WorldWideScience

Sample records for high volume high volume

  1. High volume data storage architecture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, James M.

    1990-01-01

    A High Volume Data Storage Architecture Analysis was conducted. The results, presented in this report, will be applied to problems of high volume data requirements such as those anticipated for the Space Station Control Center. High volume data storage systems at several different sites were analyzed for archive capacity, storage hierarchy and migration philosophy, and retrieval capabilities. Proposed architectures were solicited from the sites selected for in-depth analysis. Model architectures for a hypothetical data archiving system, for a high speed file server, and for high volume data storage are attached.

  2. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  3. MANAGING HIGH-END, HIGH-VOLUME INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembong Baskoro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuses the concept of managing high-end, high-volume innovative products. High-end, high-volume consumer products are products that have considerable influence to the way of life. Characteristic of High-end, high-volume consumer products are (1 short cycle time, (2 quick obsolete time, and (3 rapid price erosion. Beside the disadvantages that they are high risk for manufacturers, if manufacturers are able to understand precisely the consumer needs then they have the potential benefit or success to be the market leader. High innovation implies to high utilization of the user, therefore these products can influence indirectly to the way of people life. The objective of managing them is to achieve sustainability of the products development and innovation. This paper observes the behavior of these products in companies operated in high-end, high-volume consumer product.

  4. High dynamic, low volume GPS receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    A new GPS receiver concept and design are presented to meet the high dynamic and low volume requirements for range applications in missiles and drones. The receiver has the potential to satisfy all range requirements with one basic receiver, which has significant potential economic benefit over the alternate approach of using a family of receivers, each tailored for specific applications. The main new concept is to use approximate maximum likelihood estimates of pseudo range and range-rate, rather than tracking with carrier phase locked loops and code delay locked loops. Preliminary analysis indicates that receivers accelerating at 50 g or more can track with position errors due to acceleration of approximately 0.2 m/g, or 10 m at 50 g. Implementation is almost entirely digital to meet the low volume requirements.

  5. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  6. High volume, multiple use, portable precipitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Duane C.

    2011-10-25

    A portable high air volume electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a collection electrode adapted to carry a variety of collecting media. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section with a transversely positioned ionization wire to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows over the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. Air flow is maintained at but below turbulent flow, Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the selected medium which can be removed for analysis.

  7. Multi-Volume High Resolution RGB-D Mapping with Dynamic Volume Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Salvato, Michael; Finman, Ross; Leonard, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel RGB-D mapping system for generating 3D maps over spatially extended regions with higher resolution than current methods using multiple, dynamically placed mapping volumes. Our method takes in RGB-D frames and dynamically assigns multiple mapping volumes to the environment, exchanging mapping volumes between the CPU and GPU. Mapping volumes are added or removed as needed to allow for spatially extended, high resolution mapping. Our system is designed to maximize the resoluti...

  8. Device overlay method for high volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Honggoo; Han, Sangjun; Kim, Youngsik; Kim, Myoungsoo; Heo, Hoyoung; Jeon, Sanghuck; Choi, DongSub; Nabeth, Jeremy; Brinster, Irina; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.

    2016-03-01

    Advancing technology nodes with smaller process margins require improved photolithography overlay control. Overlay control at develop inspection (DI) based on optical metrology targets is well established in semiconductor manufacturing. Advances in target design and metrology technology have enabled significant improvements in overlay precision and accuracy. One approach to represent in-die on-device as-etched overlay is to measure at final inspection (FI) with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Disadvantages to this approach include inability to rework, limited layer coverage due to lack of transparency, and higher cost of ownership (CoO). A hybrid approach is investigated in this report whereby infrequent DI/FI bias is characterized and the results are used to compensate the frequent DI overlay results. The bias characterization is done on an infrequent basis, either based on time or triggered from change points. On a per-device and per-layer basis, the optical target overlay at DI is compared with SEM on-device overlay at FI. The bias characterization results are validated and tracked for use in compensating the DI APC controller. Results of the DI/FI bias characterization and sources of variation are presented, as well as the impact on the DI correctables feeding the APC system. Implementation details in a high volume manufacturing (HVM) wafer fab will be reviewed. Finally future directions of the investigation will be discussed.

  9. Pulse volume discharges in high pressure gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamshchikov, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    New approach for suppression of plasma inhomogeneities and instabilities in the volume self-sustained discharge is offered. The physical model is offered and conditions of obtaining extremely homogeneous self-sustained discharge are defined (with full suppression of plasma inhomogeneity and instability). Results of calculations agree with experiments.

  10. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnquist, Norman [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Qi, Xuele [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Raminosoa, Tsarafidy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Salas, Ken [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Samudrala, Omprakash [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Shah, Manoj [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Van Dam, Jeremy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Yin, Weijun [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  11. Low head, high volume pump apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Don E.; Young, Bryan F.

    1989-01-01

    An inner cylinder and a substantially larger outer cylinder are joined as two verticle concentric cylinders. Verticle partitions between the cylinders divide the space between the cylinders into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber which is substantially larger in volume than the inner chamber. The inner cylinder has a central pumping section positioned between upper and lower valve sections. In the valve section ports extend through the inner cylinder wall to the inlet and outlet chambers. Spring loaded valves close the ports. Tension springs extend across the inlet chamber and compression springs extend across the inner cylinder to close the inlet valves. Tension springs extend across the inner cylinder the close the outlet valves. The elastomeric valve flaps have rigid curved backing members. A piston rod extends through one end cover to move a piston in the central section. An inlet is connected to the inlet chamber and an outlet is connected to the outlet chamber.

  12. High Volume Colour Image Processing with Massively Parallel Embedded Processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Jan W.M.; Bond, W.; Pouls, R.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Joubert, G.R.; Peters, F.J.; Tirado, P.; Nagel, W.E.; Plata, O.; Zapata, E.

    2006-01-01

    Currently Oce uses FPGA technology for implementing colour image processing for their high volume colour printers. Although FPGA technology provides enough performance it, however, has a rather tedious development process. This paper describes the research conducted on an alternative implementation

  13. High Voltage Design Guide. Volume V. Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    connector are soldered, with the possible exception of very high voltage points. Even then rudimentary connectors such as that shown In figura 13 ar used...addition, large stresses will be imposed on the struc- tural (high resistance) member. This conductor movement will flex and stretch the conductors, placing...materials used for airplane systems provided they meet the electrical, chemical, and mechanical characteristic requirements imposed by the design

  14. Acute plasma volume change with high-intensity sprint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Farney, Tyler M

    2013-10-01

    When exercise is of long duration or of moderate to high intensity, a decrease in plasma volume can be observed. This has been noted for both aerobic and resistance exercise, but few data are available with regard to high-intensity sprint exercise. We measured plasma volume before and after 3 different bouts of acute exercise, of varying intensity, and/or duration. On different days, men (n = 12; 21-35 years) performed aerobic cycle exercise (60 minutes at 70% heart rate reserve) and 2 different bouts of cycle sprints (five 60-second sprints at 100% maximum wattage obtained during graded exercise testing (GXT) and ten 15-second sprints at 200% maximum wattage obtained during GXT). Blood was collected before and 0, 30, and 60 minutes postexercise and analyzed for hematocrit and hemoglobin and plasma volume was calculated. Plasma volume decreased significantly for all exercise bouts (p sprint bouts (∼19%) compared with aerobic exercise bouts (∼11%). By 30 minutes postexercise, plasma volume approached pre-exercise values. We conclude that acute bouts of exercise, in particular high-intensity sprint exercise, significantly decrease plasma volume during the immediate postexercise period. It is unknown what, if any negative implications these transient changes may have on exercise performance. Strength and conditioning professionals may aim to rehydrate athletes appropriately after high-intensity exercise bouts.

  15. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  16. High-quality multi-resolution volume rendering in medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai; YANG Jie; LI Xiao-liang

    2007-01-01

    In order to perform a high-quality interactive rendering of large medical data sets on a single off-theshelf PC, a LOD selection algorithm for multi-resolution volume rendering using 3D texture mapping is presented, which uses an adaptive scheme that renders the volume in a region-of-interest at a high resolution and the volume away from this region at lower resolutions. The algorithm is based on several important criteria, and rendering is done adaptively by selecting high-resolution cells close to a center of attention and low-resolution cells away from this area. In addition, our hierarchical level-of-detail representation guarantees consistent interpolation between different resolution levels. Experiments have been applied to a number of large medical data and have produced high quality images at interactive frame rates using standard PC hardware.

  17. High lung volume increases stress failure in pulmonary capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z.; Costello, M. L.; Tsukimoto, K.; Prediletto, R.; Elliott, A. R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We previously showed that when pulmonary capillaries in anesthetized rabbits are exposed to a transmural pressure (Ptm) of approximately 40 mmHg, stress failure of the walls occurs with disruption of the capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium, or sometimes all layers. The present study was designed to test whether stress failure occurred more frequently at high than at low lung volumes for the same Ptm. Lungs of anesthetized rabbits were inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 20 cmH2O, perfused with autologous blood at 32.5 or 2.5 cmH2O Ptm, and fixed by intravascular perfusion. Samples were examined by both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with those of a previous study in which the lung was inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O. There was a large increase in the frequency of stress failure of the capillary walls at the higher lung volume. For example, at 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the number of endothelial breaks per millimeter cell lining was 7.1 +/- 2.2 at the high lung volume compared with 0.7 +/- 0.4 at the low lung volume. The corresponding values for epithelium were 8.5 +/- 1.6 and 0.9 +/- 0.6. Both differences were significant (P less than 0.05). At 52.5 cmH2O Ptm, the results for endothelium were 20.7 +/- 7.6 (high volume) and 7.1 +/- 2.1 (low volume), and the corresponding results for epithelium were 32.8 +/- 11.9 and 11.4 +/- 3.7. At 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the thickness of the blood-gas barrier was greater at the higher lung volume, consistent with the development of more interstitial edema. Ballooning of the epithelium caused by accumulation of edema fluid between the epithelial cell and its basement membrane was seen at 32.5 and 52.5 cmH2O Ptm. At high lung volume, the breaks tended to be narrower and fewer were oriented perpendicular to the axis of the pulmonary capillaries than at low lung volumes. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements agreed well. Our findings provide a physiological

  18. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  19. High order finite volume methods for singular perturbation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZhongYing; HE ChongNan; WU Bin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we establish a high order finite volume method for the fourth order singular perturbation problems. In conjunction with the optimal meshes, the numerical solutions resulting from the method have optimal convergence order. Numerical experiments are presented to verify our theoretical estimates.

  20. FIELD EVALUATION OF A HIGH-VOLUME DICHOTOMOUS SAMPLER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents the field evaluation of a high-volume dichotomous sampler that collects coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter. The key feature of this device is the utilization of a round-nozzle virtual impactor with a 50% cutpoint at 2.5 5m to split PM10 into...

  1. Research Note Difference between low-volume and high-volume Andersen samplers in measuring atmospheric aerosols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengfu Fu; Nobuo Shinohaya; Mitsuo Ito; Xueqin Xu; Mincong Shen; Liangjun Xu

    2008-01-01

    The mass concentration and size distribution of aerosols in Tokaimura were investigated using a high-volume and a low-volume Andersen sampler. A difference was found using the two samplers: the concentration of total aerosols determined with the high-volume sampler is smaller than that of the low-volume sampler by 70-90% throughout the year. Compared to the high-volume sampler, low-volume sampler gave lower concentration for aerosols7μm, higher concentration for aerosols of 3.3-7.0μm and<1.1μm, though similar results for aerosols of 1.1-3.3μm. The low-volume sampler was found to have better separation efficiency and higher accuracy.

  2. Quantifying Volume of Groundwater in High Elevation Meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciruzzi, D.; Lowry, C.

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the current and future water needs of high elevation meadows is dependent on quantifying the volume of groundwater stored within the meadow sediment. As groundwater dependent ecosystems, these meadows rely on their ability to capture and store water in order to support ecologic function and base flow to streams. Previous research of these meadows simplified storage by assuming a homogenous reservoir of constant thickness. These previous storage models were able to close the water mass balance, but it is unclear if these assumptions will be successful under future anthropogenic impacts, such as increased air temperature resulting in dryer and longer growing seasons. Applying a geophysical approach, ground-penetrating radar was used at Tuolumne Meadows, CA to qualitatively and quantitatively identify the controls on volume of groundwater storage. From the geophysical results, a three-dimensional model of Tuolumne Meadows was created, which identified meadow thickness and bedrock geometry. This physical model was used in a suite of numerical models simulating high elevation meadows in order to quantify volume of groundwater stored with temporal and spatial variability. Modeling efforts tested both wet and dry water years in order to quantify the variability in the volume of groundwater storage for a range of aquifer properties. Each model was evaluated based on the seasonal depth to water in order to evaluate a particular scenario's ability to support ecological function and base flow. Depending on the simulated meadows ability or inability to support its ecosystem, each representative meadow was categorized as successful or unsuccessful. Restoration techniques to increase active storage volume were suggested at unsuccessful meadows.

  3. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the development, execution outcomes and lessons learned of the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program carried out over a three-year period from 2009 through 2012. The primary goals of the program were met: 1) reduce the incremental cost of highly insulating windows compared to ENERGY STAR windows; and 2) raise the public and potential buyers’ awareness of highly insulating windows and their benefits. A key outcome of the program is that the 2013 ENERGY STAR Most Efficient criteria for primary residential windows were adopted from the technical specifications set forth in the WVP program.

  4. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-10-01

    A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.

  5. Large volume high-pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Kamenev, K. V. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Sokolov, D. A.; Huxley, A. D. [SUPA, Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements typically require two orders of magnitude longer data collection times and larger sample sizes than neutron diffraction studies. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on pressurised samples are particularly challenging since standard high-pressure apparatus restricts sample volume, attenuates the incident and scattered beams, and contributes background scattering. Here, we present the design of a large volume two-layered piston-cylinder pressure cell with optimised transmission for inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The design and the materials selected for the construction of the cell enable its safe use to a pressure of 1.8 GPa with a sample volume in excess of 400 mm{sup 3}. The design of the piston seal eliminates the need for a sample container, thus providing a larger sample volume and reduced absorption. The integrated electrical plug with a manganin pressure gauge offers an accurate measurement of pressure over the whole range of operational temperatures. The performance of the cell is demonstrated by an inelastic neutron scattering study of UGe{sub 2}.

  6. Large volume high-pressure cell for inelastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Sokolov, D. A.; Huxley, A. D.; Kamenev, K. V.

    2011-07-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements typically require two orders of magnitude longer data collection times and larger sample sizes than neutron diffraction studies. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on pressurised samples are particularly challenging since standard high-pressure apparatus restricts sample volume, attenuates the incident and scattered beams, and contributes background scattering. Here, we present the design of a large volume two-layered piston-cylinder pressure cell with optimised transmission for inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The design and the materials selected for the construction of the cell enable its safe use to a pressure of 1.8 GPa with a sample volume in excess of 400 mm3. The design of the piston seal eliminates the need for a sample container, thus providing a larger sample volume and reduced absorption. The integrated electrical plug with a manganin pressure gauge offers an accurate measurement of pressure over the whole range of operational temperatures. The performance of the cell is demonstrated by an inelastic neutron scattering study of UGe2.

  7. Volume analysis of supercooled water under high pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Duki, Solomon F.; Tsige, Mesfin

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental findings on the volume of supercooled water at high pressure [O. Mishima, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144503 (2010)] we performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations study of bulk water in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. Cooling and heating cycles at different isobars and isothermal compression at different temperatures are performed on the water sample with pressures that range from 0 to 1.0 GPa. The cooling simulations are done at temperatures that range from...

  8. Efficient high-volume cataract services: the Aravind model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasiraj Ravilla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aravind Eye Care System began as an 11-bed eye clinic in 1976. Over the last 36 years, over 40 million outpatient examinations have been performed and over 5 million patients have undergone eye surgery or laser procedures. Aravind, with its mission to ‘eliminate needless blindness’, has been able to achieve this by adhering to the principle of providing large volume, high quality and affordable services in a financially sustainable manner both for the patients and for Aravind. Much importance is given to equity – ensuring that all patients are accorded the same high quality care and service, regardless of their economic status.

  9. Verification and validation guidelines for high integrity systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Dinsmore, G.; Hecht, S.; Tang, D. [SoHaR, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    High integrity systems include all protective (safety and mitigation) systems for nuclear power plants, and also systems for which comparable reliability requirements exist in other fields, such as in the process industries, in air traffic control, and in patient monitoring and other medical systems. Verification aims at determining that each stage in the software development completely and correctly implements requirements that were established in a preceding phase, while validation determines that the overall performance of a computer system completely and correctly meets system requirements. Volume I of the report reviews existing classifications for high integrity systems and for the types of errors that may be encountered, and makes recommendations for verification and validation procedures, based on assumptions about the environment in which these procedures will be conducted. The final chapter of Volume I deals with a framework for standards in this field. Volume II contains appendices dealing with specific methodologies for system classification, for dependability evaluation, and for two software tools that can automate otherwise very labor intensive verification and validation activities.

  10. Activated blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, C.J.; Qian, J.S. [CJS Technology Inc., Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    This study investigated the strength and equilibrium water extraction of blended cement containing high volume coal fly ash and activator CaCl{sub 2}. The addition of CaCl{sub 2} increased the strength of cement very significantly. Equilibrium water extraction indicated that the addition of CaCl{sub 2} decreased the pH of the pore solution, but accelerated the pozzolanic reactions between coal fly ash and lime, which became more obvious when the volume of fly ash in the cement was increased from 50-70%. Results from both strength and water extraction testing could conclude that CaCl{sub 2} is a good activator for the activation of pozzolanic reactivity of fly ash and for the improvement of early properties of fly ash cement and concrete.

  11. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity of local free volumes in highly supercooled liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Hayato; Kawasaki, Takeshi

    2013-11-01

    We discuss the spatiotemporal behavior of local density and its relation to dynamical heterogeneity in a highly supercooled liquid by using molecular dynamics simulations of a binary mixture with different particle sizes in two dimensions. To trace voids heterogeneously existing with lower local densities, which move along with the structural relaxation, we employ the minimum local density for each particle in a time window whose width is set along with the structural relaxation time. Particles subject to free volumes correspond well to the configuration rearranging region of dynamical heterogeneity. While the correlation length for dynamical heterogeneity grows with temperature decrease, no growth in the correlation length of heterogeneity in the minimum local density distribution takes place. A comparison of these results with those of normal mode analysis reveals that superpositions of lower-frequency soft modes extending over the free volumes exhibit spatial correlation with the broken bonds. This observation suggests a possibility that long-ranged vibration modes facilitate the interactions between fragile regions represented by free volumes, to induce dynamical correlations at a large scale.

  12. High Performance GPU-Based Fourier Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Marwan; Eldeib, Ayman; Sharawi, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Fourier volume rendering (FVR) is a significant visualization technique that has been used widely in digital radiography. As a result of its (N (2)log⁡N) time complexity, it provides a faster alternative to spatial domain volume rendering algorithms that are (N (3)) computationally complex. Relying on the Fourier projection-slice theorem, this technique operates on the spectral representation of a 3D volume instead of processing its spatial representation to generate attenuation-only projections that look like X-ray radiographs. Due to the rapid evolution of its underlying architecture, the graphics processing unit (GPU) became an attractive competent platform that can deliver giant computational raw power compared to the central processing unit (CPU) on a per-dollar-basis. The introduction of the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) technology enables embarrassingly-parallel algorithms to run efficiently on CUDA-capable GPU architectures. In this work, a high performance GPU-accelerated implementation of the FVR pipeline on CUDA-enabled GPUs is presented. This proposed implementation can achieve a speed-up of 117x compared to a single-threaded hybrid implementation that uses the CPU and GPU together by taking advantage of executing the rendering pipeline entirely on recent GPU architectures.

  13. High Performance GPU-Based Fourier Volume Rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Abdellah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier volume rendering (FVR is a significant visualization technique that has been used widely in digital radiography. As a result of its O(N2log⁡N time complexity, it provides a faster alternative to spatial domain volume rendering algorithms that are O(N3 computationally complex. Relying on the Fourier projection-slice theorem, this technique operates on the spectral representation of a 3D volume instead of processing its spatial representation to generate attenuation-only projections that look like X-ray radiographs. Due to the rapid evolution of its underlying architecture, the graphics processing unit (GPU became an attractive competent platform that can deliver giant computational raw power compared to the central processing unit (CPU on a per-dollar-basis. The introduction of the compute unified device architecture (CUDA technology enables embarrassingly-parallel algorithms to run efficiently on CUDA-capable GPU architectures. In this work, a high performance GPU-accelerated implementation of the FVR pipeline on CUDA-enabled GPUs is presented. This proposed implementation can achieve a speed-up of 117x compared to a single-threaded hybrid implementation that uses the CPU and GPU together by taking advantage of executing the rendering pipeline entirely on recent GPU architectures.

  14. High-volume infiltration analgesia in bilateral hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Ø; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Husted, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    was instituted preoperatively with a multimodal regimen (gabapentin, celecoxib, and acetaminophen). Pain was assessed repeatedly for 48 hours postoperatively, at rest and with 45° hip flexion. Results Pain scores were low and similar between ropivacaine and saline administration. Median hospital stay was 4...... (range 2-7) days. Interpretation Intraoperative high-volume infiltration with 0.2% ropivacaine with repeated intraarticular injections postoperatively may not give a clinically relevant analgesic effect in THA when combined with a multimodal oral analgesic regimen with gabapentin, celecoxib...

  15. Modified algorithm for generating high volume fraction sphere packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Roberto Roselló; Morales, Irvin Pérez; Vanmaercke, Simon; Morfa, Carlos Recarey; Cortés, Lucía Argüelles; Casañas, Harold Díaz-Guzmán

    2015-06-01

    Advancing front packing algorithms have proven to be very efficient in 2D for obtaining high density sets of particles, especially disks. However, the extension of these algorithms to 3D is not a trivial task. In the present paper, an advancing front algorithm for obtaining highly dense sphere packings is presented. It is simpler than other advancing front packing methods in 3D and can also be used with other types of particles. Comparison with respect to other packing methods have been carried out and a significant improvement in the volume fraction (VF) has been observed. Moreover, the quality of packings was evaluated with indicators other than VF. As additional advantage, the number of generated particles with the algorithm is linear with respect to time.

  16. A comparative study of self-consolidating concretes incorporating high-volume natural pozzolan or high-volume fly ash

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Kemal

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Portland cement replacement on the strength and durability of self-consolidating concretes (SSC). The two replacement materials used are high-volume natural pozzolan (HVNP), a Saudi Arabian aluminum-silica rich basaltic glass and high-volume Class-F fly ash (HVFAF), from Jim Bridger Power Plant, Wyoming, US. As an extension of the study, limestone filler (LF) is also used to replace Portland cement, alongside HVNP or HVFAF, forming ternary blends. Along with compressive strength tests, non-steady state chloride migration and gas permeability tests were performed, as durability indicators, on SCC specimens. The results were compared to two reference concretes; 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 85% OPC - 15% LF by mass. The HVNP and HVFAF concrete mixes showed strength and durability results comparable to those of the reference concretes; identifying that both can effectively be used to produce low-cost and environmental friendly SCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a high-volume air sampler for nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, M; Thongyen, T; Bao, L; Hoshino, A; Otani, Y; Ikeda, T; Furuuchi, M

    2013-02-01

    As a tool to evaluate the characteristics of aerosol nano-particles, a high-volume air sampler for the collection of nano-particles was developed based on the inertial filter technology. Instead of the webbed fiber geometry of the existing inertial filter, wire mesh screens alternately layered using spacing sheets with circular holes aligned to provide multi-circular nozzles were newly devised and the separation performance of the filter was investigated experimentally. The separation performance was evaluated for a single-nozzle inertial filter at different filtration velocities. A webbed stainless steel fiber mat attached on the inlet surface of the developed inertial filter was discussed as a pre-separator suppressing the bouncing of particles on meshes. The separation performance of a triple-nozzle inertial filter was also discussed to investigate the influence of scale-up on the separation performance of a multi-nozzle inertial filter. The influence of particle loading on the pressure drop and separation performance was discussed. A supplemental inlet for the nano-particle collection applied to an existing portable high-volume air sampler was devised and the consistency with other types of existing samplers was discussed based on the sampling of ambient particles. The layered-mesh inertial filter with a webbed stainless steel fiber mat as a pre-separator showed good performance in the separation of particles with a d p50 ranging from 150 to 190 nm keeping the influence of loaded particles small. The developed layered-mesh inertial filter was successfully applied to the collection of particles at a d p50∼ 190 nm that was consistent with the results from existing samplers.

  18. Nanoimprint Lithography -A Next Generation High Volume Lithography Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Pelzer; P.Lindner; T.Glinsner; B.Vratzov; C.Gourgon; S.Landis; P.Kettner; C.Schaefer

    2004-01-01

    Nanoimprint Lithography has been demonstrated to be one of the most promising next generation techniques for large-area structure replication in the nanometer scale.This fast and low cost method becomes an increasingly important instrument for fabrication of biochemistry,μ-fluidic,μ-TAS and telecommunication devices,as well as for a wide variety of fields in the nm range,like biomedical,nano-fluidics,nano-optical applications,data storage,etc.Due to the restrictions on wavelength and the enormous development works,linked to high process and equipment costs on standard lithography systems,nanoimprint lithography might become a real competitive method in mainstream IC industry.There are no physical limitations encountered with imprinting techniques for much smaller replicated structures,down to the sub-10nm range [1].Among several Nanoimprint lithography techniques results of two promising methods,hot embossing lithography(HEL)and UV-nanoimprinting(UV-NIL)will be presented.Both techniques allow rapid prototyping as well as high volume production of fully patterned substrates for a wide range of materials.This paper will present results on HE and UVNIL,among them full wafer imprints up to 200mm with high-resolution patterns down to nm range.

  19. Characterization of segmented large volume, high purity germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyneel, B. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2006-07-01

    {gamma}-ray tracking in future HPGe arrays like AGATA will rely on pulse shape analysis (PSA) of multiple {gamma}-interactions. For this purpose, a simple and fast procedure was developed which enabled the first full characterization of a segmented large volume HPGe detector. An analytical model for the hole mobility in a Ge crystal lattice was developed to describe the hole drift anisotropy with experimental velocity values along the crystal axis as parameters. The new model is based on the drifted Maxwellian hole distribution in Ge. It is verified by reproducing successfully experimental longitudinal hole anisotropy data. A comparison between electron and hole mobility shows large differences for the longitudinal and tangential velocity anisotropy as a function of the electrical field orientation. Measurements on a 12 fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by {gamma}-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60 keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356 keV rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and the digital electronics

  20. Low-volume plus ascorbic acid vs high-volume plus simethicone bowel preparation before colonoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefano Pontone; Rita Angelini; Monica Standoli; Gregorio Patrizi; Franco Culasso; Paolo Pontone; Adriano Redler

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of low-volume plus ascorbic acid [polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid (PEG + Asc)] and high-volume plus simethicone [polyethylene glycol plus simethicone (PEG + Sim)] bowel preparations.METHODS: A total of one hundred and forty-four outpatients (76 males), aged from 20 to 84 years (me dian age 59.5 years), who attended our Department, were divided into two groups, age and sex matched, and underwent colonoscopy. Two questionnaires, one for patients reporting acceptability and the other for endoscopists evaluating bowel cleansing effectiveness according to validated scales, were completed. Indica tions, timing of examination and endoscopical findings were recorded. Biopsy forceps were used as a measur ing tool in order to determine polyp endoscopic sizeestimation. Difficulty in completing the preparation was rated in a 5-point Likert scale (1 = easy to 5 = un able). Adverse experiences (fullness, cramps, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache and insomnia), number of evacuations and types of activities per formed during preparation (walking or resting in bed) were also investigated.RESULTS: Seventy-two patients were selected for each group. The two groups were age and sex matched as well as being comparable in terms of medical history and drug therapies taken. Fourteen patients dropped out from the trial because they did not complete the preparation procedure. Ratings of global bowel cleans ing examinations were considered to be adequate in 91% of PEG + Asc and 88% of PEG + Sim patients. Residual Stool Score indicated similar levels of amount and consistency of residual stool; there was a signifi cant difference in the percentage of bowel wall visuali zation in favour of PEG + Sim patients. In the PEG + Sim group, 12 adenomas < 10 mm diameter (5/left co lon + 7/right colon) vs 9 (8/left colon + 1/right colon) in the PEG + Asc group were diagnosed. Visualization of small lesions seems to be one of the primary advan tages of

  1. Ribbon scanning confocal for high-speed high-resolution volume imaging of brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan M; Rose, Annika H; Gibson, Gregory A; Gardner, Christina L; Sun, Chengqun; Reed, Douglas S; Lam, L K Metthew; St Croix, Claudette M; Strick, Peter L; Klimstra, William B; Watkins, Simon C

    2017-01-01

    Whole-brain imaging is becoming a fundamental means of experimental insight; however, achieving subcellular resolution imagery in a reasonable time window has not been possible. We describe the first application of multicolor ribbon scanning confocal methods to collect high-resolution volume images of chemically cleared brains. We demonstrate that ribbon scanning collects images over ten times faster than conventional high speed confocal systems but with equivalent spectral and spatial resolution. Further, using this technology, we reconstruct large volumes of mouse brain infected with encephalitic alphaviruses and demonstrate that regions of the brain with abundant viral replication were inaccessible to vascular perfusion. This reveals that the destruction or collapse of large regions of brain micro vasculature may contribute to the severe disease caused by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Visualization of this fundamental impact of infection would not be possible without sampling at subcellular resolution within large brain volumes.

  2. Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1 and a follow-up (visit 2 at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85% were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments.

  3. Volume Based DTM Generation from Very High Resolution Photogrammetric Dsms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltz, B.; Bayer, S.; Poznanska, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose a new algorithm for digital terrain (DTM) model reconstruction from very high spatial resolution digital surface models (DSMs). It represents a combination of multi-directional filtering with a new metric which we call normalized volume above ground to create an above-ground mask containing buildings and elevated vegetation. This mask can be used to interpolate a ground-only DTM. The presented algorithm works fully automatically, requiring only the processing parameters minimum height and maximum width in metric units. Since slope and breaklines are not decisive criteria, low and smooth and even very extensive flat objects are recognized and masked. The algorithm was developed with the goal to generate the normalized DSM for automatic 3D building reconstruction and works reliably also in environments with distinct hillsides or terrace-shaped terrain where conventional methods would fail. A quantitative comparison with the ISPRS data sets Potsdam and Vaihingen show that 98-99% of all building data points are identified and can be removed, while enough ground data points (~66%) are kept to be able to reconstruct the ground surface. Additionally, we discuss the concept of size dependent height thresholds and present an efficient scheme for pyramidal processing of data sets reducing time complexity to linear to the number of pixels, O(WH).

  4. Coarsening in high volume fraction nickel-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R. A.; Nathal, M. V.

    1990-01-01

    The coarsening behavior of the gamma-prime precipitate has been examined in high volume fraction nickel-base alloys aged at elevated temperatures for times of up to 5000 h. Although the cube rate law was observed during coarsening, none of the presently available coarsening theories showed complete agreement with the experimental particle size distributions (PSDs). These discrepancies were thought to be due to elastic coherency strains which were not considered by the available models. Increasing the Mo content significantly influenced the PSDs and decreased the coarsening rate of the gamma-prime cubes, as a result of increasing the magnitude of the lattice mismatch. After extended aging times, the gamma-prime cubes underwent massive coalescence into plates at a rate which was much faster than the cuboidal coarsening rate. Once the gamma-prime plates were formed, further coarsening was not observed, and this stabilization of the microstructure was attributed to the development of dislocation networks at the gamma-gamma-prime interfaces.

  5. Radiological and material characterization of high volume fly ash concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatović, I; Sas, Z; Dragaš, J; Somlai, J; Kovács, T

    2017-03-01

    The main goal of research presented in this paper was the material and radiological characterization of high volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) in terms of determination of natural radionuclide content and radon emanation and exhalation coefficients. All concrete samples were made with a fly ash content between 50% and 70% of the total amount of cementitious materials from one coal burning power plant in Serbia. Physical (fresh and hardened concrete density) and mechanical properties (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity) of concrete were tested. The radionuclide content ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) and radon massic exhalation of HVFAC samples were determined using gamma spectrometry. Determination of massic exhalation rates of HVFAC and its components using radon accumulation chamber techniques combined with a radon monitor was performed. The results show a beneficial effect of pozzolanic activity since the increase in fly ash content resulted in an increase in compressive strength of HVFAC by approximately 20% for the same mass of cement used in the mixtures. On the basis of the obtained radionuclide content of concrete components the I -indices of different HVFAC samples were calculated and compared with measured values (0.27-0.32), which were significantly below the recommended 1.0 index value. The prediction was relatively close to the measured values as the ratio between the calculated and measured I-index ranged between 0.89 and 1.14. Collected results of mechanical and radiological properties and performed calculations clearly prove that all 10 designed concretes with a certain type of fly ash are suitable for structural and non-structural applications both from a material and radiological point of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High brightness diode lasers controlled by volume Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebov, Leonid

    2017-02-01

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) recorded in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass are holographic optical elements that are effective spectral and angular filters withstanding high power laser radiation. Reflecting VBGs are narrow-band spectral filters while transmitting VBGs are narrow-band angular filters. The use of these optical elements in external resonators of semiconductor lasers enables extremely resonant feedback that provides dramatic spectral and angular narrowing of laser diodes radiation without significant power and efficiency penalty. Spectral narrowing of laser diodes by reflecting VBGs demonstrated in wide spectral region from near UV to 3 μm. Commercially available VBGs have spectral width ranged from few nanometers to few tens of picometers. Efficient spectral locking was demonstrated for edge emitters (single diodes, bars, modules, and stacks), vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), grating coupled surface emitting lasers (GCSELs), and interband cascade lasers (ICLs). The use of multiplexed VBGs provides multiwavelength emission from a single emitter. Spectrally locked semiconductor lasers demonstrated CW power from milliwatts to a kilowatt. Angular narrowing by transmitting VBGs enables single transverse mode emission from wide aperture diode lasers having resonators with great Fresnel numbers. This feature provides close to diffraction limit divergence along a slow axis of wide stripe edge emitters. Radiation exchange between lasers by means of spatially profiled or multiplexed VBGs enables coherent combining of diode lasers. Sequence of VBGs or multiplexed VBGs enable spectral combining of spectrally narrowed diode lasers or laser modules. Thus the use of VBGs for diode lasers beam control provides dramatic increase of brightness.

  7. High-Volume Utilization of Cotton in Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article briefly explores possible utilization of cotton in volume in the traditional textile sector and in the growing nontraditional nonwovens sector and covers the challenges and opportunities that may exist on the way. Some new concepts in the development of predominantly cotton-based textil...

  8. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography with High-Contrast Dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) system has been designed to complement the tools created to sense the presence of water in nonconductive spacecraft materials, by helping to not only find the approximate location of moisture but also its quantity and depth. The ECVT system has been created for use with a new image reconstruction algorithm capable of imaging high-contrast dielectric distributions. Rather than relying solely on mutual capacitance readings as is done in traditional electrical capacitance tomography applications, this method reconstructs high-resolution images using only the self-capacitance measurements. The image reconstruction method assumes that the material under inspection consists of a binary dielectric distribution, with either a high relative dielectric value representing the water or a low dielectric value for the background material. By constraining the unknown dielectric material to one of two values, the inverse math problem that must be solved to generate the image is no longer ill-determined. The image resolution becomes limited only by the accuracy and resolution of the measurement circuitry. Images were reconstructed using this method with both synthetic and real data acquired using an aluminum structure inserted at different positions within the sensing region. The cuboid geometry of the system has two parallel planes of 16 conductors arranged in a 4 4 pattern. The electrode geometry consists of parallel planes of copper conductors, connected through custom-built switch electronics, to a commercially available capacitance to digital converter. The figure shows two 4 4 arrays of electrodes milled from square sections of copper-clad circuit-board material and mounted on two pieces of glass-filled plastic backing, which were cut to approximately square shapes, 10 cm on a side. Each electrode is placed on 2.0-cm centers. The parallel arrays were mounted with the electrode arrays approximately 3 cm apart. The open ends

  9. Effects of high and low volume of strength training on muscle strength, muscle volume and lipid profile in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lipid profile are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, especially in postmenopausal woman who have been associated with age-related loss of muscle mass. The beneficial role of aerobic exercise in the prevention of CVD has been well documented. However, the effect of strength training has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes of lipoprotein levels after 12 weeks of different volumes of strength training and its correlation with strength and muscle volume in postmenopausal women. The participants were randomized into three groups: low volume (LVST; n = 12, 1 set and high volume of strength training (HVST; n = 11, 3 sets, or control group (n = 12. Training groups performed 12 weeks of supervised strength exercises, 15 maximum repetitions, five times a week, 20 minutes for LVST and 40 minutes for HVST for each training session. Measurements included body composition, strength and muscle volume, as well as blood analysis (glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein pre- and post-training. The HVST and LVST improved the one-repetition maximum knee extension strength (p < 0.001, maximal dynamic strength (p < 0.001, and muscle volume (p = 0.048. Post-training triglyceride was lower in HVST when compared to LVST and the control group (p = 0.047. Even though they present the same neuromuscular and morphological adaptations in postmenopausal women, the HVST is more effective than LVST in improving the lipid profile of postmenopausal woman, and can be considered as an ideal program of intervention to reverse changes in lipid metabolism commonly found in this group.

  10. High-Volume Production of Lightweight Multijunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youtsey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    MicroLink Devices, Inc., has transitioned its 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable of sustaining large-volume production. This Phase II project improves the ELO process by reducing cycle time and increasing the yield of large-area devices. In addition, all critical device fabrication processes have transitioned to 6-inch production tool sets designed for volume production. An emphasis on automated cassette-to-cassette and batch processes minimizes operator dependence and cell performance variability. MicroLink Devices established a pilot production line capable of at least 1,500 6-inch wafers per month at greater than 80 percent yield. The company also increased the yield and manufacturability of the 6-inch reclaim process, which is crucial to reducing the cost of the cells.

  11. Microfluidic Cell Volume Biosensor for High Throughput Drug Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    method is non- invasive, and it provides real-time measurement of changes in cell volume for both adherent and suspended cells. The microfluidic nature of...channels as well as the release of organic osmolytes, such as taurine [11]. Upon returning to isotonic solution at the end of RVD we observed cell...Haussinger, Biochem. J, 313,697 (1996). [2] Sachs, F. Nature Structural Biology 9, 636-637 (2002). [3] F. Schliess, and D. Haussinger, Bio. Chem. 383

  12. Molecular Profiling and Clinical Outcome of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer Presenting with Low- versus High-Volume Ascites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Feigenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer consists of multiple histotypes differing in etiology and clinical course. The most prevalent histotype is high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC, which often presents at an advanced stage frequently accompanied with high-volume ascites. While some studies suggest that ascites is associated with poor clinical outcome, most reports have not differentiated between histological subtypes or tumor grade. We compared genome-wide gene expression profiles from a discovery cohort of ten patients diagnosed with stages III-IV HGSOC with high-volume ascites and nine patients with low-volume ascites. An upregulation of immune response genes was detected in tumors from patients presenting with low-volume ascites relative to those with high-volume ascites. Immunohistochemical studies performed on tissue microarrays confirmed higher expression of proteins encoded by immune response genes and increased tumorinfiltrating cells in tumors associated with low-volume ascites. Comparison of 149 advanced-stage HGSOC cases with differential ascites volume at time of primary surgery indicated low-volume ascites correlated with better surgical outcome and longer overall survival. These findings suggest that advanced stage HGSOC presenting with low-volume ascites reflects a unique subgroup of HGSOC, which is associated with upregulation of immune related genes, more abundant tumor infiltrating cells and better clinical outcomes.

  13. High resolution finite volume scheme for the quantum hydrodynamic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Tien; Yeh, Jia-Yi; Chen, Jiun-Yeu

    2009-03-01

    The theory of quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) helps nanotechnology engineers to understand the physical effect of quantum forces. Although the governing equations of quantum fluid dynamics and classical fluid mechanics have the same form, there are two numerical simulation problems must be solved in QFD. The first is that the quantum potential term becomes singular and causes a divergence in the numerical simulation when the probability density is very small and close to zero. The second is that the unitarity in the time evolution of the quantum wave packet is significant. Accurate numerical evaluations are critical to the simulations of the flow fields that are generated by various quantum fluid systems. A finite volume scheme is developed herein to solve the quantum hydrodynamic equations of motion, which significantly improve the accuracy and stability of this method. The QFD equation is numerically implemented within the Eulerian method. A third-order modified Osher-Chakravarthy (MOC) upwind-centered finite volume scheme was constructed for conservation law to evaluate the convective terms, and a second-order central finite volume scheme was used to map the quantum potential field. An explicit Runge-Kutta method is used to perform the time integration to achieve fast convergence of the proposed scheme. In order to meet the numerical result can conform to the physical phenomenon and avoid numerical divergence happening due to extremely low probability density, the minimum value setting of probability density must exceed zero and smaller than certain value. The optimal value was found in the proposed numerical approach to maintain a converging numerical simulation when the minimum probability density is 10 -5 to 10 -12. The normalization of the wave packet remains close to unity through a long numerical simulation and the deviations from 1.0 is about 10 -4. To check the QFD finite difference numerical computations, one- and two-dimensional particle motions were

  14. High-speed volume measurement system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michael H.; Doyle, Jr., James L.; Brinkman, Michael J.

    2015-11-24

    Disclosed is a volume sensor having first, second, and third laser sources emitting first, second, and third laser beams; first, second, and third beam splitters splitting the first, second, and third laser beams into first, second, and third beam pairs; first, second, and third optical assemblies expanding the first, second, and third beam pairs into first, second, and third pairs of parallel beam sheets; fourth, fifth, and sixth optical assemblies focusing the first, second, and third beam sheet pairs into fourth, fifth, and sixth beam pairs; and first, second, and third detector pairs receiving the fourth, fifth, and sixth beam pairs and converting a change in intensity of at least one of the beam pairs resulting from an object passing through at least one of the first, second, and third parallel beam sheets into at least one electrical signal proportional to a three-dimensional representation of the object.

  15. Factors that influence minority use of high-volume hospitals for colorectal cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lyen C; Tran, Thuy B; Ma, Yifei; Ngo, Justine V; Rhoads, Kim F

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies suggest that minorities cluster in low-quality hospitals despite living close to better performing hospitals. This may contribute to persistent disparities in cancer outcomes. The purpose of this work was to examine how travel distance, insurance status, and neighborhood socioeconomic factors influenced minority underuse of high-volume hospitals for colorectal cancer. The study was a retrospective, cross-sectional, population-based study. All hospitals in California from 1996 to 2006 were included. Patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed and treated in California between 1996 and 2006 were identified using California Cancer Registry data. Multivariable logistic regression models predicting high-volume hospital use were adjusted for age, sex, race, stage, comorbidities, insurance status, and neighborhood socioeconomic factors. A total of 79,231 patients treated in 417 hospitals were included in the study. High-volume hospitals were independently associated with an 8% decrease in the hazard of death compared with other settings. A lower proportion of minorities used high-volume hospitals despite a higher proportion living nearby. Although insurance status and socioeconomic factors were independently associated with high-volume hospital use, only socioeconomic factors attenuated differences in high-volume hospital use of black and Hispanic patients compared with white patients. The use of cross-sectional data and racial and ethnic misclassifications were limitations in this study. Minority patients do not use high-volume hospitals despite improved outcomes and geographic access. Low socioeconomic status predicts low use of high-volume settings in select minority groups. Our results provide a roadmap for developing interventions to increase the use of and access to higher quality care and outcomes. Increasing minority use of high-volume hospitals may require community outreach programs and changes in physician referral practices.

  16. Centrifugal Step Emulsification can Produce Water in Oil Emulsions with Extremely High Internal Volume Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Schuler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The high throughput preparation of emulsions with high internal volume fractions is important for many different applications, e.g., drug delivery. However, most emulsification techniques reach only low internal volume fractions and need stable flow rates that are often difficult to control. Here, we present a centrifugal high throughput step emulsification disk for the fast and easy production of emulsions with high internal volume fractions above 95%. The disk produces droplets at generation rates of up to 3700 droplets/s and, for the first time, enables the generation of emulsions with internal volume fractions of >97%. The coefficient of variation between droplet sizes is very good (4%. We apply our system to show the in situ generation of gel emulsion. In the future, the recently introduced unit operation of centrifugal step emulsification may be used for the high throughput production of droplets as reaction compartments for clinical diagnostics or as starting material for micromaterial synthesis.

  17. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisenkov, V.S.; Kiyko, V.V.; Vdovin, G.V.

    2015-01-01

    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface

  18. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisenkov, V.S.; Kiyko, V.V.; Vdovin, G.V.

    2015-01-01

    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface heatin

  19. Relationship between amygdala volume and emotion recognition in adolescents at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Whittle, Sarah L; Pilioussis, Eleanor; Allott, Kelly; Rice, Simon; Schäfer, Miriam R; Pantelis, Christos; Amminger, G Paul

    2014-12-30

    Amygdala volume has been proposed as a neural risk biomarker for psychotic illness, but findings in the ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) population have been somewhat inconsistent, which may be related to underlying social cognitive abilities. The current study investigated whether amygdala volumes were related to emotion-recognition impairments in UHR individuals, and whether volumes differed by sex. Secondary aims were to assess whether (a) emotion-recognition performance was associated with interhemispheric amygdala volume asymmetry and (b) amgydala volume and volume asymmetry acted as a mediator between emotion-recognition and outcome measures. The amygdala was manually delineated from magnetic resonance images for 39 UHR individuals who had also completed facial and prosody emotion-recognition tasks. Partial correlations were conducted to examine associations between amydgala volume/asymmetry and recognition of negative emotions. Mediation analyses were conducted using regression and bootstrapping techniques. Amygdala volume was positively correlated with sadness emotion recognition, in particular prosody, for females only. Left amygdala volume mediated the effect of sadness recognition on depressive symptoms, negative symptoms, overall psychopathology, and global functioning in females. Findings suggest a complex relationship between emotion recognition, the structure of the amygdala and illness outcome, where recognition of sadness appears to be the precipitator of this relationship in UHR females. Further research is needed to determine illness specificity and to confirm our sex- and emotion-specific results.

  20. High Resolving Power Volume Diffractive Gratings for 400-2700 nm Spectral Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this NASA SBIR Phase I proposal is to develop a novel type of high resolving power diffraction gratings based on volume Bragg gratings technology. The...

  1. High Resolving Power Volume Diffractive Gratings for 400-2700 nm Spectral Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main purpose of this NASA SBIR Phase II proposal is development of a novel type of high resolving power diffraction gratings based on volume Bragg gratings...

  2. Miniaturized, High Flow, Low Dead Volume Preconcentrator for Trace Contaminants in Water under Microgravity Conditions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. has demonstrated feasibility in Phase I and now proposes a Phase II effort to develop a miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume...

  3. Proceedings of the 1984 workshop on high-energy excitations in condensed matter. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.N. (comp.)

    1984-12-01

    This volume covers electronic excitations, momentum distributions, high energy photons, and a wrap-up session. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  4. Functionality and Performance Visualization of the Distributed High Quality Volume Renderer (HVR)

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2012-07-01

    Volume rendering systems are designed to provide means to enable scientists and a variety of experts to interactively explore volume data through 3D views of the volume. However, volume rendering techniques are computationally intensive tasks. Moreover, parallel distributed volume rendering systems and multi-threading architectures were suggested as natural solutions to provide an acceptable volume rendering performance for very large volume data sizes, such as Electron Microscopy data (EM). This in turn adds another level of complexity when developing and manipulating volume rendering systems. Given that distributed parallel volume rendering systems are among the most complex systems to develop, trace and debug, it is obvious that traditional debugging tools do not provide enough support. As a consequence, there is a great demand to provide tools that are able to facilitate the manipulation of such systems. This can be achieved by utilizing the power of compute graphics in designing visual representations that reflect how the system works and that visualize the current performance state of the system.The work presented is categorized within the field of software Visualization, where Visualization is used to serve visualizing and understanding various software. In this thesis, a number of visual representations that reflect a number of functionality and performance aspects of the distributed HVR, a high quality volume renderer system that uses various techniques to visualize large volume sizes interactively. This work is provided to visualize different stages of the parallel volume rendering pipeline of HVR. This is along with means of performance analysis through a number of flexible and dynamic visualizations that reflect the current state of the system and enables manipulation of them at runtime. Those visualization are aimed to facilitate debugging, understanding and analyzing the distributed HVR.

  5. HIGH-VOLUME RESISTANCE TRAINING SESSION ACUTELY DIMINISHES RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Hackett

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of a high-volume compared to a low-volume resistance training session on maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP. Twenty male subjects with resistance training experience (6.2 ± 3.2 y, in a crossover trial, completed two resistance training protocols (high-volume: 5 sets per exercise; low-volume: 2 sets per exercise and a control session (no exercise on 3 separate occasions. MIP and MEP decreased by 13.6% (p < 0.01 and 14.7% (p < 0.01 respectively from pre-session MIP and MEP, following the high-volume session. MIP and MEP were unaffected following the low-volume or the control sessions. MIP returned to pre-session values after 40 minutes, whereas MEP remained significantly reduced after 60 minutes post-session by 9.2% compared to pre-session (p < 0.01. The findings suggest that the high-volume session significantly decreased MIP and MEP post-session, implicating a substantially increased demand on the respiratory muscles and that adequate recovery is mandatory following this mode of training.

  6. Differences in energy expenditure between high- and low-volume training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Pivarnik, James M; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Carlson, Joseph J

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have examined energy expenditure in various sports but there is a lack of research on the contribution of exercise and habitual activity during different training periods. This study examined changes in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and its components during high- and low-volume training periods. Further, changes in time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous activity in response to different training volumes were explored. Energy expenditure was measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 non-consecutive weeks - 1 week of high volume (>13 hours) training and another week of low volume (energy expenditure (EEE) and resting metabolic rate, respectively. Time spent at different intensities was assessed using previously established MET cutpoints. TDEE as well as EEE increased significantly with higher training volume, while no difference in NEAT occurred. Further, significantly less time was spent in sedentary activities during the high-volume week. These results suggest that highly trained athletes do not compensate for increased training volume and reduce sedentary activities to allow for more training time.

  7. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.

  8. Development of alkali activated cements and concrete mixture design with high volumes of red mud

    OpenAIRE

    KRIVENKO PAVEL; O. Kovalchuk; PASKO ANTON; CROYMANS TOM; HULT MIKAEL; LUTTER GUILLAUME; VANDEVENNE N.; SCHREURS S.; Schroeyers, W.

    2017-01-01

    Dedicated cement compositions were formulated to enable the incorporation of large volume fractions of red mud in alkali activated cements, taking into account the role of the aluminosilicate phase in the processes of hydration and hardening. High volume red mud alkali activated cements were synthesized using a proper combination of red mud, low basic aluminosilicate compounds with a glass phase (blast-furnace slag) and additives selected from high-basic Ca-containing cements with a crystalli...

  9. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisenkov, Valentin S.; Kiyko, Vadim V.; Vdovin, Gleb V.

    2015-03-01

    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface heating with different approaches to make the heat distribution more uniform and the process more efficient. High-power lasers can in theory provide in-bulk heating which can sufficiently increase the uniformity of heat distribution thus making the process more efficient. We chose two media (vegetable fat and glucose) for feasibility experiments. First, we checked if the media have necessary absorption coefficients on the wavelengths of commercially available laser diodes (940-980 nm). This was done using spectrophotometer at 700-1100 nm which provided the dependences of transmission from the wavelength. The results indicate that vegetable fat has noticeable transmission dip around 925 nm and glucose has sufficient dip at 990 nm. Then, after the feasibility check, we did numerical simulation of the heat distribution in bulk using finite elements method. Based on the results, optimal laser wavelength and illuminator configuration were selected. Finally, we carried out several pilot experiments with high-power diodes heating the chosen media.

  10. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part two of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include real numbers, similar triangles, variation, non-metric…

  11. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume I (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part two of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include the rational number system; parallels, parallelograms,…

  12. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for High Volume Composite Part Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lokitz, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Springfield, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    ORNL worked with TruDesign, LLC to develop viable coating solutions to enable the use of large scale 3D printing for both low-temperature and high-temperature composite molds. This project resulted in two commercial products and successfully demonstrated the use of printed molds for autoclave processing for the first time.

  13. Delayed High School Starting Times. Information Capsule. Volume 0908

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Educators around the nation are considering pushing high school starting times back until later in the morning, based on evidence suggesting that amount of sleep and circadian rhythms play a part in adolescents' academic performance. While research confirms that adolescents do not get enough sleep and that insufficient sleep can negatively…

  14. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part one of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include number line and coordinates, equations, scientific notation,…

  15. High-throughput DNA droplet assays using picoliter reactor volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisa-Art, Monpichar; deMello, Andrew J; Edel, Joshua B

    2007-09-01

    The online characterization and detection of individual droplets at high speeds, low analyte concentrations, and perfect detection efficiencies is a significant challenge underpinning the application of microfluidic droplet reactors to high-throughput chemistry and biology. Herein, we describe the integration of confocal fluorescence spectroscopy as a high-efficiency detection method for droplet-based microfluidics. Issues such as surface contamination, rapid mixing, and rapid detection, as well as low detections limits have been addressed with the approach described when compared to conventional laminar flow-based fluidics. Using such a system, droplet size, droplet shape, droplet formation frequencies, and droplet compositions can be measured accurately and precisely at kilohertz frequencies. Taking advantage of this approach, we demonstrate a high-throughput biological assay based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). By attaching a FRET donor (Alexa Fluor 488) to streptavidin and labeling a FRET acceptor (Alexa Fluor 647) on one DNA strand and biotin on the complementary strand, donor and acceptor molecules are brought in proximity due to streptavidin-biotin binding, resulting in FRET. Fluorescence bursts of the donor and acceptor from each droplet can be monitored simultaneously using separate avalanche photodiode detectors operating in single photon counting mode. Binding assays were investigated and compared between fixed streptavidin and DNA concentrations. Binding curves fit perfectly to Hill-Waud models, and the binding ratio between streptavidin and biotin was evaluated and found to be in agreement with the biotin binding sites on streptavidin. FRET efficiency for this FRET pair was also investigated from the binding results. Efficiency results show that this detection system can precisely measure FRET even at low FRET efficiencies.

  16. High speed turboprop aeroacoustic study (counterrotation). Volume 1: Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, C. E.; Mani, R.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1990-01-01

    The isolated counterrotating high speed turboprop noise prediction program was compared with model data taken in the GE Aircraft Engines Cell 41 anechoic facility, the Boeing Transonic Wind Tunnel, and in NASA-Lewis' 8x6 and 9x15 wind tunnels. The predictions show good agreement with measured data under both low and high speed simulated flight conditions. The installation effect model developed for single rotation, high speed turboprops was extended to include counterotation. The additional effect of mounting a pylon upstream of the forward rotor was included in the flow field modeling. A nontraditional mechanism concerning the acoustic radiation from a propeller at angle of attach was investigated. Predictions made using this approach show results that are in much closer agreement with measurement over a range of operating conditions than those obtained via traditional fluctuating force methods. The isolated rotors and installation effects models were combines into a single prediction program, results of which were compared with data taken during the flight test of the B727/UDF engine demonstrator aircraft. Satisfactory comparisons between prediction and measured data for the demonstrator airplane, together with the identification of a nontraditional radiation mechanism for propellers at angle of attack are achieved.

  17. High volume fabrication of laser targets using MEMS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindloe, C.; Arthur, G.; Hall, F.; Tomlinson, S.; Potter, R.; Kar, S.; Green, J.; Higginbotham, A.; Booth, N.; Tolley, M. K.

    2016-04-01

    The latest techniques for the fabrication of high power laser targets, using processes developed for the manufacture of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) devices are discussed. These laser targets are designed to meet the needs of the increased shot numbers that are available in the latest design of laser facilities. Traditionally laser targets have been fabricated using conventional machining or coarse etching processes and have been produced in quantities of 10s to low 100s. Such targets can be used for high complexity experiments such as Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) studies and can have many complex components that need assembling and characterisation with high precision. Using the techniques that are common to MEMS devices and integrating these with an existing target fabrication capability we are able to manufacture and deliver targets to these systems. It also enables us to manufacture novel targets that have not been possible using other techniques. In addition, developments in the positioning systems that are required to deliver these targets to the laser focus are also required and a system to deliver the target to a focus of an F2 beam at 0.1Hz is discussed.

  18. Perioperative mortality in cats and dogs undergoing spay or castration at a high-volume clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J K; Bard, K M; Tucker, S J; Diskant, P D; Dingman, P A

    2017-06-01

    High volume spay-neuter (spay-castration) clinics have been established to improve population control of cats and dogs to reduce the number of animals admitted to and euthanazed in animal shelters. The rise in the number of spay-neuter clinics in the USA has been accompanied by concern about the quality of animal care provided in high volume facilities, which focus on minimally invasive, time saving techniques, high throughput and simultaneous management of multiple animals under various stages of anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine perioperative mortality for cats and dogs in a high volume spay-neuter clinic in the USA. Electronic medical records and a written mortality log were used to collect data for 71,557 cats and 42,349 dogs undergoing spay-neuter surgery from 2010 to 2016 at a single high volume clinic in Florida. Perioperative mortality was defined as deaths occurring in the 24h period starting with the administration of the first sedation or anesthetic drugs. Perioperative mortality was reported for 34 cats and four dogs for an overall mortality of 3.3 animals/10,000 surgeries (0.03%). The risk of mortality was more than twice as high for females (0.05%) as for males (0.02%) (P=0.008) and five times as high for cats (0.05%) as for dogs (0.009%) (P=0.0007). High volume spay-neuter surgery was associated with a lower mortality rate than that previously reported in low volume clinics, approaching that achieved in human surgery. This is likely to be due to the young, healthy population of dogs and cats, and the continuous refinement of techniques based on experience and the skills and proficiency of teams that specialize in a limited spectrum of procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High-Flux Hemodialysis and High-Volume Hemodiafiltration Improve Serum Calcification Propensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Dekker

    Full Text Available Calciprotein particles (CPPs may play an important role in the calcification process. The calcification propensity of serum (T50 is highly predictive of all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease patients. Whether T50 is therapeutically improvable, by high-flux hemodialysis (HD or hemodiafiltration (HDF, has not been studied yet.We designed a cross-sectional single center study, and included stable prevalent in-center dialysis patients on HD or HDF. Patients were divided into two groups based on dialysis modality, were on a thrice-weekly schedule, had a dialysis vintage of > 3 months and vascular access providing a blood flow rate > 300 ml/min. Calcification propensity of serum was measured by the time of transformation from primary to secondary CPP (T50 test, by time-resolved nephelometry.We included 64 patients, mean convective volume was 21.7L (SD 3.3L. In the pooled analysis, T50 levels increased in both the HD and HDF group with pre- and post-dialysis (mean (SD of 244(64 - 301(57 and 253(55 - 304(61 min respectively (P = 0.43(HD vs. HDF. The mean increase in T50 was 26.29% for HD and 21.97% for HDF patients (P = 0.61 (HD vs. HDF. The delta values (Δ of calcium, phosphate and serum albumin were equal in both groups. Baseline T50 was negatively correlated with phosphate, and positively correlated with serum magnesium and fetuin-A. The ΔT50 was mostly influenced by Δ phosphate (r = -0.342; P = 0.002 HD and r = -0.396; P<0.001 HDF in both groups.HD and HDF patients present with same baseline T50 calcification propensity values pre-dialysis. Calcification propensity is significantly improved during both HD and HDF sessions without significant differences between both modalities.

