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Sample records for high volume fraction

  1. Performance enhancement of direct ethanol fuel cell using Nafion composites with high volume fraction of titania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, B. R.; Isidoro, R. A.; Santiago, E. I.; Fonseca, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports on the performance enhancement of direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) at 130 °C with Nafion-titania composite electrolytes prepared by sol-gel technique and containing high volume fractions of the ceramic phase. It is found that for high volume fractions of titania (>10 vol%) the ethanol uptake of composites is largely reduced while the proton conductivity at high-temperatures is weakly dependent on the titania content. Such tradeoff between alcohol uptake and conductivity resulted in a boost of DEFC performance at high temperatures using Nafion-titania composites with high fraction of the inorganic phase.

  2. Thermosetting resins with high fractions of free volume and inherently low dielectric constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang-Kai; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Su, Wen-Chiung; Liu, Ying-Ling

    2015-08-18

    This work demonstrates a new class of thermosetting resins, based on Meldrum's acid (MA) derivatives, which have high fractions of free volume and inherently low k values of about 2.0 at 1 MHz. Thermal decomposition of the MA groups evolves CO2 and acetone to create air-trapped cavities so as to reduce the dielectric constants.

  3. Determination of respirable mass concentration using a high volume air sampler and a sedimentation method for fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.

    1995-12-31

    A preliminary study of a new method for determining respirable mass concentration is described. This method uses a high volume air sampler and subsequent fractionation of the collected mass using a particle sedimentation technique. Side-by-side comparisons of this method with cyclones were made in the field and in the laboratory. There was good agreement among the samplers in the laboratory, but poor agreement in the field. The effect of wind on the samplers` capture efficiencies is the primary hypothesized source of error among the field results. The field test took place at the construction site of a hazardous waste landfill located on the Hanford Reservation.

  4. Effect of volume fraction of alpha and transformed beta on the high cycle fatigue properties of bimodal Ti6Al4V alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Shital; Powar, Amit; Patil, Sandip; Supare, Ashish; Farane, Bhagwan; Singh, Rajkumar, Dr.

    2017-05-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of volume fraction of alpha and transformed beta phase on the high-cycle fatigue (HCF) properties of the bimodal titanium Ti6Al4V alloy. The effect of such morphology on mechanical properties was studied using tensile and rotating bending fatigue test as per ASTM standards. Microstructures and fractography of the specimens were studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively.Ti6Al4V alloy samples were heat treated to have three distinctive volume fractions of alpha and transformed beta phase. With an increase in quench delay from 30,50 and 70 sec during quenching after solutionizing temperature of 967°C, the volume fraction of alpha was found to be increased from 20% to 67%. Tests on tensile and rotating bending fatigue showed that the specimen with 20% volume fraction of alpha phase exhibited the highest tensile and fatigue strength, however the properties gets deteriorate with increase in volume fraction of alpha.

  5. Effect of reinforcement volume fraction on the density & elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found the elastic moduli of high volume fraction composites are improved with the introduction of certain materials reinforcement such as Mo, Pt, Cr, Fe, U, etc. However, they decrease with some other materials reinforcements, as in the case of glass E and Cd. Moreover, we showed that the densities and elastic ...

  6. Resistance to Abrasive Wear and Volume Fraction of Carbides in Cast High-manganese Austenitic Steel with Composite Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tęcza G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cast Hadfield steel is characterised by high abrasion resistance, provided, however, that it is exposed to the effect of dynamic loads. During abrasion without loading, e.g. under the impact of loose sand jet, its wear resistance drops very drastically. To increase the abrasion resistance of this alloy under the conditions where no pressure is acting, primary vanadium carbides are formed in the metallurgical process, to obtain a composite structure after the melt solidification. The primary, very hard, carbides uniformly distributed in the austenitic matrix are reported to double the wear resistance of samples subjected to the effect of a silicon carbide-water mixture.

  7. Aluminium castings with high particle volume fraction by reactive infiltration; Hanno yoshin ni yoru kotaisekiritsu no ryushi fukugo aluminium imono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujikawa, M.; Ayukawa, S.; Kawamoto, M. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hino, M. [Okayama Prefectural Industrial Technology Center, Okayama (Japan)

    1998-03-25

    Study was made on reactive infiltration for improving a wear resistance by forming a high-density Al2O3 layer on Al alloy surface. Heating of a mixture of SiO2 and Al over activation energy produces Al2O3 and Si by thermit type exothermic reaction. In experiment, a proper mixture of Al powder of 10{mu}m in mean size and 99.9% in purity, and amorphous SiO2 particles of 150{mu}m in mean size was used together with zinc stearate of 2mass%. A green compact of 10mm diameter and 12mm high was prepared by compressing the above mixed powder, and placed at a position in a mold corresponding to concerned casting surface. Molten Al-12%Si alloy was poured into the mold at a proper temperature after preheating, and held in a furnace at a fixed temperature before air cooling. Al casting with Al2O3 particles of net 44vol% in its surface layer was thus obtained by using the compact of 70vol%SiO2 particles. Compressed thermit powder of 50vol%SiO2 could reduce a porosity to 6.2% under the atmospheric pressure. The dispersion tendency of fine Al2O3 particles was observed by holding molten alloy. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Effect of reinforcement volume fraction on the density & elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unidirectional Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5, Vit.1, Bulk metallic glass matrix composites, reinforced with glass E,. Fe, Mo, Ni, Cr, Mn, Nb, Cd, Pt, U, Cu or Zr fibers, has been investigated. It was found the elastic moduli of high volume fraction composites are improved with the introduction of certain materials reinforcement ...

  9. Identification of radiation response genes and proteins from mouse pulmonary tissues after high-dose per fraction irradiation of limited lung volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hee; Jeon, Seulgi; Kang, Ga-Young; Lee, Hae-June; Cho, Jaeho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2017-02-01

    The molecular effects of focal exposure of limited lung volumes to high-dose per fraction irradiation (HDFR) such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) have not been fully characterized. In this study, we used such an irradiation system and identified the genes and proteins after HDFR to mouse lung, similar to those associated with human therapy. High focal radiation (90 Gy) was applied to a 3-mm volume of the left lung of C57BL6 mice using a small-animal stereotactic irradiator. As well as histological examination for lungs, a cDNA micro array using irradiated lung tissues and a protein array of sera were performed until 4 weeks after irradiation, and radiation-responsive genes and proteins were identified. For comparison, the long-term effects (12 months) of 20 Gy radiation wide-field dose to the left lung were also investigated. The genes ermap, epb4.2, cd200r3 (up regulation) and krt15, hoxc4, gdf2, cst9, cidec, and bnc1 (down-regulation) and the proteins of AIF, laminin, bNOS, HSP27, β-amyloid (upregulation), and calponin (downregulation) were identified as being responsive to 90 Gy HDFR. The gdf2, cst9, and cidec genes also responded to 20 Gy, suggesting that they are universal responsive genes in irradiated lungs. No universal proteins were identified in both 90 Gy and 20 Gy. Calponin, which was downregulated in protein antibody array analysis, showed a similar pattern in microarray data, suggesting a possible HDFR responsive serum biomarker that reflects gene alteration of irradiated lung tissue. These genes and proteins also responded to the lower doses of 20 Gy and 50 Gy HDFR. These results suggest that identified candidate genes and proteins are HDFR-specifically expressed in lung damage induced by HDFR relevant to SBRT in humans.

  10. Laser-induced incandescence: Towards quantitative soot volume fraction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzannis, A.P.; Wienbeucker, F.; Beaud, P.; Frey, H.-M.; Gerber, T.; Mischler, B.; Radi, P.P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Laser-Induced Incandescence has recently emerged as a versatile tool for measuring soot volume fraction in a wide range of combustion systems. In this work we investigate the essential features of the method. LII is based on the acquisition of the incandescence of soot when heated through a high power laser pulse. Initial experiments have been performed on a model laboratory flame. The behaviour of the LII signal is studied experimentally. By applying numerical calculations we investigate the possibility to obtain two-dimensional soot volume fraction distributions. For this purpose a combination of LII with other techniques is required. This part is discussed in some extent and the future work is outlined. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  11. Abnormal Transient Liquid Phase Bondability of High-Volume Fraction SiC Particle-Reinforced A356 Composite for Cu Interlayer and the Interlayer Improvement Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guifeng; Wei, Zhongxin; Chen, Biqiang; Chen, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Features of transient liquid phase (TLP) bondability of high-volume fraction (70 vol.%) SiC particle-reinforced A356 composite for popular Cu interlayer were investigated. Although Cu foil was melted, molten Cu was completely expulsed, indicating that the numerous SiC particles significantly deteriorated wettability not only at particle/braze metal (P/M) interface, but also at the matrix/braze metal (M/M) interface. For the reason of poor wettability at P/M interface, a model showing there is a "window period" for actual wetting reaction (allowing liquid phase to be in contact with surficial SiC particles) much shorter than nominal isothermal solidification time during TLP bonding of the composite containing sintered ceramic preform was proposed. For the poor wettability at M/M interface, both size effect of too small matrix unit (2 20 μm) and restraint effect of the rigid porous ceramic preform on suppressing oxide film crack on the small matrix unit surface were proposed. Thus, chemical route to disrupt oxide film on the small matrix unit surface should be preferred in braze composition design. For example, Al-27Cu-5Si-2Mg-1Ti braze was developed by co-addition of Mg and Ti to improve wettability and to in situ reinforce bond seam, respectively; Ti also could remedy Mg loss for improving wettability.

  12. Extracellular volume fractions in chronic myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauner, Kerstin Ulrike; Biffar, Andreas; Theisen, Daniel; Greiser, Andreas; Zech, Christoph Johannes; Nguyen, Elsie T; Reiser, Maximilian F; Wintersperger, Bernd J

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and delineate chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) using precontrast and postcontrast T1 mapping techniques including quantification of extracellular volume fractions (ECVs). A total of 26 patients with CMI were examined at 1.5 T applying a modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery sequence before and 10 minutes after contrast at 3 short-axis slice positions. An inversion recovery gradient recalled echo sequence (standard of reference) was used for imaging late gadolinium enhancement. Precontrast and postcontrast T1 maps were calculated, and CMI was defined as areas with T1 values more than 3 SDs different compared with normal myocardium (MYO). T1 values of CMI, MYO, and blood pool were measured, and ECVs of CMI and MYO were calculated. Two-tailed Student t test was used for statistical analysis of T1 values and ECVs. Sensitivities and specificities for detection of CMI on precontrast and postcontrast T1 maps were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed for postcontrast T1 values and ECV for discrimination of CMI. The comparison of T1 values of CMI and MYO revealed significant differences in precontrast and postcontrast scans (1159 ± 64 vs 1001 ± 47 milliseconds, P T1 mapping were 41.7% and 100% in precontrast Look-Locker Inversion Recovery scans and 95.8% and 99.3% in postcontrast images, respectively. Average ECV for MYO and CMI were 28% ± 5% and 53% ± 10% (P T1 values and ECV, respectively (P = 0.137). Sensitivities and specificities were 92.3% and 92.3% for detecting CMI by postcontrast T1 values and 95.5% and 100% for ECV, with cutoff values being 305 milliseconds or less and greater than 42%. Combined criteria did not result in any further improvement of sensitivity for CMI detection. Postcontrast T1 values and ECV of chronically infarcted MYO are significantly different compared with respective values of normal MYO. Both parameters allow for accurate detection of CMI with ECV showing

  13. Fractional-Step, Finite-Volume Computation Of Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan; Rosenfeld, Moshe; Vinokur, Marcel

    1992-01-01

    Method of solving Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible flow in general nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates incorporates fractional-step and finite-volume approaches. Developed in continuing effort to achieve accuracy without need for excessive computation time in numerical simulation of time-dependent, three-dimensional flows bounded by surfaces of complicated shape.

  14. Fractional labelmaps for computing accurate dose volume histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Kyle; Pinter, Csaba; Lasso, Andras; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2017-03-01

    PURPOSE: In radiation therapy treatment planning systems, structures are represented as parallel 2D contours. For treatment planning algorithms, structures must be converted into labelmap (i.e. 3D image denoting structure inside/outside) representations. This is often done by triangulated a surface from contours, which is converted into a binary labelmap. This surface to binary labelmap conversion can cause large errors in small structures. Binary labelmaps are often represented using one byte per voxel, meaning a large amount of memory is unused. Our goal is to develop a fractional labelmap representation containing non-binary values, allowing more information to be stored in the same amount of memory. METHODS: We implemented an algorithm in 3D Slicer, which converts surfaces to fractional labelmaps by creating 216 binary labelmaps, changing the labelmap origin on each iteration. The binary labelmap values are summed to create the fractional labelmap. In addition, an algorithm is implemented in the SlicerRT toolkit that calculates dose volume histograms (DVH) using fractional labelmaps. RESULTS: We found that with manually segmented RANDO head and neck structures, fractional labelmaps represented structure volume up to 19.07% (average 6.81%) more accurately than binary labelmaps, while occupying the same amount of memory. When compared to baseline DVH from treatment planning software, DVH from fractional labelmaps had agreement acceptance percent (1% ΔD, 1% ΔV) up to 57.46% higher (average 4.33%) than DVH from binary labelmaps. CONCLUSION: Fractional labelmaps promise to be an effective method for structure representation, allowing considerably more information to be stored in the same amount of memory.

