pneumonia in sheep and goats worldwide. Currently it has not been possible to define a growth medium that yields the maximum growth of M. ovipneumoniae within a short incubation period. Growth yields of M. ovipneumoniae in Eaton's medium are variable and not as consistently high as those seen with other Mycoplasma spp. This study investigated the ability of different M. ovipneumoniae field strains to grow in various media formulations, where PPLO broth was replaced by a vegetable protein source, and comparisons were made in terms of strain viability in Eaton's medium. Studies were also conducted to determine the optimal carbohydrate source for use in the M. ovipneumoniae medium. Generally, it was found that different strains showed good growth in all media tested, with growth yields at 24h in TSB-1 medium higher than those observed with Eaton's medium. Growth yields reached 10(8) to 10(9)cfu ml(-1) within 24h for particular field strains, with all strains achieving this growth level within 48-72h.

  10. Some critical considerations on rice high-yielding breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lihong

    2007-01-01

    Views and comments concerning rice highyielding breeding in China had been touched upon:(1) historical development of rice breeding in China and its prominent contributions recounted;current challenges evolved from rapid population increase,erosion of key natural resources and socioeconomic changes envisaged;(2) concept of extra or super high-yielding rice breeding and related ideas embraced nowadays in the main rice-producing countries assessed;the conception of so-called superrice in China could have been misled and misunderstood,and no substantial genetical differences could be affirmed yet between superrice and modern high-yielding rice;(3) two strategical approaches of rice production and breeding in China would have been persistent in the construction of most favorable-to-growth rice fields to plant rice varieties with high-yielding potentiality as well as renovation and rejuvenation of less favorable rice fields to plant most adaptableto-ecoenvironment varieties with promising productivity;in addition,breeding for rice varieties compatible with the specific rice regions ridden by adverse ecoenvironments;(4) overview of the relationship between the development of genetical researches and the perspective of rice breeding;integration of the classical genetical principles and breeding methods and techniques wherefrom with molecular biotechniques underscored.Finally,appeal to the breeders to adhere to due attentions to the development of genetics and promote pragmatism and traditional ethic solemnly so as to live up to implementing the national rice breeding mandates.

  11. Synthesis of Luminescent Graphene Quantum Dots with High Quantum Yield and Their Toxicity Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jiang

    Full Text Available High fluorescence quantum yield graphene quantum dots (GQDs have showed up as a new generation for bioimaging. In this work, luminescent GQDs were prepared by an ameliorative photo-Fenton reaction and a subsequent hydrothermal process using graphene oxide sheets as the precursor. The as-prepared GQDs were nanomaterials with size ranging from 2.3 to 6.4 nm and emitted intense green luminescence in water. The fluorescence quantum yield was as high as 24.6% (excited at 340 nm and the fluorescence was strongest at pH 7. Moreover, the influences of low-concentration (12.5, 25 μg/mL GQDs on the morphology, viability, membrane integrity, internal cellular reactive oxygen species level and mortality of HeLa cells were relatively weak, and the in vitro imaging demonstrated GQDs were mainly in the cytoplasm region. More strikingly, zebrafish embryos were co-cultured with GQDs for in vivo imaging, and the results of heart rate test showed the intake of small amounts of GQDs brought little harm to the cardiovascular of zebrafish. GQDs with high quantum yield and strong photoluminescence show good biocompatibility, thus they show good promising for cell imaging, biolabeling and other biomedical applications.

  12. Fiber Optic Experience with the Smart Actuation System on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Eddie

    1997-01-01

    High bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and potential weight savings have led to the development of fiber optic technology for future aerospace vehicle systems. This technology has been incorporated in a new smart actuator as the primary communication interface. The use of fiber optics simplified system integration and significantly reduced wire count. Flight test results showed that fiber optics could be used in aircraft systems and identified critical areas of development of fly-by-light technology. This paper documents the fiber optic experience gained as a result of this program, and identifies general design considerations that could be used in a variety of specific applications of fiber optic technology. Environmental sensitivities of fiber optic system components that significantly contribute to optical power variation are discussed. Although a calibration procedure successfully minimized the effect of fiber optic sensitivities, more standardized calibration methods are needed to ensure system operation and reliability in future aerospace vehicle systems.

  13. Comparison of diagnostic performance between interictal F-18-FDG PET and ictal Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT in occipital lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seok Ki; Lee, Dong Soo; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Lee, Sang Kun; Kim, Joo Yong; Jeong, Jae Min; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    Interictal F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET and ictal Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT are found to be useful in localizing epileptogenic zones in neocortical lateral temporal or frontal lobe epilepsy. We investigated whether interictal F-18-FDG PET or ictal Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT was useful to find epileptogenic zones in occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE). We reviewed patterns of hypometabolism in interictal F-18 FDG PET and of hyperfusion in ictal Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT in 17 OLE patients (mean age=27{+-}6.8 year, M : F=10:7, injection time =30{+-}17 sec). OLE was diagnosed based on invasive electroencephalography (EEG) study, surgery and post-surgical outcome (Engel class I in all for average 14 months). Epileptogenic zones were correctly localized in 9 (60%) out of 15 patients by interictal F-18-FDG PET. Epiletogenic hemispheres were correctly lateralized in 14 patients (93%) . By ictal Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT, epileptogenic hemispheres were correctly lateralized in 13 patients (76%), but localization was possible only in 3 patients (18%). Among patients who showed no abnormality with MR imaging and no correct localization with ictal Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT, interictal F-18-FDG PET was helpful in 2 patients. Ictal Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT was helpful in lateralization but not in localization in OLE. Interictal F-18-FDG PET was helpful for localization of epileptogenic zones even in patients with ambiguous MR of ictal SPECT findings.

  14. Economics of fertility in high-yielding dairy cows on confined TMR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, V E

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this review paper was to summarise the latest findings in dairy cattle reproductive economics with an emphasis on high yielding, confined total mixed ration systems. The economic gain increases as the reproductive efficiency improves. These increments follow the law of diminishing returns, but are still positive even at high reproductive performance. Reproductive improvement results in higher milk productivity and, therefore, higher milk income over feed cost, more calf sales and lower culling and breeding expenses. Most high-yielding herds in the United States use a combination of timed artificial insemination (TAI) and oestrous detection (OD) reproductive programme. The ratio of achievable pregnancies between OD and TAI determines the economic value difference between both and their combinations. Nonetheless, complex interactions between reproductive programme, herd relative milk yield, and type of reproductive programme are reported. For example, higher herd relative milk yield would favour programme relying more on TAI. In addition, improved reproductive efficiency produces extra replacements. The availability of additional replacements could allow more aggressive culling policies (e.g. less services for non-pregnant cows) to balance on-farm supply and demand of replacements. Balancing heifer replacement availability in an efficient reproductive programme brings additional economic benefits. New technologies such as the use of earlier chemical tests for pregnancy diagnosis could be economically effective depending on the goals and characteristics of the farm. Opportunities for individual cow reproductive management within defined reproductive programme exist. These decisions would be based on economic metrics derived from the value of a cow such as the value of a new pregnancy, the cost of a pregnancy loss, or the cost of an extra day open.

  15. Diagnostic Yield of High-Resolution Breast Sonography in Detecting Microcalcifications Compared to Mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ahmadinejad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Mammography remains the most suitable screening test in detecting microcalcifications as the earliest manifestation of breast malignancy. By means of highfrequency transducers yielding high-resolution breast imaging, some researchers have reported that ultrasonography is capable of depicting microcalcifications in the breast tissue. Therefore, this study has been designed to compare the diagnostic yield of high-resolution"nbreast ultrasonography (HRS versus conventional mammography."nPatients and Methods: Seventy-four consecutive patients who had breast microcalcifications (hyperdense foci < 0.5mm according to standard mammograms, without a prior history of breast disease, surgery, biopsy, chest wall radiation or systemic chemotherapy were enrolled. Considering mammograms as a reference, 46 patients without a mass, voluntarily underwent high-resolution bilateral breast ultrasonography."nResults: The mean age was 50.7±10 years (range, 35-85 years. The upper outer quadrant of the breast was the commonest place where microcalcifications were detected (36.9%. A relative frequency of 45.7% was reported for microcalcifications with breast imaging reporting"nand data system (BIRADS score 3. An overall 82.6% diagnostic yield was discovered for HRS in detecting microcalcifications; it detected all microcalcifications with BIRADS score 4 and 5, but 57.1% and 90.5% of microcalcifications with BIRADS score 2 and 3, respectively. Cluster microcalcification was the most common pattern (43.5%."nConclusion: Considering the 82.6% diagnostic yield of HRS compared to mammography, it can be proposed as the surrogate modality in locating microcalcifications in procedures such as biopsies and hook-wiring, with the advantage of reducing radiation exposure. HRS may be the future screening modality as a result of feasibility, safety, compliance and accuracy.

  16. Engineering of high yield production of L-serine in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhada, Hemanshu; Schneider, Konstantin; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2016-04-01

    L-serine is a widely used amino acid that has been proposed as a potential building block biochemical. The high theoretical yield from glucose makes a fermentation based production attractive. In order to achieve this goal, serine degradation to pyruvate and glycine in E. coli MG1655 was prevented by deletion of three L-serine deaminases sdaA, sdaB, and tdcG, as well as serine hydroxyl methyl transferase (SHMT) encoded by glyA. Upon overexpression of the serine production pathway, consisting of a feedback resistant version of serA along with serB and serC, this quadruple deletion strain showed a very high serine production yield (0.45 g/g glucose) during small-scale batch fermentation in minimal medium. Serine, however, was found to be highly toxic even at low concentrations to this strain, which lead to slow growth and production during fed batch fermentation, resulting in a serine production of 8.3 g/L. The production strain was therefore evolved by random mutagenesis to achieve increased tolerance towards serine. Additionally, overexpression of eamA, a cysteine/homoserine transporter was demonstrated to increase serine tolerance from 1.6 g/L to 25 g/L. During fed batch fermentation, the resulting strain lead to the serine production titer of 11.7 g/L with yield of 0.43 g/g glucose, which is the highest yield reported so far for any organism.

  17. Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for high-yield L-valine production under oxygen deprivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Suda, Masako; Uematsu, Kimio; Natsuma, Yumi; Hiraga, Kazumi; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    We previously demonstrated efficient L-valine production by metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen deprivation. To achieve the high productivity, a NADH/NADPH cofactor imbalance during the synthesis of l-valine was overcome by engineering NAD-preferring mutant acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase (AHAIR) and using NAD-specific leucine dehydrogenase from Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Lactate as a by-product was largely eliminated by disrupting the lactate dehydrogenase gene ldhA. Nonetheless, a few other by-products, particularly succinate, were still produced and acted to suppress the L-valine yield. Eliminating these by-products therefore was deemed key to improving theL-valine yield. By additionally disrupting the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene ppc, succinate production was effectively suppressed, but both glucose consumption and L-valine production dropped considerably due to the severely elevated intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio. In contrast, this perturbed intracellular redox state was more than compensated for by deletion of three genes associated with NADH-producing acetate synthesis and overexpression of five glycolytic genes, including gapA, encoding NADH-inhibited glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Inserting feedback-resistant mutant acetohydroxy acid synthase and NAD-preferring mutant AHAIR in the chromosome resulted in higher L-valine yield and productivity. Deleting the alanine transaminase gene avtA suppressed alanine production. The resultant strain produced 1,280 mM L-valine at a yield of 88% mol mol of glucose(-1) after 24 h under oxygen deprivation, a vastly improved yield over our previous best.

  18. F-18 Polyethyleneglycol stilbenes as PET imaging agents targeting A{beta} aggregates in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wei [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Oya, Shunichi [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kung Meiping [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hou, Catherine [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Maier, Donna L. [Department of Neuroscience, AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE 19850 (United States); Kung, Hank F. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States) and Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: kunghf@sunmac.spect.upenn.edu

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes a novel series of {sup 18}F-labeled polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-stilbene derivatives as potential {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) plaque-specific imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET). In these series of compounds, {sup 18}F is linked to the stilbene through a PEG chain, of which the number of ethoxy groups ranges from 2 to 5. The purpose of adding PEG groups is to lower the lipophilicity and improve bioavailability. The syntheses of the 'cold' compounds and the {sup 18}F-labeled PEG stilbene derivatives are successfully achieved. All of the fluorinated stilbenes displayed high binding affinities in an assay using postmortem AD brain homogenates (K {sub i}=2.9-6.7 nM). Labeling was successfully performed by a substitution of the mesylate group of 10a-d by [{sup 18}F]fluoride giving the target compounds [{sup 18}F]12a-d (EOS, specific activity, 900-1500 Ci/mmol; radiochemical purity >99%). In vivo biodistribution of these novel {sup 18}F ligands in normal mice exhibited excellent brain penetrations and rapid washouts after an intravenous injection (6.6-8.1 and 1.2-2.6% dose/g at 2 and 60 min, respectively). Autoradiography of postmortem AD brain sections of [{sup 18}F]12a-d confirmed the specific binding related to the presence of A{beta} plaques. In addition, in vivo plaque labeling can be clearly demonstrated with these {sup 18}F-labeled agents in transgenic mice (Tg2576), a useful animal model for Alzheimer's disease. In conclusion, the preliminary results strongly suggest these fluorinated PEG stilbene derivatives are suitable candidates as A{beta} plaque imaging agents for studying patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  19. TU-F-18C-01: Breast Tissue Decomposition Using Spectral CT After Distortion Correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, H; Zhao, B; Klopfer, M; Masaki, F; Baturin, P; Molloi, S [University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of accurate breast tissue compositional characterization by using spectral-distortion-corrected dual energy images from a photon-counting spectral CT. Methods: Thirty eight postmortem breasts were imaged with a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT)-based photon-counting spectral CT system at beam energy of 100 kVp. The energy-resolved detector sorted photons into low and high energy bins with a splitting energy of 42 keV. The estimated mean glandular dose (MGD) for each breast was approximately 2.0 mGy. Dual energy technique was used to decompose breast tissue into water, lipid, and protein contents. Two image-based methods were investigated to improve the accuracy of tissue compositional characterization. The first method simply limited the recorded spectra up to 90 keV. This reduced the pulse pile-up artifacts but it has some dose penalty. The second method corrected the spectral information of all measured photons by using a spectral distortion correction technique. Breasts were then chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein contents, which was used as the reference standard. The accuracy of the tissue compositional measurement with spectral CT was evaluated by the root-mean-square (RMS) errors in percentage composition. Results: The errors in quantitative material decomposition were significantly reduced after the appropriate image processing methods. As compared to the chemical analysis as the reference standard, the averages of the RMS errors were estimated to be 15.5%, 3.3%, and 2.8% for the raw, energy-limited, and spectral-corrected images, respectively. Conclusion: Spectral CT can be used to accurately quantify the water, lipid, and protein contents in breast tissues by implementing a spectral distortion correction algorithm. The tissue compositional information can potentially improve the sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer diagnosis.

  20. Radiation exposure to surgical staff during F-18-FDG-guided cancer surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P.A.; Hesse, B. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); Chakera, A.H.; Schmidt, G. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery and Burn Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Klausen, T.L. [Herlev University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Herlev (Denmark); Binderup, T. [University of Copenhagen, Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark); Grossjohann, H.S. [Section of Ultrasound, Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Friis, E. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hansen, C.P. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Abdominal Surgery, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kjaer, A. [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Copenhagen, Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2008-03-15

    High-energy gamma probes have recently become commercially available, developed for {sup 18}F-FDG probe-guided surgery. The radiation received by the staff in the operating room might limit the use of it, but has never been determined. We therefore wanted to measure the absorbed staff doses at operations where patients had received a preoperative injection of {sup 18}F-FDG. Thirty-four patients with different cancers (breast cancer, melanoma, gastrointestinal cancers, respectively) were operated. At every operation the surgeon was monitored with a TLD tablet on his finger of the operating hand and a TLD tablet on the abdomen. The surgeon and anaesthesiologist were also monitored using electronic dosimeters placed in the trousers lining at 25 operations. The dose rate to the surgeon's abdominal wall varied between 7.5-13.2 {mu}Sv/h, depending on tumour location. The doses to the anaesthesiologists and the finger doses to the surgeon were much lower. About 350-400 MBq, i.e. ca. eight times higher activities than those used in the present study are supposed to be necessary for guiding surgery. It can be calculated from the body doses measured that a surgeon can perform between 150-260 h of surgery without exceeding permissible limits for professional workers. The radiation load to the operating staff will generally be so small that it does not present any limitation for FDG-guided surgery. However, it is recommended to monitor the surgical staff considering that the surgeon may be exposed to other radiation sources, and since the staff often includes women of child-bearing age. (orig.)

  1. Experience of Dual Time Point Brain F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Infections Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Weung; Kim, Chang Guhn; Park, Soon Ah; Jung, Sang Ah [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Dual time point FDG PET imaging (DTPI) has been considered helpful for discrimination of benign and malignant disease, and staging lymph node status in patients with pulmonary malignancy. However, DTPI for benign disease has been rarely reported, and it may show a better description of metabolic status and extent of benign infection disease than early imaging only. The authors report on the use F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging with additional delayed imaging on a 52-year-old man with sparganosis and a 70-year-old man with tuberculous meningitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on dual time point PET/CT imaging in patients with cerebral sparganosis and tuberculous meningitis.

  2. High Titer and Yields Achieved with Novel, Low-Severity Pretreatment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    NREL researchers obtained high concentration sugar syrups in enzymatic hydrolysis that are fermentable to ethanol and other advanced biofuels and intermediate products at high yields. The novel DMR process is simpler and bypasses all severe pretreatment methods, thus reducing the environmental impact. The results are unprecedented. Researchers achieved a high concentration of sugars (230g/L of monomeric sugar and 270 g/L total sugar) and this low toxicity, highly fermentable syrup yielded 86 g/L ethanol (> 90 percent conversion). In addition, the lignin streams from this process can readily be converted to jet or renewable diesel blendstocks through a hydrodeoxygenation step. The NREL-developed, low severity DMR process may potentially replace higher severity chemical pretreatments and associated expensive reactors constructed of exotic alloys with a simpler process, using commercial-scale equipment commonly associated with the pulp and paper industry, to produce high concentration, low toxicity sugar streams and highly reactive lignin streams from non-food renewable biomass for biological and catalytic upgrading to advanced biofuels and chemicals. The simpler DMR process with black liquor recycling could reduce environmental and life-cycle impacts, and repurpose shuttered pulp and paper mills to help revitalize rural economies.

  3. Value of F-18 FDG hybrid camera PET and MRI in early takayasu aortitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, J.; Becker, W. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Georg August University, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Grabbe, E.; Vosshenrich, R. [Department of Radiology, Georg August University, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    Takayasu aortitis (TA) is a chronic inflammatory and fibrotic vasculitis of large- and medium-sized arteries. Early stages of the disease show a panarteritis and inflammatory wall thickening of the aorta and its branches, whereas advanced (fibrotic) stages comprise stenosis, aneurismatic transformation and occlusion. Magnetic resonance imaging visualises early-stage disease with high accuracy and is considered to be the method of choice in the diagnosis of TA. The aim of this article is the detailed comparison of FDG-PET performed with a hybrid camera and MR imaging in five patients with early TA. Five patients (median age 60 years) were enrolled during an ongoing prospective study on [18F]2'-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) hybrid camera PET in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). These patients underwent MR imaging after establishing the diagnosis of TA. Abnormal FDG uptake in the wall of the aorta was noted in all patients. The bracheocephalic artery and the common carotid arteries were visualized in 3 cases. Increased uptake of the subclavian artery was found in 3 patients and in 4 patients pathological uptake was noted in the ilio-femoral vessels. Of 34 vascular regions studied, 26 (76%) showed elevated FDG uptake. On transversal MR images vessel wall thickening and contrast enhancement of the thoracic aorta was found in 4 patients (ascending aorta/aortic arch: n=2; descending aorta: n=3; abdominal aorta: n=1). Additionally, vessel wall pathologies of the subclavian and the common carotid arteries could be shown in 1 patient and in another patient in the ilio-femoral arteries. No abnormalities were found using contrast-enhanced MR angiography. Of 28 vascular regions studied, 9 (32%) showed vasculitis on MRI. The FDG-PET is a suitable whole-body screening method in the primary diagnosis of early TA, especially in those cases with early disease that present with uncharacteristic symptoms such as FUO. Both MRI and MRA remain indispensable in the exact

  4. F 18 FDG PET/CT Findings of Spontaneous Mesenteric Fibromatosis in a Patient with Gardner's Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Young Jin; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Yim, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National Univ. Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Gardner's syndrome (GS), a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis, is an autosomal dominant disease. Originally, Gardner described a syndrome consisting of hereditary intestinal polyposis With osteomas and multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions. The syndrome was later modified by the addition of other features, such as dental abnormalities, abdominal fibromatosis, and a number of malignant tumors. the principal cutaneous lesions that have been described in GS are epidermoid cysts. Other cutaneous lesions include fibromas, lipomas, leiomyomas, neurofibromas, and pigmented skin lesions. Fibromatoses are histologically benign, but locally aggressive fibrous tumors consisting of mature fibroblasts within an extensive collagen matrix. Most cases are sporadic, but there is a clear association with familial adenomatous polyposis and GS, suggesting a link with a mutation of the APC gene on chromosome 5q22. Fibromatosis occurs in 3.5%-29% of patients with GS, and is more likely to be multiple and to involve the mesentery and abdominal wall rather than being an isolated form. Clinically, fibromatosis presents as a painless firm soft tissue mass. Most cases of fibromatosis are believed to be precipitated by surgical trauma, however, a few cases of spontaneous occurrence have been reported. In our patient, no history of abdominal surgery or trauma was present. In addition, an abdominal CT obtained 2 years ago revealed no abnormality. Although the radiological features of fibromatosis on CT or MR have been described in the literature, F 18 FDG PET or PET/CT findings are rarely reported. The F 18 FDG uptake in patients with fibromatosis ranged from low to moderate grade and was generally heterogenous with a few tiny foci of relatively intense uptake or relatively homogenous. The areas of higher FDG metabolism are likely to represent more cellular and mitotically active areas. Mesenteric fibromatosis has similar findings to extra abdominal lesions.

  5. Enhanced electron yield from laser-driven wakefield acceleration in high-Z gas jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaie, Mohammad; Hafz, Nasr A M; Li, Song; Liu, Feng; He, Fei; Cheng, Ya; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    An investigation of the electron beam yield (charge) form helium, nitrogen, and neon gas jet plasmas in a typical laser-plasma wakefield acceleration experiment is carried out. The charge measurement is made by imaging the electron beam intensity profile on a fluorescent screen into a charge coupled device which was cross-calibrated with an integrated current transformer. The dependence of electron beam charge on the laser and plasma conditions for the aforementioned gases are studied. We found that laser-driven wakefield acceleration in low Z-gas jet targets usually generates high-quality and well-collimated electron beams with modest yields at the level of 10-100 pC. On the other hand, filamentary electron beams which are observed from high-Z gases at higher densities reached much higher yields. Evidences for cluster formation were clearly observed in the nitrogen gas jet target, where we received the highest electron beam charge of ∼1.7 nC. Those intense electron beams will be beneficial for the applications on the generation of bright X-rays, gamma rays radiations, and energetic positrons via the bremsstrahlung or inverse-scattering processes.

  6. Advances and Prospects in Breeding Japonica Rice for Super High Yield in the Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wen-fu; XU Zheng-jin; ZHANG Wen-zhong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, advances and prospects in breeding japonica rice for super high yield in the northern China were analyzed comprehensively in terms of breeding theories, techniques and practices. The author holds that developing and spreading super rice is an important way to enhance the overall yielding ability of japonica rice and attaining immense expansion of rice production. After theories and technical guidelines for super rice breeding were formulated, which involved the creation of new plant morphology and strong hybrid vigor through crossing indica with japonica subspecies, the optimization of combination of desirable traits via multiple crossing or backcrossing, the assemblage of favorable genes and the integration of ideal plant morphology with the utilization of vigor-major breakthroughs have been made in conventional breeding of japonica super rice. A batch of new super rice varieties marked by superior rice quality and high disease resistance, such as Shennong 265, Shennong 606, and Jijing 88, etc., have been developed and released. In comparison with the advancement in conventional breeding of super rice, progress in hybrid japonica super rice breeding is slower because of climatic and ecological constraint in northern China. Therefore, solving the contradictions between vigor and growth duration, between yield and rice quality, and boosting vastly seed production are still serious challenges for breeders of hybrid japonica rice. Physiological and genetic problems in japonica super rice breeding are also discussed in this paper.

  7. Enhanced electron yield from laser-driven wakefield acceleration in high-Z gas jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaie, Mohammad; Hafz, Nasr A. M., E-mail: nasr@sjtu.edu.cn; Li, Song; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Jie [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MOE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); He, Fei; Cheng, Ya [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-10-15

    An investigation of the electron beam yield (charge) form helium, nitrogen, and neon gas jet plasmas in a typical laser-plasma wakefield acceleration experiment is carried out. The charge measurement is made by imaging the electron beam intensity profile on a fluorescent screen into a charge coupled device which was cross-calibrated with an integrated current transformer. The dependence of electron beam charge on the laser and plasma conditions for the aforementioned gases are studied. We found that laser-driven wakefield acceleration in low Z-gas jet targets usually generates high-quality and well-collimated electron beams with modest yields at the level of 10-100 pC. On the other hand, filamentary electron beams which are observed from high-Z gases at higher densities reached much higher yields. Evidences for cluster formation were clearly observed in the nitrogen gas jet target, where we received the highest electron beam charge of ∼1.7 nC. Those intense electron beams will be beneficial for the applications on the generation of bright X-rays, gamma rays radiations, and energetic positrons via the bremsstrahlung or inverse-scattering processes.

  8. High-yielding Cultivation and Fertilization Technology of Lvhan No.1 in Angola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research high-yielding cultivation and fertilization technology for Lvhan No.l, a new Chinese rice cultivar, in Angola. [Method] In rainy season of 2012, high-yielding cultivation and fertilization technology of Lvhan No.l, a new cultivar of earlier ripe and drought resistant rice, was researched in CATETE farm of Luanda suburb with pot experiment method. [Result] In CATETE farm, Lvhan No.1 rice were directly sown in black clay and the rice can be significantly improved in plant height, grain weight of single plant, biological yield of single plant, ear length, total grain number per ear, number of filled grain per ear and thousand seed weight, as well as economic coefficient and ratio of grain to straw, if applied with base fertilizer made up of DAP (N:P2Os=14:43), or compound fertilizer of N, P and K (N:P2Os:K~O=15:15:15) and with Duannai fertilizer and ear-grain fertilizer made up of urea. If DAP is taken as base fertilizer, the optimal quantity is 300 kg/hm2. If compound fertilizer of N, P and K is taken as base fertilizer, the optimal quantity is 450 kg/hm2, but urea at 75 kg/hm2 should be applied as Duannai fertilizer and ear- grain fertilizer, respectively, on time. [Conclusion] The research provides technical ref- erences for planting of Chinese rice cultivars in Angola.