  20. High volume microinfusion suppresses local astrocyte response within nucleus basalis of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelobaba, I; Saponjic, J

    2013-03-01

    Our study investigates the impact of different volume sham control and excitotoxin microinfusions in vivo on local reactive astroglial response within rat nucleus basalis (NB). We followed the effects of unilateral 200, 100, and 50 nL of sham-control (phosphate buffer PBS) versus ibotenic acid (IBO) microinfusions, mechanical NB lesion (10 µL Hamylton syringe needle positioned into NB for 5 min), or physiological control (intact brain), on the local reactive astroglial response within the NB site, by immunoreactivity against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). NB lesions were identified by NADPHdiaphorase histochemistry. Local astrocytes responses within NB were suppressed by both high volume microinfusions, PBS and IBO (200 and 100 nL) versus mechanical lesion. Our study has proved, for the first time, the volume of microinfusion as critical for any selective pharmacological stimulation or lesion in vivo, and suggest the microinfusion volume less than 50nL as protective for physiological astroglial reactivity.

  1. Properties of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete Compensated by Metakaolin or Silica Fume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The compressive strength and dynamic modulus of high volume fly ash concrete with incorporation of either metakaolin or silica fume were investigated. The water to cementitious materials ratio was kept at 0.4 for all mixtures. The use of high volume fly ash in concrete greatly reduces the strength and dynamic modulus during the first 28 days. The decreased properties during the short term of high volume fly ash concrete is effectively compensated by the incorporation of metakaolin or silica fume. The DTA results confirmed that metakaolin or silica fume increase the amount of the hydration products. An empirical relationship between dynamic modulus and compressive strength of concrete has been obtained. This relation provides a nondestructive evaluation for estimating the strength of concrete by use of the dynamic modulus.

  2. Effects of high intensity training and high volume training on endothelial microparticles and angiogenic growth factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Wahl

    Full Text Available AIMS: Endothelial microparticles (EMP are complex vesicular structures shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells. As endurance exercise affects the endothelium, the objective of the study was to examine levels of EMP and angiogenic growth factors following different endurance exercise protocols. METHODS: 12 subjects performed 3 different endurance exercise protocols: 1. High volume training (HVT; 130 min at 55% peak power output (PPO; 2. 4 × 4 min at 95% PPO; 3. 4 × 30 sec all-out. EMPs were quantified using flow cytometry after staining platelet-poor-plasma. Events positive for Annexin-V and CD31, and negative for CD42b, were classified as EMPs. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, migratory inhibiting factor (MIF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF were determined by ELISA technique. For all these measurements venous blood samples were taken pre, 0', 30', 60' and 180' after each intervention. Furthermore, in vitro experiments were performed to explore the effect of collected sera on target endothelial functions and MP uptake capacities. RESULTS: VEGF and HGF significantly increased after HIT interventions. All three interventions caused a significant decrease in EMP levels post exercise compared to pre values. The sera taken after exercise increased the uptake of EMP in target endothelial cells compared to sera taken under resting conditions, which was shown to be phosphatidylserin-dependent. Increased EMP uptake was associated with an improved protection of target cells against apoptosis. Sera taken prior and after exercise promoted target endothelial cell migration, which was abrogated after inhibition of VEGF. CONCLUSION: Physical exercise leads to decreased EMP levels and promotes a phosphatidylserin-dependent uptake of EMP into target endothelial cells, which is associated with a protection of target cells against apoptosis.

  3. Real-time volumetric visualization of high-resolution array and toroidal volume search sonar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert A.

    1998-09-01

    The Advanced Volume Visualization Display (AVVD) research program is a joint research program between the Fraunhofer Center for Research in Computer Graphics, Inc. and Innovative Research and Development Corp. It is dedicated the application of the human visual system to real-time visualization of high- resolution volumetric sensor data sets. The AVVD program has successfully demonstrated its application to undersea imaging using data from the Naval Undersea Warfare Center -- Division Newport's High Resolution Array (HRA), and from the Naval Surface Warfare Center -- Coastal System Stations's Toroidal Volume Search Sonar (TVSS).

  4. High-Resolution Finite Volume Modeling of Wave Propagation in Orthotropic Poroelastic Media

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoine, Grady I; LeVeque, Randall J

    2012-01-01

    Poroelasticity theory models the dynamics of porous, fluid-saturated media. It was pioneered by Maurice Biot in the 1930s through 1960s, and has applications in several fields, including geophysics and modeling of in vivo bone. A wide variety of methods have been used to model poroelasticity, including finite difference, finite element, pseudospectral, and discontinuous Galerkin methods. In this work we use a Cartesian-grid high-resolution finite volume method to numerically solve Biot's equations in the time domain for orthotropic materials, with the stiff relaxation source term in the equations incorporated using operator splitting. This class of finite volume method has several useful properties, including the ability to use wave limiters to reduce numerical artifacts in the solution, ease of incorporating material inhomogeneities, low memory overhead, and an explicit time-stepping approach. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first use of high-resolution finite volume methods to model poroelasticity. T...

  5. Compact high order finite volume method on unstructured grids III: Variational reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Ren, Yu-Xin; Pan, Jianhua; Li, Wanai

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a variational reconstruction for the high order finite volume method in solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary unstructured grids. In the variational reconstruction, an interfacial jump integration is defined to measure the jumps of the reconstruction polynomial and its spatial derivatives on each cell interface. The system of linear equations to determine the reconstruction polynomials is derived by minimizing the total interfacial jump integration in the computational domain using the variational method. On each control volume, the derived equations are implicit relations between the coefficients of the reconstruction polynomials defined on a compact stencil involving only the current cell and its direct face-neighbors. The reconstruction and time integration coupled iteration method proposed in our previous paper is used to achieve high computational efficiency. A problem-independent shock detector and the WBAP limiter are used to suppress non-physical oscillations in the simulation of flow with discontinuities. The advantages of the finite volume method using the variational reconstruction over the compact least-squares finite volume method proposed in our previous papers are higher accuracy, higher computational efficiency, more flexible boundary treatment and non-singularity of the reconstruction matrix. A number of numerical test cases are solved to verify the accuracy, efficiency and shock-capturing capability of the finite volume method using the variational reconstruction.

  6. High versus standard volume enteral feeds to promote growth in preterm or low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiramalatha, Thangaraj; Thomas, Niranjan; Gupta, Vijay; Viswanathan, Anand; McGuire, William

    2017-09-12

    Breast milk alone, given at standard recommended volumes (150 to 180 mL/kg/d), is not adequate to meet the protein, energy, and other nutrient requirements of growing preterm or low birth weight infants. One strategy that may be used to address these potential nutrient deficits is to give infants enteral feeds in excess of 200 mL/kg/d ('high-volume' feeds). This approach may increase nutrient uptake and growth rates, but concerns include that high-volume enteral feeds may cause feed intolerance, gastro-oesophageal reflux, aspiration pneumonia, necrotising enterocolitis, or complications related to fluid overload, including patent ductus arteriosus and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. To assess the effect on growth and safety of feeding preterm or low birth weight infants with high (> 200 mL/kg/d) versus standard (≤ 200 mL/kg/d) volume of enteral feeds. Infants in intervention and control groups should have received the same type of milk (breast milk, formula, or both), the same fortification or micronutrient supplements, and the same enteral feeding regimen (bolus, continuous) and rate of feed volume advancement.To conduct subgroup analyses based on type of milk (breast milk vs formula), gestational age or birth weight category of included infants (very preterm or VLBW vs preterm or LBW), presence of intrauterine growth restriction (using birth weight relative to the reference population as a surrogate), and income level of the country in which the trial was conducted (low or middle income vs high income) (see 'Subgroup analysis and investigation of heterogeneity'). We used the Cochrane Neonatal standard search strategy, which included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (1946 to November 2016); Embase (1974 to November 2016); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to November 2016), as well as conference proceedings, previous reviews, and trial

  7. High-volume plasma exchange in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Schmidt, Lars Ebbe; Bernsmeier, Christine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute liver failure (ALF) often results in cardiovascular instability, renal failure, brain oedema and death either due to irreversible shock, cerebral herniation or development of multiple organ failure. High-volume plasma exchange (HVP), defined as exchange of 8-12 or 15...

  8. Topical therapy with high-volume budesonide nasal irrigations in difficult-to-treat chronic rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Macoto Kosugi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is termed difficult-to-treat when patients do not reach acceptable level of control despite adequate surgery, intranasal corticosteroid treatment and up to 2 short courses of systemic antibiotics or corticosteroids in the preceding year. Recently, high-volume corticosteroid nasal irrigations have been recommended for CRS treatment. OBJECTIVE: To assess high-volume budesonide nasal irrigations for difficult-to-treat CRS. METHODS: Prospective uncontrolled intervention trial. Participants were assessed before- and 3 months after nasal irrigation with 1 mg of budesonide in 500 mL of saline solution daily for 2 days. Subjective (satisfactory clinical improvement and objective (SNOT-22 questionnaire and Lund-Kennedy endoscopic scores assessments were performed. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were included, and 13 (81.3% described satisfactory clinical improvement. SNOT-22 mean scores (50.2-29.6; p = 0.006 and Lund-Kennedy mean scores (8.8-5.1; p = 0.01 improved significantly. Individually, 75% of patients improved SNOT-22 scores, and 75% improved Lund-Kennedy scores after high volume budesonide nasal irrigations. CONCLUSION: High-volume corticosteroid nasal irrigations are a good option in difficult-to-treat CRS control of disease, reaching 81.3% success control and significant improvement of SNOT-22 and Lund-Kennedy scores.

  9. Lean Production Control at a High-Variety, Low-Volume Parts Manufacturer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Slomp, Jannes

    2010-01-01

    Eaton Electric General Supplies, a parts manufacturing unit that supplies parts for Eaton's electrical business unit, implemented several lean control elements in its high-variety, low-volume production units. These control elements include a constant work-in-process mechanism to limit and control

  10. A lean production control system for high-variety/low-volume environments : a case study implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Germs, R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the success of lean manufacturing, many companies are interested in implementing a lean production control system. Lean production control principles include the levelling of production, the use of pull mechanisms and takt time control. These principles have mainly been applied in high volume

  11. DIGEST MATERIALS FOR IMPROVING AND EXTENDING THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ORCHESTRA REPERTORY. VOLUME 3, ROMANTIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOORE, JUNE

    PREPARED AS PART OF "PROJECT IMPROVING AND EXTENDING THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ORCHESTRA REPERTORY," THIS VOLUME CONTAINS CURRICULAR MATERIALS REPRESENTING THE ROMANTIC PERIOD. A MUSICAL HISTORY OF THE PERIOD IS GIVEN, AS WELL AS HISTORIES OF THE COMPOSERS AND THEIR INDIVIDUAL COMPOSITIONS. THE MATERIALS ARE PREPARED FOR THREE DEGREES OF TECHNICAL…

  12. Adoption of lean principles in a high-volume molecular diagnostic microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P Shawn; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Yao, Joseph D C

    2014-07-01

    Clinical laboratories are constantly facing challenges to do more with less, enhance quality, improve test turnaround time, and reduce operational expenses. Experience with adopting and applying lean concepts and tools used extensively in the manufacturing industry is described for a high-volume clinical molecular microbiology laboratory, illustrating how operational success and benefits can be achieved.

  13. DIGEST MATERIALS FOR IMPROVING AND EXTENDING THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ORCHESTRA REPERTORY. VOLUME 1, BAROQUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOORE, JUNE

    PREPARED AS PART OF "PROJECT IMPROVING AND EXTENDING THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL ORCHESTRA REPERTORY," THIS VOLUME CONTAINS CURRICULAR MATERIALS REPRESENTING THE BAROQUE PERIOD. A MUSICAL HISTORY OF THE PERIOD IS GIVEN, AS WELL AS HISTORIES OF THE COMPOSERS AND THEIR INDIVIDUAL COMPOSITIONS. THE MATERIALS ARE PREPARED FOR THREE DEGREES OF TECHNICAL…

  14. High-energy molecular lasers self-controlled volume-discharge lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, V V

    2016-01-01

    This book displays the physics and design of high-power molecular lasers. The lasers described are self-controlled volume-discharge lasers. The book explains self-sustained discharge lasers, self-initiated discharge lasers and technical approaches to laser design. Important topics discussed are laser efficiency, laser beam quality and electric field homogeneity. The book contains many new innovative applications.

  15. Lean Production Control at a High-Variety, Low-Volume Parts Manufacturer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Slomp, Jannes

    2010-01-01

    Eaton Electric General Supplies, a parts manufacturing unit that supplies parts for Eaton's electrical business unit, implemented several lean control elements in its high-variety, low-volume production units. These control elements include a constant work-in-process mechanism to limit and control t

  16. Operating manual for the High Flux Isotope Reactor. Volume I. Description of the facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    This volume contains a comprehensive description of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Facility. Its primary purpose is to supplement the detailed operating procedures, providing the reactor operators with background information on the various HFIR systems. The detailed operating procdures are presented in another report.

  17. A lean production control system for high-variety/low-volume environments : a case study implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Germs, R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the success of lean manufacturing, many companies are interested in implementing a lean production control system. Lean production control principles include the levelling of production, the use of pull mechanisms and takt time control. These principles have mainly been applied in high volume

  18. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Larsson, Tanja Hultengren; Jørgensen, Majke;

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT c...

  19. High-voltage electrode optimization towards uniform surfacetreatment by a pulsed volume discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomarev, A. V.; Pedos, M. S.; Scherbinin, S. V.; Mamontov, Y. I.; Ponomarev, Sergey Viktorovich

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the shape and material of the high-voltage electrode of an atmospheric pressure plasma generation system were optimised. The research was performed with the goal of achieving maximum uniformity of plasma treatment of the surface of the low-voltage electrode with a diameter of 100 mm. In order to generate low-temperature plasma with the volume of roughly 1 cubic decimetre, a pulsed volume discharge was used initiated with a corona discharge. The uniformity of the plasma in the r...

  20. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II.

  1. Early Fluid Resuscitation and High Volume Hemofiltration Decrease Septic Shock Progression in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Zheng, Ruiqiang; Xue, Lu; Zhang, Min; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of early fluid resuscitation (EFR) combined with high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) on the cardiopulmonary function and removal of inflammatory mediators in a septic shock swine model. Eighteen swine were randomized into three groups: control (n = 6) (extracorporeal circulating blood only), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 25 mL/Kg/h), and HVHF (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 85 mL/Kg/h). The septic shock model was established by intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharides (50 µg/kg/h). Hemodynamic parameters (arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume variability, left ventricular contractility, systemic vascular resistance, and central venous pressure), vasoactive drug parameters (dose and time of norepinephrine and hourly fluid intake), pulmonary function (partial oxygen pressure and vascular permeability), and cytokines (interleukin-6 and interleukin-10) were observed. Treatment resulted in significant changes at 4-6 h. HVHF was beneficial, as shown by the dose of vasoactive drugs, fluid intake volume, left ventricular contractility index, and partial oxygen pressure. Both CRRT and HVHF groups showed improved removal of inflammatory mediators compared with controls. In conclusion, EFR combined with HVHF improved septic shock in this swine model. The combination decreased shock progression, reduced the need for vasoactive drugs, and alleviated the damage to cardiopulmonary functions.

  2. Amygdalar, hippocampal, and thalamic volumes in youth at high risk for development of bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchemskiy, Asya; Garrett, Amy; Howe, Meghan; Adleman, Nancy; Simeonova, Diana I.; Alegria, Dylan; Reiss, Allan; Chang, Kiki

    2011-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), especially those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and symptoms of depression or mania, are significantly at high-risk for developing BD. As we have previously shown amygdalar reductions in pediatric BD, the current study examined amygdalar volumes in offspring of parents with (BD offspring) who have not yet developed a full manic episode. Youth participating in the study included 22 BD offspring and 22 healthy controls of comparable age, gender, handedness, and IQ. Subjects had no history of a manic episode, but met criteria for ADHD and moderate mood symptoms. MRI was performed on a 3T GE scanner, using a 3D volumetric spoiled gradient echo series. Amygdalae were manually traced using BrainImage Java software on positionally normalized brain stacks. Bipolar offspring had similar amygdalar volumes compared to the control group. Exploratory analyses yielded no differences in hippocampal or thalamic volumes. Bipolar offspring do not show decreased amygdala volume, possibly because these abnormalities occur after more prolonged illness rather than as a preexisting risk factor. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether amygdalar volumes change during and after the development of BD. PMID:22041532

  3. High volume Pozzolan concrete:three years of industrial experience in Texas with CemPozz

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Clinton W; Ronin, Vladimir; ELFGREN, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    High Volume Pozzolan Concrete (HVPC) can be manufactured with low carbon dioxide footprint and energy consumption with the help of a new technology based on Energetically Modified Cement (EMC). The technology consists of mechanical processing a blend of ordinary portland cement (PC) and a pozzolan (Class F fly ash) through multiple high intensity grinding mills. The process imparts an increased surface activation of the PC and the pozzolan particles. Fly ash may be processed with all cements ...

  4. High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation: Pneumotachograph Validation and Tidal Volume Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Meredith Pride for their invaluable research efforts. Table 3. Mean Difference in High-Frequency VT* Relative to Test- Lung VT† Difference in High...respiratory gas on pneumotachographic measurement of ventilation in newborn infants. Biomed Tech 1994;39(4):85-92. 15. Jackson AC, Vinegar A. A technique...for measuring frequency re- sponse of pressure, volume, and flow transducers. J Appl Physiol 1979;47(2):462-467. 16. Finucane KE, Egan BA, Dawson SV

  5. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (%1 repetition maximum-1RM and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifteen men (21+/-1 years; BMI=24.1+/-0.8 kg/m2 performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM until volitional failure (90FAIL, 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM, or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL. Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX, myofibrillar (MYO, and sarcoplasmic (SARC protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121% and MYO (87% protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199% above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P=0.023 and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P=0.025. Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (P<0.05 only in the 30FAIL condition at 4 h post-exercise, whereas, 4E-BP1Thr37/46 phosphorylation was greater 24 h after exercise than at rest in both 90FAIL (237% and 30FAIL (312% conditions. Pax7 mRNA expression increased at 24 h post-exercise (P=0.02 regardless of condition. The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that low-load high volume resistance exercise is more effective in inducing acute muscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes.

  6. Service expectations from high- and low-volume customers in the alcoholic beverage industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Beukes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa has a highly competitive alcoholic beverage market. All role players in this market place a huge emphasis on service delivery and customer service.Research purpose: This research study investigated the relationship between the volume a customer buys from an alcoholic beverage supply company and what influence this volume has on their customer service expectations.Motivation for the study: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate what influence the volume an organisation buys from alcoholic beverage suppliers has on their service quality expectations.Research design, approach and method: A non-probability judgement sample method was used, with a sample size of 220 respondents. The questionnaire requested respondents (high- and low-volume to rank their customer service expectations and opinions with reference to Parasuraman’s service delivery dimensions. Ranking was done using a five-point Likert scale.Main findings: The findings of the study indicated that both the high- and low-volume customers felt that alcoholic beverage supply companies had to deliver on all five service delivery dimensions but failed to do so to full satisfaction.Practical and managerial implications: It is recommended that the alcoholic beverage supply companies should address the problem areas identified in this study to avoid defection of customers.Contribution and value add: This may assist alcoholic beverage supply companies to better understand the customers’ demographic profiles. The study also revealed that the satisfaction level experienced by customers in both sections of the study (high- and low-demand, with a considerable gap between expectations and opinions within the empathy dimension. 

  7. Estimation of Stand Height and Forest Volume Using High Resolution Stereo Photography and Forest Type Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. M.

    2016-06-01

    Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha) using normalized digital surface model (nDSM) from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution) and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM) was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching). Then, digital terrain model (DTM) was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.). Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (%) and stand height (m). First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri's ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service's FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s-present) will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

  8. Fetal lung volume measurement by MRI with high-speed imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osada, Hisao; Kaku, Kenshi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-08-01

    Although ultrasonography is widely used for fetal morphologic observation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has gained popularity as a new prenatal diagnostic method with recent introduction of high-speed imaging systems. Infants with lung hypoplasia affecting respiratory function require intensive management starting immediately after birth. Therefore, accurate prenatal differential diagnosis and severity evaluation are extremely important for these fetuses. The aim of this study is to measure fetal lung volume using a computer-based, three-dimensional MRI imaging system and to evaluate the possibility of clinical applications of this procedure. A total of 96 fetuses were evaluated, all were morphologically abnormal, and MRI was done for advanced assessment from 24 to 39 weeks gestation. Three-directional views of fetal chest were imaged by Signa Horizon, 1.5 Tesla, version 5.6 (General Electronics) with the following conditions; coil: TORSO coil, sequence: SSFSE (single shot fast spin echo), slice thickness: 5 mm, and imaging speed: 2 seconds/slice. To calculate the lung volume and create three-dimensional image, the lung area in each slice was traced out, then multiplied using computer image processing. Simultaneously, the volumes of all slices were summed to give the volume of each lung. Linear regression analysis and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used for statistical analyses. In all cases, clear images were obtained, and were adequate for three-dimensional evaluation of the fetal lung. Thirty-five fetuses had poor outcomes, such as intrauterine fetal death, neonatal death, and intensive respiratory care. Regression lines of lung volume versus gestational week were calculated for these fetuses with poor outcome and 61 other fetuses with good outcome. ANCOVA, with gestational week as a covariant, revealed a significant intergroup difference in the lung volume (p<0.001). Similarly, regression lines of lung volume versus fetal body weight estimated by

  9. High-pitch dual-source CT coronary angiography with low volumes of contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembcke, Alexander; Hein, Patrick A.; Knobloch, Gesine; Durmus, Tahir; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schwenke, Carsten [SCO:SSiS - Schwenke Consulting, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); ISI - Imaging Science Institute Charite, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    To assess the effect of lower volumes of contrast medium (CM) on image quality in high-pitch dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). One-hundred consecutive patients (body weight 65-85 kg, stable heart rate ≤65 bpm, cardiac index ≥2.5 L/min/m{sup 2}) referred for CTCA were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to one of five groups of different CM volumes (G{sub 30}, 30 mL; G{sub 40}, 40 mL; G{sub 50}, 50 mL; G{sub 60}, 60 mL; G{sub 70}, 70 mL; flow rate 5 mL/s each, iodine content 370 mg/mL). Attenuation within the proximal and distal coronary artery segments was analysed. Mean attenuation for men and women ranged from 345.0 and 399.1 HU in G{sub 30} to 478.2 and 571.8 HU in G{sub 70}. Mean attenuation values were higher in groups with higher CM volumes (P < 0.0001) and higher in women than in men (P < 0.0001). The proportions of segments with attenuation of at least 300 HU in G{sub 30}, G{sub 40}, G{sub 50}, G{sub 60} and G{sub 70} were 89 %, 95 %, 98 %, 98 % and 99 %. CM volume of 30 mL in women and 40 mL in men proved to be sufficient to guarantee attenuation of at least 300 HU. In selected patients high-pitch dual-source CTCA can be performed with CM volumes of 40 mL in men or 30 mL in women. (orig.)

  10. Explaining Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Use of High-Volume Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Kronebusch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Racial/ethnic minorities are less likely to use higher-quality hospitals than whites. We propose that a higher level of information-related complexity in their local hospital environments compounds the effects of discrimination and more limited access to services, contributing to racial/ethnic disparities in hospital use. While minorities live closer than whites to high-volume hospitals, minorities also face greater choice complexity and live in neighborhoods with lower levels of medical experience. Our empirical results reveal that it is generally the overall context associated with proximity, choice complexity, and local experience, rather than differential sensitivity to these factors, that provides a partial explanation of the disparity gap in high-volume hospital use.

  11. High Volume Throughput Computing: Identifying and Characterizing Throughput Oriented Workloads in Data Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Jianfeng; Sun, Ninghui; Wang, Lei; Jia, Zhen; Luo, Chunjie

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, this paper systematically identifies three categories of throughput oriented workloads in data centers: services, data processing applications, and interactive real-time applications, whose targets are to increase the volume of throughput in terms of processed requests or data, or supported maximum number of simultaneous subscribers, respectively, and we coins a new term high volume throughput computing (in short HVC) to describe those workloads and data center systems designed for them. We characterize and compare HVC with other computing paradigms, e.g., high throughput computing, warehouse-scale computing, and cloud computing, in terms of levels, workloads, metrics, coupling degree, data scales, and number of jobs or service instances. We also preliminarily report our ongoing work on the metrics and benchmarks for HVC systems, which is the foundation of designing innovative data center systems for HVC workloads.

  12. An abbreviated repeat dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity test for high production volume chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, R.A.; Bevan, C.; Beyer, B.K. (Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc., East Millstone, NJ (United States))

    1992-08-01

    A novel protocol is described for obtaining preliminary data on repeated dose systemic effects and reproductive/developmental toxicity. The test protocol was developed by a group of experts at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as part of a Screening Information Data Set on high production volume chemicals. Interest in this protocol is shared by several regulatory agencies, including the Organization for Economic Cooperation, the European Community, and the EPA. To validate the study protocol, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) was used. After a dosing period of approximately 6 weeks, EGME showed both systemic and reproductive/developmental effects similar to those previously reported using standard protocols. Thus, this test protocol may be used as a screening tool for high production volume chemicals.

  13. Back-end interconnection. A generic concept for high volume manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosman, J.; Budel, T.; De Kok, C.J.G.M.

    2013-10-15

    The general method to realize series connection in thin film PV modules is monolithical interconnection through a sequence of laser scribes (P1, P2 and P3) and layer depositions. This method however implies that the deposition processes are interrupted several times, an undesirable situation in high volume processing. In order to eliminate this drawback we focus our developments on the so called 'back-end interconnection concept' in which series interconnection takes place AFTER the deposition of the functional layers of the thin film PV device. The process of making a back-end interconnection combines laser scribing, curing, sintering and inkjet processes. These different processes interacts with each other and are investigated in order to create processing strategies that are robust to ensure high volume production. The generic approach created a technology base that can be applied to any thin film PV technology.

  14. A Study on the Evaluation of Field Application of High-Fluidity Concrete Containing High Volume Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Wang Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent concrete industry, high-fluidity concrete is being widely used for the pouring of dense reinforced concrete. Normally, in the case of high-fluidity concrete, it includes high binder contents, so it is necessary to replace part of the cement through admixtures such as fly ash to procure economic feasibility and durability. This study shows the mechanical properties and field applicability of high-fluidity concrete using mass of fly ash as alternative materials of cement. The high-fluidity concrete mixed with 50% fly ash was measured to manufacture concrete that applies low water/binder ratio to measure the mechanical characteristics as compressive strength and elastic modulus. Also, in order to evaluate the field applicability, high-fluidity concrete containing high volume fly ash was evaluated for fluidity, compressive strength, heat of hydration, and drying shrinkage of concrete.

  15. Frequency dependence of lung volume changes during superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation and high-frequency jet ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, R; Priori, R; Larsson, A; LoMauro, A; Frykholm, P; Aliverti, A

    2014-01-01

    Superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation (SHFJV) has proved to be safe and effective in clinical practice. However, it is unclear which frequency range optimizes ventilation and gas exchange. The aim of this study was to systematically compare high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) with HFJV by assessing chest wall volume variations (ΔEEV(CW)) and gas exchange in relation to variable high frequency. SHFJV or HFJV were used alternatively to ventilate the lungs of 10 anaesthetized pigs (21-25 kg). The low-frequency component was kept at 16 min(-1) in SHFJV. In both modes, high frequencies ranging from 100 to 1000 min(-1) were applied in random order and ventilation was maintained for 5 min in all modalities. Chest wall volume variations were obtained using opto-electronic plethysmography. Airway pressures and arterial blood gases were measured repeatedly. SHFJV increased ΔEEV(CW) compared with HFJV; the difference ranged from 43 to 68 ml. Tidal volume (V(T)) was always >240 ml during SHFJV whereas during HFJV ranged from 92 ml at the ventilation frequency of 100 min(-1) to negligible values at frequencies >300 min(-1). We observed similar patterns for Pa(O₂) and Pa(CO₂). SHFJV provided generally higher, frequency-independent oxygenation (Pa(O₂) at least 32.0 kPa) and CO₂ removal (Pa(CO₂) ∼5.5 kPa), whereas HFJV led to hypoxia and hypercarbia at higher rates (Pa(O₂) 10 kPa at f(HF)>300 min(-1)). In a porcine model, SHFJV was more effective in increasing end-expiratory volume than single-frequency HFJV, but both modes may provide adequate ventilation in the absence of airway obstruction and respiratory disease, except for HFJV at frequencies ≥300 min(-1).

  16. Low variation and high reproducibility in plaque volume with intravascular ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Pedersen, Knud Erik;

    2004-01-01

    by electrocardiographic-gated three-dimensional (3D) IVUS in 20 male patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD). RESULTS: The study lesions were angiographically insignificant, with a length of the analysed segment on 11.4+/-5.9 mm. At baseline the mean minimal lumen diameter was 2.41+/-0.59 mm, minimal lumen area 4.......82+/-2.38 mm2, and maximal plaque burden 65.61+/-9.57%. Mean reference diameter was 3.1+/-0.6 mm. No significant changes were observed in volumes of total vessel, lumen or plaque. The coefficient of variation (CV) for two volume measurements at baseline was: vessel 0.8%, plaque 1.3%, and lumen 1.......4%. For measurements recorded at baseline and after 12.6+/-1.5 weeks, CV was respectively 3.5%, 3.3% and 6.6%. Reproducibility and interobserver and intraobserver variation showed very high correlations. A linear correlation was present in percent changes over 12.6+/-1.5 weeks between vessel volume and lumen volume (r...

  17. VOLUME STUDY WITH HIGH DENSITY OF PARTICLES BASED ON CONTOUR AND CORRELATION IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Yu. Nikolaeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study is the techniques of particle statistics evaluation, in particular, processing methods of particle images obtained by coherent illumination. This paper considers the problem of recognition and statistical accounting for individual images of small scattering particles in an arbitrary section of the volume in case of high concentrations. For automatic recognition of focused particles images, a special algorithm for statistical analysis based on contouring and thresholding was used. By means of the mathematical formalism of the scalar diffraction theory, coherent images of the particles formed by the optical system with high numerical aperture were simulated. Numerical testing of the method proposed for the cases of different concentrations and distributions of particles in the volume was performed. As a result, distributions of density and mass fraction of the particles were obtained, and the efficiency of the method in case of different concentrations of particles was evaluated. At high concentrations, the effect of coherent superposition of the particles from the adjacent planes strengthens, which makes it difficult to recognize images of particles using the algorithm considered in the paper. In this case, we propose to supplement the method with calculating the cross-correlation function of particle images from adjacent segments of the volume, and evaluating the ratio between the height of the correlation peak and the height of the function pedestal in the case of different distribution characters. The method of statistical accounting of particles considered in this paper is of practical importance in the study of volume with particles of different nature, for example, in problems of biology and oceanography. Effective work in the regime of high concentrations expands the limits of applicability of these methods for practically important cases and helps to optimize determination time of the distribution character and

  18. Protein-bound toxins: added value in their removal with high convective volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Soraya; Vega, Almudena; Quiroga, Borja; Arroyo, David; Panizo, Nayara; Reque, Javier Eduardo; López-Gómez, Juan Manuel

    Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. In recent years, protein-bound toxins have become more important due to their association with increased morbidity and mortality, characterised by inadequate clearance during dialysis. The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of high convective volumes on postdilution online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) on the removal of medium-sized molecules, small molecules and protein-bound molecules.

  19. Volume structuring of high power LED encapsulates by femtosecond laser direct writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuna, L.; Sommer, C.; Zinterl, E.; Krenn, J.R.; Wenzl, F.P. [Joanneum Research Forschungsges. mbH, Institute of Nanostructured Materials and Photonics, Weiz (Austria); Pachler, P.; Hartmann, P.; Tasch, S. [TridonicAtco Optoelectronics GmbH, Jennersdorf (Austria); Leising, G. [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz (Austria)

    2008-11-15

    We report on the micro-fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) such as 1D, 2D and concentric grating structures inside the volume of thin silicone films by femtosecond laser direct writing. In addition, we show that such structures can also be integrated into silicone films that act as encapsulation layers of high power light-emitting diodes. The latter strategy opens new possibilities to homogenize and to control the light emitted from such devices. (orig.)

  20. Volume-scalable high-brightness three-dimensional visible light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramania, Ganapathi; Fischer, Arthur J; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-02-18

    A volume-scalable, high-brightness, electrically driven visible light source comprises a three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) comprising one or more direct bandgap semiconductors. The improved light emission performance of the invention is achieved based on the enhancement of radiative emission of light emitters placed inside a 3DPC due to the strong modification of the photonic density-of-states engendered by the 3DPC.

  1. High-throughput in-volume processing in glass with isotropic spatial resolutions in three dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Yuanxin; Chu, Wei; Liao, Yang; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2016-01-01

    We report on fabrication of three dimensional (3D) microstructures in glass with isotropic spatial resolutions. To achieve high throughput fabrication, we expand the focal spot size with a low-numerical-aperture lens, which naturally results in a degraded axial resolution. We solve the problem with simultaneous spatial temporal focusing which leads to an isotropic laser-affected volume with a spatial resolution of ~100 micron.

  2. A reliable and consistent production technology for high volume compacted graphite iron castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jincheng

    2014-01-01

    The demands for improved engine performance, fuel economy, durability, and lower emissions provide a continual chalenge for engine designers. The use of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) has been established for successful high volume series production in the passenger vehicle, commercial vehicle and industrial power sectors over the last decade. The increased demand for CGI engine components provides new opportunities for the cast iron foundry industry to establish efficient and robust CGI volume production processes, in China and globaly. The production window range for stable CGI is narrow and constantly moving. Therefore, any one step single addition of magnesium aloy and the inoculant cannot ensure a reliable and consistent production process for complicated CGI engine castings. The present paper introduces the SinterCast thermal analysis process control system that provides for the consistent production of CGI with low nodularity and reduced porosity, without risking the formation of lfake graphite. The technology is currently being used in high volume Chinese foundry production. The Chinese foundry industry can develop complicated high demand CGI engine castings with the proper process control technology.

  3. Feasibility tests on concrete with very-high-volume supplementary cementitious materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Jeon, Yong-Su

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the compressive strength and durability of very high-volume SCM concrete. The prepared 36 concrete specimens were classified into two groups according to their designed 28-day compressive strength. For the high-volume SCM, the FA level was fixed at a weight ratio of 0.4 and the GGBS level varied between the weight ratio of 0.3 and 0.5, which resulted in 70-90% replacement of OPC. To enhance the compressive strength of very high-volume SCM concrete at an early age, the unit water content was controlled to be less than 150 kg/m(3), and a specially modified polycarboxylate-based water-reducing agent was added. Test results showed that as SCM ratio (R SCM) increased, the strength gain ratio at an early age relative to the 28-day strength tended to decrease, whereas that at a long-term age increased up to R SCM of 0.8, beyond which it decreased. In addition, the beneficial effect of SCMs on the freezing-and-thawing and chloride resistances of the concrete decreased at R SCM of 0.9. Hence, it is recommended that R SCM needs to be restricted to less than 0.8-0.85 in order to obtain a consistent positive influence on the compressive strength and durability of SCM concrete.

  4. Properties of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Reinforced with Natural Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat SIDDIQUE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Properties of high-volume fly ash concrete incorporating san fibres are presented in this paper. For this investigation, initially, three concrete mixtures were made with 35%, 45%, and 55% of Class F fly as partial replacement of cement. After this, three percentages (0.25, 0.50, and 0.75% of san fibres (25 mm length were added in each of the fly ash concrete mixtures. San is a natural bast fibre, and is also known as Sunn Hemp (Botanical name: Crotalaria Juncea. It is grown in Indian Sub-Continent, Brazil, Eastern and Southern Africa, and also in some parts of U.S.A. Tests were performed for compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and impact strength at the ages of 28, 91 and 365 days. Tests were also performed for fresh concrete properties. 28 days test results indicated that san fibres reduced the compressive strength of high-volume fly ash concrete by 2 to 13%, increased splitting tensile strength by 6 to 26%, flexural strength by 5 to 14%, and enhanced impact strength tremendously (by 100 to 300% depending upon the fly ash content and fibre percentage. Later age (91 and 365 days results showed continuous increase in strength properties of high-volume fly ash concrete. This was probably be possible due to the pozzolanic action of fly ash, leading to more densification of the concrete matrix, and development of more effective bond between fibres and fly ash concrete matrix.

  5. Comparative Performance of High Efficiency Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-06

    i pi» ■«■■i . ilMi<MI««iPMpM«l««P«nMVHV*W«nPW- AD-A007 340 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS...OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR DESTROYER HULL TYPES VOLUME I By Alan J. Stewart 6 December 1974 Approved for Public Release... Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types 7. AH r:i.iR(JJ Alan J. Stewart 9. Pr.fii-OFIMING OiiüANIi ATION NAMI A’JD AOOMESS Bradford

  6. Approximating the volume of unions and intersections of high-dimensional geometric objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Karl

    2008-01-01

    We consider the computation of the volume of the union of high-dimensional geometric objects. While showing that this problem is #P-hard already for very simple bodies (i.e., axis-parallel boxes), we give a fast FPRAS for all objects where one can: (1) test whether a given point lies inside the object, (2) sample a point uniformly, (3) calculate the volume of the object in polynomial time. All three oracles can be weak, that is, just approximate. This implies that Klee's measure problem and the hypervolume indicator can be approximated efficiently even though they are #P-hard and hence cannot be solved exactly in time polynomial in the number of dimensions unless P=NP. Our algorithm also allows to approximate efficiently the volume of the union of convex bodies given by weak membership oracles. For the analogous problem of the intersection of high-dimensional geometric objects we prove #P-hardness for boxes and show that there is no multiplicative polynomial-time $2^{d^{1-\\epsilon}}$-approximation for certain...

  7. Resistance to Corrosion of Reinforcement of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, S. O.; Bae, S. H.; Lee, H. J. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. M. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, S. H. [Korea Confirmity Laboratories, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Due to the increasing of interest about the eco-friendly concrete, it is increased to use concretes containing by-products of industry such as fly ash(FA), ground granulated blast furnace slag(GGBFS), silica fume(SF), and etc. Especially, these are well known for improving the resistances to reinforcement corrosion in concrete and decreasing chloride ion penetration. The purpose of this experimental research is to evaluate the resistance against corrosion of reinforcement of high volume fly ash(HVFA) concrete which is replaced with high volume fly ash for cement volume. For this purpose, the concrete test specimens were made for various strength level and replacement ratio of FA, and then the compressive strength and diffusion coefficient for chloride ion of them were measured for 28, 91, and 182 days, respectively. Also, corrosion monitoring by half cell potential method was carried out for the made lollypop concrete test specimens to detect the time of corrosion initiation for reinforcement in concrete. As a result, it was observed from the test results that the compressive strength of HVFA concrete was decreased with increasing replacement ratio of FA but long-term resistances against reinforcement corrosion and chloride ion penetration of that were increased.

  8. FLUID-BASED SIMULATION APPROACH FOR HIGH VOLUME CONVEYOR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying WANG; Chen ZHOU

    2004-01-01

    High volume conveyor systems in distribution centers have very large footprint and can handle large volumes and hold thousands of items. Traditional discrete-event cell-based approach to simulate such networks becomes computationally challenging. An alternative approach, in which the traffic is represented by segments of fluid flow of different density instead of individual packages, is presented in this paper to address this challenge. The proposed fluid-based simulation approach is developed using a Hybrid Petri Nets framework. The underlying model is a combination of an extension of a Batches Petri Nets (BPN) and a Stochastic Petri Nets (SPN). The extensions are in the inclusion of random elements and relaxation of certain structural constraints. Some adaptations are also made to fit the target system modeling. The approach is presented with an example.

  9. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen

    2016-01-01

    for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers.......This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON......). Eleven swimmers did not complete the questionnaires. For 12 weeks both groups trained ~12 h per week. The amount of HIT was ~5 h vs. 1 h, and total distance was ~17 km vs. ~35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10 × 10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 min of rest...

  10. A HIGH RESOLUTION FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR SOLVING SHALLOW WATER EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A high-resolution finite volume numerical method for solving the shallow water equations is developed in this paper. In order to extend finite difference TVD scheme to finite volume method, a new geometry and topology of control bodies is defined by considering the corresponding relationships between nodes and elements. This solver is implemented on arbitrary quadrilateral meshes and their satellite elements, and based on a second-order hybrid type of TVD scheme in space discretization and a two-step Runge-Kutta method in time discretization. Then it is used to deal with two typical dam-break problems and very satisfactory results are obtained comparied with other numerical solutions. It can be considered as an efficient implement for the computation of shallow water problems, especially concerning those having discontinuities, subcritical and supercritical flows and complex geometries.

  11. Low-cost preparation of mesoporous silica with high pore volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuling Shen; Wei Wu; Kai Guo; Jianfeng Chen

    2007-01-01

    Mesoporous silica materials with high pore volume were successfully prepared by the chemical precipitation method, with water glass and a biodegradable nonionic surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG). The obtained materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermo gravimetric analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the changes of the pore parameters depended on both the surfactant content and heat treatment temperature. When the content of PEG was 10wt% and the obtained PEG/SiO2 composite was heated at 600℃, the mesoporous silica with a pore volume of 2.2 cm3/g, a BET specific surface area of 361.55 m2/g, and a diameter of 2-4 μm could be obtained. The obtained mesoporous silica materials have potential applications in the fields of paint and plastic, as thickening, reinforcing, and flatting agents.

  12. Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kippenberg, T J; Vahala, K J

    2004-01-01

    Optical microcavities confine light spatially and temporally and find application in a wide range of fundamental and applied studies. In many areas, the microcavity figure of merit is not only determined by photon lifetime (or the equivalent quality-factor, Q), but also by simultaneous achievement of small mode volume V . Here we demonstrate ultra-high Q-factor small mode volume toroid microcavities on-a-chip, which exhibit a Q/V factor of more than $10^{6}(\\lambda/n)^{-3}$. These values are the highest reported to date for any chip-based microcavity. A corresponding Purcell factor in excess of 200 000 and a cavity finesse of $2.8\\times10^{6}$ is achieved, demonstrating that toroid microcavities are promising candidates for studies of the Purcell effect, cavity QED or biochemical sensing

  13. Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenberg, T. J.; Spillane, S. M.; Vahala, K. J.

    2004-12-01

    Optical microcavities confine light spatially and temporally and find application in a wide range of fundamental and applied studies. In many areas, the microcavity figure of merit is not only determined by photon lifetime (or the equivalent quality-factor, Q), but also by simultaneous achievement of small mode volume (V). Here we demonstrate ultra-high Q-factor small mode volume toroid microcavities on-a-chip, which exhibit a Q/V factor of more than 106(λ/n)-3. These values are the highest reported to date for any chip-based microcavity. A corresponding Purcell factor in excess of 200 000 and a cavity finesse of >2.8×106 is achieved, demonstrating that toroid microcavities are promising candidates for studies of the Purcell effect, cavity QED or biochemical sensing.

  14. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-10-05

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  15. Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for spectral beam combining of high-power fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachenberg, Derrek R; Andrusyak, Oleksiy; Venus, George; Smirnov, Vadim; Glebov, Leonid B

    2014-02-20

    High-radiance lasers are desired for many applications in defense and manufacturing. Spectral beam combining (SBC) by volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) is a very promising method for high-radiance lasers that need to achieve 100 kW level power. Laser-induced heating of VBGs under high-power radiation presents a challenge for maintaining Bragg resonance at various power levels without mechanical realignment. A novel thermal tuning technique and apparatus is presented that enables maintaining peak efficiency operation of the SBC system at various power levels without any mechanical adjustment. The method is demonstrated by combining two high-power ytterbium fiber lasers with high efficiency from low power to full combined power of 300 W (1.5 kW effective power), while maintaining peak combining efficiency within 0.5%.

  16. Volume and Mass Estimation of Three-Phase High Power Transformers for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft historically have had sub-1kW(sub e), electrical requirements for GN&C, science, and communications: Galileo at 600W(sub e), and Cassini at 900W(sub e), for example. Because most missions have had the same order of magnitude power requirements, the Power Distribution Systems (PDS) use existing, space-qualified technology and are DC. As science payload and mission duration requirements increase, however, the required electrical power increases. Subsequently, this requires a change from a passive energy conversion (solar arrays and batteries) to dynamic (alternator, solar dynamic, etc.), because dynamic conversion has higher thermal and conversion efficiencies, has higher power densities, and scales more readily to higher power levels. Furthermore, increased power requirements and physical distribution lengths are best served with high-voltage, multi-phase AC to maintain distribution efficiency and minimize voltage drops. The generated AC-voltage must be stepped-up (or down) to interface with various subsystems or electrical hardware. Part of the trade-space design for AC distribution systems is volume and mass estimation of high-power transformers. The volume and mass are functions of the power rating, operating frequency, the ambient and allowable temperature rise, the types and amount of heat transfer available, the core material and shape, the required flux density in a core, the maximum current density, etc. McLyman has tabulated the performance of a number of transformers cores and derived a "cookbook" methodology to determine the volume of transformers, whereas Schawrze had derived an empirical method to estimate the mass of single-phase transformers. Based on the work of McLyman and Schwarze, it is the intent herein to derive an empirical solution to the volume and mass estimation of three-phase, laminated EI-core power transformers, having radiated and conducted heat transfer mechanisms available. Estimation of the mounting hardware, connectors

  17. Statistical evaluation of the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2014-03-01

    High-Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) concretes are seen by many as a feasible solution for sustainable, low embodied carbon construction. At the moment, fly ash is classified as a waste by-product, primarily of thermal power stations. In this paper the authors experimentally and statistically investigated the effects of mix-design factors on the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes. A total of 240 and 32 samples were produced and tested in the laboratory to measure compressive strength and Young\\'s modulus respectively. Applicability of the CEB-FIP (Comite Euro-international du Béton - Fédération Internationale de la Précontrainte) and ACI (American Concrete Institute) Building Model Code (Thomas, 2010; ACI Committee 209, 1982) [1,2] to the experimentally-derived mechanical property data for HVFA concretes was established. Furthermore, using multiple linear regression analysis, Mean Squared Residuals (MSRs) were obtained to determine whether a weight- or volume-based mix proportion is better to predict the mechanical properties of HVFA concrete. The significance levels of the design factors, which indicate how significantly the factors affect the HVFA concrete\\'s mechanical properties, were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests. The results show that a weight-based mix proportion is a slightly better predictor of mechanical properties than volume-based one. The significance level of fly ash substitution rate was higher than that of w/b ratio initially but reduced over time. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cerium-Based, Intermetallic-Strengthened Aluminum Casting Alloy: High-Volume Co-product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, D.; McCall, S. K.; McGuire, M. A.; Ott, R. T.; Geer, Tom; Rios, Orlando; Turchi, P. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanical properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.

  19. Entropy and volume change of dissociation in tobacco mosaic virus probed by high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Jose A C; Bonafe, Carlos F S; Joekes, Ines; Martinez, Ernesto A; Carvalho, Giovani B M; Norberto, Douglas R

    2012-12-27

    Virus dissociation and inactivation by high pressure have been extensively studied in recent decades. Pressure-induced dissociation of viral particles involves a reduction in the Gibbs free energy of dissociation and a negative change in volume. In this work, we investigated the combined effect of high pressure and temperature on the dissociation of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). We assumed the presence of two states of TMV with different tendencies to dissociate. Thus one form presents a low tendency (L) and the other a high tendency (H) to dissociate. Based on the model described here, the L-H transition was favored by an increase in pressure and a decrease in temperature. The volume change of dissociation was pressure- and temperature-dependent, with a highly negative value of -80 mL/mol being recorded at 0 °C and atmospheric pressure. The entropy and enthalpy of dissociation were very temperature- and pressure-dependent, with values of entropy of 450 to -1300 kJ/mol and values of enthalpy of 5.5 × 10(4) to 2.4 × 10(4) kJ/mol. The dissociation of TMV was enthalpy-driven at all temperatures and pressures investigated. Based on these findings, we conclude that the model presented allows accurate predictions of viral dissociation behavior in different experimental conditions.

  20. High Volume Manufacturing of NanoEngineered High ZT Thermoelectrics for Multiple Energy Generation Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SMI has teamed with a leading thermoelectric (TE) research group in order to optimize and convert high-performance TE materials developed in laboratory-scale into...

  1. Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 2, Additional appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. The status of the CDB is summarized in Volume I of this report. Volume II contains appendices that present data from the data base and an evaluation of glass durability models applied to the data base.

  2. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

  3. 77 FR 28281 - Withdrawal of Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for One High Production Volume...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... issue of March 16, 2012 (77 FR 15609) (FRL-9335-6). If you have questions regarding the applicability of... One High Production Volume Chemical Substance AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... production volume chemicals (HPV1). * * * * * (j) * * * Table 2--Chemical Substances and Testing...

  4. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 5) outlines the standards and requirements for the Fire Protection and Packaging and Transportation sections.

  5. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

  6. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

  7. Association of Competition Volume, Club Sports, and Sport Specialization With Sex and Lower Extremity Injury History in High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Bell, David R; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Pfaller, Adam Y; Hetzel, Scott J; Brooks, M Alison; McGuine, Timothy A

    2017-06-01

    High school athletes are increasingly encouraged to participate in 1 sport year-round to increase their sport skills. However, no study has examined the association of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with sex and lower extremity injury (LEI) in a large sample of high school athletes. Increased competition volume, participating on a club team outside of school sports, and high levels of specialization will all be associated with a history of LEI. Girls will be more likely to engage in higher competition volume, participate on a club team, and be classified as highly specialized. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. High school athletes completed a questionnaire prior to the start of their competitive season regarding their sport participation and previous injury history. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with history of LEI, adjusting for sex. A cohort of 1544 high school athletes (780 girls; grades 9-12) from 29 high schools completed the questionnaire. Girls were more likely to participate at high competition volume (23.2% vs 11.0%, χ(2) = 84.7, P sport, or who were highly specialized had greater odds of reporting a previous LEI than those with low competition volume (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% CI, 1.55-2.80; P sport participation (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.20-1.88; P sport volume, on a club team, or being highly specialized was associated with history of LEI. Girls were more likely to participate at high volumes, be active on club teams, or be highly specialized, potentially placing them at increased risk of injury. Youth athletes, parents, and clinicians should be aware of the potential risks of intense, year-round participation in organized sports.

  8. Sulfate resistance of concrete containing high volume of mineral admixtures[ACI SP-234-37

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irassar, E.F. [Buenos Aires Central State Univ., Olavarria (Argentina). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Batic, O.R. [La Plata Univ., (Argentina)]|[Commission of Scientific Research of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Di Maio, A. [La Plata Technilogical Univ. (Argentina)]|[CONICET-LEMIT (Argentina); Ponce, J.M. [LEMIT-CIC (Argentina)]|[La Plata Univ. (Argentina). Faculty of Natural Sciences

    2006-07-01

    Various physical and chemical processes that influence the durability of concrete structures were discussed. For underground or on grade structures, the durability of concrete depends on the chemical composition of concrete and the concentration of ionic species present in the soil or groundwater, the permeability of soil, exposition to water, the flow of water, and the shape and size of structure. It also depends on the quality of concrete in terms of compaction, water to cementitious ratio, cementitious content, type of cementitious materials, and curing process. The rate and course of concrete deterioration also depends on environmental conditions such as low temperature, temperature cycles between day and night, and the relative humidity of ambient air. Durable foundations in a sulfate environment require a low permeability concrete in order to assure good compaction and curing procedures. The type of cementitious material is also important in preventing deterioration. This paper summarized 15 years of results related to the effect of high volume mineral admixtures on the sulfate resistance of concrete. A mechanism of concrete degradation was presented based on macroscopic and microscopic behaviour. The physical and chemical attack produced by sulfate soils was emphasized. The presentation outlined the materials used, mixture proportions, curing, exposure conditions, inspection, compressive strength test methods and microstructural analyses. It was shown that a combination of portland cement with a high volume of appropriate fly ash, natural pozzolan or granulated blast-furnace slag provides an excellent performance for concrete structures buried in harsh alkali sulfate soils. Concretes with high volume of mineral admixtures are more susceptible to the physical salt attack caused by cycles of wetting and drying that produce progressive scaling and mass loss. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  9. Modeling Atmospheric Emissions and Calculating Mortality Rates Associated with High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Alyssa

    Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are a growing pollution concern throughout the global community, as they have been linked to numerous health issues. The freight transportation sector is a large source of these emissions and is expected to continue growing as globalization persists. Within the US, the expanding development of the natural gas industry is helping to support many industries and leading to increased transportation. The process of High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) is one of the newer advanced extraction techniques that is increasing natural gas and oil reserves dramatically within the US, however the technique is very resource intensive. HVHF requires large volumes of water and sand per well, which is primarily transported by trucks in rural areas. Trucks are also used to transport waste away from HVHF well sites. This study focused on the emissions generated from the transportation of HVHF materials to remote well sites, dispersion, and subsequent health impacts. The Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was used in this analysis within ArcGIS to identify roadways with high volume traffic and emissions. High traffic road segments were used as emissions sources to determine the atmospheric dispersion of particulate matter using AERMOD, an EPA model that calculates geographic dispersion and concentrations of pollutants. Output from AERMOD was overlaid with census data to determine which communities may be impacted by increased emissions from HVHF transport. The anticipated number of mortalities within the impacted communities was calculated, and mortality rates from these additional emissions were computed to be 1 in 10 million people for a simulated truck fleet meeting stricter 2007 emission standards, representing a best case scenario. Mortality rates due to increased truck emissions from average, in-use vehicles, which represent a mixed age truck fleet, are expected to be higher (1 death per 341,000 people annually).

  10. Severe Leptospirosis with Multiple Organ Failure Successfully Treated by Plasma Exchange and High-Volume Hemofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Bourquin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptospirosis is a spirochetal zoonosis with complex clinical features including renal and liver failure. Case report. We report the case of a Swiss fisherman presenting with leptospirosis. After initial improvement, refractory septic shock and severe liver and kidney failure developed. The expected mortality was estimated at 90% with clinical scores. The patient underwent plasma exchanges and high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF with complete recovery of hepatic and kidney functions. Discussion. Plasma exchanges and HVHF may confer survival benefit on patients with severe leptospirosis, refractory septic shock, and multiple-organ failure.

  11. UCLA High Speed, High Volume Laboratory Network for Infectious Diseases. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    neuraminidase activity? Does resistance in influenza A/H1N1 imply a chance that resistance will develop in highly pathogenic avian A/H5N1 viruses, which bear the...could
 cross‐ contaminate
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 gummy

  12. Analysis of volume expansion data for periclase, lime, corundum and spinel at high temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B P Singh; H Chandra; R Shyam; A Singh

    2012-08-01

    We have presented an analysis of the volume expansion data for periclase (MgO), lime (CaO), corundum (Al2O3) and spinel (MgAl2O4) determined experimentally by Fiquet et al (1999) from 300K up to 3000K. The thermal equation of state due to Suzuki et al (1979) and Shanker et al (1997) are used to study the relationships between thermal pressure and volume expansion for the entire range of temperatures starting from room temperature up to the melting temperatures of the solids under study. Comparison of the results obtained in the present study with the corresponding experimental data reveal that the thermal pressure changes with temperature almost linearly up to quite high temperatures. At extremely high temperatures close to the melting temperatures thermal pressure deviates significantly from linearity. This prediction is consistent with other recent investigations. A quantitative analysis based on the theory of anharmonic effects has been presented to account for the nonlinear variation of the thermal pressure at high temperatures.

  13. In situ synthesis of calcium phosphate-polycaprolactone nanocomposites with high ceramic volume fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, C; Gotman, I; Jiang, X; Fuchs, S; Kirkpatrick, C J; Gutmanas, E Y

    2010-06-01

    Biodegradable calcium phosphate-PCL nanocomposite powders with unusually high ceramic volume fractions (80-95%) and uniform PCL distribution were synthesized by a non-aqueous chemical reaction in the presence of the dissolved polymer. No visible polymer separation occurred during processing. Depending on the reagents combination, either dicalcium phosphate (DCP) or Ca-deficient HA (CDHA) was obtained. CDHA-PCL composite powders were high pressure consolidated at room temperature yielding dense materials with high compressive strengths. Such densification route provides the possibility of incorporating drug and proteins without damaging their biological activity. The CDHA-PCL composites were tested in osteoblastic and endothelial cell line cultures and were found to support the attachment and proliferation of both cell types.

  14. Lasershot(sm) marking system: high-volume labeling for safety-critical parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane, C B; Hackel, L; Honig, J; Halpin, J; Chen, H-L; Mendieta, F; Harris, F; Lane, L; Daly, J; Harrison, J

    2001-02-16

    The Lasershot Marking System uses laser pulses to safely and permanently impress identification markings on metal components. This process does not remove material or change surface chemistry and actually increases the marked area's resistance to fatigue and corrosion failure. Lasershot marking is ideally suited for marking parts used in situations where safety is critical--from hip-joint replacements to commercial airliner components. The minimum size of the mark is limited only by the resolution of the reading system, allowing manufacturers to mark parts which, up to now, have been too small to label with mechanical peening techniques. The high resolution of the Lasershot marks makes them difficult to reproduce, providing a solution to the ongoing problem of inferior, counterfeited parts. The high marking rate of up to six marks per second makes this system practical and cost-effective for marking high-volume components.

  15. Low-volume high-intensity swim training is superior to high-volume low-intensity training in relation to insulin sensitivity and glucose control in inactive middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2016-01-01

    to an inactive control (n = 20; CON), a high-intensity low-volume (n = 21; HIT) or a low-intensity high-volume (n = 21; LIT) training group. During the 15-week intervention period, HIT performed 3 weekly 6-10 × 30-s all-out swimming intervals (average heart rate (HR) = 86 ± 3 % HRmax) interspersed by 2-min...... adhesion molecule 1 had decreased (P training strategy for improving insulin sensitivity, glucose control and biomarkers of vascular function...