  15. Dynamical evolution of volume fractions in multipressure multiphase flow models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C H; Ramshaw, J D

    2008-06-01

    Compared to single-pressure models, multipressure multiphase flow models require additional closure relations to determine the individual pressures of the different phases. These relations are often taken to be evolution equations for the volume fractions. We present a rigorous theoretical framework for constructing such equations for compressible multiphase mixtures in terms of submodels for the relative volumetric expansion rates DeltaE_{i} of the phases. These quantities are essentially the rates at which the phases dynamically expand or contract in response to pressure differences, and represent the general tendency of the volume fractions to relax toward values that produce local pressure equilibrium. We present a simple provisional model of this type in which DeltaE_{i} is proportional to pressure differences divided by the time required for sound waves to traverse an appropriate characteristic length. It is shown that the resulting approach to pressure equilibrium is monotonic rather than oscillatory, and occurs instantaneously in the incompressible limit.

  16. Method and apparatus for probing relative volume fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandrasits, W.G.; Kikta, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    A relative volume fraction probe particularly for use in a multiphase fluid system includes two parallel conductive paths defining there between a sample zone within the system. A generating unit generates time varying electrical signals which are inserted into one of the two parallel conductive paths. A time domain reflectometer receives the time varying electrical signals returned by the second of the two parallel conductive paths and, responsive thereto, outputs a curve of impedance versus distance. An analysis unit then calculates the area under the curve, subtracts the calculated area from an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a first fluid phase, and divides this calculated difference by the difference between an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of the first fluid phase and an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a second fluid phase. The result is the volume fraction.

  17. Extracellular Volume Fraction for Characterization of Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Karl-Philipp; von Roeder, Maximilian; Latuscynski, Konrad; Oberueck, Christian; Blazek, Stephan; Fengler, Karl; Besler, Christian; Sandri, Marcus; Lücke, Christian; Gutberlet, Matthias; Linke, Axel; Schuler, Gerhard; Lurz, Philipp

    2016-04-19

    Optimal patient characterization in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is essential to tailor successful treatment strategies. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived T1 mapping can noninvasively quantify diffuse myocardial fibrosis as extracellular volume fraction (ECV). This study aimed to elucidate the diagnostic performance of T1 mapping in HFpEF by examining the relationship between ECV and invasively measured parameters of diastolic function. It also investigated the potential of ECV to differentiate among pathomechanisms in HFpEF. We performed T1 mapping in 24 patients with HFpEF and 12 patients without heart failure symptoms. Pressure-volume loops were obtained with a conductance catheter during basal conditions and handgrip exercise. Transient pre-load reduction was used to extrapolate the diastolic stiffness constant. Patients with HFpEF showed higher ECV (p Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction [STIFFMAP]; NCT02459626). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions. Variation with temperature and water volume fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, Marco A.; Caldas, Jorge Navaes [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rua General Canabarro, 500, Maracana, Rio, CEP 2057-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Roberto C. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Cenpes, Cidade Universitaria (Brazil); Rajagopal, Krishnaswamy [LATCA-Laboratorio de Termodinamica e Cinetica Aplicada-Escola de Quimica, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, C.P. 68452, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2005-09-15

    Water-in-oil emulsions are important in the petroleum industry in production operations, where the water content of the emulsion can be as high as 60% in volume, also in petroleum refining operations where generally the water content is low. The effective viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions depends mainly on the volume fraction of dispersed phase and temperature, along with several minor effects, such as shear rate, average droplet size, droplet size distribution, viscosity and density of oil. Using six different crude oils, the effective viscosities of several synthetic water-in-oil emulsions are measured at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic viscosimeter for different shear rates, temperatures and volume fractions of the dispersed phase. The ASTM equation, method D-341, for describing viscosity as a function of temperature is extended to include the variation of dispersed phase volume fraction. The proposed equation gives good correlation between the measured viscosities of water-in-oil emulsions as a function of temperature and the volume fraction of water.

  19. Two-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, J.C.; DiSessa, T.G.; Jarmakani, J.M.; Nakanishi, T.; Hiraishi, S.; Isabel-Jones, J.; Friedman, W.F.

    1982-05-01

    The ability of two-dimensional echocardiography to measure left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction was evaluated in 25 children with congenital heart disease. Dimensions and planimetered areas were obtained in the short-axis view at the mitral valve and high and low papillary muscle levels and in the apical two- and four-chamber views. Eight algorithms using five geometric models were assessed. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and ejection fraction were compared with data from biplane cineangiocardiograms. The correlation varied with the algorithm used. Algorithms using short-axis views appeared superior to those using only apical long-axis views. Four algorithms estimated left ventricular volumes with equal accuracy (Simpson's rule, assuming the ventricle to be a truncated cone; Simpson's rule, algorithm that best estimated left ventricular ejection fraction was the ellipsoid biplane formula using the short-axis view at the papillary muscle level (r = 0.91, slope = 0.94, SEE = 6.7%). Thus, two-dimensional echocardiography can accurately assess left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction in children with congenital heart disease.

  20. Parallel plate model for trabecular bone exhibits volume fraction-dependant bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, J; Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A

    2000-01-01

    , canine distal femur, rat tail, and pig spine and scanned in a micro-CT scanner. Trabecular thickness, trabecular spacing, and trabecular number were calculated using the parallel plate model. Direct thickness, and spacing and connectivity density were calculated using unbiased three-dimensional methods....... Both thickness and spacing calculated using the plate model were well correlated to the direct three-dimensional measures (r(2) = 0. 77-0.92). The correlation between trabecular number and connectivity density varied greatly (r(2) = 0.41-0.94). Whereas trabecular thickness was consistently...... underestimated using the plate model, trabecular spacing was underestimated at low volume fractions and overestimated at high volume fractions. Use of the plate model resulted in a volume-dependent bias in measures of thickness and spacing (p

  1. Extracellular volume fraction in coronary chronic total occlusion patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin Yin; Zhang, Wei Guo; Yang, Shan; Yun, Hong; Deng, Sheng Ming; Fu, Cai Xia; Zeng, Meng Su; Jin, Hang; Guo, Liang

    2015-08-01

    (1) To assess extracellular volume fraction (ECV) and regional systolic function in patients presenting with coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) in areas without significant late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and (2) to investigate the correlation between angiography collateral flow and ECV in territories supplied by CTO vessels. A total of 50 angiographically documented CTO patients and 15 age- and sex-matched normal controls were recruited to the study. Myocardial ECV, was calculated in infarcted, global non-infarcted and the entire myocardium respectively. Segmental ECV was calculated from myocardial segments within the perfusion territory of a CTO vessel. The global and regional systolic function was evaluated using ejection fraction and percent systolic thickening. ECVs in global myocardium and global non-infarcted myocardium were significantly elevated in comparison with that in controls (29.1 ± 4.2% and 26.6 ± 2.6% vs. 23.3 ± 2.0%, all P ECV significantly correlated with LV ejection fraction (r = -0.56, P ECV inversely correlated with systolic thickening in global non-infarcted myocardium (r = -0.31, P ECV was associated with the presence of well-developed collaterals (P = 0.004), and multivariate binary logistic analysis demonstrated that mean segmental ECV and course of disease were the independent discriminator of collateral flow with overall diagnostic accuracy of 74.4%. In patients with CTO, ECV is found to be increased beyond that observed with LGE, and correlates with LV regional wall motion abnormality, which appears to reflect diffuse myocardial fibrosis. Mean segmental ECV value, combined with course of disease, may serve as good predictors of collateral flow.

  2. A novel optical method for estimating the near-wall volume fraction in granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Luca; Nicolina Papa, Maria; Carleo, Luigi; Tai, Yih-Chin

    2016-04-01

    , a LED lamp and two high-speed cameras, placed laterally and above the chute to capture the flow motion at a given cross section. Side wall and free surface velocity profiles are obtained through PIV techniques. The volume fraction profiles are also obtained from side images. The joint information of the velocity and volume fraction profiles allowed to estimate the mass flow, which is found to be in good agreement with the mass flow, directly measured by the scale. These results confirm the robustness of the proposed cost-effective approach for the simultaneous measurement of velocity and volume fraction.

  3. Accuracy of cancellous bone volume fraction measured by micro-CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A; Hvid, I

    1999-01-01

    which covered a large range of volume fraction (9.8-39.8%) were produced. The specimens were micro-CT scanned, and the volume fraction based on Archimedes' principle was determined as a reference. After scanning, all micro-CT data were segmented using individual thresholds determined by the scanner...

  4. A novel dose-volume metric for optimizing therapeutic ratio through fractionation: retrospective analysis of lung cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Harald; Hope, Andrew; Meier, Gabriel; Davison, Matt

    2013-08-01

    To explore the potential of a novel dose-volume based metric to assist in the selection of optimal fractionation schedules for lung cancer patients. Selecting the dose per fraction that maximizes the therapeutic ratio via a linear-quadratic effect on normal tissue complication probability and tumor cell survival is an optimization problem. The mathematical solution reveals that the optimal fractionation schedule is determined by a generalized dose ratio between the normal tissue and the tumor, here termed the bifurcation number B, that can be derived from the dose-volume histogram of the normal tissue. The bifurcation number characterizes the volume effect of a normal tissue and its dependency on the fractionation schedule. The clinical relevance of the bifurcation number was evaluated in 46 patients previously treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) according to various fractionation protocols. Bifurcation numbers were computed for both lung and esophagus as the normal tissues. The value of the bifurcation number determines whether the volume effect reverses the traditional radiobiological advantage of small dose per fraction for the normal tissue. If B is smaller than the ratio of alpha/beta ratios between normal tissue and tumor, then a single fraction is optimal; otherwise the optimal treatment is an infinite number of doses (hence the name "bifurcation" number). These fractionation schedules correspond clinically to hypo- and standard/hyperfractionation, respectively. Compared with traditional dose-volume metrics, the bifurcation number is a unitless ratio and independent of dose fractionation. The B-numbers derived from the clinical treatment plans are also strongly consistent with historically prescribed clinical fractionation protocols for NSCLC treatments. The B-numbers for esophagus and lung for all patients receiving a high dose per fraction protocol (>7.5 Gy/fraction) were all smaller than the B-numbers for the patients receiving standard 2 Gy/fraction

  5. High-order fractional partial differential equation transform for molecular surface construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Langhua; Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Fractional derivative or fractional calculus plays a significant role in theoretical modeling of scientific and engineering problems. However, only relatively low order fractional derivatives are used at present. In general, it is not obvious what role a high fractional derivative can play and how to make use of arbitrarily high-order fractional derivatives. This work introduces arbitrarily high-order fractional partial differential equations (PDEs) to describe fractional hyperdiffusions. The fractional PDEs are constructed via fractional variational principle. A fast fractional Fourier transform (FFFT) is proposed to numerically integrate the high-order fractional PDEs so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high-order evolution PDEs. The proposed high-order fractional PDEs are applied to the surface generation of proteins. We first validate the proposed method with a variety of test examples in two and three-dimensional settings. The impact of high-order fractional derivatives to surface analysis is examined. We also construct fractional PDE transform based on arbitrarily high-order fractional PDEs. We demonstrate that the use of arbitrarily high-order derivatives gives rise to time-frequency localization, the control of the spectral distribution, and the regulation of the spatial resolution in the fractional PDE transform. Consequently, the fractional PDE transform enables the mode decomposition of images, signals, and surfaces. The effect of the propagation time on the quality of resulting molecular surfaces is also studied. Computational efficiency of the present surface generation method is compared with the MSMS approach in Cartesian representation. We further validate the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of macromolecular surfaces, i.e., surface area, surface enclosed volume, surface electrostatic potential and solvation free energy. Extensive numerical experiments and comparison with an established surface model

  6. Tutorial for Collecting and Processing Images of Composite Structures to Determine the Fiber Volume Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Lindsey

    2017-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite structures have become more common in aerospace components due to their light weight and structural efficiency. In general, the strength and stiffness of a composite structure are directly related to the fiber volume fraction, which is defined as the fraction of fiber volume to total volume of the composite. The most common method to measure the fiber volume fraction is acid digestion, which is a useful method when the total weight of the composite, the fiber weight, and the total weight can easily be obtained. However, acid digestion is a destructive test, so the material will no longer be available for additional characterization. Acid digestion can also be difficult to machine out specific components of a composite structure with complex geometries. These disadvantages of acid digestion led the author to develop a method to calculate the fiber volume fraction. The developed method uses optical microscopy to calculate the fiber area fraction based on images of the cross section of the composite. The fiber area fraction and fiber volume fraction are understood to be the same, based on the assumption that the shape and size of the fibers are consistent in the depth of the composite. This tutorial explains the developed method for optically determining fiber area fraction performed at NASA Langley Research Center.

  7. Study of the free volume fraction in polylactic acid (PLA) by thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, A.; Benrekaa, N.

    2015-10-01

    The poly (lactic acid) or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer with high modulus, strength and thermoplastic properties. In this work, the evolution of various properties of PLA is studied, such as glass transition temperature, mechanical modules and elongation percentage with the aim of investigating the free volume fraction. To do so, two thermal techniques have been used: the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and dilatometry. The results obtained by these techniques are combined to go back to the structural properties of the studied material.

  8. Lamb Waves in a Functionally Graded Composite Plate with Nonintegral Power Function Volume Fractions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cao, Xiaoshan; Qu, Zhen; Shi, Junping; Ru, Yan

    2015-01-01

    ...) plate, which is a composite of two kinds of materials. The mechanical parameters depend on the volume fractions, which are nonintegral power functions, and the gradient coefficient is the power value...