  9. Research Advances in High-Yielding Cultivation and Physiology of Super Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing; YANG Jian-chang

    2012-01-01

    In 1996,China launched a program to breed super rice or super hybrid rice by combining intersubspecific heterosis with ideal plant types.Today,approximately 80 super rice varieties have been released and some of them show high grain yields of 12-21 t/hm2 in field experiments.The main reasons for the high yields of super rice varieties,compared with those of conventional varieties,can be summarized as follows:more spikelets per panicle and larger sink size (number of spikelets per square meter); larger leaf area index,longer duration of green leaf,greater photosynthetic rate,higher lodging resistance,greater dry matter accumulation before the heading stage,greater remobilization of pre-stored carbohydrates from stems and leaves to grains during the grain-filling period; and larger root system and greater root activity.However,there are two main problems in super rice production:poor grain-filling of the later-flowering inferior spikelets (in contrast to earlier-flowering superior spikelets),and low and unstable seed-setting rate.Here,we review recent research advances in the crop physiology of super rice,focusing on biological features,formation of yield components,and population quality.Finally,we suggest further research on crop physiology of super rice.

  10. Responses of Yield Characteristics to High Temperature During Flowering Stage in Hybrid Rice Guodao 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Guan-fu; TAO Long-xing; SONG Jian; WANG Xi; CAO Li-yong; CHENG Shi-hua

    2008-01-01

    By sowing at different dates during 2005 and 2006 both in paddy fields and greenhouse, a super hybrid rice combination Guodao 6 and a conventional hybrid rice combination Xieyou 46 (as control) were used to analyze the differences in heat injury index, seed setting rate, grain yield and its components. Guodao 6 showed more stable yield and spikelet fertility, and lower heat injury index than Xieyou 46. Further studies indicated that the spikelet sterility is positively correlated with the average daily temperature and the maximum daily temperature, with the coefficients of 0.8604 and 0.9850 (P<0.05) respectively in Guodao 6. The effect of high temperature injury on seed setting caused by maximum daily temperature was lower than that by average daily temperature during the grain filling stage.

  11. Shock-Ignited High Gain/Yield Targets for the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L. J.; Lafortune, K. N.; Bedrosiian, P.; Tabak, M.; Miles, A.; Dixit, S.; Betti, R.; Anderson, K.; Zhou, C.

    2006-10-01

    Shock-ignition, a new concept for ICF ignition [C.Zhou, R.Betti Bull APS, v50, 2005], is being studied as a future option for efficiently achieving high gains in large laser facilities such as NIF. Accordingly, this offers the potential for testing: (1)High yield (up to 200MJ), reactor-relevant targets for inertial fusion energy (2)High fusion yield targets for DOE NNSA stockpile application (3)Targets with appreciable gain at low laser drive energies (gains of 10's at 150kJ) (4)Ignition of simple, non-cryo (room temperature) single shell gas targets at (unity gain). By contrast to conventional hotspot ignition, we separate the assembly and ignition phases by initially imploding a massive cryogenic shell on a low adiabat (alpha 0.7) at low velocity (less than 2e7cm/s) using a direct drive pulse of modest total energy. The assembled fuel is then separately ignited by a strong, spherically convergent shock driven by a high intensity spike at the end of the pulse and timed to reach the center as the main fuel is stagnating and starting to rebound. Like fast ignition, shock ignition can achieve high gains with low drive energy, but has the advantages of requiring only a single laser with less demanding timing and spatial focusing requirements.

  12. Optimization of Escherichia coli cultivation methods for high yield neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christian; Montag, Cindy; Berndt, Sandra; Huster, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    The recombinant expression of human G protein-coupled receptors usually yields low production levels using commonly available cultivation protocols. Here, we describe the development of a high yield production protocol for the human neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 (Y2R), which provides the determination of expression levels in a time, media composition, and process parameter dependent manner. Protein was produced by Escherichia coli in a defined medium composition suitable for isotopic labeling required for investigations by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The Y2 receptor was fused to a C-terminal 8x histidine tag by means of the pET vector system for easy one-step purification via affinity chromatography, yielding a purity of 95-99% for every condition tested, which was determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. The Y2 receptor was expressed as inclusion body aggregates in complex media and minimal media, using different carbon sources. We investigated the influences of media composition, temperature, pH, and set specific growth rate on cell behavior, biomass wet weight specific and culture volume specific amounts of the target protein, which had been identified by inclusion body preparation, solubilization, followed by purification and spectrometric determination of the protein concentration. The developed process control strategy led to very high reproducibility of cell growth and protein concentrations with a maximum yield of 800 μg purified Y2 receptor per gram wet biomass when glycerol was used as carbon source in the mineral salt medium composition (at 38 °C, pH 7.0, and a set specific growth rate of 0.14 g/(gh)). The maximum biomass specific amount of purified Y2 receptor enabled the production of 35 mg Y2R per liter culture medium at an optical density (600 nm) of 25.

  13. High-rate, high-yield production of methanol by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Edris; Chandran, Kartik

    2013-04-02

    The overall goal of this study was to develop an appropriate biological process for achieving autotrophic conversion of methane (CH(4)) to methanol (CH3OH). In this study, we employed ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to selectively and partially oxidize CH(4) to CH(3)OH. In fed-batch reactors using mixed nitrifying enrichment cultures from a continuous bioreactor, up to 59.89 ± 1.12 mg COD/L of CH(3)OH was produced within an incubation time of 7 h, which is approximately ten times the yield obtained previously using pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europaea. The maximum specific rate of CH(4) to CH(3)OH conversion obtained during this study was 0.82 mg CH(3)OH COD/mg AOB biomass COD-d, which is 1.5 times the highest value reported with pure cultures. Notwithstanding these positive results, CH(4) oxidation to CH(3)OH by AOB was inhibited by NH(3) (the primary substrate for the oxidative enzyme, ammonia monooxygenase, AMO) as well as the product, CH(3)OH, itself. Further, oxidation of CH(4) to CH(3)OH by AOB was also limited by reducing equivalents supply, which could be overcome by externally supplying hydroxylamine (NH(2)OH) as an electron donor. Therefore, a potential optimum design for promoting CH(4) to CH(3)OH oxidation by AOB could involve supplying NH(3) (needed to maintain AMO activity) uncoupled from the supply of NH(2)OH and CH(4). Partial oxidation of CH(4)-containing gases to CH3OH by AOB represents an attractive platform for the conversion of a gaseous mixture to an aqueous compound, which could be used as a commodity chemical. Alternately, the nitrate and CH(3) OH thus produced could be channeled to a downstream anoxic zone in a biological nitrogen removal process to effect nitrate reduction to N(2), using an internally produced organic electron donor.

  14. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  15. HIGH YIELD AND RAPID SYNTHESES METHODS FOR PRODUCING METALLO-ORGANIC SALTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    A new method for preparing salts of metal cations and organic acids, especially divalent salts of alkaline earth metal ions from group II of the periodic system and carboxylic acids. The method comprising the use of a high temperature (about 90° or more) and, optionally. high pressure, in order t...... to obtain a higher yield, purity and faster reaction speed than obtained with known synthesis methods. In particular, the present invention relates to the production of strontium salts of carboxylic acids. Novel strontium salts are also provided by the present method.......A new method for preparing salts of metal cations and organic acids, especially divalent salts of alkaline earth metal ions from group II of the periodic system and carboxylic acids. The method comprising the use of a high temperature (about 90° or more) and, optionally. high pressure, in order...

  16. High yield expression of catalytically active USP18 (UBP43 using a Trigger Factor fusion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basters Anja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Covalent linkage of the ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 interferes with viral infection and USP18 is the major protease which specifically removes ISG15 from target proteins. Thus, boosting ISG15 modification by protease inhibition of USP18 might represent a new strategy to interfere with viral replication. However, so far no heterologous expression system was available to yield sufficient amounts of catalytically active protein for high-throughput based inhibitor screens. Results High-level heterologous expression of USP18 was achieved by applying a chaperone-based fusion system in E. coli. Pure protein was obtained in a single-step on IMAC via a His6-tag. The USP18 fusion protein exhibited enzymatic activity towards cell derived ISG15 conjugated substrates and efficiently hydrolyzed ISG15-AMC. Specificity towards ISG15 was shown by covalent adduct formation with ISG15 vinyl sulfone but not with ubiquitin vinyl sulfone. Conclusion The results presented here show that a chaperone fusion system can provide high yields of proteins that are difficult to express. The USP18 protein obtained here is suited to setup high-throughput small molecule inhibitor screens and forms the basis for detailed biochemical and structural characterization.

  17. Characterization of neutron yield and x-ray spectra of a High Flux Neutron Generator (HFNG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamani, Nnaemeka; HFNG Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The High Flux Neutron Generator (HFNG) is a DD plasma-based source, with a self-loading target intended for fundamental science and engineering applications, including 40 Ar/39 Ar geochronology, neutron cross section measurements, and radiation hardness testing of electronics. Our first estimate of the neutron yield, based on the population of the 4.486 hour 115 In isomer gave a neutron yield of the order 108 n/sec; optimization is ongoing to achieve the design target of 1011 n/sec. Preliminary x-ray spectra showed prominent energy peaks which are likely due to atomic line-emission from back-streaming electrons accelerated up to 100 keV impinging on various components of the HFNG chamber. Our x-ray and neutron diagnostics will aid us as we continue to evolve the design to suppress back-streaming electrons, necessary to achieve higher plasma beam currents, and thus higher neutron flux. This talk will focus on the characterization of the neutron yield and x-ray spectra during our tests. A collimation system is being installed near one of the chamber ports for improved observation of the x-ray spectra. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. EAR-0960138, U.S. DOE LBNL Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, U.S. DOE LLNL Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and the UC Office of the President Award 12-LR-238745.

  18. Simple and high yield access to octafunctional azido, amine and urea group bearing cubic spherosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Sandra; Kickelbick, Guido

    2016-12-20

    Spherosilicates and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes represent unique well-defined rigid building blocks for molecular and hybrid materials. Drawbacks in their synthesis are often low yields and the restricted presence of functional groups either based on incomplete transformation of all corners or the reactivity of the functional groups. Particularly amine-functionalization reveals some synthetic challenges. In this study we report the synthesis of a new class of octafunctionalized hydrogen bond forming spherosilicates via a facile route based on octabromo alkyl functionalized cubic spherosilicates. Four different alkyl chain lengths, namely C4, C5, C6 and C11, were realized starting from ω-alkenylbromides via hydrosilylation of Q8M8(H). Using sodium azide in a mixture of acetonitrile : DMF = 10 : 1, the octaazide was obtained quantitatively and could be rapidly transformed in an octaamine cube via catalytic hydrogenation over Pd/C in absolute ethanol. The following reaction to hydrogen bond forming spherosilicates was performed in situ by adding propyl isocyanate. All transformations proceed quantitatively at the eight corners of the cube, which was evidenced by NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS measurements. The Q8-target compound can be separated after each reaction step over simple chemical workup while no cage rearrangement was observed. The structures were confirmed using (1)H, (13)C, (29)Si-NMR, FT-IR, elemental analysis and ESI-MS. The method opens a high yield route (overall isolated yield 83-88%) for structural building blocks in hybrid materials.

  19. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes with tunable structure and high yield produced by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Ionescu, Mihnea Ioan; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2011-06-01

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CN x) were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis from mixtures of imidazole and acetonitrile. Imidazole, as an additive, was used to control the structure and nitrogen doping in CN x by adjusting its concentration in the mixtures. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the addition of imidazole increased the nanotube growth rate and yield, while decreased the nanotube diameter. Transmission electron microscopy study indicated that the addition of imidazole promoted the formation of a dense bamboo-like structure in CN x. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that the nitrogen content varied from 3.2 to 5.2 at.% in CN x obtained with different imidazole concentrations. Raman spectra study showed that the intensity ratio of D to G bands gradually increased, while that of 2D to G bands decreased, due to increasing imidazole concentration. The yield of CN x made from mixtures of imidazole and acetonitrile can reach 192 mg in 24 min, which is 15 times that of CN x prepared from only acetonitrile. The aligned CN x, with controlled nitrogen doping, tunable structure and high yield, may find applications in developing non-noble catalysts and novel catalyst supports for fuel cells.

  20. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes with tunable structure and high yield produced by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jian; Zhang Yong; Ionescu, Mihnea Ioan; Li Ruying [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B9 (Canada); Sun Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CN{sub x}) were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis from mixtures of imidazole and acetonitrile. Imidazole, as an additive, was used to control the structure and nitrogen doping in CN{sub x} by adjusting its concentration in the mixtures. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that the addition of imidazole increased the nanotube growth rate and yield, while decreased the nanotube diameter. Transmission electron microscopy study indicated that the addition of imidazole promoted the formation of a dense bamboo-like structure in CN{sub x}. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that the nitrogen content varied from 3.2 to 5.2 at.% in CN{sub x} obtained with different imidazole concentrations. Raman spectra study showed that the intensity ratio of D to G bands gradually increased, while that of 2D to G bands decreased, due to increasing imidazole concentration. The yield of CN{sub x} made from mixtures of imidazole and acetonitrile can reach 192 mg in 24 min, which is 15 times that of CN{sub x} prepared from only acetonitrile. The aligned CN{sub x}, with controlled nitrogen doping, tunable structure and high yield, may find applications in developing non-noble catalysts and novel catalyst supports for fuel cells.

  1. High diagnostic yield of clinical exome sequencing in Middle Eastern patients with Mendelian disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavarna, Tarunashree; Al-Dewik, Nader; Al-Mureikhi, Mariam; Ali, Rehab; Al-Mesaifri, Fatma; Mahmoud, Laila; Shahbeck, Noora; Lakhani, Shenela; AlMulla, Mariam; Nawaz, Zafar; Vitazka, Patrik; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg

    2015-09-01

    Clinical exome sequencing (CES) has become an increasingly popular diagnostic tool in patients with heterogeneous genetic disorders, especially in those with neurocognitive phenotypes. Utility of CES in consanguineous populations has not yet been determined on a large scale. A clinical cohort of 149 probands from Qatar with suspected Mendelian, mainly neurocognitive phenotypes, underwent CES from July 2012 to June 2014. Intellectual disability and global developmental delay were the most common clinical presentations but our cohort displayed other phenotypes, such as epilepsy, dysmorphism, microcephaly and other structural brain anomalies and autism. A pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutation, including pathogenic CNVs, was identified in 89 probands for a diagnostic yield of 60%. Consanguinity and positive family history predicted a higher diagnostic yield. In 5% (7/149) of cases, CES implicated novel candidate disease genes (MANF, GJA9, GLG1, COL15A1, SLC35F5, MAGE4, NEUROG1). CES uncovered two coexisting genetic disorders in 4% (6/149) and actionable incidental findings in 2% (3/149) of cases. Average time to diagnosis was reduced from 27 to 5 months. CES, which already has the highest diagnostic yield among all available diagnostic tools in the setting of Mendelian disorders, appears to be particularly helpful diagnostically in the highly consanguineous Middle Eastern population.

  2. Particle Concentration and Yield Stress of Biomass Slurries During Enzymatic Hydrolysis at High-Solids Loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, C. M.; Dibble, C. J.; Knutsen, J. S.; Stickel, J. J.; Liberatore, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    Effective and efficient breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass remains a primary barrier for its use as a feedstock for renewable transportation fuels. A more detailed understanding of the material properties of biomass slurries during conversion is needed to design cost-effective conversion processes. A series of enzymatic saccharification experiments were performed with dilute acid pretreated corn stover at initial insoluble solids loadings of 20% by mass, during which the concentration of particulate solids and the rheological property yield stress ({tau}{sub y}) of the slurries were measured. The saccharified stover liquefies to the point of being pourable ({tau}{sub y} {le} 10 Pa) at a total biomass conversion of about 40%, after roughly 2 days of saccharification for a moderate loading of enzyme. Mass balance and semi-empirical relationships are developed to connect the progress of enzymatic hydrolysis with particle concentration and yield stress. The experimental data show good agreement with the proposed relationships. The predictive models developed here are based on established physical principles and should be applicable to the saccharification of other biomass systems. The concepts presented, especially the ability to predict yield stress from extent of conversion, will be helpful in the design and optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis processes that operate at high-solids loadings.

  3. Predictive value of intratumoral heterogeneity of F-18 FDG uptake for characterization of thyroid nodules according to Bethesda categories of fine needle aspiration biopsy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Jang; Chang, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    The current study was aimed to investigate the clinical value of intratumoral heterogeneity of F-18 FDG uptake for characterization of thyroid nodule (TN) with inconclusive fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results. The current study enrolled 200 patients who showed F-18 FDG incidentaloma and were performed FNAB. The intratumoral heterogeneity of F-18 FDG uptake was represented as the heterogeneity factor (HF), defined as the derivative (dV/dT) of a volume-threshold function for a primary tumor. The diagnostic and predictive values of HF and F-18 FDG PET/CT parameters were evaluated for characterization of inconclusive FNAB results. Among F-18 FDG PET/CT parameters, SUVmax, MTV, and TLG of malignant group were statistically higher than those of Bethesda category of suspicious malignant group. However, HF values were not statistically different between the groups of Bethesda categories (Kruskal-Wallis statistics, 9.924; p = 0.0774). In ROC analysis, when HF > 2.751 was used as cut-off value, the sensitivity and specificity for prediction of malignant TN were 100 % (95 % CI 69.2-100 %) and 60 % (95 % CI 42.1-76.1 %), respectively. The AUC was 0.826 (95 % CI 0.684-0.922) and standard error was 0.0648 (p F-18 FDG uptake represented by HF could be a predictor for characterization of TN with inconclusive FNAB results. Additional large population-based prospective studies are needed to validate the diagnostic utility of HF of F-18 FDG PET/CT.

  4. A high throughput DNA extraction method with high yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Preparation of large quantity and high quality genomic DNA from a large number of plant samples is a major bottleneck for most genetic and genomic analyses, such as, genetic mapping, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome), and next-generation sequencing directly from sheared ...

  5. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity.

  6. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Abou Rajab

    Full Text Available One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species in Sulawesi (Indonesia with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1, total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity.

  7. First Clinical Results of (D)-F-18-Fluoromethyltyrosine (BAY 86-9596) PET/CT in Patients with Non Small Cell Lung Cancer and Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Irene A.; Zitzmann-Kolbe, Sabine; Pruim, Jan; Friebe, Matthias; Graham, Keith; Stephens, Andrew; Dinkelborg, Ludger; Kowal, Kristin; Schibli, Roger; Luurtsema, Gert; Maas, Bram; Horn-Tutic, Michaela; Haerle, Stephan K.; Wiegers, Johan; Schaefer, Niklaus G.; Hany, Thomas F.; von Schulthess, Gustav K.

    2014-01-01

    (D)-F-18-fluoromethyltyrosine (D-F-18-FMT), or BAY 86-9596, is a novel F-18-labeled tyrosine derivative rapidly transported by the L-amino acid transporter (LAT-1), with a faster blood pool clearance than the corresponding L-isomer. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of tumor d

  8. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change.

  9. High yield simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production under extreme-thermophilic (70 C) mixed culture environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chenxi [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Patthalung 93110 (Thailand); Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The effect of pH and medium composition on extreme-thermophilic (70 C) dark fermentative simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production (process performance and microbial ecology) was investigated. Hydrogen and ethanol yields were optimized with respect to glucose, peptone, FeSO{sub 4}, NaHCO{sub 3}, yeast extract, trace mineral salts, vitamins, and phosphate buffer concentrations as well as initial pH as independent variables. A combination of low levels of both glucose ({<=}2 g/L) and vitamin solutions ({<=}1 mL/L) and high levels of initial pH ({>=}7), mineral salts solution ({>=}5 mL/L) and FeSO{sub 4} ({>=}100 mg/L) stimulated the hydrogen production, while high level of glucose ({>=}5 g/L) and low levels of both initial pH ({<=}5.5) and mineral salts solution ({<=}1 mL/L) enhanced the ethanol production. High yield of simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production (1.58 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose combined with an ethanol yield of 0.90 mol ethanol/mol glucose) was achieved under extreme-thermophilic mixed culture environment. Results obtained showed that the shift of the metabolic pathways favouring either hydrogen or ethanol production was affected by the change in cultivation conditions (pH and medium composition). The mixed culture in this study demonstrated flexible ability for simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production, depending on pH and nutrients formulation. The microorganisms involved could be regarded as simultaneous hydrogen/ethanol producers, as hydrogen and ethanol fermentation under all conditions was carried out by a group of extreme-thermophilic bacterial species related to Thermoanaerobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium and Caldanaerobacter. (author)

  10. Controlled fabrication of individual silicon quantum rods yielding high intensity, polarized light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Benjamin; Valenta, Jan; Linnros, Jan

    2009-12-01

    Elongated silicon quantum dots (also referred to as rods) were fabricated using a lithographic process which reliably yields sufficient numbers of emitters. These quantum rods are perfectly aligned and the vast majority are spatially separated well enough to enable single-dot spectroscopy. Not only do they exhibit extraordinarily high linear polarization with respect to both absorption and emission, but the silicon rods also appear to luminesce much more brightly than their spherical counterparts. Significantly increased quantum efficiency and almost unity degree of linear polarization render these quantum rods perfect candidates for numerous applications.

  11. Production of carbon nanofibers in high yields using a sodium chloride support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Junfeng; Kinloch, Ian A; Singh, Charanjeet; Golovko, Vladimir B; Johnson, Brian F G; Shaffer, Milo S P; Li, Yali; Windle, Alan H

    2005-09-08

    A new route for the highly convenient scalable production of carbon nanofibers on a sodium chloride support has been developed. Since the support is nontoxic and soluble in water, it can be easily removed without damage to the nanofibers and the environment. Nanofiber yields of up to 6500 wt % relative to the nickel catalyst have been achieved in a growth time of 15 min. Electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the catalytically grown carbon had relatively little thermal over-growth and possessed either a herringbone or a semi-ordered nanostructure, depending on the growth conditions.

  12. Delta-Doping at Wafer Level for High Throughput, High Yield Fabrication of Silicon Imaging Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shoulch (Inventor); Jones, Todd J. (Inventor); Greer, Frank (Inventor); Carver, Alexander G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods for producing high quantum efficiency silicon devices. A silicon MBE has a preparation chamber that provides for cleaning silicon surfaces using an oxygen plasma to remove impurities and a gaseous (dry) NH3 + NF3 room temperature oxide removal process that leaves the silicon surface hydrogen terminated. Silicon wafers up to 8 inches in diameter have devices that can be fabricated using the cleaning procedures and MBE processing, including delta doping.

  13. Creation of High-Yield Polyhydroxyalkanoates Engineered Strains by Low Energy Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shiquan; Cheng, Ying; Zhu, Suwen; Cheng, Beijiu

    2008-12-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), as a candidate for biodegradable plastic materials, can be synthesized by numerous microorganisms. However, as its production cost is high in comparison with those of chemically synthesized plastics, a lot of research has been focused on the efficient production of PHAs using different methods. In the present study, the mutation effects of PHAs production in strain pCB4 were investigated with implantation of low energy ions. It was found that under the implantation conditions of 7.8 × 1014 N+/cm2 at 10 keV, a high-yield PHAs strain with high genetic stability was generated from many mutants. After optimizing its fermentation conditions, the biomass, PHAs concentration and PHAs content of pCBH4 reached 2.26 g/L, 1.81 g/L, and 80.08% respectively, whereas its wild type controls were about 1.24 g/L, 0.61 g/L, and 49.20%. Moreover, the main constituent of PHAs was identified as poly-3-hydroxybutyrates (PHB) in the mutant stain and the yield of this compound was increased up to 41.33% in contrast to that of 27.78% in the wild type strain.

  14. Neutron temporal diagnostic for high-yield deuterium-tritium cryogenic implosions on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, C.; Boni, R.; Ehrne, F.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Lonobile, D. J.; Magoon, J.; Regan, S. P.; Shoup, M. J.; Sorce, A.; Sorce, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Weiner, D.

    2016-05-01

    A next-generation neutron temporal diagnostic (NTD) capable of recording high-quality data for the highest anticipated yield cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) implosion experiments was recently installed at the Omega Laser Facility. A high-quality measurement of the neutron production width is required to determine the hot-spot pressure achieved in inertial confinement fusion experiments—a key metric in assessing the quality of these implosions. The design of this NTD is based on a fast-rise-time plastic scintillator, which converts the neutron kinetic energy to 350- to 450-nm-wavelength light. The light from the scintillator inside the nose-cone assembly is relayed ˜16 m to a streak camera in a well-shielded location. An ˜200× reduction in neutron background was observed during the first high-yield DT cryogenic implosions compared to the current NTD installation on OMEGA. An impulse response of ˜40 ± 10 ps was measured in a dedicated experiment using hard x-rays from a planar target irradiated with a 10-ps short pulse from the OMEGA EP laser. The measured instrument response includes contributions from the scintillator rise time, optical relay, and streak camera.

  15. Genome shuffling and ribosome engineering of Streptomyces actuosus for high-yield nosiheptide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingling; Zhang, Dong; Li, Yudong; Zhang, Fuming; Wang, Cao; Liang, Xinle

    2014-07-01

    Nosiheptide is one of the EU-approved sulfur-containing peptides in feed industry to inhibit the growth of the majority of Gram-positive bacteria. The main purpose of this study is directed to breed the high nosiheptide-producers by genome shuffling and ribosome engineering in Streptomyces actuosus AW7. The starting population for shuffling was generated by combining (60)Coγ-irradiation with LiCl mutagenesis treatments on the spores. After four rounds of protoplast fusion exposed to streptomycin as adaptive pressure, a high-yield recombinant strain D92 was obtained. In a 10-L fermenter, nosiheptide production reached 1.54 g/L which was 9.20-fold compared to that of the parental strain. Hyphae development, metabolic process, and ribosomal protein S12 sequence were investigated to characterize the differentiation among the recombinants. Several mutations in S12 were believed to be responsible to streptomycin resistance in the tested strain. The results demonstrated that the combination of genome shuffling and ribosome engineering is an efficient approach to breed high-yield industrial strains.

  16. Creation of High-Yield Polyhydroxyalkanoates Engineered Strains by Low Energy Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Shiquan; CHENG Ying; ZHU Suwen; CHENG Beijiu

    2008-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), as a candidate for biodegradable plastic materials, can be synthesized by numerous microorganisms. However, as its production cost is high in comparison with those of chemically synthesized plastics, a lot of research has been focused on the efficient production of PHAs using different methods. In the present study, the mutation effects of PHAs production in strain pCB4 were investigated with implantation of low energy ions. It was found that under the implantation conditions of 7.8×1014 N+/cm2 at 10 keV, a high-yield PHAs strain with high genetic stability was generated from many mutants. After optimizing its fermentation conditions, the biomass, PHAs concentration and PHAs content of pCBH4reached 2.26 g/L, 1.81 g/L, and 80.08% respectively, whereas its wild type controls were about 1.24 g/L, 0.61 g/L, and 49.20%. Moreover, the main constituent of PHAs was identified as poly-3-hydroxybutyrates (PHB) in the mutant stain and the yield of this compound was increased up to 41.33% in contrast to that of 27.78% in the wild type strain.