  16. Fresh properties of high-volume fly ash self consolidating concretes[ACI SP-235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmaran, M.; Yaman, I.O.; Tokyay, M. [Middle East Technical Univ., (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Self-consolidating concrete (SCC) has excellent deformability, high resistance to segregation and can be filled into heavily reinforced molds without applying vibration. In addition to these technical advantages, SCC shortens construction time and guarantees higher durability and strength. Self consolidating characteristics are typically achieved using new generation superplasticizers to provide the required flowability. However, plasticizers reduce the viscosity of the SCC. The required cohesion can be achieved by a variety of methods, including the use of viscosity modifying admixtures, but all of the methods increase the cost of SCC. For that reason, mineral admixtures or inert materials such as limestone powder, natural pozzolans and fly ash (FA) are used to increase the viscosity and to reduce the cost of SCC. FA, a by-product of thermal power plants, has been shown to improve the mechanical properties and durability of concrete when used as a cement replacement material. This study evaluated the effects of adding high volumes of high-lime and low-lime FA on the fresh properties of SCCs. Properties of SCC in the fresh and hardened states with both high-lime and low-lime FA types were also examined. Following the mixing procedure, tests were performed on the fresh concrete to determine slump flow time to reach a concrete 500 mm spread circle and diameter, V-funnel flow time, L-box test, GTM sieve stability, setting times, and rheological parameters, relative yield stress and plastic viscosity. During the slump flow test, segregation and bleeding were also visually checked. The results of density and compressive strength of hardened SCC mixtures at 28 and 90 days were also presented. It was concluded that the addition of low-lime FA at high volumes reduced the water requirement of the SCC mixture. Slump flow time, V-funnel flow time and the relative plastic viscosity were related to the viscosity of concrete. The segregation resistance, L-box height ratio and

  17. Building high-performance system for processing a daily large volume of Chinese satellites imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huawu; Huang, Shicun; Wang, Qi; Pan, Zhiqiang; Xin, Yubin

    2014-10-01

    The number of Earth observation satellites from China increases dramatically recently and those satellites are acquiring a large volume of imagery daily. As the main portal of image processing and distribution from those Chinese satellites, the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA) has been working with PCI Geomatics during the last three years to solve two issues in this regard: processing the large volume of data (about 1,500 scenes or 1 TB per day) in a timely manner and generating geometrically accurate orthorectified products. After three-year research and development, a high performance system has been built and successfully delivered. The high performance system has a service oriented architecture and can be deployed to a cluster of computers that may be configured with high end computing power. The high performance is gained through, first, making image processing algorithms into parallel computing by using high performance graphic processing unit (GPU) cards and multiple cores from multiple CPUs, and, second, distributing processing tasks to a cluster of computing nodes. While achieving up to thirty (and even more) times faster in performance compared with the traditional practice, a particular methodology was developed to improve the geometric accuracy of images acquired from Chinese satellites (including HJ-1 A/B, ZY-1-02C, ZY-3, GF-1, etc.). The methodology consists of fully automatic collection of dense ground control points (GCP) from various resources and then application of those points to improve the photogrammetric model of the images. The delivered system is up running at CRESDA for pre-operational production and has been and is generating good return on investment by eliminating a great amount of manual labor and increasing more than ten times of data throughput daily with fewer operators. Future work, such as development of more performance-optimized algorithms, robust image matching methods and application

  18. Pozzolanic Activity Assessment of LUSI (LUmpur SIdoarjo Mud in Semi High Volume Pozzolanic Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Christianto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available LUSI mud obtained from the mud volcano in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, is a viable aluminosilicate material to be utilized as pozzolanic material. LUSI is an abbreviation of the local name of the mud, i.e., Lumpur Sidoarjo, meaning Sidoarjo mud. This paper reports the results of an investigation to assess the pozzolanic activity of LUSI mud, especially in semi high volume pozzolanic mortar. In this case, the amount of mud incorporated is between 30% to 40% of total cementitious material, by mass. The content of SiO2 in the mud is about 30%, whilst the total content of SiO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 is more than 70%. Particle size and degree of partial cement replacement by treated LUSI mud affect the compressive strength, the strength activity index (SAI, the rate of pozzolanic activity development, and the workability of mortar incorporating LUSI mud. Manufacturing semi high volume LUSI mud mortar, up to at least 40% cement replacement, is a possibility, especially with a smaller particle size of LUSI mud, less than 63 μm. The use of a larger percentage of cement replacement by LUSI mud does not show any adverse effect on the water demand, as the flow of the fresh mortar increased with the increase of percentage of LUSI mud usage.

  19. Total pancreatectomy: Short- and long-term outcomes at a high-volume pancreas center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Hazem M; Stauffer, John A; Raimondo, Massimo; Woodward, Timothy A; Wallace, Michael B; Asbun, Horacio J

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify the current indications and outcomes of total pancreatectomy at a high-volume center. METHODS A single institutional retrospective study of patients undergoing total pancreatectomy from 1995 to 2014 was performed. RESULTS One hundred and three patients underwent total pancreatectomy for indications including: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n = 42, 40.8%), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (n = 40, 38.8%), chronic pancreatitis (n = 8, 7.8%), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (n = 7, 6.8%), and miscellaneous (n = 6, 5.8%). The mean age was 66.2 years, and 59 (57.3%) were female. Twenty-four patients (23.3%) underwent a laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Splenic preservation and portal vein resection and reconstruction were performed in 24 (23.3%) and 18 patients (17.5%), respectively. The 90 d major complications, readmission, and mortality rates were 32%, 17.5%, and 6.8% respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival for patients with benign indications were 84%, 82%, 79.5%, and 75.9%, and for malignant indications were 64%, 40.4%, 34.7% and 30.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION Total pancreatectomy, including laparoscopic total pancreatectomy, appears to be an appropriate option for selected patients when treated at a high-volume pancreatic center and through a multispecialty approach. PMID:27721927

  20. Changes in perceived recovery status scale following high-volume muscle damaging resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Eric M; Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Laurent, C Matthew; Wilson, Stephanie M-C; Hesson, Domini; Naimo, Marshall A; Averbuch, Brian; Gilchrist, Phil

    2013-08-01

    Currently no research has investigated the relationship between muscle damage, hormonal status, and perceived recovery scale (PRS). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a high-volume training session on PRS and to determine the relationship between levels of testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase (CK) and PRS. Thirty-five trained subjects (21.3 ± 1.9 years) were recruited. All subjects participated in a high-volume resistance training session consisting of 3 sets of full squats, bench press, deadlifts, pullups, dips, bent over rows, shoulder press, and barbell curls and extensions. Pre-PRS and post-PRS measurements (0-10), soreness, CK, cortisol, and testosterone were measured before and 48 hours after training. Perceived recovery scale declined from 8.6 ± 2.3 to 4.2 ± 1.85 (p Creatine kinase significantly increased from pre- to postworkout (189.4 ± 100.2 to 512 ± 222.7 U/L). Cortisol, testosterone, and free testosterone did not change. There was an inverse relationship between CK and PRS (r = 0.58, p resistance exercise lowers PRS scores. These changes are partly explained by a rise in serum indices of muscle damage. Moreover, free testosterone seems to have a positive relationship with PRS.

  1. Multivariate process modeling of high-volume manufacturing of consumer electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Stefan; Wide, Peter

    1998-12-01

    As production volumes continue to increase and the global market for consumer electronics is getting fiercer, the need for a reliable and essentially fault-free production process is becoming a necessity to survive. The manufacturing processes of today are highly complex and the increasing amount of process data produced in making it hard to unravel the useful information extracted from a huge data set. We have used multivariate and nonlinear process modeling to examine the surface mount production process in a high volume manufacturing of mobile telephones and made an artificial neural network model of the process. As input parameters to the model we have used process data logged by an automatic test equipment and the result variables come from an Automatic Inspection system placed after the board manufacturing process. Using multivariate process modeling has enabled us to identify parameters, which contributes heavily to the quality of the product and can further be implemented to optimize the manufacturing process for system production faults.

  2. Single CMOS sensor system for high resolution double volume measurement applied to membrane distillation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, M. G.; Izquierdo-Gil, M. A.; Sanchez-Reillo, R.; Fernandez-Pineda, C.

    2007-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) [1] is a relatively new process that is being investigated world-wide as a low cost, energy saving alternative to conventional separation processes such as distillation and reverse osmosis (RO). This process offers some advantages compared to other more popular separation processes, such as working at room conditions (pressure and temperature); low-grade, waste and/or alternative energy sources such as solar and geothermal energy may be used; a very high level of rejection with inorganic solutions; small equipment can be employed, etc. The driving force in MD processes is the vapor pressure difference across the membrane. A temperature difference is imposed across the membrane, which results in a vapor pressure difference. The principal problem in this kind of system is the accurate measurement of the recipient volume change, especially at very low flows. A cathetometer, with up to 0,05 mm resolution, is the instrument used to take these measurements, but the necessary human intervention makes this instrument not suitable for automated systems. In order to overcome this lack, a high resolution system is proposed, that makes automatic measurements of the volume of both recipients, cold and hot, at a rate of up to 10 times per second.

  3. Miniaturized, High Flow, Low Dead Volume Pre-Concentrator for Trace Contaminants in Water under Microgravity Conditions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume pre-concentrator for monitoring trace levels of contaminants in water under...

  4. A High-Order Finite-Volume Algorithm for Fokker-Planck Collisions in Magnetized Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Z; Cohen, R H; Rognlien, T D; Xu, X Q

    2007-04-18

    A high-order finite volume algorithm is developed for the Fokker-Planck Operator (FPO) describing Coulomb collisions in strongly magnetized plasmas. The algorithm is based on a general fourth-order reconstruction scheme for an unstructured grid in the velocity space spanned by parallel velocity and magnetic moment. The method provides density conservation and high-order-accurate evaluation of the FPO independent of the choice of the velocity coordinates. As an example, a linearized FPO in constant-of-motion coordinates, i.e. the total energy and the magnetic moment, is developed using the present algorithm combined with a cut-cell merging procedure. Numerical tests include the Spitzer thermalization problem and the return to isotropy for distributions initialized with velocity space loss cones. Utilization of the method for a nonlinear FPO is straightforward but requires evaluation of the Rosenbluth potentials.

  5. Volume and structural analysis of super-cooled water under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duki, Solomon F.; Tsige, Mesfin

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by recent experimental study of super-cooled water at high pressure [1], we performed atomistic molecular dynamic simulations study on bulk water molecules at isothermal-isobaric ensemble. These simulations are performed at temperatures that range from 40 K to 380 K using two different cooling rates, 10K/ns and 10K/5ns, and pressure that ranges from 1atm to 10000 atm. Our analysis for the variation of the volume of the bulk sample against temperature indicates a downward concave shape for pressures above certain values, as reported in [1]. The same downward concave behavior is observed at high pressure on the mean-squared-displacements (MSD) of the water molecules when the MSD is plotted against time. To get further insight on the effect of the pressure on the sample we have also performed a structural analysis of the sample.[4pt] [1] O. Mishima, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144503 (2010);

  6. Middleware Proxy: A Request-Driven Messaging Broker For High Volume Data Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Sliwinski, W; Dworak, A

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, all major infrastructures and data centres (commercial and scientific) make an extensive use of the publish-subscribe messaging paradigm, which helps to decouple the message sender (publisher) from the message receiver (consumer). This paradigm is also heavily used in the CERN Accelerator Control system, in Proxy broker - critical part of the Controls Middleware (CMW) project. Proxy provides the aforementioned publish-subscribe facility and also supports execution of synchronous read and write operations. Moreover, it enables service scalability and dramatically reduces the network resources and overhead (CPU and memory) on publisher machine, required to serve all subscriptions. Proxy was developed in modern C++, using state of the art programming techniques (e.g. Boost) and following recommended software patterns for achieving low-latency and high concurrency. The outstanding performance of the Proxy infrastructure was confirmed during the last 3 years by delivering the high volume of LHC equipment...

  7. High-Throughput Spheroid Screens Using Volume, Resazurin Reduction, and Acid Phosphatase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Delyan P; Grabowska, Anna M; Garnett, Martin C

    2017-01-01

    Mainstream adoption of physiologically relevant three-dimensional models has been slow in the last 50 years due to long, manual protocols with poor reproducibility, high price, and closed commercial platforms. This chapter describes high-throughput, low-cost, open methods for spheroid viability assessment which use readily available reagents and open-source software to analyze spheroid volume, metabolism, and enzymatic activity. We provide two ImageJ macros for automated spheroid size determination-for both single images and images in stacks. We also share an Excel template spreadsheet allowing users to rapidly process spheroid size data, analyze plate uniformity (such as edge effects and systematic seeding errors), detect outliers, and calculate dose-response. The methods would be useful to researchers in preclinical and translational research planning to move away from simplistic monolayer studies and explore 3D spheroid screens for drug safety and efficacy without substantial investment in money or time.

  8. High-voltage electrode optimization towards uniform surface treatment by a pulsed volume discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. V.; Pedos, M. S.; Scherbinin, S. V.; Mamontov, Y. I.; Ponomarev, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the shape and material of the high-voltage electrode of an atmospheric pressure plasma generation system were optimised. The research was performed with the goal of achieving maximum uniformity of plasma treatment of the surface of the low-voltage electrode with a diameter of 100 mm. In order to generate low-temperature plasma with the volume of roughly 1 cubic decimetre, a pulsed volume discharge was used initiated with a corona discharge. The uniformity of the plasma in the region of the low-voltage electrode was assessed using a system for measuring the distribution of discharge current density. The system's low-voltage electrode - collector - was a disc of 100 mm in diameter, the conducting surface of which was divided into 64 radially located segments of equal surface area. The current at each segment was registered by a high-speed measuring system controlled by an ARM™-based 32-bit microcontroller. To facilitate the interpretation of results obtained, a computer program was developed to visualise the results. The program provides a 3D image of the current density distribution on the surface of the low-voltage electrode. Based on the results obtained an optimum shape for a high-voltage electrode was determined. Uniformity of the distribution of discharge current density in relation to distance between electrodes was studied. It was proven that the level of non-uniformity of current density distribution depends on the size of the gap between electrodes. Experiments indicated that it is advantageous to use graphite felt VGN-6 (Russian abbreviation) as the material of the high-voltage electrode's emitting surface.

  9. Mixing subattolitre volumes in a quantitative and highly parallel manner with soft matter nanofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sune M.; Bolinger, Pierre-Yves; Hatzakis, Nikos;

    2012-01-01

    Handling and mixing ultrasmall volumes of reactants in parallel can increase the throughput and complexity of screening assays while simultaneously reducing reagent consumption. Microfabricated silicon and plastic can provide reliable fluidic devices, but cannot typically handle total volumes sma...

  10. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-01

    The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the U.S. for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in each of the volumes.

  11. Adherence to enhanced recovery after surgery protocols across a high-volume gastrointestinal surgical service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, John S; Humphries, Sarah; Simson, Nick; Scrimshaw, Helen; Catton, James; Gornall, Christopher; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) has been shown to improve outcomes for patients following gastrointestinal surgery. Data on protocol adherence and how this impacts on outcome are limited. This study examines how protocol adherence changes over time and determines how this impacts on outcome across a large-volume gastrointestinal surgical service. A prospective review of patients eligible for colorectal, liver and oesophagogastric ERAS over two 3-month periods in 2010 and 2011 was performed. End points included: length of stay (LOS), overall protocol adherence, individual modality adherence, reason for pathway deviation and patient outcomes. 172 patients (110 colorectal, 31 liver and 31 oesophagogastric) were evaluated. For each sub-speciality, the introduction of ERAS led to significant reductions in LOS that were sustained for the duration of the study. Adherence was achieved across 60% (colorectal), 75% (liver) and 88% (oesophagogastric) of individual pathway modalities. The major causes of pathway deviation were: post-operative nausea and vomiting (colorectal), pain (liver) and pulmonary complications (oesophagogastric). Large-scale implementation of ERAS at a high-volume centre is feasible and offers many of the benefits demonstrated in controlled trials, but adherence may diminish over time. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Desorption of Herbicides from Atmospheric Particulates During High-Volume Air Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight V. Quiring

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides can be present in the atmosphere either as vapours and/or in association with suspended particles. High-volume air sampling, in which air is aspirated first through a glass fibre filter to capture pesticides associated with atmospheric particulates and then polyurethane foam (PUF, often in combination with an adsorbent resin such as XAD-2, to capture pesticides present as vapours, is generally employed during atmospheric monitoring for pesticides. However, the particulate fraction may be underestimated because some pesticides may be stripped or desorbed from captured particulates due to the pressure drop created by the high flow of air through the filter. This possibility was investigated with ten herbicide active ingredients commonly used on the Canadian prairies (dimethylamine salts of 2,4-D, MCPA and dicamba, 2,4-D 2-ethylhexyl ester, bromoxynil octanoate, diclofop methyl ester, fenoxaprop ethyl ester, trifluralin, triallate and ethalfluralin and seven hydrolysis products (2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba, bromoxynil, diclofop, clopyralid and mecoprop. Finely ground heavy clay soil fortified with active ingredients/hydrolysis products was evenly distributed on the glass fibre filters of high-volume air samplers and air aspirated through the samplers at a flow rate of 12.5 m3/h for a 7-day period. The proportion desorbed as vapour from the fortified soil was determined by analysis of the PUF/XAD-2 resin composite cartridges. The extent of desorption from the fortified soil applied to the filters varied from 0% for each of the dimethylamine salts of 2,4-D, MCPA and dicamba to approximately 50% for trifluralin, triallate and ethalfluralin.

  13. Volume and Pressure Delivery During Pediatric High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ronald; Deakers, Timothy; Hotz, Justin; Khemani, Robinder G; Ross, Patrick A; Newth, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Identify variables independently associated with delivered tidal volume (VT) and measured mean airway pressure during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation across the range of pediatric endotracheal tube sizes. In vitro study. Research laboratory. An in vitro bench model of the intubated pediatric respiratory system during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation was used to obtain delivered VT and mean airway pressure (in the distal lung) for various endotracheal tube sizes. Measurements were taken at different combinations of ventilator set mean airway pressure (Paw), amplitude (ΔP), frequency, and test lung compliance. Multiple regression analysis was used to construct multivariable models predicting delivered VT and mean airway pressure. Variables independently associated with higher delivered VT for all endotracheal tube sizes include higher ΔP (p frequency (p frequency and ΔP magnifies the delivered VT when ΔP is high and frequency is low (p frequency increases (p frequency in delivered VT and the effect of ΔP and frequency on delivered mean airway pressure. These results demonstrate the need to measure or estimate VT and delivered pressures during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and may be useful in determining optimal strategies for lung protective ventilation during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.

  14. Accurately determining log and bark volumes of saw logs using high-resolution laser scan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Accurately determining the volume of logs and bark is crucial to estimating the total expected value recovery from a log. Knowing the correct size and volume of a log helps to determine which processing method, if any, should be used on a given log. However, applying volume estimation methods consistently can be difficult. Errors in log measurement and oddly shaped...

  15. Novel experimental design for high pressure-high temperature electrical resistance measurements in a "Paris-Edinburgh" large volume press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matityahu, Shlomi; Emuna, Moran; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy; Greenberg, Yaron

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel experimental design for high sensitivity measurements of the electrical resistance of samples at high pressures (0-6 GPa) and high temperatures (300-1000 K) in a "Paris-Edinburgh" type large volume press. Uniquely, the electrical measurements are carried out directly on a small sample, thus greatly increasing the sensitivity of the measurement. The sensitivity to even minor changes in electrical resistance can be used to clearly identify phase transitions in material samples. Electrical resistance measurements are relatively simple and rapid to execute and the efficacy of the present experimental design is demonstrated by measuring the electrical resistance of Pb, Sn, and Bi across a wide domain of temperature-pressure phase space and employing it to identify the loci of phase transitions. Based on these results, the phase diagrams of these elements are reconstructed to high accuracy and found to be in excellent agreement with previous studies. In particular, by mapping the locations of several well-studied reference points in the phase diagram of Sn and Bi, it is demonstrated that a standard calibration exists for the temperature and pressure, thus eliminating the need for direct or indirect temperature and pressure measurements. The present technique will allow simple and accurate mapping of phase diagrams under extreme conditions and may be of particular importance in advancing studies of liquid state anomalies.

  16. Low-loss polysilicon waveguides fabricated in an emulated high-volume electronics process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, Jason S; Tang, Sanh D; Kramer, Steve; Mehta, Karan; Li, Hanqing; Stojanović, Vladimir; Ram, Rajeev J

    2012-03-26

    We measure end-of-line polysilicon waveguide propagation losses of ~6-15 dB/cm across the telecommunication O-, E-, S-, C- and L-bands in a process representative of high-volume product integration. The lowest loss of 6.2 dB/cm is measured at 1550 nm in a polysilicon waveguide with a 120 nm x 350 nm core geometry. The reported waveguide characteristics are measured after the thermal cycling of the full CMOS electronics process that results in a 32% increase in the extracted material loss relative to the as-crystallized waveguide samples. The measured loss spectra are fit to an absorption model using defect state parameters to identify the dominant loss mechanism in the end-of-line and as-crystallized polysilicon waveguides.

  17. High production volume chemical Amine Oxide [C8-C20] category environmental risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Greggs, William

    2009-01-01

    An environmental assessment of amine oxides has been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Amine Oxides Consortium. Amine oxides are primarily used in conjunction with surfactants in cleaning...... and personal care products. Given the lack of persistence or bioaccumulation, and the low likelihood of these chemicals partitioning to soil, the focus of the environmental assessment is on the aquatic environment. In the United States, the E-FAST model is used to estimate effluent concentrations in the United...... States from manufacturing facilities and from municipal facilities resulting from consumer product uses. Reasonable worst-case ratios of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) range from 0.04 to 0.003, demonstrating that these chemicals are a low risk...

  18. High-order conservative reconstruction schemes for finite volume methods in cylindrical and spherical coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Mignone, A

    2014-01-01

    High-order reconstruction schemes for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are revised in the finite volume approach. The formulation employs a piecewise polynomial approximation to the zone-average values to reconstruct left and right interface states from within a computational zone to arbitrary order of accuracy by inverting a Vandermonde-like linear system of equations with spatially varying coefficients. The approach is general and can be used on uniform and non-uniform meshes although explicit expressions are derived for polynomials from second to fifth degree in cylindrical and spherical geometries with uniform grid spacing. It is shown that, in regions of large curvature, the resulting expressions differ considerably from their Cartesian counterparts and that the lack of such corrections can severely degrade the accuracy of the solution close to the coordinate origin. Limiting techniques and monotonicity constraints are revised for conventional reconstruct...

  19. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Haicheng; GAO Wei; FAN Zhihui; LIU Yidi; REN Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length.The discharge images,optical emission spectra (OES),the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained.When airflow rate is increased,the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity,breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated.The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse,discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag,and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small vclocity is introduced into the discharge gap.These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap.

  20. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haicheng; Gao, Wei; Fan, Zhihui; Liu, Yidi; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length. The discharge images, optical emission spectra (OES), the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained. When airflow rate is increased, the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity, breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated. The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse, discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag, and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small velocity is introduced into the discharge gap. These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51437002)

  1. Community-based risk assessment of water contamination from high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penningroth, Stephen M; Yarrow, Matthew M; Figueroa, Abner X; Bowen, Rebecca J; Delgado, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    The risk of contaminating surface and groundwater as a result of shale gas extraction using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has not been assessed using conventional risk assessment methodologies. Baseline (pre-fracking) data on relevant water quality indicators, needed for meaningful risk assessment, are largely lacking. To fill this gap, the nonprofit Community Science Institute (CSI) partners with community volunteers who perform regular sampling of more than 50 streams in the Marcellus and Utica Shale regions of upstate New York; samples are analyzed for parameters associated with HVHHF. Similar baseline data on regional groundwater comes from CSI's testing of private drinking water wells. Analytic results for groundwater (with permission) and surface water are made publicly available in an interactive, searchable database. Baseline concentrations of potential contaminants from shale gas operations are found to be low, suggesting that early community-based monitoring is an effective foundation for assessing later contamination due to fracking.

  2. Mechanical behavior of LC4 alloy in semisolid state at high volume fractions of solid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of LC4 alloy in the semisolid state at high volume fractions of solid has been studied through unconstrictive compressing test. The results show that peak stress mainly depends on grain boundary's cohesion and instantaneous strain rate sensitivity in the semisolid state, which is similar to that in the solid state. Analyses on microstructures and status of compressive stress of specimen demonstrate that segregation of liquid-solid phase is mainly affected by strain rate and deformation temperature. There are mainly two kinds of flow in liquid phase: either from the region with relatively large hydrostatic compressive stress to the region with relatively small hydrostatic compressive stress or from the grain boundaries perpendicular to the compression axis to the grain boundaries with a certain directional angle to the compression direction. Based on the above results, compressive deformation mechanism mainly depends on deformation temperature, strain rate and stress state.

  3. High-volume hydrodissection: increasing the safety and efficiency of perforator dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Dhruv; Fanzio, Paolo M; Lee, Ethan T; Chang, Chee J; Lee, Bernard T; Cheng, Ming-Huei

    2014-08-01

    Although perforator flaps have advanced the field of reconstructive microsurgery, these flaps increase operative time and difficulty of dissection. A prospective experimental animal study was performed to study the use of high-volume hydrodissection to simultaneously decrease the operative time while increasing the safety of perforator dissection. Sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral "deep inferior epigastric perforator" flap dissections with hydrodissection used on the study side and a traditional dissection performed on the control side. Primary outcome measurements included dissection time and dissection difficulty score (1-5 in order of increasing difficulty). The mean (SD) dissection time for the hydrodissected perforators was 9.29 (2.50) minutes versus 13.22 (2.44) minutes for the control perforators (P dissection difficulty score was 4.44 (0.73) for the dissection of the control side compared with 1.69 (0.87) for the hydrodissected side (P dissection time and difficulty.

  4. Transport and mechanical properties of self consolidating concrete with high volume fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa Sahmaran; Ismail O. Yaman; Mustafa Tokyay [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering

    2009-02-15

    This paper presents the transport and mechanical properties of self consolidating concrete that contain high percentages of low-lime and high-lime fly ash (FA). Self consolidating concretes (SCC) containing five different contents of high-lime FA and low-lime FA as a replacement of cement (30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 by weight of total cementitious material) are examined. For comparison, a control SCC mixture without any FA was also produced. The fresh properties of the SCCs were observed through, slump flow time and diameter, V-funnel flow time, L-box height ratio, and segregation ratio. The hardened properties included the compressive strength, split tensile strength, drying shrinkage and transport properties (absorption, sorptivity and rapid chloride permeability tests) up to 365 days. Test results confirm that it is possible to produce SCC with a 70% of cement replacement by both types of FA. The use of high volumes of FA in SCC not only improved the workability and transport properties but also made it possible to produce concretes between 33 and 40 MPa compressive strength at 28 days, which exceeds the nominal compressive strength for normal concrete (30 MPa).

  5. Nanoimprint system development and status for high-volume semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Tsuneo; Takabayashi, Yukio; Nishimura, Naosuke; Emoto, Keiji; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Kimura, Atsushi; Choi, Jin; Schumaker, Philip

    2016-03-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash* Imprint Lithography (J-FIL*) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. Criteria specific to any lithographic process for the semiconductor industry include overlay, throughput and defectivity. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technology advancements made overlay, throughput and defectivity and to introduce the FPA-1200NZ2C cluster system designed for high volume manufacturing of semiconductor devices. in the reduction of particle adders in an imprint tool and introduce the new mask replication tool that will enable the fabrication of replica masks with added residual image placement errors suitable for memory devices with half pitches smaller than 15nm. Overlay results better than 5nm 3sigma have been demonstrated. To further enhance overlay, wafer chucks with improved flatness have been implemented to reduce distortion at the wafer edge. To address higher order corrections, a two part solution is discussed. An array of piezo actuators can be applied to enable linear corrections. Additional reductions in distortion can then be addressed by the local heating of a wafer field. The NZ2C cluster platform for high volume manufacturing is also discussed. System development continues this year with a target for introduction later in 2016. The first application is likely to be NAND Flash memory, and eventual use for DRAM and logic devices as both overlay and defectivity improve.

  6. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfeld; Ogborn; Contreras,, J. g.; Cappaert; Silva Ribeiro; Alvar; Vigotsky

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. ...

  7. Moderate Recovery Unnecessary to Sustain High Stroke Volume during Interval Training. A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Stanley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the time spent at a high stroke volume (SV is important for improving maximal cardiac function. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of recovery intensity on cardiovascular parameters during a typical high-intensity interval training (HIIT session in fourteen well-trained cyclists. Oxygen consumption (VO2, heart rate (HR, SV, cardiac output (Qc, and oxygenation of vastus lateralis (TSI were measured during a HIIT (3×3-min work period, 2 min of recovery session on two occasions. VO2, HR and Qc were largely higher during moderate-intensity (60% compared with low-intensity (30% (VO2, effect size; ES = +2.6; HR, ES = +2.8; Qc, ES = +2.2 and passive (HR, ES = +2.2; Qc, ES = +1.7 recovery. By contrast, there was no clear difference in SV between the three recovery conditions, with the SV during the two active recovery periods not being substantially different than during exercise (60%, ES = −0.1; 30%, ES = −0.2. To conclude, moderate-intensity recovery may not be required to maintain a high SV during HIIT.

  8. High-Dimensional Function Approximation With Neural Networks for Large Volumes of Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andras, Peter

    2017-01-25

    Approximation of high-dimensional functions is a challenge for neural networks due to the curse of dimensionality. Often the data for which the approximated function is defined resides on a low-dimensional manifold and in principle the approximation of the function over this manifold should improve the approximation performance. It has been show that projecting the data manifold into a lower dimensional space, followed by the neural network approximation of the function over this space, provides a more precise approximation of the function than the approximation of the function with neural networks in the original data space. However, if the data volume is very large, the projection into the low-dimensional space has to be based on a limited sample of the data. Here, we investigate the nature of the approximation error of neural networks trained over the projection space. We show that such neural networks should have better approximation performance than neural networks trained on high-dimensional data even if the projection is based on a relatively sparse sample of the data manifold. We also find that it is preferable to use a uniformly distributed sparse sample of the data for the purpose of the generation of the low-dimensional projection. We illustrate these results considering the practical neural network approximation of a set of functions defined on high-dimensional data including real world data as well.

  9. Investigation of caprock integrity during high-volume injection into the Utsira formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasda, S. E.; Wangen, M.; Bjørnarå, T. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Utsira formation is a large offshore saline aquifer in the North Sea that is considered a likely candidate for storage of CO2 emissions. Currently, the Utsira is host to the longest operating CO2 storage project, the Sleipner project, which has injected 1 Mt CO2/y since 1996. The entire Utsira formation has an estimated storage capacity of 15 Gt, which is equal to 300 Sleipner-sized projects in simultaneous operation for the next 50 years. Injectivity into the Utsira is exceptionally good, and no pressurization has been observed at Sleipner. The formation is over 100-m thick and comprised of unconsolidated sand with high porosity and permeability (30-40% and 1-3 Darcy). The Nordland shale has been characterized as a high-quality seal that is regionally thick, extensive and absent of significant faults. Significant scale-up of CO2 injection into the Utsira is required to increase storage of regional CO2 emissions well beyond what is currently stored today. Full utilization of the Utsira storage capacity would result in injection rates >100 Mt/y, significantly larger than Sleipner. Despite the lack of pressure effects at Sleipner, higher injection rates will likely lead to pressure build-up in the Utsira. Relatively little is known about the magnitude of pressure build-up and resulting impact on caprock integrity with high-volume injection. The problem is complex, involving multiphase flow and mechanical deformation of the storage reservoir and the surrounding formations, and covers large spatial scales, ranging several hundred kilometers in lateral extent. There are significant challenges in applying fully coupled hydromechanical simulators to problems of this scale. The computational effort required to solve a resolved is significant, and efforts to reduce the complexity of the model are needed. In this study, simplified modeling approaches are investigated. A reduced order multiphase flow model coupled with a geomechanical model results in greater efficiency

  10. Blood Volume, Plasma Volume and Circulation Time in a High-Energy-Demand Teleost, the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacares)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brill, R.W.; Cousins, K.L.; Jones, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    tuna, circulation time is approximately 0.4 min (47 ml kg-1/115 ml min-1 kg- 1) compared with 1.3 min (46 ml kg-1/35 ml min-1 kg-1) in yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) and 1.9 min (35 ml kg-1/18 ml min-1 kg-1) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In air-breathing vertebrates, high metabolic rates...... are necessarily correlated with short circulation times. Our data are the first to imply that a similar relationship occurs in fishes....

  11. Prostate volume modifies the association between obesity and prostate cancer or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowke, Jay H; Motley, Saundra S; Wills, Marcia; Cookson, Michael S; Concepcion, Raoul S; Eckstein, Charles W; Chang, Sam S; Smith, Joseph A

    2007-05-01

    The relationship between obesity and prostate cancer remains unclear. We investigated the effect of prostate volume on the obesity and prostate cancer association. With a multi-centered, rapid-recruitment protocol, weight and body size measurements were collected prior to diagnosis, and medical charts were reviewed for pathology results (n = 420 controls, 119 high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) cases, and 286 cancer cases (41% Gleason > 6). In multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for age, PSA levels and history, DRE results, and number of cores at biopsy, the association between BMI and cancer was restricted to men with a smaller prostate volume (volume or = 30) = 2.17 (1.09, 4.32), p (trend) = 0.02; volume > or = 40 cm(3): OR(BMI > or = 30) = 0.77 (0.34, 1.77), p (trend) = 0.17; p (interaction) = 0.03). Similarly, the WHR and PIN association was significantly modified by prostate volume (volume or = 40 m(3): OR((WHR: T3 vs. T1)) = 0.63 (0.32, 1.23) (p (trend) = 0.17); p (interaction) prostate volume acts as a modifier, and BMI and WHR are significantly associated with prostate cancer or PIN, respectively, in the absence of biopsy sampling error derived from obesity-related prostate enlargement.

  12. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training as a Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, C; Ramirez-Campillo, R; Martinez-Salazar, C; Mancilla, R; Flores-Opazo, M; Cano-Montoya, J; Ciolac, E G

    2016-08-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the effects of low-volume, high-intensity interval training (HIT) on cardiometabolic risk and exercise capacity in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sedentary overweight/obese T2DM women (age=44.5±1.8 years; BMI=30.5±0.6 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to a tri-weekly running-based HIT program (n=13) or non-exercise control follow-up (CON; n=10). Glycemic control, lipid and blood pressure levels, endurance performance, and anthropometry were measured before and after the follow-up (16 weeks) in both groups. Medication intake was also assessed throughout the follow-up. Improvements (P<0.05) on fasting glucose (14.3±1.4%), HbA1c (12.8±1.1%), systolic blood pressure (3.7±0.5 mmHg), HDL-cholesterol (21.1±2.8%), triglycerides (17.7±2.8%), endurance performance (9.8±1.0%), body weight (2.2±0.3%), BMI (2.1±0.3%), waist circumference (4.0±0.5%) and subcutaneous fat (18.6±1.4%) were found after HIT intervention. Patients of HIT group also showed reductions in daily dosage of antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive medication during follow-up. No changes were found in any variable of CON group. The HIT-induced improvements occurred with a weekly time commitment 56-25% lower than the minimal recommended in current guidelines. These findings suggest that low-volume HIT may be a time-efficient intervention to treat T2DM women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Partial molar volume of L-Valine in water under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Seiji

    2013-06-01

    Partial molar volume of L-valine in water was estimated up to 400 MPa from pressure coefficient of the solubility of the solute and molar volume of solid valine. The former was measured in a previous paper and the latter was measured in this article using a piston-cylinder typed cell. The partial molar volume increased with pressure and a maximum was observed around 250 MPa. It was compared with other amino acids.

  14. A high-throughput platform for low-volume high-temperature/pressure sealed vessel solvent extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damm, Markus [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Kappe, C. Oliver, E-mail: oliver.kappe@uni-graz.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parallel low-volume coffee extractions in sealed-vessel HPLC/GC vials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extractions are performed at high temperatures and pressures (200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid caffeine determination from the liquid phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Headspace analysis of volatiles using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). - Abstract: A high-throughput platform for performing parallel solvent extractions in sealed HPLC/GC vials inside a microwave reactor is described. The system consist of a strongly microwave-absorbing silicon carbide plate with 20 cylindrical wells of appropriate dimensions to be fitted with standard HPLC/GC autosampler vials serving as extraction vessels. Due to the possibility of heating up to four heating platforms simultaneously (80 vials), efficient parallel analytical-scale solvent extractions can be performed using volumes of 0.5-1.5 mL at a maximum temperature/pressure limit of 200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar. Since the extraction and subsequent analysis by either gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC-MS or LC-MS) is performed directly from the autosampler vial, errors caused by sample transfer can be minimized. The platform was evaluated for the extraction and quantification of caffeine from commercial coffee powders assessing different solvent types, extraction temperatures and times. For example, 141 {+-} 11 {mu}g caffeine (5 mg coffee powder) were extracted during a single extraction cycle using methanol as extraction solvent, whereas only 90 {+-} 11 were obtained performing the extraction in methylene chloride, applying the same reaction conditions (90 Degree-Sign C, 10 min). In multiple extraction experiments a total of {approx}150 {mu}g caffeine was extracted from 5 mg commercial coffee powder. In addition to the quantitative caffeine determination, a comparative qualitative analysis of the liquid phase coffee

  15. HIGH ACCURACY FINITE VOLUME ELEMENT METHOD FOR TWO-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM OF SECOND ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王同科

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a high accuracy finite volume element method is presented for two-point boundary value problem of second order ordinary differential equation, which differs fromthe high order generalized difference methods. It is proved that the method has optimal order er-ror estimate O(h3) in H1 norm. Finally, two examples show that the method is effective.

  16. Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity or high volume training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eStöggl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletes integrate four conditioning concepts in their training programs: high-volume training (HVT, ‘threshold-training’ (THR, high-intensity interval training (HIIT and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL. The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 62.6±7.1 mL∙min-1∙kg-1 were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over nine weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. Results: POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml∙min∙kg-1 or 11.7%, P0.05. Conclusion: POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables.

  17. Effects of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Oscillated Volume during High-Frequency Chest Compression in Children with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara F Dosman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP on end-expiratory lung volume (EELV and mean oscillated volume (Vosc during high frequency chest compression (HFCC.

  18. A High-Temperature, "Volume-Type" ECR Ion Source for RIB Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G.D.; Liu, Y.; Reed, C.A.; Williams, C.; Zhang, T.

    1999-03-29

    A high temperature, low-charge-state, "volume-type" source has been designed for use in the nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research radioactive ion beam (RIB) programs at the Holifield Radioactive Ion beam Facility (HRIBF). The source utilizes electromagnetic coils to generate a large and uniformly distributed central magnetic field with magnitude (875 G) chosen to be in electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) with single- frequency (2.45 GHz) microwave radiation. Among the features of the source includti a variable mirror-ratio at ion extraction as required for optimizing low-charge state ion beam generation, a right-hand, circularly-polarized RF injection system to overcome the relatively-low, cutoff-density, (nC - 7.4x10'0/cm3) associated with the use of 2.45 GHz microwave radiatiom, and a high temperature, Ir- or Re-coated-Ta plasma chamber to reduce the residence times of radioactive species that are adsorbed on the walls of the chamber. No provisions are made for radial plasma confinement due to the sensitivity of permanent magnets to degradation by the huge fluxes of neutrons incumbent during target irradiation, routinely used for this purpose. Aspects of the design features of the source are described in this report.

  19. "How to" incorporate dual-energy imaging into a high volume abdominal imaging practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Eric P; Le, Ott; Liu, Xinming; Layman, Rick R; Cody, Dianna D; Bhosale, Priya R

    2017-03-01

    Dual-energy CT imaging has many potential uses in abdominal imaging. It also has unique requirements for protocol creation depending on the dual-energy scanning technique that is being utilized. It also generates several new types of images which can increase the complexity of image creation and image interpretation. The purpose of this article is to review, for rapid switching and dual-source dual-energy platforms, methods for creating dual-energy protocols, different approaches for efficiently creating dual-energy images, and an approach to navigating and using dual-energy images at the reading station all using the example of a pancreatic multiphasic protocol. It will also review the three most commonly used types of dual-energy images: "workhorse" 120kVp surrogate images (including blended polychromatic and 70 keV monochromatic), high contrast images (e.g., low energy monochromatic and iodine material decomposition images), and virtual unenhanced images. Recent developments, such as the ability to create automatically on the scanner the most common dual-energy images types, namely new "Mono+" images for the DSDECT (dual-source dual-energy CT) platform will also be addressed. Finally, an approach to image interpretation using automated "hanging protocols" will also be covered. Successful dual-energy implementation in a high volume practice requires careful attention to each of these steps of scanning, image creation, and image interpretation.

  20. Indications and Early Outcomes for Total Pancreatectomy at a High-Volume Pancreas Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika S. Janot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to analyse the most common current indications for total pancreatectomy (TP at a high-volume pancreas center. Method. Prospectively collected data on indications and short-term outcome of all TP's performed from January 2004 until June 2008 were analysed. Results. The total pancreatectomies (TP were 63, i.e., 6.7% of all pancreatic procedures (=948. Indications for TP were classified into 4 groups: tumors of advanced stage, =23 (36.5%, technical problems due to soft pancreatic tissue, =18 (28.6%, troubles due to perioperative surgical complications, =15 (23.8%, and therapy-resistant pain due to chronic pancreatitis, =7 (11.1%. Surgical complications occurred in 23 patients (36.5%. The mortality in elective TP was 6.25%. Median postoperative stay was 21 days. Mortality, morbidity and the other perioperative parameters differed substantially according to the indication for pancreatectomy. Conclusion. Total pancreatectomy is definitely indicated for a limited range of elective and emergency situations. Indications can be: size or localisation of pancreatic tumor, trouble, technical diffuculties and therapy-refractory pain in chronic pancreatitis. A TP due to perioperative complications (troubles after pancreatic resections is doomed by extremely high morbidity and mortality and should be avoided.

  1. Image guided, adaptive, accelerated, high dose brachytherapy as model for advanced small volume radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haie-Meder, Christine; Siebert, Frank-André; Pötter, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Brachytherapy has consistently provided a very conformal radiation therapy modality. Over the last two decades this has been associated with significant improvements in imaging for brachytherapy applications (prostate, gynecology), resulting in many positive advances in treatment planning, application techniques and clinical outcome. This is emphasized by the increased use of brachytherapy in Europe with gynecology as continuous basis and prostate and breast as more recently growing fields. Image guidance enables exact knowledge of the applicator together with improved visualization of tumor and target volumes as well as of organs at risk providing the basis for very individualized 3D and 4D treatment planning. In this commentary the most important recent developments in prostate, gynecological and breast brachytherapy are reviewed, with a focus on European recent and current research aiming at the definition of areas for important future research. Moreover the positive impact of GEC-ESTRO recommendations and the highlights of brachytherapy physics are discussed what altogether presents a full overview of modern image guided brachytherapy. An overview is finally provided on past and current international brachytherapy publications focusing on "Radiotherapy and Oncology". These data show tremendous increase in almost all research areas over the last three decades strongly influenced recently by translational research in regard to imaging and technology. In order to provide high level clinical evidence for future brachytherapy practice the strong need for comprehensive prospective clinical research addressing brachytherapy issues is high-lighted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing inspiratory time exacerbates ventilator-induced lung injury during high-pressure/high-volume mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casetti, Alfredo V; Bartlett, Robert H; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2002-10-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury may be caused by overdistension of alveoli during high-pressure ventilation. In this study, we examined the effects of increasing inspiratory time on ventilator-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four different groups with ten animals per group. Each group was then ventilated for 30 mins with one of four ventilator strategies. All groups were ventilated with an Fio2 of 1.0 and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 0 cm H2O. Group LoP was the negative control group and was ventilated with low pressures (peak inspiratory pressure = 12 cm H2O, rate = 30, and inspiratory time = 0.5 secs). Groups iT = 0.5, iT = 1.0, and iT = 1.5 were the experimental groups and were ventilated with high pressures (peak inspiratory pressure = 45 cm H2O, rate = 10, and inspiratory times = 0.5 secs, iT = 1.0 sec, and iT = 1.5 secs, respectively). Outcome measures included lung compliance, Pao /Fio ratio, wet/dry lung weight, and dry lung/body weight. Final static lung compliance (p =.0002) and Pao2/Fio2 (p =.001) decreased as inspiratory time increased. Wet/dry lung weights (p <.0001) and dry lung/body weights (p <.0001) increased as inspiratory time increased. Light microscopy revealed evidence of intra-alveolar edema and hemorrhage in the iT = 1.0 and iT = 1.5 animals but not the LoP and iT = 0.5 animals. Increasing inspiratory time during high-pressure/high-volume mechanical ventilation is associated with an increase in variables of lung injury.

  3. Design and development of the high-resolution spectrograph HERMES and the unique volume phase holographic gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijmans, J. A. C.; Gers, L.; Faught, B.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the grating development for the High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES). This paper discusses the challenges of designing, optimizing, and tolerancing large aperture volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings for HERMES. The high spectral resolution requirements require steep angles of incidence, of 67.2 degrees, and high line densities, ranging between 2400 and 3800 lines per mm, resulting in VPH gratings that are highly s-polarized that push the fabrication process to its limits.

  4. Toward automatic estimation of urban green volume using airborne LiDAR data and high resolution Remote Sensing images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan HUANG; Bailang YU; Jianhua ZHOU; Chunlin HU; Wenqi TAN; Zhiming HU; Jianping WU

    2013-01-01

    Urban green volume is an important indicator for analyzing urban vegetation structure,ecological evaluation,and green-economic estimation,This paper proposes an object-based method for automated estimation of urban green volume combining three-dimensional (3D)information from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and vegetation information from high resolution remotely sensed images through a case study of the Lujiazui region,Shanghai,China.High resolution airborne near-infrared photographs are used for identifying the urban vegetation distribution.Airborne LiDAR data offer the possibility to extract individual trees and to measure the attributes of trees,such as tree height and crown diameter.In this study,individual trees and grassland are identified as the independent objects of urban vegetation,and the urban green volume is computed as the sum of two broad portions:individual trees volume and grassland volume.The method consists of following steps:generating and filtering the normalized digital surface model (nDSM),extracting the nDSM of urban vegetation based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI),locating the local maxima points,segmenting the vegetation objects of individual tree crowns and grassland,and calculating the urban green volume of each vegetation object.The results show the quantity and distribution characteristics of urban green volume in the Lujiazui region,and provide valuable parameters for urban green planning and management.It is also concluded from this paper that the integrated application of LiDAR data and image data presents an effective way to estimate urban green volume.

  5. A brief on high-volume Class F fly ash as cement replacement – A guide for Civil Engineer

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Disposal of fly ash (FA) resulting from the combustion of coal-fired electric power stations is one of the major environmental challenges. This challenge continues to increase with increasing the amount of FA and decreasing the capacity of landfill space. Therefore, studies have been carried out to re-use high-volumes of fly ash (HVFA) as cement replacement in building materials. This paper presents an overview of the previous studies carried out on the use of high volume Class F FA as a part...

  6. Robust high-performance nanoliter-volume single-cell multiple displacement amplification on planar substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kaston; Klaus, Anders; Lin, Bill K.; Laks, Emma; Biele, Justina; Lai, Daniel; Bashashati, Ali; Huang, Yi-Fei; Aniba, Radhouane; Moksa, Michelle; Steif, Adi; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Hirst, Martin; Shah, Sohrab P.; Aparicio, Samuel; Hansen, Carl L.

    2016-01-01

    The genomes of large numbers of single cells must be sequenced to further understanding of the biological significance of genomic heterogeneity in complex systems. Whole genome amplification (WGA) of single cells is generally the first step in such studies, but is prone to nonuniformity that can compromise genomic measurement accuracy. Despite recent advances, robust performance in high-throughput single-cell WGA remains elusive. Here, we introduce droplet multiple displacement amplification (MDA), a method that uses commercially available liquid dispensing to perform high-throughput single-cell MDA in nanoliter volumes. The performance of droplet MDA is characterized using a large dataset of 129 normal diploid cells, and is shown to exceed previously reported single-cell WGA methods in amplification uniformity, genome coverage, and/or robustness. We achieve up to 80% coverage of a single-cell genome at 5× sequencing depth, and demonstrate excellent single-nucleotide variant (SNV) detection using targeted sequencing of droplet MDA product to achieve a median allelic dropout of 15%, and using whole genome sequencing to achieve false and true positive rates of 9.66 × 10−6 and 68.8%, respectively, in a G1-phase cell. We further show that droplet MDA allows for the detection of copy number variants (CNVs) as small as 30 kb in single cells of an ovarian cancer cell line and as small as 9 Mb in two high-grade serous ovarian cancer samples using only 0.02× depth. Droplet MDA provides an accessible and scalable method for performing robust and accurate CNV and SNV measurements on large numbers of single cells. PMID:27412862

  7. Self-heating probe instrument and method for measuring high temperature melting volume change rate of material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junwei; Wang, Zhiping; Lu, Yang; Cheng, Bo

    2013-03-01

    The castings defects are affected by the melting volume change rate of material. The change rate has an important effect on running safety of the high temperature thermal storage chamber, too. But the characteristics of existing measuring installations are complex structure, troublesome operation and low precision. In order to measure the melting volume change rate of material accurately and conveniently, a self-designed measuring instrument, self-heating probe instrument, and measuring method are described. Temperature in heating cavity is controlled by PID temperature controller; melting volume change rate υ and molten density are calculated based on the melt volume which is measured by the instrument. Positive and negative υ represent expansion and shrinkage of the sample volume after melting, respectively. Taking eutectic LiF+CaF2 for example, its melting volume change rate and melting density at 1 123 K are -20.6% and 2 651 kg·m-3 measured by this instrument, which is only 0.71% smaller than literature value. Density and melting volume change rate of industry pure aluminum at 973 K and analysis pure NaCl at 1 123 K are detected by the instrument too. The measure results are agreed with report values. Measuring error sources are analyzed and several improving measures are proposed. In theory, the measuring errors of the change rate and molten density which are measured by the self-designed instrument is nearly 1/20-1/50 of that measured by the refitted mandril thermal expansion instrument. The self-designed instrument and method have the advantages of simple structure, being easy to operate, extensive applicability for material, relatively high accuracy, and most importantly, temperature and sample vapor pressure have little effect on the measurement accuracy. The presented instrument and method solve the problems of complicated structure and procedures, and large measuring errors for the samples with high vapor pressure by existing installations.

  8. Finite volume simulation of 2-D steady square lid driven cavity flow at high reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yapici

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, computer simulation results of steady incompressible flow in a 2-D square lid-driven cavity up to Reynolds number (Re 65000 are presented and compared with those of earlier studies. The governing flow equations are solved by using the finite volume approach. Quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics (QUICK is used for the approximation of the convective terms in the flow equations. In the implementation of QUICK, the deferred correction technique is adopted. A non-uniform staggered grid arrangement of 768x768 is employed to discretize the flow geometry. Algebraic forms of the coupled flow equations are then solved through the iterative SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation algorithm. The outlined computational methodology allows one to meet the main objective of this work, which is to address the computational convergence and wiggled flow problems encountered at high Reynolds and Peclet (Pe numbers. Furthermore, after Re > 25000 additional vortexes appear at the bottom left and right corners that have not been observed in earlier studies.

  9. Volume Attenuation and High Frequency Loss as Auditory Depth Cues in Stereoscopic 3D Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolas, Christos; Pauletto, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Assisted by the technological advances of the past decades, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) cinema is currently in the process of being established as a mainstream form of entertainment. The main focus of this collaborative effort is placed on the creation of immersive S3D visuals. However, with few exceptions, little attention has been given so far to the potential effect of the soundtrack on such environments. The potential of sound both as a means to enhance the impact of the S3D visual information and to expand the S3D cinematic world beyond the boundaries of the visuals is large. This article reports on our research into the possibilities of using auditory depth cues within the soundtrack as a means of affecting the perception of depth within cinematic S3D scenes. We study two main distance-related auditory cues: high-end frequency loss and overall volume attenuation. A series of experiments explored the effectiveness of these auditory cues. Results, although not conclusive, indicate that the studied auditory cues can influence the audience judgement of depth in cinematic 3D scenes, sometimes in unexpected ways. We conclude that 3D filmmaking can benefit from further studies on the effectiveness of specific sound design techniques to enhance S3D cinema.

  10. Properties of High Volume Fraction Fly Ash/Al Alloy Composites Produced by Infiltration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouras, D. T.; Stergioudi, F.; Tsouknidas, A.; Vogiatzis, C. A.; Skolianos, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, pressure infiltration is employed to synthesize aluminum alloy 7075-fly ash composites. The microstructure and chemical composition of the fly ash and the produced composite material was examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy, as well as x-ray diffraction. Several properties of the produced composite material were examined and evaluated including macro-hardness, wear, thermal expansion, and corrosion behavior. The wear characteristics of the composite, in the as-cast conditions, were studied by dry sliding wear tests. The corrosion behavior of composite material was evaluated by means of potentiodynamic corrosion experiments in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The composite specimens exhibit a homogeneous distribution of fly ash particles and present enhanced hardness values, compared to the matrix material. The high volume fraction of the fly ash reinforcement (>40%) in the composite material led to increased wear rates, attributed to the fragmentation of the fly ash particles. However, the presence of fly ash particles in the Al alloy matrix considerably decreased the coefficiency of thermal expansion, while resulting in an altered corrosion mechanism of the composite material with respect to the matrix alloy.

  11. Replicable Interprofessional Competency Outcomes from High-Volume, Inter-Institutional, Interprofessional Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bambini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are significant limitations among the few prior studies that have examined the development and implementation of interprofessional education (IPE experiences to accommodate a high volume of students from several disciplines and from different institutions. The present study addressed these gaps by seeking to determine the extent to which a single, large, inter-institutional, and IPE simulation event improves student perceptions of the importance and relevance of IPE and simulation as a learning modality, whether there is a difference in students’ perceptions among disciplines, and whether the results are reproducible. A total of 290 medical, nursing, pharmacy, and physical therapy students participated in one of two large, inter-institutional, IPE simulation events. Measurements included student perceptions about their simulation experience using the Attitude Towards Teamwork in Training Undergoing Designed Educational Simulation (ATTITUDES Questionnaire and open-ended questions related to teamwork and communication. Results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement across all ATTITUDES subscales, while time management, role confusion, collaboration, and mutual support emerged as significant themes. Results of the present study indicate that a single IPE simulation event can reproducibly result in significant and educationally meaningful improvements in student perceptions towards teamwork, IPE, and simulation as a learning modality.

  12. Automated high-volume aerosol sampling station for environmental radiation monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.; Ilander, T.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Poellaenen, R.; Ylaetalo, S

    1998-07-01

    An automated high-volume aerosol sampling station, known as CINDERELLA.STUK, for environmental radiation monitoring has been developed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Finland. The sample is collected on a glass fibre filter (attached into a cassette), the airflow through the filter is 800 m{sup 3}/h at maximum. During the sampling, the filter is continuously monitored with Na(I) scintillation detectors. After the sampling, the large filter is automatically cut into 15 pieces that form a small sample and after ageing, the pile of filter pieces is moved onto an HPGe detector. These actions are performed automatically by a robot. The system is operated at a duty cycle of 1 d sampling, 1 d decay and 1 d counting. Minimum detectable concentrations of radionuclides in air are typically 1Ae10 x 10{sup -6} Bq/m{sup 3}. The station is equipped with various sensors to reveal unauthorized admittance. These sensors can be monitored remotely in real time via Internet or telephone lines. The processes and operation of the station are monitored and partly controlled by computer. The present approach fulfils the requirements of CTBTO for aerosol monitoring. The concept suits well for nuclear material safeguards, too 10 refs.

  13. Compression Behavior of Confined Columns with High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Won Yoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fly ash in ordinary concrete provides practical benefits to concrete structures, such as a gain in long-term strength, reduced hydration heat, improved resistance to chloride, and enhanced workability. However, few studies with high-volume fly ash (HVFA concrete have been conducted that focus on the structural applications such as a column. Thus, there is a need to promote field applications of HVFA concrete as a sustainable construction material. To this end, this study investigated the compressive behavior of reinforced concrete columns that contain HVFA with a 50 percent replacement rate. Six columns were fabricated for this study. The study variables were the HVFA replacement rate, tied steel ratio, and tie steel spacing. The computed ultimate strength by the American Concrete Institute (ACI code conservatively predicted the measured values, and, thus, the existing equation in the ACI code is feasible for confined RC columns that contain HVFA. In addition, an analysis model was calibrated based on the experimental results and is recommended for predicting the stress-strain relationship of confined reinforced concrete columns that contain HVFA.

  14. HIGH-RESOLUTION DEBRIS FLOW VOLUME MAPPING WITH UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS (UAS AND PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Adams

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows cause an average € 30 million damages and 1-2 fatalities every year in Austria. Detailed documentation of their extent and magnitude is essential for understanding, preventing and mitigating these natural hazard events. The recent development of unmanned aerial systems (UAS has provided a new possibility for on-demand high-resolution monitoring and mapping. Here, we present a study, where the spatial extent and volume of a large debris flow event were mapped with different UAS, fitted with commercial off-the-shelf sensors. Orthophotos and digital terrain models (DTM were calculated using structure-from-motion photogrammetry software. Terrain height differences caused by the debris flow in the catchment and valley floor were derived by subtracting the pre-event airborne laser scanning (ALS DTM from a post-event UAS-DTM. The analysis of the volumetric sediment budget showed, that approximately 265,000 m³ material was mobilised in the catchment, of which 45,000 m³ settled there; of the material, which reached the valley floor, 120,000 m³ was deposited, while another 10,000 m³ was eroded from there. The UAS-results were validated against ALS data and imagery from a traditional manned-aircraft photogrammetry campaign. In conclusion, the UAS-data can reach an accuracy and precision comparable to manned aircraft data, but with the added benefits of higher flexibility, easier repeatability, less operational constraints and higher spatial resolution.

  15. Automatic CD-SEM offline recipe creation in a high volume production fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girol-Gunia, Stefanie; Roling, Stefan; Menadeva, Ovadya; Levitzky, Dan; Costa, Adi; Fischer, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    CAD based recipe creation paves the way for complete recipe automation and minimizes the need for human intervention. A high volume production environment presents its own unique challenges for automatic CAD based metrology. In our work we describe the approach of automatic offline CD-SEM recipe creation for production using the Applied Materials OPC Check application. In addition, the study includes a comprehensive analysis of success rates for recipe creation, pattern recognition and measurement. The stability of automatically created recipes was evaluated against process variations for a number of test structures which are typically used for production control. Data was collected for various layers on multiple lots and the performance was compared to that of recipes created directly on the tool. All offline recipes for production were generated waferless from design data with success rates of 100%. They showed pattern recognition success rates and measurement success rates at the same level or better than the rates typically reached by recipes created directly on the tool by an experienced CD-SEM engineer.

  16. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Larsson, Tanja Hultengren; Jørgensen, Majke

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT...... (60.4±4.0 vs. 60.3±4.0 s; n = 13 and 133.2±6.4 vs. 132.6±7.7 s; n = 14) and CON (60.2±3.7 vs. 60.6±3.8 s; n = 15 and 133.5±7.0 vs. 133.3±7.6 s; n = 15). Maximal oxygen uptake during swimming was similar before and after the intervention in both the HIT (4.0±0.9 vs. 3.8±1.0 l O2×min-1; n = 14) and CON...

  17. Mechanical properties of concrete containing a high volume of tire-rubber particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaloo, Ali R; Dehestani, M; Rahmatabadi, P

    2008-12-01

    Due to the increasingly serious environmental problems presented by waste tires, the feasibility of using elastic and flexible tire-rubber particles as aggregate in concrete is investigated in this study. Tire-rubber particles composed of tire chips, crumb rubber, and a combination of tire chips and crumb rubber, were used to replace mineral aggregates in concrete. These particles were used to replace 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% of the total mineral aggregate's volume in concrete. Cylindrical shape concrete specimens 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height were fabricated and cured. The fresh rubberized concrete exhibited lower unit weight and acceptable workability compared to plain concrete. The results of a uniaxial compressive strain control test conducted on hardened concrete specimens indicate large reductions in the strength and tangential modulus of elasticity. A significant decrease in the brittle behavior of concrete with increasing rubber content is also demonstrated using nonlinearity indices. The maximum toughness index, indicating the post failure strength of concrete, occurs in concretes with 25% rubber content. Unlike plain concrete, the failure state in rubberized concrete occurs gently and uniformly, and does not cause any separation in the specimen. Crack width and its propagation velocity in rubberized concrete are lower than those of plain concrete. Ultrasonic analysis reveals large reductions in the ultrasonic modulus and high sound absorption for tire-rubber concrete.

  18. Impact of Micro Silca on the mechanical properties of high volume Fly Ash Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripagadeesh, R.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Pugazhmani, G.; Ramasundram, S.; Muthu, D.; Venkatasubramanian, C.