  9. Effect of Fibre Volume Fraction on Mixed-Mode Fracture of a Fabric Carbon/Epoxy Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feret, Victor; Ghiasi, Hossein; Hubert, Pascal

    2013-08-01

    Variation in fibre volume fraction is a common characteristic of composites made by an injection moulding process. The effect of this variation on fracture toughness is not yet fully investigated. This paper examines the fracture in fabric carbon/epoxy composite laminates under a wide range of combined mode-I and mode-II delamination. A total of 60 double cantilever beam and edge-notched flexure specimens are manufactured by resin transfer moulding with two different fibre volume fractions. It was observed that increasing the fibre volume fraction decreased the initiation fracture toughness in all mixed-mode ratios. This behaviour is believed to relate to the fact that the initiation fracture energy is dominantly absorbed by the resin-rich regions at the delamination tip. In contrast, an increase in fibre volume fraction was found to increase the propagation fracture toughness at high mode-I contribution where the fibre bridging is believed to be the major energy dissipating mechanism. Fractographic analysis also demonstrated that an increase in contribution of mode-II delamination is accompanied by a decrease in fibre bridging and an increase in shear hackles.

  10. Controlled initial surge despite high drug fraction and high solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar Das, Srilekha; Lucas, Anne D; Carlin, Alan S; Zheng, Jiwen; Patwardhan, Dinesh V; Saylor, David M

    2017-02-01

    Potential connections between release profiles and solvent evaporation rates alongside polymer chemistry were elucidated for the release of tetracycline hydrochloride from two different poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) film matrices containing high drug fractions (50%, 30%, and 15%), and prepared at two distinct solvent evaporation rates. At highest tetracycline concentrations (50%), (i) the early release rates were ≤0.5 μg/min in all cases; (ii) release was linear from systems fabricated with lower lactic content and slower solvent evaporation rate and bimodal from systems fabricated with higher lactic content and faster evaporation rate; (iii) surface fractions covered by the drug were similar at both evaporation rates for 85:15 PLGA but very different for 50:50 PLGA, leading to unexpectedly reduced early release from 50:50 PLGA than from 85:15 PLGA when both the matrices were fabricated using a slower evaporation rate. These features remained unaffected in case of low drug concentration. Results suggested that during the formation of the drug-polymer microstructure, the combined effect of polymer chemistry and solvent evaporation rate sets apart the surface characteristics and the initial release profiles of systems containing high drug fraction, and an appropriate combination of these parameters may be utilized to control the early stage of drug release.

  11. Effects of diluents on soot surface temperature and volume fraction in diluted ethylene diffusion flames at pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Kailasanathan, Ranjith Kumar Abhinavam

    2014-05-20

    Soot surface temperature and volume fraction are measured in ethylene/air coflowing laminar diffusion flames at high pressures, diluted with one of four diluents (argon, helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) using a two-color technique. Both temperature and soot measurements presented are line-of-sight averages. The results aid in understanding the kinetic and thermodynamic behavior of the soot formation and oxidation chemistry with changes in diluents, ultimately leading to possible methods of reducing soot emission from practical combustion hardware. The diluted fuel and coflow exit velocities (top-hat profiles) were matched at all pressures to minimize shear effects. In addition to the velocity-matched flow rates, the mass fluxes were held constant for all pressures. Addition of a diluent has a pronounced effect on both the soot surface temperature and volume fraction, with the helium diluted flame yielding the maximum and carbon dioxide diluted flame yielding minimum soot surface temperature and volume fraction. At low pressures, peak soot volume fraction exists at the tip of the flame, and with an increase in pressure, the location shifts lower to the wings of the flame. Due to the very high diffusivity of helium, significantly higher temperature and volume fraction are measured and explained. Carbon dioxide has the most dramatic soot suppression effect. By comparing the soot yield with previously measured soot precursor concentrations in the same flame, it is clear that the lower soot yield is a result of enhanced oxidation rates rather than a reduction in precursor formation. Copyright © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  12. Predicting Rectal and Bladder Overdose During the Course of Prostate Radiotherapy Using Dose-Volume Data From Initial Treatment Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, Vedang, E-mail: vmurthy@actrec.gov.in [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India); Shukla, Pragya; Adurkar, Pranjal; Master, Zubin; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Shrivastava, Shyamkishore [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether information from the initial fractions can determine which patients are likely to consistently exceed their planning dose-volume constraints during the course of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated with helical tomotherapy to a dose of 60 Gy in 20 fractions. The prostate, rectum, and bladder were recontoured on their daily megavoltage computed tomography scans and the dose was recalculated. The bladder and rectal volumes (in mL) receiving {>=}100% and {>=}70% of the prescribed dose in each fraction and in the original plans were recorded. A fraction for which the difference between planned and delivered was more than 2 mL was considered a volume failure. Similarly if the difference in the planned and delivered maximum dose (D{sub max}) was {>=}1% for the rectum and bladder, the fraction was considered a dose failure. Each patient's first 3 to 5 fractions were analyzed to determine if they correctly identified those patients who would consistently fail (i.e., {>=}20% of fractions) during the course of their radiotherapy. Results: Six parameters were studied; the rectal volume (RV) and bladder volumes (BV) (in mL) received {>=}100% and {>=}70% of the prescribed dose and maximum dose to 2 mL of the rectum and bladder. This was given by RV{sub 100}, RV{sub 70}, BV{sub 100}, BV{sub 70}, RD{sub max}, and BD{sub max}, respectively. When more than 1 of the first 3 fractions exceed the planning constraint as defined, it accurately predicts consistent failures through the course of the treatment. This method is able to correctly identify the consistent failures about 80% (RV{sub 70}, BV{sub 100}, and RV{sub 100}), 90% (BV{sub 70}), and 100% (RD{sub max} and BD{sub max}) of the times. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of a method accurately identifying patients who are likely to consistently exceed the planning constraints during the course of

  13. Hippocampal volume and cingulum bundle fractional anisotropy are independently associated with verbal memory in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzati, Ali; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Michael L; Zimmerman, Molly E; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of medial temporal lobe and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) volumetrics as well as fractional anisotropy of the cingulum angular bundle (CAB) and the cingulum cingulate gyrus (CCG) bundle to performance on measures of verbal memory in non-demented older adults. The participants were 100 non-demented adults over the age of 70 years from the Einstein Aging Study. Volumetric data were estimated from T1-weighted images. The entire cingulum was reconstructed using diffusion tensor MRI and probabilistic tractography. Association between verbal episodic memory and MRI measures including volume of hippocampus (HIP), entorhinal cortex (ERC), PCC and fractional anisotropy of CAB and CCG bundle were modeled using linear regression. Relationships between atrophy of these structures and regional cingulum fractional anisotropy were also explored. Decreased HIP volume on the left and decreased fractional anisotropy of left CAB were associated with lower memory performance. Volume changes in ERC, PCC and CCG disruption were not associated with memory performance. In regression models, left HIP volume and left CAB-FA were each independently associated with episodic memory. The results suggest that microstructural changes in the left CAB and decreased left HIP volume independently influence episodic memory performance in older adults without dementia. The importance of these findings in age and illness-related memory decline require additional exploration.

  14. Phase-segregated model for plant cell culture: The effect of cell volume fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W. [Univ. of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Tokyo Univ. (Japan)hinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian (China). Dalian Inst. of Chemical Physics; Furusaki, S. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)] Middelberg, A. [Univ. of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-06-01

    Plant cells are characterized by low water content, so the fraction of cell volume (volume fraction) in a vessel is large compared with other cell systems, even if the cell concentrations are the same. Therefore, concentration of plant cells should preferably be expressed by the liquid volume basis rather than by the total vessel volume basis. In this paper, a new model is proposed to analyze behavior of a plant cell culture by dividing the cell suspension into the biotic- and abiotic-phases. Using this model, we analyzed the cell-growth and the alkaloid production by Catharanthus roseus. Large errors in the simulated results were observed if the phase-segregation was not considered. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Myocardial T1 and extracellular volume fraction mapping at 3 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason J; Liu, Songtao; Nacif, Marcelo S; Ugander, Martin; Han, Jing; Kawel, Nadine; Sibley, Christopher T; Kellman, Peter; Arai, Andrew E; Bluemke, David A

    2011-11-28

    To compare 11 heartbeat (HB) and 17 HB modified lock locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) pulse sequence at 3T and to establish preliminary reference values for myocardial T1 and the extracellular volume fraction (ECV). Both phantoms and normal volunteers were scanned at 3T using 11 HB and 17 HB MOLLI sequence with the following parameters: spatial resolution = 1.75 × 1.75 × 10 mm on a 256 × 180 matrix, TI initial = 110 ms, TI increment = 80 ms, flip angle = 35°, TR/TE = 1.9/1.0 ms. All volunteers were administered Gadolinium-DTPA (Magnevist, 0.15 mmol/kg), and multiple post-contrast MOLLI scans were performed at the same pre-contrast position from 3.5-23.5 minutes after a bolus contrast injection. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images were also acquired 12-30 minutes after the gadolinium bolus. T1 values of 11 HB and 17 HB MOLLI displayed good agreement in both phantom and volunteers. The average pre-contrast myocardial and blood T1 was 1315 ± 39 ms and 2020 ± 129 ms, respectively. ECV was stable between 8.5 to 23.5 minutes post contrast with an average of 26.7 ± 1.0%. The 11 HB MOLLI is a faster method for high-resolution myocardial T1 mapping at 3T. ECV fractions are stable over a wide time range after contrast administration.

  16. Effects of Low Volume Fraction of Polyvinyl Alcohol Fibers on the Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Kun Yew; Hilmi Bin Mahmud; Bee Chin Ang; Ming Chian Yew

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of low volume fraction (Vf) of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers on the mechanical properties of oil palm shell (OPS) high strength lightweight concrete mixtures. The slump, density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity under various curing conditions have been measured and evaluated. The results indicate that an increase in PVA fibers decreases the workability of the concrete and decreases the density slig...

  17. Volume Fraction Determination in Cast Superalloys and DS Eutectic Alloys by a New Practice for Manual Point Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    Volume fraction of a constituent or phase was estimated in six specimens of conventional and DS-eutectic superalloys, using ASTM E562-76, a new standard recommended practice for determining volume fraction by systematic manual point count. Volume fractions determined ranged from 0.086 to 0.36, and with one exception, the 95 percent relative confidence limits were approximately 10 percent of the determined volume fractions. Since the confidence-limit goal of 10 percent, which had been arbitrarily chosen previously, was achieved in all but one case, this application of the new practice was considered successful.

  18. Pancreas volume and fat fraction in children with Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnell, S E; Peterson, P; Trinh, L; Broberg, P; Leander, P; Lernmark, Å; Månsson, S; Elding Larsson, H

    2016-10-01

    People with Type 1 diabetes have smaller pancreases than healthy individuals. Several diseases causing pancreatic atrophy are associated with pancreatic steatosis, but pancreatic fat in Type 1 diabetes has not been measured. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare pancreas size and fat fraction in children with Type 1 diabetes and controls. The volume and fat fraction of the pancreases of 22 children with Type 1 diabetes and 29 controls were determined using magnetic resonance imaging. Pancreas volume was 27% smaller in children with diabetes (median 34.9 cm(3) ) than in controls (47.8 cm(3) ; P Pancreas volume correlated positively with age in controls (P = 0.033), but not in children with diabetes (P = 0.649). Pancreas volume did not correlate with diabetes duration, but it did correlate positively with units of insulin/kg body weight/day (P = 0.048). A linear model of pancreas volume as influenced by age, body surface area and insulin units/kg body weight/day found that insulin dosage correlated with pancreas volume after controlling for both age and body surface area (P = 0.009). Pancreatic fat fraction was not significantly different between the two groups (1.34% vs. 1.57%; P = 0.891). Our findings do not indicate that pancreatic atrophy in Type 1 diabetes is associated with an increased pancreatic fat fraction, unlike some other diseases featuring reduced pancreatic volume. We speculate that our results may support the hypotheses that much of pancreatic atrophy in Type 1 diabetes occurs before the clinical onset of the disease and that exogenous insulin administration decelerates pancreatic atrophy after diabetes onset. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  19. Non-contact spectroscopic determination of large blood volume fractions in turbid media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Bremmer (Rolf); S.C. Kanick (Stephen); N. Laan (Nick); A. Amelink (Arjen); T.G. van Leeuwen (Ton); M.J.A.M. Aalders

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe report on a non-contact method to quantitatively determine blood volume fractions in turbid media by reflectance spectroscopy in the VIS/NIR spectral wavelength range. This method will be used for spectral analysis of tissue with large absorption coefficients and assist in age

  20. Jamming in frictionless packings of spheres: determination of the critical volume fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göncü, F.; Göncü, F.; Duran Vinent, Orencio; Durán, O.; Masami, Nakagawa; Luding, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The jamming transition in granular packings is characterized by a sudden change in the coordination number. In this work we investigate the evolution of coordination number as function of volume fraction for frictionless packings of spheres undergoing isotropic deformation. Using the results

  1. Blood volume fraction imaging of the human lung using intravoxel incoherent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, Flavio; Meyer, Cord; Phys, Dipl; Breuer, Felix A; Triphan, Simon; Choli, Morwan; Phys, Dipl; Jakob, Peter M