  17. Flow "Fine" Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shū

    2016-02-18

    The concept of flow "fine" synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow "fine" synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. Improvement of bleached wheat straw pulp properties by using aspen high-yield pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjie; Li, Jianguo; Hu, Huiren; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2012-09-01

    The bleached wheat straw pulp (BWSP) accounts for about 25% of the virgin fiber supply in the Chinese Pulp and Paper Industry. As a non-wood chemical pulp, BWSP is known to have low bulk, low light scattering coefficient and poor drainage due to its high content of parenchyma cells. In this study, a high-quality aspen high-yield pulp (HYP) was used to improve the BWSP properties at the laboratory scale. The results indicate that adding 5-20% aspen HYP into unrefined or refined BWSP can minimize many of the drawbacks associated with the BWSP: improving its drainage, bulk, light scattering coefficient and opacity. The addition of a small amount (up to 20%) of aspen HYP can also significantly increase the tear index of BWSP with only a slight decrease of the tensile index.

  19. Problems in Fast-growing and High-yield Plantation Ecosystem Management and Their Countermeasures in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzed the basic characteristics of fast-growing and high-yield plantation, classified and identified the ecological problems in its development, and finally proposed the basic principles and corresponding technical measures for fast-growing and high-yield plantation ecosystem management based on these problems.

  20. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high- vs low-yield pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Henze

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitrogen oxide (NO or hydroperoxy radical (HO2 to yield semi- or non-volatile products, respectively. Aromatic species yield more SOA when they react with OH in regions where the [NO]/[HO2] ratios are lower. The SOA yield thus depends upon the distribution of aromatic emissions, with biomass burning emissions being in areas with lower [NO]/[HO2] ratios, and the reactivity of the aromatic with respect to OH, as a lower initial reactivity allows transport away from industrial source regions, where [NO]/[HO2] ratios are higher, to more remote regions, where this ratio is lower and, hence, the ultimate yield of SOA is higher. As a result, benzene is estimated to be the most important aromatic species with regards to formation of SOA, with a total production nearly equal that of toluene and xylene combined. In total, while only 39% percent of the aromatic species react via the low-NOx pathway, 72% of the aromatic SOA is formed via this mechanism. Predicted SOA concentrations from aromatics in the Eastern United States and Eastern Europe are actually largest during the summer, when the [NO]/[HO2] ratio is lower. Global production of SOA from aromatic sources is estimated at 3.5 Tg/yr, resulting in a global burden of 0.08 Tg, twice as large as previous estimates. The contribution of these largely anthropogenic sources to global SOA is still small relative to biogenic sources, which are estimated to comprise 90% of the global SOA burden, about half of which comes from isoprene. Compared to recent observations, it would appear there are additional pathways beyond those

  1. Global modeling of secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbons: high- vs. low-yield pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Henze

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Formation of SOA from the aromatic species toluene, xylene, and, for the first time, benzene, is added to a global chemical transport model. A simple mechanism is presented that accounts for competition between low and high-yield pathways of SOA formation, wherein secondary gas-phase products react further with either nitric oxide (NO or hydroperoxy radical (HO2 to yield semi- or non-volatile products, respectively. Aromatic species yield more SOA when they react with OH in regions where the [NO]/[HO2] ratios are lower. The SOA yield thus depends upon the distribution of aromatic emissions, with biomass burning emissions being in areas with lower [NO]/[HO2] ratios, and the reactivity of the aromatic with respect to OH, as a lower initial reactivity allows transport away from industrial source regions, where [NO]/[HO2] ratios are higher, to more remote regions, where this ratio is lower and, hence, the ultimate yield of SOA is higher. As a result, benzene is estimated to be the most important aromatic species with regards to global formation of SOA, with a total production nearly equal that of toluene and xylene combined. Global production of SOA from aromatic sources via the mechanisms identified here is estimated at 3.5 Tg/yr, resulting in a global burden of 0.08 Tg, twice as large as previous estimates. The contribution of these largely anthropogenic sources to global SOA is still small relative to biogenic sources, which are estimated to comprise 90% of the global SOA burden, about half of which comes from isoprene. Uncertainty in these estimates owing to factors ranging from the atmospheric relevance of chamber conditions to model deficiencies result in an estimated range of SOA production from aromatics of 2–12 Tg/yr. Though this uncertainty range affords a significant anthropogenic contribution to global SOA, it is evident from comparisons to recent observations that additional pathways for

  2. Investigation of the relationship between SLA-1 and SLA-3 gene expression and susceptibility to Escherichia coli F18 in post-weaning pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, L; Zi, C; Pan, Z Y; Zhu, J; Du, Z D; Zhu, G Q; Huang, X G; Bao, W B; Wu, S L

    2012-01-01

    Porcine post-weaning diarrhea and edema disease are principally caused by Escherichia coli strains that produce F18 adhesin. FUT1 genotyping and receptor binding studies divided piglets into E. coli F18-resistant and -sensitive groups, and the roles of SLA-1 and SLA-3 were investigated. SLA-1 and SLA-3 expression was detected in 11 pig tissues, with higher levels of SLA-1 in lung, immune tissues and gastrointestinal tract, and higher levels of SLA-3 also in lung and lymphoid tissues. Both genes were expressed higher in F18-resistant piglets, and their expression was positively correlated in different tissues; a negative correlation was observed in some tissues of F18-sensitive group, particularly in lung and lymphatic samples. Gene ontology and pathway analyses showed that SLA-1 and SLA-3 were involved in 37 biological processes, including nine pathways related to immune functions. These observations help to elucidate the relationship between SLA class I genes and E. coli F18-related porcine gastrointestinal tract diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical implication of F-18 FDG PET/CT for differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with negative diagnostic iodine-123 scan and elevated thyroglobulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong-Jang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: growthkim@daum.net; Lee, Tae Hong [Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ki [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    This study aims to investigate the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) but negative iodine-123 (I-123) scan. Methods: Twenty patients with histopathologically proven DTC, negative diagnostic I-123 scan, and elevated serum Tg levels were prospectively submitted to F-18 FDG PET/CT evaluation. The histopathologic findings consisted of 19 papillary thyroid cancers, 1 follicular thyroid cancer. Results: F-18 FDG PET/CT identified lesions in 18 out of 20 patients, giving a sensitivity of 90%. Thirteen of the 18 patients revealed limited loco-regional disease. Remaining 5 patients showed distant metastases, consisting of 4 patients with lung metastases and 1 patient with bone metastasis. Two patients revealed negative F-18 FDG PET/CT findings. Conclusion: F-18 FDG PET/CT is suitable for the detection and precise localization of loco-regional recurrences and distant metastases of DTC in patients with elevated serum Tg but negative I-123 whole body scan.

  4. High yield sample preconcentration using a highly ion-conductive charge-selective polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Honggu; Chung, Taek Dong; Ramsey, J Michael

    2010-07-15

    The development and analysis of a microfluidic sample preconcentration system using a highly ion-conductive charge-selective polymer [poly-AMPS (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid)] is reported. The preconcentration is based on the phenomenon of concentration polarization which develops at the boundaries of the poly-AMPS with buffer solutions. A negatively charged polymer, poly-AMPS, positioned between two microchannels efficiently extracts cations through its large cross section, resulting in efficient anion sample preconcentration. The present work includes the development of a robust polymer that is stable over a wide range of buffers with varying chemical compositions. The sample preconcentration effect remains linear to over 3 mM (0.15 pmol) and 500 microM (15 fmol) for fluorescein and TRITC-tagged albumin solutions, respectively. The system can potentially be used for concentrating proteins on microfluidic devices with subsequent analysis for proteomic applications.

  5. High process yield rates of thermoplastic nanofluidic devices using a hybrid thermal assembly technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, Franklin I; Hu, Bo; Weerakoon-Ratnayake, Kumuditha; Oliver-Calixte, Nyote; Soper, Steven A

    2015-02-21

    Over the past decade, thermoplastics have been used as alternative substrates to glass and Si for microfluidic devices because of the diverse and robust fabrication protocols available for thermoplastics that can generate high production rates of the desired structures at low cost and with high replication fidelity, the extensive array of physiochemical properties they possess, and the simple surface activation strategies that can be employed to tune their surface chemistry appropriate for the intended application. While the advantages of polymer microfluidics are currently being realized, the evolution of thermoplastic-based nanofluidic devices is fraught with challenges. One challenge is assembly of the device, which consists of sealing a cover plate to the patterned fluidic substrate. Typically, channel collapse or substrate dissolution occurs during assembly making the device inoperable resulting in low process yield rates. In this work, we report a low temperature hybrid assembly approach for the generation of functional thermoplastic nanofluidic devices with high process yield rates (>90%) and with a short total assembly time (16 min). The approach involves thermally sealing a high T(g) (glass transition temperature) substrate containing the nanofluidic structures to a cover plate possessing a lower T(g). Nanofluidic devices with critical feature sizes ranging between 25-250 nm were fabricated in a thermoplastic substrate (T(g) = 104 °C) and sealed with a cover plate (T(g) = 75 °C) at a temperature significantly below the T(g) of the substrate. Results obtained from sealing tests revealed that the integrity of the nanochannels remained intact after assembly and devices were useful for fluorescence imaging at high signal-to-noise ratios. The functionality of the assembled devices was demonstrated by studying the stretching and translocation dynamics of dsDNA in the enclosed thermoplastic nanofluidic channels.

  6. Yield gains of coffee plants from phosphorus fertilization may not be generalized for high density planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Vasconcelos Valadares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Inconclusive responses of the adult coffee plant to phosphorus fertilization have been reported in the literature, especially when dealing with application of this nutrient in high density planting systems. Thus, this study was carried out for the purpose of assessing the response of adult coffee plants at high planting density in full production (in regard to yield and their biennial cycle/stability to the addition of different sources and application rates of P in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experiment with coffee plants of the Catucaí Amarelo 6/30 variety was carried out over four growing seasons. Treatments were arranged in a full factorial design [(4 × 3 + 1] consisting of four P sources (monoammonium phosphate, simple superphosphate, natural reactive rock phosphate from Algeria (Djebel-Onk, and FH 550®, three P rates (100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1 year-1 of P2O5, and an additional treatment without application of the nutrient (0 kg ha-¹ year-¹. A randomized block experimental design was used with three replicates. The four seasons were evaluated as subplots in a split plot experiment. The P contents in soil and leaves increased with increased rates of P application. However, there was no effect from P application on the yield and its biennial cycle/stability regardless of the source used over the four seasons assessed.

  7. Functionalization of quinoxalines by using TMP bases: preparation of tetracyclic heterocycles with high photoluminescene quantum yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafe, Julia; Herbert, Simon; Auras, Florian; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Bein, Thomas; Knochel, Paul

    2015-01-12

    Tetracyclic heterocycles that exhibit high photoluminescence quantum yields were synthesized by anellation reactions of mono-, di-, and trifunctionalized 2,3-dichloroquinoxalines. Thus, treatment of 2,3-dichloroquinoxaline with TMPLi (TMP = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidyl) allows a regioselective lithiation in position 5. Quenching with various electrophiles (iodine, (BrCl2 C)2 , allylic bromide, acid chloride, aryl iodide) leads to 5-functionalized 2,3-dichloroquinoxalines. Further functionalization in positions 6 and 8 can be achieved by using TMPLi or TMPMgCl⋅LiCl furnishing a range of new di- and tri-functionalized 2,3-dichloroquinoxalines. The chlorine atoms are readily substituted by anellation with 1,2-diphenols or 1,2-dithiophenols leading to a series of new tetracyclic compounds. These materials exhibit strong, tunable optical absorption and emission in the blue and green spectral region. The substituted O-heterocyclic compounds exhibit particularly high photoluminescence quantum yields of up to 90%, which renders them interesting candidates for fluorescence imaging applications.

  8. High yield recombinant production of a self-assembling polycationic peptide for silica biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerfaß, Christian; Braukmann, Sandra; Nietzsche, Sandor; Hobe, Stephan; Paulsen, Harald

    2015-04-01

    We report the recombinant bacterial expression and purification at high yields of a polycationic oligopeptide, P5S3. The sequence of P5S3 was inspired by a diatom silaffin, a silica precipitating peptide. Like its native model, P5S3 exhibits silica biomineralizing activity, but furthermore has unusual self-assembling properties. P5S3 is efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion with ketosteroid isomerase (KSI), which causes deposition in inclusion bodies. After breaking the fusion by cyanogen bromide reaction, P5S3 was purified by cation exchange chromatography, taking advantage of the exceptionally high content of basic amino acids. The numerous cationic charges do not prevent, but may even promote counterion-independent self-assembly which in turn leads to silica precipitation. Enzymatic phosphorylation, a common modification in native silica biomineralizing peptides, can be used to modify the precipitation activity.

  9. Radiation Hard and High Light Yield Scintillator Search for CMS Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Tiras, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    The CMS detector at the LHC requires a major upgrade to cope with the higher instantaneous luminosity and the elevated radiation levels. The active media of the forward backing hadron calorimeters is projected to be radiation-hard, high light yield scintillation materials or similar alternatives. In this context, we have studied various radiation-hard scintillating materials such as Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN), High Efficiency Mirror (HEM) and quartz plates with various coatings. The quartz plates are pure Cerenkov radiators and their radiation hardness has been confirmed. In order to increase the light output, we considered organic and inorganic coating materials such as p-Terphenyl (pTp), Anthracene and Gallium-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO Ga) that are applied as thin layers on the surface of the quartz plates. Here, we present the results of the related test beam activities, laboratory measurements and recent developments.

  10. High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE) reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blink, J.A.; Hogam, W.J.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, E.R.; Pitts, J.H. (comps.)

    1985-12-23

    The High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept to convent inertial confinement fusion energy into electric power has undergone intensive research and refinement at LLNL since 1978. This paper reports on the final HYLIFE design, focusing on five major areas: the HYLIFE reaction chamber (which includes neutronics, liquid-metal jet-array hydrocynamics, and structural design), supporting systems, primary steam system and balance of plant, safety and environmental protection, and costs. An annotated bibliography of reports applicable to HYLIFE is also provided. We conclude that HYLIFE is a particularly viable concept for the safe, clean production of electrical energy. The liquid-metal jet array, HYLIFE's key design feature, protects the surrounding structural components from x-rays, fusion fuel-pellet debris, neutron damage and activation, and high temperatures and stresses, allowing the structure to last for the plant's entire 30-year lifetime without being replaced. 127 refs., 18 figs.

  11. Radiation Hard & High Light Yield Scintillator Search for CMS Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081071

    2015-01-01

    The CMS detector at the LHC requires a major upgrade to cope with the higher instantaneous luminosity and the elevated radiation levels. The active media of the forward backing hadron calorimeters is projected to be radiation-hard, high light yield scintillation materials or similar alternatives. In this context, we have studied various radiation-hard scintillating materials such as Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN), High Efficiency Mirror (HEM) and quartz plates with various coatings. The quartz plates are pure Cerenkov radiators and their radiation hardness has been confirmed. In order to increase the light output, we considered organic and inorganic coating materials such as p-Terphenyl (pTp), Anthracene and Gallium-doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO:Ga) that are applied as thin layers on the surface of the quartz plates. Here, we present the results of the related test beam activities, laboratory measurements and recent developments.

  12. Reaching High-Yield Fusion with a Slow Plasma Liner Compressing a Magnetized Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D D; Parks, P B

    2008-03-18

    Dynamics of the compression of a magnetized plasma target by a heavy liner made of partially ionized high high-Z material is discussed. A 'soft-landing' (shockless) mode of the liner deceleration is analyzed. Conclusion is drawn that such mode is possible for the liners whose thickness at the time of the first contact with the target is smaller than, roughly, 10% of the initial (un-compressed) target radius. A combination of the plasma liner with one or two glide cones allows for a direct access to the area near the center of the reactor chamber. One can then generate plasma target inside the plasma liner at the optimum time. The other advantage of the glide cones is that they can be used to deliver additional fuel to the center of the target near the point of a maximum compression and thereby increase the fusion yield.

  13. Catalytic oxidative conversion of cellulosic biomass to formic acid and acetic acid with exceptionally high yields

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2014-09-01

    Direct conversion of raw biomass materials to fine chemicals is of great significance from both economic and ecological perspectives. In this paper, we report that a Keggin-type vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalyst, namely H4PVMo11O40, is capable of converting various biomass-derived substrates to formic acid and acetic acid with high selectivity in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere. Under optimized reaction conditions, H4PVMo11O40 gave an exceptionally high yield of formic acid (67.8%) from cellulose, far exceeding the values achieved in previous catalytic systems. Our study demonstrates that heteropoly acids are generally effective catalysts for biomass conversion due to their strong acidities, whereas the composition of metal addenda atoms in the catalysts has crucial influence on the reaction pathway and the product selectivity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Bitemporal hypometabolism in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease measured by positron emission tomography with (F-18)2-fluorodeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedland, R.P.; Budinger, T.F.; Prusiner, S.B.; Jagust, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    It is well established that Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is caused by a slow infectious agent similar to the scrapie prion. However, the pathogenesis of this infection is poorly understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a 54 year old male subject with autopsy confirmed CJD using (F-18)2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the Donner 280-crystal tomograph. An x-ray computed tomographic study of the brain performed 4 days prior to PET was normal. In the PET study the frontal to temporal cortex difference of activity densities was 30% on the left and 12% on the right, reflecting temporal hypometabolism. The left-right temporal cortex difference of activity density was 25%, documenting marked hemispheric asymmetry. These findings are similar to those previously obtained in PET-FDG studies of patients with clinically defined Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and are distinctly different from PET-FDG finding in patients with other dementing illnesses or in healthy aged subjects. Recent work has demonstrated extensive biological similarities between CJD, scrapie and AD. The similarities in the regional metabolic alterations between CJD and AD provide additional evidence for the hypothesis that AD is caused by a slow infectious (prion-like) pathogen.

  15. Enhancing biomass energy yield from pilot-scale high rate algal ponds with recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of recycling on biomass energy yield in High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs). Two 8 m(3) pilot-scale HRAPs treating primary settled sewage were operated in parallel and monitored over a 2-year period. Volatile suspended solids were measured from both HRAPs and their gravity settlers to determine biomass productivity and harvest efficiency. The energy content of the biomass was also measured. Multiplying biomass productivity and harvest efficiency gives the 'harvestable biomass productivity' and multiplying this by the energy content defines the actual 'biomass energy yield'. In Year 1, algal recycling was implemented in one of the ponds (HRAPr) and improved harvestable biomass productivity by 58% compared with the control (HRAPc) without recycling (HRAPr: 9.2 g/m(2)/d; HRAPc: 5.8 g/m(2)/d). The energy content of the biomass grown in HRAPr, which was dominated by Pediastrun boryanum, was 25% higher than the control HRAPc which contained a mixed culture of 4-5 different algae (HRAPr: 21.5 kJ/g; HRAPc: 18.6 kJ/g). In Year 2, HRAPc was then seeded with the biomass harvested from the P. boryanum dominated HRAPr. This had the effect of shifting algal dominance from 89% Dictyosphaerium sp. (which is poorly-settleable) to over 90% P. boryanum in 5 months. Operation of this pond was then switched to recycling its own harvested biomass, which maintained P. boryanum dominance for the rest of Year 2. This result confirms, for the first time in the literature, that species control is possible for similarly sized co-occurring algal colonies in outdoor HRAP by algal recycling. With regard to the overall improvement in biomass energy yield, which is a critical parameter in the context of algal cultivation for biofuels, the combined improvements that recycling triggered in biomass productivity, harvest efficiency and energy content enhanced the harvested biomass energy yield by 66% (HRAPr: 195 kJ/m(2)/day; HRAPc: 118 kJ/m(2)/day). Copyright © 2013

  16. Photoisomerization dynamics of a rhodopsin-based molecule (potential molecular switch) with high quantum yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Roland; Jiang, Chen-Wei; Zhang, Xiu-Xing; Fang, Ai-Ping; Li, Hong-Rong; Xie, Rui-Hua; Li, Fu-Li

    2015-03-01

    It is worthwhile to explore the detailed reaction dynamics of various candidates for molecular switches, in order to understand, e.g., the differences in quantum yields and switching times. Here we report density-functional-based simulations for the rhodopsin-based molecule 4-[4-Methylbenzylidene]-5-p-tolyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole (MDP), synthesized by Sampedro et al. We find that the photoisomerization quantum yields are remarkably high: 82% for cis-to-trans, and 68% for trans-to-cis. The lifetimes of the S1 excited state in cis-MDP in our calculations are in the range of 900-1800 fs, with a mean value of 1270 fs, while the range of times required for full cis-to-trans isomerization are 1100-2000 fs, with a mean value of 1530 fs. In trans-MDP, the calculated S1 excited state lifetimes are 860-2140 fs, with a mean value of 1330 fs, and with the full trans-to-cis isomerization completed about 200 fs later. In both cases, the dominant reaction mechanism is rotation around the central C =C bond (connected to the pyrroline ring), and de-excitation occurs at an avoided crossing between the ground state and the lowest singlet state, near the midpoint of the rotational pathway. Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; Robert A. Welch Foundation; National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  17. JLT-408 A New High Yielding Sesame Variety for Maharashtra State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Jadhav, G.B.Chaudhari,T. R. Patil, and S. C. Patil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sesame variety JLT-408 is developed through hybridization followed by advance generation selection from the cross Padma x Yuzhi-8 by pedigree method at Oilseeds Research Station, Jalgaon. This variety gave 29.9 % and 20.8% higher yield than checks JLT-7 and JLT-26, respectively. It has medium maturity period (81-85 days, white bold seed and found superior in quality viz. high oil content (53.2%, low in free fatty acid (1.46% and its Iodine value is 107.0. This new variety is moderately resistant to major diseases like Phyllody, Cercospora leaf spot, Alternaria leaf spot, Powdery mildew and Macrophomina stem/ root rot and it is moderately tolerant to leaf roller /capsule borer and tolerant to gall fly under field conditions. Considering merits in respect of yield, oil content and quality parameters JLT-408 has been released for cultivation in kharif season in North Maharashtra and adjoining areas of Vidarbha and Marathwada regions in Maharashtra.

  18. Engineering a high-yield glutathione strain of Hansenula polymorpha using ion beam implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Weidong; Fu, Yunfang; Cai, Changlong

    2013-01-01

    To generate an industrial strain of Hansenula polymorpha capable of yielding greater levels of glutathione (GSH), wild strain H. polymorpha DL-1 cells were mutated using a nitrogen ion beam, a novel mutagen. At an energy level of 20 keV and dose of 2.13 × 10(16) ions/cm(2), H. polymorpha strain 28 (HP28) with a high-yield of GSH was screened. HP28 intracellular GSH levels reached 337.16 mg/L by ion beam implantation, 1.56 times greater than that of the wild type strain when the fermentation time was shortened from 48 hr to 42 hr, greatly improving efficiency and reducing the cost of industrial-scale production. The enhanced efficiency of HP28 is promising for GSH production from lignocellulosic materials. Therefore, the ion beam implantation would be a cost-effective alternative to the conventional mutation method for engineering yeast and improving its utility.

  19. High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, D. G.; Bonsi, C. K.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Morris, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). 'Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mM Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 degrees C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 micromoles-m-2s-1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.

  20. High relative humidity increases yield, harvest index, flowering, and gynophore growth of hydroponically grown peanut plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, D. G.; Bonsi, C. K.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Morris, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to study the physiological and growth response of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to 50% and 85% relative humidity (RH). The objective was to determine the effects of RH on pod and seed yield, harvest index, and flowering of peanut grown by the nutrient film technique (NFT). 'Georgia Red' peanut plants (14 days old) were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart with 15 cm between channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with an additional 2 mM Ca was used. Solution pH was maintained between 6.4 and 6.7, and electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. Temperature regimes of 28/22 degrees C were maintained during the light/dark periods (12 hours each) with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) at canopy level of 500 micromoles-m-2s-1. Foliage and pod fresh and dry weights, total seed yield, harvest index (HI), and seed maturity were greater at high than at low RH. Plants grown at 85% RH had greater total and individual leaflet area and stomatal conductance, flowered 3 days earlier and had a greater number of flowers reaching anthesis. Gynophores grew more rapidly at 85% than at 50% RH.

  1. Yields of AGB and SAGB models with chemistry of low- and high-metallicity Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, P; Carini, R; D'Antona, F

    2013-01-01

    We present yields from stars of mass in the range Mohigh-Z Globular Clusters. The yields are based on full evolutionary computations, following the evolution of the stars from the pre-Main Sequence through the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase, until the external envelope is lost. Independently of metallicity, stars with M<3Mo are dominated by Third Dredge-Up, thus ejecting into their surroundings gas enriched in carbon and nitrogen. Conversely, Hot Bottom Burning is the main responsible for the modification of the surface chemistry of more massive stars, whose mass exceeds 3Mo: their gas shows traces of proton-capture nucleosynthesis. The extent of Hot Bottom Burning turns out to be strongly dependent on metallicity. In this paper we analyze the consequences of this fact. These results can be used to understand the role played by intermediate mass stars in the self-enrichment scenario of globular clusters: the resu...

  2. The yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Ignasi [Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Pediatric Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Boston, MA (United States); Wilson, Celeste R. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of General Pediatrics, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-06

    Skeletal surveys are routinely performed in cases of suspected child abuse, but there are limited data regarding the yield of high-detail skeletal surveys in infants. To determine the diagnostic yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse. We reviewed the high-detail American College of Radiology standardized skeletal surveys performed for suspected abuse in 567 infants (median: 4.4 months, SD 3.47; range: 4 days-12 months) at a large urban children's hospital between 2005 and 2013. Skeletal survey images, radiology reports and medical records were reviewed. A skeletal survey was considered positive when it showed at least one unsuspected fracture. In 313 of 567 infants (55%), 1,029 definite fractures were found. Twenty-one percent (119/567) of the patients had a positive skeletal survey with a total of 789 (77%) unsuspected fractures. Long-bone fractures were the most common injuries, present in 145 children (26%). The skull was the site of fracture in 138 infants (24%); rib cage in 77 (14%), clavicle in 24 (4.2%) and uncommon fractures (including spine, scapula, hands and feet and pelvis) were noted in 26 infants (4.6%). Of the 425 infants with neuroimaging, 154 (36%) had intracranial injury. No significant correlation between positive skeletal survey and associated intracranial injury was found. Scapular fractures and complex skull fractures showed a statistically significant correlation with intracranial injury (P = 0.029, P = 0.007, respectively). Previously unsuspected fractures are noted on skeletal surveys in 20% of cases of suspected infant abuse. These data may be helpful in the design and optimization of global skeletal imaging in this vulnerable population. (orig.)