    2017-07-01

    In the current situation, to overcome the difficulties of feasible construction, concrete made with various mixtures of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and diverse mineral admixtures, is the wise choice for engineering construction. Mineral admixtures viz. Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), Meta kaolin (MK), Fly Ash (FA) and Silica Fume (SF) etc. are used as Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) in binary and ternary blend cement system to enhance the mechanical and durability properties. Investigation on the effect of different replacement levels of OPC in M25 grade with FA + SF in ternary cement blend on the strength characteristics and beam behavior was studied. The OPC was partially replaced (by weight) with different combinations of SF (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) and FA as 50% (High Volume Fly Ash - HVFA). The amount of FA addition is kept constant at 50% for all combinations. The compressive strength and tensile strength tests on cube and cylinder specimens, at 7 and 28 days were carried out. Based on the compressive strength results, optimum mix proportion was found out and flexural behaviour was studied for the optimum mix. It was found that all the mixes (FA + SF) showed improvement in compressive strength over that of the control mix and the mix with 50% FA + 10% SF has 20% increase over the control mix. The tensile strength was also increased over the control mix. Flexural behaviour also showed a significant improvement in the mix with FA and SF over the control mix.

  19. Low-volume high-intensity swim training is superior to high-volume low-intensity training in relation to insulin sensitivity and glucose control in inactive middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Luke J; Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Nyberg, Michael; Weihe, Pál; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that low-volume high-intensity swimming has a larger impact on insulin sensitivity and glucose control than high-volume low-intensity swimming in inactive premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Sixty-two untrained premenopausal women were randomised to an inactive control (n = 20; CON), a high-intensity low-volume (n = 21; HIT) or a low-intensity high-volume (n = 21; LIT) training group. During the 15-week intervention period, HIT performed 3 weekly 6-10 × 30-s all-out swimming intervals (average heart rate (HR) = 86 ± 3 % HRmax) interspersed by 2-min recovery periods and LIT swam continuously for 1 h at low intensity (average HR = 73 ± 3 % HRmax). Fasting blood samples were taken and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted pre- and post-intervention. After HIT, resting plasma [insulin] was lowered (17 ± 34 %; P training strategy for improving insulin sensitivity, glucose control and biomarkers of vascular function in inactive, middle-aged mildly hypertensive women.

  20. Resonant frequency does not predict high-frequency chest compression settings that maximize airflow or volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Sarah K; Marinkovic, Aleksandar; Weiner, Daniel J

    2011-06-01

    High-frequency chest compression (HFCC) is a therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF). We hypothesized that the resonant frequency (f(res)), as measured by impulse oscillometry, could be used to determine what HFCC vest settings produce maximal airflow or volume in pediatric CF patients. In 45 subjects, we studied: f(res), HFCC vest frequencies that subjects used (f(used)), and the HFCC vest frequencies that generated the greatest volume (f(vol)) and airflow (f(flow)) changes as measured by pneumotachometer. Median f(used) for 32 subjects was 14 Hz (range, 6-30). The rank order of the three most common f(used) was 15 Hz (28%) and 12 Hz (21%); three frequencies tied for third: 10, 11, and 14 Hz (5% each). Median f(res) for 43 subjects was 20.30 Hz (range, 7.85-33.65). Nineteen subjects underwent vest-tuning to determine f(vol) and f(flow). Median f(vol) was 8 Hz (range, 6-30). The rank order of the three most common f(vol) was: 8 Hz (42%), 6 Hz (32%), and 10 Hz (21%). Median f(flow) was 26 Hz (range, 8-30). The rank order of the three most common f(flow) was: 30 Hz (26%) and 28 Hz (21%); three frequencies tied for third: 8, 14, and 18 Hz (11% each). There was no correlation between f(used) and f(flow) (r(2)  = -0.12) or f(vol) (r(2) = 0.031). There was no correlation between f(res) and f(flow) (r(2)  = 0.19) or f(vol) (r(2) = 0.023). Multivariable analysis showed no independent variables were predictive of f(flow) or f(vol). Vest-tuning may be required to optimize clinical utility of HFCC. Multiple HFCC frequencies may need to be used to incorporate f(flow) and f(vol).

  1. Expression Changes of Early Response Genes in Lung Due to High Volume Ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuelan; YAO Shanglong; XIONG Ping

    2005-01-01

    Summary: The expression changes of early response genes due to ventilation with high volume in adult rats in vivo were observed. Forty SD male rats were randomly divided into control and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min ventilation groups, respectively (n=8 in each group). The animals were ventilated with tidal volume of 42 ml/kg and a PEEP level of 0 cmH2O at a rate of 40 breaths per minute in room air with a ventilator was given to the small animals. The expression of Egr-1, C-jun and IL-1β mRNA and proteins was detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical technique, respectively. The pathological changes in lung tissues were examined by HE staining. The results indicated that the expression of Egr-1, C-jun and IL-1β mRNA was detectable at 30th min after overventilation, but there was no significant difference in comparison with that in control group until overventilation for 60 min. However, at 90 and 120 min there was a significent increase as compared with 30 min or control group (P<0.05). The expression of Egr-1, C-jun and IL-1β deteced by immunohistochemical assay also showed a similar tendency of the gradual increase. In the 120 min ventilation group, the expression intensity of Egr-1, C-jun and IL-1β proteins in lung cells was the strongest and the nuclear translocation was increased markedly in comparison with any other groups (P<0.05). HE staining suggested that the degree of lung injury was aggravated gradually with the ventialtion going on and had a similar tendency to the expression of these early response genes and proteins. The current data suggested that overventilation activated and upregulated the expression of early response genes and the expression of these genes may be taken as the early signal to predict the onset and degree of lung injury. These results may demonstrated partially that the expression of early response genes induced by the mechanical stretch is associated with biochamic lung injury.

  2. Glomerular filtration is reduced by high tidal volume ventilation in an in vivo healthy rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luque

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation has been associated with organ failure in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The present study examines the effects of tidal volume (V T on renal function using two V T values (8 and 27 mL/kg in anesthetized, paralyzed and mechanically ventilated male Wistar rats. Animals were randomized into two groups of 6 rats each: V T8 (V T, 8 mL/kg; 61.50 ± 0.92 breaths/min; positive end-expiratory pressure, 3.0 cmH2O; peak airway pressure (PAW, 11.8 ± 2.0 cmH2O, and V T27 (V T, 27 mL/kg; 33.60 ± 1.56 breaths/min; positive end-expiratory pressure, none, and PAW, 22.7 ± 4.0 cmH2O. Throughout the experiment, mean PAW remained comparable between the two groups (6.33 ± 0.21 vs 6.50 ± 0.22 cmH2O. For rats in the V T27 group, inulin clearance (mL·min-1·body weight-1 decreased acutely after 60 min of mechanical ventilation and even more significantly after 90 min, compared with baseline values (0.60 ± 0.05 and 0.45 ± 0.05 vs 0.95 ± 0.07; P < 0.001, although there were no differences between groups in mean arterial pressure or gasometric variables. In the V T8 group, inulin clearance at 120 min of mechanical ventilation remained unchanged in relation to baseline values (0.72 ± 0.03 vs 0.80 ± 0.05. The V T8 and V T27 groups did not differ in terms of serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (3.97 ± 0.27 vs 4.02 ± 0.45 nmol/mL or endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (94.25 ± 2.75 vs 96.25 ± 2.39%. Our results show that glomerular filtration is acutely affected by high tidal volume ventilation but do not provide information about the mechanism.

  3. Monitoring of air radioactivity at the Jungfraujoch research station: Test of a new high volume aerosol sampler

    OpenAIRE

    Flury, Thomas; Völkle, Hansruedi

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) is responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Switzerland and for the protection of the public from ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. In order to improve the Swiss radioactivity monitoring network, a new high volume air sampler (DIGITEL DHA-80) was tested in Fribourg and at the Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station at 3454 m. The filters are analyzed in the laboratory by a high purity coaxial germanium detector...

  4. High-order accurate finite-volume formulations for the pressure gradient force in layered ocean models

    CERN Document Server

    Engwirda, Darren; Marshall, John

    2016-01-01

    The development of a set of high-order accurate finite-volume formulations for evaluation of the pressure gradient force in layered ocean models is described. A pair of new schemes are presented, both based on an integration of the contact pressure force about the perimeter of an associated momentum control-volume. The two proposed methods differ in their choice of control-volume geometries. High-order accurate numerical integration techniques are employed in both schemes to account for non-linearities in the underlying equation-of-state definitions and thermodynamic profiles, and details of an associated vertical interpolation and quadrature scheme are discussed in detail. Numerical experiments are used to confirm the consistency of the two formulations, and it is demonstrated that the new methods maintain hydrostatic and thermobaric equilibrium in the presence of strongly-sloping layer-wise geometry, non-linear equation-of-state definitions and non-uniform vertical stratification profiles. Additionally, one...

  5. Spatio-temporal experiments of volume elastic objects with high speed digital holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez López, C.; Hernández Montes, M. S.; Mendoza Santoyo, F.; Gutiérrez Hernandez, D. A.

    2011-08-01

    The optical non-destructive digital holographic interferometry (DHI) technique has proven to be a powerful tool in measuring vibration phenomena with a spatial resolution ranging from a few hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers. With the aid of high speed digital cameras it is possible to achieve simultaneously spatial and temporal resolution, and thus capable of measuring the entire object mechanical oscillation trajectory from one to several cycles. It is important to mention that due to faster computers with large data storage capacity there is an increasing interest in applying numerical simulation methods to mimic different real life objects for example, in the field of modern elastic materials and biological systems. The complex algorithms involved cannot render significant results mainly due to the rather large number of variables. In order to test these numerical simulations some experiments using optical techniques have been designed and reported. This is very important for example in measurements of the dynamic elastic properties of materials. In this work we present some preliminary results from experiments that use DHI to measure vibrations of an elastic spherical object subject to a mechanical excitation that induces resonant vibration modes in its volume. We report on the spatial and temporal effects that by their nature have a non-linear mechanical response. The use of a high speed CMOS camera in DHI assures the measurement of this nonlinear behavior as a sum of linear effects that happen during very short time lapses and with very small displacement amplitudes. We conclude by stating that complex numerical models may be compared to results using DHI, thus proposing an alternative method to prove and verify the mathematical models vs. real measurements on volumetric elastic objects.

  6. Rectal dose-volume constraints in high-dose radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Cozzarini, Cesare; Fellin, Gianni; Foppiano, Franca; Menegotti, Loris; Piazzolla, Anna; Vavassori, Vittorio; Valdagni, Riccardo

    2003-11-15

    To investigate the relationship between rectal bleeding and dosimetric-clinical parameters in patients receiving three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for localized prostate cancer. In a retrospective national study (AIROPROS01-01, AIRO: Associazione Italiana Radioterapia Oncologica), planning/clinical data for 245 consecutive patients with stage T1-4N0-x prostate carcinoma who underwent 3D-CRT to 70-78 Gy (ICRU point) were pooled from four Italian institutions. The correlation between late rectal bleeding and rectal dose-volume data (the percentage of rectum receiving more than 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, and 75 Gy [V(50-70)]) and other dosimetric and clinical parameters were investigated in univariate (log-rank) and multivariate (Cox regression model) analyses. Median follow-up was 2 years. Twenty-three patients were scored as late bleeders according to a modified RTOG definition (Grade 2: 16; Grade 3: 7); the actuarial 2-year rate was 9.2%. Excepting V75, all median and third quartile V(50-70) values were found to be significantly correlated with late bleeding at univariate analysis. The smallest p value was seen for V(50) below/above the third quartile value (66%). The V70 (cut-off value: 30%) was found to be also predictive for late bleeding. In the high-dose subgroup (74-78 Gy), Grade 3 bleeding was highly correlated with this constraint. The predictive value of both V(50) and V(70) was confirmed by multivariate analyses. The present article provides evidence for correlation between rectal DVH parameters and late rectal bleeding in patients treated with curative intent with 3D-CRT. To keep the rate of moderate/severe rectal bleeding below 5-10%, it seems advisable to limit V(50) to 60-65%, V(60) to 45-50%, and V70 to 25-30%.

  7. Effects of serum of the rats ventilated with high tidal volume on endothelial cell permeability and therapeutic effects of ulinastatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Guo-dong; CAI Shao-xi; CHEN Bo; CHEN Ying-hua

    2006-01-01

    Background With the widespread use of ventilators in treating critically ill patients, the morbidity of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is increasing accordingly. VILI is characterized by a considerable increase in microvascular leakiness and activation of inflammatory processes. In this study we investigated the effects of inflammatory mediators in VILI rat serum on endothelial cytoskeleton and monolayer cellular permeability, as well as the therapeutic effect of ulinastatin, to explore the pathogenesis and the relationship between biotrauma and lung oedema induced by VILI.Methods Thirty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: group A (normal tidal volume ventilation), group B (high tidal volume ventilation) and group C (high tidal volume ventilation plus ulinastatin). The serum of each rat after ventilation was added to endothelial cell line ECV-304 medium for two hours to observe the effects of serum and/or ulinastatin on endothelial fibrous actin and permeability. Results Compared to rats ventilated with normal tidal volume, serum of rats ventilated with high tidal volume caused a striking reorganization of actin cytoskeleton with a weakening of fluorescent intensity at the peripheral filament bands and formation of the long and thick stress fibres in the centre resulting in endothelial contraction and higher permeability. Prior treatment with ulinastatin lessened the above changes significantly. The changes of permeability coefficient of endothelial permeability after group A, B or C rats serum stimulation were (6.95 ±1.66)%, (27.50±7.77)% and (17.71±4.66)% respectively with statistically significant differences (P<0.05)among the three groups.Conclusions The proinflammatory mediators in the serum of the rats given high tidal volume ventilation increases endothelial permeability by reorganizing actin cytoskeleton, and pretreatment with ulinastatin lessens the permeability by inhibiting of proinflammatory mediators.

  8. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Pesus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Methods Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. Results As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p p = 0.001 after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p Conclusions Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate.

  9. High Power Compact Single-Frequency Volume Bragg Er-Doped Fiber Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is based on successful results of Phase I project where it was shown that the use of volume Bragg gratings in PTR glass as selectors of transverse and...

  10. High procedure volume is strongly associated with improved survival after lung cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Riaz, Sharma P; Coupland, Victoria H

    2013-01-01

    Studies have reported an association between hospital volume and survival for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We explored this association in England, accounting for case mix and propensity to resect.......Studies have reported an association between hospital volume and survival for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We explored this association in England, accounting for case mix and propensity to resect....

  11. Volume of hospital is important for the prognosis of high-risk patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Jeon, Seong Woo; Kwon, Jung Gu; Lee, Dong Wook; Ha, Chang Yoon; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jang, Byung Ik; Park, Jung Bae; Park, Youn Sun

    2017-08-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a potentially life-threatening hospital emergency requiring hemodynamic stabilization and resuscitation. This study is carried out to determine whether hospital volume can influence outcome in patients with NVUGIB. This is a retrospective study with a prospective cohort database (KCT 0000514. cris.nih.go.kr). Eight teaching hospitals were divided into two different groups: high-volume centers (HVC, ≥60 NVUGIB patients/year, four clinics) and low-volume centers (LVC, bleeding after treatment, re-bleeding, necessity for surgical/other retreatments, and death within 30 days. Similar baseline characters for patients were observed in both groups. There was a significant difference in the incidence of poor outcome between the HVC and LVC groups (9.06 vs. 13.69%, P = 0.014). The incidence rate of poor outcome in high-risk patients (Rockall score ≥8) in HVC was lower than that in high-risk patients in LVC (16.07 vs. 26.92%, P = 0.048); however, there was no significant difference in poor outcome in the lower-risk patients in either group (8.72 vs. 10.42%, P = 0.370). Significant correlation between hospital volume and outcome in NVUGIB patients was observed. Referral to HVC for the management of high-risk NVUGIB patients should be considered in clinical practice.

  12. Quantifying volume loss from ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers using high-resolution terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, Fanny; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Wagnon, Patrick; Steiner, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119338653; Berthier, Etienne; Ragettli, S.; Kraaijenbrink, P.D.A.; Immerzeel, W.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    Mass losses originating from supraglacial ice cliffs at the lower tongues of debris-covered glaciers are a potentially large component of the mass balance, but have rarely been quantified. In this study, we develop a method to estimate ice cliff volume losses based on high-resolution topographic

  13. 3D highly heterogeneous thermal model of pineal gland in-vitro study for electromagnetic exposure using finite volume method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Wei; Hoppe, Ralph; Lu, Rongbo; Cai, Zhaoquan; Gu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the relationship between electromagnetic power absorption and temperature distributions inside highly heterogeneous biological samples was accurately determinated using finite volume method. An in-vitro study on pineal gland that is responsible for physiological activities was for the first time simulated to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Final Report - Advanced MEA's for Enhanced Operating Conditions, Amenable to High Volume Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debe, Mark K.

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under a 3M/DOE contract directed at advancing the key fuel cell (FC) components most critical for overcoming the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance, durability & cost barriers. This contract focused on the development of advanced ion exchange membranes & electrocatalysts for PEMFCs that will enable operation under ever more demanding automotive operating conditions & the use high volume compatible processes for their manufacture. Higher performing & more durable electrocatalysts must be developed for PEMFCs to meet the power density & lifetime hours required for FC vehicles. At the same time the amount of expensive Pt catalyst must be reduced to lower the MEA costs. While these two properties are met, the catalyst must be made resistant to multiple degradation mechanisms to reach necessary operating lifetimes. In this report, we present the work focused on the development of a completely new approach to PEMFC electrocatalyts, called nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts. The carbon black supports are eliminated with this new approach which eliminates the carbon corrosion issue. The thin film nature of the catalyst significantly improves its robustness against dissolution & grain growth, preserving the surface area. Also, the activity of the NSTF for oxygen reduction is improved by over 500% compared to dispersed Pt catalyts. Finally, the process for fabricating the NSTF catalysts is consistent with high volume roll-good manufacturing & extremely flexible towards the introduction of new catalyst compositions & structures. This report documents the work done to develop new multi-element NSTF catalysts with properties that exceed pure Pt, that are optimized for use with the membranes discussed below, & advance the state-of-the-art towards meeting the DOE 2010 targets for PEMFC electrocatalysts. The work completed advances the understanding of the NSTF catalyst technology, identifies new NSTF

  15. High speed turboprop aeroacoustic study (single rotation). Volume 1: Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, C. E.; Gliebe, P. R.; Mani, R.; Mungur, P.

    1989-01-01

    A frequency-domain noncompact-source theory for the steady loading and volume-displacement (thickness) noise of high speed propellers has been developed and programmed. Both near field and far field effects have been considered. The code utilizes blade surface pressure distributions obtained from three-dimensional nonlinear aerodynamic flow field analysis programs as input for evaluating the steady loading noise. Simplified mathematical models of the velocity fields induced at the propeller disk by nearby wing and fuselage surfaces and by angle-of-attack operation have been developed to provide estimates of the unsteady loading imposed on the propeller by these potential field type interactions. These unsteady blade loadings have been coupled to a chordwise compact propeller unsteady loading noise model to provide predictions of unsteady loading noise caused by these installation effects. Finally, an analysis to estimate the corrections to be applied to the free-field noise predictions in order to arrive at the measurable fuselage sound pressure levels has been formulated and programmed. This analysis considers the effects of fuselage surface reflection and diffraction together with surface boundary layer refraction. The steady loading and thickness model and the unsteady loading model have been verified using NASA-supplied data for the SR-2 and SR-3 model propfans. In addition, the steady loading and thickness model has been compared with data from the SR-6 model propfan. These theoretical models have been employed in the evaluation of the SR-7 powered Gulfstream aircraft in terms of noise characteristics at representative takeoff, cruise, and approach operating conditions. In all cases, agreement between theory and experiment is encouraging.

  16. The role of equilibrium volume and magnetism on the stability of iron phases at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnemrat, S; Hooper, J P; Vasiliev, I; Kiefer, B

    2014-01-29

    The present study provides new insights into the pressure dependence of magnetism by tracking the hybridization between crystal orbitals for pressures up to 600 GPa in the known hcp, bcc and fcc iron. The Birch-Murnaghan equation of state parameters are; bcc: V0 = 11.759 A(3)/atom, K0 = 177.72 GPa; hcp: V0 = 10.525 A(3)/atom, K0 = 295.16 GPa; and fcc: V0 = 10.682 A(3)/atom, K0 = 274.57 GPa. These parameters compare favorably with previous studies. Consistent with previous studies we find that the close-packed hcp and fcc phases are non-magnetic at pressures above 50 GPa and 60 GPa, respectively. The principal features of magnetism in iron are predicted to be invariant, at least up to ∼6% overextension of the equilibrium volume. Our results predict that magnetism for overextended fcc iron disappears via an intermediate spin state. This feature suggests that overextended lattices can be used to stabilize particular magnetic states. The analysis of the orbital hybridization shows that the magnetic bcc structure at high pressures is stabilized by splitting the majority and minority spin bands. The bcc phase is found to be magnetic at least up to 600 GPa; however, magnetism is insufficient to stabilize the bcc phase itself, at least at low temperatures. Finally, the analysis of the orbital contributions to the total energy provides evidence that non-magnetic hcp and fcc phases are likely more stable than bcc at core earth pressures.

  17. Applications of on-product diffraction-based focus metrology in logic high volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Ben F.; Mokaberi, Babak; Bolton, David; Li, Chen; Palande, Ashwin; Park, Kevin; Noot, Marc; Kea, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The integration of on-product diffraction-based focus (DBF) capability into the majority of immersion lithography layers in leading edge logic manufacturing has enabled new applications targeted towards improving cycle time and yield. A CD-based detection method is the process of record (POR) for excursion detection. The drawback of this method is increased cycle time and limited sampling due to CD-SEM metrology capacity constraints. The DBFbased method allows the addition of focus metrology samples to the existing overlay measurements on the integrated metrology (IM) system. The result enables the addition of measured focus to the SPC system, allowing a faster excursion detection method. For focus targeting, the current method involves using a dedicated focus-exposure matrix (FEM) on all scanners, resulting in lengthy analysis times and uncertainty in the best focus. The DBF method allows the measurement to occur on the IM system, on a regular production wafer, and at the same time as the exposure. This results in a cycle time gain as well as a less subjective determination of best focus. A third application aims to use the novel onproduct focus metrology data in order to apply per-exposure focus corrections to the scanner. These corrections are particularly effective at the edge of the wafer, where systematic layer-dependent effects can be removed using DBFbased scanner feedback. This paper will discuss the development of a methodology to accomplish each of these applications in a high-volume production environment. The new focus metrology method, sampling schemes, feedback mechanisms and analysis methods lead to improved focus control, as well as earlier detection of failures.

  18. Storage of allogeneic vascular grafts: experience from a high-volume liver transplant institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cemalettin; Ince, Volkan; Otan, Emrah; Akbulut, Sami; Koc, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2013-01-01

    Allogeneic vascular grafts are often required for vascular reconstruction during living donor liver transplantation. Such grafts are obtained prior to use, making storage conditions a critical issue for maintaining the integrity of the tissue to ensure a successful transplantation. This study describes an optimized storage protocol currently in use at a high-volume liver transplant center. Twenty-nine allogeneic vascular graft tissues obtained during cardiovascular surgery or from cadaveric donors were stored respectively in sterile 50 mL of Ringer lactate solution, without any preservation solutions or antimicrobials, at -22°C for a maximum of 3 months. Prior to use in vascular reconstruction, grafts were thawed in 0.9% NaCl solution at 37°C, and 1 × 0.5-cm(2) tissue samples were collected for microbial culturing and viral serology. ABO compatibility was not performed for any patients receiving vascular grafts. During this prospective study, all 29 allogeneic vascular grafts were used for back-table vascular reconstruction in living donor liver transplantation procedures. A total of 16 grafts were from the saphenous vein, 10 were from the iliac vein, and 3 were from the iliac artery. Bacterial growth was not detected in any tissue samples taken from the stored grafts. No vascular graft-related complications occurred during the 5 months of follow-up. The successful vascular reconstructions achieved with all 29 study grafts demonstrate that the simple, inexpensive storage method described herein is feasible and safe. Randomized, controlled studies should be carried out to further optimize and standardize the technique.

  19. Operating a High Volume Plankton Sampler from a Deep Water Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, C. L.; Billings, A.; Young, C.; Hiebert, L.; Van Dover, C. L.

    2016-02-01

    During the summer of 2015, a high volume plankton sampler was placed on the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Sentry as part of a cruise to investigate methane seeps. The sampler was successful in collecting over 800 larvae and 130 morphotypes. Most samples were split 2:1 or 4:1, so the total collection was substantially higher. The Sentry Precision Impeller Driven Sampler (SyPRID Sampler) was designed to mount as a "backpack" for the AUV Sentry. Sentry is able to fly the sampler at precision altitude as close as 150 cm from the seafloor and in precision patterns or locations for durations of 18 hours or more. Acoustic telemetry is used to monitor both Sentry and the samplers and to tune flight profiles or sampler operation in real time. Two independent samples can be collected per dive, allowing for comparative studies. The sampler is designed based on lessons learned from traditional tow-net systems and utilizes standard mesh net - in this case 150 micron. The sampler is impeller driven and Sentry moves at approximately 0.25m/s, resulting in little or no bow wave while maintaining an estimated flow rate of between 600 and 1000 m3/h per side. The sampler funnels plankton to a "cod end", where restriction and expansion is used to substantially reduce fluid pressure and velocity, thereby preserving the larvae in excellent condition. Valves are used to prevent contamination when not actively sampling. Substantial co-registered data is collected during the sampling including, CTD, optical backscatter, dissolved Oxygen, redox potential, and magnetics. When sampling more than 5m above bottom, multibeam sonar data can be collected. Future work will include simultaneous photography of the bottom for low-altitude sampling missions, real-time flow rate measurement, and simultaneous collection of ADCP water column data. Future work will also likely include use in the water column. The sampler is available for use on Sentry through UNOLS.

  20. Self-healing of mechanically-loaded self consolidating concretes with high volumes of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa Sahmaran; Suleyman B. Keskin; Gozde Ozerkan; Ismail O. Yaman [University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering

    2008-11-15

    This article discusses the effects of self-healing on self consolidating concretes incorporating high volumes of fly ash (HVFA-SCC) when subjected to continuous water exposure. For this purpose, self consolidating concretes with fly ash replacement ratios of 0%, 35%, and 55% were prepared having a constant water-cementitious material ratio of 0.35. A uniaxial compression load was applied to generate microcracks in concrete where cylindrical specimens were pre-loaded up to 70% and 90% of the ultimate compressive load determined at 28 days. Later, the extent of damage was determined as percentage of loss in mechanical properties and percentage of increase in permeation properties. After pre-loading, concrete specimens were stored in water for a month and the mechanical and permeation properties are monitored at every two weeks. It was observed that HVFA-SCC mixtures initially lost 27% of their strength when pre-loaded up to 90% of their ultimate strength, and after 30 days of water curing that reduction was only 7%, indicating a substantial healing. On the other hand, for SCC specimens without fly ash that were pre-loaded to the same level, the loss in strength was initially 19%, and after a month of moist curing it was only 13%. Similar observations were also made on the permeation properties with greater effects. As the HVFA-SCCs studied have an important amount of unhydrated fly ash available in their microstructure, these observations are attributed to the self-healing of the pre-existing cracks, mainly by hydration of anhydrous fly ash particles on the crack surfaces.

  1. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (IV) The Volume Dependence of the Light Hadron Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S R; Detmold, W; Lin, H W; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M J; Torok, A; Walker-Loud, A

    2011-07-01

    The volume dependence of the octet baryon masses and relations among them are explored with Lattice QCD. Calculations are performed with nf = 2 + 1 clover fermion discretization in four lattice volumes, with spatial extent L ? 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 fm, with an anisotropic lattice spacing of b_s ? 0.123 fm in the spatial direction, and b_t = b_s/3.5 in the time direction, and at a pion mass of m_\\pi ? 390 MeV. The typical precision of the ground-state baryon mass determination is volume dependence of the masses, the Gell-Mann Okubo mass-relation, and of other mass combinations. A comparison with the predictions of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is performed in both the SU(2)L ? SU(2)R and SU(3)L ? SU(3)R expansions. Predictions of the three-flavor expansion for the hadron masses are found to describe the observed volume dependences reasonably well. Further, the ?N? axial coupling constant is extracted from the volume dependence of the nucleon mass in the two-flavor expansion, with only small modifications in the three-flavor expansion from the inclusion of kaons and eta's. At a given value of m?L, the finite-volume contributions to the nucleon mass are predicted to be significantly smaller at m_\\pi ? 140 MeV than at m_\\pi ? 390 MeV due to a coefficient that scales as ? m_\\pi^3. This is relevant for the design of future ensembles of lattice gauge-field configurations. Finally, the volume dependence of the pion and kaon masses are analyzed with two-flavor and three-flavor chiral perturbation theory.

  2. Comparison of annular diffusion denuder and high volume air samplers for measuring per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Lutz; Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom; Lane, Douglas A; Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J

    2011-12-15

    Overestimation of the particle phase concentration collected on glass-fiber filters (GFFs) has been reported for perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) using conventional high volume air samplers. In this study, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in the gas and particulate phases using colocated annular diffusion denuder and high volume air samplers at a semiurban site in Toronto, Canada, in winter 2010. Samples were analyzed for 7 PFAS classes (i.e., PFCAs, perfluoro-alkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorotelomer methacrylates (FTMACs), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTACs), perfluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs), and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs)). The gas diffusion coefficients for individual PFASs were calculated and the denuder performance was evaluated. Modeled subcooled liquid vapor pressures (p(L)) correlated well with the vapor phase breakthrough for the denuder and high volume air systems. Total air concentrations for PFASs measured using annular diffusion denuders and high volume samplers were in agreement within a factor of 4; however, much greater differences were observed for measurements of gas-particle partitioning. Vapor phase PFSAs and PFCAs can adsorb to the GFF using high volume air samplers, resulting in much higher particle-associated fractions for these chemicals compared to the annular diffusion denuder sampler. This effect was not observed for the FTOHs, FTMACs, FTACs, FOSAs, and FOSEs. Thus, for investigations of gas-particle partitioning of PFSAs and PFCAs, the diffusion denuder sampler is the preferred method. The results of this study improve our understanding of the gas-particle partitioning of PFASs, which is important for modeling their long-range transport in air.

  3. Specimen Preparation for Metal Matrix Composites with a High Volume Fraction of Reinforcing Particles for EBSD Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A. S.; Belozerov, G. A.; Smirnova, E. O.; Konovalov, A. V.; Shveikin, V. P.; Muizemnek, O. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The paper deals with a procedure of preparing a specimen surface for the EBSD analysis of a metal matrix composite (MMC) with a high volume fraction of reinforcing particles. Unlike standard procedures of preparing a specimen surface for the EBSD analysis, the proposed procedure is iterative with consecutive application of mechanical and electrochemical polishing. This procedure significantly improves the results of an indexed MMC matrix in comparison with the standard procedure of specimen preparation. The procedure was verified on a MMC with pure aluminum (99.8% Al) as the matrix, SiC particles being used as reinforcing elements. The average size of the SiC particles is 14 μm, and their volume fraction amounts to 50% of the total volume of the composite. It has been experimentally found that, for making the EBSD analysis of a material matrix near reinforcing particles, the difference in height between the particles and the matrix should not exceed 2 µm.

  4. Use of the SONET Score to Evaluate High Volume Emergency Department Overcrowding: A Prospective Derivation and Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The accuracy and utility of current Emergency Department (ED crowding estimation tools remain uncertain in EDs with high annual volumes. We aimed at deriving a more accurate tool to evaluate overcrowding in a high volume ED setting and determine the association between ED overcrowding and patient care outcomes. Methods. A novel scoring tool (SONET: Severely overcrowded-Overcrowded-Not overcrowded Estimation Tool was developed and validated in two EDs with both annual volumes exceeding 100,000. Patient care outcomes including the number of left without being seen (LWBS patients, average length of ED stay, ED 72-hour returns, and mortality were compared under the different crowding statuses. Results. The total number of ED patients, the number of mechanically ventilated patients, and patient acuity levels were independent risk factors affecting ED overcrowding. SONET was derived and found to better differentiate severely overcrowded, overcrowded, and not overcrowded statuses with similar results validated externally. In addition, SONET scores correlated with increased length of ED stay, number of LWBS patients, and ED 72-hour returns. Conclusions. SONET might be a better fit to determine high volume ED overcrowding. ED overcrowding negatively impacts patient care operations and often produces poor patient perceptions of standardized care delivery.

  5. Time course of low- and high-volume strength training on neuromuscular adaptations and muscle quality in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Regis; Botton, Cíntia E; Wilhelm, Eurico N; Bottaro, Martim; Brown, Lee E; Lacerda, Fabiano; Gaya, Anelise; Moraes, Kelly; Peruzzolo, Amanda; Pinto, Ronei S

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of low- and high-volume strength trainings on neuromuscular adaptations of lower- and upper-body muscles in older women after 6 weeks (6WE), 13 weeks (13WE), and 20 weeks (20WE) of training. Healthy older women were assigned to low-volume (LV) or high-volume (HV) training groups. The LV group performed one set of each exercise, while the HV group performed three sets, 2 days/week. Knee extension and elbow flexion one-repetition maximum (1-RM), maximal isometric strength, maximal muscle activation, and muscle thickness (MT) of the lower- and upper-body muscles, as well as lower-body muscle quality (MQ) obtained by ultrasonography, were evaluated. Knee extension and elbow flexion 1-RM improved at all time points for both groups; however, knee extension 1-RM gains were greater for the HV group after 20WE. Maximal isometric strength of the lower body for both groups increased only at 20WE, while upper-body maximal isometric strength increased after 13WE and 20WE. Maximal activation of the lower and upper body for both groups increased only after 20WE. Both groups showed significant increases in MT of their lower and upper body, with greater gains in lower-body MT for the HV group at 20WE. MQ improved in both groups after 13WE and 20WE, whereas the HV group improved more than the LV group at 20WE. These results showed that low- and high-volume trainings have a similar adaptation time course in the muscular function of upper-body muscles. However, high-volume training appears to be more efficient for lower-body muscles after 20 weeks of training.

  6. Determination of micro-litre volumes with high accuracy for flow cytometric blood cell counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, S.; Kummrow, A.; Kammel, M.; Neukammer, J.

    2010-07-01

    We have gravimetrically calibrated the volumes dispensed by 1 mL syringes in the range between 1 µL and 100 µL using ultra-pure water. Protocols are based on series of consecutive difference measurements of masses in order to precisely compensate for evaporation, being the most important disturbing quantity. We determined expanded uncertainties of volume measurements for glass syringes of typically 0.2% (expansion factor 2) when dispensing volumes of 10 µL. For polypropylene syringes, selected with respect to the manufacturer, expanded uncertainties of 0.25% (expansion factor 2) were observed. Calibrated syringes were applied for measuring concentrations of blood cells in a flow cytometer demonstrating the capability to determine reference measurement values. Since the direct interaction of blood cells and syringe walls may lead to cell adhesion, glass syringes as well as (disposable) polypropylene syringes were calibrated.

  7. Image analysis based quantification of bacterial volume change with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilavtepe-Celik, M; Balaban, M O; Alpas, H; Yousef, A E

    2008-11-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Staphylococcus aureus 485 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 933 were taken after pressure treatments at 200 to 400 MPa. Software developed for this purpose was used to analyze SEM images and to calculate the change in view area and volume of cells. Significant increase in average cell view area and volume for S. aureus 485 was observed in response to pressure treatment at 400 MPa. Cell view area for E. coli O157:H7 933 significantly increased at 325 MPa, the maximum pressure treatment tested against this pathogen. In contrast to S. aureus, cells of E. coli O157:H7 exhibited significant increase in average view area and volume at 200 MPa. The pressure-induced increase in these parameters may be attributed to modifications in membrane properties, for example, denaturation of membrane-bound proteins and pressure-induced phase transition of membrane lipid bilayer.

  8. Variation in neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization for epithelial ovarian cancer at high volume hospitals in the United States and associated survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Emma L; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Stitzenberg, Karyn B; Rossi, Emma C; Gehrig, Paola A; Boggess, John F; Garrett, Joanne M

    2017-06-01

    To estimate variation in the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy by high volume hospitals and to determine the association between hospital utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival. We identified incident cases of stage IIIC or IV epithelial ovarian cancer in the National Cancer Database from 2006 to 2012. Inclusion criteria were treatment at a high volume hospital (>20 cases/year) and treatment with both chemotherapy and surgery. A logistic regression model was used to predict receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on case-mix predictors (age, comorbidities, stage etc). Hospitals were categorized by the observed-to-expected ratio for neoadjuvant chemotherapy use as low, average, or high utilization hospitals. Survival analysis was performed. We identified 11,574 patients treated at 55 high volume hospitals. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was used for 21.6% (n=2494) of patients and use varied widely by hospital, from 5%-55%. High utilization hospitals (n=1910, 10 hospitals) had a median neoadjuvant chemotherapy rate of 39% (range 23-55%), while low utilization hospitals (n=2671, 14 hospitals) had a median rate of 10% (range 5-17%). For all ovarian cancer patients adjusting for clinical and socio-demographic factors, treatment at a hospital with average or high neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization was associated with a decreased rate of death compared to treatment at a low utilization hospital (HR 0.90 95% CI 0.83-0.97 and HR 0.85 95% CI 0.75-0.95). Wide variation exists in the utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to treat stage IIIC and IV epithelial ovarian cancer even among high volume hospitals. Patients treated at hospitals with low rates of neoadjuvant chemotherapy utilization experience decreased survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of High-Temperature Curing Methods on the Compressive Strength Development of Concrete Containing High Volumes of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonsuk Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the high-temperature curing methods on the compressive strength of concrete containing high volumes of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS. GGBS was used to replace Portland cement at a replacement ratio of 60% by binder mass. The high-temperature curing parameters used in this study were the delay period, temperature rise, peak temperature (PT, peak period, and temperature down. Test results demonstrate that the compressive strength of the samples with PTs of 65°C and 75°C was about 88% higher than that of the samples with a PT of 55°C after 1 day. According to this investigation, there might be optimum high-temperature curing conditions for preparing a concrete containing high volumes of GGBS, and incorporating GGBS into precast concrete mixes can be a very effective tool in increasing the applicability of this by-product.

  10. A highly addressable static droplet array enabling digital control of a single droplet at pico-volume resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heon-Ho; Lee, Byungjin; Jin, Si Hyung; Jeong, Seong-Geun; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2016-04-26

    Droplet-based microfluidics enabling exquisite liquid-handling has been developed for diagnosis, drug discovery and quantitative biology. Compartmentalization of samples into a large number of tiny droplets is a great approach to perform multiplex assays and to improve reliability and accuracy using a limited volume of samples. Despite significant advances in microfluidic technology, individual droplet handling in pico-volume resolution is still a challenge in obtaining more efficient and varying multiplex assays. We present a highly addressable static droplet array (SDA) enabling individual digital manipulation of a single droplet using a microvalve system. In a conventional single-layer microvalve system, the number of microvalves required is dictated by the number of operation objects; thus, individual trap-and-release on a large-scale 2D array format is highly challenging. By integrating double-layer microvalves, we achieve a "balloon" valve that preserves the pressure-on state under released pressure; this valve can allow the selective releasing and trapping of 7200 multiplexed pico-droplets using only 1 μL of sample without volume loss. This selectivity and addressability completely arranged only single-cell encapsulated droplets from a mixture of droplet compositions via repetitive selective trapping and releasing. Thus, it will be useful for efficient handling of miniscule volumes of rare or clinical samples in multiplex or combinatory assays, and the selective collection of samples.

  11. Central Issues in the Use of Computer-Based Materials for High Volume Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Billy

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses issues relating to the use of computer-based learning (CBL) materials for entrepreneurship education at university level. It considers CBL as a means of addressing the increased volume and range of provision required in the current context. The issues raised in this article have importance for all forms of computer-based…

  12. A Central Limit Theorem for the Volumes of High Excursions of Stationary Associated Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Demichev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We prove that under certain conditions the excursion sets volumes of stationary positively associated random fields converge after rescaling to the normal distribution as the excursion level and the size of the observation window grow. In addition, we provide a number of examples.

  13. Rapid die manufacturing - high pressure casting of low volume non ferrous metals components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFV

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pressure Casting of Low Volume Non Ferrous Metals Components Date: 2 November 2006 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Introduction to RPT • Rapid Prototyping Techniques (RPT) generally used for non functional prototypes • RPT...

  14. Inflammatory Cytokines and BDNF Response to High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise: Effect the Exercise Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Santos, Carolina; Castrillón, Carlos I. M.; Miranda, Rodolfo A. T.; Monteiro, Paula A.; Inoue, Daniela S.; Campos, Eduardo Z.; Hofmann, Peter; Lira, Fábio S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two similar high-intensity intermittent exercises (HIIE) but different volume 1.25 km (HIIE1.25) and 2.5 km (HIIE2.5) on inflammatory and BDNF responses. Ten physically active male subjects (age 25.22 ± 1.74 years, body mass 78.98 ± 7.31 kg, height 1.78 ± 0.06 m, VO2peak 59.94 ± 9.38 ml·kg·min−1) performed an incremental treadmill exercise test and randomly completed two sessions of HIIE on a treadmill (1:1 min at vVO2max with passive recovery). Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately and 60-min after the exercise sessions. Serum was analyzed for glucose, lactate, IL-6, IL-10, and BDNF levels. Blood lactate concentrations was higher immediately post-exercise compared to rest (HIIE1.25: 1.69 ± 0.26–7.78 ± 2.09 mmol·L−1, and HIIE2.5: 1.89 ± 0.26–7.38 ± 2.57 mmol·L−1, p < 0.0001). Glucose concentrations did not present changes under the different conditions, however, levels were higher 60-min post-exercise than at rest only in the HIIE1.25 condition (rest: 76.80 ± 11.14–97.84 ± 24.87 mg·dL−1, p < 0.05). BDNF level increased immediately after exercise in both protocols (HIIE1.25: 9.71 ± 306–17.86 ± 8.59 ng.mL−1, and HIIE2.5: 11.83 ± 5.82–22.84 ± 10.30 ng.mL−1). Although both exercises increased IL-6, level percent between rest and immediately after exercise was higher in the HIIE2.5 than HIIE1.25 (30 and 10%; p = 0.014, respectively). Moreover, IL-10 levels percent increase between immediately and 60-min post-exercise was higher in HIIE2.5 than HIIE1.25 (37 and 10%; p = 0.012, respectively). In conclusion, both HIIE protocols with the same intensity were effective to increase BDNF and IL-6 levels immediately after exercise while only IL-10 response was related to the durantion of exercise indicanting the importance of this exercise prescription variable. PMID:27867360

  15. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement for High-Order Finite-Volume Schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Alan Michael

    For computational fluid dynamics, the governing equations are solved on a discretized domain of nodes, faces, and cells. The quality of the grid or mesh can be a driving source for error in the results. While refinement studies can help guide the creation of a mesh, grid quality is largely determined by user expertise and understanding of the flow physics. Adaptive mesh refinement is a technique for enriching the mesh during a simulation based on metrics for error, impact on important parameters, or location of important flow features. This can offload from the user some of the difficult and ambiguous decisions necessary when discretizing the domain. This work explores the implementation of adaptive mesh refinement in an implicit, unstructured, finite-volume solver. Consideration is made for applying modern computational techniques in the presence of hanging nodes and refined cells. The approach is developed to be independent of the flow solver in order to provide a path for augmenting existing codes. It is designed to be applicable for unsteady simulations and refinement and coarsening of the grid does not impact the conservatism of the underlying numerics. The effect on high-order numerical fluxes of fourth- and sixth-order are explored. Provided the criteria for refinement is appropriately selected, solutions obtained using adapted meshes have no additional error when compared to results obtained on traditional, unadapted meshes. In order to leverage large-scale computational resources common today, the methods are parallelized using MPI. Parallel performance is considered for several test problems in order to assess scalability of both adapted and unadapted grids. Dynamic repartitioning of the mesh during refinement is crucial for load balancing an evolving grid. Development of the methods outlined here depend on a dual-memory approach that is described in detail. Validation of the solver developed here against a number of motivating problems shows favorable

  16. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Kilen

    Full Text Available It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT comprised ∼5 h vs. 1 h and total distance was ∼17 km vs. 35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10×10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 minutes of rest. Performance of 100 m all-out freestyle and 200 m freestyle was similar before and after the intervention in both HIT (60.4±4.0 vs. 60.3±4.0 s; n = 13 and 133.2±6.4 vs. 132.6±7.7 s; n = 14 and CON (60.2±3.7 vs. 60.6±3.8 s; n = 15 and 133.5±7.0 vs. 133.3±7.6 s; n = 15. Maximal oxygen uptake during swimming was similar before and after the intervention in both the HIT (4.0±0.9 vs. 3.8±1.0 l O2×min-1; n = 14 and CON (3.8±0.7 vs. 3.8±0.7 l O2×min-1; n = 11 group. Oxygen uptake determined at fixed submaximal speed was not significantly affected in either group by the intervention. Body fat % tended to increase (P = 0.09 in the HIT group (15.4±1.6% vs. 16.3±1.6%; P = 0.09; n = 16 and increased (P<0.05 in the CON group (13.9±1.5% vs. 14.9±1.5%; n = 17. A distance reduction of 50% and a more than doubled HIT amount for 12 weeks did neither improve nor compromise performance or physiological capacity in elite swimmers.

  17. Inflammatory cytokines and BDNF response to high-intensity intermittent exercise: effect the exercise volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cabral-Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two similar high-intensity intermittent exercises (HIIE but different volume 1.25km (HIIE1.25 and 2.5km (HIIE2.5 on inflammatory and BDNF responses. Ten physically active male subjects (age 25.22±1.74years, body mass 78.98±7.31kg, height 1.78±0.06m, VO2peak 59.94±9.38ml•kg•min-1 performed an incremental treadmill exercise test and randomly completed two sessions of HIIE on a treadmill (1:1 min at vVO2max with passive recovery. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately and 60-minutes after the exercise sessions. Serum was analyzed for glucose, lactate, IL-6, IL-10 and BDNF levels. Blood lactate concentrations was higher immediately post-exercise compared to rest (HIIE1.25: 1.69±0.26 to 7.78±2.09mmol•L-1, and HIIE2.5: 1.89±0.26 to 7.38±2.57mmol•L-1, p<0.0001. Glucose concentrations did not present changes under the different conditions, however, levels were higher 60-min post-exercise than at rest only in the HIIE1.25 condition (rest: 76.80±11.14 to 97.84±24.87mg•dL-1, p<0.05. BDNF level increased immediately after exercise in both protocols (HIIE1.25: 9.71±306 to 17.86±8.59ng.mL-1, and HIIE2.5: 11.83±5.82 to 22.84±10.30ng.mL-1. Although both exercises increased IL-6, level percent increase between rest and immediately after exercise was higher in the HIIE2.5 than HIIE1.25 (30% and 10%; p=0.014, respectively. Moreover, IL-10 levels percent increase between immediately and 60-min post-exercise was higher in HIIE2.5 than HIIE1.25 (37% and 10%; p=0.012, respectively. In conclusion, both HIIE protocols with the same intensity were effective to increase BDNF and IL-6 levels immediately after exercise while only IL-10 response was related to the durantion of exercise indicanting the importance ofthis exercise prescription variable.

  18. Development of a novel high volume band compression injector for the analysis of complex samples like toxaphene pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Jean-Pierre; Gouteux, Bruno; Bertrand, Michel J

    2009-01-16

    A new type of injector has been developed for gas chromatographic analysis. The injector has high volume and band compression (HVBC) capabilities useful for the analysis of complex samples. The injector consists essentially of a packed liner operated at room temperature while a narrow heated zone is used to axially scan the liner selectively desorbing the compounds of interest. The scanning speed, distance and temperature of the zone are precisely controlled. The liner is connected to an interface which can vent the solvent or any undesirable compounds, and transfer the analytes to an analytical column for separation and quantification. The injector is designed to be compatible with injection volumes from 1 to more than 250microL. At a low sample volume of 1microL, the injector has competitive performances compared to those of the "on-column" and "split/splitless" injectors for the fatty acid methyl esters and toxaphene compounds tested. For higher volumes, the system produces a linear response according to the injected volume. In this explorative study, the maximum volume injected seems to be limited by the saturation of the chromatographic system instead of being defined by the design of the injector. The HVBC injector can also be used to conduct "in situ" pretreatment of the sample before its transfer to the analytical column. For instance, a toxaphene sample was successively fractionated, using the HVBC injector, in six sub-fractions characterized by simpler chromatograms than the chromatogram of the original mixture. Finally, the ability of the HVBC injector to "freeze" the separation in time allowing the analyst to complete the analysis at a later time is also discussed.

  19. High Training Volumes are Associated with a Low Number of Self-Reported Sick Days in Elite Endurance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mårtensson, Kristina Nordebo, Christer Malm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that high exercise loads increase the risk of infection, most frequently reported as upper respiratory tract infections, by suppressing the immune system. Most athletes will not train when experiencing sickness due to the fear of health complications. However, high training volumes are incompatible with high rates of non-training days, regardless of the cause. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between self-reported, exercise-constraining days of sickness (days when the athlete decided not to train due to symptoms of disease, either self-reported or by a physician and the volumes of exercise training in elite endurance athletes by analyzing data from training logs kept for several years. The subjects included 11 elite endurance athletes (8 male, 3 female competing at national and international levels in cross-country skiing, biathlon and long-distance running. Training logs available from these 11 subjects added to a total of 61 training years. The number of training hours per year (462, 79-856; median, range was significantly and negatively correlated to the reported number of days not training due to sickness (15, 0-164 by a 3rd degree polynomial regression (R2 = 0.48, F ratio = 18, p < 0.0001. We conclude that elite endurance athletes can achieve high training volumes only if they also experience few sick-days.

  20. Final Report - Advanced MEA's for Enhanced Operating Conditions, Amenable to High Volume Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debe, Mark K.

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under a 3M/DOE contract directed at advancing the key fuel cell (FC) components most critical for overcoming the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance, durability & cost barriers. This contract focused on the development of advanced ion exchange membranes & electrocatalysts for PEMFCs that will enable operation under ever more demanding automotive operating conditions & the use high volume compatible processes for their manufacture. Higher performing & more durable electrocatalysts must be developed for PEMFCs to meet the power density & lifetime hours required for FC vehicles. At the same time the amount of expensive Pt catalyst must be reduced to lower the MEA costs. While these two properties are met, the catalyst must be made resistant to multiple degradation mechanisms to reach necessary operating lifetimes. In this report, we present the work focused on the development of a completely new approach to PEMFC electrocatalyts, called nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts. The carbon black supports are eliminated with this new approach which eliminates the carbon corrosion issue. The thin film nature of the catalyst significantly improves its robustness against dissolution & grain growth, preserving the surface area. Also, the activity of the NSTF for oxygen reduction is improved by over 500% compared to dispersed Pt catalyts. Finally, the process for fabricating the NSTF catalysts is consistent with high volume roll-good manufacturing & extremely flexible towards the introduction of new catalyst compositions & structures. This report documents the work done to develop new multi-element NSTF catalysts with properties that exceed pure Pt, that are optimized for use with the membranes discussed below, & advance the state-of-the-art towards meeting the DOE 2010 targets for PEMFC electrocatalysts. The work completed advances the understanding of the NSTF catalyst technology, identifies new NSTF

  1. Comparison of Canopy Volume Measurements of Scattered Eucalypt Farm Trees Derived from High Spatial Resolution Imagery and LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niva Kiran Verma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies estimating canopy volume are mostly based on laborious and time-consuming field measurements; hence, there is a need for easier and convenient means of estimation. Accordingly, this study investigated the use of remotely sensed data (WorldView-2 and LiDAR for estimating tree height, canopy height and crown diameter, which were then used to infer the canopy volume of remnant eucalypt trees at the Newholme/Kirby ‘SMART’ farm in north-east New South Wales. A regression model was developed with field measurements, which was then applied to remote-sensing-based measurements. LiDAR estimates of tree dimensions were generally lower than the field measurements (e.g., 6.5% for tree height although some of the parameters (such as tree height may also be overestimated by the clinometer/rangefinder protocols used. The WorldView-2 results showed both crown projected area and crown diameter to be strongly correlated to canopy volume, and that crown diameter yielded better results (Root Mean Square Error RMSE 31% than crown projected area (RMSE 42%. Although the better performance of LiDAR in the vertical dimension cannot be dismissed, as suggested by results obtained from this study and also similar studies conducted with LiDAR data for tree parameter measurements, the high price and complexity associated with the acquisition and processing of LiDAR datasets mean that the technology is beyond the reach of many applications. Therefore, given the need for easier and convenient means of tree parameters estimation, this study filled a gap and successfully used 2D multispectral WorldView-2 data for 3D canopy volume estimation with satisfactory results compared to LiDAR-based estimation. The result obtained from this study highlights the usefulness of high resolution data for canopy volume estimations at different locations as a possible alternative to existing methods.

  2. A brief on high-volume Class F fly ash as cement replacement – A guide for Civil Engineer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa M. Rashad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of fly ash (FA resulting from the combustion of coal-fired electric power stations is one of the major environmental challenges. This challenge continues to increase with increasing the amount of FA and decreasing the capacity of landfill space. Therefore, studies have been carried out to re-use high-volumes of fly ash (HVFA as cement replacement in building materials. This paper presents an overview of the previous studies carried out on the use of high volume Class F FA as a partial replacement of cement in traditional paste/mortar/concrete mixtures based on Portland cement (PC. Fresh properties, mechanical properties, abrasion resistance, thermal properties, drying shrinkage, porosity, water absorption, sorptivity, chemical resistance, carbonation resistance and electrical resistivity of paste/mortar/concrete mixtures containing HVFA (⩾45% as cement replacement have been reviewed. Furthermore, additives used to improve some properties of HVFA system have been reviewed.

  3. Theoretical and experimental analysis of a multiphase screw pump, handling gas-liquid mixtures with very high gas volume fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raebiger, K. [LEISTRITZ Pumpen GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany); Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales (United Kingdom); Maksoud, T.M.A.; Ward, J. [Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales (United Kingdom); Hausmann, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Building Services Engineering, University of Applied Sciences, Nuremberg (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    In the investigation of the pumping behaviour of multiphase screw pumps, handling gas-liquid mixtures with very high gas volume fractions, theoretical and experimental analyses were performed. A new theoretical screw pump model was developed, which calculates the time-dependent conditions inside the several chambers of a screw pump as well as the exchange of mass and energy between these chambers. By means of the performed experimental analysis, the screw pump model was verified, especially at very high gas volume fractions from 90% to 99%. The experiments, which were conducted with the reference fluids water and air, can be divided mainly into the determination of the steady state pumping behaviour on the one hand and into the analysis of selected transient operating conditions on the other hand, whereas the visualisation of the leakage flows through the circumferential gaps was rounded off the experimental analysis. (author)

  4. Highly efficient volume hologram multiplexing in thick dye-doped jelly-like gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarkevich, Vasili M; Rubinov, Anatoli N; Efendiev, Terlan Sh

    2014-08-01

    Dye-doped jelly-like gelatin is a thick-layer self-developing photosensitive medium that allows single and multiplexed volume phase holograms to be successfully recorded using pulsed laser radiation. In this Letter, we present a method for multiplexed recording of volume holograms in a dye-doped jelly-like gelatin, which provides significant increase in their diffraction efficiency. The method is based on the recovery of the photobleached dye molecule concentration in the hologram recording zone of gel, thanks to molecule diffusion from other unexposed gel areas. As an example, an optical recording of a multiplexed hologram consisting of three superimposed Bragg gratings with mean values of the diffraction efficiency and angular selectivity of ∼75% and ∼21', respectively, is demonstrated by using the proposed method.

  5. High intensity interval training vs. high-volume running training during pre-season conditioning in high-level youth football: a cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faude, Oliver; Schnittker, Reinhard; Schulte-Zurhausen, Roman; Müller, Florian; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We aimed at comparing the endurance effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with high-volume running training (HVT) during pre-season conditioning in 20 high-level youth football players (15.9 (s 0.8) years). Players either conducted HVT or HIIT during the summer preparation period. During winter preparation they performed the other training programme. Before and after each training period several fitness tests were conducted: multi-stage running test (to assess the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and maximal running velocity (Vmax)), vertical jumping height, and straight sprinting. A significant increase from pre- to post-test was observed in IAT velocity (P velocity during the incremental exercise test also slightly increased with time (P = 0.09). Forty per cent (HIIT) and 15% (HVT) of all players did not improve IAT beyond baseline variability. The players who did not respond to HIIT were significantly slower during 30 m sprinting than responders (P = 0.02). No further significant differences between responders and non-responders were observed. Jump heights deteriorated significantly after both training periods (P football players during pre-season conditioning.

  6. Using microcontact printing to fabricate microcoils on capillaries for high resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance on nanoliter volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.A.; Jackman, R.J.; Whitesides, G.M. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Olson, D.L.; Sweedler, J.V. [Beckman Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This letter describes a method for producing conducting microcoils for high resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) spectroscopy on nanoliter volumes. This technique uses microcontact printing and electroplating to form coils on microcapillaries. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra collected using these microcoils, have linewidths less than 1 Hz for model compounds and a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio=3) for ethylbenzene of 2.6 nmol in 13 min. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Efficacy of High-volume Evacuator in Aerosol Reduction: Truth or Myth? A Clinical and Microbiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Desarda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Basic periodontal treatment aims at eliminating supra- and sub-gingival plaque and establishing conditions which will allow effective self-performed plaque control. This aim is primarily achieved with sonic and ultrasonic scalers. However, generation of bacterial aerosols during these procedures is of great concern to patients, the dentist and the dental assistant. The aim of this study was to compare the reduction in aerosol with and without high-volume evacuator through a microbiological study. Materials and methods. For this clinical study a fumigated closed operatory was selected. Maxillary incisors and canines were selected as an area for scaling. Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaling was performed in the absence and in the presence of a high-volume evacuator at 12 and 20 inches from the patient's oral cavity. In both groups scaling was carried out for 10 minutes. Nutrient agar plates were exposed for a total of 20 minutes. After this procedure, nutrient agar plates were incubated in an incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The next day the nutrient agar plates were examined for colony forming units by a single microbiologist. Results. The results showed no statistically significant differences in colony forming units (CFU with and without the use of a high-volume evacuator either at 12 or 20 inches from the patient’s oral cavity. Conclusion. It was concluded that high-volume evacuator, when used as a separate unit without any modification, is not effective in reducing aerosol counts and environmental contamination.

  8. Temporal dynamics of the circadian heart rate following low and high volume exercise training in sedentary male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Herbert F; Karmakar, C; Kiviniemi, A M; Hautala, A J; Tulppo, M P; Mäkikallio, T H; Huikuri, H V; Khandoker, A H; Palaniswami, M

    2015-10-01

    Increased risk of arrhythmic events occurs at certain times during the circadian cycle with the highest risk being in the second and fourth quarter of the day. Exercise improves treatment outcome in individuals with cardiovascular disease. How different exercise protocols affect the circadian rhythm and the associated decrease in adverse cardiovascular risk over the circadian cycle has not been shown. Fifty sedentary male participants were randomized into an 8-week high volume and moderate volume training and a control group. Heart rate was recorded using Polar Electronics and investigated with Cosinor analysis and by Poincaré plot derived features of SD1, SD2 and the complex correlation measure (CCM) at 1-h intervals over the 24-h period. Moderate exercise significantly increased vagal modulation and the temporal dynamics of the heart rate in the second quarter of the circadian cycle (p = 0.004 and p = 0.007 respectively). High volume exercise had a similar effect on vagal output (p = 0.003) and temporal dynamics (p = 0.003). Cosinor analysis confirms that the circadian heart rate displays a shift in the acrophage following moderate and high volume exercise from before waking (1st quarter) to after waking (2nd quarter of day). Our results suggest that exercise shifts vagal influence and increases temporal dynamics of the heart rate to the 2nd quarter of the day and suggest that this may be the underlying physiological change leading to a decrease in adverse arrhythmic events during this otherwise high-risk period.