    2015-05-01

    To present a technique for non-contrast-enhanced in vivo imaging of the blood volume fraction of the human lung. The technique is based on the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) approach. However, a substantial novelty is introduced here: the need for external diffusion sensitizing gradients is eliminated by exploiting the internal magnetic field gradients typical of the lung tissue, due to magnetic susceptibility differences at air/tissue interfaces. A single shot turbo spin-echo sequence with stimulated-echo preparation and electrocardiograph synchronization was used for acquisition. Two images were acquired in a single breath-hold of 10 seconds duration: one reference image and one blood-suppressed image. The blood volume fraction was quantified using a two-compartment signal decay model, as given by the IVIM theory. Experiments were performed at 1.5T in eight healthy volunteers. Values of the blood volume fraction obtained within the lung parenchyma (36 ± 16%) are in good agreement with previous reports, obtained using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (33%), and show relatively good reproducibility. The presented technique offers a robust way to quantify the blood volume fraction of the human lung parenchyma without using contrast agents. Image acquisition can be accomplished in a single breath-hold and could be suitable for clinical applications on patients with lung diseases. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015;41:1454-1464. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Determination of volume fractions in two-phase flows from sound speed measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Anirban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Osterhoudt, Curtis F. [University of Alaska

    2012-08-15

    Accurate measurement of the composition of oil-water emulsions within the process environment is a challenging problem in the oil industry. Ultrasonic techniques are promising because they are non-invasive and can penetrate optically opaque mixtures. This paper presents a method of determining the volume fractions of two immiscible fluids in a homogenized two-phase flow by measuring the speed of sound through the composite fluid along with the instantaneous temperature. Two separate algorithms are developed by representing the composite density as (i) a linear combination of the two densities, and (ii) a non-linear fractional formulation. Both methods lead to a quadratic equation with temperature dependent coefficients, the root of which yields the volume fraction. The densities and sound speeds are calibrated at various temperatures for each fluid component, and the fitted polynomial is used in the final algorithm. We present results when the new algorithm is applied to mixtures of crude oil and process water from two different oil fields, and a comparison of our results with a Coriolis meter; the difference between mean values is less than 1%. Analytical and numerical studies of sensitivity of the calculated volume fraction to temperature changes and calibration errors are also presented.

  3. Plasticity in mesophyll volume fraction modulates light-acclimation in needle photosynthesis in two pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ulo; Lukjanova, Aljona; Turnbull, Matthew H; Sparrow, Ashley D

    2007-08-01

    Acclimation potential of needle photosynthetic capacity varies greatly among pine species, but the underlying chemical, anatomical and morphological controls are not entirely understood. We investigated the light-dependent variation in needle characteristics in individuals of Pinus patula Schlect. & Cham., which has 19-31-cm long pendulous needles, and individuals of P. radiata D. Don., which has shorter (8-17-cm-long) stiffer needles. Needle nitrogen and carbon contents, mesophyll and structural tissue volume fractions, needle dry mass per unit total area (M(A)) and its components, volume to total area ratio (V/A(T)) and needle density (D = M(A)/(V/A(T))), and maximum carboxylase activity of Rubisco (V(cmax)) and capacity of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) were investigated in relation to seasonal mean integrated irradiance (Q(int)). Increases in Q(int) from canopy bottom to top resulted in proportional increases in both needle thickness and width such that needle total to projected surface area ratio, characterizing the efficiency of light interception, was independent of Q(int). Increased light availability also led to larger M(A) and nitrogen content per unit area (N(A)). Light-dependent modifications in M(A) resulted from increases in both V/A(T) and D, whereas N(A) changed because of increases in both M(A) and mass-based nitrogen content (N(M)) (N(A) = N(M)M(A)). Overall, the volume fraction of mesophyll cells increased with increasing irradiance and V/A(T) as the fraction of hypodermis and epidermis decreased with increasing needle thickness. Increases in M(A) and N(A) resulted in enhanced J(max) and V(cmax) per unit area in both species, but mass-based photosynthetic capacity increased only in P. patula. In addition, J(max) and V(cmax) showed greater plasticity in response to light in P. patula. Species differences in mesophyll volume fraction explained most of the variation in mass-based needle photosynthetic capacity between species

  4. Considerations regarding the volume fraction influence on the wear behavior of the fiber reinforced composite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliman, R.

    2017-08-01

    This paper contains an analysis of the factors that have an influence on the tribological characteristics of the composite material sintered with metal matrix reinforced with carbon fibers. These composites are used generally if it’s needed the wear resistant materials, whereas these composites have high specific strength in conjunction with a good corrosion resistance at low densities and some self-lubricating properties. Through the knowledge of the better tribological properties of the materials and their behavior to wear, can be generated by dry and the wet friction. Thus, where necessary the use of high temperature resistant material with low friction between the elements, carbon fiber composite materials are very suitable because they have: mechanical strength and good ductility, melting temperature on the higher values, higher electrical and thermal conductivity, lower wear speed and lower friction forces. For this purpose, this paper also contains an experimental program based on the evidence of formaldehyde resin made from fiber reinforced Cu-carbon with the aim to specifically determine the volume of fibers fraction for the consolidation of the composite material. In order to determine the friction coefficient and the wear rates of the various fiber reinforced polymer mixtures of carbon have been used special devices with needle-type with steel disc. These tests were conducted in the atmosphere at the room temperature without external lubrication study taking into consideration the sliding different speeds with constant loading task.

  5. Myocardial T1 and extracellular volume fraction mapping at 3 tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jason J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare 11 heartbeat (HB and 17 HB modified lock locker inversion recovery (MOLLI pulse sequence at 3T and to establish preliminary reference values for myocardial T1 and the extracellular volume fraction (ECV. Methods Both phantoms and normal volunteers were scanned at 3T using 11 HB and 17 HB MOLLI sequence with the following parameters: spatial resolution = 1.75 × 1.75 × 10 mm on a 256 × 180 matrix, TI initial = 110 ms, TI increment = 80 ms, flip angle = 35°, TR/TE = 1.9/1.0 ms. All volunteers were administered Gadolinium-DTPA (Magnevist, 0.15 mmol/kg, and multiple post-contrast MOLLI scans were performed at the same pre-contrast position from 3.5-23.5 minutes after a bolus contrast injection. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE images were also acquired 12-30 minutes after the gadolinium bolus. Results T1 values of 11 HB and 17 HB MOLLI displayed good agreement in both phantom and volunteers. The average pre-contrast myocardial and blood T1 was 1315 ± 39 ms and 2020 ± 129 ms, respectively. ECV was stable between 8.5 to 23.5 minutes post contrast with an average of 26.7 ± 1.0%. Conclusion The 11 HB MOLLI is a faster method for high-resolution myocardial T1 mapping at 3T. ECV fractions are stable over a wide time range after contrast administration.

  6. Volume Fraction Optimization of Functionally Graded Composite Plates for Stress Reduction and Thermo-Mechanical Buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyung-Su; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2008-02-01

    The volume fraction optimization of Functionally Graded Material (FGM) composite plate is investigated for stress reduction and thermo-mechanical buckling. Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent and varied continuously in the thickness direction. The 3-D finite element is adopted using an 18-node solid element to analyze the plate model more accurately for the variation of material properties and temperature field in the thickness direction. Tensile and compressive stress ratios of the structure under mechanical load are evaluated for stress analysis. Temperature at each node is obtained by solving the steady-state heat transfer problem in the thermo-mechanical buckling analysis, and Newton-Raphson method is used for nonlinear analysis. Tensile stress ratios, compressive stress ratios and critical temperatures are analyzed for various thickness ratios and volume fraction distributions in the numerical study. Finally, the optimal design of FGM composite plate is investigated by considering the stress and the critical temperature.

  7. Rheology of suspensions of viscoelastic spheres: Deformability as an effective volume fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosti, Marco E.; Brandt, Luca; Mitra, Dhrubaditya

    2018-01-01

    We study suspensions of deformable (viscoelastic) spheres in a Newtonian solvent in plane Couette geometry, by means of direct numerical simulations. We find that in the limit of vanishing inertia, the effective viscosity μ of the suspension increases as the volume fraction occupied by the spheres Φ increases and decreases as the elastic modulus of the spheres G decreases; the function μ (Φ ,G ) collapses to a universal function μ (Φe) with a reduced effective volume fraction Φe(Φ ,G ) . Remarkably, the function μ (Φe) is the well-known Eilers fit that describes the rheology of suspension of rigid spheres at all Φ . Our results suggest different ways to interpret the macrorheology of blood.

  8. Effects of morphology and wavelength on the measurement accuracy of soot volume fraction by laser extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-fei; Huang, Qun-xing; Wang, Fei; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jian-hua

    2018-01-01

    A novel method to evaluate the quantitative effects of soot morphology and incident wavelength on the measurement accuracy of soot volume fraction, by the laser extinction (LE) technique is proposed in this paper. The results indicate that the traditional LE technique would overestimate soot volume fraction if the effects of morphology and wavelength are not considered. Before the agglomeration of isolated soot primary particles, the overestimation of the LE technique is in the range of 2–20%, and rises with increasing primary particle diameter and with decreasing incident wavelength. When isolated primary particles are agglomerated into fractal soot aggregates, the overestimation would exceed 30%, and rise with increasing primary particle number per soot aggregate, fractal dimension and fractal prefactor and with decreasing incident wavelength to a maximum value of 55%. Finally, based on these results above, the existing formula of the LE technique gets modified, and the modification factor is 0.65–0.77.

  9. The equivalent electrical permittivity of gas-solid mixtures at intermediate solid volume fractions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torczynski, John Robert; Ceccio, Steven Louis; Tortora, Paul Richard

    2005-07-01

    Several mixture models are evaluated for their suitability in predicting the equivalent permittivity of dielectric particles in a dielectric medium for intermediate solid volume fractions (0.4 to 0.6). Predictions of the Maxwell, Rayleigh, Bottcher and Bruggeman models are compared to computational simulations of several arrangements of solid particles in a gas and to the experimentally determined permittivity of a static particle bed. The experiment uses spherical glass beads in air, so air and glass permittivity values (1 and 7, respectively) are used with all of the models and simulations. The experimental system used to measure the permittivity of the static particle bed and its calibration are described. The Rayleigh model is found to be suitable for predicting permittivity over the entire range of solid volume fractions (0-0.6).

  10. Salinity independent volume fraction prediction in water-gas-oil multiphase flows using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, C.M.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Brandao, Luis E.B., E-mail: otero@ien.gov.b, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.b, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (DIRA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    This work investigates the response of a volume fraction prediction system for water-gas-oil multiphase flows considering variations on water salinity. The approach is based on gamma-ray pulse height distributions pattern recognition by means the artificial neural networks (ANNs). The detection system uses appropriate fan beam geometry, comprised of a dual-energy gamma-ray source and two NaI(Tl) detectors adequately positioned outside the pipe in order measure transmitted and scattered beams. An ideal and static theoretical model for annular flow regime have been developed using MCNP-X code, which was used to provide training, test and validation data for the ANN. More than 500 simulations have been done, in which water salinity have been ranged from 0 to 16% in order to cover a most practical situations. Validation tests have included values of volume fractions and water salinity different from those used in ANN training phase. The results presented here show that the proposed approach may be successfully applied to material volume fraction prediction on watergas- oil multiphase flows considering practical (real) levels of variations in water salinity. (author)

  11. Modeling the Effect of Glass Microballoon (GMB) Volume Fraction on Behavior of Sylgard/GMB Composites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Judith Alice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Long, Kevin Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This work was done to support customer questions about whether a Sylgard/Glass Microballoon (GMB) potting material in current use could be replaced with pure Sylgard and if this would significantly change stresses imparted to internal components under thermal cycling conditions. To address these questions, we provide micromechanics analysis of Sylgard/GMB materials using both analytic composite theory and finite element simulations to better understand the role of the GMB volume fraction in determining thermal expansion coefficient, elastic constants, and behavior in both confined and unconfined compression boundary value problems. A key finding is that damage accumulation in the material from breakage of GMBs significantly limits the global stress magnitude and results in a plateau stress behavior over large ranges of compressive strain. The magnitude of this plateau stress is reduced with higher volume fractions of GMBs. This effect is particularly pronounced in confined compression, which we estimate bears the most similarity to the application of interest. This stress-limiting damage mechanism is not present in pure Sylgard, however, and the result is much higher stresses under confined compression. Thus, we recommend that some volume fraction greater than 10% GMBs be used for confined deformation applications.

  12. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  13. MANAGING HIGH-END, HIGH-VOLUME INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembong Baskoro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuses the concept of managing high-end, high-volume innovative products. High-end, high-volume consumer products are products that have considerable influence to the way of life. Characteristic of High-end, high-volume consumer products are (1 short cycle time, (2 quick obsolete time, and (3 rapid price erosion. Beside the disadvantages that they are high risk for manufacturers, if manufacturers are able to understand precisely the consumer needs then they have the potential benefit or success to be the market leader. High innovation implies to high utilization of the user, therefore these products can influence indirectly to the way of people life. The objective of managing them is to achieve sustainability of the products development and innovation. This paper observes the behavior of these products in companies operated in high-end, high-volume consumer product.