  3. Value of Bone Scan in Addition to F-18 FDG PET/CT and Characteristics of Discordant Lesions between F-18 FDG PET/CT and Bone Scan in the Spinal Bony Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Sung Min; Nam, Hyun Yeol; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju Sung [College of Medical Life Science, Silla University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Our purpose was to evaluate spinal bony metastasis which could be missed on an F-18 FDG PET/CT (FDG PET/CT) alone, and to characterize discordant metastatic lesions between FDG PET/CT and bone scan. FDG PET/CT and bone scans of 43 patients with spinal bony metastasis were analyzed retrospectively. A McNemar test was performed comparing the FDG PET/CT alone to the FDG PET/CT plus bone scan in the spinal bony metastases. A one-way chi-square test was performed to characterize the metastases that were missed on the FDG PET/CT alone. To evaluate discordant lesions between FDG PET/CT and bone scan, we performed logistic regression analyses. The independent variables were sites (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar), size (large and small), and maximum SUVs, and the dependant variable was bone scan uptake (positive and negative MDP uptake). A significant difference was found between the FDG PET/CT alone and the FDG PET/CT combined with the bone scan (p<0.01). Using the FDG PET/CT only, diffuse osteoblastic metastasis was missed with a significantly higher frequency (p=0.04). In the univariate analysis, cervical vertebra and small size were related to negative MDP uptake, and thoracic vertebra and large size were related to positive MDP uptake. However, in the multivariate analysis, only the large size was related to positive MDP uptake. A bone scan in addition to the FDG PET/CT increased the ability to evaluate spinal bony metastases, especially for diffuse osteoblastic metastasis. Large metastasis was related to positive bone scan uptake in spinal bony metastasis.

  4. Unexpected second primary malignancies detected by f-18 FDG PET/CT during follow-up for primary malignancy: Two case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Ji In; Lee, Eun Seong; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok Ki [Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    As the survival rate of cancer patients has increased over the last few decades, the risk of cancer survivors developing second primary malignancies has gained attention. We report two rare cases of second primary hematologic malignancy detected by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) during follow-up for primary solid malignancies. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed in a breast cancer patient and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in an anal cancer patient. F-18 FDG PET/CT findings led to the diagnosis of unexpected second primary hematologic malignancy in cancer survivors in these two cases.

  5. Diagnostic value of F18-FDG PET/CT in patients with the revised definition of fever of unknown origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prakash, Vineet; Ketharanathan, Nagulabaskaran; Lorenz, Eleanor

    2009-01-01

    than 3 weeks duration and an uncertain diagnosis after comprehensive evaluation as an inpatient or outpatient for a minimum of 3 days or 3 outpatient visits, having excluded immunocompromised states. 59 patients (pts) (F=35, age 18-92) with this definition underwent PET with full diagnostic contrast......Objectives: Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is an increasingly accepted indication for PET/CT where it has a relatively high diagnostic yield. This study assesses its diagnostic value for the revised definition of FUO. Methods: The revised definition of FUO is fever of greater than 38.3C for more...... enhanced CT. The value of PET/CT in determining the underlying etiology of FUO was retrospectively evaluated by comparing the study findings with a final diagnosis. Final diagnosis was formulated by 6 month clinical, imaging, microbiological and histopathological follow up. When no cause was found...

  6. BRS 369RF and BRS 370RF: Glyphosate tolerant, high-yielding upland cotton cultivars for central Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo de Lelis Morello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS 369RF and BRS 370RF were developed by the EMBRAPA as a part of efforts to create high-yielding germplasm with combinations of transgenic traits. BRS 369RF and BRS 370RF are midseason cultivars and have yield stability, adaptation to the central Brazilian savanna, good fiber quality and tolerance to glyphosate herbicide.

  7. BRS FC402: high-yielding common bean cultivar with carioca grain, resistance to anthracnose and fusarium wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cunha Melo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS FC402 is a common bean cultivar of the carioca-grain group with commercial grain quality, suitable for cultivation in 21 Brazilian states. Cultivar has a normal cycle (85-94 days, high yield potential (4479 kg ha-1, 10.1% higher mean yield than the controls (2462 kg ha-1 and resistance to fusarium wilt and anthracnose.

  8. High-Yield Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Precipitation in a High-Aqueous Phase Content Reverse Microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Sosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles were precipitated at 70°C in a reverse microemulsion containing a high concentration of 0.5 M silver nitrate aqueous solution, toluene as organic phase, and a mixture of surfactants sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate/sodium dodecyl sulfate (2/1, w/w. Nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In spite of the high-water/surfactant molar ratio and concentration of silver nitrate solution used in this study, characterizations demonstrated that nanoparticles were silver crystals (purity >99% with 8.6–8.8 nm in average diameter and 2.9–4.7 nm in standard deviation. It is proposed that slow dosing rate of aqueous solution of precipitating agent and the small molecular volume of toluene attenuated both particle aggregation and polydispersity widening. Experimental yield of silver nanoparticles obtained in this study was much higher than theoretical yields calculated from available data in the literature on preparation of silver nanoparticles in reverse microemulsions.

  9. The addition of submergence-tolerant Sub1 gene into high yielding MR219 rice variety and analysis of its BC2F3 population in terms of yield and yield contributing characters to select advance lines as a variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross was made between MR219 (high yielding but submergence intolerant and Swarna-Sub1 (submergence tolerant to produce submergence-tolerant rice variety using the marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC method to protect the farmers of low-lying land from flash floods during rain. Knowledge of yield and yield contributing factors plays a vital role in the selection process of a variety. This experim ent was designed to determine the genetic diversity among recently produced different lines of BC2F3 population and also to compare all the lines with MR219 to find the best one. Agronomical, yield and yield contributing data were taken, while genotypic and phenotypic coefficients, variance components and heritability were estimated. Introgression of the target gene, Sub1, was done using tightly linked marker, and also background recovery was measured using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers in different generations. The observed recurrent parent genome (RPG recovery of BC2F2 generation was 95.37%, which indicates high-level similarity between the recurrent parent (MR219 and the resulting lines. Thirty newly developed lines of BC2F3 population, resulting backcross of MR219 and Swarna-Sub1, were planted with four replications following randomised complete block design (RCBD. Newly developed lines were grouped into four clusters based on traits with UPGMA dendrogram and cluster analysis to select the 10 best plants. This study will help the future researchers to select the best plants of a breeding programme after introgression of a gene considering phenotype performances to develop new varieties.

  10. Molecular signature of high yield (growth influenza a virus reassortants prepared as candidate vaccine seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojkumar Ramanunninair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human influenza virus isolates generally grow poorly in embryonated chicken eggs. Hence, gene reassortment of influenza A wild type (wt viruses is performed with a highly egg adapted donor virus, A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8, to provide the high yield reassortant (HYR viral 'seeds' for vaccine production. HYR must contain the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of wt virus and one to six 'internal' genes from PR8. Most studies of influenza wt and HYRs have focused on the HA gene. The main objective of this study is the identification of the molecular signature in all eight gene segments of influenza A HYR candidate vaccine seeds associated with high growth in ovo. METHODOLOGY: The genomes of 14 wt parental viruses, 23 HYRs (5 H1N1; 2, 1976 H1N1-SOIV; 2, 2009 H1N1pdm; 2 H2N2 and 12 H3N2 and PR8 were sequenced using the high-throughput sequencing pipeline with big dye terminator chemistry. RESULTS: Silent and coding mutations were found in all internal genes derived from PR8 with the exception of the M gene. The M gene derived from PR8 was invariant in all 23 HYRs underlining the critical role of PR8 M in high yield phenotype. None of the wt virus derived internal genes had any silent change(s except the PB1 gene in X-157. The highest number of recurrent silent and coding mutations was found in NS. With respect to the surface antigens, the majority of HYRs had coding mutations in HA; only 2 HYRs had coding mutations in NA. SIGNIFICANCE: In the era of application of reverse genetics to alter influenza A virus genomes, the mutations identified in the HYR gene segments associated with high growth in ovo may be of great practical benefit to modify PR8 and/or wt virus gene sequences for improved growth of vaccine 'seed' viruses.

  11. Incidental tenosynovial huge cell tumors of the flexor hallucis longus muscle: seldom differential diagnosis of metabolic lesions using F18-FDG PET/CT; Inzidenteller tenosynovialer Riesenzelltumor des Musculus flexor hallucis longus. Seltene Differenzialdiagnose stoffwechselaktiver Laesionen in der F-18-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koestner, W.; Daemmrich, M.; Derlin, T.

    2016-03-15

    Tenosynovial huge cell tumors are seldom benign tumors in extremities originating from bone joint synovia and tendon sheats. In F18-FDG PET/CT imaging the tenosynovial huge cell tumors show increased metabolic activity and can trigger false diagnoses.

  12. CLONING, EXPRESSION, PURIFICATION AND IMMUNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DER F18 FROM DUST HOUSE MITE DERMATOPHA GOIDES FARINAE%粉尘螨Der f18变应原的克隆表达、纯化及免疫学特性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永烽; 刘志刚; 高波

    2008-01-01

    通过对纯培养的粉尘螨提取总RNA,采用RT-PCR方法有效地扩增出Der f18片段,将Der f18连接到pET-24a表达载体上并转化到表达菌BL21(DE3)中,得到重组质粒pET-Der f18和重组工程菌.重组工程菌经IPTG诱导培养,高效表达出Der f18蛋白,SDS-PAGE结果显示表达产物约为52 kDa.表达产物经亲和层析纯化,用Western blot方法检测免疫学活性,结果表明目的蛋白具有良好的免疫原性.

  13. Novel fully-BODIPY functionalized cyclotetraphosphazene photosensitizers having high singlet oxygen quantum yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenkuytu, Elif; Eçik, Esra Tanrıverdi

    2017-07-01

    Novel fully-BODIPY functionalized dendrimeric cyclotetraphosphazenes (FBCP 1 and 2) have been synthesized and characterized by 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopies. The photophysical and photochemical properties of FBCP 1 and 2 are investigated in dichloromethane solution. The effectiveness of singlet oxygen generation was measured for FBCP 1 and 2 by UV-Vis spectra monitoring of the solution of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF), which is a well-known trapping molecule used in detection of singlet oxygen. FBCP 1 and 2 show high molar extinction coefficients in the NIR region, good singlet oxygen quantum yields and appropriate photo degradation. The data presented in the work indicate that the dendrimeric cyclotetraphosphazenes are effective singlet oxygen photosensitizers that might be used for various areas of applications such as photodynamic therapy and photocatalysis.

  14. Improvement of production of high-yield poplar varieties seedlings by mycorrhiza application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galić Zoran A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research related to the effects of treatment by mycorrhiza preparations Ectovit, Rhodovit (preparations Symbio-m Ltd., Czech Rep. and their combination on growth of four high-yield poplar clones of Populus deltoides and one variety of Populus x euramericana are presented in this paper. In order to make more accurate assessment of mycorrhiza effect, soil characteristics such as morphology, texture and chemical composition were determined. The study results indicate that mycorrhized cuttings had the same or the better survival in all the study clones compared to the control. The application of the preparation Ectovit and Rhodovit resulted averagely in the first class planting stock of all the study clones. The combination of the preparations Ectovit and Rhodovit produced averagely the first class planting stock only of the clone Populus x euramericana.

  15. High-yield production of manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and versatile peroxidase in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Guzmán-Ortiz, Doralinda A; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2014-11-01

    The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium secretes extracellular oxidative enzymes during secondary metabolism, but lacks versatile peroxidase, an enzyme important in ligninolysis and diverse biotechnology processes. In this study, we report the genetic modification of a P. chrysosporium strain capable of co-expressing two endogenous genes constitutively, manganese peroxidase (mnp1) and lignin peroxidase (lipH8), and the codon-optimized vpl2 gene from Pleurotus eryngii. For this purpose, we employed a highly efficient transformation method based on the use of shock waves developed by our group. The expression of recombinant genes was verified by PCR, Southern blot, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and assays of enzymatic activity. The production yield of ligninolytic enzymes was up to four times higher in comparison to previously published reports. These results may represent significant progress toward the stable production of ligninolytic enzymes and the development of an effective fungal strain with promising biotechnological applications.

  16. High-yield synthesis of silicon carbide nanowires by solar and lamp ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-bo; Chan, Benjamin C. Y.; Wang, Xiaolin; Tong Chua, Hui; Raston, Colin L.; Albu-Yaron, Ana; Levy, Moshe; Popowitz-Biro, Ronit; Tenne, Reshef; Feuermann, Daniel; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

    2013-08-01

    We report a reasonably high yield (∼50%) synthesis of silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires from silicon oxides and carbon in vacuum, by novel solar and lamp photothermal ablation methods that obviate the need for catalysis, and allow relatively short reaction times (∼10 min) in a nominally one-step process that does not involve toxic reagents. The one-dimensional core/shell β-SiC/SiOx nanostructures—characterized by SEM, TEM, HRTEM, SAED, XRD and EDS—are typically several microns long, with core and outer diameters of about 10 and 30 nm, respectively. HRTEM revealed additional distinctive nanoscale structures that also shed light on the formation pathways.

  17. Modeling Integrated High-Yield IFE Target Explosions in Xenon Filled Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatenejad, Milad; Moses, Gregory

    2010-11-01

    We will present the results of several radiation-hydrodynamics simulations which model the aftermath of an exploding high yield (200 MJ) indirect drive target in a xenon filled reactor chamber. The goal is to determine the radial extent to which debris from the target and hohlraum expands into the target chamber. The 1D radiation-hydrodynamics code BUCKY is used to perform integrated simulations of the target explosion beginning from ignition and includes interactions between the chamber gas and tungsten first wall. The 3D radiation-hydrodynamics code Cooper will be used to model the growth of fluid instabilities as the target material expands into the xenon gas. Cooper will also be used to investigate the early-time interaction between the burning target and hohlraum shortly after ignition.

  18. Maximising high solid loading enzymatic saccharification yield from acid-catalysed hydrothermally-pretreated brewers spent grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Wilkinson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme saccharification of pretreated brewers spent grains (BSG was investigated, aiming at maximising glucose production. Factors investigated were; variation of the solids loadings at different cellulolytic enzyme doses, reaction time, higher energy mixing methods, supplementation of the cellulolytic enzymes with additional enzymes (and cofactors and use of fed-batch methods. Improved slurry agitation through aerated high-torque mixing offered small but significant enhancements in glucose yields (to 53 ± 2.9 g/L and 45% of theoretical yield compared to only 41 ± 4.0 g/L and 39% of theoretical yield for standard shaking methods (at 15% w/v solids loading. Supplementation of the cellulolytic enzymes with additional enzymes (acetyl xylan esterases, ferulic acid esterases and α-L- arabinofuranosidases also boosted achieved glucose yields to 58 – 69 ± 0.8 - 6.2 g/L which equated to 52 - 58% of theoretical yield. Fed-batch methods also enhanced glucose yields (to 58 ± 2.2 g/L and 35% of theoretical yield at 25% w/v solids loading compared to non-fed-batch methods. From these investigations a novel enzymatic saccharification method was developed (using enhanced mixing, a fed-batch approach and additional carbohydrate degrading enzymes which further increased glucose yields to 78 ± 4.1 g/L and 43% of theoretical yield when operating at high solids loading (25% w/v.

  19. A high loading overland flow system: Impacts on soil characteristics, grass constituents, yields and nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C G; Chen, T H; Hsu, F H; Lu, C H; Lin, J B; Chang, C H; Chang, S P; Lee, C S

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are to determine effects of different grass species and their harvests on pollutant removal, elucidate impacts on soil characteristics and grass constituents, observe grass yield and quantify nutrient uptake by vegetation in an overland flow system (OLFS). Polluted creek water was applied to eight channels in the OLFS, which were planted with Paragrass, Nilegrass, Cattail, and Vetiver, with each two channels being randomly planted with a given grass species. The grass in one channel was harvested while that in the other channel was not. At a high rate of 27.8 m d(-1) hydraulic loading, the removal efficiencies of conventional pollutants such as BOD, COD, suspended solids (SS), and total coliforms in wastewater are not affected by the type of the grasses species, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus are affected by different species. Overall average removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, SS, ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total coliforms through the OLFS are 42%, 48%, 78%, 47%, 40%, 33% and 89%, respectively. The concentration of nitrate, however, increases due to nitrification. Soil characteristics in OLFS have been changed significantly; specific conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable magnesium, extractable copper and zinc in soils all increase with time while pHs decrease. During the winter season, there is a significant accumulation of nitrate in grass with the subsequent reduction during the active growing season (Spring). The contents of nitrate and phosphorus in grass tissue are higher than those of grass in general pastureland, probably due to nutrient luxury uptake by grass. The overall grass yield, growth rate and nutrient uptake are quantified and implication of such high rate OLFS discussed.

  20. Prevalencia de antigenos fimbriales f4 y f18 en cerditos lactantes y destetados diarreicos en la provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba (Prevalence of f4 and f18 fimbrial antigens in diarrheal nursing and weaned piglets of the province of Villa Clara.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Cuenca. Julio César

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEl presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de determinar la prevalencia de antígenos fimbriales F4 y F18 en cerditos lactantes y destetados diarreicos de la Provincia de Villa Clara.SUMMARYThe present work was carried out with the objective of determining the prevalence of F4 and F18 fimbrial antigens in diarrheal nursing and weaned piglets of the Province of Villa Clara.

  1. High-yield Synthesis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube by Mechanothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manafi SA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports on the mechanothermal synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs from elemental graphite powder. Initially, high ultra-active graphite powder can be obtained by mechanical milling under argon atmosphere. Finally, the mechanical activation product is heat-treated at 1350°C for 2–4 h under argon gas flow. After heat-treatment, active graphite powders were successfully changed into MWCNTs with high purity. The XRD analyses showed that in the duration 150 h of milling, all the raw materials were changed to the desired materials. From the broadening of the diffraction lines in the XRD patterns, it was concluded that the graphite crystallites were nanosized, and raising the milling duration resulted in the fineness of the particles and the increase of the strain. The structure and morphology of MWCNTs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The yield of MWCNTs was estimated through SEM and TEM observations of the as-prepared samples was to be about 90%. Indeed, mechanothermal method is of interest for fundamental understanding and improvement of commercial synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs. As a matter of fact, the method of mechanothermal guarantees the production of MWCNTs suitable for different applications.

  2. High-yield Synthesis of Nanohybrid Shish-kebab Polyethylene-carbon Nanotube Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Chaojie; QIAN Weizhong; ZHAO Mengqiang; XU Guanghui; NIE Jingqi; JIA Xilai; WEI Fei

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel method to prepare nanohybrid shish-kebab (NHSK) structure of polyethylene (PE) and carbon nanotube (CNT),Pristine CNTs without surface modification with high concentration was effectively dispersed in xylene solution by a simple shearing method,which induces the quick crystallization of PE in xylene to form a novel NHSK structure with more dense and smaller PE kebab on CNT axis.The flocculated NHSK product was transferred quickly from the xylene solution to the ethanol solution,in order to shorten the preparation time.The freeze-drying method was used in vacuum instead of high-temperature drying to avoid the aggregation of NHSK product.These improvements allow the formation of NHSK with an absolute yield of 200 mg·h-1,which is 2000 folds of that reported previously.It is favorable to apply this structured material in high performance nanocomposite,by improving the compatibility of CNTs in polymer and the interracial force between CNTs and polymer.

  3. Cognition and amyloid load in Alzheimer disease imaged with florbetapir F 18(AV-45) positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Paul B; Wong, D F; Edell, S L; Ross, J S; Joshi, A D; Brašić, J R; Zhou, Y; Raymont, V; Kumar, A; Ravert, H T; Dannals, R F; Pontecorvo, M J; Skovronsky, D M; Lyketsos, C G

    2013-03-01

    To examine the association between regional brain uptake of a novel amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) tracer florbetapir F 18 ([(18)F]-AV-45) and cognitive performance in a pilot study. Cross-sectional comparison of [(18)F]-AV-45 in AD patients versus controls. Three specialty memory clinics. Eleven participants with probable Alzheimer disease (AD) by NINDS/ADRDA criteria and 15 healthy comparison (HC) participants. Participants underwent PET imaging following a 370 MBq (10 mCi) intravenous administration of [(18)F]-AV-45. Regional/cerebellar standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were calculated. Cognition was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), Wechsler Logical Memory IA (immediate recall) test (LMIA), and verbal category fluency. Greater [(18)F]-AV-45 SUVR was associated with poorer performance on all cognitive tests. In the HC group, occipital, parietal, precuneus, temporal, and cortical average SUVR was associated with greater ADAS-Cog, and greater anterior cingulate SUVR was associated with lower LMIA. Two HC participants had [(18)F]-AV-45 cortical/cerebellar SUVR greater than 1.5, one of whom had deficits in episodic recall and on follow-up met criteria for amnestic mild cognitive impairment. [(18)F]-AV-45 SUVR in several brain regions was associated with worse global cognitive performance particularly in HC, suggesting its potential as a marker of preclinical AD. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolic engineering of a thermophilic bacterium to produce ethanol at high yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A Joe; Podkaminer, Kara K; Desai, Sunil G; Bardsley, John S; Rogers, Stephen R; Thorne, Philip G; Hogsett, David A; Lynd, Lee R

    2008-09-16

    We report engineering Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum, a thermophilic anaerobic bacterium that ferments xylan and biomass-derived sugars, to produce ethanol at high yield. Knockout of genes involved in organic acid formation (acetate kinase, phosphate acetyltransferase, and L-lactate dehydrogenase) resulted in a strain able to produce ethanol as the only detectable organic product and substantial changes in electron flow relative to the wild type. Ethanol formation in the engineered strain (ALK2) utilizes pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase with electrons transferred from ferredoxin to NAD(P), a pathway different from that in previously described microbes with a homoethanol fermentation. The homoethanologenic phenotype was stable for >150 generations in continuous culture. The growth rate of strain ALK2 was similar to the wild-type strain, with a reduction in cell yield proportional to the decreased ATP availability resulting from acetate kinase inactivation. Glucose and xylose are co-utilized and utilization of mannose and arabinose commences before glucose and xylose are exhausted. Using strain ALK2 in simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation experiments at 50 degrees C allows a 2.5-fold reduction in cellulase loading compared with using Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 37 degrees C. The maximum ethanol titer produced by strain ALK2, 37 g/liter, is the highest reported thus far for a thermophilic anaerobe, although further improvements are desired and likely possible. Our results extend the frontier of metabolic engineering in thermophilic hosts, have the potential to significantly lower the cost of cellulosic ethanol production, and support the feasibility of further cost reductions through engineering a diversity of host organisms.

  5. Does high yield spread dampen economic growth? : the case of US-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kurihara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the relationship between the United States' and Japan's yield spread of interest rates and economic growth in Japan. The yield spread is defined in this article as the difference between the Japanese government bond yield minus the US government bond yield. Some studies have tackled this issue and found a negative relationship between the yield spread and economic growth; however, recent studies have shown no or a weak relationship. This problem has not yet consensus in spite of its importance. As the Japanese interest rate has been quite low since the adoption of the zero interest rate policy at the end of 1990s, the situation may change the results. The empirical results show that reliability of yield spread as a leading indicator of output growth exists in Japan; however, term structure of interest rate is not related to economic growth.

  6. Evaluation of Response to Therapy in a Patient with Lung Cancer: Correlation of Sclerotic Bone Lesions with F 18 FDG PET/CT and Bone Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Özülker

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old male patient with small cell lung cancer underwent Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F 18 FDG positron emission tomography (PET/CT scan which revealed multiple F 18 FDG uptake in the spine, both humeri, ribs, pelvis and proximal long bones. There was no obvious lytic or sclerotic bone destruction accompanying these lesions on CT component of the study. After the patient received six courses of chemotherapy a repeat F 18 FDG-PET/CT was performed for evaluation of therapy response. The PET/CT showed the presence of multiple sclerotic lesions on CT without FDG uptake, corresponding to the bone lesions on the previous PET/CT scan. A concomitant Tc 99m Methylene diphosphonate (Tc 99m MDP bone scintigraphy (BS revealed no pathologically increased Tc 99m MDP uptake in the skeletal system. The FDG avid lesions in the skeletal system, which were not sclerotic initially, were transformed into FDG non-avid sclerotic lesions after chemotherapy. This was attributed to the direct effect of previous successful therapy for bone metastases, leading to the transformation of metabolically active disease, into blastic metabolically inactive metastases. In conclusion, a F 18 FDG negative bone lesion, which is sclerotic on CT, may represent post-treatment osteoblastic change rather than active tumor and BS might play a role in the discrimination of these two situations. (MIRT 2011; 20: 29-33

  7. Synthesis of [F-18]RGD-K5 by catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition for imaging integrin alpha(v)beta(3) expression in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirfeizi, Leila; Walsh, Joe; Kolb, Hartmuth; Campbell-Verduyn, Lachlan; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Feringa, Ben L.; Elsinga, Philip H.; de Groot, Tjibbe; Sannen, Ivan; Bormans, Guy; Celen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years click chemistry reactions, and in particular copper-catalyzed cycloadditions have been used extensively for the preparation of new bioconjugated molecules such as F-18-radiolabeled radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET). This study is focused on the synthes

  8. Effect of increased serotonin levels on [F-18] MPPF binding in rat brain : Fenfluramine vs the combination of citalopram and ketanserin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haes, JIU; Cremers, TIFH; Bosker, FJ; Postema, F; Timersma-Wegman, TD; den Boer, JA

    2005-01-01

    [F-18]MPPF is a selective serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor antagonist and may be used to measure changes in the functional levels of serotonin (5-HT). The technique is based on the assumption that the injected radiolabeled ligand competes for the same receptor as the endogenous transmitter. Results fr

  9. Tumor imaging with 2 sigma-receptor ligands, F-18-FE-SA5845 and C-11-SA4503 : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, A; Buursma, AR; Hospers, GAP; Kawamura, K; Kobayashi, T; Ishii, K; Oda, K; Ishiwata, K; Vaalburg, W; Elsinga, PH

    2004-01-01

    Our objective was to study 2 radioligands for visualization of sigma-receptors with PET. Methods: Two radioligands--sigma(1)-selective C-11-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (C-11-SA4503) and nonsubtype-selective 1-(4-2'-F-18-fluoroethoxy-3-methoxyphenethyl)-4-(3-(4-fluoropheny

  10. PET STUDIES WITH L-[1-C-11]TYROSINE, L-[METHYL-C-11]METHIONINE AND F-18 FLUORODEOXYGLUCOSE IN PROLACTINOMAS IN RELATION TO BROMOCRYPTINE TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAEMEN, BJG; ZWERTBROEK, R; ELSINGA, PH; PAANS, AMJ; DOORENBOS, H; VAALBURG, W

    1991-01-01

    Aspects of metabolism in prolactinomas were investigated by positron emission tomography using L-[1-C-11]tyrosine, L-[methyl-C-11]methionine and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG). Using L-[1-C-11]tyrosine, four patients were monitored prior to and 18 h after an injection of 50 mg bromocryptine. At 18

  11. Detection and grading of soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities with F-18-3 '-fluoro-3 '-deoxy-L-thymidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, DCP; Elsinga, PH; Suurmeijer, AJH; Vaalburg, W; Maas, B; Jager, PL; Hoekstra, HJ

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of F-18-3'-fluoro-3'-deoxy-L-thymidine positron emission tomography (FLT-PET) for the detection and grading of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Experimental Design: Nineteen patients with 20 STSs of the extremities were scanned, using attenu

  12. Residual F-18-FDG-PET Uptake 12 Weeks After Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Predicts Local Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollineni, Vikram Rao; Widder, Joachim; Pruim, Jan; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wiegman, Erwin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake at 12 weeks after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: From November 2006 to February 2010, 132 medically

  13. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity.