  9. Routine diversion of patients with STEMI to high-volume PCI centres: modelling the financial impact on referral hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Elizabeth Barnett; Comins, Meg M; Forsyth, Colin J.; Strom, Joel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify possible revenue losses from proposed ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patient diversion policies for small hospitals that lack high-volume percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) capability status (ie, ‘STEMI referral hospitals’). Background Negative financial impacts on STEMI referral hospitals have been discussed as an important barrier to implementing regional STEMI bypass/transfer protocols. However, there is little empirical data available that directly ...

  10. Aggravation of pulmonary diffusing capacity in highly trained athletes by 6 weeks of low-volume, low-intensity training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, Olivier; Maimoun, Laurent; Coste, Olivier; Manetta, Jérôme; Boussana, Alain; Préfaut, Christian; Hue, Olivier

    2013-11-01

    Postexercise alveolar-capillary membrane-diffusing capacity (DLco) often decreases in highly trained endurance athletes and seems linked to their training status. To test the hypothesis that training status influences postexercise DLco, 13 male and 2 female triathletes (20.2 ± 4.4 y old, 175.2 ± 6.7 cm tall; weight in a range of 66.6 ± 7.4 kg to 67.4 ± 7.8 kg during the 1-y study) were randomized into experimental (n = 7) and control (n = 8) groups and performed VO(2max) cycle tests and simulated cycle-run successions (CR) of 30 min + 20 min after 3 periods in the competitive season. Both groups were tested before (pre- HTP) and after a 30-wk high-training period (HTP) with high training volume, intensity, and frequency. The experimental group was then also tested after a 6-wk low-training period (LTP) with low training volume, intensity, and frequency, while the control group continued training according to the HTP schedule for these 6 wk. Ventilatory data were collected continuously. DLco testing was performed before and 30, 60, and 120 min after the CR trials. Whatever the period or group, DLco was significantly decreased 30 min after CR, with a significantly greater decrease in the experimental group than the control group in LTP (-15.7% and -9.3% of DLco, respectively). Six weeks of low training volume and intensity were sufficient to reverse the effects of high training volume and intensity on the alveolar-capillary membrane after a CR succession in competitive triathletes.

  11. High-Order Spectral Volume Method for 2D Euler Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. J.; Zhang, Laiping; Liu, Yen; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Spectral Volume (SV) method is extended to the 2D Euler equations. The focus of this paper is to study the performance of the SV method on multidimensional non-linear systems. Implementation details including total variation diminishing (TVD) and total variation bounded (TVB) limiters are presented. Solutions with both smooth features and discontinuities are utilized to demonstrate the overall capability of the SV method.

  12. Advances on Propulsion Technology for High-Speed Aircraft. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    drag, or cruise. As the prime contractor for NASA, ATK GASL had the unique perspective of seeing the complete program from start to finish. Although... prime contractor to NASA for the execution of the program and had overall responsibility for the detailed design and manufacture and support to flight...Digest, Volume 26, Number 4 (2005) [9] 9 Tyll, J., Erdos , J., Bakos, R., Low-Cost Free-Flight Testing of Hypersonic Airbreathing I Engines, ISOABE 2001

  13. Evolving progress in oncologic and operative outcomes for esophageal and junctional cancer: lessons from the experience of a high-volume center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reynolds, John V

    2012-05-01

    Modern series from high-volume esophageal centers report an approximate 40% 5-year survival in patients treated with curative intent and postoperative mortality rates of less than 4%. An objective analysis of factors that underpin current benchmarks within high-volume centers has not been performed.

  14. Multicenter analysis comparing robotic, open, laparoscopic, and vaginal hysterectomies performed by high-volume surgeons for benign indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Peter C; Crane, John T; English, Eric J; Farnam, Richard W; Garza, Devin M; Winter, Marc L; Rozeboom, Jerry L

    2016-06-01

    To compare perioperative outcomes between robotic-assisted benign hysterectomies and abdominal, vaginal, and laparoscopic hysterectomies when performed by high-volume surgeons. A multicenter data analysis compared 30-day outcomes from consecutive robotic-assisted hysterectomies performed by high-volume surgeons (≥60 prior procedures) at nine centers with records retrieved from the Premier Perspective database for abdominal, vaginal, and laparoscopic hysterectomies performed by high-volume gynecologic surgeons. Data on benign hysterectomy disorders from January 1, 2012 to September 30, 2013 were included. Data from 2300 robotic-assisted, 9745 abdominal, 8121 vaginal, and 11 952 laparoscopic hysterectomies were included. The robotic-assisted patient cohort had a significantly higher rate of adhesive disease compared with the vaginal (Plaparoscopic cohorts (Pobesity than the vaginal (Plaparoscopic cohorts (P250g) than the abdominal (Plaparoscopic cohorts (P=0.017). The robotic-assisted cohort experienced significantly fewer intraoperative complications than the abdominal (Physterectomy provided improved outcomes compared with abdominal, vaginal, and laparoscopic hysterectomy. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ACUTE EFFECTS OF STATIC STRETCHING, DYNAMIC EXERCISES, AND HIGH VOLUME UPPER EXTREMITY PLYOMETRIC ACTIVITY ON TENNIS SERVE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Gelen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of static stretching; dynamic exercises and high volume upper extremity plyometric activity on tennis serve performance. Twenty-six elite young tennis players (15.1 ± 4.2 years, 167.9 ± 5.8 cm and 61.6 ± 8.1 kg performed 4 different warm-up (WU routines in a random order on non-consecutive days. The WU methods consisted of traditional WU (jogging, rally and serve practice (TRAD; traditional WU and static stretching (TRSS; traditional WU and dynamic exercise (TRDE; and traditional WU and high volume upper extremity plyometric activity (TRPLYP. Following each WU session, subjects were tested on a tennis serve ball speed test. TRAD, TRSS, TRDE and TRPLYO were compared by repeated measurement analyses of variance and post-hoc comparisons. In this study a 1 to 3 percent increase in tennis serve ball speed was recorded in TRDE and TRPLYO when compared to TRAD (p 0.05. ICCs for ball speed showed strong reliability (0.82 to 0.93 for the ball speed measurements.The results of this study indicate that dynamic and high volume upper extremity plyometric WU activities are likely beneficial to serve speed of elite junior tennis players.

  16. Cardiac size of high-volume resistance trained female athletes: shaping the body but not the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully.

  17. Excluded volume effects caused by high concentration addition of acid generators in chemically amplified resists used for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kyoko; Matsuoka, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Komuro, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Akiyoshi

    2017-08-01

    The resolution of lithography used for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices has been improved to meet the market demands for highly integrated circuits. With the reduction in feature size, the molecular size becomes non-negligible in the resist material design. In this study, the excluded volume effects caused by adding high-concentration acid generators were investigated for triphenylsulfonium nonaflate. The resist film density was measured by X-ray diffractometry. The dependences of absorption coefficient and protected unit concentration on acid generator weight ratio were calculated from the measured film density. Using these values, the effects on the decomposition yield of acid generators, the protected unit fluctuation, and the line edge roughness (LER) were evaluated by simulation on the basis of sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. The positive effects of the increase in acid generator weight ratio on LER were predominant below the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3, while the negative effects became equivalent to the positive effects above the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3 owing to the excluded volume effects.

  18. From Research to Practice: Which Research Strategy Contributes More to Clinical Excellence? Comparing High-Volume versus High-Quality Biomedical Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Tchetchik

    Full Text Available The question when and to what extent academic research can benefit society is of great interest to policy-makers and the academic community. Physicians in university hospitals represent a highly relevant test-group for studying the link between research and practice because they engage in biomedical academic research while also providing medical care of measurable quality. Physicians' research contribution to medical practice can be driven by either high-volume or high-quality research productivity, as often pursuing one productivity strategy excludes the other. To empirically examine the differential contribution to medical practice of the two strategies, we collected secondary data on departments across three specializations (Cardiology, Oncology and Orthopedics in 50 U.S.-based university hospitals served by 4,330 physicians. Data on volume and quality of biomedical research at each department was correlated with publicly available ratings of departments' quality of care, demonstrating that high-quality research has significantly greater contribution to quality of care than high-volume research.

  19. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, Andrew F. T.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Kitchen, Marcus J. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Fouras, Andreas [Division of Biological Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Wallace, Megan J.; Hooper, Stuart B. [Ritchie Centre and Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. Methods: The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions {approx}16.2 {mu}m). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Results: Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. Conclusions: This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using

  20. Quantifying seasonal volume of groundwater in high elevation meadows: Implications for complex aquifer geometry in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciruzzi, Dominick M.

    The hydrologic impacts of rising global temperatures are severe and imminent particularly in snow-dominated regions. In the western United States, high elevation meadows are among the ecosystems highly sensitive to climate change. High elevation meadows are groundwater dependent ecosystems and rely on seasonal snowpack melt in order to support ecologic function and baseflow to streams. This stream flow in turn supplies an estimated 2.6 million San Francisco residents with water. Once the snow melts and recharges the aquifer, groundwater supports vegetation separate from the surrounding hillslopes, which promotes important ecologic functions like flood regulation and nutrient cycling. Groundwater also supports baseflow to perennial rivers late into the summer months transferring this snowmelt to downstream ecologic and human communities. By 2100 snowpack accumulation in the Sierra Nevada is expected to decrease by ~40-90% due to near-surface temperature rise. Though precipitation intensity is not expected to change, a decrease in snowpack will change the timing and magnitude of groundwater recharge necessary to sustain high elevation meadows. An additional climate-driven shift and decrease in peak stream flow to early spring away from summer when demand is highest puts into question ecosystem survivability and water supply to downstream users. Here, a new quantitative framework is presented to lay the foundation for the widespread identification of vulnerabilities in high elevation meadows due to climate change. This research proposed and tested a new conceptual model for the volume of groundwater stored in high elevation meadows similar to that of a reservoir with active and dead storage. The seasonal fluctuations in active storage, which is defined as the volume of groundwater able to exchange between the aquifer, streams, and vegetation, are thought to be highly sensitive to aquifer parameters, such as bedrock geometry, meadow gradient, and hydraulic conductivity

  1. Effect of high tidal volume ventilation and lipopolysaccharide on mitogen-activated protein kinase in rat lung tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mechanical ventilation, a crucial therapy to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), could exacerbate lung injury, and even result in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) if misused in some condition1. Over-activating inflammatory cells and expanding inflammatory responses, which are induced by infection, are fundamental reasons for ARDS. Among them, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) intracellular signal transduction pathways are key processes. This study aimed to investigate the time course of MAPK activation in rat lung tissue after high tidal volume (VT) ventilation and the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in high-sensitivity, and to elucidate the effect of the pathway on VILI.

  2. The Partition of Unity Method for High-Order Finite Volume Schemes Using Radial Basis Functions Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serena Morigi; Fiorella Sgallari

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of partition of unity method for the develop-ment of a high order finite volume discretization scheme on unstructured grids for solv-ing diffusion models based on partial differential equations. The unknown function and its gradient can be accurately reconstructed using high order optimal recovery based on radial basis functions. The methodology proposed is applied to the noise removal prob-lem in functional surfaces and images. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new numerical approach and provide experimental order of convergence.

  3. Influence of Utilization of High-Volumes of Class F Fly Ash on the Abrasion Resistance of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William PRINCE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of large volumes of fly ash in various concrete applications is a becoming a more general practice in an efforts towards using large quantities of fly ash. Around the world, Class C or Class F or both as available have been used in high volumes in cement-based materials. In India, majority of fly generated is of Class F type as per ASTM C 618. Yearly fly ash generation in India is approximately 95 million tonnes. Out of which around 15-20% is utilized in cement production and cement/concrete related activities. In order to increase its percentage utilization, an investigation was carried out to use it in concrete.In this paper, abrasion resistance of high volume fly ash (HVFA concretes made with 35, 45, 55, and 65% of cement replacement was evaluated in terms of its relation with compressive strength. Comparison was made between ordinary Portland cement and fly ash concrete. Test results indicated that abrasion resistance of concrete having cement replacement up to 35 percent was comparable to the normal concrete mix with out fly ash. Beyond 35% cement replacement, fly ash concretes exhibited slightly lower resistance to abrasion relative to non-fly ash concretes. Test results further indicated that abrasion resistance of concrete is closely related with compressive strength, and had a very good correlation between abrasion resistance and compressive strength (R2 value between 0.9018 and 0.9859 depending upon age.

  4. High-order accurate finite-volume formulations for the pressure gradient force in layered ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engwirda, Darren; Kelley, Maxwell; Marshall, John

    2017-08-01

    Discretisation of the horizontal pressure gradient force in layered ocean models is a challenging task, with non-trivial interactions between the thermodynamics of the fluid and the geometry of the layers often leading to numerical difficulties. We present two new finite-volume schemes for the pressure gradient operator designed to address these issues. In each case, the horizontal acceleration is computed as an integration of the contact pressure force that acts along the perimeter of an associated momentum control-volume. A pair of new schemes are developed by exploring different control-volume geometries. Non-linearities in the underlying equation-of-state definitions and thermodynamic profiles are treated using a high-order accurate numerical integration framework, designed to preserve hydrostatic balance in a non-linear manner. Numerical experiments show that the new methods achieve high levels of consistency, maintaining hydrostatic and thermobaric equilibrium in the presence of strongly-sloping layer geometries, non-linear equations-of-state and non-uniform vertical stratification profiles. These results suggest that the new pressure gradient formulations may be appropriate for general circulation models that employ hybrid vertical coordinates and/or terrain-following representations.

  5. Intenational conference on high-energy physics. Volume 2. Sessions IV to VIII. [Geneva, June 27-July 4, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Volume 2 of the conference proceedings contains sessions on hadron physics, charged-lepton physics, the p-p-bar collider at CERN, future European accelerator possibilities, parallel discussion sessions (on high-energy) hadron-induced reactions, deep inelastic phenomena, hadron spectroscopy, weak ineractions and gauge theories, and quark confinement), and a closing session on gauge appreciation of developments in particle physics. A list of participants is also included. Three of the papers in this volume have already been cited in ERA, and can be found as reference to the entry CONF-790642-- in the Report Number Index. The remaining 36 will be processed as they are received on the Atomindex tape. (RWR)

  6. Extended free-volume defects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors induced by high-energy {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balitska, Valentina [Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC (Ukraine); State University of Vital Activity Safety, Lviv 79007 (Ukraine); Filipecki, Jacek; Shpotyuk, Oleh [Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Czestochowa (Poland)

    2009-08-15

    It was shown that under-coordinated topological defects induced by high-energy {gamma}-irradiation can be a reason for significant changes in positron annihilation lifetime spectra of multicomponent chalcogenide glassy semiconductors within ternary Ge-As(Sb)-S systems. In the case of negatively-charged sulphur and arsenic atoms, the excess of free volume is quite enough to produce additional input in the second defect-related channel of positron trapping, while under-coordinated germanium atoms are practically non-detectable with this technique because of low associated free volume. Despite radiation-induced densification, the average positron lifetime demonstrate both growing and decaying tendencies after {gamma}-irradiation depending on glass composition. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. A Comprehensive Archival Search for Counterparts to Ultra-Compact High Velocity Clouds: Five Local Volume Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sand, D J; Bennet, P; Willman, B; Hargis, J; Strader, J; Olszewski, E; Tollerud, E J; Simon, J D; Caldwell, N; Guhathakurta, P; James, B L; Koposov, S; McLeod, B; Morrell, N; Peacock, M; Salinas, R; Seth, A C; Stark, D P; Toloba, E

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of five Local Volume dwarf galaxies uncovered during a comprehensive archival search for optical counterparts to ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs). The UCHVC population of HI clouds are thought to be candidate gas-rich, low mass halos at the edge of the Local Group and beyond, but no comprehensive search for stellar counterparts to these systems has been presented. Careful visual inspection of all publicly available optical and ultraviolet imaging at the position of the UCHVCs revealed six blue, diffuse counterparts with a morphology consistent with a faint dwarf galaxy beyond the Local Group. Optical spectroscopy of all six candidate dwarf counterparts show that five have an H$\\alpha$-derived velocity consistent with the coincident HI cloud, confirming their association; the sixth diffuse counterpart is likely a background object. The size and luminosity of the UCHVC dwarfs is consistent with other known Local Volume dwarf irregular galaxies. The gas fraction ($M_{HI}/M_{sta...

  8. Comparison of different volumes of high intensity interval training on cardiac autonomic function in sedentary young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Pooja; Bansal, Vishal; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2017-08-24

    Purpose The present study was conducted to compare the effects of low volume of high intensity interval training (LVHIIT) and high volume of high intensity interval training (HVHIIT) on heart rate variability (HRV) as a primary outcome measure, and on maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), body composition, and lower limb muscle strength as secondary outcome measures, in sedentary young women. Methods Thirty-six participants were recruited in this study. The LVHIIT group (n = 17) performed one 4-min bout of treadmill running at 85%-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), followed by 3 min of recovery by running at 70% HRmax, three times per week for 6 weeks. The HVHIIT group (n = 15) performed four times 4-min bouts of treadmill running at 85%-95% HRmax, interspersed with 3-min of recovery by running at 70% HRmax, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. All criterion measures were measured before and after training in both the groups. Results Due to attrition of four cases, data of 32 participants was used for analysis. A significant increase in high frequency (HF) power (p high frequency power (LF/HF) ratio (p sedentary young women. However, HVHIIT induces parasympathetic dominance as well, as measured by HRV.

  9. Prostate cancer volume associates with preoperative plasma levels of testosterone that independently predicts high grade tumours which show low densities (quotient testosterone/tumour volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The investigation shows that TT relates to volume and grade of PCa; moreover, the density of TT relative to TV inversely associates with rate of increase of cancer that depends on the grade of the tumour.

  10. Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on High Energy Physics: Ichep '98 (in 2 Volumes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astbury, Alan; Axen, David; Robinson, Jacob

    1999-06-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * VOLUME I * Foreword * Conference Organization * PLENARY SESSIONS * Pl-01 Recent Results from the Super-Kamiokande * Recent Results from the Super-Kamiokande * Pl-02 Recent Results on Neutrino Oscillations * Recent Results on Neutrino Oscillations * Pl-03 Experimental Status of the Standard Model * Experimental Status of the Standard Model * Pl-04 Standard Model Theory * Standard Model Theory * Pl-05 Searches at Existing Machines * Searches at Existing Machines * Pl-06 Heavy Quark Production and Decay (t, b, and Onia) * Heavy Quark Production and Decay: (t, b, and Onia) * Pl-07 Heavy Quark Decay * Heavy Quark Decay * Pl-08 CP Violation, Rare Decays and Lepton Flavor Violation * CP Violation, Rare Decays and Lepton Flavor Violation * Pl-09 Light and Charmed Hadron Spectroscopy * Light and Charmed Hadron Spectroscopy * Pl-10 Progress in Lattice Gauge Theory * Progress in Lattice Gauge Theory * Pl-11 Structure Functions * Structure Functions * Pl-12 Diffraction and Low-Q2 Physics Including Two-Photon Physics * Diffraction and Low-Q2 Physics Including Two-Photon Physics * Pl-13 Heavy Ion Collisions at High Energy * Heavy Ion Collisions at High Energy * Pl-14 "Non-Perturbative Methods" in Field Theory * "Non-Perturbative Methods" in Field Theory * Pl-15 Experimental Aspects of QCD in e+e- Collisions * Experimental Aspects of QCD in e+e- Collisions * Pl-16 QCD at High Energy (Hadron-Hadron, Lepton-Hadron, and Gamma-Hadron) * QCD at High Energy (Hadron-Hadron, Lepton-Hadron, Gamma-Hadron) * Pl-17 Perturbative QCD Theory (Includes Our Knowledge of αs) * Perturbative QCD Theory (Includes our Knowledge of αs) * Pl-18 Experimental Particle Astrophysics * Experimental Particle Astrophysics * Pl-19 Particle Cosmology * Particle Cosmology * Pl-20 Guide to Physics Beyond the Standard Model * Guide to Physics Beyond the Standard Model * Pl-21 Developments in Superstring Theory * Developments in Superstring Theory * Pl-22 Future

  11. Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 High Park Burn Area near Fort Collins, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Elliott, John G.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2012 High Park fire near Fort Collins in Larimer County, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burned area drainage network and to estimate the same for 44 selected drainage basins along State Highway 14 and the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (25 millimeters); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (43 millimeters); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall (51 millimeters). Estimated debris-flow probabilities along the drainage network and throughout the drainage basins of interest ranged from 1 to 84 percent in response to the 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall; from 2 to 95 percent in response to the 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall; and from 3 to 97 in response to the 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. Basins and drainage networks with the highest probabilities tended to be those on the eastern edge of the burn area where soils have relatively high clay contents and gradients are steep. Estimated debris-flow volumes range from a low of 1,600 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages were also predicted to produce substantial volumes of material. The predicted probabilities and some of the volumes predicted for the modeled storms indicate a potential for substantial debris-flow impacts on structures, roads, bridges, and culverts located both within and

  12. Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on High Energy Physics (in 2 Volumes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajduk, Z.; Wroblewski, A. K.

    1997-04-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * VOLUME I * Foreword * Conference Organization * Welcome Address * PLENARY SESSIONS * Pl-01 New Results in Spectroscopy * New Results in Spectroscopy * Pl-02 Soft Interactions and Diffraction Phenomena * Soft Interactions and Diffraction Phenomena * Pl-03 Spin Structure of the Nucleon * Spin Structure of the Nucleon * Pl-04 QCD, Low x and High pT Physics * Tests of QCD at Low x * High pT QCD Physics Results from the Tevatron * Pl-05 QCD and Hard Scattering * Status of the Strong Coupling Constant * Hard Scattering in QCD * Pl-06 Top Quark Properties and Their Theoretical Implications * Experimental Top Quark Physics * Top Quark Theory * Pl-07 Heavy Flavours * Progress in Understanding Heavy Flavor Decays * Theoretical Review of Heavy Flavour Physics * Pl-08 Quark Masses and Mixing from Weak Processes * Status of Weak Quark Mixing * Pl-09 Status of the Electroweak Interactions * Experimental Tests of the Electroweak Theory * Electroweak Interactions - Theory * Pl-10 FCNC Processes: Experimental Status and Theoretical Implications * Flavour Changing Neutral Current Processes * Pl-11 Neutrino Masses and Oscillations * Neutrino Masses and Oscillations - Experiment * Neutrino Masses and Oscillations - Theory * Pl-12 Searches for New Particles * Searches for New Particles * Pl-13 Developments in Non-Perturbative Quantum Field Theory * Recent Developments in Non-Perturbative Quantum Field Theory * Development in Lattice QCD * Pl-14 Supersymmetry and GUT's * Supersymmetry and (Grand) Unification * Pl-15 Non-Supersymmetric Extensions of the Standard Model * Non-Supersymmetric Extensions of the Standard Model * Pl-16 High Energy Nuclear Interactions and Heavy Ion Collisions * High Energy Nuclear Interactions and Heavy Ion Collisions * Pl-17 Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology * Experimental Particle Astrophysics * Zeroing in on the Fundamental Parameters of Cosmology * Pl-18 New Experimental Techniques and Detectors

  13. Expired tidal volumes measured by hot-wire anemometer during high-frequency oscillation in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimová-Herknerová, Magdalena; Plavka, Richard

    2006-05-01

    We sought to determine the normocapnic values of expiratory tidal volume measured by hot-wire anemometer, and to evaluate how often expiratory tidal volume exceeds estimated anatomical dead space during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in preterm infants. We also sought to determine the relationship between expiratory tidal volume and other respiratory parameters. The neonatal respiration monitor SLE 2100 VPM, a hot-wire anemometer, was used to measure expired tidal volume (V(T,E)) in patients ventilated by the Sensormedics 3,100A during routine clinical use of HFOV. Two hundred and fourteen simultaneous measurements of PaCO(2), V(T,E), fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO(2)), continuous distending pressure (CDP), frequency, and amplitude were obtained from 28 patients. The median birth weight was 852 g (range, 435-3,450 g), and median gestational age was 27.2 weeks (range, 23.3-41.0 weeks). One hundred and eighteen (55%) normocapnic measurements, 42 (20%) hypocapnic measurements, and 54 (25%) hypercapnic measurements were recorded in which the median V(T,E) was 1.67 ml/kg (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.55-1.79), 1.94 ml/kg (95% CI, 1.74-2.14), and 1.54 ml/kg (95% CI, 1.42-1.66), respectively. The measured V(T,E) exceeded 2.0 ml/kg in 30 instances of normocapnic V(T,E) (14%) and 54 of all V(T,E) (25%), and 3 ml/kg only in 7 (3%) and 11 (5%) instances of normocapnic and all V(T,E). There was a significant difference in median normocapnic V(T,E) obtained when FiO(2) was between 0.21-0.35, compared to values obtained when FiO(2) was 0.36-1.0 (1.61 ml/kg (95% CI, 1.52-1.70) vs. 2.06 ml/kg (95% CI, 1.93-2.19), P 47 should predict hypercapnia in 81% of cases. In conclusion, expired tidal volume measurement by heated double-wire anemometer sensor is feasible, provides useful real-time information about tidal volume changes, and may improve the clinical management of HFOV.

  14. A 3D time reversal cavity for the focusing of high-intensity ultrasound pulses over a large volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, J.; Arnal, B.; Tanter, M.; Pernot, M.

    2017-02-01

    Shock wave ultrasound therapy techniques, increasingly used for non-invasive surgery, require extremely high pressure amplitudes in precise focal spots, and large high-power transducers arranged on a spherical shell are usually used to achieve that. This solution allows limited steering of the beam around the geometrical focus of the device at the cost of a large number of transducer elements, and the treatment of large and moving organs like the heart is challenging or impossible. This paper validates numerically and experimentally the possibility of using a time reversal cavity (TRC) for the same purpose. A 128-element, 1 MHz power transducer combined with different multiple scattering media in a TRC was used. We were able to focus high-power ultrasound pulses over a large volume in a controlled manner, with a limited number of transducer elements. We reached sufficiently high pressure amplitudes to erode an Ultracal® target over a 10 cm2 area.

  15. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A; Vigotsky, Andrew D

    2016-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp(2) = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp(2) = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training.

  16. Topological Galleries: A High Level User Interface for Topology Controlled Volume Rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCarthy, Brian; Carr, Hamish; Weber, Gunther H.

    2011-06-30

    Existing topological interfaces to volume rendering are limited by their reliance on sophisticated knowledge of topology by the user. We extend previous work by describing topological galleries, an interface for novice users that is based on the design galleries approach. We report three contributions: an interface based on hierarchical thumbnail galleries to display the containment relationships between topologically identifiable features, the use of the pruning hierarchy instead of branch decomposition for contour tree simplification, and drag-and-drop transfer function assignment for individual components. Initial results suggest that this approach suffers from limitations due to rapid drop-off of feature size in the pruning hierarchy. We explore these limitations by providing statistics of feature size as function of depth in the pruning hierarchy of the contour tree.

  17. Short transmembrane domains with high-volume exoplasmic halves determine retention of Type II membrane proteins in the Golgi complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Rodrigo; Trenchi, Alejandra; González Montoro, Ayelén; Valdez Taubas, Javier; Maccioni, Hugo J F

    2013-12-01

    It is still unclear why some proteins that travel along the secretory pathway are retained in the Golgi complex whereas others make their way to the plasma membrane. Recent bioinformatic analyses on a large number of single-spanning membrane proteins support the hypothesis that specific features of the transmembrane domain (TMD) are relevant to the sorting of these proteins to particular organelles. Here we experimentally test this hypothesis for Golgi and plasma membrane proteins. Using the Golgi SNARE protein Sft1 and the plasma membrane SNARE protein Sso1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model proteins, we modified the length of their TMDs and the volume of their exoplasmic hemi-TMD, and determined their subcellular localization both in yeast and mammalian cells. We found that short TMDs with high-volume exoplasmic hemi-TMDs confer Golgi membrane residence, whereas TMDs with low-volume exoplasmic hemi-TMDs, either short or long, confer plasma membrane residence to these proteins. Results indicate that the shape of the exoplasmic hemi-TMD, in addition to the length of the entire TMD, determine retention in the Golgi or exit to the plasma membrane of Type II membrane proteins.

  18. High integrity software for nuclear power plants: Candidate guidelines, technical basis and research needs. Main report, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, S.; Bail, W.; Cleaves, D.; Cohen, H.; Hybertson, D.; Schaefer, C.; Stark, G.; Ta, A.; Ulery, B. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The work documented in this report was performed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the technical basis for candidate guidelines that could be considered in reviewing and evaluating high integrity computer e following software development and assurance activities: Requirements specification; design; coding; verification and validation, inclukding static analysis and dynamic testing; safety analysis; operation and maintenance; configuration management; quality assurance; and planning and management. Each activity (framework element) was subdivided into technical areas (framework subelements). The report describes the development of approximately 200 candidate guidelines that span the entire ran e identification, categorization and prioritization of technical basis for those candidate guidelines; and the identification, categorization and prioritization of research needs for improving the technical basis. The report has two volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary includes an overview of the framwork and of each framework element, the complete set of candidate guidelines, the results of the assessment of the technical basis for each candidate guideline, and a discussion of research needs that support the regulatory function; this document, Volume 2, is the main report.

  19. High integrity software for nuclear power plants: Candidate guidelines, technical basis and research needs. Executive summary: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, S.; Bail, W.; Cleaves, D.; Cohen, H.; Hybertson, D.; Schaefer, C.; Stark, G.; Ta, A.; Ulery, B. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The work documented in this report was performed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the technical basis for candidate guidelines that could be considered in reviewing and evaluating high integrity computer software used in the safety systems of nuclear power plants. The framework for the work consisted of the following software development and assurance activities: requirements specification; design; coding; verification and validation, including static analysis and dynamic testing; safety analysis; operation and maintenance; configuration management; quality assurance; and planning and management. Each activity (framework element) was subdivided into technical areas (framework subelements). The report describes the development of approximately 200 candidate guidelines that span the entire range of software life-cycle activities; the assessment of the technical basis for those candidate guidelines; and the identification, categorization and prioritization of research needs for improving the technical basis. The report has two volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary, includes an overview of the framework and of each framework element, the complete set of candidate guidelines, the results of the assessment of the technical basis for each candidate guideline, and a discussion of research needs that support the regulatory function; Volume 2 is the main report.

  20. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection.

  1. Developing an Ice Volume Estimate of Jarvis Glacier, Alaska, using Ground-Penetrating Radar and High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N. L.; Campbell, S. W.; Douglas, T. A.; Osterberg, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Jarvis Glacier is an important water source for Fort Greely and Delta Junction, Alaska. Yet with warming summer temperatures caused by climate change, the glacier is melting rapidly. Growing concern of a dwindling water supply has caused significant research efforts towards determining future water resources from spring melt and glacier runoff which feeds the community on a yearly basis. The main objective of this project was to determine the total volume of the Jarvis Glacier. In April 2012, a centerline profile of the Jarvis Glacier and 15 km of 100 MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles were collected in cross sections to provide ice depth measurements. These depth measurements were combined with an interpreted glacier boundary (depth = 0 m) from recently collected high resolution WorldView satellite imagery to estimate total ice volume. Ice volume was calculated at 0.62 km3 over a surface area of 8.82 km2. However, it is likely that more glacier-ice exists within Jarvis Glacier watershed considering the value calculated with GPR profiles accounts for only the glacier ice within the valley and not for the valley side wall ice. The GLIMS glacier area database suggests that the valley accounts for approximately 50% of the total ice covered watershed. Hence, we are currently working to improve total ice volume estimates which incorporate the surrounding valley walls. Results from this project will be used in conjunction with climate change estimates and hydrological properties downstream of the glacier to estimate future water resources available to Fort Greely and Delta Junction.

  2. A Single Session of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise Reduces Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Normotensive Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Teresa C B; Farias Junior, Luiz F; Frazão, Danniel T; Silva, Paulo H M; Sousa Junior, Altieres E; Costa, Ingrid B B; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M; Forjaz, Cláudia L M; Duhamel, Todd A; Costa, Eduardo C

    2017-08-01

    Dantas, TCB, Farias Junior, LF, Frazão, DT, Silva, PHM, Sousa Junior, AE, Costa, IBB, Ritti-Dias, RM, Forjaz, CLM, Duhamel, TA, and Costa, EC. A single session of low-volume high-intensity interval exercise reduces ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive men. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2263-2269, 2017-The magnitude and duration of postexercise hypotension (PEH) may provide valuable information on the efficacy of an exercise approach to blood pressure (BP) control. We investigated the acute effect of a time-efficient high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on ambulatory BP. Twenty-one normotensive men (23.6 ± 3.6 years) completed 2 experimental sessions in a randomized order: (a) control (no exercise) and (b) low-volume HIIE: 10 × 1 minute at 100% of maximal treadmill velocity interspersed with 1 minute of recovery. After each experimental session, an ambulatory BP monitoring was initiated. Paired sample t-test was used to compare BP averages for awake, asleep, and 20-hour periods between the control and the low-volume HIIE sessions. A 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to analyze hourly BP after both experimental sessions. Blood pressure averages during the awake (systolic: 118 ± 6 vs. 122 ± 6 mm Hg; diastolic: 65 ± 7 vs. 67 ± 7 mm Hg) and 20-hour (systolic: 115 ± 7 vs. 118 ± 6 mm Hg; diastolic: 62 ± 7 vs. 64 ± 7 mm Hg) periods were lower after the low-volume HIIE compared with the control (p ≤ 0.05). Systolic and diastolic PEH presented medium (Cohen's d = 0.50-0.67) and small (Cohen's d = 0.29) effect sizes, respectively. Systolic PEH occurred in a greater magnitude during the first 5 hours (3-5 mm Hg). No changes were found in asleep BP (p > 0.05). In conclusion, a single session of low-volume HIIE reduced ambulatory BP in normotensive men. The PEH occurred mainly in systolic BP during the first 5 hours postexercise.

  3. Topology of genetic associations between regional gray matter volume and intellectual ability: Evidence for a high capacity network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlken, Marc M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Mandl, René C W; Hedman, Anna M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Kahn, René S; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence is associated with a network of distributed gray matter areas including the frontal and parietal higher association cortices and primary processing areas of the temporal and occipital lobes. Efficient information transfer between gray matter regions implicated in intelligence is thought to be critical for this trait to emerge. Genetic factors implicated in intelligence and gray matter may promote a high capacity for information transfer. Whether these genetic factors act globally or on local gray matter areas separately is not known. Brain maps of phenotypic and genetic associations between gray matter volume and intelligence were made using structural equation modeling of 3T MRI T1-weighted scans acquired in 167 adult twins of the newly acquired U-TWIN cohort. Subsequently, structural connectivity analyses (DTI) were performed to test the hypothesis that gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability form a densely connected core. Gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability were situated in the right prefrontal, bilateral temporal, bilateral parietal, right occipital and subcortical regions. Regions implicated in intelligence had high structural connectivity density compared to 10,000 reference networks (p=0.031). The genetic association with intelligence was for 39% explained by a genetic source unique to these regions (independent of total brain volume), this source specifically implicated the right supramarginal gyrus. Using a twin design, we show that intelligence is genetically represented in a spatially distributed and densely connected network of gray matter regions providing a high capacity infrastructure. Although genes for intelligence have overlap with those for total brain volume, we present evidence that there are genes for intelligence that act specifically on the subset of brain areas that form an efficient brain network.

  4. High-intensity high-volume swimming induces more robust signaling through PGC-1α and AMPK activation than sprint interval swimming in m. triceps brachii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, Rafael A; Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to test whether high-intensity high-volume training (HIHVT) swimming would induce more robust signaling than sprint interval training (SIT) swimming within the m. triceps brachii due to lower metabolic and oxidation. Nine well-trained swimmers performed the two training procedures...... on separate randomized days. Muscle biopsies from m. triceps brachii and blood samples were collected at three different time points: a) before the intervention (pre), b) immediately after the swimming procedures (post) and c) after 3 h of rest (3 h). Hydroperoxides, creatine kinase (CK), and lactate...

  5. Intensity modulated radiotherapy for high risk prostate cancer based on sentinel node SPECT imaging for target volume definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiadis Aristotelis

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RTOG 94-13 trial has provided evidence that patients with high risk prostate cancer benefit from an additional radiotherapy to the pelvic nodes combined with concomitant hormonal ablation. Since lymphatic drainage of the prostate is highly variable, the optimal target volume definition for the pelvic lymph nodes is problematic. To overcome this limitation, we tested the feasibility of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT protocol, taking under consideration the individual pelvic sentinel node drainage pattern by SPECT functional imaging. Methods Patients with high risk prostate cancer were included. Sentinel nodes (SN were localised 1.5–3 hours after injection of 250 MBq 99mTc-Nanocoll using a double-headed gamma camera with an integrated X-Ray device. All sentinel node localisations were included into the pelvic clinical target volume (CTV. Dose prescriptions were 50.4 Gy (5 × 1.8 Gy / week to the pelvis and 70.0 Gy (5 × 2.0 Gy / week to the prostate including the base of seminal vesicles or whole seminal vesicles. Patients were treated with IMRT. Furthermore a theoretical comparison between IMRT and a three-dimensional conformal technique was performed. Results Since 08/2003 6 patients were treated with this protocol. All patients had detectable sentinel lymph nodes (total 29. 4 of 6 patients showed sentinel node localisations (total 10, that would not have been treated adequately with CT-based planning ('geographical miss' only. The most common localisation for a probable geographical miss was the perirectal area. The comparison between dose-volume-histograms of IMRT- and conventional CT-planning demonstrated clear superiority of IMRT when all sentinel lymph nodes were included. IMRT allowed a significantly better sparing of normal tissue and reduced volumes of small bowel, large bowel and rectum irradiated with critical doses. No gastrointestinal or genitourinary acute toxicity Grade 3 or 4 (RTOG

  6. Determination of respirable mass concentration using a high volume air sampler and a sedimentation method for fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.

    1995-12-31

    A preliminary study of a new method for determining respirable mass concentration is described. This method uses a high volume air sampler and subsequent fractionation of the collected mass using a particle sedimentation technique. Side-by-side comparisons of this method with cyclones were made in the field and in the laboratory. There was good agreement among the samplers in the laboratory, but poor agreement in the field. The effect of wind on the samplers` capture efficiencies is the primary hypothesized source of error among the field results. The field test took place at the construction site of a hazardous waste landfill located on the Hanford Reservation.

  7. High-volume FES-cycling partially reverses bone loss in people with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frotzler, Angela; Coupaud, Sylvie; Perret, Claudio; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Hunt, Kenneth J; Donaldson, Nick de N; Eser, Prisca

    2008-07-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to severe bone loss in the paralysed limbs and to a resulting increased fracture risk thereof. Since long bone fractures can lead to comorbidities and a reduction in quality of life, it is important to improve bone strength in people with chronic SCI. In this prospective longitudinal cohort study, we investigated whether functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced high-volume cycle training can partially reverse the loss of bone substance in the legs after chronic complete SCI. Eleven participants with motor-sensory complete SCI (mean age 41.9+/-7.5 years; 11.0+/-7.1 years post injury) were recruited. After an initial phase of 14+/-7 weeks of FES muscle conditioning, participants performed on average 3.7+/-0.6 FES-cycling sessions per week, of 58+/-5 min each, over 12 months at each individual's highest power output. Bone and muscle parameters were investigated in the legs by means of peripheral quantitative computed tomography before the muscle conditioning (t1), and after six (t2) and 12 months (t3) of high-volume FES-cycle training. After 12 months of FES-cycling, trabecular and total bone mineral density (BMD) as well as total cross-sectional area in the distal femoral epiphysis increased significantly by 14.4+/-21.1%, 7.0+/-10.8% and 1.2+/-1.5%, respectively. Bone parameters in the femoral shaft showed small but significant decreases, with a reduction of 0.4+/-0.4% in cortical BMD, 1.8+/-3.0% in bone mineral content, and 1.5+/-2.1% in cortical thickness. These decreases mainly occurred between t1 and t2. No significant changes were found in any of the measured bone parameters in the tibia. Muscle CSA at the thigh increased significantly by 35.5+/-18.3%, while fat CSA at the shank decreased by 16.7+/-12.3%. Our results indicate that high-volume FES-cycle training leads to site-specific skeletal changes in the paralysed limbs, with an increase in bone parameters at the actively loaded distal femur but not the passively loaded

  8. Highly sensitive SERS detection of cancer proteins in low sample volume using hollow core photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U S, Dinish; Fu, Chit Yaw; Soh, Kiat Seng; Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Kumar, Anil; Olivo, Malini

    2012-03-15

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are commonly used for detecting cancer proteins at concentration in the range of about ng-μg/mL. Hence it often fails to detect tumor markers at the early stages of cancer and other diseases where the amount of protein is extremely low. Herein, we report a novel photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing platform for the ultrasensitive detection of cancer proteins in an extremely low sample volume. As a proof of concept, epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in a lysate solution from human epithelial carcinoma cells were immobilized into the hollow core PCF. Highly sensitive detection of protein was achieved using anti-EGFR antibody conjugated SERS nanotag. This SERS nanotag probe was realized by anchoring highly active Raman molecules onto the gold nanoparticles followed by bioconjugation. The proposed sensing method can detect low amount of proteins at ∼100 pg in a sample volume of ∼10 nL. Our approach may lead to the highly sensitive protein sensing methodology for the early detection of diseases.

  9. Cascading and Parallelising Curvilinear Inertial Focusing Systems for High Volume, Wide Size Distribution, Separation and Concentration of Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B.; Jimenez, M.; Bridle, H.

    2016-11-01

    Inertial focusing is a microfluidic based separation and concentration technology that has expanded rapidly in the last few years. Throughput is high compared to other microfluidic approaches although sample volumes have typically remained in the millilitre range. Here we present a strategy for achieving rapid high volume processing with stacked and cascaded inertial focusing systems, allowing for separation and concentration of particles with a large size range, demonstrated here from 30 μm-300 μm. The system is based on curved channels, in a novel toroidal configuration and a stack of 20 devices has been shown to operate at 1 L/min. Recirculation allows for efficient removal of large particles whereas a cascading strategy enables sequential removal of particles down to a final stage where the target particle size can be concentrated. The demonstration of curved stacked channels operating in a cascaded manner allows for high throughput applications, potentially replacing filtration in applications such as environmental monitoring, industrial cleaning processes, biomedical and bioprocessing and many more.

  10. Ultra-high frequency, high Q/volume micromechanical resonators in a planar AlN phononic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Baboly, M.; Alaie, S.; Reinke, C. M.; El-Kady, I.; Leseman, Z. C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the first design and experimental demonstration of an ultrahigh frequency complete phononic crystal (PnC) bandgap aluminum nitride (AlN)/air structure operating in the GHz range. A complete phononic bandgap of this design is used to efficiently and simultaneously confine elastic vibrations in a resonator. The PnC structure is fabricated by etching a square array of air holes in an AlN slab. The fabricated PnC resonator resonates at 1.117 GHz, which corresponds to an out-of-plane mode. The measured bandgap and resonance frequencies are in very good agreement with the eigen-frequency and frequency-domain finite element analyses. As a result, a quality factor/volume of 7.6 × 1017/m3 for the confined resonance mode was obtained that is the largest value reported for this type of PnC resonator to date. These results are an important step forward in achieving possible applications of PnCs for RF communication and signal processing with smaller dimensions.

  11. Chemically Modified Plastic Tube for High Volume Removal and Collection of Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Gaitas

    Full Text Available In this preliminary effort, we use a commercially available and chemically modified tube to selectively capture circulating tumor cells (CTCs from the blood stream by immobilizing human anti-EpCAM antibodies on the tube's interior surface. We describe the requisite and critical steps required to modify a tube into a cancer cell-capturing device. Using these simple modifications, we were able to capture or entrap about 85% of cancer cells from suspension and 44% of cancer cells from spiked whole blood. We also found that the percentage of cells captured was dependent on the tube's length and also the number of cancer cells present. It is our strong belief that with the utilization of appropriate tube lengths and procedures, we can ensure capture and removal of nearly the entire CTC population in whole blood. Importantly after a patient's entire blood volume has circulated through the tube, the tube can then be trypsinized to release the captured live CTCs for further analysis and testing.

  12. A high volume extraction and purification method for recovering DNA from human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Pamela L; Stoljarova, Monika; Schmedes, Sarah E; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    DNA recovery, purity and overall extraction efficiency of a protocol employing a novel silica-based column, Hi-Flow(®) (Generon Ltd., Maidenhead, UK), were compared with that of a standard organic DNA extraction methodology. The quantities of DNA recovered by each method were compared by real-time PCR and quality of DNA by STR typing using the PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 Pro System (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI) on DNA from 10 human bone samples. Overall, the Hi-Flow method recovered comparable quantities of DNA ranging from 0.8ng±1 to 900ng±159 of DNA compared with the organic method ranging from 0.5ng±0.9 to 855ng±156 of DNA. Complete profiles (17/17 loci tested) were obtained for at least one of three replicates for 3/10 samples using the Hi-Flow method and from 2/10 samples with the organic method. All remaining bone samples yielded partial profiles for all replicates with both methods. Compared with a standard organic DNA isolation method, the results indicated that the Hi-Flow method provided equal or improved recovery and quality of DNA without the harmful effects of organic extraction. Moreover, larger extraction volumes (up to 20mL) can be employed with the Hi-Flow method which enabled more bone sample to be extracted at one time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Low-Volume, High-Intensity Training on Performance in Competitive Swimmers: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Frank J; Comyns, Thomas M; Burrows, Emma; Warrington, Giles D

    2017-03-01

    Nugent, FJ, Comyns, TM, Burrows, E, and Warrington, GD. Effects of low-volume, high-intensity training on performance in competitive swimmers: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 837-847, 2017-The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the extent and quality of the current research literature to determine the effects of low-volume, high-intensity training (HIT) on physiological performance and swimming performance in competitive swimmers. The methodology followed the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. A search of relevant databases and conference proceedings was performed until December 2015. The inclusion criteria were (a) competitive swimmers, (b) ≥4 weeks HIT intervention, (c) comparison group had to involve a higher training volume, (d) outcome measures of physiological and swimming performance, and (e) all experimental study designs. Quality assessment was performed using the Quality Index checklist. Results indicate that of the 538 studies retrieved, 7 studies met the inclusion criteria. Six of the 7 studies found that an HIT intervention resulted in significant improvements in physiological performance. Four of the 7 studies found that HIT resulted in significant improvements in swimming performance, whereas none of the 7 studies resulted in a reduction in physiological or swimming performance. Despite the positive findings of this review, the short study duration is a limitation to a number of studies. The current evidence on the effects of HIT on performance is promising; however, it is difficult to draw accurate conclusions until further research has been conducted.

  14. SyPRID sampler: A large-volume, high-resolution, autonomous, deep-ocean precision plankton sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Andrew; Kaiser, Carl; Young, Craig M.; Hiebert, Laurel S.; Cole, Eli; Wagner, Jamie K. S.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

    2017-03-01

    The current standard for large-volume (thousands of cubic meters) zooplankton sampling in the deep sea is the MOCNESS, a system of multiple opening-closing nets, typically lowered to within 50 m of the seabed and towed obliquely to the surface to obtain low-spatial-resolution samples that integrate across 10 s of meters of water depth. The SyPRID (Sentry Precision Robotic Impeller Driven) sampler is an innovative, deep-rated (6000 m) plankton sampler that partners with the Sentry Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) to obtain paired, large-volume plankton samples at specified depths and survey lines to within 1.5 m of the seabed and with simultaneous collection of sensor data. SyPRID uses a perforated Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight (UHMW) plastic tube to support a fine mesh net within an outer carbon composite tube (tube-within-a-tube design), with an axial flow pump located aft of the capture filter. The pump facilitates flow through the system and reduces or possibly eliminates the bow wave at the mouth opening. The cod end, a hollow truncated cone, is also made of UHMW plastic and includes a collection volume designed to provide an area where zooplankton can collect, out of the high flow region. SyPRID attaches as a saddle-pack to the Sentry vehicle. Sentry itself is configured with a flight control system that enables autonomous survey paths to low altitudes. In its verification deployment at the Blake Ridge Seep (2160 m) on the US Atlantic Margin, SyPRID was operated for 6 h at an altitude of 5 m. It recovered plankton samples, including delicate living larvae, from the near-bottom stratum that is seldom sampled by a typical MOCNESS tow. The prototype SyPRID and its next generations will enable studies of plankton or other particulate distributions associated with localized physico-chemical strata in the water column or above patchy habitats on the seafloor.

  15. Difference in kinematics and kinetics between high- and low-velocity resistance loading equated by volume: implications for hypertrophy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nur Ikhwan; Cronin, John B; Nosaka, Ken K

    2012-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that a high load is necessary for muscle hypertrophy, it is possible that a low load with a high velocity results in greater kinematics and kinetics than does a high load with a slow velocity. The purpose of this study was to determine if 2 training loads (35 and 70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) equated by volume, differed in terms of their session kinematic and kinetic characteristics. Twelve subjects were recruited in this acute randomized within-subject crossover design study. Two bouts of a half-squat exercise were performed 1 week apart, one with high load-low velocity (HLLV = 3 sets of 12 reps at 70% 1RM) and the other with low-load high-velocity (LLHV = 6 sets of 12 reps at 35% 1RM). Time under tension (TUT), average force, peak force (PF), average power (AP), peak power (PP), work (TW), and total impulse (TI) were calculated and compared between loads for the eccentric and concentric phases. For average eccentric and concentric single repetition values, significantly (p eccentric and concentric TUT, PF, AP, PP, and TW. The only variable that was significantly greater for the HLLV protocol than for the LLHV protocol was TI (∼20-24%). From these results, it seems that the LLHV protocol may offer an equal if not better training stimulus for muscular adaptation than the HLLV protocol, because of the greater time under tension, power, force, and work output when the total volume of the exercise is equated.

  16. A new high-order finite volume method for 3D elastic wave simulation on unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Zhuang, Yuan; Zhang, Lina

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new efficient high-order finite volume method for 3D elastic wave simulation on unstructured tetrahedral meshes. With the relative coarse tetrahedral meshes, we make subdivision in each tetrahedron to generate a stencil for the high-order polynomial reconstruction. The subdivision algorithm guarantees the number of subelements is greater than the degrees of freedom of a complete polynomial. We perform the reconstruction on this stencil by using cell-averaged quantities based on the hierarchical orthonormal basis functions. Unlike the traditional high-order finite volume method, our new method has a very local property like DG and can be written as an inner-split computational scheme which is beneficial to reducing computational amount. Moreover, the stencil in our method is easy to generate for all tetrahedrons especially in the three-dimensional case. The resulting reconstruction matrix is invertible and remains unchanged for all tetrahedrons and thus it can be pre-computed and stored before time evolution. These special advantages facilitate the parallelization and high-order computations. We show convergence results obtained with the proposed method up to fifth order accuracy in space. The high-order accuracy in time is obtained by the Runge-Kutta method. Comparisons between numerical and analytic solutions show the proposed method can provide accurate wavefield information. Numerical simulation for a realistic model with complex topography demonstrates the effectiveness and potential applications of our method. Though the method is proposed based on the 3D elastic wave equation, it can be extended to other linear hyperbolic system.

  17. Dynamic behaviors of various volume rate steel-fiber reinforced reactive powder concrete after high temperature burnt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Baojun; Wang, Liwen; Yang, Zhenqi; Chi, Runqiang

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic strain-stress curves of reactive powder concrete under high strain rate (10/s-100/s) were determined by improved split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. A plumbum pulse shaper was used to ensure the symmetrical stress in the specimens before fracture and avoid the fluctuation of test data due to input shaky stress pulse. A time modified method was induced for data processing in order to get accurate SHPB results. The results of experiment showed after high temperature burnt, different volume rate (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%) steel-fiber reinforced reactive power concrete had the same changing tendency of residual mechanics behaviors, e.g. after 400 centigrade burnt, the residual compression strength was about 70% of material strength without burnt under 100/s. After 800 centigrade burnt, the compression strength is about 30% under 100/s while the deformation ability increased. At meanwhile, steel fiber had improved the mechanism of reinforcing effect and toughening effect of concrete material after burnt. With increasing of steel fiber volume rate, dynamic residual behavior of samples was improved. Microcosmic characteristics and energy absorption were induced for explaining the experiment results.

  18. Operation and control of flow manufacturing based on constraints management for high-mix/low-volume production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zailin GUAN; Yunfang PENG; Li MA; Chaoyong ZHANG; Peigen LI

    2008-01-01

    The existing technology of flow manufacturing, which is mainly appropriate for high volume and repetitive production, is proven difficult to be applied in high-mix/ low-volume environments. To adapt lean production into the latter, a new type of flow manufacturing is proposed based on flow path management technology. This paper first describes the general operation framework of the pro-posed new mode. The main idea is the dynamic formation of adaptable virtual production lines (called flow paths) corresponding to different product families. The applica-tion of different theories of constraints/drum-buffer-rope (TOC/DBR) control policies depends on the differences in scope of variety and scale of demand for these product families. The overall architecture of the proposed mech-anism of constraint management-based operation and con-trol is introduced. For the implementation, a mathematical programming method is suggested for the dynamic plan-ning of flow paths, and a TOC/DBR 'path-specific' mech-anism with group scheduling is used for the control over each flow path. We also study other critical issues including the identification and management of resource bottlenecks, and the setting of the buffer size in the deployment of the TOC/DBR mechanism.

  19. Geothermal fracture stimulation technology. Volume II. High-temperature proppant testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Data were obtained from a newly built proppant tester, operated at actual geothermal temperatures. The short term test results show that most proppants are temperature sensitive, particularly at the higher closure stresses. Many materials have been tested using a standard short-term test, i.e., fracture-free sand, bauxite, and a resin-coated sand retained good permeability at the high fluid temperatures in brine over a range of closure stresses. The tests were designed to simulate normal closure stress ranges for geothermal wells which are estimated to be from 2000 to 6000 psi. Although the ultra high closure stresses in oil and gas wells need not be considered with present geothermal resources, there is a definite need for chemically inert proppants that will retain high permeability for long time periods in the high temperature formations.

  20. USAF Summer Research Program - 1993 High School Apprenticeship Program Final Reports, Volume 12, Armstrong Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Page No: 16- 1 Tullahoma High School Tullahoma, TN 37388-0000 Bowlby , Andrea Laboratory: PL/GP Mudge Way Vol-Page No: 13- 1 Bedford High School Bedford...Ingram Rd. San Antonio, TX 78238 Dr. John Taboada Mentor Final Report for: AFOSR Summer Research Program Armstrong Laboratory Sponsored by: Air Force...Photoelectric Aerosol Sensor (PAS) as well as with other methods for studies involving aerosols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (4-8). Dr. John

  1. Turbo system technology for downsized high volume engines with PZEV capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernsson, Haakan; Johansson, Lena [Volvo Car Corp., Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Turbo charging is not anymore only used for exotic high performance vehicles. Instead boosting technology will be used to provide high specific power output, reduced fuel consumption and consequently lower CO2 emissions for all types of vehicles in the future. The main reason for this change is the obvious need for a shift towards more fuel efficient down-sized engines which output that enables a lower fuel consumption. This new way of using turbo charging introduces a new set of demands which needs to be fulfilled before this technology can be applied efficiently in to mass production. Since one of the most basic down-sizing features is a high specific low end torque with an associated excellent transient behavior at low speeds, the overall charging efficiency, must be high over a broad speed and load range. The down-sizing effect also imply a more frequent use of the high specific power, which means that smaller engines needs to cope with a high exhaust gas temperature more often. High specific power output also has to be combined with strict US and EC emission legislation i.e. fulfillment of PZEV and Euro 6 emissions. This will add new challenges to turbo system development. Simultaneously, material prices have increased significantly over the last five years. Unfortunately, these new requirements have a tendency to push the piece price in the wrong direction, which means that down-sizing have a tendency to add high on-cost to the most price sensitive products. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to discuss possible solutions for future turbo system technology. (orig.)

  2. T3 tongue cancer treated with low- and high-dose rate interstitial brachytherapy using two-plane or volume implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimoto, Naoya; Murakami, Shumei; Furukawa, Shohei [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate School of Dentistry; Tanaka, Eiichi; Yoshida, Ken; Yamazaki, Hideya; Inoue, Takehiro; Inoue, Toshihiko [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Shimizutani, Kimishige [Osaka Dental Coll., Hirakata (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Fifty-two patients with T3 tongue cancer were treated with low- and high-dose rate interstitial brachytherapy using two-plane or volume implant method. Two-year local control rate was 60% and 3-year overall survival rate was 50%. Low- and high-dose rate interstitial brachytherapy using two-plane or volume implant was effective treatment for T3 tongue cancer with deep infiltration. (author)

  3. Mapping high-fidelity volume rendering for medical imaging to CPU, GPU and many-core architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Holmes, David; Chhugani, Jatin; Larson, Alan; Carmean, Douglas M; Hanson, Dennis; Dubey, Pradeep; Augustine, Kurt; Kim, Daehyun; Kyker, Alan; Lee, Victor W; Nguyen, Anthony D; Seiler, Larry; Robb, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Medical volumetric imaging requires high fidelity, high performance rendering algorithms. We motivate and analyze new volumetric rendering algorithms that are suited to modern parallel processing architectures. First, we describe the three major categories of volume rendering algorithms and confirm through an imaging scientist-guided evaluation that ray-casting is the most acceptable. We describe a thread- and data-parallel implementation of ray-casting that makes it amenable to key architectural trends of three modern commodity parallel architectures: multi-core, GPU, and an upcoming many-core Intel architecture code-named Larrabee. We achieve more than an order of magnitude performance improvement on a number of large 3D medical datasets. We further describe a data compression scheme that significantly reduces data-transfer overhead. This allows our approach to scale well to large numbers of Larrabee cores.

  4. Immunochemical estimations of allergenic activities from outdoor aero-allergens, collected by a high-volume air sampler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J; Poulsen, L K; Mygind, K;

    1989-01-01

    To quantify airborne allergens in amorphus and morphological particles, a survey with collection of aero-allergens on glass fibre filters by means of a high-volume air-sampler (HIVOL) was conducted. In preliminary laboratory experiments we compared various filter elution techniques......, and the pulverizing elution technique was found to be optimal with regard to yield and convenience. When a surfactant, Tween 20 (0.5% v/v), was added to the elution buffer, a recovery of 80% could be obtained. Allergens in eluates were analysed by means of an IgG-subclass RAST inhibition assay. This immunochemical...... method for quantification of airborne allergens was validated, as a high recovery of timothy grass pollen allergens was eluted from air filters, and eluates were shown specific by RAST inhibition. The amount of immunochemically measured airborne timothy and birch allergens collected by means of the HIVOL...

  5. 2D and 3D milled surface roughness of high volume fraction SiCp/Al composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on surface roughness generated by high speed milling of high volume fraction (65% silicon carbide particle-reinforced aluminum matrix (SiCp/Al composites. Typical 2D (Ra and Rz and 3D (Sa and Sq surface roughness parameters were selected to evaluate the influence of the milling parameters on the surface quality in comparison with aluminum alloy. The 3D topography of the milled surface was studied as well. The results indicate that 3D parameters (Sa and Sq are more capable to describe the influence of the milling parameters on the surface quality, and among them Sq is preferable due to its good sensitivity. Sq decreases with milling speed and increases with feed rate. The influence of axial depth of cut (ADOC is negligible.