  14. Nuclear volume effects in equilibrium stable isotope fractionations of mercury, thallium and lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sha; Liu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear volume effects (NVEs) of Hg, Tl and Pb isotope systems are investigated with careful evaluation on quantum relativistic effects via the Dirac’s formalism of full-electron wave function. Equilibrium 202Hg/198Hg, 205Tl/203Tl, 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb isotope fractionations are found can be up to 3.61‰, 2.54‰, 1.48‰ and 3.72‰ at room temperature, respectively, larger than fractionations predicted by classical mass-dependent isotope fractionations theory. Moreover, the NVE can cause mass-independent fractionations (MIF) for odd-mass isotopes and even-mass isotopes. The plot of vs. for Hg-bearing species falls into a straight line with the slope of 1.66, which is close to previous experimental results. For the first time, Pb4+-bearing species are found can enrich heavier Pb isotopes than Pb2+-bearing species to a surprising extent, e.g., the enrichment can be up to 4.34‰ in terms of 208Pb/206Pb at room temperature, due to their NVEs are in opposite directions. In contrast, fractionations among Pb2+-bearing species are trivial. Therefore, the large Pb fractionation changes provide a potential new tracer for redox conditions in young and closed geologic systems. The magnitudes of NVE-driven even-mass MIFs of Pb isotopes (i.e., ) and odd-mass MIFs (i.e., ) are almost the same but with opposite signs. PMID:26224248

  15. Assessment of volume fraction and fabric in the distal radius using HR-pQCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, P; Zysset, P K

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capabilities of the state of the art HR-pQCT technique to predict mineral content, volume fraction and fabric of trabecular bone structure compared to the gold standard microCT. Four cadaveric human forearms were scanned with HR-pQCT and the dissected radius epiphyses with microCT. After registering the images, bone mineral density (BMD), volume fraction (BV/TV) and fabric were computed on corresponding cubical regions of interest for both image sources. In particular, the effect of the segmentation procedure on BV/TV was analyzed. Assessment of fabric was performed with three different methods comparing their efficiency and robustness against resolution change. The results showed that in order to achieve optimal results at the lower image resolution, different filtering and thresholding approaches needed to be selected for different tasks. Therefore, to preserve BV/TV, the BMD-based volume fraction provided best match with the reference values of microCT, while in case of Mean Intercept Length (MIL) fabric a Gaussian filter and a histogram-based threshold were optimal. Using the latter, MIL was found to be more robust against resolution change than the other approaches. Additionally, we proposed a linear model for describing the mathematical transformation that the second order fabric tensor undergoes when the resolution of the input images changes. As a conclusion, we found that the investigated properties of trabecular bone structure can be adequately predicted from the lower resolution technique that is available in vivo for peripheral bones, when proper image processing and corrections are applied.

  16. A randomized trial comparing bladder volume consistency during fractionated prostate radiation therapy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullaney, L.

    2014-01-10

    Organ motion is a contributory factor to the variation in location of the prostate and organs at risk during a course of fractionated prostate radiation therapy (RT). A prospective randomized controlled trial was designed with the primary endpoint to provide evidence-based bladder-filling instructions to achieve a consistent bladder volume (BV) and thus reduce the bladder-related organ motion. The secondary endpoints were to assess the incidence of acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for patients and patients’ satisfaction with the bladder-filling instructions.

  17. Determination of soot temperature, volume fraction and refractive index from flame emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayranci, Isil [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL CNRS-INSA Lyon-UCBL), INSA de Lyon, 20 av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Vaillon, Rodolphe [Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL CNRS-INSA Lyon-UCBL), INSA de Lyon, 20 av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Selcuk, Nevin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: selcuk@metu.edu.tr; Andre, Frederic [Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL CNRS-INSA Lyon-UCBL), INSA de Lyon, 20 av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Escudie, Dany [Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL CNRS-INSA Lyon-UCBL), INSA de Lyon, 20 av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2007-03-15

    An inversion scheme based on tomographic reconstruction of flame emission spectra has been developed for nonintrusive characterization of soot temperature and volume fraction fields within an optically thin axisymmetric flame by extracting characteristic information on soot refractive index from spectral gradients of emission spectra. Its performance is assessed by providing input data obtained from intensities simulated by a direct code based on experimental data for a flame available in the literature. Proposed method was found to be especially powerful in the near-infrared range for accurate prediction of flame properties where spectral variation of optical constants is significant.

  18. Size fraction characterization of highly-calcareous fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itskos, Grigorios; Koukouzas, Nikolaos [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 357-359 Mesogeion Avenue, GR-152 31, Halandri, Athens (Greece); Itskos, Socrates [Department of Chemical Technology and the Environment, Steam Electric Station of Amynteon-Filotas, Public Power Corporation of Greece, GR-532 00, Amynteon (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of lignite fly ash (FA) varies as a function of the prevalent conditions in both the processes of power production and lignite mining. The differentiation of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the highly-calcareous lignite fly ash, as a function of its particle size distribution, is verified in this paper. According to the results of the conducted research, a fine-grained fraction of considerable amount presents properties that obstruct the sustainable exploitation of calcareous lignite fly ash in cement industry applications. On the other hand, the same grain fraction (because of its hydraulic properties) can be utilized in other sort of applications, based on different criteria, i.e. in road constructions. The coarse-grained fraction (which reflects a low proportion to the total fly ash output) presents the same undesired characteristics as well. Rather, the intermediate grain fraction (75-150 {mu}m) presents the highly desirable properties when fly ash is utilized as a pozzolanic additive. In addition, the mechanism of the formation of the intermediate grain fraction strongly prevents the factors that cause the variation of fly ash-quality. It is therefore the optimum part of the whole amount of lignite FA, to be utilized as additive in cement manufacturing. The outcomes of this paper will hopefully contribute towards the crucial goal of the expansion of the utilization of calcareous lignite fly ash by proposing a more effective way of using this material, basically by taking advantage of its fundamental chemical and mineralogical properties. (author)

  19. High Volume Fraction Carbon Nanotube Composites for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siochi, E. J.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Cano, R. J.; Wincheski, R. A.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Czabaj, M.

    2016-01-01

    Reported mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at the nanoscale suggest their potential to enable significantly lighter structures of interest for space applications. However, their utility depends on the retention of these properties in bulk material formats that permit practical fabrication of large structures. This presentation summarizes recent progress made to produce carbon nanotube composites with specific tensile properties that begin to rival those of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. CNT content in these nanocomposites was greater than 70% by weight. Tested nanocomposite specimens were fabricated from kilometers or tens of square meters of CNT, depending on the starting material format. Processing methods to yield these results, and characterization and testing to evaluate the performance of these composites will be discussed. The final objective is the demonstration of a CNT composite overwrapped pressure vessel to be flight tested in the Fall of 2016.

  20. Dependence of microwave absorption properties on ferrite volume fraction in MnZn ferrite/rubber radar absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, Adriana M., E-mail: adrianaamg@iae.cta.br [Divisao de Materiais (AMR), Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial - DCTA (Brazil); Rezende, Mirabel C., E-mail: mirabelmcr@iae.cta.br [Divisao de Materiais (AMR), Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial - DCTA (Brazil); Dantas, Christine C., E-mail: christineccd@iae.cta.br [Divisao de Materiais (AMR), Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial - DCTA (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    We report the analysis of measurements of the complex magnetic permeability ({mu}{sub r}) and dielectric permittivity ({epsilon}{sub r}) spectra of a rubber radar absorbing material (RAM) with various MnZn ferrite volume fractions. The transmission/reflection measurements were carried out in a vector network analyzer. Optimum conditions for the maximum microwave absorption were determined by substituting the complex permeability and permittivity in the impedance matching equation. Both the MnZn ferrite content and the RAM thickness effects on the microwave absorption properties, in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz, were evaluated. The results show that the complex permeability and permittivity spectra of the RAM increase directly with the ferrite volume fraction. Reflection loss calculations by the impedance matching degree (reflection coefficient) show the dependence of this parameter on both thickness and composition of RAM. - Highlights: > Permeability and permittivity spectra of a MnZn ferrite RAM (2-18 GHz) are given. > Higher MnZn volume fraction favors increase of RAM/'s permeability and permittivity. > Minimum RL as a function of frequency, thickness and MnZn volume fraction given. > Higher thicknesses imply better absorption; optimum band shifts to lower frequencies. > For higher volume fractions, smaller thickness might offer better absorption (>10 GHz).

  1. Volume fraction instability in an oscillating non-Brownian iso-dense suspension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roht Y.L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The instability of an iso-dense non-Brownian suspension of polystyrene beads of diameter 40 μm dispersed in a water-glycerol mixture submitted to a periodic square wave oscillating flow in a Hele-Shaw cell is studied experimentally. The instability gives rise to stationary bead concentration waves transverse to the flow. It has been observed for average particle volume fractions between 0.25 and 0.4, for periods of the square wave flow variation between 0.4 and 10 s and in finite intervals of the amplitude of the fluid displacement. The study shows that the wavelength λ increases roughly linearly with the amplitude of the oscillatory flow; on the other hand, λ is independent of the particle concentration and of the period of oscillation of the flow although the minimum threshold amplitude for observing the instability increases with the period.

  2. Structuring polymer blends with bicontinuous phase morphology. Part II. Tailoring blends with ultralow critical volume fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Utracki, Leszek

    2003-01-01

    A hypothesis providing a guideline for the development of immiscible polymer blends with co-continuous phase structure at very low critical volume fraction of one component is. postulated and experimentally verified. Based on a number of simplifying assumptions the following relation was derived......: phi(cr) = k(lambdagamma)(1-z)/(theta(b)(*))(z) where lambdagamma is a Deborah number and theta(b)(*) is a dimensionless break-up time. The equation parameters, k and z are constant that depend on the flow field hence on the blending equipment. For the studies an internal mixer with Walzenkneter......-type 30 mixing shafts was used. For this equipment the experimental values of the equation parameters, k = 1801 and z = 2.01, were found. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Effect of Mo microstructure on the critical volume fraction for conduction in Mo-alumina cermets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, J.F.; Higgins, R.R.; Krivda, F.J. [Alcoa Technical Center, Alcoa Center, Pennsylvania 15069 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The microstructure of Mo in an alumina/frit matrix was found to be dependent on the initial partial sizes of the alumina and Mo powders, the glass content in the matrix ceramic, and the amount of moisture in the firing atmosphere. The Mo microstructure had a significant influence on the critical volume fraction for conductivity in these cermets. Coarser alumina powder, finer Mo powder, and higher glass content promoted coalescence of Mo into conductive networks at lower metal contents. Drier firing atmospheres produced a more coarsened Mo microstructure with a slight decrease in the amount of network contiguity, causing an increase in the amount required for electrical percolation. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  4. Dielectric Characterization of composite building materials depending on the volume fraction for Mobile Phone Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhzaz Jaouad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This W presents a new technique of Dielectric Characterization of composites building materials. This technique is based on the modeling of an open coaxial cell with a mathematical formulation that links the admittances of the filled and empty cell to the complex permittivity ε* of materials characterization. We applied this technique to the dielectric characterization of some building materials powder in the frequency band (100MHz-4GHz. We also characterize some composite materials (sand- brick, cement- sand, and cement-brick depending on the volume fraction for Mobile Phone Frequencies. We made a comparison with the laws of mixtures to identify the most appropriate law to render the dielectric behavior of these materials.

  5. High tidal volume ventilation in infant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Vincenzo; Zosky, Graeme R; Hantos, Zoltán; Turner, Debra J; Sly, Peter D

    2008-06-30

    Infant mice were ventilated with either high tidal volume (V(T)) with zero end-expiratory pressure (HVZ), high V(T) with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (HVP), or low V(T) with PEEP. Thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined plethysmographically and low-frequency forced oscillations were used to measure the input impedance of the respiratory system. Inflammatory cells, total protein, and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were measured as markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response, respectively. Coefficients of tissue damping and tissue elastance increased in all ventilated mice, with the largest rise seen in the HVZ group where TGV rapidly decreased. BALF protein levels increased in the HVP group, whereas serum IL-6 rose in the HVZ group. PEEP keeps the lungs open, but provides high volumes to the entire lungs and induces lung injury. Compared to studies in adult and non-neonatal rodents, infant mice demonstrate a different response to similar ventilation strategies underscoring the need for age-specific animal models.

  6. Development of alkali activated cements and concrete mixture design with high volumes of red mud

    OpenAIRE

    KRIVENKO PAVEL; Kovalchuk, O; PASKO ANTON; CROYMANS TOM; HULT MIKAEL; LUTTER GUILLAUME; VANDEVENNE N.; Schreurs, S.; SCHROEYERS W.

    2017-01-01

    Dedicated cement compositions were formulated to enable the incorporation of large volume fractions of red mud in alkali activated cements, taking into account the role of the aluminosilicate phase in the processes of hydration and hardening. High volume red mud alkali activated cements were synthesized using a proper combination of red mud, low basic aluminosilicate compounds with a glass phase (blast-furnace slag) and additives selected from high-basic Ca-containing cements with a crystalli...