  14. Predicting Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Esophageal Cancer with Textural Features Derived from Pretreatment F-18-FDG PET/CT Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukinga, Roelof J.; Hulshoff, Jan B.; van Dijk, Lisanne V.; Muijs, Christina T.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Kats-Ugurlu, Gursah; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Mul, Veronique E. M.; Plukker, John Th. M.

    Adequate prediction of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in esophageal cancer (EC) patients is important in a more personalized treatment. The current best clinical method to predict pathologic complete response is SUVmax in F-18-FDG PET/ CT imaging. To improve the prediction of

  15. Microcontroladores PIC F18: estudio y aplicación a la gestión de un aparcamiento de turismos

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo Garrido, David

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo de fin de grado se lleva a cabo un estudio de la familia de microcontroladores PIC F18 de Microchip. Departamento de Tecnología Electrónica Grado en Ingeniería en Electrónica Industrial y Automática

  16. Multiple skeletal muscle metastases in a case of transitional cell carcinoma of bladder detected by F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Raghava; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Chakraborty, Dhritiman; Bhattacharya, Anish; Singh, Baljinder [Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-12-15

    We present a case of poorly differentiated muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma in a 64-year-old male diagnosed with FDG-avid mass in the urinary bladder wall and multiple skeletal muscles visualised on F-18 FDG PET/CT

  17. Breeding of a high yielding chamomile variety (Matricaria recutita L. with improved traits for machine harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A more productive variety of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., which is more efficient in machine processing with consistent quality traits, will benefit the viability of german products in the global market. Breeding of an enhanced chamomile variety is part of a german multi-network project called KAMEL whose research aims on Matricaria recutita L., Valeriana officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L. The agronomic and qualitative improvement of these speciality crops are the basis for further economic prosperity of medicinal and aromatic plant cultivation in Germany. The main breeding goals of a new variety of chamomile are the increase of blossom product yield (Matricariae flos to 6 dt/ha in up to three harvest stages through a homogenous flower horizon (pick height, an even flowering time, large flower heads and a high regeneration rate after each harvest stage. The upgrade of the content of essential oil content to a minimum of 0.8 % with its compostion according to Ph. Eur. and a chamazulene content of min. 25 % are further objectives of the breeding process. In addition to these quality traits, high tolerances against common fungal diseases are of particular interest. Development of an innovative chamomile variety is realized over nine years in three stages (2010 - 2019.

  18. Propagation method for persistent high yield of diverse Listeria phages on permissive hosts at refrigeration temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Devon R; Ahmadi, Hanie; Leon-Velarde, Carlos G; Balamurugan, Sampathkumar

    2016-10-01

    The efficient production of a high concentration of bacteriophage in large volumes has been a limiting factor in the exploration of the true potential of these organisms for biotechnology, agriculture and medicine. Traditional methods focus on generating small volumes of highly concentrated samples as the end product of extensive mechanical and osmotic processing. To function at an industrial scale mandates extensive investment in infrastructure and input materials not feasible for many smaller facilities. To address this, we developed a novel, scalable, generic method for producing significantly higher titer psychrophilic phage (P Listeria, Yersinia and their phages grow in equilibrium. Diverse Yersinia and Listeria phages tested yielded averages of 3.49 × 10(8) to 3.36 × 10(12) PFU/ml/day compared to averages of 1.28 × 10(5) to 1.30 × 10(10) PFU/ml/day by traditional methods. Host growth and death kinetics made this method ineffective for extended propagation of mesophilic phages.

  19. Fast co-pyrolysis of waste newspaper with high-density polyethylene for high yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weimin; Shi, Shukai; Chen, Minzhi; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2017-09-01

    Waste newspaper (WP) was first co-pyrolyzed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to enhance the yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons. The effects of WP: HDPE feed ratio (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100) and temperature (500-800°C) on products distribution were investigated and the interaction mechanism during co-pyrolysis was also proposed. Maximum yields of alcohols and hydrocarbons reached 85.88% (feed ratio 50:50wt.%, 600°C). Hydrogen supplements and deoxidation by HDPE and subsequently fragments recombination result in the conversion of aldehydes and ketones into branched hydrocarbons. Radicals from WP degradation favor the secondary crack for HDPE products resulting in the formation of linear hydrocarbons with low carbon number. Hydrocarbons with activated radical site from HDPE degradation were interacted with hydroxyl from WP degradation promoting the formation of linear long chain alcohols. Moreover, co-pyrolysis significantly enhanced condensable oil qualities, which were close to commercial diesel No. 0. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Facile Growth of High-Yield Gold Nanobipyramids Induced by Chloroplatinic Acid for High Refractive Index Sensing Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Caihong; Zhao, Guili; Xiao, Yanling; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Zijun; Geng, Baoyou

    2016-11-01

    Au nanobipyramids (NBPs) have attracted great attention because of their unique localized surface plasmon resonance properties. However, the current growth methods always have low yield or suffer tedious process. Developing new ways to direct synthesis of high-yield Au NBPs using common agents is therefore desirable. Here, we employed chloroplatinic acid as the key shape-directing agent for the first time to grow Au NBPs using a modified seed-mediated method at room temperature. H2PtCl6 was added both during the seed preparation and in growth solution. Metallic Pt, reduced from chloroplatinic acid, will deposit on the surface of the seed nanoparticles and the Au nanocrystals and thus plays a critical role for the formation of Au NBPs. Additionally, the reductant, precursor, and surfactant are all cheap and commonly used. Furthermore, the Au NBPs offer narrow size distribution, two sharp tips, and a shared basis. Au NBPs therefore show much higher refractive index sensitivities than that of the Au nanorods. The refractive index sensitivities and lager figure of merit values of Au NBPs exhibit an increase of 63% and 321% respectively compared to the corresponding values of Au nanorod sample.

  1. Diagnostic Performance of F-18 FDG PET/CT in Patients with Cancer of Unknown Primary: Additional Benefit over CT-Based Conventional Work up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the era of well-developed site-specific treatment strategies in cancer, identification of occult primary is of paramount importance in CUP patients. Furthermore, exact determination of the extent of the disease may help in optimizing treatment planning. The aim of the present study was to investigate additional value of F-18 FDG PET/CT in patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP as an appropriate imaging tool in early phase of initial standard work up.Materials and Methods: Sixty-two newly diagnosed CUP patients with inconclusive diagnostic CT scan of chest, abdomen and pelvis referring for F-18 FDG PET/CT were enrolled in this study. Standard of reference was defined as histopathology, other diagnostic procedures and a 3-month formal clinical follow up. The results of PET/CT were categorized as suggestion for primary site and additional metastasis and classified as true positive, false positive, false negative and true negative. The impact of additional metastasis revealed by F-18 FDG PET/CT on treatment planning and the time contribution of F-18 FDG PET/CT in diagnostic pathway was investigated.Results: Sixty-two patients with mean age of 62 (30 men, 32 women, PET/CT correctly identified primary origin in 32% with false positive rate of 14.8%. No primary lesion was detected after negative PET/CT according to standard of reference. Sensitivity, Specificity and accuracy were 100%, 78% and 85%, respectively. Additional metastatic site was found in 56% with 22% impact on treatment planning. Time contribution for PET/CT was 10% of total diagnostic pathway.Conclusion: Providing higher detection rate of primary origin with excellent diagnostic performance, shortening the diagnostic pathway and improving treatment planning, F-18 FDG PET/CT may play a major role in diagnostic work up of CUP patients and may be recommended as an alternative imaging tool in early phase of investigation.

  2. Induction of embryogenic callus and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high yielding mature oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeedum, I.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus induction and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high-yielding mature oil palm were carried out using 10-year and 20-year-old trees from Thepa Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources,Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, and Trang Agricultural College, respectively. Culture media used in this experiment were Murashige and Skoog (1962 and Oil Palm supplemented with various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA or 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D or dicamba (Di and antioxidants.Young leaves from 6th to 11st frond were excised, sterilized, cut into 5x5 mm pieces and cultured in the dark at 26±4ºC or 28±0.5ºC for 3 months. The results revealed that MS medium with 200 mg/l ascorbic acid (As and 1 mg/l Di (MS-AsDi gave the highest callus induction percentage (7.93 after culture for 3 months at 28±0.5ºC. Leaf segments from 6th - 8th frond yielded callus forming percentage at 10% (averaged from 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/l Di containing MS medium. Ascorbic acid as an antioxidant at concentration of 200 mg/l supplemented in MS medium in the presence of 2.5 mg/l Di produced the highest callus induction percentage (11.2 and number of nodules (7.06. A high percentage of embryogenic callus formation (66.67 was obtained when the calli were transferred to the same medium component supplemented with 0.5 mg/l Di and 1,000 mg/l casein hydrolysate (CH (MS-AsDiCH. Haustorial-staged embryos were observed to be isolated as an individual embryo and germinated on MS medium without plant growth regulator (MS-free. Development of root could be classified into two distinct types, fibrous and tap root.

  3. Association between udder morphology and in vitro activity of milk leukocytes in high yielding crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Sharma (Buragohain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation was conducted to study the association between udder morphology and in vitro activity of milk leukocytes in high yielding crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 healthy high yielding crossbred cows were selected for the study. The udder configuration and teat/udder morphology were recorded before milking. Milk samples (100 ml/cow were collected aseptically. Milk somatic cell counts (SCC and milk differential leukocyte counts were performed microscopically. Milk leukocytes (viz., neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages were isolated from milk samples by density gradient centrifugation. Phagocytic index (PI of milk neutrophils and macrophages were evaluated by colorimetric nitro blue tetrazolium assay. Lymphocytes proliferation response was estimated by MTT assay and expressed as stimulation index. Results: There was a significant (p<0.01 positive correlation between milk SCC with mid teat diameter, teat base diameter and significant (p<0.05 negative correlation between milk SCC and the height of the teat from the ground. Milk SCC was found to be significantly (p<0.01 lower in bowl-shaped udder and higher (p<0.01 in pendulous type. Milk macrophage percentage was positively (p<0.01 correlated with udder circumference. PI of milk neutrophil was negatively (p<0.01 correlation between teat base diameter, and PI of milk macrophages was found to be positively (p<0.01 correlated with teat apex diameter. Both PI of milk neutrophils and macrophages was found to be significantly (p<0.01 lower in the animals having flat and round teat and pendulous type of udder. In vitro PI of milk neutrophils was found to be significantly (p<0.01 lower in flat teat. In vitro PI of milk macrophages was found to be significantly (p<0.01 lower in the round and flat teats compared to pointed and cylindrical teats. Conclusion: Udder risk factors such as teat shape and size, teat to floor distance, udder shape, and size may decrease

  4. High-yielding aquifers in crystalline basement: insights about the role of fault zones, exemplified by Armorican Massif, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Clément; Bour, Olivier; Aquilina, Luc; Dewandel, Benoît

    2016-12-01

    While groundwater constitutes a crucial resource in many crystalline-rock regions worldwide, well-yield conditions are highly variable and barely understood. Nevertheless, it is well known that fault zones may have the capacity to ensure sustainable yield in crystalline media, but there are only a few and disparate examples in the literature that describe high-yield conditions related to fault zones in crystalline rock basements. By investigating structural and hydraulic properties of remarkable yielding sites identified in the Armorican Massif, western France, this study discusses the main factors that may explain such exceptional hydrogeological properties. Twenty-three sites, identified through analysis of databases available for the region, are investigated. Results show that: (1) the highly transmissive fractures are related to fault zones which ensure the main water inflow in the pumped wells; (2) the probability of intersecting such transmissive fault zones does not vary significantly with depth, at least within the range investigated in this study (0-200 m); and (3) high yield is mainly controlled by the structural features of the fault zones, in particular the fault dip and the presence of a connected storage reservoir. Conceptual models that summarize the hydrological properties of high-yield groundwater resources related to fault zones in crystalline basement are shown and discussed.

  5. High-yield synthesis of few-layer graphene flakes through electrochemical expansion of graphite in propylene carbonate electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junzhong; Manga, Kiran Kumar; Bao, Qiaoliang; Loh, Kian Ping

    2011-06-15

    High-yield production of few-layer graphene flakes from graphite is important for the scalable synthesis and industrial application of graphene. However, high-yield exfoliation of graphite to form graphene sheets without using any oxidation process or super-strong acid is challenging. Here we demonstrate a solution route inspired by the lithium rechargeable battery for the high-yield (>70%) exfoliation of graphite into highly conductive few-layer graphene flakes (average thickness electrolyte of Li salts and organic solvents under high current density and exfoliated efficiently into few-layer graphene sheets with the aid of sonication. The dispersible graphene can be ink-brushed to form highly conformal coatings of conductive films (15 ohm/square at a graphene loading of <1 mg/cm(2)) on commercial paper.

  6. High-throughput and high-yield fabrication of uniaxially-aligned chitosan-based nanofibers by centrifugal electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Ariane E; Edmondson, Dennis; Chang, Fei-Chien; Wood, Dave; Gong, Alex; Levengood, Sheeny Lan; Zhang, Miqin

    2015-12-10

    The inability to produce large quantities of nanofibers has been a primary obstacle in advancement and commercialization of electrospinning technologies, especially when aligned nanofibers are desired. Here, we present a high-throughput centrifugal electrospinning (HTP-CES) system capable of producing a large number of highly-aligned nanofiber samples with high-yield and tunable diameters. The versatility of the design was revealed when bead-less nanofibers were produced from copolymer chitosan/polycaprolactone (C-PCL) solutions despite variations in polymer blend composition or spinneret needle gauge. Compared to conventional electrospinning techniques, fibers spun with the HTP-CES not only exhibited superior alignment, but also better diameter uniformity. Nanofiber alignment was quantified using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis. In addition, a concave correlation between the needle diameter and resultant fiber diameter was identified. This system can be easily scaled up for industrial production of highly-aligned nanofibers with tunable diameters that can potentially meet the requirements for various engineering and biomedical applications.

  7. High-pressure homogenization of raw and pasteurized milk modifies the yield, composition, and texture of queso fresco cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, D; Clark, S; Ganesan, V; Repiso, L; Waller, J; Harte, F

    2011-03-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) of milk was studied as an alternative processing operation in the manufacturing of queso fresco cheese. Raw and pasteurized (65°C for 30 min) milks were subjected to HPH at 0, 100, 200, and 300 MPa and then used to manufacture queso fresco. The cheeses were evaluated for yield, moisture content, titratable acidity, nitrogen content, whey protein content, yield force, yield strain, and tactile texture by instrumental or trained panel analyses. The combination of HPH and thermal processing of milk resulted in cheeses with increased yield and moisture content. The net amount of protein transferred to the cheese per kilogram of milk remained constant for all treatments except raw milk processed at 300 MPa. The highest cheese yield, moisture content, and crumbliness were obtained for thermally processed milk subjected to HPH at 300 MPa. The principal component analysis of all measured variables showed that the variables yield, moisture content, and crumbliness were strongly correlated to each other and negatively correlated to the variables yield strain, protein content (wet basis), and sensory cohesiveness. It is suggested that the combination of thermal processing and HPH promotes thermally induced denaturation of whey protein, together with homogenization-induced dissociation of casein micelles. The combined effect results in queso fresco containing a thin casein-whey matrix that is able to better retain sweet whey. These results indicate that HPH has a strong potential for the manufacture of queso fresco with excellent yield and textural properties.

  8. Single PA mutation as a high yield determinant of avian influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ilseob; Il Kim, Jin; Park, Sehee; Bae, Joon-Yong; Yoo, Kirim; Yun, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Joo-Yeon; Kim, Kisoon; Kang, Chun; Park, Man-Seong

    2017-01-01

    Human infection with an avian influenza virus persists. To prepare for a potential outbreak of avian influenza, we constructed a candidate vaccine virus (CVV) containing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of a H5N1 virus and evaluated its antigenic stability after serial passaging in embryonated chicken eggs. The passaged CVV harbored the four amino acid mutations (R136K in PB2; E31K in PA; A172T in HA; and R80Q in M2) without changing its antigenicity, compared with the parental CVV. Notably, the passaged CVV exhibited much greater replication property both in eggs and in Madin-Darby canine kidney and Vero cells. Of the four mutations, the PA E31K showed the greatest effect on the replication property of reverse genetically-rescued viruses. In a further luciferase reporter, mini-replicon assay, the PA mutation appeared to affect the replication property by increasing viral polymerase activity. When applied to different avian influenza CVVs (H7N9 and H9N2 subtypes), the PA E31K mutation resulted in the increases of viral replication in the Vero cell again. Taken all together, our results suggest the PA E31K mutation as a single, substantial growth determinant of avian influenza CVVs and for the establishment of a high-yield avian influenza vaccine backbone. PMID:28084423

  9. Identified particle yield associated with a high-$p_T$ trigger particle at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Veldhoen, Misha; van Leeuwen, Marco

    Identified particle production ratios are important observables, used to constrain models of particle production in heavy-ion collisions. Measurements of the inclusive particle ratio in central heavy-ion collisions showed an increase of the baryon-to-meson ratio compared to proton-proton collisions at intermediate pT, the so-called baryon anomaly. One possible explanation of the baryon anomaly is that partons from the thermalized deconfined QCD matter hadronize in a different way compared to hadrons produced in a vacuum jet. In this work we extend on previous measurements by measuring particle ratios in the yield associated with a high-pT trigger particle. These measurements can potentially further constrain the models of particle production since they are sensitive to the difference between particles from a jet and particles that are produced in the bulk. We start by developing a particle identification method that uses both the specific energy loss of a particle and the time of flight. From there, we presen...

  10. A novel high yield method for dry functionalization of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S G

    2011-04-01

    A novel and high yield (> 80%) dry method to functionalize (dry functionalization) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using hydrothermal method, is reported here. The hydrothermal solution was prepared with HNO3, H2SO4 and H2O2 (1:3:2 vol. ratios) and reaction was carried out from 120 to 200 degrees C for 24 h. CNTs (multi wall) were kept in a way to avoid the direct contact with the solution. Treatment above 180 degrees C resulted in better functionalization of nanotubes as observed from Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. Field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) images showed that after functionalization, the nanotubes are seen with open ends, granular surface, twisted and are joined together. These clearly indicate the destruction of the graphite structure on the surface. This indicates that after treatment, CNTs reactivity has increased at the ends as well as at the side walls. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic (XPS) studies show a shift in the C 1s peak position, increase in O 1s peak intensity and appearance of an N 1s peak.

  11. High quantum yield graphene quantum dots decorated TiO2 nanotubes for enhancing photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ailan; Xie, Haolong; Xu, Xinmei; Zhang, Yangyu; Wen, Shengwu; Cui, Yifan

    2016-07-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with high quantum yield (about 23.6% at an excitation wavelength of 320 nm) and GQDs/TiO2 nanotubes (GQDs/TiO2 NTs) composites were achieved by a simple hydrothermal method at low temperature. Photoluminescence characterization showed that the GQDs exhibited the down-conversion PL features at excitation from 300 to 420 nm and up-conversion photoluminescence in the range of 600-800 nm. The photocatalytic activity of prepared GQDs/TiO2 NTs composites on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) was significantly enhanced compared with that of pure TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 NTs). For the composites coupling with 1.5%, 2.5% and 3.5% GQDs, the degradation of MO after 20 min irradiation under UV-vis light irradiation (λ = 380-780 nm) were 80.52%, 94.64% and 51.91%, respectively, which are much higher than that of pure TiO2 NTs (35.41%). It was inferred from the results of characterization that the improved photocatalytic activity of the GQDs/TiO2 NTs composites was attributed to the synergetic effect of up-conversion properties of the GQDs, enhanced visible light absorption and efficient separation of photogenerated electron-holes of the GQDs/TiO2 composite.

  12. High Quantum Yield Blue Emission from Lead-Free Inorganic Antimony Halide Perovskite Colloidal Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Yang, Ying; Deng, Hui; Farooq, Umar; Yang, Xiaokun; Khan, Jahangeer; Tang, Jiang; Song, Haisheng

    2017-09-26

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) of lead halide perovskite have recently received great attention owing to their remarkable performances in optoelectronic applications. However, their wide applications are hindered from toxic lead element, which is not environment- and consumer-friendly. Herein, we utilized heterovalent substitution of divalent lead (Pb(2+)) with trivalent antimony (Sb(3+)) to synthesize stable and brightly luminescent Cs3Sb2Br9 QDs. The lead-free, full-inorganic QDs were fabricated by a modified ligand-assisted reprecipitation strategy. A photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) was determined to be 46% at 410 nm, which was superior to that of other reported halide perovskite QDs. The PL enhancement mechanism was unraveled by surface composition derived quantum-well band structure and their large exciton binding energy. The Br-rich surface and the observed 530 meV exciton binding energy were proposed to guarantee the efficient radiative recombination. In addition, we can also tune the inorganic perovskite QD (Cs3Sb2X9) emission wavelength from 370 to 560 nm via anion exchange reactions. The developed full-inorganic lead-free Sb-perovskite QDs with high PLQY and stable emission promise great potential for efficient emission candidates.

  13. High yield production of myristoylated Arf6 small GTPase by recombinant N-myristoyl transferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Dominique; Zeghouf, Mahel; Traverso, José A.; Giglione, Carmela; Cherfils, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Small GTP-binding proteins of the Arf family (Arf GTPases) interact with multiple cellular partners and with membranes to regulate intracellular traffic and organelle structure. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms requires in vitro biochemical assays to test for regulations and functions. Such assays should use proteins in their cellular form, which carry a myristoyl lipid attached in N-terminus. N-myristoylation of recombinant Arf GTPases can be achieved by co-expression in E. coli with a eukaryotic N-myristoyl transferase. However, purifying myristoylated Arf GTPases is difficult and has a poor overall yield. Here we show that human Arf6 can be N-myristoylated in vitro by recombinant N-myristoyl transferases from different eukaryotic species. The catalytic efficiency depended strongly on the guanine nucleotide state and was highest for Arf6-GTP. Large-scale production of highly pure N-myristoylated Arf6 could be achieved, which was fully functional for liposome-binding and EFA6-stimulated nucleotide exchange assays. This establishes in vitro myristoylation as a novel and simple method that could be used to produce other myristoylated Arf and Arf-like GTPases for biochemical assays. PMID:23319116

  14. EXTREME METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND METABOLIC PROFILE IN HIGH YIELDING HOLSTEINFRIESIAN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. GERGÁCZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of two years (2002 and 2003 with different summer temperature extremes on variation in metabolic profile was analyzed in blood and urine samples taken from healthy, primiparous (n = 371 and multiparous (n = 795 high yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. In this study main focus was lead on three most critical physiological phases, thus cows were assigned into three groups as follows: (1 dry cows for 10 days prior to calving; (2 cows 1-30 days after delivery, and (3 cows with more than 31 days post partum. Findings reveal clear response of the cows to heat in selected blood (hemoglobin, plasma aceto-acetic-acid, FFA, AST, glucose, urea and urine (pH, NABE and urea parameters. In the majority of cows, glucose and hemoglobin level, one of the most significant blood parameters, indicated symptoms of insufficient energy supply. Further metabolic indicators differed more or less from reference values depending on actual condition. Due to heat load dry matter intake has been decreased even by 10-15 per cent in primiparous cows. They were expected to increase body weight and size and simultaneously produce attain at large milk yields. In doing so that cows would have require large amount of nutrients. Out of parameters such as hemoglobin, glucose, FFA, AST and blood-urea differed from the reference values in most cases; however, this phenomenon seemed to be present in almost every case for hemoglobin and glucose. The lack of energy caused by heat stress can be contributed to the decrease of dry matter intake which has been indicated by the urea levels and pH both in blood and urine prevailing unfavorable and insufficient feeding practice. The results reconfirm the need to reconsider both the actual feeding practice (e.g. to increase of nutrient content in rations, reduce the intake of soluble proteins in rumen, pay attention of crude fiber in Total Mixed Rations (TMR, NDF and ADF, avoid overfeeding of inorganic buffers, to control moisture

  15. Air-insufflated high-definition dacryoendoscopy yields significantly better image quality than conventional dacryoendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tsugihisa; Sounou, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Hideki; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    To facilitate the analysis of lacrimal conditions, we utilized high-definition dacryoendoscopy (HDD) and undertook observations with a pressure-controlled air-insufflation system. We report the safety and performance of HDD. In this retrospective, non-randomized clinical trial, 46 patients (14 males and 32 females; age range 39-91 years; mean age ± SD 70.3±12.0 years) who had lacrimal disorders were examined with HDD and conventional dacryoendoscopy (CD). The high-definition dacryoendoscope had 15,000 picture element image fibers and an advanced objective lens. Its outer diameter was 0.9-1.2 mm. Air insufflation was controlled at 0-20 kPa with a digital manometer-based pressure-controlled air-insufflation system to evaluate the quality of the image. The HDD had an air/saline irrigation channel between the outer sheath (outer diameter =1.2 mm) and the metal inner sheath of the endoscope. We used it and the CD in air, saline, and diluted milk saline with and without manual irrigation to quantitatively evaluate the effect of air pressure and saline irrigation on image quality. In vivo, the most significant improvement in image quality was demonstrated with air-insufflated (5-15 kPa) HDD, as compared with saline-irrigated HDD and saline-irrigated CD. No emphysema or damage was noted under observation with HDD. In vitro, no significant difference was demonstrated between air-insufflated HDD and saline-irrigated HDD. In vitro, the image quality of air-insufflated HDD was significantly improved as compared with that of saline-irrigated CD. Pressure-controlled (5-15 kPa) air-insufflated HDD is safe, and yields significantly better image quality than CD and saline-irrigated HDD.