  6. Transient analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers using volume electric field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2014-07-01

    A marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain volume electric field integral equation (TD-VEFIE) solver is proposed for accurate and stable analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers. The stability is achieved using band-limited but two-sided (non-causal) temporal interpolation functions and an extrapolation scheme to cast the time marching into a causal form. The extrapolation scheme is designed to be highly accurate for oscillating and exponentially decaying fields, hence it accurately captures the physical behavior of the resonant modes that are excited inside the dielectric scatterer. Numerical results demonstrate that the resulting MOT scheme maintains its stability as the number of resonant modes increases with the contrast of the scatterer.

  7. High Sensitivity Analysis of Nanoliter Volumes of Volatile and Nonvolatile Compounds using Matrix Assisted Ionization (MAI) Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Khoa; Pophristic, Milan; Horan, Andrew J.; Johnston, Murray V.; McEwen, Charles N.

    2016-10-01

    First results are reported using a simple, fast, and reproducible matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) sample introduction method that provides substantial improvements relative to previously published MAI methods. The sensitivity of the new MAI methods, which requires no laser, high voltage, or nebulizing gas, is comparable to those reported for MALDI-TOF and n-ESI. High resolution full acquisition mass spectra having low chemical background are acquired from low nanoliters of solution using only a few femtomoles of analyte. The limit-of-detection for angiotensin II is less than 50 amol on an Orbitrap Exactive mass spectrometer. Analysis of peptides, including a bovine serum albumin digest, and drugs, including drugs in urine without a purification step, are reported using a 1 μL zero dead volume syringe in which only the analyte solution wetting the walls of the syringe needle is used in the analysis.

  8. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoenfeld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL over eight weeks of resistance training (RT in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and Methods Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9 where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9 where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15 = 16.598, P = .001, ηp2 = .525. There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15 = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp2 = .681 in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training.

  9. X-ray diffraction and electroresistance measurements under high pressure and temperature using a large-volume cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Principi, E; Minicucci, M [CNISM, CNR-INFM SOFT and Dipartimento di Fisica Universita degli Studi di Camerino via Madonna delle Carceri 62032, Camerino (Italy); Di Cicco, A

    2008-07-15

    In this communication we report about original experimental techniques for in-house x-ray diffraction and electrical resistance measurements under high-temperature and high pressure conditions, using large volume cells in the opposite anvil recessed geometry. The high-pressure devices we are currently using are a compact Paris-Edinburgh (PE) V5 150 Tons press and a 50 Tons standard hydraulic press, coupled usually with WC anvils and 10 mm or 7 mm boron-epoxy or pyrophyllite biconical gaskets for x-ray diffraction and resistance measurements respectively. Limiting pressures, using such a non-toroidal sample assembly and WC anvils, are about 10 GPa on samples of large sizes (10-20 mm{sup 3}). Samples can be heated using an hollow graphite cylinder as a crucible reaching temperatures as high as 2300 K, while the temperature can be measured up to 1300 K by using a K-type thermocouple. The highly automated setup developed for resistance measurements is described in details. In particular, we present electroresistance measurements of Bi melting under pressure and measurements of the Ge and LiF EOS (equation of state) at high temperature and pressure obtained using x-ray diffraction showing the sensitivity of the techniques. The relevance of these experiments to the exploitation of the potential of equipments available at synchrotron radiation facilities is emphasized.

  10. Tolerability of High-Volume Subcutaneous Injections of a Viscous Placebo Buffer: A Randomized, Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clapton; Abosaleem, Bassam; Crispino, Caroline; Gao, Bing; Shaywitz, Adam

    2015-10-01

    Monoclonal antibody biotherapeutics are often administered by subcutaneous (SC) injection. Due to dose requirements and formulation limitations, SC injections >1 mL are often required. We used a viscous placebo buffer (5 cP), characteristic of a high-concentration antibody formulation, to investigate the effect of dose volume and injection rate on the tolerability of higher-volume SC injections. In this randomized, crossover, single-center study, 48 healthy adults received one 1.2-mL bolus injection over 5 s and three 3.5-mL injections over 1, 4, and 10 min in different abdominal quadrants, with each injection separated by approximately 2 h. The primary objective was to compare pain scores associated with the injections, immediately after administration and 1 h later, using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary objectives included assessment of adverse events, including injection site reactions and swelling. Mean age was 38.4 (11.6) years and 20 subjects (42%) were female. Lowest mean VAS score was for the 10-min (6.83 mm) and highest for the 1-min injection (19.13 mm). One hour after administration, mean VAS scores were injections. Swelling was similar among the three 3.5-mL injections. After needle removal, leakage occurred following 14 (29%) 1.2-mL injections, eight (17%) 4-min injections, five (10%) 1-min injections, and four (8%) 10-min injections. Fifteen subjects (31%) experienced an adverse event, none of which was serious, fatal, or led to study discontinuation. All injection durations were well tolerated, suggesting a single large-volume SC injection of a biotherapeutic agent could be used instead of multiple injections.

  11. Lung membrane conductance and capillary volume derived from the NO and CO transfer in high-altitude newcomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinot, Jean-Benoît; Mulè, Massimiliano; de Bisschop, Claire; Overbeek, Maria J; Le-Dong, Nhat-Nam; Naeije, Robert; Guénard, Hervé

    2013-07-15

    Acute exposure to high altitude may induce changes in carbon monoxide (CO) membrane conductance (DmCO) and capillary lung volume (Vc). Measurements were performed in 25 lowlanders at Brussels (D0), at 4,300 m after a 2- or 3-day exposure (D2,3) without preceding climbing, and 5 days later (D7,8), before and after an exercise test, under a trial with two arterial pulmonary vasodilators or a placebo. The nitric oxide (NO)/CO transfer method was used, assuming both infinite and finite values to the NO blood conductance (θNO). Doppler echocardiography provided hemodynamic data. Compared with sea level, lung diffusing capacity for CO increased by 24% at D2,3 and is returned to control at D7,8. The acute increase in lung diffusing capacity for CO resulted from increases in DmCO and Vc with finite and infinite θNO assumptions. The alveolar volume increased by 16% at D2,3 and normalized at D7,8. The mean increase in systolic arterial pulmonary pressure at rest at D2,3 was minimal. In conclusion, the acute increase in Vc may be related to the increase in alveolar volume and to the increase in capillary pressure. Compared with the infinite θNO value, the use of a finite θNO value led to about a twofold increase in DmCO value and to a persistent increase in DmCO at D7,8 compared with D0. After exercise, DmCO decreased slightly less in subjects treated by the vasodilators, suggesting a beneficial effect on interstitial edema.

  12. Price duration versus trading volume in high-frequency data for selected DAX companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Mitterer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the time series of durations between consecutive trades of a particular stock have been studied by many contributors in the literature of financial econometrics. Among them are highly prominent scientists like Engle (2000 and Gourieroux and Jasiak (2001. The importance of this topic, accompanied by the growing availability of (ultra-high-frequency data, has prompted an increase of contributions in recent years. Intensive research based on high-frequency data has several financial motivations. First of all, it is linked with microstructure theory. Secondly, it contributes to the literature on stochastic time deformation. But the most important need for research on the dynamics of trade durations is the necessity to manage liquidity risk. The reason is that durations between the following trades are a widely accepted measures of market liquidity. In addition, their volatility reflects the liquidity risk.

  13. 3-D Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Complex Fiber Geometry RaFC Materials with High Volume Fraction and High Aspect Ratio based on ABAQUS PYTHON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, BoCheng

    2011-12-01

    Organic and inorganic fiber reinforced composites with innumerable fiber orientation distributions and fiber geometries are abundantly available in several natural and synthetic structures. Inorganic glass fiber composites have been introduced to numerous applications due to their economical fabrication and tailored structural properties. Numerical characterization of such composite material systems is necessitated due to their intrinsic statistical nature, which renders extensive experimentation prohibitively time consuming and costly. To predict various mechanical behavior and characterizations of Uni-Directional Fiber Composites (UDFC) and Random Fiber Composites (RaFC), we numerically developed Representative Volume Elements (RVE) with high accuracy and efficiency and with complex fiber geometric representations encountered in uni-directional and random fiber networks. In this thesis, the numerical simulations of unidirectional RaFC fiber strand RVE models (VF>70%) are first presented by programming in ABAQUS PYTHON. Secondly, when the cross sectional aspect ratios (AR) of the second phase fiber inclusions are not necessarily one, various types of RVE models with different cross sectional shape fibers are simulated and discussed. A modified random sequential absorption algorithm is applied to enhance the volume fraction number (VF) of the RVE, which the mechanical properties represents the composite material. Thirdly, based on a Spatial Segment Shortest Distance (SSSD) algorithm, a 3-Dimentional RaFC material RVE model is simulated in ABAQUS PYTHON with randomly oriented and distributed straight fibers of high fiber aspect ratio (AR=100:1) and volume fraction (VF=31.8%). Fourthly, the piecewise multi-segments fiber geometry is obtained in MATLAB environment by a modified SSSD algorithm. Finally, numerical methods including the polynomial curve fitting and piecewise quadratic and cubic B-spline interpolation are applied to optimize the RaFC fiber geometries

  14. United States Air Force High School Apprenticeship Program: 1989 Program Management Report. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    with Biotinylated Probes to Heat Shock Protein and Tumor Necrosis Factor 1 01 The Influence of Broad Spectrum Lori Olenick Illumination on Circadian...Systems, Inc 4 3,3 ui g* samis’ ITOG AGENCY MAMA ($) ANM AONuMI4S) 16.SP03m O~saT w 0113 AFOSR/XOT NWapyj" Bid 410 F49620-88-C-0053 Boiling AFB D.C...PROBES TO HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN AND TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR Prepared by: BRIAN G. McBURNETT Academic Rank: HIGH SCHOOL SENIOR School: SAMUEL CLEMENS HIGH

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baldwin, S. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); DeMeo, E. [Renewable Energy Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States); Reilly, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Porro, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meshek, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  17. High Frontier - The Journal for Space and Missile Professionals. Volume 4, Number 1, November 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    States Air Force Weapons School Maj Christopher S. Putman ...weapons and tac- tics at the US Air Force Weapons School (USAFWS). Maj Chris Putman takes the reader inside this school and describes in detail the...High Frontier Your United States Air Force Weapons School Maj Christopher S. Putman Operations Officer, 328th Weapons Squadron Nellis AFB

  18. High resolution triple resonance micro magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy of nanoliter sample volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauckmann, J Ole; Janssen, J W G Hans; Kentgens, Arno P M

    2016-02-14

    To be able to study mass-limited samples and small single crystals, a triple resonance micro-magic angle spinning (μMAS) probehead for the application of high-resolution solid-state NMR of nanoliter samples was developed. Due to its excellent rf performance this allows us to explore the limits of proton NMR resolution in strongly coupled solids. Using homonuclear decoupling we obtain unprecedented (1)H linewidths for a single crystal of glycine (Δν(CH2) = 0.14 ppm) at high field (20 T) in a directly detected spectrum. The triple channel design allowed the recording of high-resolution μMAS (13)C-(15)N correlations of [U-(13)C-(15)N] arginine HCl and shows that the superior (1)H resolution opens the way for high-sensitivity inverse detection of heteronuclei even at moderate spinning speeds and rf-fields. Efficient decoupling leads to long coherence times which can be exploited in many correlation experiments.

  19. Capabilities for managing high-volume production of electric engineering equipment at the Electrochemical Production Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlednev, V.M.

    1996-04-01

    The Electromechanical Production Plant is essentially a research center with experimental facilities and power full testing base. Major products of the plant today include heat pipes and devices of their basis of different functions and power from high temperature ranges to cryogenics. This report describes work on porous titanium and carbon-graphite current collectors, electrocatalyst synthesis, and electrocatalyst applications.

  20. High volume nanoscale roll-based imprinting using jet and flash imprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Se Hyun; Miller, Mike; Yang, Shuqiang; Ganapathisubramanian, Maha; Menezes, Marlon; Singh, Vik; Choi, Jin; Xu, Frank; LaBrake, Dwayne; Resnick, Douglas J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    Extremely large-area roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing on flexible substrates is ubiquitous for applications such as paper and plastic processing. It combines the benefits of high speed and inexpensive substrates to deliver a commodity product at low cost. The challenge is to extend this approach to the realm of nanopatterning and realize similar benefits. In order to achieve low-cost nanopatterning, it is imperative to move toward high-speed imprinting, less complex tools, near zero waste of consumables, and low-cost substrates. We have developed a roll-based J-FIL process and applied it to a technology demonstrator tool, the LithoFlex 100, to fabricate large-area flexible bilayer wire-grid polarizers (WGPs) and high-performance WGPs on rigid glass substrates. Extinction ratios of better than 10,000 are obtained for the glass-based WGPs. Two simulation packages are also employed to understand the effects of pitch, aluminum thickness, and pattern defectivity on the optical performance of the WGP devices. It is determined that the WGPs can be influenced by both clear and opaque defects in the gratings; however, the defect densities are relaxed relative to the requirements of a high-density semiconductor device.

  1. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume 2, Student's Text, Part I. Unit 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This fifth unit in the SMSG junior high mathematics series is a student text covering the following topics: rational numbers and coordinates; equations; scientific notation, decimals, and the metric system; constructions, congruent triangles, and the Pythagorean property; relative error; and real numbers. (DT)

  2. Mathematics for Junior High School. Commentary for Teachers. Volume II (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part one of a two-part manual for teachers using SMSG junior high school text materials. A chapter-by-chapter commentary on the text is given as well as answers to all the exercises. Chapter topics include: (1) number line and coordinates; (2) equations; (3) scientific notation; (4) applications of percent; and (5) congruence and the…

  3. Summer Research Program (1992). High School Apprenticeship Program (HSAP) Reports. Volume 12. Armstrong Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-28

    1992. 1-15 THE STUDY OF GAS CROMATOGRAPHY : VOLATILE ORGANICS Esteban Arredondo Student Apprentice Volatile Organics Division Brackenridge High School...solve problems in the domain. Second, the system must be able to deduce a learner’s approximation of that knowledge. Third, the tutorial strategy must

  4. Effective thermal conductivity of metal and non-metal particulate composites with interfacial thermal resistance at high volume fraction of nano to macro-sized spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faroughi, Salah Aldin, E-mail: salah-faroughi@gatech.edu [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta 30332-0340 (United States); Huber, Christian [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta 30332-0340 (United States)

    2015-02-07

    In this study, we propose a theoretical model to compute the effective thermal conductivity of metal and dielectric spherical particle reinforced composites with interfacial thermal resistance. We consider a wide range of filler volume fraction with sizes ranging from nano- to macro-scale. The model, based on the differential effective medium theory, accounts for particle interactions through two sets of volume fraction corrections. The first correction accounts for a finite volume of composite and the second correction introduces a self-crowding factor that allows us to develop an accurate model for particle interaction even for high volume fraction of fillers. The model is examined to other published models, experiments, and numerical simulations for different types of composites. We observe an excellent agreement between the model and published datasets over a wide range of particle volume fractions and material properties of the composite constituents.

  5. Initiation of resuscitation with high tidal volumes causes cerebral hemodynamic disturbance, brain inflammation and injury in preterm lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme R Polglase

    Full Text Available AIMS: Preterm infants can be inadvertently exposed to high tidal volumes (V(T in the delivery room, causing lung inflammation and injury, but little is known about their effects on the brain. The aim of this study was to compare an initial 15 min of high V(T resuscitation strategy to a less injurious resuscitation strategy on cerebral haemodynamics, inflammation and injury. METHODS: Preterm lambs at 126 d gestation were surgically instrumented prior to receiving resuscitation with either: 1 High V(T targeting 10-12 mL/kg for the first 15 min (n = 6 or 2 a protective resuscitation strategy (Prot V(T, consisting of prophylactic surfactant, a 20 s sustained inflation and a lower initial V(T (7 mL/kg; n = 6. Both groups were subsequently ventilated with a V(T 7 mL/kg. Blood gases, arterial pressures and carotid blood flows were recorded. Cerebral blood volume and oxygenation were assessed using near infrared spectroscopy. The brain was collected for biochemical and histologic assessment of inflammation, injury, vascular extravasation, hemorrhage and oxidative injury. Unventilated controls (UVC; n = 6 were used for comparison. RESULTS: High V(T lambs had worse oxygenation and required greater ventilatory support than Prot V(T lambs. High V(T resulted in cerebral haemodynamic instability during the initial 15 min, adverse cerebral tissue oxygenation index and cerebral vasoparalysis. While both resuscitation strategies increased lung and brain inflammation and oxidative stress, High V(T resuscitation significantly amplified the effect (p = 0.014 and p<0.001. Vascular extravasation was evident in the brains of 60% of High V(T lambs, but not in UVC or Prot V(T lambs. CONCLUSION: High V(T resulted in greater cerebral haemodynamic instability, increased brain inflammation, oxidative stress and vascular extravasation than a Prot V(T strategy. The initiation of resuscitation targeting Prot V(T may reduce the severity of brain injury in preterm neonates.

  6. Estimating subsurface water volumes and transit times in Hokkaido river catchments, Japan, using high-accuracy tritium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusyev, Maksym; Yamazaki, Yusuke; Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike; Kashiwaya, Kazuhisa; Hirai, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Daisuke; Sawano, Hisaya

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate subsurface water transit times and volumes in headwater catchments of Hokkaido, Japan, using the New Zealand high-accuracy tritium analysis technique. Transit time provides insights into the subsurface water storage and therefore provides a robust and quick approach to quantifying the subsurface groundwater volume. Our method is based on tritium measurements in river water. Tritium is a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years, and is inert in the subsurface after the water enters the groundwater system. Therefore, tritium is ideally suited for characterization of the catchment's responses and can provide information on mean water transit times up to 200 years. Only in recent years has it become possible to use tritium for dating of stream and river water, due to the fading impact of the bomb-tritium from thermo-nuclear weapons testing, and due to improved measurement accuracy for the extremely low natural tritium concentrations. Transit time of the water discharge is one of the most crucial parameters for understanding the response of catchments and estimating subsurface water volume. While many tritium transit time studies have been conducted in New Zealand, only a limited number of tritium studies have been conducted in Japan. In addition, the meteorological, orographic and geological conditions of Hokkaido Island are similar to those in parts of New Zealand, allowing for comparison between these regions. In 2014, three field trips were conducted in Hokkaido in June, July and October to sample river water at river gauging stations operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). These stations have altitudes between 36 m and 860 m MSL and drainage areas between 45 and 377 km2. Each sampled point is located upstream of MLIT dams, with hourly measurements of precipitation and river water levels enabling us to distinguish between the snow melt and baseflow contributions

  7. Comparative study of bulk metallic glass composites with high-volume-fractioned dendritic and spherical b. c. c. phase precipitates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-yuan Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A dendritic β-phase reinforced bulk metallic glass (BMG composite named as D2 was prepared by rapid quenching of a homogenous Zr60Ti14.67Nb5.33Cu5.56Ni4.44Be10 melt, and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM observation and room-temperature compression test. The microstructure and mechanical properties were compared with those of the spherical β-phase reinforced composite named as composite S2. It was found that the composite D2 contains β-phase dendrites up to 56% in volume-fraction, and exhibits a ductile compressive behavior with plastic strain of 12.7%. As the high-volume-fractioned β-phase dendrites transferred to coarse spherical particles of about 20 μm in diameter in the composite S2, a much improved plastic strain up to 20.4% can be achieved. Micrographs of the fractured samples reveal different interaction modes of the propagating shear bands with the dendritic and spherical β phase inclusions, resulting in different shear strains in the composite samples. The matrix of composite S2 undergoes a significantly larger shear strain than that of the composite D2 before ultimate failure, which is thought to be mainly responsible for the greatly increased global plastic strain of the S2 relative to D2.

  8. High-resolution dynamic angiography using flat-panel volume CT: feasibility demonstration for neuro and lower limb vascular applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehndiratta, Amit [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); University of Oxford, Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Keble College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and All India Institute of Medical Science, Centre for Biomedical Engineering, New Delhi (India); Rabinov, James D. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Interventional Neuroradiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Grasruck, Michael [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Liao, Eric C. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Center for Regenerative Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Crandell, David [Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States); Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    This paper evaluates a prototype flat-panel volume CT (fpVCT) for dynamic in vivo imaging in a variety of neurovascular and lower limb applications. Dynamic CTA was performed on 12 patients (neuro = 8, lower limb = 4) using an fpVCT with 120 kVp, 50 mA, rotation time varying from 8 to 19 s, and field of view of 25 x 25 x 18 cm{sup 3}. Four-dimensional data sets (i.e. 3D images over time) were reconstructed and reviewed. Dynamic CTA demonstrated sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to elucidate first-pass and recirculation dynamics of contrast bolus through neurovasclar pathologies and phasic blood flow though lower-limb vasculature and grafts. The high spatial resolution of fpVCT resulted in reduced partial volume and metal beam-hardening artefacts. This facilitated assessment of vascular lumen in the presence of calcified plaque and evaluation of fractures, especially in the presence of fixation hardware. Evaluation of arteriovenous malformation using dynamic fpVCT angiography was of limited utility. Dynamic CTA using fpVCT can visualize time-varying phenomena in neuro and lower limb vascular applications and has sufficient diagnostic imaging quality to evaluate a number of pathologies affecting these regions. (orig.)

  9. The LLNL High Accuracy Volume Renderer for Unstructured Data: Capabilities, Current Limits, and Potential for ASCI/VIEWS Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P L; Max, N L

    2001-06-04

    This report describes a volume rendering system for unstructured data, especially finite element data, that creates images with very high accuracy. The system will currently handle meshes whose cells are either linear or quadratic tetrahedra, or meshes with mixed cell types: tetrahedra, bricks, prisms, and pyramids. The cells may have nonplanar facets. Whenever possible, exact mathematical solutions for the radiance integrals and for interpolation are used. Accurate semitransparent shaded isosurfaces may be embedded in the volume rendering. For very small cells, subpixel accumulation by splatting is used to avoid sampling error. A new exact and efficient visibility ordering algorithm is described. The most accurate images are generated in software, however, more efficient algorithms utilizing graphics hardware may also be selected. The report describes the parallelization of the system for a distributed-shared memory multiprocessor machine, and concludes by discussing the system's limits, desirable future work, and ways to extend the system so as to be compatible with projected ASCI/VIEWS architectures.

  10. Laser-written binary OMOG photomasks for high-volume non-critical 193-nm photolithographic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Rémi; Gopalakrishnan, Selvi; Mazur, Martin; Öner, Nevzat; Mühle, Sven; Seltmann, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Photomasks are key elements of photolithographic processes, implying that their degradation must be reliably monitored and strongly mitigated. Indeed, the photo-induced oxidation of Cr in Cr On Glass (COG) photomasks and the concomitant electrostatic-field migration present in high-volume production using 193-nm photolithographic scanners severely deteriorate the pattern transfer quality, therefore limiting the lifetime of these reticles. To moderate this effect, Opaque MoSi On Glass (OMOG) photomasks, significantly less prone to such degradation, are currently being massively used in leading-edge microfabrication flows. The type of mask fabrication process normally used involving ebeam writing is however not adapted for non-critical photolithographic layers that do not yet benefit from its inherent performances but still suffer from its high cost and its long processing time. It is therefore proposed in this work to combine the simplicity of laser writing and the resistance of MoSi to degradation by using laser-written binary OMOG photomasks for the non-critical layers (e.g. ion-implantation) of a 28-nm production flow. To evaluate one of this new reticle, its pattern transfer fidelity is compared to the one of a laser-written binary COG mask already qualified for production from a photolithographic quality perspective, both masks being treated using the same optical proximity correction (OPC) model. Dispersive and dissipative properties, critical dimension uniformity, pattern linearity and pattern proximity are directly measured on wafer level, subsequently revealing that both photomasks match in terms of OPC parameters. The utilized OPC model is moreover proven robust against the use of both types of masks, consequently making the conversion from COG to OMOG particularly simple. These experimental results therefore qualify the new mask fabrication type and pave the way for a major utilization in high-volume production.

  11. Review of current status of high flux heat transfer techniques. Volume I. Text + Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, W.H.; Gordon, H.S.; Lackner, H.; Mettling, J.R.; Miller, J.E.

    1980-09-01

    The scope of this work comprised two tasks. The first was to review high heat flux technology with consideration given to heat transfer panel configuration, diagnostics techniques and coolant supply. The second task was to prepare a report describing the findings of the review, to recommend the technology offering the least uncertainty for scale-up for the MFTF-B requirement and to recommend any new or perceived requirements for R and D effort.

  12. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME ONE: PRELIMINARY DESIGN REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuteck, Michael D. [Zimitar, Inc.; Jackson, Kevin L. [Zimitar, Inc.; Santos, Richard A. [Zimitar, Inc.; Chow, Ray [Zimitar, Inc.; Nordenholz, Thomas R. [The California Maritime Academy; Wamble, John Lee [Zimitar, Inc.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  13. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME TWO: INNOVATION & COST OF ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuteck, Michael D. [Zimitar, Inc.; Jackson, Kevin L. [Zimitar, Inc.; Santos, Richard A. [Zimitar, Inc.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  14. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME ZERO: OVERVIEW AND COMMERCIAL PATH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuteck, Michael D. [Zimitar, Inc.; Jackson, Kevin L. [Zimitar, Inc.; Santos, Richard A. [Zimitar, Inc.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  15. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME THREE: MARKET & TEAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuteck, Michael D. [Zimitar, Inc.; Jackson, Kevin L. [Zimitar, Inc.; Santos, Richard A. [Zimitar, Inc.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  16. High Frontier: The Journal for Space and Missile Professionals. Volume 7, Number 4, August 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    galvanized President Dwight D. Eisenhower and the Congress to give the US the ability to operate in and from space. On the civilian side, these...August 1958, after concluding the first ever submerged voyage under the North Pole ). U S N av y High Frontier 24 Initial Criteria and Screening...causing the project to revert to the heavier stainless steel gear system with wet lubricant used by prior projects. To keep the lubricant from

  17. High density matter in AGS, SPS and RHIC collisions: Proceedings. Volume 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This 1-day workshop focused on phenomenological models regarding the specific question of the maximum energy density achievable in collisions at AGS, SPS and RHIC. The idea was to have 30-minute (or less) presentations of each model--but not the model as a whole, rather then that strongly narrowed to the above physics question. The key topics addressed were: (1) to estimate the energy density in heavy-ion collisions within a model, and to discuss its physical implications; (2) to suggest experimental observables that may confirm the correctness of a model approach--with respect to the energy density estimate; (3) to compare with existing data from AGS and SPS heavy-ion collisions, and to give predictions for the future RHIC experiments. G. Ogilvie started up the workshop with a critical summary of experimental manifestations of high-density matter at the AGS, and gave a personal outlook on RHIC physics. R. Mattiello talked about his newly developed hadron cascade model for applications to AGS and SPS collisions. Next, D. Kharzeev gave a nice introduction of the Glauber approach to high-energy collisions and illustrated the predictive power of this approach in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS. It followed S. Vance with a presentation of the baryon-junction model to explain the observed baryon stopping phenomenon in collisions of heavy nuclei. S. Bass continued with a broad perspective of the UrQMD model, and provided insight into the details of the microscopic dynamical features of nuclear collisions at high energy. J. Sandweiss and J. Kapusta addressed the interesting aspect of photon production in peripherical nuclear collisions due to intense electromagnetic bremstrahlung by the highly charged, fast moving ions. Finally, H. Sorge closed up the one-day workshop with a presentation of his recent work with the RQMD model. This report consists of a summary and vugraphs of the presentations.

  18. High-Performance Solid-State and Fiber Lasers Controlled by Volume Bragg Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    poral shaping of laser pulses, integration of different laser components in the same material and fabrica - tion of monolithic solid state lasers...shaping of laser pulses, integration of different laser components in the same material and fabrica - tion of monolithic solid state lasers; and...same material and fabrica - tion of monolithic solid state lasers; and passive and active coherent combining along with high density spectral

  19. High brightness sub-nanosecond Q-switched laser using volume Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian M.; Hale, Evan; Venus, George; Ott, Daniel; Divliansky, Ivan; Glebov, Leonid

    2016-03-01

    The design of Q-switched lasers capable of producing pulse widths of 100's of picoseconds necessitates the cavity length be shorter than a few centimeters. Increasing the amount of energy extracted per pulse requires increasing the mode area of the resonator that for the same cavity length causes exciting higher order transverse modes and decreasing the brightness of the output radiation. To suppress the higher order modes of these multimode resonators while maintaining the compact cavity requires the use of intra-cavity angular filters. A novel Q-switched laser design is presented using transmitting Bragg gratings (TBGs) as angular filters to suppress the higher order transverse modes. The laser consists of a 5 mm thick slab of Nd:YAG, a 3 mm thick slab of Cr:YAG with a 20% transmission, one TBG aligned to suppress the higher order modes along the x-axis, and a 40% output coupler. The gratings are recorded in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass, which has a high damage threshold that can withstand both the high peak powers and high average powers present within the resonator. Using a 4.1 mrad TBG in a 10.8 mm long resonator with an 800μm x 400 μm pump beam, a nearly diffraction limited beam quality of M2 = 1.3 is obtained in a 0.76 mJ pulse with a pulse width of 614 ps.

  20. Research on producing high quality diffractive optical elements in volume at a low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschner, Walter

    1997-11-01

    Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) can be utilized in a variety of possible applications in modern optical, as well as optoelectronic systems. The current roadblock for application of DOEs in consumer products is not the feasibility of the approach, as numerous applications have been successfully demonstrated. In order for the breakthrough to occur in industry, it is important to determine a convenient and cost-effective method for manufacturing DOEs. The industry will improve the design of their legacy systems and start including DOEs only when the performance improvement (which the utilization of DOEs achieves), can be purchased with a minimal amount of additional capital investment and cost-per-part. Therefore, the focus of this dissertation was to find a cost-effective method of fabricating large quantities of DOEs with currently available fabrication tools. Direct-write approaches were investigated to fabricate high-quality masters for a subsequent replication procedure based upon molding or casting. Electron-Beam Direct-Write was carried-out in a positive Novolac-based photo-resist which provides dry etch resistivity. Another focus of this development was to find a way to minimize Electron-Beam writing time for a given element. Proximity effect characterization and compensation has been carried-out in order to increase the fidelity of the pattern reproduction. A dry-etching procedure has been developed in order to transfer resist profiles into the substrate material. During this transfer step, the etch rates of resist and substrate material can be controlled; this in turn allows a choice of final feature depth in the substrate material (depending on refractive index and wavelength in use). Two Gray-Scale masking approaches were developed to allow the cost-effective mass fabrication of DOEs in a single optical exposure step. Thin film evaporation of Inconel achieves high-quality masks at a high price. High Energy Beam Sensitive Glass, the second mask material

  1. High Frontier: The Journal for Space and Missile Professionals. Volume 7, Number 1, November 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    that keep senior leaders across the government awake at night—taking a cue from William Shakespeare to “let slip the dogs of war” on today’s...technologyhorizons. asp. 7 Michael Macrone, “The dogs of war,” Brush Up Your Shakespeare , Cader Company, 1990, eNotes.com. 2007, 17 August 2010, http://www...enotes.com/ shakespeare -quotes/dogs-war. 8 Lt Gen Larry D. James, “Schriever V Wargame: The Boundaries of Space and Cyberspace,” High Frontier 5, no. 4

  2. Synthesis gas regeneration electrotechnology using volume high-voltage pulsed discharges: corona and barrier ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Boyko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Factory testing of a created high-voltage complex (plant has been conducted. The complex consists of two pulse generators with the repetition rate of up to 50,000 pulses per second and load reactors with pulsed discharges - corona and barrier ones. Transistor (IGBT keys are used as energy switches. The efficient mode of coke gas methane conversion (steam reforming to syngas has been obtained with application of the complex created. A unidirectional action of the pulsed discharges, the gas mixture temperature, and a nickel catalyst has reduced the specific energy consumption for synthesis gas regeneration during the conversion. A feasible mechanism of this conversion is described.

  3. Modular, High-Volume Fuel Cell Leak-Test Suite and Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru Chen; Ian Kaye

    2012-03-12

    Fuel cell stacks are typically hand-assembled and tested. As a result the manufacturing process is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The fluid leakage in fuel cell stacks may reduce fuel cell performance, damage fuel cell stack, or even cause fire and become a safety hazard. Leak check is a critical step in the fuel cell stack manufacturing. The fuel cell industry is in need of fuel cell leak-test processes and equipment that is automatic, robust, and high throughput. The equipment should reduce fuel cell manufacturing cost.

  4. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  5. USAF Summer Research Program - 1993 High School Apprenticeship Program Final Reports, Volume 15, Wright Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    North Jackson St. Vol-Page No: 16- 1 Tullahoma High School Tullahoma, TN 37388-0000 Bowlby , Andrea Laboratory: PL/GP Mudge Way Vol-Page No: 13- 1...product was printed out computers and I learned what having a full time job is and compiled in a binder. like. I also plotted several graphs for John ...Sikora Ray Fisher Scott Hamilton Larry Kretz Larry Marcum Doug Dolvin Ron Dittmer John Pappas Fred Hussong Joe Pokorski 17-14 THE EFFECTS OF MOISTURE ON

  6. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  7. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. PURPOSE: To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP...... with eccentric training in chronic AT seems more effective in reducing pain, improving activity level, and reducing tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity than eccentric training alone. HVI may be more effective in improving outcomes of chronic AT than PRP in the short term. Registration: NCT02417987......) injections improves outcomes in AT. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57). All participants performed eccentric training combined with either (1) one HVI...

  8. On-chip polarimetry for high-throughput screening of nanoliter and smaller sample volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhop, Darryl J. (Inventor); Dotson, Stephen (Inventor); Bachmann, Brian O. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A polarimetry technique for measuring optical activity that is particularly suited for high throughput screening employs a chip or substrate (22) having one or more microfluidic channels (26) formed therein. A polarized laser beam (14) is directed onto optically active samples that are disposed in the channels. The incident laser beam interacts with the optically active molecules in the sample, which slightly alter the polarization of the laser beam as it passes multiple times through the sample. Interference fringe patterns (28) are generated by the interaction of the laser beam with the sample and the channel walls. A photodetector (34) is positioned to receive the interference fringe patterns and generate an output signal that is input to a computer or other analyzer (38) for analyzing the signal and determining the rotation of plane polarized light by optically active material in the channel from polarization rotation calculations.

  9. Research and development of a high efficiency gas-fired water heater. Volume 2. Task reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilakis, A.D.; Pearson, J.F.; Gerstmann, J.

    1980-01-01

    Design and development of a cost-effective high efficiency gas-fired water heater to attain a service efficiency of 70% (including the effect of exfiltration) and a service efficiency of 78% (excluding exfiltration) for a 75 GPD draw at a 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, with a stored water to conditioned air temperature difference of 80/sup 0/F, are described in detail. Based on concept evaluation, a non-powered natural draft water heater was chosen as the most cost-effective design to develop. The projected installed cost is $374 compared to $200 for a conventional unit. When the project water heater is compared to a conventional unit, it has a payback of 3.7 years and life cycle savings of $350 to the consumer. A prototype water heater was designed, constructed, and tested. When operated with sealed combustion, the unit has a service efficiency of 66.4% (including the effect of exfiltration) below a burner input of 32,000 Btu/h. In the open combustion configuration, the unit operated at a measured efficiency of 66.4% Btu/h (excluding exfiltration). This compares with a service efficiency of 51.3% for a conventional water heater and 61% for a conventional high efficiency unit capable of meeting ASHRAE 90-75. Operational tests showed the unit performed well with no evidence of stacking or hot spots. It met or exceeded all capacity or usage tests specified in the program test plan and met all emission goals. Future work will concentrate on designing, building, and testing pre-production units. It is anticipated that both sealed combustion and open draft models will be pursued.

  10. High-volume extraction of nucleic acids by magnetic bead technology for ultrasensitive detection of bacteria in blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Melanie; Kleesiek, Knut; Dreier, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Nucleic acid isolation, the most technically demanding and laborious procedure performed in molecular diagnostics, harbors the potential for improvements in automation. A recent development is the use of magnetic beads covered with nucleic acid-binding matrices. We adapted this technology with a broad-range 23S rRNA real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay for fast and sensitive detection of bacterial contamination of blood products. We investigated different protocols for an automated high-volume extraction method based on magnetic-separation technology for the extraction of bacterial nucleic acids from platelet concentrates (PCs). We added 2 model bacteria, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli, to a single pool of apheresis-derived, single-donor platelets and assayed the PCs by real-time RT-PCR analysis with an improved primer-probe system and locked nucleic acid technology. Co-amplification of human beta(2)-microglobulin mRNA served as an internal control (IC). We used probit analysis to calculate the minimum concentration of bacteria that would be detected with 95% confidence. For automated magnetic bead-based extraction technology with the real-time RT-PCR, the 95% detection limit was 29 x 10(3) colony-forming units (CFU)/L for S. epidermidis and 22 x 10(3) CFU/L for E. coli. No false-positive results occurred, either due to nucleic acid contamination of reagents or externally during testing of 1030 PCs. High-volume nucleic acid extraction improved the detection limit of the assay. The improvement of the primer-probe system and the integration of an IC make the RT-PCR assay appropriate for bacteria screening of platelets.

  11. Randomized Controlled Trial of High-Volume Energy Drink Versus Caffeine Consumption on ECG and Hemodynamic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Emily A; Lacey, Carolyn S; Aaron, Melenie; Kolasa, Mark; Occiano, Andrew; Shah, Sachin A

    2017-04-26

    Caffeine in doses energy drinks. We evaluated the ECG and blood pressure (BP) effects of high-volume energy drink consumption compared with caffeine alone. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover study in 18 young, healthy volunteers. Participants consumed either 946 mL (32 ounces) of energy drink or caffeinated control drink, both of which contained 320 mg of caffeine, separated by a 6-day washout period. ECG, peripheral BP, and central BP measurements were obtained at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours post study drink consumption. The time-matched, baseline-adjusted changes were compared. The change in corrected QT interval from baseline in the energy drink arm was significantly higher than the caffeine arm at 2 hours (0.44±18.4 ms versus -10.4±14.8 ms, respectively; P=0.02). The QTc changes were not different at other time points. While both the energy drink and caffeine arms raised systolic BP in a similar fashion initially, the systolic BP was significantly higher at 6 hours when compared with the caffeine arm (4.72±4.67 mm Hg versus 0.83±6.09 mm Hg, respectively; P=0.01). Heart rate, diastolic BP, central systolic BP, and central diastolic BP showed no evidence of a difference between groups at any time point. Post energy drink, augmentation index was lower at 6 hours. The corrected QT interval and systolic BP were significantly higher post high-volume energy drink consumption when compared with caffeine alone. Larger clinical trials validating these findings and evaluation of noncaffeine ingredients within energy drinks are warranted. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02023723. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  12. SCIL nanoimprint solutions: high-volume soft NIL for wafer scale sub-10nm resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorkamp, R.; Verschuuren, M. A.; van Brakel, R.

    2016-10-01

    Nano-patterning materials and surfaces can add unique functionalities and properties which cannot be obtained in bulk or micro-structured materials. Examples range from hetro-epitaxy of semiconductor nano-wires to guiding cell expression and growth on medical implants. [1] Due to the cost and throughput requirements conventional nano-patterning techniques such as deep UV lithography (cost and flat substrate demands) and electron-beam lithography (cost, throughput) are not an option. Self-assembly techniques are being considered for IC manufacturing, but require nano-sized guiding patterns, which have to be fabricated in any case.[2] Additionally, the self-assembly process is highly sensitive to the environment and layer thickness, which is difficult to control on non-flat surfaces such as PV silicon wafers or III/V substrates. Laser interference lithography can achieve wafer scale periodic patterns, but is limited by the throughput due to intensity of the laser at the pinhole and only regular patterns are possible where the pattern fill fraction cannot be chosen freely due to the interference condition.[3] Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a promising technology for the cost effective fabrication of sub-micron and nano-patterns on large areas. The challenges for NIL are related to the technique being a contact method where a stamp which holds the patterns is required to be brought into intimate contact with the surface of the product. In NIL a strong distinction is made between the type of stamp used, either rigid or soft. Rigid stamps are made from patterned silicon, silica or plastic foils and are capable of sub-10nm resolution and wafer scale patterning. All these materials behave similar at the micro- to nm scale and require high pressures (5 - 50 Bar) to enable conformal contact to be made on wafer scales. Real world conditions such as substrate bow and particle contaminants complicate the use of rigid stamps for wafer scale areas, reducing stamp lifetime and

  13. Introduction of the Thin Prep Imaging System™ (TIS: experience in a high volume academic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivukula Mamatha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Since the introduction of the liquid-based ThinPrep testing in 1996, most cytology laboratories across the country have adopted the liquid-based cytology (LBC for Pap test screening. Subsequent to wide-spread adoption of the ThinPrep Pap test, the ThinPrep Imaging System (TIS Cytyc Corp, Marlborough, MA was introduced to improve the accuracy and efficiency of screening interpretation. We report our initial experience with the TIS at Magee Women's Hospital. We introduced the TIS in December 2004. Methods The imager assisted Pap test results over the first 12 months (December 2004 to December 2005 of implementation were reviewed and analyzed. Our implementation protocol included each cytotechnologist manually prescreening 200 negative slides to gain experience with the imager slides and serve as a quality check for the TIS. We re-screened 3400 slides (200 slides each for 17 cytotechnologists manually which were initially determined to be negative using the TIS. 104,457 Pap tests were imaged on the TIS. 95,899 manually screened Pap tests, 12 months prior to the introduction of the TIS (December 2003–November 2004 are taken as the historic control group for our study. Results The mean ASC-US rate employing the automated imager was 8.70% [9088/104,457]. The mean LSIL detection rate was 4.22% [4409/104,457]. The imager did not miss any detectible high-grade lesions during these months, with a HSIL (+ detection rate of 0.68% in comparison to 0.60% by manual screening confirmed by follow-up biopsies. The difference is statistically significant with a p value of 0.022. The definition of false negative rate for purposes of this study is calculated as the number of false negative cases identified out of number of negatives re-screened. The TIS false negative rate was estimated at 0.012% [4/3400]. Conclusion The overall performance of the TIS in our lab appears to be highly satisfactory in terms of improving sensitivity in screening

  14. High-level waste borosilicate glass a compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Current plans call for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to start up facilities for vitrification of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, in 1995; West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York, in 1996; and at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, after the year 2000. The product from these facilities will be canistered HLW borosilicate glass, which will be stored, transported, and eventually disposed of in a geologic repository. The behavior of this glass waste product, under the range of likely service conditions, is the subject of considerable scientific and public interest. Over the past few decades, a large body of scientific information on borosilicate waste glass has been generated worldwide. The intent of this document is to consolidate information pertaining to our current understanding of waste glass corrosion behavior and radionuclide release. The objective, scope, and organization of the document are discussed in Section 1.1, and an overview of borosilicate glass corrosion is provided in Section 1.2. The history of glass as a waste form and the international experience with waste glass are summarized in Sections 1.3 and 1.4, respectively.

  15. Effects of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Oscillated Volume during High-Frequency Chest Compression in Children with Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dosman, Cara F; Peter C Zuberbuhler; Tabk, Joan I; Jones, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and mean oscillated volume (Vosc) during high frequency chest compression (HFCC).DESIGN: A clinic-based prospective intervention study.SETTING: Pulmonary function laboratory, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.POPULATION: Nine children with cystic fibrosis with little or no obstructive airway disease who were selected from the outpatient Cystic Fibrosis and Pediatric Pul...

  16. Evaluation of methohexital as an alternative to propofol in a high volume outpatient pediatric sedation service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicholas E; Kelleman, Michael S; Simon, Harold K; Stockwell, Jana A; McCracken, Courtney; Mallory, Michael D; Kamat, Pradip P

    2017-08-01

    Propofol is a preferred agent for many pediatric sedation providers because of its rapid onset and short duration of action. It allows for quick turn around times and enhanced throughput. Occasionally, intravenous (IV) methohexital (MHX), an ultra-short acting barbiturate is utilized instead of propofol. Describe the experience with MHX in a primarily propofol driven outpatient sedation program and to see if it serves as an acceptable alternative when propofol is not the preferred pharmacologic option. Retrospective chart review from 2012 to 2015 of patients receiving IV MHX as their primary sedation agent. Data collected included demographics, reason for methohexital use, dosing, type of procedure, success rate, adverse events (AE), duration of the procedure, and time to discharge. Methohexital was used in 240 patient encounters. Median age was 4years (IQR 2-7), 71.8% were male, and 80.4% were ASA-PS I or II. Indications for MHX use: egg+soy/peanut allergy in 93 (38.8%) and mitochondrial disorder 9 (3.8%). Median induction bolus was 2.1mg/kg (IQR, 1.9-2.8), median maintenance infusion was 4.5mg/kg/h (IQR, 3.0-6.0). Hiccups 15 (6.3%), secretions requiring intervention 14 (5.8%), and cough 12 (5.0%) were the most commonly occurring minor AEs. Airway obstruction was seen in 28 (11.6%). Overall success rate was 94%. Median time to discharge after procedure completion was 40.5min (IQR 28-57). Methohexital can be used with a high success rate and AEs that are not inconsistent with propofol administration. Methohexital should be considered when propofol is not a preferred option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. HIIT enhances endurance performance and aerobic characteristics more than high-volume training in trained rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Chéilleachair, Niamh J; Harrison, Andrew J; Warrington, Giles D

    2016-07-20

    This study compared the effects of long slow distance training (LSD) with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in rowers. Nineteen well-trained rowers performed three tests before and after an 8-week training intervention: (1) 2000 m time trial; (2) seven-stage incremental step test to determine maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max), power output at [Formula: see text]O2max (W[Formula: see text]O2max), peak power output (PPO), rowing economy and blood lactate indices and (3) seven-stroke power-output test to determine maximal power output (Wmax) and force (Fmax). After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned either to a HIIT or LSD group. The LSD comprised 10 weekly aerobic sessions. The HIIT also comprised 10 weekly sessions: 8 aerobic and 2 HIIT. The HIIT sessions comprised 6-8 × 2.5 min intervals at 100% PPO with recovery time based on heart rate (HR) returning to 70% HRmax. Results demonstrated that the HIIT produced greater improvement in 2000 m time trial performance than the LSD (effect size (ES) = 0.25). Moreover, the HIIT produced greater improvements in [Formula: see text]O2max (ES = 0.95, P = 0.035) and power output at lactate threshold (WLT) (ES = 1.15, P = 0.008). Eight weeks of HIIT performed at 100% PPO is more effective than LSD in improving performance and aerobic characteristics in well-trained rowers.

  18. High-volume use of self-cementing spray dry absorber material for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Charles E.

    Spray dry absorber (SDA) material, or spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of energy generation by coal combustion and sulfur emissions controls. Like any resource, it ought to be used to its fullest potential offsetting as many of the negative environmental impacts of coal combustion as possible throughout its lifecycle. Its cementitious and pozzolanic properties suggest it be used to augment or replace another energy and emissions intensive product: Portland cement. There is excellent potential for spray dryer ash to be used beneficially in structural applications, which will offset CO2 emissions due to Portland cement production, divert landfill waste by further utilizing a plentiful coal combustion by-product, and create more durable and sustainable structures. The research into beneficial use applications for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and the material is highly underutilized. This dissertation explored a specific self-cementing spray dryer ash for use as a binder in structural materials. Strength and stiffness properties of hydrated spray dryer ash mortars were improved by chemical activation with Portland cement and reinforcement with polymer fibers from automobile tire recycling. Portland cement at additions of five percent of the cementitious material was found to function effectively as an activating agent for spray dryer ash and had a significant impact on the hardened properties. The recycled polymer fibers improved the ductility and toughness of the material in all cases and increased the compressive strength of weak matrix materials like the pure hydrated ash. The resulting hardened materials exhibited useful properties that were sufficient to suggest that they be used in structural applications such as concrete, masonry block, or as a hydraulic cement binder. While the long-term performance characteristics remain to be investigated, from an embodied-energy and carbon emissions standpoint the material investigated here is far superior to

  19. COLOR SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, INSTANTONS AND PARITY (NON?)-CONSERVATION AT HIGH BARYON DENSITY-VOLUME 5.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GYULASSY,M.

    1997-11-11

    This one day Riken BNL Research Center workshop was organized to follow-up on the rapidly developing theoretical work on color super-conductivity, instanton dynamics, and possible signatures of parity violation in strong interactions that was stimulated by the talk of Frank Wilczek during the Riken BNL September Symposium. The workshop was held on November 11, 1997 at the center with over 30 participants. The program consisted of four talks on theory in the morning followed by two talks in the afternoon by experimentalists and open discussion. Krishna Rajagopal (MIT) first reviewed the status of the chiral condensate calculations at high baryon density within the instanton model and the percolation transition at moderate densities restoring chiral symmetry. Mark Alford (Princeton) then discussed the nature of the novel color super-conducting diquark condensates. The main result was that the largest gap on the order of 100 MeV was found for the 0{sup +} condensate, with only a tiny gap << MeV for the other possible 1{sup +}. Thomas Schaefer (INT) gave a complete overview of the instanton effects on correlators and showed independent calculations in collaboration with Shuryak (SUNY) and Velkovsky (BNL) confirming the updated results of the Wilczek group (Princeton, MIT). Yang Pang (Columbia) addressed the general question of how breaking of discrete symmetries by any condensate with suitable quantum numbers could be searched for experimentally especially at the AGS through longitudinal A polarization measurements. Nicholas Samios (BNL) reviewed the history of measurements on {Lambda} polarization and suggested specific kinematical variables for such analysis. Brian Cole (Columbia) showed recent E910 measurements of {Lambda} production at the AGS in nuclear collisions and focused on the systematic biases that must be considered when looking for small symmetry breaking effects. Lively discussions led by Robert Jaffe (MIT) focused especially on speculations on the still

  20. THE HIGH VOLUME REUSE OF HYBRID BIOMASS ASH AS A PRIMARY BINDER IN CEMENTLESS MORTAR BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheah Chee Ban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High Calcium Wood Ash (HCWA and Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA are by-products from the wood biomass and coal energy production which are produced in large quantity with combined annual production of 500 million tonnes. This poses a serious problem for disposal of the waste material especially at places where land is scarce. The prescribed study was aimed to examine the mineralogical phases and their respective amount present in the industrial wastes which governs the hydration mechanism towards self-sustained solidification of the ashes when used in combination. Besides, the influence of various forming pressure and hydrothermal treatment temperature on mechanical strength performance of HCWA-PFA cementless mortar blocks was also examined. In the study, the mechanical strength of the HCWA-PFA cementless mortar block produced using various forming pressure and hydrothermal treatment temperature was assessed in terms of compressive strength and dynamic modulus. The results of the study are indicative that HCWA is rich in calcium oxide and potassium oxide content. This enables the hybridization of HCWA with the amorphous silica and alumina rich PFA to form a solid geopolymer binder matrix for fabrication of cementless mortar block. Throughout the study, dimensionally and mechanically stable HCWA-PFA geopolymer mortar blocks were successfully produced by press forming and hydrothermal treatment method. Based on statistical analysis, the hydrothermal treatment temperature has a statistically insignificant effect on the mechanical strength of the HCWA-PFA cementless mortar blocks. The dominant factor which governs the mechanical strength of the HCWA-PFA cementless mortar blocks was found to be the hydraulic forming pressure. Moreover, it was found that hybridized HCWA-PFA can be recycled as the sole binder for fabrication of cementless concrete block which is a useful construction material.

  1. A molecular dynamics study of ambient and high pressure phases of silica: Structure and enthalpy variation with molar volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajappa, Chitra; Sringeri, S. Bhuvaneshwari; Subramanian, Yashonath; Gopalakrishnan, J.

    2014-06-01

    Extensive molecular dynamics studies of 13 different silica polymorphs are reported in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble with the Parrinello-Rahman variable shape simulation cell. The van Beest-Kramer-van Santen (BKS) potential is shown to predict lattice parameters for most phases within 2%-3% accuracy, as well as the relative stabilities of different polymorphs in agreement with experiment. Enthalpies of high-density polymorphs - CaCl2-type, α-PbO2-type, and pyrite-type - for which no experimental data are available as yet, are predicted here. Further, the calculated enthalpies exhibit two distinct regimes as a function of molar volume—for low and medium-density polymorphs, it is almost independent of volume, while for high-pressure phases a steep dependence is seen. A detailed analysis indicates that the increased short-range contributions to enthalpy in the high-density phases arise not only from an increased coordination number of silicon but also shorter Si-O bond lengths. Our results indicate that amorphous phases of silica exhibit better optimization of short-range interactions than crystalline phases at the same density while the magnitude of Coulombic contributions is lower in the amorphous phase.

  2. Deflectometric analysis of high volume injection molds for production of occupational eye wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Alexis; Zelzer, Benedikt; Speich, Marco; Börret, Rainer; Langenbucher, Achim; Eppig, Timo

    2013-12-01

    Most of the protective eye wear devices currently on the market are manufactured on simple polycarbonate shields, produced by injection molding techniques. Despite high importance of optical quality, injection molds are rarely inspected for surface quality before or during the manufacturing process. Quality degradation is mainly monitored by optical testing of the molded parts. The purpose of this work was to validate a non-contact deflectometric measurement technique for surface and shape analysis of injection molds to facilitate deterministic surface quality control and to monitor minor conformity of the injection mold with the design data. The system is based on phase-measuring deflectometry with a operating measurement field of 80×80 mm(2) (±18° slope), a lateral resolution of 60μm and a local sensitivity of some nanometers. The calibration was tested with a calibration normal and a reference sphere. The results were crosschecked against a measurement of the same object with a tactile coordinate measuring machine. Eight injection molds for production of safety goggles with radii of +58mm (convex) and -60mm (concave) were measured in this study. The molds were separated into two groups (cavity 1 and 2 of the tool with different polishing techniques) and measured to test whether the measurement tool could extract differences. The analysis was performed on difference height between the measured surface and the spherical model. The device could derive the surface change due to polishing and discriminate between both polishing techniques, on the basis of the measured data. The concave nozzle sides of the first group (cavity 1) showed good shape conformity. In comparison, the nozzle sides of the second group (cavity 2) showed local deviations from design data up to 14.4μm. Local form variations of about 5μm occurred in the field of view. All convex ejector sides of both groups (cavity 1 and 2) showed rotational symmetric errors and the molds were measured in

  3. High-temperature, large-volume, lavalike ash-flow tuffs without calderas in southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, E.B.; McIntyre, David H.; Bennett, Earl H.

    1984-01-01

    Rhyolitic rocks were erupted from vents in and adjacent to the Owyhee Mountains and Owyhee Plateau of southwestern Idaho from 16 m.y. ago to about 10 m.y. ago. They were deposited on a highly irregular surface developed on a variety of basement rocks that include granitic rocks of Cretaceous age, quartz latite and rhyodacite tuffs and lava flows of Eocene age, andesitic and basaltic lava flows of Oligocene age, and latitic and basaltic lava flows of early Miocene age. The rhyolitic rocks are principally welded tuffs that, regardless of their source, have one feature in common-namely internal characteristics indicating en-masse, viscous lavalike flowage. The flowage features commonly include considerable thicknesses of flow breccia at the bases of various cooling units. On the basis of the tabular nature of the rhyolitic deposits, their broad areal extents, and the local preservation of pyroclastic textures at the bases, tops, and distal ends of some of the deposits, we have concluded that the rocks were emplaced as ash flows at extremely high temperatures and that they coalesced to liquids before final emplacement and cooling. Temperatures of l090?C and higher are indicated by iron-titanium oxide compositions. Rhyolites that are about 16 m.y. old are preserved mostly in the downdropped eastern and western flanks of the Silver City Range and they are inferred to have been erupted from the Silver City Range. They rarely contain more than about 2 percent phenocrysts that consist of quartz and subequal amounts of plagioclase and alkali feldspar; commonly, they contain biotite, and they are the only rhyolitic rocks in the area to do so. The several rhyolitic units that are 14 m.y. to about 10 m.y. old contain only pyroxene-principally ferriferous and intermediate pigeonites-as mafic constituents. The rhyolites of the Silver City Range comprise many cooling units, none of which can be traced for great distances. Rocks erupted from the Owyhee Plateau include two sequences

  4. High-volume hemofiltration reduces the expression of myocardial tumor necrosis factor-alpha in septic shock pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Zhang, Ping; Cheng, Xiuju; Chen, Jianghua

    2013-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in myocardium correlates with the severity of cardiac dysfunction in septic shock. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) on the expression of TNF-α in myocardium in septic shock pigs. Sixteen male Landrace pigs weighing 31 ± 5 kg were randomly assigned to control group (n = 4), septic shock group (n = 6), and HVHF group (septic shock + HVHF, n = 6). All animals were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. After baseline examinations, septic shock group and HVHF group underwent induction of peritonitis. One hour later, the animals in HVHF group received treatment with HVHF and the treatment was continued for 12 h. As the control of HVHF group, the animals in septic shock group received the same support but hemofiltration. Twelve hours after HVHF therapy, all the animals were sacrificed. TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) levels in both circulation and myocardium were measured. Compared with those of septic shock animals, the levels of cardiac output, stroke volume, and mean arterial pressure were better maintained in HVHF group. The expression of TNF-α in myocardium in HVHF group was lower than that in septic shock group (44.17 ± 18.70 vs. 92.50 ± 33.89 pg/mg protein, P = 0.015). The difference of TNF-α in circulation between HVHF group and septic shock group was no significance at different time. However, circulating NO in HVHF group was lower than that in septic shock group. These results suggest that HVHF improves hemodynamics and heart dysfunction in septic shock pigs, which may be attributed to reduction of TNF-α in myocardium but not in circulation.

  5. Preparation of cell blocks for lung cancer diagnosis and prediction: protocol and experience of a high-volume center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, Claudia A; Morresi-Hauf, Alicia; Schnabel, Philipp A; Eberhardt, Ralf; Herth, Felix J F; Warth, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive diagnostic techniques are increasingly being used to obtain specimens for pathological diagnosis and prediction. Referring to lung cancer, both endobronchial and endoesophageal ultrasound are used worldwide as diagnostic routine methods. Consequently, an increasing number of pathological samples are cytological and fewer are histological. On the other hand, the requirements for specific and sensitive tumor subtyping complemented by predictive analyses are steadily increasing and are an essential basis for evidence-based treatment decisions. In this article we focus on the cell block method as a helpful tool for diagnostic and predictive analyses in lung cancer and point out its advantages and disadvantages in comparison to conventional cytological and biopsy specimens. Furthermore, we retrospectively analyze the diagnostic results of the cell block method in a high-volume center over 5 years. The main advantages of cell blocks are the availability of established and validated protocols, archiving and the opportunity to have serial sections from the same specimens to provide or repeat molecular analyses. Actually, in case of tumor progression, even additional biomarkers can be tested using the original cell block when re-biopsies are not feasible. The cell block method should be considered as a reliable, complimentary approach to conventional cytological or biopsy procedures, which is helpful to fulfill the increasing requirements of high-quality diagnostics and prediction.

  6. Process Chain Modelling and Analysis for the High-Volume Production of Thermoplastic Composites with Embedded Piezoceramic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hufenbach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active composite structures based on thermoplastic matrix systems are highly suited to applications in lightweight structures ready for series production. The integration of additional functional components such as material-embedded piezoceramic actuators and sensors and an electronic network facilitates the targeted control and manipulation of structural behaviour. The current delay in the widespread application of such adaptive structures is primarily attributable to a lack of appropriate manufacturing technologies. It is against this backdrop that this paper contributes to the development of a novel manufacturing process chain characterized by robustness and efficiency and based on hot-pressing techniques tailored to specific materials and actuators. Special consideration is given to detailed process chain modelling and analysis focusing on interactions between technical and technological aspects. The development of a continuous process chain by means of the analysis of parameter influences is described. In conclusion, the use of parameter manipulation to successfully realize a unique manufacturing line designed for the high-volume production of adaptive thermoplastic composite structures is demonstrated.