  7. Planned Two-Fraction Proton Beam Stereotactic Radiosurgery for High-Risk Inoperable Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattangadi, Jona A. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Chapman, Paul H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bussiere, Marc R.; Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ogilvy, Christopher S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Rowell, Alison; Daartz, Juliane; Loeffler, Jay S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate patients with high-risk cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), based on eloquent brain location or large size, who underwent planned two-fraction proton stereotactic radiosurgery (PSRS). Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 2009, 59 patients with high-risk cerebral AVMs received two-fraction PSRS. Median nidus volume was 23 cc (range, 1.4-58.1 cc), 70% of cases had nidus volume {>=}14 cc, and 34% were in critical locations (brainstem, basal ganglia). Median AVM score based on age, AVM size, and location was 3.19 (range, 0.9-6.9). Many patients had prior surgery or embolization (40%) or prior PSRS (12%). The most common prescription was 16 Gy radiobiologic equivalent (RBE) in two fractions, prescribed to the 90% isodose. Results: At a median follow-up of 56.1 months, 9 patients (15%) had total and 20 patients (34%) had partial obliteration. Patients with total obliteration received higher total dose than those with partial or no obliteration (mean dose, 17.6 vs. 15.5 Gy (RBE), p = 0.01). Median time to total obliteration was 62 months (range, 23-109 months), and 5-year actuarial rate of partial or total obliteration was 33%. Five-year actuarial rate of hemorrhage was 22% (95% confidence interval, 12.5%-36.8%) and 14% (n = 8) suffered fatal hemorrhage. Lesions with higher AVM scores were more likely to hemorrhage (p = 0.024) and less responsive to radiation (p = 0.026). The most common complication was Grade 1 headache acutely (14%) and long term (12%). One patient developed a Grade 2 generalized seizure disorder, and two had mild neurologic deficits. Conclusions: High-risk AVMs can be safely treated with two-fraction PSRS, although total obliteration rate is low and patients remain at risk for future hemorrhage. Future studies should include higher doses or a multistaged PSRS approach for lesions more resistant to obliteration with radiation.

  8. High dynamic, low volume GPS receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    A new GPS receiver concept and design are presented to meet the high dynamic and low volume requirements for range applications in missiles and drones. The receiver has the potential to satisfy all range requirements with one basic receiver, which has significant potential economic benefit over the alternate approach of using a family of receivers, each tailored for specific applications. The main new concept is to use approximate maximum likelihood estimates of pseudo range and range-rate, rather than tracking with carrier phase locked loops and code delay locked loops. Preliminary analysis indicates that receivers accelerating at 50 g or more can track with position errors due to acceleration of approximately 0.2 m/g, or 10 m at 50 g. Implementation is almost entirely digital to meet the low volume requirements.

  9. Effect of solvents on the fractionation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootello, Miguel A; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2015-04-01

    Solvent fractionation of high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower oil was studied to determine the best solvent to use (hexane or acetone) in terms of the operational parameters and properties of the final stearins. Acetone fractionation on two types of HOHS sunflower oils (N17 and N20) was carried out at temperatures from 5 to 10 °C using micelles with different oil/solvent ratios. Acetone was more suitable than hexane as a solvent for HSHO sunflower oil fractionation because it allowed the oil to be fractionated at higher temperatures and at lower supercooling degrees. Likewise, a sunflower soft stearin obtained by dry fractionation of HOHS sunflower oil was also used to produce high-melting point stearins by acetone or hexane fractionation. The fractionation of these stearins could be performed at higher temperatures and gave higher yields. The combination of dry and solvent fractionation to obtain tailor-made stearins is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Morrell, Jonathan S [Knoxville, TN; Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  11. Non-invasive measurement of stroke volume and left ventricular ejection fraction. Radionuclide cardiography compared with left ventricular cardioangiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Aldershvile, J

    2011-01-01

    The stroke volume (SV) was determined by first passage radionuclide cardiography and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by multigated radionuclide cardiography in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease. The results were evaluated against those obtained by the invasive dye dilution or ...

  12. A Volume-Fraction Based Two-Phase Constitutive Model for Blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Rui (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.); Massoudi, Mehrdad; Hund, S.J. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.); •Antaki, J.F. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.)

    2008-06-01

    Mechanically-induced blood trauma such as hemolysis and thrombosis often occurs at microscopic channels, steps and crevices within cardiovascular devices. A predictive mathematical model based on a broad understanding of hemodynamics at micro scale is needed to mitigate these effects, and is the motivation of this research project. Platelet transport and surface deposition is important in thrombosis. Microfluidic experiments have previously revealed a significant impact of red blood cell (RBC)-plasma phase separation on platelet transport [5], whereby platelet localized concentration can be enhanced due to a non-uniform distribution of RBCs of blood flow in a capillary tube and sudden expansion. However, current platelet deposition models either totally ignored RBCs in the fluid by assuming a zero sample hematocrit or treated them as being evenly distributed. As a result, those models often underestimated platelet advection and deposition to certain areas [2]. The current study aims to develop a two-phase blood constitutive model that can predict phase separation in a RBC-plasma mixture at the micro scale. The model is based on a sophisticated theory known as theory of interacting continua, i.e., mixture theory. The volume fraction is treated as a field variable in this model, which allows the prediction of concentration as well as velocity profiles of both RBC and plasma phases. The results will be used as the input of successive platelet deposition models.

  13. Mapping Bone Mineral Density Obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2017-01-01

    Methods for relating or mapping estimates of volumetric Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction (BVF) are outlined mathematically. The methods are based on definitions of bone properties, cited experimental studies and regression relations derived from them for trabecular bone in the proximal femur. Using an experimental range of values in the intertrochanteric region obtained from male and female human subjects, age 18 to 49, the BVF values calculated from four different methods were compared to the experimental average and numerical range. The BVF values computed from the conversion method used data from two sources. One source provided pre bed rest vBMD values in the intertrochanteric region from 24 bed rest subject who participated in a 70 day study. Another source contained preflight vBMD values from 18 astronauts who spent 4 to 6 months on the ISS. To aid the use of a mapping from BMD to BVF, the discussion includes how to formulate them for purpose of computational modeling. An application of the conversions would be used to aid in modeling of time varying changes in vBMD as it relates to changes in BVF via bone remodeling and/or modeling.

  14. A framework of whole heart extracellular volume fraction estimation for low dose cardiac CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinjian; Summers, Ronald M.; Nacif, Marcelo Souto; Liu, Songtao; Bluemke, David A.; Yao, Jianhua

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) has been well validated and allows quantification of myocardial fibrosis in comparison to overall mass of the myocardium. Unfortunately, CMRI is relatively expensive and is contraindicated in patients with intracardiac devices. Cardiac CT (CCT) is widely available and has been validated for detection of scar and myocardial stress/rest perfusion. In this paper, we sought to evaluate the potential of low dose CCT for the measurement of myocardial whole heart extracellular volume (ECV) fraction. A novel framework was proposed for CCT whole heart ECV estimation, which consists of three main steps. First, a shape constrained graph cut (GC) method was proposed for myocardium and blood pool segmentation for post-contrast image. Second, the symmetric Demons deformable registrations method was applied to register pre-contrast to post-contrast images. Finally, the whole heart ECV value was computed. The proposed method was tested on 7 clinical low dose CCT datasets with pre-contrast and post-contrast images. The preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

  15. High data volume seismology: Surviving the avalanche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotwell, Henry Philip

    Seismic data volumes have increased in the past twenty years with the Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology's Data Management Center currently archiving upwards of 14 terabytes per year and this trend will continue (Ahern, 2006). Data volumes are quickly reaching the point at which the individual seismologist can be overwhelmed with the avalanche of data. We present three studies at the intersection of seismology and software development that aim to enable more efficient use of data by practicing seismologists. The first is the TauP Toolkit which calculates the travel times of seismic waves through custom one dimensional earth models. TauP also allows almost arbitrary phases to be used and is incorporated into a wide variety of seismology software. TauP is available at http://www.seis.sc.edu/TauP. The second is a study of the compression of seismic data, allowing more efficient storage and transmission. We find that the predictive operator used can have a significant effect on the compression used, and in many cases second differencing can be noticeably better than first differencing. The last is the EarthScope Automated Receiver Survey, which aims to calculate bulk crustal properties for all three component broadband seismic stations available in the US in a highly automated manner. Because of the high degree of automation, the project has been extended to calculated crustal thickness and Vp/V s for global stations as well. Results are available at http://www.seis.sc.edu/ears.

  16. High Range Resolution Profile Construction Exploiting Modified Fractional Fourier Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the discrimination of closely spaced high speed group targets with radar transmitting linear frequency modulation (LFM pulses. The high speed target motion leads to range migration and target dispersion and thereby the discriminating capability of the high range resolution profile (HRRP deteriorating significantly. An effective processing approach composed of stretch processing (SP, modified fractional Fourier transform (FrFT, and multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. Firstly, SP is adopted to transform the received LFM with Doppler distortions into narrow band LFM signals. Secondly, based on the two-dimensional range/velocity plane constructed by the modified FrFT, the velocity of the high speed group target is estimated and compensated with just one single pulse. After the compensation of range migration and target dispersion simultaneously, the resolution of the HRRP achieved by single pulse transmission improves significantly in the high speed group targets scenarios. Finally, MUSIC algorithm with superresolution capability is utilized to make a more explicit discrimination between the scatterers in comparison with the conventional SP method. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  17. Wear Behavior of Al-Mg2Si Cast In-situ Composite: Effect of Mg2Si Different Volume Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasinejad, J.; Emamy, M.; Ghorbani, M. R.; Malekan, A.

    2010-06-01

    Al-Mg2Si in situ composites are great candidates for automobile brake discs due to their low density, reasonably high young's modulus and low thermal expansion coefficient. Thus, understanding wear properties of this composite is of a great importance. In this study wear behavior of an in-situ Al-Mg2Si composite, prepared from a simple casting route, has been investigated using a pin-on-disc configuration concerning the effect of Mg2Si volume fractions, 15, 20 and 25% respectively. It was found that the weight loss increases with increase in reinforce volume fraction which can be due to a coarse morphology of primary Mg2Si particles. It was found that the variations of weight loss with sliding distance comprise different regimes of which the mechanisms are discussed.

  18. Efficacy and safety of 10,600-nm carbon dioxide fractional laser on facial skin with previous volume injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Hélou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractionated carbon dioxide (CO 2 lasers are a new treatment modality for skin resurfacing. The cosmetic rejuvenation market abounds with various injectable devices (poly-L-lactic acid, polymethyl-methacrylate, collagens, hyaluronic acids, silicone. The objective of this study is to examine the efficacy and safety of 10,600-nm CO 2 fractional laser on facial skin with previous volume injections. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study including 14 patients treated with fractional CO 2 laser and who have had previous facial volume restoration. The indication for the laser therapy, the age of the patients, previous facial volume restoration, and side effects were all recorded from their medical files. Objective assessments were made through clinical physician global assessment records and improvement scores records. Patients′ satisfaction rates were also recorded. Results: Review of medical records of the 14 patients show that five patients had polylactic acid injection prior to the laser session. Eight patients had hyaluronic acid injection prior to the laser session. Two patients had fat injection, two had silicone injection and one patient had facial thread lift. Side effects included pain during the laser treatment, post-treatment scaling, post-treatment erythema, hyperpigmentation which spontaneously resolved within a month. Concerning the previous facial volume restoration, no granulomatous reactions were noted, no facial shape deformation and no asymmetry were encountered whatever the facial volume product was. Conclusion: CO 2 fractional laser treatments do not seem to affect facial skin which had previous facial volume restoration with polylactic acid for more than 6 years, hyaluronic acid for more than 0.5 year, silicone for more than 6 years, or fat for more than 1.4 year. Prospective larger studies focusing on many other variables (skin phototype, injected device type are required to achieve better

  19. Volume fraction and location of voids and gaps in ultraconservative restorations by X-ray computed micro-tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Lagouvardos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volume fraction (Vf and location of internal voids and gaps in relation to material type and cavity dimensions in ultraconservative restorations were investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight round cavities of 1.3 mm mean diameter and 2.6 mm mean depth were made on buccal and lingual surfaces of recently extracted human teeth. These were filled and thermocycled with two low viscosity composites (AeliteFlo LV [AF], PermaFlo [PF], one high viscosity composite (Aelite aesthetic enamel [AA] and one glass-ionomer (GCFuji IX GP. X-ray microtomography, following a specific procedure, was applied to all cavities before and after their restoration, using SkyScan-1072 microtomographer. Vf percent (Vf% and location of voids and gaps were recorded and analysed statistically at a = 0.05. Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric analysis of variance, post-hoc analysis, Mann-Whitney test, Spearman′s correlation analysis were used to analyze data. Results: Cavities filled with AF and PF showed significantly lower V f % of voids and gaps than all other restorations (P 0.05. The proportion of cavities with gaps at the bottom and side walls was lower in those filled with AF and PF (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Cavities filled with low viscosity composites presented the lowest amount of internal voids and gaps. Glass-ionomer and high viscosity composite restorative materials showed the highest amount of interfacial gaps. Only in the high viscosity composite restorations the amount of voids and gaps correlated with the cavity depth, width and volume.

  20. Pediatric peri-operative fractionated high-dose-rate brachytherapy for recurrent Wilms’ tumor using a reconstructed Freiburg flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Flower

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To report peri-operative fractionated high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy with a 3D customized Freiburg flap applicator to treat locally recurrent Wilms’ tumor, followed by immediate hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for a 16-year-old with a second recurrence of nephroblastoma (Wilms’ tumor. Material and methods: The tumor was excised and surgical bed was treated with fractionated HDR brachytherapy using a Freiburg flap applicator. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy was performed immediately after the removal of brachytherapy applicator. Results: The Freiburg flap was successfully reconstructed to enable delivery of conformable peri-operative HDR brachytherapy. The clinical target volume (CTV D90 was 26 Gy in 5 fractions. Conclusions : Peri-operative fractionated HDR brachytherapy with a customized Freiburg flap applicator was delivered successfully across a large multi-disciplinary team.