  16. High-yield synthesis of conductive carbon nanotube tips for multiprobe scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, H; Murata, Y; Wongwiriyapan, W; Kishida, M; Tomita, K; Motoyoshi, K; Honda, S; Katayama, M; Yoshimoto, S; Kubo, K; Hobara, R; Matsuda, I; Hasegawa, S; Yoshimura, M; Lee, J-G; Mori, H

    2007-01-01

    We have established a fabrication process for conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) tips for multiprobe scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high yield. This was achieved, first, by attaching a CNT at the apex of a supporting W tip by a dielectrophoresis method, second, by reinforcing the adhesion between the CNT and the W tip by electron beam deposition of hydrocarbon and subsequent heating, and finally by wholly coating it with a thin metal layer by pulsed laser deposition. More than 90% of the CNT tips survived after long-distance transportation in air, indicating the practical durability of the CNT tips. The shape of the CNT tip did not change even after making contact with another metal tip more than 100 times repeatedly, which evidenced its mechanical robustness. We exploited the CNT tips for the electronic transport measurement by a four-terminal method in a multiprobe STM, in which the PtIr-coated CNT portion of the tip exhibited diffusive transport with a low resistivity of 1.8 kOmega/microm. The contact resistance at the junction between the CNT and the supporting W tip was estimated to be less than 0.7 kOmega. We confirmed that the PtIr thin layer remained at the CNT-W junction portion after excess current passed through, although the PtIr layer was peeled off on the CNT to aggregate into particles, which was likely due to electromigration or a thermally activated diffusion process. These results indicate that the CNT tips fabricated by our recipe possess high reliability and reproducibility sufficient for multiprobe STM measurements.

  17. Unravelling the mechanisms behind mixed catalysts for the high yield production of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetali, Sailaja; Zaka, Mujtaba; Schönfelder, Ronny; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Börrnert, Felix; Ibrahim, Imad; Lin, Jarrn H; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Warner, Jamie H; Büchner, Bernd; Rümmeli, Mark H

    2009-12-22

    The use of mixed catalysts for the high-yield production of single-walled carbon nanotubes is well-known. The mechanisms behind the improved yield are poorly understood. In this study, we systematically explore different catalyst combinations from Ni, Co, and Mo for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes via laser evaporation. Our findings reveal that the mixing of catalysts alters the catalyst cluster size distribution, maximizing the clusters' potential to form a hemispherical cap at nucleation and, hence, form a single-walled carbon nanotube. This process significantly improves the single-walled carbon nanotube yields.

  18. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass

  19. Tailoring Wet Explosion Process Parameters for the Pretreatment of Cocksfoot Grass for High Sugar Yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is crucial for efficient subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. In this study, wet explosion (WEx) pretreatment was applied to cocksfoot grass and pretreatment conditions were tailored for maximizing the sugar yields using response...

  20. Enhancement of Biogas Yield of Poplar Leaf by High-Solid Codigestion with Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangliang, Li; Zhikai, Zhang; Guangwen, Xu

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the improvement of anaerobic biodegradability of organic fractions of poplar leaf from codigestion with swine manure (SM), thus biogas yield and energy recovery. When poplar leaf was used as a sole substrate, the cumulative biogas yield was low, about 163 mL (g volatile solid (VS))(-1) after 45 days of digestion with a substrate/inoculum ratio of 2.5 and a total solid (TS) of 22 %. Under the same condition, the cumulative biogas yield of poplar leaf reached 321 mL (g VS)(-1) when SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5 (based on VS). The SM/poplar leaf ratio can determine C/N ratio of the cosubstrate and thus has significant influence on biogas yield. When the SM/poplar leaf ratio was 2:5, C/N ratio was calculated to be 27.02, and the biogas yield in 45 days of digestion was the highest. The semi-continuous digestion of poplar leaf was carried out with the organic loading rate of 1.25 and 1.88 g VS day(-1). The average daily biogas yield was 230.2 mL (g VS)(-1) and 208.4 mL (g VS)(-1). The composition analysis revealed that cellulose and hemicellulose contributed to the biogas production.

  1. 产志贺毒素样大肠杆菌F18ab菌毛操纵子基因的体外非诱导系统的表达和鉴定%Cloning and expression of F18 fimbrial operon gene cluster from Shiga-like toxigenic E.coli(SLTEC) using non-induced expression system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟; 朱春红; 郁磊; 羊扬; 朱军; 舒燕; 包文斌; 吴圣龙; Dieter M Schifferli; 朱国强

    2012-01-01

    The fed operon gene cluster encoding the F18ab-serotype fimbriae was amplified by Expand Long Template PCR using the genomic DNA template from Shiga-like toxigenic E.coli reference strain 107/86.The predicted PCR products with the restriction enzyme sites at each end were digested and then cloned into the expression vector pBR322,the recombinant plasmid pBR322-fed with the inserts of the whole fed gene clusters were constructed and screened,further confirmed by the means of combination with both restriction endonuclease analysis and sequencing.The fimbriae F18ab were isolated and purified from the recombinant E.coli SE5000(pBR322-fed),and only a single major band of protein with size of approximately 15 000 was visualized in Coomassie blue-stained gels after SDS-PAGE,and this protein band was recognized positively by the polyclonal sera against fimbriae F18ab in Western-blotting assay.The results in agglutination assay showed that the polyclonal sera,purified IgG,and monoclonal antibody(Mab) directed against the major subunit of F18ab fimbriae(FedF),F18ab fimbriae from the reference strain E.coli 107/86 reacted to the recombinant E.coli SE5000 expressing the fimbriae F18ab,respectively.Small intestine epithelial cells from the susceptible piglets with the genotypes of FUT1 gene M307GG were prepared and tested for the adherence to the recombinant E.coli SE5000(pBR322-fed) under the microscopic examination.Adhesion and adhesion inhibition test showed the recombinant E.coli SE5000(pBR322-fed) could adhere to the jejunal epithelial cells in vitro as the reference strain E.coli 107/86 did.The polyclonal anti-sera directed against fimbriae F18ab can efficiently inhibit the fimbriae-mediated susceptible piglet jejunal epithelial cells adherence to the recombinant E.coli SE5000(pBR322-fed) and reference strain E.coli 107/86.%以产志贺毒素样大肠杆菌(SLTEC)F18ab血清型标准菌株107/86基因组DNA为模板,利用PCR技术成功扩增出编码F18ab完整菌

  2. [Characteristics of canopy structure of super high yielding japonica hybrid rice community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinhong; Zhang, Guoping; Guo, Hengde; Mao, Guojuan

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of canopy structure, such as the numbers of seedling, panicle and grain, the distribution of dry matters in different canopy layers and different organs, and the distributions of LAI and of solar radiation in different canopy layers of super high yielding community of japonica hybrid rice were studied, in comparison with normal japonica rice. The results showed that the total the dry matter weight and the dry matter weight of layers below 40 cm, 40-60 cm, 60-80 cm and above 80 cm of japonica hybrid rice canopy were 32.29%, 29.12%, 13.95%, 16.45% and 100.17% higher those that of normal japonica rice, respectively. The ratios of dry leaf (photosynthetic organ) and of dry panicle (sink organ) weight to total dry weight were 24.8% and 12.8%, respectively, which were greater than those of normal japonica rice, while the ratios of dry sheath and stem (storage organs) weight were 33.6% and 28.9%, respectively, which were lower than those of normal japonica rice. The allotment of LAI in different layers of japonica hybrid rice canopy was reasonable, and the LAI of above 40 cm layer at full heading stage reached 5.44. The solar radiation was well-distributed inside japonica hybrid rice canopy, for example, the solar radiation in layers below 60 cm were 13.1%-37.0% higher, but 5.9%-12.2% lower above 60 cm than that of normal japonica rice. The extinction coefficients of solar radiation in layers below 20 cm, 20-40 cm, 40-60 cm and 60-80 cm of japonica hybrid rice canopy were 35.1%, 13.5%, 29.1% and 17.2% lower than that of normal japonica rice, respectively.

  3. Photoyellowing inhibition of bleached high yield pulps using novel water-soluble UV screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, D S; Halevy, P; Peng, P

    2000-02-01

    To address the deficiencies of benzophenone UV screens for preventing brightness reversion in high yield mechanical papers, we synthesized a new series of such materials with enhanced water solubility and compatibility with the lignocellulosic substrate. A series of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenones (DHB) were synthesized containing various Mannich bases at the C3 position of one of its rings. They possess the UV-screening ability of o-hydroxylbenzophenones, and they also contain tertiary nitrogen atoms that may function as radical scavengers. Aqueous solutions of the hydrochloride salt of 3-(dimethylaminomethylene)-2,4-dihydroxylbenzophenone (1), when applied on bleached chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) sheets, were significantly more efficient in preventing photoyellowing than the original DHB applied on the sheets from ethanol-water solutions. This confirmed our original hypothesis that increasing the compatibility of the UV screen with the lignocellulosic matrix would increase its efficiency in preventing photoyellowing. Compound 1, however, was found to be somewhat more effective than its hydrochloride salt toward preventing photoyellowing. This was attributed to the synergistic action of the free tertiary aminic center attached on the molecule with its UV-screening ability. To comprehend further the various parameters that influence the photoyellowing inhibition performance of these compounds and DHB with bleached CTMP pulp fibers, a series of handsheets were prepared at different pH. The interactions of the protonated compound 1 with pulp fibers were then evaluated by studying their kinetics of absorption and desorption to and from the fiber matrix. This part of our study found that the adsorption of protonated Mannich derivatives of DHB onto pulp is most likely governed by a cation-exchange mechanism involving the cationic amine group with the sulfonic and carboxylic acid groups located on the surface of the fibers. The pH the paper sheet was made from was also

  4. A high-yield double-purification proteomics strategy for the identification of SUMO sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Ivo A; Vertegaal, Alfred C O

    2016-09-01

    The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a protein modifier that is post-translationally coupled to thousands of lysines in more than a thousand proteins. An understanding of which lysines are modified by SUMO is critical in unraveling its function as a master regulator of all nuclear processes, as well as its involvement in diseases such as cancer. Here we describe a protocol for the lysine-deficient (K0) method for efficient identification of SUMOylated lysines by mass spectrometry (MS). To our knowledge, the K0 method is the only currently available method that can routinely identify >1,000 SUMO sites in mammalian cells under standard growth conditions. The K0 strategy relies on introducing a His10-tagged SUMO wherein all lysines have been substituted to arginines. Lysine deficiency renders the SUMO immune to digestion by the endoproteinase Lys-C, which in turn allows for stringent and high-yield tandem purification through the His10 tag. In addition, the His10-tagged SUMO also contains a C-terminal Q87R mutation, which accommodates generation of SUMO-site peptides with a QQTGG mass remnant after digestion with trypsin. This remnant possesses a unique mass signature and readily generates diagnostic ions in the fragment ion scans, which increases SUMO-site identification confidence. The K0 method can be applied in any mammalian cell line or in any model system that allows for integration of the K0-SUMO construct. From the moment of cell lysis, the K0 method takes ∼7 d to perform.

  5. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  6. A multi-region assessment of population rates of cardiac catheterization and yield of high-risk coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Fiona M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is variation in cardiac catheterization utilization across jurisdictions. Previous work from Alberta, Canada, showed no evidence of a plateau in the yield of high-risk disease at cardiac catheterization rates as high as 600 per 100,000 population suggesting that the optimal rate is higher. This work aims 1 To determine if a previously demonstrated linear relationship between the yield of high-risk coronary disease and cardiac catheterization rates persists with contemporary data and 2 to explore whether the linear relationship exists in other jurisdictions. Methods Detailed clinical information on all patients undergoing cardiac catheterization in 3 Canadian provinces was available through the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcomes Assessment in Coronary Heart (APPROACH disease and partner initiatives in British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Population rates of catheterization and high-risk coronary disease detection for each health region in these three provinces, and age-adjusted rates produced using direct standardization. A mixed effects regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk coronary disease detection. Results In the contemporary Alberta data, we found a linear relationship between the population catheterization rate and the high-risk yield. Although the yield was slightly less in time period 2 (2002-2006 than in time period 1(1995-2001, there was no statistical evidence of a plateau. The linear relationship between catheterization rate and high-risk yield was similarly demonstrated in British Columbia and Nova Scotia and appears to extend, without a plateau in yield, to rates over 800 procedures per 100,000 population. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a consistent finding, over time and across jurisdictions, of linearly increasing detection of high-risk CAD as population rates of cardiac catheterization increase. This internationally-relevant finding

  7. High yield purification of full-length functional hERG K+ channels produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbaek, Karen; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    knowledge this is the first reported high-yield production and purification of full length, tetrameric and functional hERG. This significant breakthrough will be paramount in obtaining hERG crystal structures, and in establishment of new high-throughput hERG drug safety screening assays....

  8. In search of annual legumes to improve forage sorghum yield and nutritive value in the southern high plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock production is significant in the Southern High Plains of the USA and demand is increasing for greater forage dry matter (DM) yield with increased nutritive value. Forage sorghum (FS)[Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is commonly used, although, it is low in crude protein (CP) and high in fiber....

  9. F-18 labelled PSMA-1007: biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and histopathological validation of tumor lesions in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesel, Frederik L; Hadaschik, B; Cardinale, J; Radtke, J; Vinsensia, M; Lehnert, W; Kesch, C; Tolstov, Y; Singer, S; Grabe, N; Duensing, S; Schäfer, M; Neels, O C; Mier, W; Haberkorn, U; Kopka, K; Kratochwil, C

    2017-04-01

    The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeted positron-emitting-tomography (PET) tracer (68)Ga-PSMA-11 shows great promise in the detection of prostate cancer. However, (68)Ga has several shortcomings as a radiolabel including short half-life and non-ideal energies, and this has motivated consideration of (18)F-labelled analogs. (18)F-PSMA-1007 was selected among several (18)F-PSMA-ligand candidate compounds because it demonstrated high labelling yields, outstanding tumor uptake and fast, non-urinary background clearance. Here, we describe the properties of (18)F-PSMA-1007 in human volunteers and patients. Radiation dosimetry of (18)F-PSMA-1007 was determined in three healthy volunteers who underwent whole-body PET-scans and concomitant blood and urine sampling. Following this, ten patients with high-risk prostate cancer underwent (18)F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT (1 h and 3 h p.i.) and normal organ biodistribution and tumor uptakes were examined. Eight patients underwent prostatectomy with extended pelvic lymphadenectomy. Uptake in intra-prostatic lesions and lymph node metastases were correlated with final histopathology, including PSMA immunostaining. With an effective dose of approximately 4.4-5.5 mSv per 200-250 MBq examination, (18)F-PSMA-1007 behaves similar to other PSMA-PET agents as well as to other (18)F-labelled PET-tracers. In comparison to other PSMA-targeting PET-tracers, (18)F-PSMA-1007 has reduced urinary clearance enabling excellent assessment of the prostate. Similar to (18)F-DCFPyL and with slightly slower clearance kinetics than PSMA-11, favorable tumor-to-background ratios are observed 2-3 h after injection. In eight patients, diagnostic findings were successfully validated by histopathology. (18)F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT detected 18 of 19 lymph node metastases in the pelvis, including nodes as small as 1 mm in diameter. (18)F-PSMA-1007 performs at least comparably to (68)Ga-PSMA-11, but its longer half-life combined with its superior energy

  10. F-18 labelled PSMA-1007: biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and histopathological validation of tumor lesions in prostate cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesel, Frederik L.; Vinsensia, M.; Mier, W.; Haberkorn, U.; Kratochwil, C. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Hadaschik, B.; Radtke, J.; Kesch, C. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Urology, Heidelberg (Germany); Cardinale, J.; Schaefer, M.; Neels, O.C.; Kopka, K. [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Heidelberg (Germany); Lehnert, W. [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Tolstov, Y.; Singer, S. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Section of Molecular Urooncology, Department of Urology, Medical Faculty Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Grabe, N. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Hamamatsu Tissue Imaging and Analysis Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Duensing, S. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Urology, Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Section of Molecular Urooncology, Department of Urology, Medical Faculty Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeted positron-emitting-tomography (PET) tracer {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 shows great promise in the detection of prostate cancer. However, {sup 68}Ga has several shortcomings as a radiolabel including short half-life and non-ideal energies, and this has motivated consideration of {sup 18}F-labelled analogs. {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 was selected among several {sup 18}F-PSMA-ligand candidate compounds because it demonstrated high labelling yields, outstanding tumor uptake and fast, non-urinary background clearance. Here, we describe the properties of {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 in human volunteers and patients. Radiation dosimetry of {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 was determined in three healthy volunteers who underwent whole-body PET-scans and concomitant blood and urine sampling. Following this, ten patients with high-risk prostate cancer underwent {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT (1 h and 3 h p.i.) and normal organ biodistribution and tumor uptakes were examined. Eight patients underwent prostatectomy with extended pelvic lymphadenectomy. Uptake in intra-prostatic lesions and lymph node metastases were correlated with final histopathology, including PSMA immunostaining. With an effective dose of approximately 4.4-5.5 mSv per 200-250 MBq examination, {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 behaves similar to other PSMA-PET agents as well as to other {sup 18}F-labelled PET-tracers. In comparison to other PSMA-targeting PET-tracers, {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 has reduced urinary clearance enabling excellent assessment of the prostate. Similar to {sup 18}F-DCFPyL and with slightly slower clearance kinetics than PSMA-11, favorable tumor-to-background ratios are observed 2-3 h after injection. In eight patients, diagnostic findings were successfully validated by histopathology. {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT detected 18 of 19 lymph node metastases in the pelvis, including nodes as small as 1 mm in diameter. {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 performs at least comparably to {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11, but its

  11. High Yield Technique of Virus-free Potato Favorite Planting in Paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-xia Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To screen the best combination cultivation factors, the orthogonal test was conducted on the 6 factors of virus-free potato Favorite including sowing time, density, urea, calcium superphosphate, potassium sulfate and zinc, planted in paddy field of Xian-ning, Luo-tian and Guang-shui. The results showed that: a experimental site had significant influence on growth period (F = 147.08>F0.01, sowing date had great significant influence on growth period (F = 15.68>F0.01, with the delay of sowing date, the growth period was short (R1 = 0.9851**. b Density had great significant influence on yield (F = 4.0>F0.01, the yield could be increased with the density increasing (R2 = 0.9782**, sowing date had significant influence on yield (F = 3.55>F0.05. c The maximum yield and economic return appeared at the treatment of seeding date December 10, seeding density 75000 plant/hm2, N 75 kg/hm2, phosphorus fertilizer 900 kg/hm2, potassium sulfate 450 kg/hm2 and zinc 22.5 kg/hm2, with the yield 31185 kg/hm2 and economic benefit 26833 Yuan/hm2.

  12. Practice and Thought on Developing Hybrid Rice for Super High Yield by Exploiting Inter-subspecific Heterosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Since the breakthrough of grain yield owing to the development of dwarf rice and three-line system hybrid rice, rice breeding for high yield hardly had showed significant progress in the next successive two decades. It was considered that utilizing heterosis between subspecific varieties (Oryza sativa L.) would be an effective approach to increase yield further. During 1987-1993,an indica-japonica hybrid Yayou 2 yielded as high as 10.5 t/ha; however, it failed to be commercialized because of seed purity problem due to non-uniform emasculation by chemical agent in seed production, and sensitivity of seed setting in F1 plants to environmental conditions. In the past decade, two inter-subspeific hybrids, Liangyoupeijiu (Peiai 64S/9311, javanica/indica) and Liangyou E32 (Peiai 64S/E32, javanica/japonica); both of them exhibited grain yield higher than 10.5 t/ha, and were widely judged as the pioneers of super hybrid rice. Liangyoupeijiu has been successfully popularized over 4 million hectare in wide climatic areas, while Liangyou E32 made a yield record and offered a model of plant ideotype for super hybrid rice. It was considered that in combination with plant ideotype, active physiological functions, and wide-range adaptability to ecological conditions, exploitation of indica-japonica heterosis would be the key approach for super hybrid rice breeding.

  13. Biosolar cells: global artificial photosynthesis needs responsive matrices with quantum coherent kinetic control for high yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, R L; de Groot, H J M

    2015-06-06

    propose that synergy gains by such processes form a basis for further progress towards high efficiency and yield for a global project on artificial photosynthesis. Finally, we look at artificial photosynthesis research in The Netherlands and use this as an example of how an interdisciplinary approach is beneficial to artificial photosynthesis research. We conclude with some of the potential societal consequences of a large-scale roll out of artificial photosynthesis.

  14. Biosolar cells: global artificial photosynthesis needs responsive matrices with quantum coherent kinetic control for high yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, R. L.; de Groot, H. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    . We propose that synergy gains by such processes form a basis for further progress towards high efficiency and yield for a global project on artificial photosynthesis. Finally, we look at artificial photosynthesis research in The Netherlands and use this as an example of how an interdisciplinary approach is beneficial to artificial photosynthesis research. We conclude with some of the potential societal consequences of a large-scale roll out of artificial photosynthesis. PMID:26052428

  15. Malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor of the spine: staging and evaluation of response to therapy with F-18 FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makis, William; Ciarallo, Anthony; Hickeson, Marc

    2011-07-01

    Malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumor (ERRT) is a very rare type of soft-tissue sarcoma with a reported incidence of 0.3% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. Only 7 cases of spinal malignant ERRT have been reported in the literature, and to our knowledge, F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging for staging and evaluation of response to therapy for these tumors has not been previously described. This is a case of an 8-month-old boy with malignant ERRT of the spine, who was staged with F-18 FDG PET/CT, and had his tumor burden assessed with PET/CT after chemotherapy, which altered the subsequent chemotherapy regimen.

  16. Cesium hafnium chloride: A high light yield, non-hygroscopic cubic crystal scintillator for gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Arnold, E-mail: aburger@fisk.edu [Department of Life and Physical Sciences, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee 37208 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Rowe, Emmanuel; Groza, Michael; Morales Figueroa, Kristle [Department of Life and Physical Sciences, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee 37208 (United States); Cherepy, Nerine J.; Beck, Patrick R.; Hunter, Steven; Payne, Stephen A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    We report on the scintillation properties of Cs{sub 2}HfCl{sub 6} (cesium hafnium chloride or CHC) as an example of a little-known class of non-hygroscopic compounds having the generic cubic crystal structure of K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}. The crystals are easily growable from the melt using the Bridgman method with minimal precursor treatments or purification. CHC scintillation is centered at 400 nm, with a principal decay time of 4.37 μs and a light yield of up to 54 000 photons/MeV when measured using a silicon CCD photodetector. The light yield is the highest ever reported for an undoped crystal, and CHC also exhibits excellent light yield nonproportionality. These desirable properties allowed us to build and test CHC gamma-ray spectrometers providing energy resolution of 3.3% at 662 keV.

  17. Pancreatic tuberculosis: Evaluation of therapeutic response using F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Bhattacharya, Anish; Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Srinivasan, Radhika; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-10-01

    F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) is a functional imaging technique that monitors glucose metabolism in tissues. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has been reported to show intense uptake of FDG, with a decrease in metabolism of the tuberculous lesions after successful anti-tubercular treatment (ATT). The authors present a patient with pancreatic TB and demonstrate the usefulness of FDG PET/CT in monitoring the response to ATT.

  18. Insufficiency of Bone Scintigraphy in Vertebral Lesions of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Compared to F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Diagnostic Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zehra Pınar; Şimşek, Selçuk; Akarsu, Saadet; Balcı, Tansel Ansal; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Kepenek, Ferat

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a benign disorder related to the histiocytes which can infiltrate bone tissue. The most effective method for demonstrating severity of this disease is PET/CT and bone scintigraphy might show bone lesions. We present a seventeen year old male patient with disseminated LCH presented with exophtalmos and having multiple vertebral lesions which were identified by F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and diagnostic CT but not in the bone scintigraphy. PMID:25800594

  19. Insufficiency of Bone Scintigraphy in Vertebral Lesions of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Compared to F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Diagnostic Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Pınar Koç

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a benign disorder related to the histiocytes which can infiltrate bone tissue. The most effective method for demonstrating severity of this disease is PET/CT and bone scintigraphy might show bone lesions. We present a seventeen year old male patient with disseminated LCH presented with exophtalmos and having multiple vertebral lesions which were identified by F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and diagnostic CT but not in the bone scintigraphy

  20. The Effect of Patient Age on Standardized Uptake Value-Hounsfield Unit Values of Male Genitourinery Structures In F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Çavuşoğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Relation between patient age and Hounsfield Unit (HU,which is the linear attenuation coefficient, and Standardized Uptake Values (SUV which is the amount of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG uptake, measured in the areas of interest drawn to prostate, seminal vesicles and testicles in F-18 FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT images was investigated. Material and Methods: Mean and maximum SUV and HU values were recorded from the areas of interest (min 12 mm in diameter which showed FDG uptake in prostate, seminal vesicles and testicles from F-18 FDG PET-CT images of 21 male patients under 40 years without genitourinary cancer. The effect of patient age to SUV and HU values was examined with Pearson correlation test using SPSS program. Results: There was a negative insignificant correlation between patient age and SUV and HU values for prostate. For seminal vesicles, correlation between patient age and SUV values and HUmax were positive but insignificant, while correlation with HUmean was significant (r=0.459, p=0.00. Correlation between patient age and SUVmax and SUVmean values were significant for testicles (r=0.506, p=0.002 and r=0.467, p=0.005, respectively but the correlation between patient age and HUmax and HUmean values was not significant. Conclusion: F-18 FDG uptake in testicles in males increases with age until 40, suggesting an increase in metabolic rate. The significant correlation between age and mean HU values is probably caused by thickening of the tissue without an increase in glucose metabolism in seminal vesicles. In prostate, the effect of patient age to SUV and HU values was not observed until the age 40. (MIRT 2011;20:104-107

  1. Energy transfer and light yield properties of a new highly loaded indium(III) β-diketonate organic scintillator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, C.; Hartmann, F. X.; Motta, D.; Schoenert, S.

    2007-02-01

    We present combined experimental and model studies of the light yield and energy transfer properties of a newly developed high light yield scintillator based on indium(III)-tris(2,4-pentanedionate) in a 2-(4-biphenyl)-5-phenyloxazole (BPO), methoxybenzene organic liquid; of interest to the detection of solar electron neutrino oscillations. Optical measurements are made to understand the energy transfer properties and a model is advanced to treat the unusual conditions of high metal and fluor loadings. Such scintillator types are of interest to the exploration of novel luminescent materials and the development of large-scale detectors for studying fundamental properties of naturally occurring neutrinos.