  7. High Resolution 3-D Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Modeling in Lower Campbell River and Discovery Passage, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The 3-D unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM was used to simulate the flows in Discovery Passage including the adjoining Lower Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada. Challenges in the studies include the strong tidal currents (e.g., up to 7.8 m/s in Seymour Narrows and tailrace discharges, small-scale topographic features and steep bottom slopes, and stratification affected by the Campbell River freshwater discharges. Two applications of high resolution 3-D FVCOM modeling were conducted. One is for the Lower Campbell River extending upstream as far as the John Hart Hydroelectric dam. The horizontal resolution varies from 0.27 m to 32 m in the unstructured triangular mesh to resolve the tailrace flow. The bottom elevation decreases ~14 m within the distance of ~1.4 km along the river. This pioneering FVCOM river modeling demonstrated a very good performance in simulating the river flow structures. The second application is to compute ocean currents immediately above the seabed along the present underwater electrical cable crossing routes across Discovery Passage. Higher resolution was used near the bottom with inter-layer spacing ranging from 0.125 to 0.0005 of total water depth. The model behaves very well in simulating the strong tidal currents in the area at high resolution in both the horizontal and vertical. One year maximum near bottom tidal current along the routes was then analyzed using the model results.

  8. Quest to validate and define performance for the high volume metallic stator PCP at 250 degrees Celsius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, S.G. [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Klaczek, W.; Piers, K. [C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Seince, L. [PCM USA Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Jahn, S. [Kudu Industries, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    ConocoPhillips has been searching for a high volume artificial lift system that will reliably operate in a 250 degree Celsius downhole environment to meet the needs of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations. This paper described the complexity of building and operating a high temperature flow loop rated for 250 degrees Celsius. It also described the lessons learned while upgrading an existing flow loop, from the initial design, procurement and construction through to the final commissioning phases. The paper described the issues encountered with the first artificial lit system tested at 250 degrees Celsius. The system consisted of a metallic progressing cavity pump system rated for 6919 barrels per day at 500 rotations per minute. The final upgraded capabilities of the flow loop were also listed. Images of the upgraded flow loop were also provided. It was concluded that the test program not only served to validate and define the pump's performance, but also provided valuable lessons on the completion configuration and operational procedures. Testing new artificial lift technology in a controlled flow loop, rather than in field installation, provided the opportunity to test these pumping systems under a large variety of conditions to truly understand the performance and limitations of each pump. 3 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of high volume fraction Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite powders by high-energy milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, B. [Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2450 (United States); Suryanarayana, C. [Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2450 (United States)]. E-mail: csuryana@mail.ucf.edu; An, L. [Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2450 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2455 (United States); Vaidyanathan, R. [Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2450 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2455 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} metal matrix composite (MMC) powders with volume fractions of 20, 30, and 50% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were synthesized by high-energy milling of the blended component powders. The particle sizes of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} studied were 50 nm, 150 nm, and 5 {mu}m. A uniform distribution of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reinforcement in the Al matrix was successfully obtained after milling the powders for a period of 20 h at a ball-to-powder ratio of 10:1 in a SPEX mill. The uniform distribution of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the Al matrix was confirmed by characterizing these nanocomposite powders by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray mapping, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques.

  10. Acute Response of Circulating Vascular Regulating MicroRNAs during and after High-Intensity and High-Volume Cycling in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Yvonne; Wehmeier, Udo F.; Wahl, Patrick; Mester, Joachim; Hilberg, Thomas; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyze the response of vascular circulating microRNAs (miRNAs; miR-16, miR-21, miR-126) and the VEGF mRNA following an acute bout of HIIT and HVT in children. Methods:Twelve healthy competitive young male cyclists (14.4 ± 0.8 years; 57.9 ± 9.4 ml·min−1·kg−1 peak oxygen uptake) performed one session of high intensity 4 × 4 min intervals (HIIT) at 90–95% peak power output (PPO), each interval separated by 3 min of active recovery, and one high volume session (HVT) consisting of a constant load exercise for 90 min at 60% PPO. Capillary blood from the earlobe was collected under resting conditions, during exercise (d1 = 20 min, d2 = 30 min, d3 = 60 min), and 0, 30, 60, 180 min after the exercise to determine miR-16, -21, -126, and VEGF mRNA. Results: HVT significantly increased miR-16 and miR-126 during and after the exercise compared to pre-values, whereas HIIT showed no significant influence on the miRNAs compared to pre-values. VEGF mRNA significantly increased during and after HIIT (d1, 30′, 60′, 180′) and HVT (d3, 0′, 60′). Conclusion: Results of the present investigation suggest a volume dependent exercise regulation of vascular regulating miRNAs (miR-16, miR-21, miR-126) in children. In line with previous data, our data show that acute exercise can alter circulating miRNAs profiles that might be used as novel biomarkers to monitor acute and chronic changes due to exercise in various tissues. PMID:27014090

  11. Acute response of circulating vascular regulating microRNAs during and after high-intensity and high-volume cycling in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne eKilian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyze the response of vascular circulating microRNAs (miRNAs; miR-16, miR-21, miR-126 and the VEGF mRNA following an acute bout of HIIT and HVT in children. Methods: Twelve healthy competitive young male cyclists (14.4 ± 0.8 yrs; 57.9 ± 9.4 ml·min-1·kg-1 peak oxygen uptake performed one session of high intensity 4x4 min intervals (HIIT at 90-95% peak power output, each interval separated by 3 min of active recovery, and one high volume session (HVT consisting of a constant load exercise for 90 min at 60% peak power output. Capillary blood from the earlobe was collected under resting conditions, during exercise (d1 = 20 min, d2 = 30 min, d3 = 60 min, and 0, 30, 60, 180 min after the exercise to determine miR-16, -21, -126 and VEGF mRNA.Results: HVT significantly increased miR-16 and miR-126 during and after the exercise compared to pre values, whereas HIIT showed no significant influence on the miRNAs compared to pre values. VEGF mRNA significantly increased during and after HIIT (d1, 30`, 60`, 180` and HVT (d3, 0`, 60`. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation suggest a volume dependent exercise regulation of vascular regulating miRNAs (miR-16, miR-21, miR-126 in children. In line with previous data, our data show that acute exercise can alter circulating miRNAs profiles that might be used as novel biomarkers to monitor acute and chronic changes due to exercise in various tissues.

  12. Computer program for analysis of high speed, single row, angular contact, spherical roller bearing, SASHBEAN. Volume 1: User's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1993-09-01

    The computer program SASHBEAN (Sikorsky Aircraft Spherical Roller High Speed Bearing Analysis) analyzes and predicts the operating characteristics of a Single Row, Angular Contact, Spherical Roller Bearing (SRACSRB). The program runs on an IBM or IBM compatible personal computer, and for a given set of input data analyzes the bearing design for it's ring deflections (axial and radial), roller deflections, contact areas and stresses, induced axial thrust, rolling element and cage rotation speeds, lubrication parameters, fatigue lives, and amount of heat generated in the bearing. The dynamic loading of rollers due to centrifugal forces and gyroscopic moments, which becomes quite significant at high speeds, is fully considered in this analysis. For a known application and it's parameters, the program is also capable of performing steady-state and time-transient thermal analyses of the bearing system. The steady-state analysis capability allows the user to estimate the expected steady-state temperature map in and around the bearing under normal operating conditions. On the other hand, the transient analysis feature provides the user a means to simulate the 'lost lubricant' condition and predict a time-temperature history of various critical points in the system. The bearing's 'time-to-failure' estimate may also be made from this (transient) analysis by considering the bearing as failed when a certain temperature limit is reached in the bearing components. The program is fully interactive and allows the user to get started and access most of its features with a minimal of training. For the most part, the program is menu driven, and adequate help messages were provided to guide a new user through various menu options and data input screens. All input data, both for mechanical and thermal analyses, are read through graphical input screens, thereby eliminating any need of a separate text editor/word processor to edit/create data files. Provision is also available to select

  13. Ink-Jet Printing of Gluconobacter oxydans: Micropatterned Coatings As High Surface-to-Volume Ratio Bio-Reactive Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Fidaleo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We formulated a latex ink for ink-jet deposition of viable Gram-negative bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans as a model adhesive, thin, highly bio-reactive microstructured microbial coating. Control of G. oxydans latex-based ink viscosity by dilution with water allowed ink-jet piezoelectric droplet deposition of 30 × 30 arrays of two or three droplets/dot microstructures on a polyester substrate. Profilometry analysis was used to study the resulting dry microstructures. Arrays of individual dots with base diameters of ~233–241 µm were obtained. Ring-shaped dots with dot edges higher than the center, 2.2 and 0.9 µm respectively, were obtained when a one-to-four diluted ink was used. With a less diluted ink (one-to-two diluted, the microstructure became more uniform with an average height of 3.0 µm, but the ink-jet printability was more difficult. Reactivity of the ink-jet deposited microstructures following drying and rehydration was studied in a non-growth medium by oxidation of 50 g/L D-sorbitol to L-sorbose, and a high dot volumetric reaction rate was measured (~435 g·L−1·h−1. These results indicate that latex ink microstructures generated by ink-jet printing may hold considerable potential for 3D fabrication of high surface-to-volume ratio biocoatings for use as microbial biosensors with the aim of coating microbes as reactive biosensors on electronic devices and circuit chips.

  14. To what extent do long-duration high-volume dam releases influence river–aquifer interactions? A case study in New South Wales, Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Graham, Peter W.

    2014-11-20

    Long-duration high-volume dam releases are unique anthropogenic events with no naturally occurring equivalents. The impact from such dam releases on a downstream Quaternary alluvial aquifer in New South Wales, Australia, is assessed. It is observed that long-duration (>26 days), high-volume dam releases (>8,000 ML/day average) result in significant variations in river–aquifer interactions. These variations include a flux from the river to the aquifer up to 6.3 m3/day per metre of bank (at distances of up to 330 m from the river bank), increased extent and volume of recharge/bank storage, and a long-term (>100 days) reversal of river–aquifer fluxes. In contrast, during lower-volume events (<2,000 ML/day average) the flux was directed from the aquifer to the river at rates of up to 1.6 m3/day per metre of bank. A groundwater-head prediction model was constructed and river–aquifer fluxes were calculated; however, predicted fluxes from this method showed poor correlation to fluxes calculated using actual groundwater heads. Long-duration high-volume dam releases have the potential to skew estimates of long-term aquifer resources and detrimentally alter the chemical and physical properties of phreatic aquifers flanking the river. The findings have ramifications for improved integrated management of dam systems and downstream aquifers.

  15. Effect of copolymer latexes on physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume fly ash as a replacement material of cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negim, El-Sayed; Kozhamzharova, Latipa; Gulzhakhan, Yeligbayeva; Khatib, Jamal; Bekbayeva, Lyazzat; Williams, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume of fly ash (FA) as partial replacement of cement in presence of copolymer latexes. Portland cement (PC) was partially replaced with 0, 10, 20, 30 50, and 60% FA. Copolymer latexes were used based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA) and 2-hydroxymethylacrylate (2-HEMA). Testing included workability, setting time, absorption, chemically combined water content, compressive strength, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of FA to mortar as replacement of PC affected the physicomechanical properties of mortar. As the content of FA in the concrete increased, the setting times (initial and final) were elongated. The results obtained at 28 days of curing indicate that the maximum properties of mortar occur at around 30% FA. Beyond 30% FA the properties of mortar reduce and at 60% FA the properties of mortar are lower than those of the reference mortar without FA. However, the addition of polymer latexes into mortar containing FA improved most of the physicomechanical properties of mortar at all curing times. Compressive strength, combined water, and workability of mortar containing FA premixed with latexes are higher than those of mortar containing FA without latexes.

  16. Effect of Copolymer Latexes on Physicomechanical Properties of Mortar Containing High Volume Fly Ash as a Replacement Material of Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Negim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume of fly ash (FA as partial replacement of cement in presence of copolymer latexes. Portland cement (PC was partially replaced with 0, 10, 20, 30 50, and 60% FA. Copolymer latexes were used based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA and 2-hydroxymethylacrylate (2-HEMA. Testing included workability, setting time, absorption, chemically combined water content, compressive strength, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The addition of FA to mortar as replacement of PC affected the physicomechanical properties of mortar. As the content of FA in the concrete increased, the setting times (initial and final were elongated. The results obtained at 28 days of curing indicate that the maximum properties of mortar occur at around 30% FA. Beyond 30% FA the properties of mortar reduce and at 60% FA the properties of mortar are lower than those of the reference mortar without FA. However, the addition of polymer latexes into mortar containing FA improved most of the physicomechanical properties of mortar at all curing times. Compressive strength, combined water, and workability of mortar containing FA premixed with latexes are higher than those of mortar containing FA without latexes.

  17. High volume air sampler for environmental nanoparticles using a sharp-cut inertial filter combined with an impactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Tianren; Takahashi, Hideaki; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Toriba, Akira; Ikeda, Takuji; Otani, Yoshio; Furuuchi, Masami

    2017-02-01

    A multi-nozzle layered mesh inertial filter, developed by the authors based on inertial filter technology for separating ultrafine particles (UFPs) at a moderate pressure drop, was investigated in an attempt to improve the steepness of the separation efficiency curve by combining an inertial filter and an impactor. In this system, the separation curves overlap each other, while maintaining about a 100 nm difference in cutoff size d p50. Such a combination, which we refer to as a ‘hybrid inertial filter’, was validated for a single nozzle geometry. Using a multi nozzle geometry, it was scaled up to a high volume air sampling flow rate of 400 l min-1 at a pressure drop of  filter using multi-nozzle geometry was confirmed. The features of the hybrid inertial filter included the suppression of the bouncing of particles with sizes  >300 nm, a steeper collection efficiency curve and less pressure drop than those of a previous type of inertial filter. The ambient PM0.13 evaluated for the present unit was found to be in good agreement with values obtained for 2 different types of cascade air samplers.

  18. Tritium Separation from High Volume Dilute Aqueous Streams- Milestone Report for M3FT-15OR0302092

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nair, S. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of molecular sieve zeolite membranes to separate and concentrate tritiated water (HTO) from dilute HTO-bearing aqueous streams. Several silico alumino phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve zeolite membranes were synthesized and characterized with gas and vapor permeation measurements. The pervaporation process performance was evaluated for the separation and concentration of tritiated water. Experiments were performed over a range of tritiated water concentration covering the range of concentration anticipated in nuclear fuel processing where potentially both acid and water streams are recycled. The permeate was recovered under vacuum. The tritium concentration ranged from 0.5 to 1 mCi/mL which is about 0.1 mg/L or 0.1 ppm. The HTO concentration was three orders of magnitude lower than experiments performed with simulated feed containing HDO (>100 ppm) using deuterated water where high separation factors (>10) were obtained using SAPO membranes. Separation factor calculated from the measured tritium concentrations ranged from 0.83-0.98. Although the membrane performance characterization results were lower than expected, they can be explained on the basis of low feed volume and three orders of magnitude lower HTO concentration compared to HDO concentration in deuterated water. We have identified several new approaches, such as tuning the diffusion coefficient of HTO, that may help achieve preferential transport of tritium (HTO) resulting in a substantially more concentrated permeate.

  19. Sustained regeneration of high-volume adipose tissue for breast reconstruction using computer aided design and biomanufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhaya, Mohit Prashant; Melchels, Ferry Petrus Wilhelmus; Holzapfel, Boris Michael; Baldwin, Jeremy Grant; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner

    2015-06-01

    Adipose tissue engineering offers a promising alternative to the current breast reconstruction options. Here we investigated patient-specific breast scaffolds fabricated from poly(d,l)-lactide polymer with pore sizes>1 mm for their potential in long-term sustained regeneration of high volume adipose tissue. An optimised scaffold geometry was modelled in silico via a laser scanning data set from a patient who underwent breast reconstruction surgery. After the design process scaffolds were fabricated using an additive manufacturing technology termed fused deposition modelling. Breast-shaped scaffolds were seeded with human umbilical cord perivascular cells and cultured under static conditions for 4 weeks and subsequently 2 weeks in a biaxial rotating bioreactor. These in vitro engineered constructs were then seeded with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and implanted subcutaneously into athymic nude rats for 24 weeks. Angiogenesis and adipose tissue formation were observed throughout all constructs at all timepoints. The percentage of adipose tissue compared to overall tissue area increased from 37.17% to 62.30% between week 5 and week 15 (pbreast reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pituitary gland volume in patients with schizophrenia, subjects at ultra high-risk of developing psychosis and healthy controls: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholm, Dorte; Krogh, Jesper; Mondelli, Valeria; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Nordentoft, Merete

    2013-11-01

    A larger pituitary size is thought to reflect a greater activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may be related to an increase in the number and size of corticotroph cells. Some studies, but not all, indicate that pituitary volume increases before or at the onset of psychosis. There is a need for at critical appraisal of the literature on this topic accompanied by a meta-analytical evaluation of the data. We included studies comparing the volume of the pituitary gland in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia, first episode of psychosis (FEP), schizotypal disorder or ultra high-risk (UHR) subjects. We defined three groups of subjects for the analyses: healthy controls; UHR and schizotypal patients; and patients diagnosed with first episode of psychosis, schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. We found a trend of a larger pituitary volume in both UHR subject who had transition to psychosis (p=0.05) and in FEP subjects (p=0.09) compared to healthy controls. There was no difference in pituitary volume between patients with schizophrenia combined with FEP versus healthy controls (p=0.52) or between UHR (with and without transition) and healthy controls (p=0.24). In a regression analysis, we demonstrated that the number of subjects receiving antipsychotics and pituitary volume were positively correlated. As previously reported in other samples, gender also had an impact on pituitary volume with females presenting with a larger mean volume. Results from this meta-analysis suggest that the pituitary gland could be increasing before the onset of psychosis. Both gender and use of antipsychotics have a major impact on the pituitary volume. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Derivation and Validation of Supraglacial Lake Volumes on the Greenland Ice Sheet from High-Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavi, Mahsa S.; Abdalati, Waleed; Pope, Allen; Scambos, Ted; Tedesco, Marco; MacFerrin, Michael; Grigsby, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Supraglacial meltwater lakes on the western Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) are critical components of its surface hydrology and surface mass balance, and they also affect its ice dynamics. Estimates of lake volume, however, are limited by the availability of in situ measurements of water depth,which in turn also limits the assessment of remotely sensed lake depths. Given the logistical difficulty of collecting physical bathymetric measurements, methods relying upon in situ data are generally restricted to small areas and thus their application to largescale studies is difficult to validate. Here, we produce and validate spaceborne estimates of supraglacial lake volumes across a relatively large area (1250 km(exp 2) of west Greenland's ablation region using data acquired by the WorldView-2 (WV-2) sensor, making use of both its stereo-imaging capability and its meter-scale resolution. We employ spectrally-derived depth retrieval models, which are either based on absolute reflectance (single-channel model) or a ratio of spectral reflectances in two bands (dual-channel model). These models are calibrated by usingWV-2multispectral imagery acquired early in the melt season and depth measurements from a high resolutionWV-2 DEM over the same lake basins when devoid of water. The calibrated models are then validated with different lakes in the area, for which we determined depths. Lake depth estimates based on measurements recorded in WV-2's blue (450-510 nm), green (510-580 nm), and red (630-690 nm) bands and dual-channel modes (blue/green, blue/red, and green/red band combinations) had near-zero bias, an average root-mean-squared deviation of 0.4 m (relative to post-drainage DEMs), and an average volumetric error of b1%. The approach outlined in this study - image-based calibration of depth-retrieval models - significantly improves spaceborne supraglacial bathymetry retrievals, which are completely independent from in situ measurements.

  2. Derivation and Validation of Supraglacial Lake Volumes on the Greenland Ice Sheet from High-Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavi, Mahsa S.; Abdalati, Waleed; Pope, Allen; Scambos, Ted; Tedesco, Marco; MacFerrin, Michael; Grigsby, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Supraglacial meltwater lakes on the western Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) are critical components of its surface hydrology and surface mass balance, and they also affect its ice dynamics. Estimates of lake volume, however, are limited by the availability of in situ measurements of water depth,which in turn also limits the assessment of remotely sensed lake depths. Given the logistical difficulty of collecting physical bathymetric measurements, methods relying upon in situ data are generally restricted to small areas and thus their application to largescale studies is difficult to validate. Here, we produce and validate spaceborne estimates of supraglacial lake volumes across a relatively large area (1250 km(exp 2) of west Greenland's ablation region using data acquired by the WorldView-2 (WV-2) sensor, making use of both its stereo-imaging capability and its meter-scale resolution. We employ spectrally-derived depth retrieval models, which are either based on absolute reflectance (single-channel model) or a ratio of spectral reflectances in two bands (dual-channel model). These models are calibrated by usingWV-2multispectral imagery acquired early in the melt season and depth measurements from a high resolutionWV-2 DEM over the same lake basins when devoid of water. The calibrated models are then validated with different lakes in the area, for which we determined depths. Lake depth estimates based on measurements recorded in WV-2's blue (450-510 nm), green (510-580 nm), and red (630-690 nm) bands and dual-channel modes (blue/green, blue/red, and green/red band combinations) had near-zero bias, an average root-mean-squared deviation of 0.4 m (relative to post-drainage DEMs), and an average volumetric error of b1%. The approach outlined in this study - image-based calibration of depth-retrieval models - significantly improves spaceborne supraglacial bathymetry retrievals, which are completely independent from in situ measurements.

  3. Behavior of testosterone and cortisol during an intensity-controlled high-volume training period measured by a training task-specific test in men rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rämson, Raul; Jürimäe, Jaak; Jürimäe, Toivo; Mäestu, Jarek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the stress hormones testosterone and cortisol after a task-specific exercise during a high-volume endurance training cycle in men rowers. Eight highly trained men rowers were investigated during a high-volume, low-intensity training period. A 2-hour, low-intensity, long-distance rowing (LDT) test was conducted at baseline, after a high-volume period, and after the recovery period. Training and performance intensities were obtained at the graded incremental test, were preset individually, and were the same during all LDTs. Fasting blood samples were taken during the same days as the LDTs. Exercise-induced blood samples were taken before, 5 minutes after, and 30 minutes after (post 30') the completion of each LDT. There were no significant changes in fasting cortisol and testosterone values during the whole study period, and there were no significant changes in cortisol and testosterone concentrations during the LDT. However, testosterone concentration was significantly decreased at post 30' compared with posttest values during the second LDT that was held after the 2-week high-training-volume period, and, during the second LDT, post 30' values of cortisol tended to be decreased compared with posttest values (p = 0.063). In conclusion, changes in the concentrations of testosterone and cortisol after long-distance rowing indicate decreased adaptivity after the training-specific performance test.

  4. Volume and structural study of Fe{sub 64}Mn{sub 36} anti-ferromagnetic Invar alloy under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, M., E-mail: matsushita@eng.ehime-u.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3-Bunkyocho, Matsuyama 790-0826 (Japan); Nakano, S. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ohfuji, H. [Geodynamics Research Center, Ehime University, 2-Bunkyocho, Matsuyama 790-0826 (Japan); Yamada, I. [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 2-Bunkyocho, Matsuyama 790-0826 (Japan); Kikegawa, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    We have investigated the pressure variation of the volume and structure of an FCC Fe{sub 64}Mn{sub 36} anti-ferromagnetic Invar alloy. The inclination of the pressure-volume (P-V) curve of the FCC structure becomes discontinuous at a pressure of 4 GPa. According to the bulk modulus at zero pressure estimated by the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, the pressure between 4 and 10 GPa is 33 GPa larger than that at a pressure below 4 GPa. Considering previous experiments on magnetism at high pressure the Neel temperature at 4 GPa almost decreases to room temperature. These results suggest that the increase in the bulk modulus by 33 GPa can be attributed to the pressure-induced magnetic phase transition from anti-ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. Volume at zero pressure was estimated using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The volume of FCC structure in the anti-ferromagnetic state was 1.17% larger than the volume in the paramagnetic state, namely, the spontaneous magnetostriction was 1.17%. Pressure-induced structural transition from FCC to HCP occurs with an increase in the pressure, especially at up to 5 GPa. The value of c/a is 1.62; this value almost corresponds to that of an ideal HCP structure. The bulk modulus of the HCP structure estimated by the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state is larger than that of the FCC structure, and the volume/atom ratio is smaller than that of the FCC structure. - Research highlights: > We have investigated the pressure variation of volume and structure of FCC Fe{sub 64}Mn{sub 36} alloy. > We discovered that the change in inclination of the pressure-volume (P-V) curve of the FCC structure becomes discontinuous at a pressure of 4 GPa. This pressure corresponds to the Neel temperature, which decreases down to room temperature. > Further we estimated bulk modulus and volume at zero pressure using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. As a result, we have demonstrated that anti-ferromagnetism has very close relationship with the

  5. Mapping Patterns of Ipsilateral Supraclavicular Nodal Metastases in Breast Cancer: Rethinking the Clinical Target Volume for High-risk Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Hao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Wang, Shu-Lian, E-mail: wsl20040118@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Li, Jing; Xue, Mei; Xiong, Zu-Kun [Department of Radiology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Jin, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hu; Song, Yong-Wen; Liu, Yue-Ping; Ren, Hua; Fang, Hui; Yu, Zi-Hao; Liu, Xin-Fan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong12@163.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To map the location of metastatic supraclavicular (SCV) lymph nodes (LNMs) in breast cancer patients with SCV node involvement and determine whether and where the radiation therapy clinical target volume (CTV) of this region could be modified in high-risk subsets. Methods and Materials: Fifty-five patients with metastatic SCV LNMs were eligible for geographic mapping and atlas coverage analysis. All LNMs and their epicenters were registered proportionally by referencing the surrounding landmarks onto simulation computed tomography images of a standard patient. CTVs based on selected SCV atlases, including the one by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) were contoured. A modified SCV CTV was tried and shown to have better involved-node coverage and thus theoretically improved prophylaxis in this setting. Results: A total of 50 (91%) and 45 (81.8%) patients had LNMs in the medial and lateral SCV subregions, respectively. Also, 36 patients (65.5%) had LNMs located at the junction of the jugular-subclavian veins. All nodes were covered in only 25.5% to 41.8% of patients by different atlases. The RTOG atlas covered all nodes in 25.5% of patients. Stratified by the nodes in all the patients as a whole, 49.2% to 81.3% were covered, and the RTOG atlas covered 62.6%. The lateral and posterior borders were the most overlooked locations. Modification by extending the borders to natural anatomic barriers allowed the new CTV to cover all the nodes in 81.8% of patients and encompass 96.1% of all the nodes. Conclusions: According to the distribution of SCV LNMs, the extent of existing atlases might not be adequate for potential metastatic sites in certain groups of patients. The extension of the lateral and posterior CTV borders in high-risk or recurrent patients might be a reasonable approach for increasing coverage. However, additional data in more homogeneous populations with localized disease are needed before routine application.

  6. High-resolution liquid- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of nanoliter sample volumes using microcoil detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentgens, A. P. M.; Bart, J.; van Bentum, P. J. M.; Brinkmann, A.; van Eck, E. R. H.; Gardeniers, J. G. E.; Janssen, J. W. G.; Knijn, P.; Vasa, S.; Verkuijlen, M. H. W.

    2008-02-01

    The predominant means to detect nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is to monitor the voltage induced in a radiofrequency coil by the precessing magnetization. To address the sensitivity of NMR for mass-limited samples it is worthwhile to miniaturize this detector coil. Although making smaller coils seems a trivial step, the challenges in the design of microcoil probeheads are to get the highest possible sensitivity while maintaining high resolution and keeping the versatility to apply all known NMR experiments. This means that the coils have to be optimized for a given sample geometry, circuit losses should be avoided, susceptibility broadening due to probe materials has to be minimized, and finally the B1-fields generated by the rf coils should be homogeneous over the sample volume. This contribution compares three designs that have been miniaturized for NMR detection: solenoid coils, flat helical coils, and the novel stripline and microslot designs. So far most emphasis in microcoil research was in liquid-state NMR. This contribution gives an overview of the state of the art of microcoil solid-state NMR by reviewing literature data and showing the latest results in the development of static and micro magic angle spinning (microMAS) solenoid-based probeheads. Besides their mass sensitivity, microcoils can also generate tremendously high rf fields which are very useful in various solid-state NMR experiments. The benefits of the stripline geometry for studying thin films are shown. This geometry also proves to be a superior solution for microfluidic NMR implementations in terms of sensitivity and resolution.

  7. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  8. First observation of multiple volume reflection by different planes in one bent silicon crystal for high-energy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, E; Bagli, E; Baricordi, S; Dalpiaz, P; Fiorini, M; Guidi, V; Mazzolari, A; Vincenzi, D; Milan, R; Della Mea, Gianantonio; Vallazza, E; Afonin, A G; Chesnokov, Yu A; Maisheev, V A; Yazynin, I A; Golovatyuk, V M; Kovalenko, A D; Taratin, A M; Denisov, A S; Gavrikov, Yu A; Ivanov, Yu M; Lapina, L P; Malyarenko, L G; Skorobogatov, V V; Suvorov, V M; Vavilov, S A; Bolognini, D; Hasan, S; Mattera, A; Prest, M; Tikhomirovl, V V

    2009-01-01

    Multiple volume reflection by different planes in a bent silicon crystal with its 111 axis orientation close to the beam direction was observed for the first time for 400 GeV/c protons at the CERN SPS. The proton beam was deflected to the side opposite to the crystal bend by an angle of about 67 μrad, which is five times larger than in a single volume reflection by the (110) bent planes. The registered efficiency of one side deflection was about 84%. It was shown that multiple volume reflection transforms to a single volume reflection when the orientation angle of the 111 axis relative to the beam direction is increased

  9. High-surgical-volume hospitals associated with better quality and lower cost of kidney transplantation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yun Tsao

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Seventy-seven percent of kidney transplant surgeries were concentrated at six hospitals in Taiwan. There were significant differences in quality and cost between HSVHs and LSVHs. We suggest adopting volume-based strategies for nonurgent kidney transplants.

  10. Early High-Volume Hemofiltration versus Standard Care for Post-Cardiac Surgery Shock. The HEROICS Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Combes, Alain; Bréchot, Nicolas; Amour, Julien; Cozic, Nathalie; Lebreton, Guillaume; Guidon, Catherine; Zogheib, Elie; Thiranos, Jean-Claude; Rigal, Jean-Christophe; Bastien, Olivier; Benhaoua, Hamina; Abry, Bernard; Ouattara, Alexandre; Trouillet, Jean-Louis; Mallet, Alain; Chastre, Jean; Leprince, Pascal; Luyt, Charles-Edouard

    2015-01-01

    ...), followed by standard-volume continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) until resolution of shock and recovery of renal function, or conservative standard care, with delayed CVVHDF only for persistent, severe acute kidney injury...

  11. Feasibility and safety of cavity-directed stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases at a high-volume medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rava, MD PhD

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Excellent local control is achievable with cavity-directed SRS in well-selected patients, particularly for lesions with diameter <3 cm and resection cavity volumes <14 mL. Long-term survival is possible for select patients.

  12. High energy (MeV) ion fluence dependent nano scale free volume defects studies of PMMA films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Paramjit [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110078 (India); Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajeshkumaripu@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110078 (India); Cyriac, Jincemon; Rahul, M.T. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala 686560 (India); Nambissan, P.M.G. [Applied Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Prasad, Rajendra [Vivekananda College of Technology and Management, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2014-02-01

    A systematic study on the dependence of the free volume at nanoscale in carbon ions irradiated polymethylmethacrylate polymer samples was carried out by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS). An investigation about the evolution of cross-linking in the polymeric chains after ion irradiation was carried out from the calculated values of hole radius, free volume and fractional free volume using Tao-Eldrup Model. The role of rise in temperature on the growth of free volume was observed at higher fluences. The results were supported by variations in the S parameter of DBS study. The structural analyses were carried out using XRD to investigate for the modification in the structural nature, degree of crystallinity and average crystallite size of the polymer after ion irradiation. Additional information on the modifications of optical and chemical properties was extracted by means of UV–visible and FTIR spectroscopy respectively.

  13. A Method for Out-of-autoclave Fabrication of High Fiber Volume Fraction Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    increasing the fiber-volume fraction by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding ( VARTM ) in order to produce composite structures with aerospace-grade...processed composites. Using a combination of viscosity control, ARL- based VARTM techniques, and a pressure control system, we increased the fiber-volume...content from 50% (ARL’s normal processing range for a particular material system and VARTM process) to over 60%. Future work will focus on

  14. Respiratory Allergy and Inflammation Due to Ambient Particles (RAIAP) Collection of Particulate Matter samples from 5 European sites with High Volume Cascade Impactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee FR; Fokkens PHB; Leseman DLAC; Bloemen HJTh; Boere AJF; MGO

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this deliverable was to perform an European-wide collection of particulate samples. With the aid of two high-volume Cascade impactor (HVCI), coarse (2.5-10 mu m ) and fine (0.1-2.5 mu m) particulate samples were collected in Amsterdam, Lodz, Oslo, Rome and the Dutch sea-side (De Zilk) dur

  15. Respiratory Allergy and Inflammation Due to Ambient Particles (RAIAP) Collection of Particulate Matter samples from 5 European sites with High Volume Cascade Impactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee FR; Fokkens PHB; Leseman DLAC; Bloemen HJTh; Boere AJF; MGO

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this deliverable was to perform an European-wide collection of particulate samples. With the aid of two high-volume Cascade impactor (HVCI), coarse (2.5-10 mu m ) and fine (0.1-2.5 mu m) particulate samples were collected in Amsterdam, Lodz, Oslo, Rome and the Dutch sea-side (De Zilk)

  16. Design and Development of Virtual Reality Simulation for Teaching High-Risk Low-Volume Problem-Prone Office-Based Medical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemheney, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Physicians' offices are not the usual place where emergencies occur; thus how staff remains prepared and current regarding medical emergencies presents an ongoing challenge for private practitioners. The very nature of low-volume, high-risk, and problem-prone medical emergencies is that they occur with such infrequency it is difficult for staff to…

  17. Goal-directed intraoperative fluid therapy guided by stroke volume and its variation in high-risk surgical patients : a prospective randomized multicentre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Wiesenack, Christoph; Gerlach, Herwig; Marx, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Perioperative hemodynamic optimisation improves postoperative outcome for patients undergoing high-risk surgery (HRS). In this prospective randomized multicentre study we studied the effects of an individualized, goal-directed fluid management based on continuous stroke volume variation (SVV) and st

  18. Design and Development of Virtual Reality Simulation for Teaching High-Risk Low-Volume Problem-Prone Office-Based Medical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemheney, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Physicians' offices are not the usual place where emergencies occur; thus how staff remains prepared and current regarding medical emergencies presents an ongoing challenge for private practitioners. The very nature of low-volume, high-risk, and problem-prone medical emergencies is that they occur with such infrequency it is difficult for staff to…

  19. Effect of high temperature curing on the compressive strength of concrete incorporating large volumes of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Villarreal, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The effect of using different types of heat treatment on the compressive strength of concrete with and without large volumes of fly ash was studied. Curing of concrete is important to obtain a good quality concrete, but it is important to keep concrete from drying until the originally water-filled space in fresh cement paste has been filled to the desired extent by the products of hydration. In hot weather, high temperature promotes faster drying of concrete so a given degree of hydration is reached more rapidly than at lower temperatures. The provision of moist curing is advantageous because of a gradual gain in strength and because of reduced plastic shrinkage and drying shrinkage-cracking. The portland cement content in all the mixtures used in this study was 200 kg per cubic metre and the amount of fly ash varied from 0 to 33, 43, 50 and 56 per cent by mass of the total binder. A superplasticizer was used to obtain 200-220 mm slump. The compressive strength was tested at 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 days and at 6 months. Results showed that, using ASTM standard curing, the compressive strength of portland cement concrete made at 35 degrees C was reduced by about 12 per cent at 28 days compared to that of the concrete made at 23 degrees C. The AASHTO curing strength was found to be a bit higher than with the ASTM curing. The concrete made at 35 degrees C showed no loss of strength when continuous moist-curing was applied. The fly ash concrete mixtures that were cast at 35 degrees C were cured by covering them with membrane curing compounds and placed under ambient conditions. It was crucial to allow enough curing water to promote the pozzolanic reaction. The membrane curing did not allow the ingress of water to the concrete mass. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

  20. CONWIP versus POLCA: A comparative analysis in a high-mix, low-volume (HMLV manufacturing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Frazee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Few studies comparing manufacturing control systems as they relate to high-mix, low-volume applications have been reported. This paper compares two strategies, constant work in process (CONWIP and Paired-cell Overlapping Loops of Cards with Authorization (POLCA, for controlling work in process (WIP in such a manufacturing environment. Characteristics of each control method are explained in regards to lead time impact and thus, why one may be advantageous over the other. Design/methodology/approach: An industrial system in the Photonics industry is studied. Discrete event simulation is used as the primary tool to compare performance of CONWIP and POLCA controls for the same WIP level with respect to lead time. Model verification and validation are accomplished by comparing historic data to simulation generated data including utilizations. Both deterministic and Poisson distributed order arrivals are considered.  Findings: For the system considered in this case study, including order arrival patterns, a POLCA control can outperform a CONWIP parameter in terms of average lead time for a given level of WIP. At higher levels of WIP, the performance of POLCA and CONWIP is equivalent.  Practical Implications: The POLCA control helps limit WIP in specific áreas of the system where the CONWIP control only limits the overall WIP in the system. Thus, POLCA can generate acceptably low lead times at lower levels of WIP for conditions equivalent to the HMLV manufacturing systems studied. Originality/value: The study compliments and extends previous studies of  CONWIP and POLCA performance to a HMLV manufacturing environment. It demonstrates the utility of discrete event simulation in that regard. It shows that proper inventory controls in bottleneck áreas of a system can reduce average lead time.

  1. Laparoscopic Colorectal Cancer Resection in High-Volume Surgical Centers: Long-Term Outcomes from the LAPCOLON Group Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huscher, Cristiano G S; Bretagnol, Frederic; Corcione, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Strong evidence has confirmed the benefit of laparoscopy in colorectal cancer resection but remains a challenging procedure. It is not clear that such promising results in selected patients translate into a favorable risk-benefit balance in real practice. We conducted a multicenter national observational registry to assess operative and oncologic long-term outcomes following laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection. All patients with laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection between 2001 and 2004 were included. Data were extracted from the prospective Italian national database of 10 high-volume centers (≥40 colorectal cancer laparoscopic resections per year). Surgical technique and follow-up were standardized. Survivals were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. We reported 1832 patients with colon (58.5%) and rectal cancer (41.5%). TNM stage was 0-I-II in 1044 patients (57%) and III-IV in 788 patients (43%). Surgery included a totally laparoscopic procedure in 1820 patients (99.3%). Conversion was 10.5%. Postoperative morbidity and 30-day mortality rates were 17 and 1.2%, respectively. Clinical anastomotic leakage rate was 8.3% (n=152). R0 resection was 95%. With a median follow-up of 54.2 months, cancer recurrence rate was 13.3%. At 5 years, cancer-free survival was 86.7%. Upon multivariate analysis, age (P=0.001) and TNM stage (Pcancer-free survival. Predictive factors of cancer recurrence were gender (P=0.029) and TNM stage (Pcancer achieves good operative results with satisfactory long-term oncologic results. Even in the laparoscopy era, age, gender, and TNM stage remain the most powerful predictor of oncologic outcomes.

  2. Treatment Outcomes and Prognostic Factors of Pulmonary Metastasectomy for Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcoma: a High Volume Academic Institution Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozheng KANG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The bone and soft tissue sarcoma can metastasize to distant sites, most commonly the lungs. Some cases can be cured by radical metastasectomy, but its role, indication and prognostic factors remains controversial. The rarity of the disease combined with the diverse number of subtypes can make bone and soft tissue sarcomas very difficult to study. There are few randomized control studies or international high volume results, and such reports in China are seldom seen. The aim of this study is to investigate surgical treatment outcomes and prognostic factors of pulmonary metastatic bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients. Methods From January 2007 to December 2015, patients with bone and soft tissue sarcoma who underwent multimodality therapy including definitive surgery for the primary lesion and at least one pulmonary metastasectomy were enrolled in the retrospective study. All the relevant clinical variables were collected, and then statistically analyzed and interpreted with the aid of univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression method. Results Totally 155 pulmonary metastasectomies in 144 patients were analyzed. Incomplete R0 resection, a less than 1-year interval from a previous surgery, more than three detected nodules; and the summed maximum diameter of more than 45 mm for pulmonary metastases were independent prognostic indicators by multivariate analysis. Conclusion We suggest that metastatic bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients can benefit most from aggressive surgical intervention of pulmonary metastasectomy. Its prognostic factors include R0 resection, a longer interval from a previous surgery, smaller total number and total size of pulmonary metastases.

  3. Acoustic detection of cracks in the anvil of a large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhaoli; Chen, Bin; Tian, Hao; Cheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    A large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus with three pairs of tungsten carbide anvils is the most popular device for synthetic diamond production. Currently, the consumption of anvils is one of the important costs for the diamond production industry. If one of the anvils is fractured during the production process, the other five anvils in the apparatus may be endangered as a result of a sudden loss of pressure. It is of critical importance to detect and replace cracked anvils before they fracture for reduction of the cost of diamond production and safety. An acoustic detection method is studied in this paper. Two new features, nested power spectrum centroid and modified power spectrum variance, are proposed and combined with linear prediction coefficients to construct a feature vector. A support vector machine model is trained for classification. A sliding time window is proposed for decision-level information fusion. The experiments and analysis show that the recognition rate of anvil cracks is 95%, while the false-alarm rate is as low as 5.8 × 10-4 during a time window; this false-alarm rate indicates that at most one false alarm occurs every 2 months at a confidence level of 90%. An instrument to monitor anvil cracking was designed based on a digital signal processor and has been running for more than eight months in a diamond production field. In this time, two anvil-crack incidents occurred and were detected by the instrument correctly. In addition, no false alarms occurred.

  4. Acoustic detection of cracks in the anvil of a large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhaoli, E-mail: zl-yan@mail.ioa.ac.cn; Tian, Hao; Cheng, Xiaobin; Yang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen, Bin [School of Automation, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2015-12-15

    A large-volume cubic high-pressure apparatus with three pairs of tungsten carbide anvils is the most popular device for synthetic diamond production. Currently, the consumption of anvils is one of the important costs for the diamond production industry. If one of the anvils is fractured during the production process, the other five anvils in the apparatus may be endangered as a result of a sudden loss of pressure. It is of critical importance to detect and replace cracked anvils before they fracture for reduction of the cost of diamond production and safety. An acoustic detection method is studied in this paper. Two new features, nested power spectrum centroid and modified power spectrum variance, are proposed and combined with linear prediction coefficients to construct a feature vector. A support vector machine model is trained for classification. A sliding time window is proposed for decision-level information fusion. The experiments and analysis show that the recognition rate of anvil cracks is 95%, while the false-alarm rate is as low as 5.8 × 10{sup −4} during a time window; this false-alarm rate indicates that at most one false alarm occurs every 2 months at a confidence level of 90%. An instrument to monitor anvil cracking was designed based on a digital signal processor and has been running for more than eight months in a diamond production field. In this time, two anvil-crack incidents occurred and were detected by the instrument correctly. In addition, no false alarms occurred.

  5. Digital surgical templates for managing high-energy zygomaticomaxillary complex injuries associated with orbital volume change: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Zhen; Shu, Da-Long; Ran, Wei; Guo, Bing; Liao, Xin

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to introduce 3-dimensional (3D) virtual surgical planning and digital rapid-prototyping templates for zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) injuries associated with orbital volume change and to evaluate the surgical outcomes quantitatively. Eight patients who underwent open reduction and fixation for a ZMC injury with orbital volume change were studied. Computed tomographic (CT) scan of the zygomaticomaxillary area was performed before the operation in each case. Scanned data were converted into 3D models using Mimics software (Materialise, Brussels, Belgium) for surgical designs. Virtual surgical reductions and correlated guiding templates were designed using Mimics and Magics software (Materialise). The operations were performed with the help of prefabricated templates to reduce the fractures. A postoperative CT scan of each patient was obtained within 2 weeks after surgery, and quantitative measurements were made to assess the surgical outcomes. Preoperative volumes of the bilateral orbits were compared, and concordance with postoperative volumes of the bilateral orbits was assessed. Twenty-one pairs of distances from 7 marker points to 3 reference planes were measured to assess postoperative facial symmetry. Volumes of the injured orbits were significantly different from volumes of the uninjured orbits preoperatively (P .05). In addition, 19 of the 21 pairs of bilateral distances showed no significant difference postoperatively (P > .05). Quantitative assessment showed that digitally designed, rapid-prototyping templates for ZMC fractures have a positive impact on restoring facial symmetry and concordance of bilateral orbital volumes. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristic prefrontal blood volume patterns when imaging body type, high-calorie food, and mother-child attachment in childhood anorexia nervosa: A near infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Yamashita, Fumiko; Araki, Yuko; Iizuka, Chiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Komatsu, Hiroko; Ohya, Takashi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Tsuda, Akira; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prefrontal activation in childhood anorexia nervosa (AN) patients when imaging symptom-provocative factors such as body type, high-calorie food, and attachment between mother and child. The prefrontal activations during each task, in terms of blood volume changes, were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. Twelve females with childhood AN (mean age, 14.4 years old) and 13 age-matched healthy female controls (mean age, 14.3 years old) participated in this study. Both groups showed increased prefrontal blood volume when viewing images of each symptom-provocative factor. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the prefrontal blood volume increases between the control group and the childhood AN group when viewing images of slender and obese body types and high-calorie food. On the other hand, images of mother-child attachment resulted in significantly greater increases in prefrontal blood volume in the childhood AN group than in the control group. These results indicated that prefrontal activation in AN might be associated with imaging attachment between mother and child, but not associated with imaging body type or high-calorie food.

  7. High order sub-cell finite volume schemes for solving hyperbolic conservation laws I: basic formulation and one-dimensional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, JianHua; Ren, YuXin

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a family of sub-cell finite volume schemes for solving the hyperbolic conservation laws is proposed and analyzed in one-dimensional cases. The basic idea of this method is to subdivide a control volume (main cell) into several sub-cells and the finite volume discretization is applied to each of the sub-cells. The averaged values on the sub-cells of current and face neighboring main cells are used to reconstruct the polynomial distributions of the dependent variables. This method can achieve arbitrarily high order of accuracy using a compact stencil. It is similar to the spectral volume method incorporating with PNPM technique but with fundamental differences. An elaborate utilization of these differences overcomes some shortcomings of the spectral volume method and results in a family of accurate and robust schemes for solving the hyperbolic conservation laws. In this paper, the basic formulation of the proposed method is presented. The Fourier analysis is performed to study the properties of the one-dimensional schemes. A WENO limiter based on the secondary reconstruction is constructed.

  8. Improved VO2max and time trial performance with more high aerobic intensity interval training and reduced training volume: a case study on an elite national cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støren, Øyvind; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Haave, Marius; Helgerud, Jan

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated to what extent more high aerobic intensity interval training (HAIT) and reduced training volume would influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and time trial (TT) performance in an elite national cyclist in the preseason period. The cyclist was tested for VO2max, cycling economy (C(c)), and TT performance on an ergometer cycle during 1 year. Training was continuously logged using heart rate monitor during the entire period. Total monthly training volume was reduced in the 2011 preseason compared with the 2010 preseason, and 2 HAIT blocks (14 sessions in 9 days and 15 sessions in 10 days) were performed as running. Between the HAIT blocks, 3 HAIT sessions per week were performed as cycling. From November 2010 to February 2011, the cyclist reduced total average monthly training volume by 18% and cycling training volume by 60%. The amount of training at 90-95% HRpeak increased by 41%. VO2max increased by 10.3% on ergometer cycle. TT performance improved by 14.9%. C(c) did not change. In conclusion, preseason reduced total training volume but increased amount of HAIT improved VO2max and TT performance without any changes in C(c). These improvements on cycling appeared despite that the HAIT blocks were performed as running. Reduced training time, and training transfer from running into improved cycling form, may be beneficial for cyclists living in cold climate areas.

  9. Assessing high altitude glacier volume change and remaining thickness using cost-efficient scientific techniques: the case of Nevado Coropuna (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Peduzzi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher temperature and change in precipitation patterns have induced an acute decrease in Andean glaciers, thus leading to an additional stress on water supply. To adapt to climate changes, local governments need information on the rate of glacier volume losses and on current ice thickness. We show how volume changes can be accurately estimated in remote areas using readily available low-cost digital elevation models derived from both topographic maps and satellite images. They were used for estimating the volume changes over the Coropuna glacier (Peru from 1955 to 2002. Ice thickness was measured in 2004 using a georadar coupled with Ground Positioning System during a field expedition. It provided profiles of ice thickness on different slopes, orientations and altitudes. These were used to model the current glacier volume using Geographical Information System and statistical multiple regressions techniques. Computers were modified to resists to high altitude (6500 m temperatures and low pressure conditions. The results delineated a significant glacier volume loss and provided an estimate of the remaining ice. It provided the scientific evidence needed by local Peruvian NGO, COPASA, and the German Cooperation Program in order to alert local governments and communities and for enforcing new climate change adaptation policies.

  10. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  11. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  12. Technology of high-level nuclear waste disposal. Advances in the science and engineering of the management of high-level nuclear wastes. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, P.L.; Breslin, J.J. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    The papers in this volume cover the following subjects: waste isolation and the natural geohydrologic system; repository perturbations of the natural system; radionuclide migration through the natural system; and repository design technology. Individual papers are abstracted.

  13. Dose-volume parameters and clinical outcome of CT-guided free-hand high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Ye, Wei-Jun; Du, Le-Hui; Li, Ai-Ju; Ren, Yu-Feng; Cao, Xin-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Currently, image-based 3-dimentional (3D) planning brachytherapy allows for a better assessment of gross tumor volume (GTV) and the definition and delineation of target volume in cervix cancer. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of our novel computed tomography (CT)-guided free-hand high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDRISBT) technique for cervical cancer by evaluating the dosimetry and preliminary clinical outcome of this approach. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters were analyzed according to the Gynecological GEC-ESTRO Working Group recommendations for image-based 3D treatment in cervical cancer. Twenty cervical cancer patients who underwent CT-guided free-hand HDRISBT between March 2009 and June 2010 were studied. With a median of 5 (range, 4–7) implanted needles for each patient, the median dose of brachytherapy alone delivered to 90% of the target volume (D90) was 45 (range, 33–54) Gyα/β10 for high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) and 30 (range, 20–36) Gyα/β10 for intermediate-risk clinical target volume (IR-CTV). The percentage of the CTV covered by the prescribed dose (V100) of HR-CTV with brachytherapy alone was 81.9%–99.2% (median, 96.7%). With an additional dose of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), the median D90 was 94 (range, 83–104) Gyα/β10 for HR-CTV and 77 (range, 70–87) Gyα/β10 for IR-CTV; the median dose delivered to 100% of the target volume (D100) was 75 (range, 66–84) Gyα/β10 for HR-CTV and 65 (range, 57–73) Gyα/β10 for IR-CTV. The minimum dose to the most irradiated 2 cc volume (D2cc) was 73–96 (median, 83) Gyα/β3 for the bladder, 64–98 (median, 73) Gyα/β3 for the rectum, and 52–69 (median, 61) Gyα/β3 for the sigmoid colon. After a median follow-up of 15 months (range, 3–24 months), two patients experienced local failure, and 1 showed internal iliac nodal metastasis. Despite the relatively small number of needles used, CT-guided HDRISBT for cervical cancer showed favorable

  14. Dose-volume parameters and clinical outcome of CT-guided freehand high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Wang; Wei-Jun Ye; Le-Hui Du; Ai-Ju Li; Yu-Feng Ren; Xin-Ping Cao

    2012-01-01

    Currently,image-based 3-dimentional (3D) planning brachytherapy allows for a better assessment of gross tumor volume (GTV) and the definition and delineation of target volume in cervix cancer.In this study,we investigated the feasibility of our novel computed tomography (CT)-guided free-hand high-doserate interstitial brachytherapy (HDRISBT) technique for cervical cancer by evaluating the dosimetry and preliminary clinical outcome of this approach.Dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters were analyzed according to the Gynecological GEC-ESTRO Working Group recommendations for image-based 3D treatment in cervical cancer.Twenty cervical cancer patients who underwent CT-guided free-hand HDRISBT between March 2009 and June 2010 were studied.With a median of 5 (range,4-7) implanted needles for each patient,the median dose of brachytherapy alone delivered to 90% of the target volume (D90) was 45 (range,33-54) Gyα/β10 for high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) and 30 (range,20-36)Gyα/β10 for intermediate-risk clinical target volume (IR-CTV).The percentage of the CTV covered by the prescribed dose (V100) of HR-CTV with brachytherapy alone was 81.9%-99.2% (median,96.7%).With an additional dose of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT),the median D90 was 94 (range,83-104) Gyα/β10 for HR-CTV and 77 (range,70-87) Gyα/β10 for IR-CTV; the median dose delivered to 100% of the target volume (D100) was 75 (range,66-84) Gyα/β10 for HR-CTV and 65 (range,57-73) Gyα/β10 for IR-CTV.The minimum dose to the most irradiated 2 cc volume (D2cc) was 73-96 (median,83) Gyα/β3 for the bladder,64-98 (median,73) Gyα/β3 for the rectum,and 52-69 (median,61) Gyα/β3 for the sigmoid colon.After a median follow-up of 15 months (range,3-24 months),two patients experienced local failure,and 1 showed internal lilac nodal metastasis.Despite the relatively small number of needles used,CT-guided HDRISBT for cervical cancer showed favorable DVH parameters and clinical outcome.

  15. The Effects of Design Strength, Fly Ash Content and Curing Method on Compressive Strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete: A Design of Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikin Mochamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High volume fly ash concrete becomes one of alternatives to produce green concrete as it uses waste material and significantly reduces the utilization of Portland cement in concrete production. Although using less cement, its compressive strength is comparable to ordinary Portland cement (hereafter OPC and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete. The experiment and data analysis were prepared using minitab, a statistic software for design of experimental. The specimens were concrete cylinder with diameter of 15 cm and height of 30 cm, tested for its compressive strength at 56 days. The result of the research demonstrates that high volume fly ash concrete can produce comparable compressive strength which meets the strength of OPC design strength especially for high strength concrete. In addition, the best mix proportion to achieve the design strength is the combination of high strength concrete and 50% content of fly ash. Moreover, the use of spraying method for curing method of concrete on site is still recommended as it would not significantly reduce the compressive strength result.

  16. HPA-axis function and grey matter volume reductions: imaging the diathesis-stress model in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, I; Crossley, N A; Day, F; Stone, J; Tognin, S; Mondelli, V; Howes, O; Valmaggia, L; Pariante, C; McGuire, P

    2016-05-03

    The onset of psychosis is thought to involve interactions between environmental stressors and the brain, with cortisol as a putative mediator. We examined the relationship between the cortisol stress response and brain structure in subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Waking salivary cortisol was measured in 22 individuals at UHR for psychosis and 17 healthy controls. Grey matter volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. The relationship between the stress response and grey matter volume was investigated using voxel-based analyses. Our predictions of the topography of cortisol action as a structural brain modulator were informed by measures of brain glucocorticoid and mineralcorticoid receptor distribution obtained from the multimodal neuroanatomical and genetic Allen Brain Atlas. Across all subjects, reduced responsivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was correlated with smaller grey matter volumes in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortex and in the hippocampus. This relationship was particularly marked in the UHR subjects in the right prefrontal, left parahippocampal/fusiform and parietal cortices. The subgroup that subsequently developed psychosis showed a significant blunting of HPA stress response, observed at trend level also in the whole UHR sample. Altered responses to stress in people at high risk of psychosis are related to reductions in grey matter volume in areas implicated in the vulnerability to psychotic disorders. These areas may represent the neural components of a stress vulnerability model.

  17. International conference on high-energy physics. Volume 1. Sessions I to III. [Geneva, June 27-July 4, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Volume 1 of the conference proceedings contains sessions on neutrino physics and weak interactions, e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics, and theory. Five of the papers have already been cited in ERA, and can be found by reference to the entry CONF-790642-- in the Report Number Index. The remaining 30 will be processed as they are received on the Atomindex tape. (RWR)

  18. Pituitary gland volume in patients with schizophrenia, subjects at ultra high-risk of developing psychosis and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Dorte; Krogh, Jesper; Mondelli, Valeria;

    2013-01-01

    A larger pituitary size is thought to reflect a greater activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may be related to an increase in the number and size of corticotroph cells. Some studies, but not all, indicate that pituitary volume increases before or at the onset...

  19. Clinical effects of continuous high volume hemofiltration on severe acute pancreatitis complicated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Wei-Qin Li; Wei Zhou; Ning Li; Jie-Shou Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficiency of continuous high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) complicated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS).METHODS: A total of 28 SAP patients with an average of 14.36±3.96 APACHE Ⅱ score were involved. Diagnostic criteria for SAP standardized by the Chinese Medical Association and diagnostic criteria for MODS standardized by American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) were applied for inclusion. HVHF was started 6.0±6.1 (1-30) days after onset of the disease and sustained for at least 72 hours, AN69 hemofilter (1.2 m2)was changed every 24 hours. The ultrafiltration rate during HVHF was 4 000 mi/h, blood flow rate was 250-300 mi/min,and the substitute fluid was infused with pre-dilution. Low molecular weight heparin was used for anticoagulation.RESULTS: HVHF was well tolerated in all the patients, and lasted for 4.04±3.99 (3-24) days. 20 of the patients survived,6 patients died and 2 of the patients quited for financial reason.The ICU mortality was 21.4%. Body temperature, heart rate and breath rate decreased significantly after HVHF.APACHE Ⅱ score was 14.4±3.9 before HVHF, and 9.9±4.3after HVHF, which decreased significantly (P<0.01). Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood before HVHF was 68.5±19.5 mmHg, and increased significantly after HVHF,which was 91.9±25 mmHg (P<0.01). During HVHF the hemodynamics was stable, and serum potassium, sodium,chlorine, glucose and pH were at normal level.CONCLUSION: HVHF is technically possible in SAP patients complicated with MODS. It does not appear to have detrimental effects and may have beneficial effects.Continuous HVHF, which seldom disturbs the hemodynamics and causes few side-effects, is expected to become a beneficial adjunct therapy for SAP complicated with MODS.