  1. Measurement of Soot Volume Fraction and Temperature for Oxygen-Enriched Ethylene Combustion Based on Flame Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Yan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for simultaneously visualizing the two-dimensional distributions of temperature and soot volume fraction in an ethylene flame was presented. A single-color charge-coupled device (CCD camera was used to capture the flame image in the visible spectrum considering the broad-response spectrum of the R and G bands of the camera. The directional emissive power of the R and G bands were calibrated and used for measurement. Slightly increased temperatures and reduced soot concentration were predicted in the central flame without self-absorption effects considered, an iterative algorithm was used for eliminating the effect of self-absorption. Nine different cases were presented in the experiment to demonstrate the effects of fuel mass flow rate and oxygen concentration on temperature and soot concentration in three different atmospheres. For ethylene combustion in pure-air atmosphere, as the fuel mass flow rate increased, the maximum temperature slightly decreased, and the maximum soot volume fraction slightly increased. For oxygen fractions of 30%, 40%, and 50% combustion in O2/N2 oxygen-enhanced atmospheres, the maximum flame temperatures were 2276, 2451, and 2678 K, whereas combustion in O2/CO2 atmospheres were 1916, 2322, and 2535 K. The maximum soot volume fractions were 4.5, 7.0, and 9.5 ppm in oxygen-enriched O2/N2 atmosphere and 13.6, 15.3, and 14.8 ppm in oxygen-enriched O2/CO2 atmosphere. Compared with the O2/CO2 atmosphere, combustion in the oxygen-enriched O2/N2 atmosphere produced higher flame temperature and larger soot volume fraction. Preliminary results indicated that this technique is reliable and can be used for combustion diagnosis.

  2. Extracellular volume fraction mapping in the myocardium, part 1: evaluation of an automated method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellman Peter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbances in the myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV, such as diffuse or focal myocardial fibrosis or edema, are hallmarks of heart disease. Diffuse ECV changes are difficult to assess or quantify with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR using conventional late gadolinium enhancement (LGE, or pre- or post-contrast T1-mapping alone. ECV measurement circumvents factors that confound T1-weighted images or T1-maps, and has been shown to correlate well with diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate an automated method for producing a pixel-wise map of ECV that would be adequately robust for clinical work flow. Methods ECV maps were automatically generated from T1-maps acquired pre- and post-contrast calibrated by blood hematocrit. The algorithm incorporates correction of respiratory motion that occurs due to insufficient breath-holding and due to misregistration between breath-holds, as well as automated identification of the blood pool. Images were visually scored on a 5-point scale from non-diagnostic (1 to excellent (5. Results The quality score of ECV maps was 4.23 ± 0.83 (m ± SD, scored for n = 600 maps from 338 patients with 83% either excellent or good. Co-registration of the pre-and post-contrast images improved the image quality for ECV maps in 81% of the cases. ECV of normal myocardium was 25.4 ± 2.5% (m ± SD using motion correction and co-registration values and was 31.5 ± 8.7% without motion correction and co-registration. Conclusions Fully automated motion correction and co-registration of breath-holds significantly improve the quality of ECV maps, thus making the generation of ECV-maps feasible for clinical work flow.

  3. Extracellular volume fraction mapping in the myocardium, part 2: initial clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Peter; Wilson, Joel R; Xue, Hui; Bandettini, W Patricia; Shanbhag, Sujata M; Druey, Kirk M; Ugander, Martin; Arai, Andrew E

    2012-09-11

    Diffuse myocardial fibrosis, and to a lesser extent global myocardial edema, are important processes in heart disease which are difficult to assess or quantify with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) using conventional late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) or T1-mapping. Measurement of the myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV) circumvents factors that confound T1-weighted images or T1-maps. We hypothesized that quantitative assessment of myocardial ECV would be clinically useful for detecting both focal and diffuse myocardial abnormalities in a variety of common and uncommon heart diseases. A total of 156 subjects were imaged including 62 with normal findings, 33 patients with chronic myocardial infarction (MI), 33 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 15 with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 7 with acute myocarditis, 4 with cardiac amyloidosis, and 2 with systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS). Motion corrected ECV maps were generated automatically from T1-maps acquired pre- and post-contrast calibrated by blood hematocrit. Abnormally-elevated ECV was defined as >2SD from the mean ECV in individuals with normal findings. In HCM the size of regions of LGE was quantified as the region >2 SD from remote. Mean ECV of 62 normal individuals was 25.4 ± 2.5% (m ± SD), normal range 20.4%-30.4%. Mean ECV within the core of chronic myocardial infarctions (without MVO) (N=33) measured 68.5 ± 8.6% (pmapping appears promising to complement LGE imaging in cases of more homogenously diffuse disease. The ability to display ECV maps in units that are physiologically intuitive and may be interpreted on an absolute scale offers the potential for detection of diffuse disease and measurement of the extent and severity of abnormal regions.

  4. Foetal fractional thigh volume: an early 3D ultrasound marker of neonatal adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, J A; Vermeulen, M J; Koning, I V; Groenenberg, I A L; Willemsen, S P; Hokken-Koelega, A C S; Joosten, K F M; Reiss, I K M; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2017-08-01

    The predisposition for obesity is suggested to originate in the prenatal period. Prenatal markers are needed to identify foetuses at risk for neonatal adiposity, as early marker of childhood obesity. The aim of this study is to assess the association between foetal fractional thigh volume (TVol) and neonatal percentage fat mass from mid-gestation onward. In this perinatal cohort study, singleton pregnancies with term born infants were included. Foetal TVol was measured on three-dimensional ultrasound scans (3D US) obtained at 22, 26 and 32 weeks of gestation. Neonatal body composition measurement (percentage body fat (%BF)) was planned between 42+0 and 42+6 -week postmenstrual age. Cross-sectional and longitudinal linear regression analyses were performed. Seventy-nine mother-child pairs were included. Median (interquartile range) TVol increased from 7.6 (7.1; 8.5) cm3 at 22 weeks to 36.5 (33.8; 40.9) cm3 at 32 weeks. Median neonatal %BF was 14.3% (11.7; 17.0). TVol at 22 weeks (β = -1.58, 95% CI -2.45; -0.70, explained variance 31%) was negatively associated with %BF, but no associations were found at 26 and 32 weeks of gestation. TVol growth between 22 and 32 weeks of gestation (explained variance 18%) was also statistically significantly negatively associated with %BF. Foetal TVol is a promising 3D US marker for prediction of neonatal adiposity from mid-gestation onward. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  5. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent boundary layer with fully resolved particles at low volume fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Hu, Chenshu; Wu, Fan; Fan, Jianren

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of dilute particulate flow in a turbulent boundary layer has been conducted, containing thousands of finite-sized solid rigid particles. The particle surfaces are resolved with the multi-direct forcing immersed-boundary method. This is, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first DNS study of a turbulent boundary layer laden with finite-sized particles. The particles have a diameter of approximately 11.3 wall units, a density of 3.3 times that of the fluid, and a solid volume fraction of 1/1000. The simulation shows that the onset and the completion of the transition processes are shifted earlier with the inclusion of the solid phase and that the resulting streamwise mean velocity of the boundary layer in the particle-laden case is almost consistent with the results of the single-phase case. At the same time, relatively stronger particle movements are observed in the near-wall regions, due to the driving of the counterrotating streamwise vortexes. As a result, increased levels of dissipation occur on the particle surfaces, and the root mean square of the fluctuating velocities of the fluid in the near-wall regions is decreased. Under the present parameters, including the particle Stokes number St + = 24 and the particle Reynolds number Re p = 33 based on the maximum instantaneous fluid-solid velocity lag, no vortex shedding behind the particle is observed. Lastly, a trajectory analysis of the particles shows the influence of turbophoresis on particle wall-normal concentration, and the particles that originated between y + = 60 and 2/3 of the boundary-layer thickness are the most influenced.

  6. Utility of galectin-3 in predicting post-infarct remodeling after acute myocardial infarction based on extracellular volume fraction mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Rosario J; Morales-Ruiz, Manuel; Ortiz-Perez, Jose T; Bosch, Xavier; Andreu, David; Borras, Roger; Acosta, Juan; Penela, Diego; Prat-González, Susanna; de Caralt, Teresa M; Martínez, Mikel; Morales-Romero, Blai; Lasalvia, Luis; Donnelly, James; Jiménez, Wladimiro; Mira, Aurea; Mont, Lluis; Berruezo, Antonio

    2016-11-15

    ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) triggers remote extracellular matrix expansion. Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV), determined by cardiovascular magnetic resonance, permits quantification of interstitial space expansion. Our aim was to determine the relationship between early serum fibrosis biomarkers and 180-day post-infarct remote myocardium remodeling using ECV. In 26 patients with STEMI, functional imaging, T1-mapping, and late-gadolinium-enhancement were performed on a 3-T CMR scanner at baseline (days 3 to 5) and 180days. Biomarkers were measured at days 1, 3, and 7 after STEMI. The mean initial and follow-up left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were 48.3±18.1% and 52.6±12.3%, respectively. Initial infarct size was 11.6±16.8% of LV mass. ECV in the remote myocardium at 180days correlated with indexed end-systolic volume (r=0.4, p=0.045). A significant correlation was observed between galectin-3 at day 7 and ECV at 6months (r=0.428, p=0.037). A trend towards a direct correlation was found for BNP (r=0.380, p=0.059). Multivariate analysis revealed that BNP and galectin-3 were independent predictors of long-term changes in ECV and explained nearly 30% of the variance in this parameter (r 2 =0.34; p=0.01). A galectin-3 cutoff value of 10.15ng/mL was the most powerful predictor of high ECV values (≥28.5%) at follow-up. Galectin-3 at day 7 was an independent predictor of high ECV values at follow-up (OR=22.51; CI 95%: 2.1-240.72; p=0.01) with 0.76 AUC (CI: 0.574-0.964; p=0.03). Galectin-3 measured acutely after STEMI is an independent predictor of increased ECV at 6-month follow-up that might be useful for long-term risk stratification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Low Volume Fraction of Polyvinyl Alcohol Fibers on the Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Kun Yew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of low volume fraction (Vf of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA fibers on the mechanical properties of oil palm shell (OPS high strength lightweight concrete mixtures. The slump, density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity under various curing conditions have been measured and evaluated. The results indicate that an increase in PVA fibers decreases the workability of the concrete and decreases the density slightly. The 28-day compressive strength of oil palm shell fiber-reinforced concrete (OPSFRC high strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC subject to continuous moist curing was within the range of 43–49 MPa. The average modulus of elasticity (E value is found to be 16.1 GPa for all mixes, which is higher than that reported in previous studies and is within the range of normal weight concrete. Hence, the findings of this study revealed that the PVA fibers can be used as an alternative material to enhance the properties of OPS HSLWC for building and construction applications.

  8. Modification of lipid fraction in ensiled high moisture corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bochicchio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the changes of the lipidic fraction of ensiled high moisture corn (HMC. 11 maize hybrids were used, ensiled each in 3 mini experimental silos of 100 litres. For each hybrid 1 sample of fresh high moisture corn was obtained immediately after milling and 3 samples of ensiling HMC were kept after 2, 7 and 12 months. All samples were analysed for pH, dry matter, lactic acid, ammonia-N, ether extract, fatty acid composition and volatile fatty acids (VFAs. Ether extract of fresh high moisture corn was 35.7 g/kg dry matter (DM and increased after 2 and 7 months of storage up to 39.4 g/Kg DM (P≤0.01; after 12 months it decreased to 38.1 g/kg DM (P≤0.01. Both saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA percentages decreased from 18.23% to 15.47% and from 24.84% to 23.57% respectively (before ensiling vs 12 months P≤0.01. Linoleic acid percentage increased from 55.34% to 59.44% (before ensiling vs 12 months P≤0.01. The linoleic acid content (g/kg of DM increased on average from 19,1 before ensiling to 22.5 after 12 months of ensiling. These differences may affect the linoleic acid content of heavy pig diets when maize is used as HMC instead of corn meal.

  9. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Enhanced dc conductivity of low volume-fraction nano-particulate suspensions in silicone and perfluorinated oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. A.; Libor, Z.; Skordos, A. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2009-03-01

    The dc conductivities of several different types of nanoparticles (nickel, barium titanate and magnetite) suspended in both silicone and perfluorinated oils have been measured and contrasted. Enhanced dc conductivity through interaction between the particles and the fluid has been demonstrated, even at quite moderate fields, and different types of nanoparticles have been shown to exhibit different behavioural trends. Whilst the dc enhancement is partly related to the concentration (or spatial arrangement) of the particles as expected, there is clear evidence that energy-activated (electric field activated) processes also play a major role. It can be said that effective-medium theories based solely on the electrical properties and volume fractions of the component materials have limited applicability when assessing the dc conductivities of these nanoparticle-fluid combinations at low volume fractions.