  2. Amyloid deposition detected with florbetapir F 18 (18F-AV-45) is related to lower episodic memory performance in clinically normal older individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Reiman, Eric M.; Fleisher, Adam S.; Sabbagh, Marwan; Sadowsky, Carl; Carpenter, Alan; Davis, Mat; Lu, Ming; Flitter, Matthew; Joshi, Abhinay; Clark, Christopher M.; Grundman, Michael; Mintun, Mark; Skovronsky, Daniel; Pontecorvo, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of amyloid burden, as assessed by florbetapir F 18 (18F-AV-45) amyloid PET, and cognition in healthy older control subjects (HC). Seventy-eight HC subjects were assessed with a brief cognitive test battery and PET imaging with florbetapir F 18. A standard uptake value ratio (SUVr) was computed for mean data from six cortical regions using a whole cerebellum reference region. Scans were also visually rated as amyloid positive (Aβ+) or amyloid negative (Aβ−) by three readers. Higher SUVr correlated with lower immediate memory (r=−0.33; p=0.003) and delayed recall scores (r=−0.25; p=0.027). Performance on immediate recall was also lower in the visually rated Aβ+ compared to Aβ− HC (p=0.04), with a similar trend observed in delayed recall (p=0.06). These findings support the hypothesis that higher amyloid burden is associated with lower memory performance among clinically normal older subjects. Longitudinal follow-up is ongoing to determine whether florbetapir F 18 may also predict subsequent cognitive decline. PMID:22878163

  3. Gluconacetobacter hansenii subsp. nov., a high-yield bacterial cellulose producing strain induced by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Han-Jing; Du, Shuang-Kui; Lin, De-Hui; Zhang, Jun-Na; Xiang, Jin-Le; Li, Zhi-Xi

    2011-12-01

    Strain M(438), deposited as CGMCC3917 and isolated from inoculums of bacterial cellulose (BC) producing strain screened in homemade vinegar and then induced by high hydrostatic pressure treatment (HHP), has strong ability to produce BC more than three times as that of its initial strain. It is the highest yield BC-producing strain ever reported. In this paper, M(438) was identidied as Gluconacetobacter hansenii subsp. nov. on the basis of the results obtained by examining it phylogenetically, phenotypically, and physiologically-biochemically. Furthermore, the genetic diversity of strain M(438) and its initial strain was examined by amplified fragment length polymorphism. The results indicated that strain M(438) was a deletion mutant induced by HHP, and the only deleted sequence showed 99% identity with 24,917-24,723 bp in the genome sequence of Ga. hansenii ATCC23769, and the complement gene sequence was at 24,699-25,019 bp with local tag GXY_15142, which codes small multidrug resistance (SMR) protein. It can be inferred that SMR might be related to inhibiting BC production to a certain extent.

  4. Innovations in papermaking: an LCA of printing and writing paper from conventional and high yield pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, B M Krishna; Blok, Kornelis; Patel, Martin K

    2012-11-15

    Pulp and paper industry is facing challenges such as resource scarcity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this research is to investigate whether the use of new coatings (micro or nano TiO(2)) and different pulp types could bring savings in wood, energy, GHG emissions and other environmental impacts in comparison with conventional printing and writing paper. We studied three types of pulp, namely i) unbleached virgin kraft pulp, ii) recovered fiber, and iii) high yield virgin chemithermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP). A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted from cradle to grave. Applying attributional modeling, we found that wood savings amount to 60% for the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper and 35% for the micro TiO(2) coated CTMP paper. According to the ReCiPe single score impact assessment method, the new product configurations allow the reduction of the environmental impacts by 10-35% compared to conventional kraft paper. Applying consequential modeling, we found larger energy and GHG emission savings compared to attributional modeling because the saved wood is used for producing energy, thereby replacing fossil fuels. The nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered savings of non-renewable energy use (NREU) by 100% (13GJ/ton paper) and GHG emission reduction by 75% (0.6 tonCO(2)eq./ton paper). Micro TiO(2) coated CTMP paper offered NREU savings by 25% (3GJ/ton paper) and savings of GHG emissions by 10% (0.1 tonCO(2)eq./ton paper). The taking into account of all environmental impacts with the ReCiPe single score method leads to comparable results as that of attributional modeling. We conclude that the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered the highest savings and lowest environmental impacts. However, human toxicity and ecotoxicity impacts of the nanoparticles were not included in this analysis and need further research. If this leads to the conclusion that the toxicity impacts of the nanoparticles are serious, then the

  5. Innovations in papermaking: An LCA of printing and writing paper from conventional and high yield pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manda, B.M. Krishna, E-mail: b.m.k.manda@uu.nl; Blok, Kornelis, E-mail: K.Blok@uu.nl; Patel, Martin K., E-mail: m.k.patel@uu.nl

    2012-11-15

    Pulp and paper industry is facing challenges such as resource scarcity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this research is to investigate whether the use of new coatings (micro or nano TiO{sub 2}) and different pulp types could bring savings in wood, energy, GHG emissions and other environmental impacts in comparison with conventional printing and writing paper. We studied three types of pulp, namely i) unbleached virgin kraft pulp, ii) recovered fiber, and iii) high yield virgin chemithermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP). A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted from cradle to grave. Applying attributional modeling, we found that wood savings amount to 60% for the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper and 35% for the micro TiO{sub 2} coated CTMP paper. According to the ReCiPe single score impact assessment method, the new product configurations allow the reduction of the environmental impacts by 10-35% compared to conventional kraft paper. Applying consequential modeling, we found larger energy and GHG emission savings compared to attributional modeling because the saved wood is used for producing energy, thereby replacing fossil fuels. The nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered savings of non-renewable energy use (NREU) by 100% (13 GJ/ton paper) and GHG emission reduction by 75% (0.6 ton CO{sub 2} eq./ton paper). Micro TiO{sub 2} coated CTMP paper offered NREU savings by 25% (3 GJ/ton paper) and savings of GHG emissions by 10% (0.1 ton CO{sub 2} eq./ton paper). The taking into account of all environmental impacts with the ReCiPe single score method leads to comparable results as that of attributional modeling. We conclude that the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered the highest savings and lowest environmental impacts. However, human toxicity and ecotoxicity impacts of the nanoparticles were not included in this analysis and need further research. If this leads to the conclusion that the toxicity impacts of the

  6. High Diagnostic Yield of Dedicated Pulmonary Screening before Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluijs, Anne Birgitta; van der Ent, Korstiaan; Boelens, Jaap J.; Wolfs, Tom; de Jong, Pim; Bierings, Marc B.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary complications are an important cause for treatment-related morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the yield of our pre-HCT pulmonary screening program. We also describe our management guidelines based on

  7. Scintillation light, ionization yield and scintillation decay times in high pressure xenon and xenon methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pushkin, K. N.; Akimov, D. Y.; Burenkov, A. A.; Dmitrenko, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Lebedenko, V. N.; Kuznetsov, I. S.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Tezuka, C.; Ulin, S. E.; Uteshev, Z. M.; Vlasik, K. F.

    2007-01-01

    Scintillation light, ionization yield and scintillation decay times have been measured in xenon and in its mixture with a 0.05% concentration of methane as a function of the reduced electric field (E/N)-the ratio of the electric field strength to the number density of gas-at a pressure of 21 atm. Th

  8. Nuclear Engineering of Microalgae for High Yield Secretion of Recombinant Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos Martinez, Erick Miguel

    to the glycomodules, accumulation of a fusion protein was dramatically increased by up to 12 folds, with the maximum yield of 15 mg L-1. Characterization of the secreted Venus showed the presence of glycosylations and increased resistance to proteolytic degradation. The results from this thesis demonstrate...

  9. Development of a New Class of Scintillating Fibres with Very Short Decay Time and High Light Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borshchev, O.; Cavalcante, A. B. R.; Gavardi, L.; Gruber, L.; Joram, C.; Ponomarenko, S.; Shinji, O.; Surin, N.

    2017-05-01

    We present first studies of a new class of scintillating fibres which are characterised by very short decay times and high light yield. The fibres are based on a novel type of luminophores admixed to a polystyrene core matrix. These so-called Nanostructured Organosilicon Luminophores (NOL) have high photoluminescense quantum yield and decay times just above 1 ns. A blue and a green emitting prototype fibre with 250 μm diameter were produced and characterised in terms of attenuation length, ionisation light yield, decay time and tolerance to x-ray irradiation. The well-established Kuraray SCSF-78 and SCSF-3HF fibres were taken as references. Even though the two prototype fibres mark just an intermediate step in an ongoing development, their performance is already on a competitive level. In particular, their decay time constants are about a factor of two shorter than the fastest known fibres, which makes them promising candidates for time critical applications.

  10. Monitoring of the Formation and Development Process for Infection and Inflammation Using F-18 FDG, PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Ertay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many radiopharmaceuticals have been evaluated extensively in both preclinical and clinical studies as potential diagnostic agents to identify the sites of infection. There is a definite role of FDG-PET in diagnosis, extent of assessing the disease, evaluation of treatment response and disease activity in patients with infections and inflammation. The aim of the study, the process of formation and development of infection and inflammation is monitored using (18 F 2’-deoxy-2-fluoroD-glucose (F-18 FDG by Positron Emission Computed Tomography (PET-CT. Methods: In this study, sterile abscess was induced by using turpentine and infected abscess was induced by using Staphylococcus aureus atcc 25923 strain on rats. In the abscess formation on rats, three grups rats were used as sterile, infected and control grups. There were examined male White Wistar Rats, the clinical healthy animals were 150-220 gr body weight. Bacterial strain and rat model for abscess formation for infected abscess formation on rats (n=7, S. aureus 0.5 ml 107 CFU/ml was inoculated in the right arm of the rats as subcutaneous. For sterile abscess formation on rats (n=7 0.2-0.4 ml turpentine (sigma-aldrich was injected into the right arm of the rats as subcutaneous. In control group (n=6, 0.5 ml 0.9% NaCl was injected into the right arm of the rats as subcutaneous. First day imsaging was acquired 24 hours after inoculation of S.aureus and turpentine. 1 mCi 18F-FDG was injected intravenously via the tail vein. Prior to 18F-FDG injection, rats fasted at least 4 hours and well hydrated. Imaging was done using PET-CT (PHILIPS Gemini TF, beginning 1 hour following injection of 18F-FDG IV in the first day and at intervals of 24 hours for five days. First day imaging was performed 1. hour after IV injection of 18F-FDG to obtain optimum imaging time. PET/CT images were visually and semiquantitatively assessed. For semiquantitative analysis of the PET images, a region of interest

  11. High yield stress associated with capillary attraction between alumina surfaces in the presence of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, E-Jen; Leong, Yee-Kwong; Liu, Yinong; Craig, Vincent S J; Walsh, Rick B; Howard, Shaun C

    2010-03-02

    Adsorbed low molecular weight charged molecules are known to give rise to a range of surface forces that affect the rheological behavior of oxide dispersions. The behavior of dicarboxylic acid bolaform compounds in alumina slurry was investigated to determine the influence of the molecular structure on the nanoscale interactions between alumina surfaces and on the macroscopic properties of the slurry. The surface forces in dispersions and between a single particle and a flat surface were characterized by yield stress and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. Absorbed muconic acid increased the yield stress of the alumina system, which indicates an additional attractive interaction between the particles. Adsorbed trans,trans (TT) muconic acid resulted in a much higher yield stress than cis,cis (CC) muconic acid. Force-distance data obtained via AFM displayed features indicating the presence of a capillary force attraction at low pH between the alumina surfaces when TT and CC muconic acids were adsorbed at high surface coverage. This force appeared to explain the high yield stress at low pH (pH 3.6), but the absence of a net attractive force at higher pH (pH 5) did not correlate with the yield stress results. At low pH, the muconic acids become less soluble in the confined space between the interacting surfaces resulting in the formation of an "oily" muconic acid phase located between the interacting surfaces. The nanosized "oil" phase is the source of the capillary force.

  12. 6-[F-18]Fluoro-L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Positron Emission Tomography Is Superior to Conventional Imaging with I-123-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Scintigraphy, Computer Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Localizing Tumors Causing Catecholamine Excess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiebrich, Helle-Brit; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Pijl, Milan E. J.; Kema, Ido P.; de Jong, Johan R.; Jager, Pieter L.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; van der Wal, Jacqueline E.; Sluiter, Wim J.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Links, Thera P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Catecholamine excess is rare, but symptoms may be life threatening. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the sensitivity of 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography (F-18-DOPAPET), compared with I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-123-MIBG) scint

  13. Diagnostic Performance of F-18-FDG PET and PET/CT for the Detection of Recurrent Esophageal Cancer After Treatment with Curative Intent : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goense, Lucas; van Rossum, Peter S. N.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Meijer, Gert J.; van Vulpen, Marco; Ruurda, Jelle P.; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of F-18-FDG PET and integrated F-18-FDG PET/CT for diagnosing recurrent esophageal cancer after initial treatment with curative intent. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library were systematically searched for all relevant

  14. Gallium loading of gold seed for high yield of patterned GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, J. P.; Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R., E-mail: lapierr@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-08-25

    A method is presented for maximizing the yield and crystal phase purity of vertically aligned Au-assisted GaAs nanowires grown with an SiO{sub x} selective area epitaxy mask on GaAs (111)B substrates. The nanowires were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method in a gas source molecular beam epitaxy system. During annealing, Au VLS seeds will alloy with the underlying GaAs substrate and collect beneath the SiO{sub x} mask layer. This behavior is detrimental to obtaining vertically aligned, epitaxial nanowire growth. To circumvent this issue, Au droplets were pre-filled with Ga assuring vertical yields in excess of 99%.

  15. A high-yielding, strictly regioselective prebiotic purine nucleoside formation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sidney; Thoma, Ines; Deutsch, Amrei; Gehrke, Tim; Mayer, Peter; Zipse, Hendrik; Carell, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    The origin of life is believed to have started with prebiotic molecules reacting along unidentified pathways to produce key molecules such as nucleosides. To date, a single prebiotic pathway to purine nucleosides had been proposed. It is considered to be inefficient due to missing regioselectivity and low yields. We report that the condensation of formamidopyrimidines (FaPys) with sugars provides the natural N-9 nucleosides with extreme regioselectivity and in good yields (60%). The FaPys are available from formic acid and aminopyrimidines, which are in turn available from prebiotic molecules that were also detected during the Rosetta comet mission. This nucleoside formation pathway can be fused to sugar-forming reactions to produce pentosides, providing a plausible scenario of how purine nucleosides may have formed under prebiotic conditions.

  16. Fast and high light yield scintillation in the Ga2O3 semiconductor material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Okada, Go; Kato, Takumi; Nakauchi, Daisuke; Yanagida, Satoko

    2016-04-01

    We report the distinct scintillation properties of the well-known Ga2O3 semiconductor material. Under UV excitation, the photoluminescence (PL) emission peak appeared near a wavelength of 380 nm with a quantum yield of 6%, and fast decays of 8 and 793 ns were observed. In contrast, the X-ray-induced scintillation spectrum showed an intense emission band near a wavelength of 380 nm, whose decay curve was reproduced using two exponential decay components with time constants of 8 and 977 ns. The pulse height spectrum of 137Cs γ-rays measured using Ga2O3 showed a clear photoabsorption peak with a light yield of 15000 ± 1500 photons/MeV.

  17. Production of high hydroxytyrosol yields via tyrosol conversion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa immobilized resting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouallagui, Zouhaier; Sayadi, Sami

    2006-12-27

    An immobilized whole cell system was successfully performed to produce the most powerful antioxidant, hydroxytyrosol. Bioconversion of tyrosol into hydroxytyrosol was achieved via the immobilization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resting cells in calcium alginate beads. Immobilization was advantageous as it allows immobilized cells to tolerate a greater tyrosol concentration than free cells. The bioconversion yield reached 86% in the presence of 5 g L-1 of tyrosol when cells immobilized in alginate beads were carried out in single batches. Evaluation of kinetic parameters showed the maintenance of the same catalytic efficiency expressed as Kcat/Km for both free and immobilized cells. The use of immobilized cells in repeated batches demonstrated a notable activity stabilization since the biocatalyst reusability was extended for at least four batches with a molar yield greater than 85%.

  18. High yield secretion of recombinant proteins from the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Martinez, E M; Fimognari, L; Sakuragi, Y

    2017-02-16

    Microalga-based biomanufacturing of recombinant proteins is attracting growing attention due to its advantages in safety, metabolic diversity, scalability, and sustainability. Secretion of recombinant proteins can accelerate the use of microalgal platforms by allowing post-translational modifications and easy recovery of products from the culture media. However, currently, the yields of secreted recombinant proteins are low, which hampers the commercial application of this strategy. This study aimed at expanding the genetic tools for enhancing secretion of recombinant proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a widely used green microalga as a model organism and a potential industrial biotechnology platform. We demonstrated that the putative signal sequence from C. reinhardtii gametolysin can assist the secretion of the yellow fluorescent protein Venus into the culture media. In order to increase the secretion yields, Venus was C-terminally fused with synthetic glycomodules comprised of tandem serine (Ser) and proline (Pro) repeats of 10 and 20 units [hereafter (SP)n, wherein n=10 or 20]. The yields of the (SP)n-fused Venus were higher than Venus without the glycomodule by up to 12 folds, with the maximum yield of 15 mg L(-1) . Moreover, the presence of the glycomodules confererred an enhanced proteolytic protein stability. The Venus-(SP)n proteins were shown to be glycosylated, and a treatment of the cells with Brefeldin A led to a suggestion that glycosylation of the (SP)n glycomodules starts in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Taken together, the results demonstrate the utility of the gametolysin signal sequence and (SP)n glycomodule to promote a more efficient biomanufacturing of microalgae-based recombinant proteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Temperature-dependent yield criterion for high strength steel sheets under warm-forming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Zhengyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests with cruciform specimens were conducted to investigate the deformation behaviour of dual phase steel sheet with a tensile strength of 590 MPa (DP590 under evaluated warm-forming temperatures (20–190 ∘C. Detailed analyses were then carried out to obtain the corresponding experimental yield loci. For the purpose of describing the temperature-dependent yield behaviour of DP590 appropriately, the Yld2000–2d yield function with temperature-dependent exponent was proposed. The identification procedures of the introduced parameters were then proposed based on Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm. Afterwards, the proposed model was implemented into ABAQUS as user subroutine VUMAT with NICE (Next Increment Corrects Error explicit integration scheme. The numerical simulations of biaxial tensile tests were then conducted to confirm the validity of the proposed model. It could be concluded that the flexibility and accuracy of the proposed model guarantee the applicability in warm-forming applications.

  20. High quantum yield ZnO quantum dots synthesizing via an ultrasonication microreactor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Yang, Huafang; Ding, Wenhao; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Le; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-11-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic microreactor. Ultrasonic radiation brought bubbles through ultrasonic cavitation. These bubbles built microreactor inside the microreactor. The photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots synthesized with different flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature were discussed. Flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature would influence the type and quantity of defects in ZnO quantum dots. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by those conditions as well. Flow rate affected the reaction time. With the increasing of flow rate, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots decreased and the quantum yields first increased then decreased. Ultrasonic power changed the ultrasonic cavitation intensity, which affected the reaction energy and the separation of the solution. With the increasing of ultrasonic power, sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased, while the quantum yields kept increasing. The effect of ultrasonic temperature on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots was influenced by the flow rate. Different flow rate related to opposite changing trend. Moreover, the quantum yields of ZnO QDs synthesized by ultrasonic microreactor could reach 64.7%, which is higher than those synthesized only under ultrasonic radiation or only by microreactor.

  1. A new copper containing MALDI matrix that yields high abundances of [peptide + Cu]+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoxiang; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco A; Perez, Lisa M; Russell, David H

    2009-07-01

    The dinuclear copper complex (alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) copper salt (CHCA)(4)Cu(2)), synthesized by reacting CHCA with copper oxide (CuO), yields increased abundances of [M + xCu - (x-1)H](+) (x = 1-6) ions when used as a matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (355 nm Nd:YAG laser). The yield of [M + xCu - (x-1)H](+) (x = 1 to approximately 6) ion is much greater than that obtained by mixing peptides with copper salts or directly depositing peptides onto oxidized copper surfaces. The increased ion yields for [M + xCu - (x-1)H](+) facilitate studies of biologically important copper binding peptides. For example, using this matrix we have investigated site-specific copper binding of several peptides using fragmentation chemistry of [M + Cu](+) and [M + 2Cu - H](+) ions. The fragmentation studies reveal interesting insight on Cu binding preferences for basic amino acids. Most notable is the fact that the binding of a single Cu(+) ion and two Cu(+) ions are quite different, and these differences are explained in terms of intramolecular interactions of the peptide-Cu ionic complex.

  2. Simulating evapotranspiration (ET) and corn yield response to irrigation management in the Texas High Plains using DSSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain corn (Zea mays L) continues to be a major irrigated crop in the northern Texas High Plains. Improvements in irrigation system efficiency, irrigation management, and plant genetics have increased average yields while decreasing seasonal water use in the last 40 years. However, declining water l...

  3. Yields in high density, short rotation intensive culture (SRIC)—plantations of Eucalyptus and Other Hardwood Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M. Sachs; C.B. Low

    1983-01-01

    Initial high density (17,200 trees ha-1, 6961 trees a-1) plantations of Eucalyptus grandis yielded up to 22 oven dry tons (ODT) ha-l yr-I (10 ta-1 yr-1) on an approximate 6 month rotation. Border effects could not be eliminated from the small sized plots used...

  4. 'Caro-Tex 312’ – An F1 Hybrid, High Yielding, Multiple Disease Resistant, Orange Habanero Pepper Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A&M University and the USDA-ARS U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC, have developed a new, F1 hybrid Habanero pepper cultivar. ‘Caro-Tex 312’ produces a large, orange-fruited Habanero pepper with typical shape and high pungency. It also possesses unique yield, early maturity and dise...

  5. Stable and high-yielding intrinsic 59Fe-radiolabeling of the intravenous iron preparations Monofer and Cosmofer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Tue Ingemann; Severin, Gregory; Andreasen, Hans B.;

    2016-01-01

    of the supplements in the presence of [Fe-59]FeCl3 for 24h at 95 degrees C for Monofer, and 85 degrees C for Cosmofer, resulting in radiochemical yields greater than 94%. High performance size exclusion chromatography, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering were used to show that the supplements remained...

  6. Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators Enhance the Morpho-Physiological Growth and Yield of Rice under High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ihsan, Zahid; Shah, Adnan N; Wu, Chao; Yousaf, Muhammad; Nasim, Wajid; Alharby, Hesham; Alghabari, Fahad; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT) and high night temperature (HNT). Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA), and triazoles (Tr) were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above-, and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  7. Exogenously applied plant growth regulators enhance the morpho-physiological growth and yield of rice under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT and high night temperature (HNT. Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc, alpha-tocopherol (Ve, brassinosteroids (Br, methyl jasmonates (MeJA and triazoles (Tr were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above- and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  8. Efficient and high yield one-pot synthesis of cyclometalated platinum(II) β-diketonates at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Zachary M; Blight, Barry A; Wang, Suning

    2012-04-06

    Cyclometalated Pt(II) β-diketonates are widely used as efficient luminescent materials but are typically prepared at high temperatures in low yields using excess reagents. A one-pot synthesis of these complexes is described employing stoichiometric reagents and short reaction times at ambient temperature, giving yields of up to 94%. The method is applicable to a broad range of substrates including N^C, P^C, and C^C chelate Pt(II) complexes and different β-diketonate ligands.

  9. Productivity, Profitability and Resource Use Efficiency: A Comparative Analysis between Conventional and High Yielding Rice in Rajbari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Yahia Bapari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was analyzed the determinants, costs and benefits and resources allocation of both conventional and high yielding rice cultivation over the Rajbari district of Bangladesh. Data were accumulated from 300 regular rice growers of conventional and high yielding varieties and random sampling technique was applied for selecting the respondents from the study area from which information was collected through pre-tested questionnaire. Cobb – Douglas production function and gross margin were mainly used to determine the productivities and profits of both rice and the marginal value of the product was highly recommended to derive the optimal use of the resources. Results obtained by applying ordinary least square method showed that the most important factors of production in the study area were irrigation, labor, fertilizer and insecticide costs whose elasticities were 0.904, 0.048, 0.045 and 0.044 respectively and insignificant factors were seed and ploughing costs whose elasticities were – 0.009 and 0.030 respectively for high yielding rice. On the other hand, irrigation, insecticide, seed and ploughing costs of elasticities 0.880, 0.589, 0.116 and – 0.127 respectively were the important factors and minor role playing factors were labor and fertilizer costs whose elasticities were 0.098 and 0.077 respectively for conventional yielding rice. The core message from productivity analysis was that the irrigation was key variable which played a positive and vital role in producing rice of both varieties. All variables (resources were economically misallocated in the production activities of both varieties along the study area but high yielding rice was more profitable than conventional one. Results also showed that the farmers of the study area produced rice of both varieties in the inefficient range of production. Continuous supply of electricity, flexible credit and improving the existing resources were the prime policy recommendations of

  10. Tuning of ZIF-Derived Carbon with High Activity, Nitrogen Functionality, and Yield - A Case for Superior CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadipelli, Srinivas; Guo, Zheng Xiao

    2015-06-22

    A highly effective and facile synthesis route is developed to create and tailor metal-decorated and nitrogen-functionalized active microporous carbon materials from ZIF-8. Clear metal- and pyrrolic-N-induced enhancements of the cyclic CO2 uptake capacities and binding energies are achieved, particularly at a much lower carbonization temperature of 700 °C than those often reported (1000 °C). The high-temperature carbonization can enhance the porosity but only at the expense of considerable losses of sample yield and metal and N functional sites. The findings are comparatively discussed with carbons derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) reported previously. Furthermore, the porosity of the MOF-derived carbon is critically dependent on the structure of the precursor MOF and the crystal growth. The current strategy offers a new and effective route for the creation and tuning of highly active and functionalized carbon structures in high yields and with low energy consumption.

  11. Effects of Water Management, Arsenic and Phosphorus Levels on Rice Yield in High-Arsenic Soil-Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. S. M. H. M. TALUKDER; C. A. MEISNER; M. A. R. SARKAR; M. S. ISLAM; K. D. SAYRE

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation is considered an alternative production system to combat increased water scarcity and arsenic (As) contamination in the food chain. Pot experiments were conducted at the Wheat Research Centre, Dinajpur, Bangladesh to examine the role of water management (WM), As and phosphorus (P) on yield and yield attributes of boro (variety BRRI dhan 29) and aman (variety BRRI dhan 32) rice. A total of 18 treatment combinations of the three levels of As (0, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and P (0, 12.5 and 25.0 mg/kg) and two WM strategies (aerobic and anaerobic) were investigated. Yield attributes were significantly affected by increasing As levels. Grain yields of BRRI dhan 29 and BRRI dhan 32 were reduced from 63.0 to 7.7 and 35.0 to 16.5 g/pot with increasing As application, respectively, indicating a greater sensitivity of BRRI dhan 29 than BRRI dhan 32. Moreover, As toxicity was reduced with aerobic compared to anaerobic WM for all P levels. During early growth stages, phytotoxic symptoms appeared on BRRI dhan 29 and BRRI dhan 32 rice stems with increasing As levels without applying P under anaerobic WM. Under anaerobic and As-contaminated conditions, BRRI dhan 29 was highly susceptible to straighthead, which dramatically reduced grain yields. There were significant relationships between the number of effective tillers per pot and root dry weight, grain yield, and number of fertile and unfertile grains per pot for both BRRI dhan 29 and BRRI dhan 32 (P<0.001). Our findings indicate that rice could be grown aerobically in As-contaminated areas with a reduced risk of As toxicity and yield loss.