  20. Fibre-specific responses to endurance and low volume high intensity interval training: striking similarities in acute and chronic adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha D Scribbans

    Full Text Available The current study involved the completion of two distinct experiments. Experiment 1 compared fibre specific and whole muscle responses to acute bouts of either low-volume high-intensity interval training (LV-HIT or moderate-intensity continuous endurance exercise (END in a randomized crossover design. Experiment 2 examined the impact of a six-week training intervention (END or LV-HIT; 4 days/week, on whole body and skeletal muscle fibre specific markers of aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Six recreationally active men (Age: 20.7 ± 3.8 yrs; VO2peak: 51.9 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min reported to the lab on two separate occasions for experiment 1. Following a muscle biopsy taken in a fasted state, participants completed an acute bout of each exercise protocol (LV-HIT: 8, 20-second intervals at ∼ 170% of VO2peak separated by 10 seconds of rest; END: 30 minutes at ∼ 65% of VO2peak, immediately followed by a muscle biopsy. Glycogen content of type I and IIA fibres was significantly (p<0.05 reduced, while p-ACC was significantly increased (p<0.05 following both protocols. Nineteen recreationally active males (n = 16 and females (n = 3 were VO2peak-matched and assigned to either the LV-HIT (n = 10; 21 ± 2 yrs or END (n = 9; 20.7 ± 3.8 yrs group for experiment 2. After 6 weeks, both training protocols induced comparable increases in aerobic capacity (END: Pre: 48.3 ± 6.0, Mid: 51.8 ± 6.0, Post: 55.0 ± 6.3 mL/kg/min LV-HIT: Pre: 47.9 ± 8.1, Mid: 50.4 ± 7.4, Post: 54.7 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min, fibre-type specific oxidative and glycolytic capacity, glycogen and IMTG stores, and whole-muscle capillary density. Interestingly, only LV-HIT induced greater improvements in anaerobic performance and estimated whole-muscle glycolytic capacity. These results suggest that 30 minutes of END exercise at ∼ 65% VO2peak or 4 minutes of LV-HIT at ∼ 170% VO2peak induce comparable changes in the intra-myocellular environment (glycogen content and signaling activation

  1. Localized gray matter volume reductions in the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus in individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis and first episode for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashiro, Norichika; Suga, Motomu; Takano, Yosuke; Inoue, Hideyuki; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Satomura, Yoshihiro; Koike, Shinsuke; Yahata, Noriaki; Murakami, Mizuho; Katsura, Masaki; Gonoi, Wataru; Sasaki, Hiroki; Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested an important role for Broca's region and its right hemisphere counterpart in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, owing to its roles in language and interpersonal information processing. Broca's region consists of the pars opercularis (PO) and the pars triangularis (PT). Neuroimaging studies have suggested that they have differential functional roles in healthy individuals and contribute differentially to the pathogenesis of schizophrenic symptoms. However, volume changes in these regions in subjects with ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) or first-episode schizophrenia (FES) have not been clarified. In the present 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study, we separately measured the gray matter volumes of the PO and PT using a reliable manual-tracing volumetry in 80 participants (20 with UHR, 20 with FES, and 40 matched controls). The controls constituted two groups: the first group was matched for age, sex, parental socioeconomic background, and intelligence quotient to UHR (n=20); the second was matched for those to FES (n=20). Compared with matched controls, the volume of the bilateral PT, but not that of the PO, was significantly reduced in the subjects with UHR and FES. The reduced right PT volume, which showed the largest effect size among regions-of-interest in the both UHR and FES groups, correlated with the severity of the positive symptoms also in the both groups. These results suggest that localized gray matter volume reductions of the bilateral PT represent a vulnerability to schizophrenia in contrast to the PO volume, which was previously found to be reduced in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The right PT might preferentially contribute to the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms.

  2. The role of volume-load in strength and absolute endurance adaptations in adolescent's performing high- or low-load resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Fisher, James P; Assunção, Ari R; Bottaro, Martim; Gentil, Paulo

    2017-02-01

    This study compared high- (HL) and low-load (LL) resistance training (RT) on strength, absolute endurance, volume-load, and their relationships in untrained adolescents. Thirty-three untrained adolescents of both sexes (males, n = 17; females, n = 16; 14 ± 1 years) were randomly assigned into either (i) HL (n = 17): performing 3 sets of 4-6 repetitions to momentary concentric failure; or (ii) LL (n = 16): performing 2 sets of 12-15 repetitions to momentary concentric failure. RT was performed for 2×/week for 9 weeks. Change in maximum strength (1 repetition maximum) and absolute muscular endurance for barbell bench press was assessed. Weekly volume-load was calculated as sets (n) × repetitions (n) × load (kg). Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CIs) revealed that both groups significantly increased in strength and absolute endurance with large effect sizes (d = 1.51-1.66). There were no between-group differences for change in strength or absolute endurance. Ninety-five percent CIs revealed that both groups significantly increased in weekly volume-load with large effect sizes (HL = 1.66, LL = 1.02). There were no between-group differences for change in volume-load though average weekly volume-load was significantly greater for LL (p strength (r = 0.650, p = 0.005) and absolute endurance (r = 0.552, p = 0.022) increases. Strength and absolute endurance increases do not differ between HL and LL conditions in adolescents when performed to momentary concentric failure. Under HL conditions greater weekly volume-load is associated with greater strength and absolute endurance increases.

  3. Optimum parity of volumes of training loadings in the one-cyclic experimental period of preparation taekwondo athletes high qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saienko V.G.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of application of correlation of volumes of the trainings loadings is tested in preparation of sportsmen. 12 sportsmen took part in an experiment (age of 18-22, experience of employments from 8 to 15 years. On the extent of three months the program of preparation was used. All sportsmen conducted the identical amount of trainings employments - 105. The most effective construction of training process of sportsmen is certain in one-cyclic three months period. It has such correlation of volumes of trainings facilities: base technique - 10%, formal complexes of battle exercises - 9%, specially-preparatory exercises - 24%, exercises on shells - 17%, exercises with a partner - 17%, sparrings - 23%.

  4. Preparation of High Surface Area, Large Pore Volume Alumina by Using β-Cyclodextrin as a Non-surfactant Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai Jun WANG; Ming Fen WEN; Yu Shan LI; Dong YANG; Jing CHEN; Chong Li SONG

    2006-01-01

    A series of alumina samples were prepared using β-cyclodextrin as the non-surfactant template. These samples were characterized by XRD, BET and TEM. The results showed that the alumina samples prepared using β-cyclodextrin template had the higher surface areas (124-484 m2/g), larger pore volumes (0.7-1.27 mL/g) and more thermal stability than samples prepared without using β-cyclodextrin.

  5. Impact of the column hardware volume on resolution in very high pressure liquid chromatography non-invasive investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; McDonald, Thomas; Gilar, Martin

    2015-11-13

    The impact of the column hardware volume (≃ 1.7 μL) on the optimum reduced plate heights of a series of short 2.1 mm × 50 mm columns (hold-up volume ≃ 80-90 μL) packed with 1.8 μm HSS-T3, 1.7 μm BEH-C18, 1.7 μm CSH-C18, 1.6 μm CORTECS-C18+, and 1.7 μm BEH-C4 particles was investigated. A rapid and non-invasive method based on the reduction of the system dispersion (to only 0.15 μL(2)) of an I-class Acquity system and on the corrected plate heights (for system dispersion) of five weakly retained n-alkanophenones in RPLC was proposed. Evidence for sample dispersion through the column hardware volume was also revealed from the experimental plot of the peak capacities for smooth linear gradients versus the corrected efficiency of a weakly retained alkanophenone (isocratic runs). The plot is built for a constant gradient steepness irrespective of the applied flow rates (0.01-0.30 mL/min) and column lengths (2, 3, 5, and 10 cm). The volume variance caused by column endfittings and frits was estimated in between 0.1 and 0.7 μL(2) depending on the applied flow rate. After correction for system and hardware dispersion, the minimum reduced plate heights of short (5 cm) and narrow-bore (2.1mm i.d.) beds packed with sub-2 μm fully and superficially porous particles were found close to 1.5 and 0.7, respectively, instead of the classical h values of 2.0 and 1.4 for the whole column assembly.

  6. Using computerized workflow simulations to assess the feasibility of whole slide imaging full adoption in a high-volume histology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, David S; Lee, Roy E; Gilbertson, John R

    2012-01-01

    Whole slide Imaging (WSI) has been touted by many as the future of pathology, with estimates of full adoption occurring sometime in the next 5 to 15 years. While WSI devices have become increasingly capable since their inception, there has been little consideration of how WSI will be implemented and subsequently affect the workflow of high volume histology laboratories. Histology workflow process data was collected from a high-volume histology laboratory (Massachusetts General Hospital) and a process model developed using business process management software. Computerized workflow simulations were performed and total histology process time evaluated under a number of different WSI conditions. Total histology process time increased approximately 10-fold to 20-fold over baseline with the presence of one WSI robot in the histology workflow. Depending on the specifications of the WSI robot, anywhere from 9 to 14 WSI robots were required within the histology workflow to minimize the effects of WSI. Placing a WSI robot into the current workflow of a high-volume histology laboratory with the intent of full adoption is not feasible. Implementing WSI without making significant changes to the current workflow of the histology laboratory would prove to be both disruptive and costly to surgical pathology.

  7. Volume labeling with Alexa Fluor dyes and surface functionalization of highly sensitive fluorescent silica (SiO2) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Foster, Carmen M.; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Mortensen, Ninell P.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Gu, Baohua; Retterer, Scott T.

    2013-10-01

    A new synthesis approach is described that allows the direct incorporation of fluorescent labels into the volume or body of SiO2 nanoparticles. In this process, fluorescent Alexa Fluor dyes with different emission wavelengths were covalently incorporated into the SiO2 nanoparticles during their formation by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. The dye molecules were homogeneously distributed throughout the SiO2 nanoparticles. The quantum yields of the Alexa Fluor volume-labeled SiO2 nanoparticles were much higher than nanoparticles labeled using conventional organic dyes. The size of the resulting nanoparticles was controlled using microemulsion reaction media with sizes in the range of 20-100 nm and a polydispersity of Fluor dyes with different emission wavelengths were covalently incorporated into the SiO2 nanoparticles during their formation by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. The dye molecules were homogeneously distributed throughout the SiO2 nanoparticles. The quantum yields of the Alexa Fluor volume-labeled SiO2 nanoparticles were much higher than nanoparticles labeled using conventional organic dyes. The size of the resulting nanoparticles was controlled using microemulsion reaction media with sizes in the range of 20-100 nm and a polydispersity of <15%. In comparison with conventional surface tagged particles created by post-synthesis modification, this process maintains the physical and surface chemical properties that have the most pronounced effect on colloidal stability and interactions with their surroundings. These volume-labeled nanoparticles have proven to be extremely robust, showing excellent signal strength, negligible photobleaching, and minimal loss of functional organic components. The native or ``free'' surface of the volume-labeled particles can be altered to achieve a specific surface functionality without altering fluorescence. Their utility was demonstrated for visualizing the association of surface-modified fluorescent particles

  8. Dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with high-dose-rate brachytherapy for large prostate volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, George; Strom, Tobin J.; Shrinath, Kushagra; Mellon, Eric A.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Biagioli, Matthew C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States); Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: mcbiagioli@yahoo.com [Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Newnan, GA (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: to evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes. Materials and methods: one hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL) were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38%) unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4. Results: median follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3%) patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17%) patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p-0.04). There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity. Conclusions: dosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes. (author)

  9. Dosimetric Coverage of the Prostate, Normal Tissue Sparing, and Acute Toxicity with High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Large Prostate Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurposeTo evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes.Materials and MethodsOne hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38% unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.ResultsMedian follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3% patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17% patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p=0.04. There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity.ConclusionsDosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes.

  10. Technology of high-level nuclear waste disposal. Advances in the science and engineering of the management of high-level nuclear wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, P.L. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    The twenty papers in this volume are divided into three parts: site exploration and characterization; repository development and design; and waste package development and design. These papers represent the status of technology that existed in 1981 and 1982. Individual papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  11. A Highly Stable Marching-on-in-Time Volume Integral Equation Solver for Analyzing Transient Wave Interactions on High-Contrast Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-06

    Time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers represent an attractive alternative to finite difference (FDTD) and finite element (FEM) schemes for analyzing transient electromagnetic interactions on composite scatterers. Current induced on a scatterer, in response to a transient incident field, generates a scattered field. First, the scattered field is expressed as a spatio-temporal convolution of the current and the Green function of the background medium. Then, a TDIE is obtained by enforcing boundary conditions and/or fundamental field relations. TDIEs are often solved for the unknown current using marching on-in-time (MOT) schemes. MOT-TDIE solvers expand the current using local spatio-temporal basis functions. Inserting this expansion into the TDIE and testing the resulting equation in space and time yields a lower triangular system of equations (termed MOT system), which can be solved by marching in time for the coefficients of the current expansion. Stability of the MOT scheme often depends on how accurately the spatio-temporal convolution of the current and the Green function is discretized. In this work, band-limited prolate-based interpolation functions are used as temporal bases in expanding the current and discretizing the spatio-temporal convolution. Unfortunately, these functions are two sided, i.e., they require ”future” current samples for interpolation, resulting in a non-causal MOT system. To alleviate the effect of non-causality and restore the ability to march in time, an extrapolation scheme can be used to estimate the future values of the currents from their past values. Here, an accurate, stable and band-limited extrapolation scheme is developed for this purpose. This extrapolation scheme uses complex exponents, rather than commonly used harmonics, so that propagating and decaying mode fields inside the dielectric scatterers are accurately modeled. The resulting MOT scheme is applied to solving the time domain volume integral equation (VIE

  12. Acute severe organophosphate poisoning in a child who was successfully treated with therapeutic plasma exchange, high-volume hemodiafiltration, and lipid infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilbas, Osman; Kihtir, Hasan S; Altiti, Mohammad; Petmezci, Mey Talip; Balkaya, Seda; Bursal Duramaz, Burcu; Ersoy, Melike; Sevketoglu, Esra

    2016-10-01

    Acute severe organophosphate poisoning is a serious complication seen in developing and agricultural countries. Pralidoxime and high dose atropine are the standard treatments. There is no consensus about acute severe organophosphate poisonings that are unresponsive to pralidoxime, atropine, and supportive therapies. We report a case of acute severe organophosphate poisoning that was unresponsive to standard treatments and successfully treated with high-volume continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration and therapeutic plasma exchange combined with lipid infusion. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:467-469, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Synthesis of Macro-Mesostructuredγ-Al2O3 with Large Pore Volume and High Surface Area by a Facile Secondary Reforming Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Xiuhong; Duan Linhai; Xie Xiaohua; Wang Qiang; Wang Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Through improving the aging process during synthesis of the support,γ-Al2O3 with large pore volume and high surface area was synthesized by a facile secondary reforming method. The synthesis parameters, such as the reaction tem-perature, the ifrst aging temperature and the second aging temperature, were investigated. The textural properties ofγ-Al2O3 were characterized by means of N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetry (TG). The experimental results indicated that AACH and amorphous AlOOH were the precursors of alumina, which were formed via precipitation from solutions after reaction of aluminum sulphate with ammonium hydrogen carbonate. The precursor nanocrystallites grew and re-assembled during the secondary reforming process, which resulted in an increased pore size and pore volume and a decreased bulk density. The as-synthesizedγ-Al2O3 materials featured meso/macroporosity, large pore volume (2.175 cm3/g), high surface area (237.8 m2/g), and low bulk density (0.284 g/mL).

  14. High Temperature Silicides and Refractory Alloys Symposium Held in Boston, Massachusetts on November 29 -December 2, 1993. Volume 322

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-02

    Kinetics, M. Atzmon, J.M.E. Harper, A.L. Greer, M.R. Libera, 1993, ISBN: 1-55899-207-3 Volume 312- Common Themes and Mechanisms of Epitaxial Growth, P...characteristics. Table TH1. Commercial Refractory Metals and Alloys and Associated Melting Processes Base Metal Alloy Additions, wt. % How Made Nb EBM Nb 171... EBM ; EBM +VAM; PHM Nb 7.5Ta EBM +VAM Nb 45-48Ti EBM +VAM; PHM. Nb 44TI-25Ta PHM Nb 55Tt PEIM Ta ERM Ta 2.5W EBM +VAM Ta low EBM +VAM Ta 4ONb EBM + YAM Mo(Low

  15. A Freestream-Preserving High-Order Finite-Volume Method for Mapped Grids with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzik, S; McCorquodale, P; Colella, P

    2011-12-16

    A fourth-order accurate finite-volume method is presented for solving time-dependent hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on mapped grids that are adaptively refined in space and time. Novel considerations for formulating the semi-discrete system of equations in computational space combined with detailed mechanisms for accommodating the adapting grids ensure that conservation is maintained and that the divergence of a constant vector field is always zero (freestream-preservation property). Advancement in time is achieved with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method.

  16. High-order finite-volume solutions of the steady-state advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear Robin boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi; Zhang, Qinghai

    2017-09-01

    We propose high-order finite-volume schemes for numerically solving the steady-state advection-diffusion equation with nonlinear Robin boundary conditions. Although the original motivation comes from a mathematical model of blood clotting, the nonlinear boundary conditions may also apply to other scientific problems. The main contribution of this work is a generic algorithm for generating third-order, fourth-order, and even higher-order explicit ghost-filling formulas to enforce nonlinear Robin boundary conditions in multiple dimensions. Under the framework of finite volume methods, this appears to be the first algorithm of its kind. Numerical experiments on boundary value problems show that the proposed fourth-order formula can be much more accurate and efficient than a simple second-order formula. Furthermore, the proposed ghost-filling formulas may also be useful for solving other partial differential equations.

  17. Do Red Edge and Texture Attributes from High-Resolution Satellite Data Improve Wood Volume Estimation in a Semi-Arid Mountainous Region?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Paul; Mislimshoeva, Bunafsha; Brenning, Alexander;

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing-based woody biomass quantification in sparsely-vegetated areas is often limited when using only common broadband vegetation indices as input data for correlation with ground-based measured biomass information. Red edge indices and texture attributes are often suggested as a means...... to overcome this issue. However, clear recommendations on the suitability of specific proxies to provide accurate biomass information in semi-arid to arid environments are still lacking. This study contributes to the understanding of using multispectral high-resolution satellite data (RapidEye), specifically...... red edge and texture attributes, to estimate wood volume in semi-arid ecosystems characterized by scarce vegetation. LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) and random forest were used as predictive models relating in situ-measured aboveground standing wood volume to satellite data...

  18. Multiplexing spheroid volume, resazurin and acid phosphatase viability assays for high-throughput screening of tumour spheroids and stem cell neurospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Delyan P; Parker, Terry L; Walker, David A; Alexander, Cameron; Ashford, Marianne B; Gellert, Paul R; Garnett, Martin C

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional cell culture has many advantages over monolayer cultures, and spheroids have been hailed as the best current representation of small avascular tumours in vitro. However their adoption in regular screening programs has been hindered by uneven culture growth, poor reproducibility and lack of high-throughput analysis methods for 3D. The objective of this study was to develop a method for a quick and reliable anticancer drug screen in 3D for tumour and human foetal brain tissue in order to investigate drug effectiveness and selective cytotoxic effects. Commercially available ultra-low attachment 96-well round-bottom plates were employed to culture spheroids in a rapid, reproducible manner amenable to automation. A set of three mechanistically different methods for spheroid health assessment (Spheroid volume, metabolic activity and acid phosphatase enzyme activity) were validated against cell numbers in healthy and drug-treated spheroids. An automated open-source ImageJ macro was developed to enable high-throughput volume measurements. Although spheroid volume determination was superior to the other assays, multiplexing it with resazurin reduction and phosphatase activity produced a richer picture of spheroid condition. The ability to distinguish between effects on malignant and the proliferating component of normal brain was tested using etoposide on UW228-3 medulloblastoma cell line and human neural stem cells. At levels below 10 µM etoposide exhibited higher toxicity towards proliferating stem cells, whereas at concentrations above 10 µM the tumour spheroids were affected to a greater extent. The high-throughput assay procedures use ready-made plates, open-source software and are compatible with standard plate readers, therefore offering high predictive power with substantial savings in time and money.

  19. Multiplexing spheroid volume, resazurin and acid phosphatase viability assays for high-throughput screening of tumour spheroids and stem cell neurospheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyan P Ivanov

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional cell culture has many advantages over monolayer cultures, and spheroids have been hailed as the best current representation of small avascular tumours in vitro. However their adoption in regular screening programs has been hindered by uneven culture growth, poor reproducibility and lack of high-throughput analysis methods for 3D. The objective of this study was to develop a method for a quick and reliable anticancer drug screen in 3D for tumour and human foetal brain tissue in order to investigate drug effectiveness and selective cytotoxic effects. Commercially available ultra-low attachment 96-well round-bottom plates were employed to culture spheroids in a rapid, reproducible manner amenable to automation. A set of three mechanistically different methods for spheroid health assessment (Spheroid volume, metabolic activity and acid phosphatase enzyme activity were validated against cell numbers in healthy and drug-treated spheroids. An automated open-source ImageJ macro was developed to enable high-throughput volume measurements. Although spheroid volume determination was superior to the other assays, multiplexing it with resazurin reduction and phosphatase activity produced a richer picture of spheroid condition. The ability to distinguish between effects on malignant and the proliferating component of normal brain was tested using etoposide on UW228-3 medulloblastoma cell line and human neural stem cells. At levels below 10 µM etoposide exhibited higher toxicity towards proliferating stem cells, whereas at concentrations above 10 µM the tumour spheroids were affected to a greater extent. The high-throughput assay procedures use ready-made plates, open-source software and are compatible with standard plate readers, therefore offering high predictive power with substantial savings in time and money.

  20. Information needs for characterization of high-level waste repository sites in six geologic media. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-05-01

    Volume II contains appendices for the following: (1) remote sensing and surface mapping techniques; (2) subsurface mapping methods for site characterization; (3) gravity technique; (4) audio-frequency magnetotelluric technique; (5) seismic refraction technique; (6) direct-current electrical resistivity method; (7) magnetic technique; (8) seismic reflection technique; (9) seismic crosshole method; (10) mechanical downhole seismic velocity survey method; (11) borehole geophysical logging techniques; (12) drilling and coring methods for precharacterization studies; (13) subsurface drilling methods for site characterization; (14) geomechanical/thermomechanical techniques for precharacterization studies; (15)geomechanical/thermal techniques for site characterization studies; (16) exploratory geochemical techniques for precharacterization studies; (17) geochemical techniques for site characterization; (18) hydrologic techniques for precharacterization studies; (19) hydrologic techniques for site characterization; and (20) seismological techniques.

  1. Deflection of high energy protons by multiple volume reflections in a modified multi-strip silicon deflector

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, W; Butcher, M.; Cerutti, F.; Gilardoni, S.; Lari, L.; Lechner, A.; Losito, R.; Masi, A.; Mereghetti, A.; Metral, E.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Redaelli, S.; Schoofs, P.; Smirnov, G.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Baricordi, S.; Dalpiaz, P.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Vincenzi, D.; Claps, G.; Dabagov, S.; Hampai, D.; Murtas, F.; Cavoto, G.; Garattini, M.; Iacoangeli, F.; Ludovici, L.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A.G.; Chesnokov, Yu.A.; Maisheev, V.A.; Sandomirskiy, Yu.E.; Yanovich, A.A.; Yazynin, I.A.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Taratin, A.M.; Gavrikov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, Yu.M.; Lapina, L.P.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.; Previtali, V.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of multiple volume reflections in one crystal was observed in each of several bent silicon strips for 400 GeV/c protons. This considerably increased the particle deflections. Some particles were also deflected due to channeling in one of the subsequent strips. As a result, the incident beam was strongly spread because of opposite directions of the deflections. A modified multi-strip deflector produced by periodic grooves on the surface of a thick silicon plate was used for these measurements. This technique provides perfect mutual alignment between crystal strips. Such multi-strip deflector may be effective for collider beam halo collimation and a study is planned at the CERN SPS circulating beam.

  2. Influence of Meteorological Conditions on Changes in the Volume of the Pine Stem at the End of Vegetation Using High Resolution Dendrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Taminskas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using dendrometers for measuring a radial increment of trees is efficient not only for investigation into the dynamics of the increment but also for changes in the tree stem in general, for a physiological condition of trees during certain periods of time, reliance on meteorological conditions and for tree-ring formation studies. The conducted research has applied to high resolution DRL 26 dendrometers that helped with identifying and distinguishing the impacts of climatic factors on the physiology and growth of trees. Also, the performed investigation assisted in assessing the impact of microclimate conditions on changes in tree stems. The location for installing dendrometers was selected with reference to the criteria such as representative research location, the degree of violation assessment, equal distribution of research sites in Lithuania and the estimation of climatic, hydrologic and anthropogenic conditions. Considering the above mentioned criteria, three raised bogs in which temperature, automatic water level devices in wells and dendrometers installed in measurement areas were chosen. The research period lasted from the end of the vegetation period to the beginning of dormancy season. For research purposes, 5 growing Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris were used for examining changes in the stem volume. Another objective was to find out how stems were affected by growing in bog surroundings and to analyse the synchronicity of volume changes between trees. The conducted research disclosed specific features of the dynamics of changes in the stem volume at the end of vegetation, and the beginning of dormancy season was found.

  3. Randomized Noninferiority Trial of Reduced High-Dose Volume Versus Standard Volume Radiation Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of the BC2001 Trial (CRUK/01/004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huddart, Robert A., E-mail: robert.huddart@icr.ac.uk [Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Marsden NHSFT (National Health Service Foundation Trust) (United Kingdom); Hall, Emma [Institute of Cancer Research (United Kingdom); Hussain, Syed A. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Peter [Gloucestershire Hospitals NHSFT (United Kingdom); Rawlings, Christine [South Devon Healthcare NHSFT (United Kingdom); Tremlett, Jean [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals (United Kingdom); Crundwell, Malcolm [Royal Devon and Exeter NHSFT (United Kingdom); Adab, Fawzi A. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Sheehan, Denise [Royal Devon and Exeter NHSFT (United Kingdom); Syndikus, Isabel [Clatterbridge Cancer Centre NHSFT (United Kingdom); Hendron, Carey [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lewis, Rebecca; Waters, Rachel [Institute of Cancer Research (United Kingdom); James, Nicholas D. [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To test whether reducing radiation dose to uninvolved bladder while maintaining dose to the tumor would reduce side effects without impairing local control in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: In this phase III multicenter trial, 219 patients were randomized to standard whole-bladder radiation therapy (sRT) or reduced high-dose volume radiation therapy (RHDVRT) that aimed to deliver full radiation dose to the tumor and 80% of maximum dose to the uninvolved bladder. Participants were also randomly assigned to receive radiation therapy alone or radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in a partial 2 × 2 factorial design. The primary endpoints for the radiation therapy volume comparison were late toxicity and time to locoregional recurrence (with a noninferiority margin of 10% at 2 years). Results: Overall incidence of late toxicity was less than predicted, with a cumulative 2-year Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3/4 toxicity rate of 13% (95% confidence interval 8%, 20%) and no statistically significant differences between groups. The difference in 2-year locoregional recurrence free rate (RHDVRT − sRT) was 6.4% (95% confidence interval −7.3%, 16.8%) under an intention to treat analysis and 2.6% (−12.8%, 14.6%) in the “per-protocol” population. Conclusions: In this study RHDVRT did not result in a statistically significant reduction in late side effects compared with sRT, and noninferiority of locoregional control could not be concluded formally. However, overall low rates of clinically significant toxicity combined with low rates of invasive bladder cancer relapse confirm that (chemo)radiation therapy is a valid option for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

  4. Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

  5. Hubungan Kadar High Sensitivity- C Reactive Protein (Hs-Crp) Dengan Volume Infark Dan Outcome Fungsional Pada Pasien Stroke Iskemik Akut

    OpenAIRE

    Aritonang, Minar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : C-reactive protein is the acute phase protein and a well known marker of inflamation. The high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein assay is being increasingly used as a marker for stroke risk assessment, and as a marker for prognostication of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between hs-CRP level with infarct volume and functional outcome in acute ishemic stroke patients. Methods : We conducted a cross-sectional study of 35-acute ischemic ...

  6. Data Catalog Series for Space Science and Applications Flight Missions. Volume 2B; Descriptions of Data Sets from Geostationary and High-Altitude Scientific Spacecraft and Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Norman J. (Editor); Parthasarathy, R. (Editor); Hills, H. Kent (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from geostationary and high altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  7. Estimativas volumétricas em povoamentos de eucalipto sob regime de alto fuste e talhadia no sudoeste da Bahia Volumetric estimates in eucalypt plantation under regime of high forest and coppice in the southwest of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gileno Brito de Azevedo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Esse estudo teve como objetivo testar modelos volumétricos e avaliar a eficiência de três métodos para estimar o volume de madeira em plantios de Eucalyptus urophylla, manejados sob regime de alto fuste e talhadia no Município de Vitória da Conquista, BA. Foi realizada cubagem rigorosa de árvores para obtenção do volume individual, e com os dados foram ajustados sete modelos volumétricos. Os melhores modelos foram selecionados com base no critério de seleção do valor ponderado dos escores dos parâmetros estatísticos (VP. Os volumes obtidos por meio dos três métodos (fator de forma, quociente de forma e modelos ajustados foram comparados ao volume obtido na cubagem. O modelo de Schumacher e Hall logaritmizado e de Spurr foram os mais indicados para estimar o volume dos povoamentos nas duas condições de manejo. O volume obtido a partir dos dois melhores modelos ajustados resultou em estimativas mais próximas do volume real quando comparados aos volumes estimados pelo fator de forma e quociente de forma.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.309

    This study aimed to test volumetric models and check the the efficiency of three methods to estimate the wood volume in Eucalyptus urophylla plantation, managed under regime of high forest and coppice, on a property located in the county of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia. It was carried out rigorous measurements scaled trees to obtain the volume to adjust seven volumetric models. The best models were selected using the score pondered value of the statistical parameters (VP. The volumes obtained by three methods (form factor, form quotient and adjusted models were compared to the volume obtained in the scaling. The models of Schumacher e Hall (log and Spurr were the more indicated to estimate the volume of stands in both management conditions. The volume obtained from the two best adjusted models resulted in estimates closer to the real volume when compared to the volumes estimated by

  8. From surface to volume plasmons in hyperbolic metamaterials: General existence conditions for bulk high-k waves in metal-dielectric and graphene-dielectric multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Sipe, J E; Lavrinenko, Andrei V

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically investigate general existence conditions for broadband bulk large-wavevector (high-k) propagating waves (such as volume plasmon polaritons in hyperbolic metamaterials) in subwavelength periodic multilayer structures. Describing the elementary excitation in the unit cell of the structure by a generalized resonance pole of a reflection coefficient, and using Bloch's theorem, we derive analytical expressions for the band of large-wavevector propagating solutions. We apply our formalism to determine the high-k band existence in two important cases: the well-known metal-dielectric, and recently introduced graphene-dielectric stacks. We confirm that short-range surface plasmons in thin metal layers can give rise to hyperbolic metamaterial properties, and demonstrate that long-range surface plasmons cannot. We also show that graphene-dielectric multilayers tend to support high-k waves and explore the range of parameters for which this is possible, confirming the prospects of using graphene for mater...

  9. Volume production of high quality SiC substrates and epitaxial layers: Defect trends and device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, St. G.; Sanchez, E. K.; Hansen, D. M.; Drachev, R. D.; Chung, G.; Thomas, B.; Zhang, J.; Loboda, M. J.; Dudley, M.; Wang, H.; Wu, F.; Byrappa, S.; Raghothamachar, B.; Choi, G.

    2012-08-01

    We review the progress of silicon carbide (SiC) bulk growth by the sublimation method, highlighting recent advances at Dow Corning, which resulted in the commercial release of 100 mm n-type 4H-SiC wafers with median micropipe densities (MPD) in production wafers screw dislocation densities reactor. The combined improvements in the epitaxy process, pre-epi wafer surface preparation and the underlying substrate quality itself have led to a reduction of the device killer defect density from 8 cm-2 to 1.5 cm-2 on a volume product like 100 mm 4° off-axis 6.5 μm epi-wafers. Dow Corning production epi-wafers routinely show Schottky diode yields above 90% at a die size of 2 mm×2 mm. Additionally, 50-100 μm thick epitaxy on 76 mm 4° off-axis wafers with morphological defect densities of 2-6 cm-2, a surface roughness (RMS) ≤1 nm as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and carrier lifetimes consistently in the range of 2-3 μs has been demonstrated.

  10. Novel muscle and connective tissue design enables high extensibility and controls engulfment volume in lunge-feeding rorqual whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadwick, Robert E; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Potvin, Jean; Pyenson, Nicholas D; Vogl, A Wayne

    2013-07-15

    Muscle serves a wide variety of mechanical functions during animal feeding and locomotion, but the performance of this tissue is limited by how far it can be extended. In rorqual whales, feeding and locomotion are integrated in a dynamic process called lunge feeding, where an enormous volume of prey-laden water is engulfed into a capacious ventral oropharyngeal cavity that is bounded superficially by skeletal muscle and ventral groove blubber (VGB). The great expansion of the cavity wall presents a mechanical challenge for the physiological limits of skeletal muscle, yet its role is considered fundamental in controlling the flux of water into the mouth. Our analyses of the functional properties and mechanical behaviour of VGB muscles revealed a crimped microstructure in an unstrained, non-feeding state that is arranged in parallel with dense and straight elastin fibres. This allows the muscles to accommodate large tissue deformations of the VGB yet still operate within the known strain limits of vertebrate skeletal muscle. VGB transverse strains in routine-feeding rorquals were substantially less than those observed in dead ones, where decomposition gas stretched the VGB to its elastic limit, evidence supporting the idea that eccentric muscle contraction modulates the rate of expansion and ultimate size of the ventral cavity during engulfment.

  11. Solar High-energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE). Volume 1: Proposed concept, statement of work and cost plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Martin, Franklin D.; Prince, T.; Lin, R.; Bruner, M.; Culhane, L.; Ramaty, R.; Doschek, G.; Emslie, G.; Lingenfelter, R.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of the Solar High-Energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE) is studied. The primary goal is to understand the impulsive release of energy, efficient acceleration of particles to high energies, and rapid transport of energy. Solar flare studies are the centerpieces of the investigation because in flares these high energy processes can be studied in unmatched detail at most wavelenth regions of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as in energetic charged particles and neutrons.

  12. Low volume short duration high-intensity interval training and repeated sprint ability in Gaelic football players

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, David

    2014-01-01

    Gaelic Football is the most popular sport in Ireland and is characterized by irregular changes of pace and high-intensity efforts interspersed with periods of light to moderate intensity activity. Speed, power and aerobic capacity are essential fitness components for optimal performance during match play. A high level of aerobic conditioning is required to generate and maintain power output during repeated high intensity activities. Study 1: Anthropometric, physiological, metabolic and en...

  13. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  14. Target volume definition in high-risk prostate cancer patients using sentinel node SPECT/CT and 18 F-choline PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vees Hansjörg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the influence of sentinel lymph nodes (SNs SPECT/CT and 18 F-choline (18 F-FCH PET/CT in radiotherapy (RT treatment planning for prostate cancer patients with a high-risk for lymph node (LN involvement. Methods Twenty high-risk prostate cancer patients underwent a pelvic SPECT acquisition following a transrectal ultrasound guided injection of 99mTc-Nanocoll into the prostate. In all patients but one an 18 F-FCH PET/CT for RT treatment planning was performed. SPECT studies were coregistered with the respective abdominal CTs. Pelvic SNs localized on SPECT/CT and LN metastases detected by 18 F-FCH PET/CT were compared to standard pelvic clinical target volumes (CTV. Results A total of 104 pelvic SNs were identified on SPECT/CT (mean 5.2 SNs/patient; range 1–10. Twenty-seven SNs were located outside the standard pelvic CTV, 17 in the proximal common iliac and retroperitoneal regions above S1, 9 in the pararectal fat and 1 in the inguinal region. SPECT/CT succeeded to optimize the definition of the CTV and treatment plans in 6/20 patients due to the presence of pararectal SNs located outside the standard treatment volume. 18 F-FCH PET/CT identified abnormal tracer uptake in the iliac LN region in 2/19 patients. These abnormal LNs were negative on SPECT/CT suggesting a potential blockade of lymphatic drainage by metastatic LNs with a high tumour burden. Conclusions Multimodality imaging which combines SPECT/CT prostate lymphoscintigraphy and 18 F-FCH PET/CT identified SNs outside standard pelvic CTVs or highly suspicious pelvic LNs in 40% of high-risk prostate cancer patients, highlighting the potential impact of this approach in RT treatment planning.

  15. Degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack: Experiment investigation on the effect of high volume fly ash content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Sunarmasto; Tyas, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Concrete is susceptible to a variety of chemical attacks. In the sulfuric acid environment, concrete is subjected to a combination of sulfuric and acid attack. This research is aimed to investigate the degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack based on measurement of compressive strength loss and diameter change. Since the proportion of SCC contains higher cement than that of normal concrete, the vulnerability of this concrete to sulfuric acid attack could be reduced by partial replacement of cement with fly ash at high volume level. The effect of high volume fly ash at 50-70% cement replacement levels on the extent of degradation owing to sulfuric acid will be assessed in this study. It can be shown that an increase in the utilization of fly ash to partially replace cement tends to reduce the degradation as confirmed by less compressive strength loss and diameter change. The effect of fly ash to reduce the degradation of SCC is more pronounced at a later age.

  16. A highly detailed FEM volume conductor model based on the ICBM152 average head template for EEG source imaging and TCS targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Stefan; Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C

    2015-08-01

    In electroencephalographic (EEG) source imaging as well as in transcranial current stimulation (TCS), it is common to model the head using either three-shell boundary element (BEM) or more accurate finite element (FEM) volume conductor models. Since building FEMs is computationally demanding and labor intensive, they are often extensively reused as templates even for subjects with mismatching anatomies. BEMs can in principle be used to efficiently build individual volume conductor models; however, the limiting factor for such individualization are the high acquisition costs of structural magnetic resonance images. Here, we build a highly detailed (0.5mm(3) resolution, 6 tissue type segmentation, 231 electrodes) FEM based on the ICBM152 template, a nonlinear average of 152 adult human heads, which we call ICBM-NY. We show that, through more realistic electrical modeling, our model is similarly accurate as individual BEMs. Moreover, through using an unbiased population average, our model is also more accurate than FEMs built from mismatching individual anatomies. Our model is made available in Matlab format.

  17. Effects of Changes in Lung Volume on Oscillatory Flow Rate During High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Butcher

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO in mucolysis and mucous clearance is thought to be dependant on oscillatory flow rate (Fosc. Therefore, increasing Fosc during HFCWO may have a clinical benefit.

  18. High-Volume Production of Lightweight, Multi-Junction Solar Cells Using 6-inch GaAs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Very large solar arrays to power future solar electric propulsion systems will require a new generation of solar cells that are not only high efficiency, but also...

  19. 1995 NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop. Volume 2; Configuration Design, Analysis, and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop on September 12-13, 1995. The workshop was designed to bring together NASAs scientists and engineers and their counterparts in industry, other Government agencies, and academia working together in the sonic boom element of NASAs High-Speed Research Program. Specific objectives of this workshop were to: (1) report the progress and status of research in sonic boom propagation, acceptability, and design; (2) promote and disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; (3) help promote synergy among the scientists working in the Program; and (4) identify technology pacing, the development C, of viable reduced-boom High-Speed Civil Transport concepts. The Workshop was organized in four sessions: Sessions 1 Sonic Boom Propagation (Theoretical); Session 2 Sonic Boom Propagation (Experimental); Session 3 Acceptability Studies-Human and Animal; and Session 4 - Configuration Design, Analysis, and Testing.

  20. The role of informal dimensions of safety in high-volume organisational routines: an ethnographic study of test results handling in UK general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Suzanne; Checkland, Katherine; Bowie, Paul; Guthrie, Bruce

    2017-04-27

    The handling of laboratory, imaging and other test results in UK general practice is a high-volume organisational routine that is both complex and high risk. Previous research in this area has focused on errors and harm, but a complementary approach is to better understand how safety is achieved in everyday practice. This paper ethnographically examines the role of informal dimensions of test results handling routines in the achievement of safety in UK general practice and how these findings can best be developed for wider application by policymakers and practitioners. Non-participant observation was conducted of high-volume organisational routines across eight UK general practices with diverse organisational characteristics. Sixty-two semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the key practice staff alongside the analysis of relevant documents. While formal results handling routines were described similarly across the eight study practices, the everyday structure of how the routine should be enacted in practice was informally understood. Results handling safety took a range of local forms depending on how different aspects of safety were prioritised, with practices varying in terms of how they balanced thoroughness (i.e. ensuring the high-quality management of results by the most appropriate clinician) and efficiency (i.e. timely management of results) depending on a range of factors (e.g. practice history, team composition). Each approach adopted created its own potential risks, with demands for thoroughness reducing productivity and demands for efficiency reducing handling quality. Irrespective of the practice-level approach adopted, staff also regularly varied what they did for individual patients depending on the specific context (e.g. type of result, patient circumstances). General practices variably prioritised a legitimate range of results handling safety processes and outcomes, each with differing strengths and trade-offs. Future safety

  1. Excluded volume effect of counterions and water dipoles near a highly charged surface due to a rotationally averaged Boltzmann factor for water dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, Ekaterina; Iglič, Aleš

    2013-03-01

    Water ordering near a negatively charged electrode is one of the decisive factors determining the interactions of an electrode with the surrounding electrolyte solution or tissue. In this work, the generalized Langevin-Bikerman model (Gongadze-Iglič model) taking into account the cavity field and the excluded volume principle is used to calculate the space dependency of ions and water number densities in the vicinity of a highly charged surface. It is shown that for high enough surface charged densities the usual trend of increasing counterion number density towards the charged surface may be completely reversed, i.e. the drop in the counterions number density near the charged surface is predicted.

  2. Characterization of Aluminum Honeycomb and Experimentation for Model Development and Validation, Volume I: Discovery and Characterization Experiments for High-Density Aluminum Honeycomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials; Korellis, John S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials; Lee, Kenneth L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials; Scheffel, Simon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials; Hinnerichs, Terry Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solid Mechanics; Neilsen, Michael K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Mechanics Development; Scherzinger, William Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solid Mechanics

    2006-08-01

    Honeycomb is a structure that consists of two-dimensional regular arrays of open cells. High-density aluminum honeycomb has been used in weapon assemblies to mitigate shock and protect payload because of its excellent crush properties. In order to use honeycomb efficiently and to certify the payload is protected by the honeycomb under various loading conditions, a validated honeycomb crush model is required and the mechanical properties of the honeycombs need to be fully characterized. Volume I of this report documents an experimental study of the crush behavior of high-density honeycombs. Two sets of honeycombs were included in this investigation: commercial grade for initial exploratory experiments, and weapon grade, which satisfied B61 specifications. This investigation also includes developing proper experimental methods for crush characterization, conducting discovery experiments to explore crush behaviors for model improvement, and identifying experimental and material uncertainties.

  3. High-volume plasma exchange in a patient with acute liver failure due to non-exertional heat stroke in a sauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Jung; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Sue, Yuh-Mou; Chen, Tzay-Jinn; Cheng, Chung-Yi

    2014-10-01

    Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition characterized by an increased core body temperature (over 40°C) and a systemic inflammatory response, which may lead to a syndrome of multiple organ dysfunction. Heat stroke may be due to either strenuous exercise or non-exercise-induced exposure to a high environmental temperature. Current management of heat stroke is mostly supportive, with an emphasis on cooling the core body temperature and preventing the development of multiple organ dysfunction. Prognosis of heat stroke depends on the severity of organ involvement. Here, we report a rare case of non-exercise-induced heat stroke in a 73-year-old male patient who was suffering from acute liver failure after prolonged exposure in a hot sauna room. We successfully managed this patient by administering high-volume plasma exchange, and the patient recovered completely after treatment.

  4. Quantification of gully volume using very high resolution DSM generated through 3D reconstruction from airborne and field digital imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carlos; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Laredo, Mario; Gómez, Jose Alfonso

    2013-04-01

    estimates of the main dimensions of the gully (length, slope profile and total volume) for both methods. This analysis proved useful to define the field of application for each technique, considering their accuracy, cost and processing requirements. References Castillo, C., R. Perez, M.R. James, J.N. Quinton, E.V. Taguas, J.A. Gómez. 2012. Comparing the Accuracy of Several Field Methods for Measuring Gully Erosion. Soil Science Society of America Journal 76: 1319-1332. James, M. and Robson, S. 2012. Straightforward reconstruction of 3d surfaces and topography with a camera: Accuracy and geoscience application. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117.

  5. Serum levels of GFAP and EGFR in primary and recurrent high-grade gliomas: correlation to tumor volume, molecular markers, and progression-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Aida; Gardberg, Maria; Frantzén, Janek; Parkkola, Riitta; Vuorinen, Ville; Pesola, Marko; Minn, Heikki

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to study the association of two potential serum biomarkers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with prognostic markers such as IDH1 mutation, tumor burden, and survival in patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG). Additionally, our objective was to evaluate the potential of serum EGFR as a surrogate marker for EGFR status in the tumor. Pre-operative serum samples were prospectively collected from patients with primary (n = 17) or recurrent (n = 10) HGG. Serum GFAP and EGFR levels were determined by ELISA and studied for correlation with molecular markers including EGFR amplification, tumor volume in contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI, and progression-free survival (PFS). Pre-operative serum GFAP level of ≥0.014 ng/ml was 86 % sensitive and 85 % specific for the diagnosis of glioblastoma. High GFAP was related to the lack of IDH1 mutation (P = 0.016), high Ki67 proliferation index (P < 0.001), and poor PFS (HR 5.9, CI 1.2-29.9, P = 0.032). Serum GFAP correlated with enhancing tumor volume in primary (r = 0.64 P = 0.005), but also in recurrent HGGs (r = 0.76 P = 0.011). In contrast, serum EGFR levels did not differ between HGG patients and 13 healthy controls, and were not related to EGFR status in the tumor. We conclude that high serum GFAP associates with IDH1 mutation-negative HGG, and poor PFS. Correlation with tumor burden in recurrent HGG implicates the potential of serum GFAP for detection of tumor recurrence. Our results suggest that circulating EGFR is not derived from glioma cells and cannot be used as a marker for EGFR status in the tumor.

  6. Pre-column dilution large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of multi-class pesticides in cabbages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Dianbao; Li, Siming; Yao, Jinting; Zhan, Song; Huang, Taohong; Hashi, Yuki; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Liu, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Ting

    2016-04-15

    Pre-column dilution large volume injection (PD-LVI), a novel sample injection technique for reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was developed in this study. The PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system was designed by slightly modifying the commercial UHPLC-MS/MS equipment with a mixer chamber. During the procedure of PD-LVI, sample solution of 200μL was directly carried by the organic mobile phase to the mixer and diluted with the aqueous mobile phase. After the mixture was introduced to the UHPLC column in a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (15/85, v/v), the target analytes were stacked on the head of the column until following separation. Using QuEChERS extraction, no additional steps such as solvent evaporation or residue redissolution were needed before injection. The features of PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system were systematically investigated, including the injection volume, the mixer volume, the precondition time and the gradient elution. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by direct analysis of 24 pesticides in cabbages. Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.00074-0.8 ng/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 63.3-109% with relative standard deviations less than 8.1%. Compared with common UHPLC-MS/MS technique, PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS showed significant advantages such as excellent sensitivity and reliability. The mechanism of PD-LVI was demonstrated to be based on the column-head stacking effect with pre-column dilution. Based on the results, PD-LVI as a simple and effective sample injection technique of reverse phase UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of trace analytes in complex samples showed a great promising prospect.

  7. High-temperature liquid-metal technology review. A Bimonthly Technical Progress Review, Volume 7, Number 2, April 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1969-04-01

    The purpose of the High-Temperature Liquid-Metal Technology Review is to provide up-to-date information on the various research and development programs in the United States in the field of high-temperature liquid-metal technology. The method is to publish reviews prepared by members of the Department of Applied Science of the Brookhaven National Laboratory on current topical and progress reports submitted by contracting organizations. When results and conclusions are reported, it is intended that the individual reviews become both summaries and critiques. Thirteen reviews are presented in this issue.

  8. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  9. Optimization of carbon nanotube volume percentage for enhancement of high frequency magnetic properties of SrFe8MgCoTi2O19/MWCNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordani, Gholam Reza; Ghasemi, Ali; saidi, Ali

    2014-08-01

    A novel magnetic nanocomposite of multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with SrFe8MgCoTi2O19 nanoparticles have been prepared by a chemical co-precipitation method. The structural, magnetic and electromagnetic properties of samples were studied as a function of volume percentage of MWCNTs by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analysis. The XRD and FTIR results showed that the nanocomposites were synthesized successfully. Field emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs demonstrated that homogeneous and high level of dispersion of MWCNTs and Sr-hexaferrite nanoparticles in nanocomposite samples were obtained. The saturation magnetization of the nanocomposite samples was found to decrease by an increase in volume percentage of MWCNTs up to 5 vol%. The vector network analysis results show that the highest value of reflection loss of nanocomposite was -42.43 dB at 11.13 GHz with an absorption bandwidth of more than of 4 GHz. The results indicate that, these novel types of nanocomposites with appropriate amount of MWCNTs hold great promise for microwave device applications.

  10. Comparison of knee-high Mediven ulcer kit and Mediven Plus compression stockings: measurement of leg volume, interface pressure and static stiffness index changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Győző Szolnoky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulcer stockings are produced to have higher interface pressure and easier application compared to those of classic medical compression stockings. We aimed to compare volume decrease, pressure loss and stiffness index of a classical medical compression stocking and an ulcer stocking of the same interface pressure range in 10 patients with bilateral venous and 10 persons with lymphatic insufficiency. Interface pressure measurement in supine and standing positions and optoelectronic volumetry served for primary outcome variables. Both stockings were capable of inducing remarkable gradual volume reductions in different time points except classic stocking at 2 h in phleboedema care. Ulcer stocking pressures in lymph- and phleboedema were highly superior. In lymphedema a gradual interface pressure loss was attributed to both stockings regardless of body positions. Static stiffness indices did not differ statistically except classic stocking at baseline (P=0.0312 and 2 h (P=0.0082 comprising venous edema patients. Both stockings acted similarly but ulcer stocking had considerably higher interface pressures in each measurement and raised stiffness indices initially and the two-layer system facilitates donning therefore ulcer stocking could serve an alternative of classic medical compression stocking even in the treatment of leg edema.

  11. Physics of laser fusion. Volume IV. The future development of high-power solid-state laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Trenholme, J.B.

    1982-11-01

    Solid state lasers, particularly neodymium glass systems, have undergone intensive development during the last decade. In this paper, we review solid state laser technology in the context of high-peak-power systems for inertial confinement fusion. Specifically addressed are five major factors: efficiency, wavelength flexibility, average power, system complexity, and cost; these factors today limit broader application of the technology. We conclude that each of these factors can be greatly improved within current fundamental physical limits. We further conclude that the systematic development of new solid state laser madia, both vitreous and crystalline, should ultimately permit the development of wavelength-flexible, very high average power systems with overall efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20%.

  12. AEROX: Computer program for transonic aircraft aerodynamics to high angles of attack. Volume 1: Aerodynamic methods and program users' guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The AEROX program estimates lift, induced-drag and pitching moments to high angles (typ. 60 deg) for wings and for wingbody combinations with or without an aft horizontal tail. Minimum drag coefficients are not estimated, but may be input for inclusion in the total aerodynamic parameters which are output in listed and plotted formats. The theory, users' guide, test cases, and program listing are presented.

  13. Effects of changes in lung volume on oscillatory flow rate during high-frequency chest wall oscillation

    OpenAIRE

    Scott J Butcher; Pasiorowski, Michal P; Jones, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) in mucolysis and mucous clearance is thought to be dependant on oscillatory flow rate (Fosc). Therefore, increasing Fosc during HFCWO may have a clinical benefit.OBJECTIVES: To examine effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on Fosc at two oscillation frequencies in healthy subjects and patients with airway obstruction.METHODS: Five healthy subjects and six patients with airway obstruction underwent 1...

  14. Reliability Advancement for Electronic Engine Controllers. Volume 2. Guide to Development of High Reliability Electronic Engine Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    and exhaust nozzle areas to maintain constant values of high and low turbine work and constant gas flow through the compressor and fan duct. Power...compressor until the low turbine exit flow parameter reaches its maximum allowable value, determined from consideration of pressure loss and flow separation...and static pre3sures divided by total pressure of the compressor discharge (zAP/P)3, and Low - turbine inlet area (A41) controls compressor corrected

  15. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 57, HIGH PT PHYSICS AT RHIC, DECEMBER 2-6, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretzer, Stefan; Venugopalan, Raju; Vogelsang, Werner

    2004-02-18

    The AuAu, dAu, and pp collision modes of the RHIC collider at BNL have led to the publication of exciting high p{perpendicular} particle production data. There have also been two physics runs with polarized protons, and preliminary results on the double-spin asymmetry for pion production had been presented very recently. The ontological questions behind these measurements are fascinating: Did RHIC collisions create a Quark-Gluon-Plasma phase and did they verify the Color Glass Condensate as the high energy limit of QCD? Will the Spin Crisis finally be resolved in terms of gluon polarization and what new surprises are we yet to meet for Transverse Spin? Phenomena related to sub-microscopic questions as important as these call for interpretations that are footed in solid theory. At large p{perpendicular}, perturbative concepts are legitimately expected to provide useful approaches. The corresponding hard parton dynamics are, in several ways, key to unraveling the initial or final state and collisional phase of hard scattering events in vacuum as well as in hot or cold nuclear matter. Before the advent of RHIC data, a RIKEN-BNL workshop had been held at BNL in March 1999 on ''Hard Parton Physics in High Energy Nuclear Collisions''. The 2003 workshop on ''High p{perpendicular} Physics at RHIC'' was a logical continuation of this previous workshop. It gave the opportunity to revisit the 1999 expectations in the light of what has been found in the meantime and, at the same time, to critically discuss the underlying theoretical concepts. We brought together theorists who have done seminal work on the foundations of parton phenomenology in field theory, with theorists and experimentalists who are presently working on RHIC phenomenology. The participants were both from a high-energy physics and nuclear physics background and it remains only to be said here that this chemistry worked perfectly and the workshop was a great success.

  16. The large-volume high-pressure facility at GSECARS: A 'Swiss-army-knife' approach to synchrotron-based experimental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanbin; Rivers, Mark; Sutton, Steve; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Uchida, Takeyuki; Sanehira, Takeshi; (UC)

    2009-06-01

    A number of new techniques have been developed at the large-volume press (LVP) high-pressure facility at the GeoSoilEnviroCARS (GSECARS) sector of the advanced photon source (APS). This article describes the 10 MN (1000 T) and 2.5 MN (250 T) hydraulic presses in the insertion device (ID) and bending magnet (BM) beamlines, respectively, with several apparatus and various diffraction and imaging techniques developed since the inception of the facility. Several Kawai-type high-pressure modules, whose second-stage anvils range from 10 mm to 25.4 mm in edge lengths, are used in the hydraulic presses, with pressure (P) and temperature (T) capabilities up to 30 GPa and 3000 K. A DIA-type apparatus can be compressed in both presses for studies requiring large sample volumes. A deformation DIA (D-DIA) has been developed to allow controlled deformation studies on both crystalline and glass materials, using monochromatic diffraction and imaging, up to 20 GPa and 1800 K. A high-pressure tomography apparatus is available for conducting tomography studies at high P and T, with a typical spatial resolution of a few micrometers. Toroidal anvil modules provide large 2{theta} angles for studies of non-crystalline materials, and a new large D-DIA module is under construction for double-stage megabar pressure generation as well as deformation on large samples with the capability of acoustic emission detection. The flexible design of the monochromator at the BM beamline makes it feasible to switch between monochromatic and white-beam mode during an experiment, ideal for monochromatic imaging studies (e.g., high-P tomography) with energy-dispersive diffraction for pressure measurements. A new angle-dispersive diffraction technique has been developed for high P-T crystallography studies, where a solid-state detector is step-scanned, thereby collecting a large number of angle-dispersive spectra over a wide range of photon energies recorded in the multi-channel analyzer. An ultrasonic

  17. Pressure ratio effects on self-similar scalar mixing of high-pressure turbulent jets in a pressurized volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Adam; Pickett, Lyle; Frank, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Many real world combustion devices model fuel scalar mixing by assuming the self-similar argument established in atmospheric free jets. This allows simple prediction of the mean and rms fuel scalar fields to describe the mixing. This approach has been adopted in super critical liquid injections found in diesel engines where the liquid behaves as a dense fluid. The effect of pressure ratio (injection to ambient) when the ambient is greater than atmospheric pressure, upon the self-similar collapse has not been well characterized, particularly the effect upon mixing constants, jet spreading rates, and virtual origins. Changes in these self-similar parameters control the reproduction of the scalar mixing statistics. This experiment investigates the steady state mixing of high pressure ethylene jets in a pressurized pure nitrogen environment for various pressure ratios and jet orifice diameters. Quantitative laser Rayleigh scattering imaging was performed utilizing a calibration procedure to account for the pressure effects upon scattering interference within the high-pressure vessel.

  18. Free-jet acoustic investigation of high-radius-ratio coannular plug nozzles. Comprehensive data report, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, P. R.; Janardan, B. A.; Majjigi, R. K.; Shutiani, P. K.; Vogt, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    Six coannular plug nozzle configurations having inverted velocity and temperature profiles, and a baseline convergent conical nozzle were tested for simulated flight acoustic evaluation in General Electric's Anechoic Free-Jet Acoustic Facility. The nozzles were tested over a range of test conditions that are typical of a Variable Cycle Engine for application to advanced high speed aircraft. The outer stream radius ratio for most of the configurations was 0.853, and the inner-stream-outer-stream area ratio was tested in the range of 0.54. Other variables investigated were the influence of bypass struts, a simple noncontoured convergent-divergent outer stream nozzle for forward quadrant shock noise control, and the effects of varying outer stream radius and inner-stream-to-outer-stream velocity ratios on the flight noise signatures of the nozzles. It was found that in simulated flight, the high-radius-ratio coannular plug nozzles maintain their jet noise and shock noise reduction features previously observed in static testing. The presence of nozzle bypass structs will not significantly effect the acoustic noise reduction features of a General Electric-type nozzle design. A unique coannular plug nozzle flight acoustic spectral prediction method was identified and found to predict the measured results quite well. Special laser velocimeter and acoustic measurements were performed which have given new insight into the jet and shock noise reduction mechanisms of coannular plug nozzles with regard to identifying further beneficial research efforts.

  19. A biomechanical perspective on the role of large stem volume and high water content in baobab trees (Adansonia spp.; Bombacaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapotin, Saharah Moon; Razanameharizaka, Juvet H; Holbrook, N Michele

    2006-09-01

    The stems of large trees serve in transport, storage, and support; however, the degree to which these roles are reflected in their morphology is not always apparent. The large, water-filled stems of baobab trees (Adansonia spp.) are generally assumed to serve a water storage function, yet recent studies indicate limited use of stored water. Through an analysis of wood structure and composition, we examined whether baobab morphology reflects biomechanical constraints rather than water storage capacity in the six Madagascar baobab species. Baobab wood has a high water content (up to 79%), low wood density (0.09-0.17 g · cm(-3)), high parenchyma content (69-88%), and living cells beyond 35 cm into the xylem from the cambium. Volumetric construction cost of the wood is several times lower than in more typical trees, and the elastic modulus approaches that of parenchyma tissue. Safety factors calculated from estimated elastic buckling heights were low, indicating that baobabs are not more overbuilt than other temperate and tropical trees, yet the energy investment in stem material is comparable to that in temperate deciduous trees. Furthermore, the elastic modulus of the wood decreases with water content, such that excessive water withdrawal from the stem could affect mechanical stability.

  20. High order finite volume methods on wavelet-adapted grids with local time-stepping on multicore architectures for the simulation of shock-bubble interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazialhosseini, Babak; Rossinelli, Diego; Bergdorf, Michael; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2010-11-01

    We present a space-time adaptive solver for single- and multi-phase compressible flows that couples average interpolating wavelets with high-order finite volume schemes. The solver introduces the concept of wavelet blocks, handles large jumps in resolution and employs local time-stepping for efficient time integration. We demonstrate that the inherently sequential wavelet-based adaptivity can be implemented efficiently in multicore computer architectures using task-based parallelism and introducing the concept of wavelet blocks. We validate our computational method on a number of benchmark problems and we present simulations of shock-bubble interaction at different Mach numbers, demonstrating the accuracy and computational performance of the method.