  12. Rapid high-yield expression of full-size IgG antibodies in plants coinfected with noncompeting viral vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Giritch, Anatoli; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Engler, Carola; van Eldik, Gerben; Botterman, Johan; Klimyuk, Victor; Gleba, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    Plant viral vectors allow expression of heterologous proteins at high yields, but so far, they have been unable to express heterooligomeric proteins efficiently. We describe here a rapid and indefinitely scalable process for high-level expression of functional full-size mAbs of the IgG class in plants. The process relies on synchronous coinfection and coreplication of two viral vectors, each expressing a separate antibody chain. The two vectors are derived from two different plant viruses tha...

  13. Vineyard Yield Estimation Based on the Analysis of High Resolution Images Obtained with Artificial Illumination at Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinia Font

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for vineyard yield estimation based on the analysis of high-resolution images obtained with artificial illumination at night. First, this paper assesses different pixel-based segmentation methods in order to detect reddish grapes: threshold based, Mahalanobis distance, Bayesian classifier, linear color model segmentation and histogram segmentation, in order to obtain the best estimation of the area of the clusters of grapes in this illumination conditions. The color spaces tested were the original RGB and the Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV. The best segmentation method in the case of a non-occluded reddish table-grape variety was the threshold segmentation applied to the H layer, with an estimation error in the area of 13.55%, improved up to 10.01% by morphological filtering. Secondly, after segmentation, two procedures for yield estimation based on a previous calibration procedure have been proposed: (1 the number of pixels corresponding to a cluster of grapes is computed and converted directly into a yield estimate; and (2 the area of a cluster of grapes is converted into a volume by means of a solid of revolution, and this volume is converted into a yield estimate; the yield errors obtained were 16% and −17%, respectively.

  14. SLA-DQA基因在F18大肠杆菌抗性和敏感性断奶仔猪间的差异表达分析%The Differential Expression of SLA-DQA Gene between Weaning Piglets Resistant or Sensitive to Escherichia coli F18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    訾臣; 刘璐; 苏先敏; 杜子栋; 黄雪根; 杨建生; 孙寿永; 吴圣龙; 包文斌

    2012-01-01

    运用荧光定量PCR方法分析SLA-DQA基因在苏太猪F18大肠杆菌病抗性和敏感性资源群体中各个组织的分布和表达水平,以及在抗性组和敏感组中的表达差异,以探讨SLA-DQA基因在断奶仔猪抗大肠杆菌F18 菌株感染中发挥的作用.试验结果显示,SLA-DQA基因在所检测的11个组织中均有表达,并呈现相似的表达规律,在肺、脾和淋巴结中的表达量较高,在空肠、十二指肠和胸腺中也有中度的表达.SLA-DQA基因在抗性组个体各个组织中的表达量普遍高于敏感性个体,而且在肺、脾、淋巴结、空肠和十二指肠5个组织中,SLA-DQA基因在抗性组个体中的表达量显著高于敏感性个体(P<0.05).由此可见,当断奶仔猪受到大肠杆菌毒素侵扰后,SLA-DQA基因较高的表达量有利于SLA-Ⅱ类抗原分子的合成,SLA-DQA基因虽然不是针对由大肠杆菌F18菌株造成的断奶仔猪腹泻和水肿病的直接免疫因子,但是在断奶仔猪受大肠杆菌F18菌株病原菌侵袭后引起的一系列生理变化和应答过程中发挥着重要的作用.%The mRNA expression of SLA-DQA was assayed by real-time PCR in 11 different tissues in order to analyze the differential expression between resistant and sensitive post-weaning Sutai piglets invaded with ETEC F18 aiming to explore the role of SLA-DQA gene in the resistance against ETEC F18. The results showed that the SLA-DQA gene was broadly expressed in 11 tissues with a similar expression rule. The expression level was the highest in thymus, lung and lymph nodes. The expression level was moderate in the jejunum, duodenum and spleen. The mRNA expression of SLA-DQA gene in resistant piglets was higher than that in sensitive piglets generally. In lymph node, lung, spleen, jejunum and duodenum, the mRNA expression level of SLA-DQA gene in resistant piglets were significant higher than that in sensitive piglets (P< 0. 05). The analysis suggest that higher expression level

  15. Physiological characteristics of high yield under cluster planting: photosynthesis and canopy microclimate of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton produces more biomass and economic yield when cluster planting pattern (three plants per hole than in a traditional planting pattern (one plant per hole, even at similar plant densities, indicating that individual plant growth is promoted by cluster planting. The causal factors for this improved growth induced by cluster planting pattern, the light interception, canopy microclimate and photosynthetic rate of cotton were investigated in an arid region of China. The results indicated that the leaf area index and light interception were higher in cluster planting, and significantly different from those in traditional planting during the middle and late growth stages. Cotton canopy humidity at different growth stages was increased but canopy temperatures were reduced by cluster planting. In the later growth stage of cluster planting, the leaf chlorophyll content was higher and the leaf net photosynthetic rate and canopy photosynthetic rate were significantly increased in comparing with traditional planting pattern. We concluded that differences in canopy light interception and photosynthetic rate were the primary factors responsible for increased biomass production and economic yield in cluster planting compared with the traditional planting of cotton.

  16. PopII 1/2 stars: very high N14 and low O16 yields

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschi, R

    2006-01-01

    Nine 20 Mo models were computed with metallicities ranging from solar, through $Z=10^{-5}$ ([Fe/H]=~-3.1) down to $Z=10^{-8}$ ([Fe/H]=~-6.1) and with initial rotational velocities between 0 and 600 km/s to study the impact of initial metallicity and rotational velocity. The very large amounts of N14 observed (~0.03 Mo) are only produced at $Z=10^{-8}$ (PopII 1/2). The strong dependence of the N14 yields on rotation and other parameters like the initial mass and metallicity may explain the large scatter in the observations of N14 abundance. The metallicity trends are best reproduced by the models with Omega_ini/Omega_c=~0.75, which is slightly above the mean observed value for OB solar metallicity stars. Indeed, in the model with Vini=600 km/s at $Z=10^{-8}$, the O16 yield is reduced due to strong mixing. This allows in particular to reproduce the upturn for C/O and a slightly decreasing [C/Fe], which are observed below [Fe/H]=~-3.

  17. 猪TLR4基因在F18大肠杆菌抗性型和敏感型资源群体间的差异表达分析%Differentiation of Porcine TLR4 Gene mRNA Expression between Resistant and Sensitive Resource Populations to ETEC F18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包文斌; 潘章源; 朱璟; 叶兰; 杜子栋; 蔡家嘉; 黄小国; 朱国强; 吴圣龙

    2011-01-01

    本研究旨在检测TLR4基因mRNA在猪各个组织的分布以及在F18大肠杆菌抗性型和敏感型群体间差异表达水平,为探讨该基因在免疫识别和F18大肠杆菌抗性中发挥的作用提供理论依据.本试验运用SYBR Green Ⅰ实时荧光定量PCR技术进行定量测定.首先,各取8头35日龄F18大肠杆菌抗性型和敏感型苏太仔猪组织样,包括心脏、肝脏、脾脏等11个组织,提取总RNA,以GAPDH基因为内参基因,进行实时荧光定量PCR.对TLR4基因mR-NA进行均一化处理,利用荧光阈值(Ct值)计算TLR4基因mRNA在各个组织以及F18大肠杆菌抗性型和敏感型群体间表达量.结果显示,TLR4 mRNA在猪各种组织中广泛表达,在肺、淋巴结、肾脏和脾脏等免疫器官中表达量较高,F18大肠杆菌敏感型的TLR4基因表达量普遍高于抗性型个体的表达量,在各个组织中(除胃外)TLR4表达量差异倍数从1.083到2.980不等;在肺、淋巴结、肾脏和胸腺组织中,F18大肠杆菌敏感型的TLR4基因表达量显著高于抗性型个体的表达量(P<0.05).本研究结果表明,TLR4基因通过天然免疫识别机制对猪F18大肠杆菌病等革兰氏阴性疾病有一定的影响,TLR4基因表达量的下调与F18大肠杆菌的抗性具有一定程度的关系.%This study was conducted to detect the expression of TLR4 gene in variOus tissues of pig, and then to analyze the expression difference between resistant and sensitive resource populations to ETEC F18, which aimed to discuss the role that TLR4 gene played in immunity and resistance to ETEC F18. Porcine TLR4 mRNA was amplified by SYBR-GreenⅠ semi-quantitativeRT-PCR, total RNA was extracted from 11 organizations of sixteen 35-day-old piglets (eight ETEC F18 resistant piglets and eight F18 sensitive piglets) including heart, liver, spleen, and so on. Using GAPDH as an inner control gene, the relative TLR4 gene mRNA expression level in various tissues and then in resistant and

  18. Transcriptome analysis suggests that starch synthesis may proceed via multiple metabolic routes in high yielding potato cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacper Piotr Kaminski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose-6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM and normal levels of transcripts for other enzymes involved in starch metabolism in comparison with medium and low yielding cultivars as determined by DeepSAGE transcriptome profiling. The decrease in PGM activity in Kuras was confirmed by measuring the enzyme activity from potato tuber extracts. Contrary to expectations, this combination lead to a higher level of intracellular glucose-1-phosphate (G1P in Kuras suggesting that G1P is directly imported into plastids and can be quantitatively important for starch synthesis under normal conditions in high yielding cultivars. SIGNIFICANCE: This could open entirely new possibilities for metabolic engineering of the starch metabolism in potato via the so far uncharacterized G1P transporter. The perspectives are to increase yield and space efficiency of this important crop. In the light of the increasing demands imposed on agriculture to support a growing global population this presents an exciting new possibility.

  19. Toward Self-Assembled Plasmonic Devices: High-Yield Arrangement of Gold Nanoparticles on DNA Origami Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Fatih N; Schwarz, Friedrich W; Ye, Jingjing; Diez, Stefan; Schmidt, Thorsten L

    2016-05-24

    Plasmonic structures allow the manipulation of light with materials that are smaller than the optical wavelength. Such structures can consist of plasmonically active metal nanoparticles and can be fabricated through scalable bottom-up self-assembly on DNA origami templates. To produce functional devices, the precise and high-yield arrangement of each of the nanoparticles on a structure is of vital importance as the absence of a single particle can destroy the functionality of the entire device. Nevertheless, the parameters influencing the yield of the multistep assembly process are still poorly understood. To overcome this deficiency, we employed a test system consisting of a tubular six-helix bundle DNA origami with binding sites for eight oligonucleotide-functionalized gold nanoparticles. We systematically studied the assembly yield as a function of a wide range of parameters such as ionic strength, stoichiometric ratio, oligonucleotide linker chemistry, and assembly kinetics by an automated high-throughput analysis of electron micrographs of the formed heterocomplexes. Our optimized protocols enable particle placement yields up to 98.7% and promise the reliable production of sophisticated DNA-based multiparticle plasmonic devices for applications in photonics, optoelectronics, and nanomedicine.

  20. High yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhui; Liu, Xiaoguang; Wei, Dong; Chen, Gu

    2015-09-01

    The fermentation process for high yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) was developed by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides. An efficient single-step enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse (CB) by cellulase was firstly developed to produce >30 g/L of reducing sugars. The concentrated CBH was subsequently applied in a batch culture, producing 7.9 g/L of dry biomass with yield of 0.44 g/g reducing sugar and 34.3 wt% of fatty acids and 48.6 wt% of neutral lipids. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation using CBH achieved higher yields of fatty acids (41.0 wt% and a titer of 5.83 g/L) and neutral lipids (58.4 wt% and yield of 0.22 g/g reducing sugar). Additionally, the fatty acid profile analysis showed that the intercellular lipid was suitable to prepare high-quality biodiesel. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using CBH as low-cost feedstock to produce crude algal oil for sustainable biodiesel production.

  1. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins expressed in tobacco cell culture with a designer glycopeptide tag: Process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Gonzalez, Maria; Savary, Brett; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Low-yield protein production remains the most significant economic hurdle with plant cell culture technology. Fusions of recombinant proteins with hydroxyproline-O-glycosylated designer glycopeptide tags have consistently boosted secreted protein yields. This prompted us to study the process development of this technology aiming to achieve productivity levels necessary for commercial viability. We used a tobacco BY-2 cell culture expressing EGFP as fusion with a glycopeptide tag comprised of 32 repeat of "Ser-Pro" dipeptide, or (SP)32 , to study cell growth and protein secretion, culture scale-up, and establishment of perfusion cultures for continuous production. The BY-2 cells accumulated low levels of cell biomass (~7.5 g DW/L) in Schenk & Hildebrandt medium, but secreted high yields of (SP)32 -tagged EGFP (125 mg/L). Protein productivity of the cell culture has been stable for 6.0 years. The BY-2 cells cultured in a 5-L bioreactor similarly produced high secreted protein yield at 131 mg/L. Successful operation of a cell perfusion culture for 30 days was achieved under the perfusion rate of 0.25 and 0.5 day(-1) , generating a protein volumetric productivity of 17.6 and 28.9 mg/day/L, respectively. This research demonstrates the great potential of the designer glycopeptide technology for use in commercial production of valuable proteins with plant cell cultures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Non-invasive Estimation of Metabolic Uptake Rate of Glucose using F18-FDG PET and Linear Transformation of Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Reichkendler, M.; Auerback, P.;

    based on one common tissue curve against all the IDIFs. When compared to ABS Km values, an underestimation was found for all methods. Using ordinary least squares estimation on the ABS Km values vs. the IDIF Km a calibration factor and term was identified for each method and used for transformation....... The Mean Squared Error (MSE) was determined for the different methods before transformation, and estimated by N-fold cross validation and .632+ bootstrapping after transformation. Further, since ordinary least squares is an unbiased estimator we could use the estimated MSE to determine the standard...... deviation of the different unbiased methods after transformation using the relation MSE(θ) = variance(θ)+bias(θ)^2. Results: All methods performed poorly before transformation, except one described by Backes et al.. After transformation all methods yields unbiased Km based on the IDIF alone but have...

  3. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenfeng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wenzhou (China); Yin, Weiwei [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); Ou, Rongying [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Wenzhou (China); Chen, Ting; Xiong, Lingling; Xu, Yunsheng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Dermatovenereology, Wenzhou (China); Cheng, Dezhi; Xie, Deyao [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Wenzhou (China); Zheng, Xiangwu; Zhao, Liang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Institutes of Intelligent and Molecular Imaging, Wenzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 100 % (P > 0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels. (orig.)

  4. Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Assessment of Whole-Body Metabolic Tumor Burden Using F-18-FDG PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Salamon

    Full Text Available To determine the metabolically active whole-body tumor volume (WB-MTV on F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18-FDG PET/CT in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 using a three-dimensional (3D segmentation and computerized volumetry technique, and to compare PET WB-MTV between patients with benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs.Thirty-six NF1 patients (18 patients with malignant PNSTs and 18 age- and sex-matched controls with benign PNSTs were examined by F-18-FDG PET/CT. WB-MTV, whole-body total lesion glycolysis (WB-TLG and a set of semi-quantitative imaging-based parameters were analyzed both on a per-patient and a per-lesion basis.On a per-lesion basis, malignant PNSTs demonstrated both a significantly higher MTV and TLG than benign PNSTs (p < 0.0001. On a per-patient basis, WB-MTV and WB-TLG were significantly higher in patients with malignant PNSTs compared to patients with benign PNSTs (p < 0.001. ROC analysis showed that MTV and TLG could be used to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors.WB-MTV and WB-TLG may identify malignant change and may have the potential to provide a basis for investigating molecular biomarkers that correlate with metabolically active disease manifestations. Further evaluation will determine the potential clinical impact of these PET-based parameters in NF1.

  5. Growth and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) near a high voltage transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, G; Kunsch, B; Gerzabek, M; Reichenauer, T; Soja, A-M; Rippar, G; Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, H R

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an electromagnetic field from a high voltage transmission line on the yield of agricultural crops cultivated underneath and near the transmission line. For 5 years, experiments with winter wheat and corn were carried out near the 380 kV transmission line Dürnrohr (Austria)-Slavetice (Czech Republic). Different field strengths were tested by planting the crops at different distances from the transmission line. The plants were grown in experimental plots (1.77 m2), aligned to equal electric field strengths, and were cultivated according to standard agricultural practice. The soil for all plots was homogenized layer-specifically to a depth of 0.5 m to guarantee uniform soil conditions in the plant root environment. The soil was sampled annually for determinations of carbon content and the behavior of microbial biomass. During development of the vegetation, samples were collected at regular intervals for growth rate analyses. At physiological maturity, the plots (n = 8) were harvested for grain and straw yield determinations. The average electric and magnetic field strengths at four distances from the transmission line (nominal distances: 40, 14, 8, and 2 m) were between 0.2 and 4.0 kV/m and between 0.4 and 4.5 micro T, respectively. No effect of the field exposures on soil microbial biomass could be detected. The wheat grain yields were 7% higher (average of 5 years) in the plots with the lowest field exposure than in the plots nearer to the transmission line (P plants were more pronounced in years with drought episodes during grain filling than in humid years. No significant yield differences were found for corn yields. The extent of the yield variations attributed to the distance from the transmission line was small compared to the observed annual variations in climatic or soil specific site characteristics. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. High-yield production of biosugars from Gracilaria verrucosa by acid and enzymatic hydrolysis processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Won; Hong, Chae-Hwan; Jeon, Sung-Wan; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2015-11-01

    Gracilaria verrucosa, the red alga, is a suitable feedstock for biosugar production. This study analyzes biosugar production by the hydrolysis of G. verrucosa conducted under various conditions (i.e., various acid concentrations, substrate concentrations, reaction times, and enzyme dosages). The acid hydrolysates of G. verrucosa yielded a total of 7.47g/L (37.4%) and 10.63g/L (21.26%) of reducing sugars under optimal small (30mL) and large laboratory-scale (1L) hydrolysis processes, respectively. Reducing sugar obtained from acid and enzymatic hydrolysates were 10% higher, with minimum by-products, than those reported in other studies. The mass balance for the small laboratory-scale process showed that the acid and enzymatic hydrolysates had a carbohydrate conversion of 57.2%. The mass balance approach to the entire hydrolysis process of red seaweed for biosugar production can be applied to other saccharification processes.

  7. High-yield production and transfer of graphene flakes obtained by anodic bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldt, Thomas; Eckmann, Axel; Klar, Philipp; Morozov, Sergey V; Zhukov, Alexander A; Novoselov, Kostya S; Casiraghi, Cinzia

    2011-10-25

    We report large-yield production of graphene flakes on glass by anodic bonding. Under optimum conditions, we counted several tens of flakes with lateral size around 20-30 μm and a few tens of flakes with larger size. About 60-70% of the flakes have a negligible D peak. We show that it is possible to easily transfer the flakes by the wedging technique. The transfer on silicon does not damage graphene and lowers the doping. The charge mobility of the transferred flakes on silicon is on the order of 6000 cm(2)/V s (at a carrier concentration of 10(12) cm(-2)), which is typical for devices prepared on this substrate with exfoliated graphene.

  8. A case of dedifferentiated liposarcoma showing a biphasic pattern on 2-deoxy-2-F18- fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/ computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Hoshi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated 2-deoxy-2-F18-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT has been used in the field of soft tissue sarcoma. We report an 81-year-old man with dedifferentiated liposarcoma in the left thigh, which was composed of well-differentiated liposarcoma and pleomorphic malignant fibrous histiocytoma. As well as other radiological modalities, FDG-PET was able to demonstrate a biphasic signal pattern composed of well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated area, being consistent with the histological grade of malignancy.

  9. Aeropropulsive characteristics of Mach numbers up to 2.2 of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric nozzles installed on an F-18 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation to determine the aeropropulsive characteristics of nonaxisymmetric nozzles on an F-18 jet effects model was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel and the AEDC 16-foot supersonic wind tunnel. The performance of a two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle, a single expansion ramp nozzle, and a wedge nozzle was compared with that of the baseline axisymmetric nozzle. Test data were obtained at static conditions and at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.20 at an angle of attack of 0 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet-off to about 20.

  10. 贵州高产油菜的群体结构特征及高产栽培技术%The Group Structure Characteristics and High-yield Culture Technique of High-yield Rape in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯文豪; 冯泽蔚; 苏跃

    2012-01-01

    In order to promote the integration and application of high yield cultivation technology of rape,the rape yield and component features in high-yield fields were analyzed in 2010-2011. The results showed that; 1) the group structure characteristics with the yield of over 200 kg/667m2 were as follows; average cultivation density 6 099. 2 plants/667m2 , mean pod number 3. 509 106 per 667 m2, grains per pod 18. 5, 1 000-seed weight 3. 7 g, plant height 191. 4 cm, branch number 10. 9, main inflorescence length 72. 8 cm, average yield 216. 2 kg/667m2. 2) The high-yield cultivation techniques included sowing in September 5-10, cultivating strong seedlings, transplanting on moderate-fertility soil in October 10 ?20, fine preparation of soil, soil testing and formulated fertilization, in time irrigation, disease, pest and grass control.%为了促进贵州油菜高产栽培技术的集成和运用,对2010-2011年参加贵州省油菜高产创建活动的高产田块油菜产量及其群体构成特征进行分析.结果表明:1)产量为200 kg/667m2以上油菜群体的结构特征为平均栽培密度达6 099.2株/667m2,平均角果数3.509×106个/667m2,每果粒数18.5粒,千粒重3.7g,株高191.4 cm,分枝数10.9个,主花序长72.8 cm,平均产量达216.2 kg/667m2.2)高产田块的栽培措施为9月5-10日播种,培育壮苗,10月10-20日移栽,土壤肥力中等,精细整地,测土配方施肥,及时灌排水和防治病虫草害等.

  11. Use of Nonspecific, Glutamic Acid-Free, Media and High Glycerol or High Amylase as Inducing Parameters for Screening Bacillus Isolates Having High Yield of Polyglutamic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxi, Nandita N

    2014-01-01

    Out of fifty-five Bacillus isolates obtained from ten different regional locations and sources, seven showed the ability to consistently produce specific extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) on rich as well as synthetic but nonspecific media which did not contain glutamic acid. The isolates were identified as either Bacillus licheniformis or Bacillus subtilis. The EPS from all isolates was resistant to alpha protease, proteinase K, and was thus of high molecular weight. Further it was detected after SDS-PAGE by methylene blue but not by coomassie blue R staining as in case of proteins with high proportion of acidic amino acids. Cell-free EPS, after acid hydrolysis, showed absence of carbohydrates and presence of only glutamic acid. Thus the native the EPS from all seven isolates was confirmed to be gamma polyglutamic acid (PGA) and not exopolysaccharide. The Bacillus isolate T which produced maximum polymer on all media tested had higher amylase: protease activity as compared to other strains. If inoculum was developed in rich medium as compared to synthetic medium, the PGA produced increased by twofold in the subsequent synthetic production medium. Similarly, use of inoculum consisting of young and vegetative cells also increased the PGA production by twofold though amount of inoculum did not affect yield of PGA. Though PGA was produced in even in the absence of glutamic acid supplementation in the production medium by all isolates, the yield of PGA increased by fourfold in the presence glutamic acid and the maximum yield was 30 g/l for isolate K. The supplementation of glutamine instead of glutamic acid into the medium caused an increase in the viscosity of the non-Newtonian solution of PGA.

  12. Development and characterization of a high yield transportable pulsed neutron source with efficient and compact pulsed power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rishi; Mishra, Ekansh; Dhang, Prosenjit; Sagar, Karuna; Meena, Manraj; Shyam, Anurag

    2016-09-01

    The results of characterization experiments carried out on a newly developed dense plasma focus device based intense pulsed neutron source with efficient and compact pulsed power system are reported. Its high current sealed pseudospark switch based low inductance capacitor bank with maximum stored energy of ˜10 kJ is segregated into four modules of ˜2.5 kJ each and it cumulatively delivers peak current in the range of 400 kA-600 kA (corresponding to charging voltage range of 14 kV-18 kV) in a quarter time period of ˜2 μs. The neutron yield performance of this device has been optimized by discretely varying deuterium filling gas pressure in the range of 6 mbar-11 mbar at ˜17 kV/550 kA discharge. At ˜7 kJ/8.5 mbar operation, the average neutron yield has been measured to be in the order of ˜4 × 109 neutrons/pulse which is the highest ever reported neutron yield from a plasma focus device with the same stored energy. The average forward to radial anisotropy in neutron yield is found to be ˜2. The entire system is contained on a moveable trolley having dimensions 1.5 m × 1 m × 0.7 m and its operation and control (up to the distance of 25 m) are facilitated through optically isolated handheld remote console. The overall compactness of this system provides minimum proximity to small as well as large samples for irradiation. The major intended application objective of this high neutron yield dense plasma focus device development is to explore the feasibility of active neutron interrogation experiments by utilization of intense pulsed neutron sources.

  13. Study on the Practice and High-yielding Mechanism of Super-sparse-cultivation Associated with Maximum-tiller Seedling of Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; TAO Shi-shun

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new cultivation practice-super-sparse-cultivation associated with maximumtiller seedling (SSCMTS) of hybrid rice was proposed and its high-yielding mechanism was studied. The results showed that the practice of SSCMTS in hybrid rice could not only increase grain yield but also save seeds and labor. It was a new high-yielding way for the late transplanting seedlings and heavy panicle type hybrid rice cultivars to further utilize the high-yielding potential of hybrid rice cultivars. The increasing number of spikelets and ideal grain -filling were the direct factors for the high yield of SSCMTS in hybrid rice, and those high-yielding factors relied on high quality seedlings, sturdy individuals, high quality population and vigorous later growth.

  14. A Proposed Method for Measurement of Absolute Air Fluorescence Yield based on High Resolution Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gika, V; Maltezos, S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a method for absolute measurement of air fluorescence yield based on high resolution optical emission spectroscopy. The absolute measurement of the air fluorescence yield is feasible using the Cherenkov light, emitted by an electron beam simultaneously with the fluorescence light, as a "standard candle". The separation of these two radiations can be accomplished exploiting the "dark" spectral regions of the emission band systems of the molecular spectrum of nitrogen. In these "dark" regions the net Cherenkov light can be recorded experimentally and be compared with the calculated one. The instrumentation for obtaining the nitrogen molecular spectra in high resolution and the noninvasive method for monitoring the rotational temperature of the emission process are also described. For the experimental evaluation of the molecular spectra analysis we used DC normal glow discharges in air performed in an appropriate spectral lamp considered as an air-fluorescence light emulator. The propose...

  15. Transcriptome Analysis Suggests That Starch Synthesis May Proceed via Multiple Metabolic Routes in High Yielding Potato Cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Høgh Petersen, Annabeth; Sønderkær, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be i