  10. Imaging water velocity and volume fraction distributions in water continuous multiphase flows using inductive flow tomography and electrical resistance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yiqing; Lucas, Gary P.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an inductive flow tomography (IFT) system, employing a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) and novel reconstruction techniques, for measuring the local water velocity distribution in water continuous single and multiphase flows. A series of experiments were carried out in vertical-upward and upward-inclined single phase water flows and ‘water continuous’ gas-water and oil-gas-water flows in which the velocity profiles ranged from axisymmetric (single phase and vertical-upward multiphase flows) to highly asymmetric (upward-inclined multiphase flows). Using potential difference measurements obtained from the electrode array of the EMFM, local axial velocity distributions of the continuous water phase were reconstructed using two different IFT reconstruction algorithms denoted RT#1, which assumes that the overall water velocity profile comprises the sum of a series of polynomial velocity components, and RT#2, which is similar to RT#1 but which assumes that the zero’th order velocity component may be replaced by an axisymmetric ‘power law’ velocity distribution. During each experiment, measurement of the local water volume fraction distribution was also made using the well-established technique of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). By integrating the product of the local axial water velocity and the local water volume fraction in the cross section an estimate of the water volumetric flow rate was made which was compared with a reference measurement of the water volumetric flow rate. In vertical upward flows RT#2 was found to give rise to water velocity profiles which are consistent with the previous literature although the profiles obtained in the multiphase flows had relatively higher central velocity peaks than was observed for the single phase profiles. This observation was almost certainly a result of the transfer of axial momentum from the less dense dispersed phases to the water

  11. Critical Void Volume Fraction fc at Void Coalescence for S235JR Steel at Low Initial Stress Triaxiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorz Kossakowski, Paweł; Wciślik, Wiktor

    2017-10-01

    The paper is concerned with the nucleation, growth and coalescence of microdefects in the form of voids in S235JR steel. The material is known to be one of the basic steel grades commonly used in the construction industry. The theory and methods of damage mechanics were applied to determine and describe the failure mechanisms that occur when the material undergoes deformation. Until now, engineers have generally employed the Gurson-Tvergaard- Needleman model. This material model based on damage mechanics is well suited to define and analyze failure processes taking place in the microstructure of S235JR steel. It is particularly important to determine the critical void volume fraction fc , which is one of the basic parameters of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman material model. As the critical void volume fraction fc refers to the failure stage, it is determined from the data collected for the void coalescence phase. A case of multi-axial stresses is considered taking into account the effects of spatial stress state. In this study, the parameter of stress triaxiality η was used to describe the failure phenomena. Cylindrical tensile specimens with a circumferential notch were analysed to obtain low values of initial stress triaxiality (η = 0.556 of the range) in order to determine the critical void volume fraction fc . It is essential to emphasize how unique the method applied is and how different it is from the other more common methods involving parameter calibration, i.e. curve-fitting methods. The critical void volume fraction fc at void coalescence was established through digital image analysis of surfaces of S235JR steel, which involved studying real, physical results obtained directly from the material tested.

  12. Calculation of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction from dynamic cardiac-gated 15O-water PET/CT: 5D-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Nordström

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF is of increasing interest in the clinical assessment of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD. 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET is considered the gold standard for non-invasive MBF measurements. However, calculation of left ventricular (LV volumes and ejection fraction (EF is not possible from standard 15O-water uptake images. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the possibility of calculating LV volumes and LVEF from cardiac-gated parametric blood volume (V B 15O-water images and from first pass (FP images. Sixteen patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation underwent an eight-gate dynamic cardiac-gated 15O-water PET/CT scan and cardiac MRI. V B and FP images were generated for each gate. Calculations of end-systolic volume (ESV, end-diastolic volume (EDV, stroke volume (SV and LVEF were performed with automatic segmentation of V B and FP images, using commercially available software. LV volumes and LVEF were calculated with surface-, count-, and volume-based methods, and the results were compared with gold standard MRI. Results Using V B images, high correlations between PET and MRI ESV (r = 0.89, p  0.86, p < 0.001. Conclusion Calculation of LV volumes and LVEF from dynamic 15O-water PET is feasible and shows good correlation with MRI. However, the analysis method is laborious, and future work is needed for more automation to make the method more easily applicable in a clinical setting.

  13. Esophageal Toxicity From High-Dose, Single-Fraction Paraspinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Brett W., E-mail: coxb@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Jackson, Andrew; Hunt, Margie [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bilsky, Mark [Department of Surgery (Neurosurgical Division), Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report the esophageal toxicity from single-fraction paraspinal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and identify dosimetric and clinical risk factors for toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 204 spinal metastases abutting the esophagus (182 patients) were treated with high-dose single-fraction SRS during 2003-2010. Toxicity was scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Dose-volume histograms were combined to generate a comprehensive atlas of complication incidence that identifies risk factors for toxicity. Correlation of dose-volume factors with esophageal toxicity was assessed using Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Clinical factors were correlated with toxicity. Results: The median dose to the planning treatment volume was 24 Gy. Median follow-up was 12 months (range, 3-81). There were 31 (15%) acute and 24 (12%) late esophageal toxicities. The rate of grade {>=}3 acute or late toxicity was 6.8% (14 patients). Fisher's exact test resulted in significant median splits for grade {>=}3 toxicity at V12 = 3.78 cm{sup 3} (relative risk [RR] 3.7, P=.05), V15 = 1.87 cm{sup 3} (RR 13, P=.0013), V20 = 0.11 cm{sup 3} (RR 6, P=0.01), and V22 = 0.0 cm{sup 3} (RR 13, P=.0013). The median split for D2.5 cm{sup 3} (14.02 Gy) was also a significant predictor of toxicity (RR 6; P=.01). A highly significant logistic regression model was generated on the basis of D2.5 cm{sup 3}. One hundred percent (n = 7) of grade {>=}4 toxicities were associated with radiation recall reactions after doxorubicin or gemcitabine chemotherapy or iatrogenic manipulation of the irradiated esophagus. Conclusions: High-dose, single-fraction paraspinal SRS has a low rate of grade {>=}3 esophageal toxicity. Severe esophageal toxicity is minimized with careful attention to esophageal doses during treatment planning. Iatrogenic manipulation of the irradiated esophagus and systemic agents classically associated with

  14. Extracellular volume fraction mapping in the myocardium, part 2: initial clinical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Diffuse myocardial fibrosis, and to a lesser extent global myocardial edema, are important processes in heart disease which are difficult to assess or quantify with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) using conventional late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) or T1-mapping. Measurement of the myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV) circumvents factors that confound T1-weighted images or T1-maps. We hypothesized that quantitative assessment of myocardial ECV would be clinically useful for detecting both focal and diffuse myocardial abnormalities in a variety of common and uncommon heart diseases. Methods A total of 156 subjects were imaged including 62 with normal findings, 33 patients with chronic myocardial infarction (MI), 33 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 15 with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 7 with acute myocarditis, 4 with cardiac amyloidosis, and 2 with systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS). Motion corrected ECV maps were generated automatically from T1-maps acquired pre- and post-contrast calibrated by blood hematocrit. Abnormally-elevated ECV was defined as >2SD from the mean ECV in individuals with normal findings. In HCM the size of regions of LGE was quantified as the region >2 SD from remote. Results Mean ECV of 62 normal individuals was 25.4 ± 2.5% (m ± SD), normal range 20.4%-30.4%. Mean ECV within the core of chronic myocardial infarctions (without MVO) (N = 33) measured 68.5 ± 8.6% (p ECV correlated to the extent of LGE (r = 0.72, p ECV (mean difference 19 ± 7% of slice). Abnormally elevated ECV was identified in 4 of 16 patients with non-ischemic DCM (38.1 ± 1.9% (p ECV values in other disease entities ranged 32-60% for cardiac amyloidosis (N = 4), 40-41% for systemic capillary leak syndrome (N = 2), and 39-56% within abnormal regions affected by myocarditis (N = 7). Conclusions ECV mapping appears promising to complement LGE imaging in cases of more

  15. Effect of CNT volume fraction on wear properties of hybrid CNT+SiCsf/AS52 Mg matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung Woo; Cho, Dae Hyun; Nam, Ji Hoon; Park, Ik Min

    2016-07-01

    The effect of the carbon nanotube (CNT) volume fraction on the wear properties of hybrid Mg composites was investigated. The hybrid x vol% CNT + 15 vol% SiCsf-reinforced Mg-5Al-2Si alloy (AS52) matrix composites (x=0, 5 and 10 vol%) were fabricated in two steps involving preform fabrication and squeeze infiltration. The wear rate of the hybrid CNT+SiCsf/AS52 Mg metal matrix composites (MMCs) was evaluated using ballon-disk wear testing, and the roughness was measured using confocal laser 3D microscopy. Additionally, the worn surfaces were examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The adhesive wear and worn surface roughness of the hybrid CNT+SiCsf/AS52 Mg MMCs were reduced with increasing CNT addition. The CNTs hindered pull-out or cracking of the SiCsfs and matrix deformation. The wear resistance of the hybrid CNT+SiCsf/AS52 Mg MMCs was improved by the CNT additions, causing self-lubricant and strengthening effects compared with the single SiCsf/AS52 Mg MMCs.

  16. A mathematical model for the effects of volume fraction and fiber aspect ratio of biomass mixture during enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Norazaliza Mohd; Wang, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Renewable energy or biofuel from lignocellulosic biomass is an alternative way to replace the depleting fossil fuels. The production cost can be reduced by increasing the concentration of biomass particles. However, lignocellulosic biomass is a suspension of natural fibres, and processing at high solid concentration is a challenging task. Thus, understanding the factors that affect the rheology of biomass suspension is crucial in order to maximize the production at a minimum cost. Our aim was to develop a mathematical model for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by combining three scales: the macroscopic flow field, the mesoscopic particle orientation, and the microscopic reactive kinetics. The governing equations for the flow field, particle stress, kinetic equations, and particle orientation were coupled and were simultaneously solved using a finite element method based software, COMSOL. One of the main results was the changes in rheology of biomass suspension were not only due to the decrease in volume fraction of particles, but also due the types of fibres. The results from the simulation model agreed qualitatively with the experimental findings. This approach has enables us to obtain better predictive capabilities, hence increasing our understanding on the behaviour of biomass suspension.

  17. Prostate gland edema after single-fraction high-dose rate brachytherapy before external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Fabio L; Duclos, Marie; Aprikian, Armen; Patrocinio, Horacio; Souhami, Luis

    2010-01-01

    High-dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB) is frequently used as a boost to external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in prostate cancer patients. With the increasing use of small planning target volume margins in EBRT, prostatic edema induced by HDRB can be a contributing factor to geometric miss when HDRB is performed before or during EBRT. We assessed prostate gland volumetric change after single-fraction HDRB and its impact on definition of treatment volume for EBRT. Thirty-one consecutive patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with single-fraction HDRB (10 Gy) combined with hypofractionated EBRT were analyzed. A second CT scan was performed 7 days after HDRB, and images were coregistered with the planning CT scan that contained the original clinical target volume (CTV). The post-HDRB prostate CTV volume was compared with the original CTV by a single observer. All patients presented volumetric variation. In most cases (68%), the prostate increased in volume, whereas it decreased in 32%. The mean prostatic volume was 42.2 cc before HDRB and 43.6 cc after HDRB, representing a mean volume difference of 3.4%, ranging from -14.2% to 23.8% (p=0.756). This difference is the result of mean changes of 0.6mm (-6.1 to 6.6) in the anterior-posterior, 0.5mm (-5.5 to 3.0) in the lateral, and 0.2mm (-5.0 to 5.0) in the superior-inferior axes. Although a nonsignificant volumetric change occurs after single-fraction HDRB, individual variations on specific axis could lead to important uncertainties during EBRT. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The Effect of Type and Volume Fraction (Vf) of Steel Fiber on the Mechanical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghanbarpour, S.; Mazaheripour, H.; Mirmoradi, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    is to investigate the effects of type and volume fraction of steel fiber on the compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC). Design/methodology/approach – For this purpose, Micro wire and Wave type steel fibers...... with l/d ratios of 50 were used. Three different fiber volumes were added to concrete mixes at 0.5, 0.75 and 1 per cent by volume of SCC. Six different SFRSCC mixes were prepared. After 28 days of curing, compressive, split and flexural strength and modulus of elasticity were determined. Findings...... – It was found that, inclusion of steel fibers significantly affect the split tensile and flexural strength of SCC accordance with type and vf. Besides, mathematical expressions were developed to estimate the flexural, modulus of elasticity and split tensile strength of SFRSCCs regarding of compressive strength...

  19. Testing of Dependencies between Stock Returns and Trading Volume by High Frequency Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gurgul

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a dependence analysis of returns, return volatility and trading volume for five companies listed on the Vienna Stock Exchange and five from theWarsaw Stock Exchange. Taking into account high frequency data for these companies, tests based on a comparison of Bernstein copula densities using the Hellinger distance were conducted. The paper presents some patterns of causal and other relationships between stock returns, realized volatility and expected and unexpected trading volume. There is a linear causality running from realized volatility to expected trading volume, and a lack of nonlinear dependence in the opposite direction. The authors detected strong linear and nonlinear causality from stock returns to expected trading volume. They did not find causality running in the opposite direction. In addition, the existence of fractional cointegration was examined. Despite the equality of the long memory parameters of realized volatility and trading volumes, they do not move together in the long term horizon.

  20. The capability of radial basis function to forecast the volume fractions of the annular three-phase flow of gas-oil-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, G H; Karami, A; Salehizadeh, A; Nazemi, E

    2017-11-01

    The problem of how to precisely measure the volume fractions of oil-gas-water mixtures in a pipeline remains as one of the main challenges in the petroleum industry. This paper reports the capability of Radial Basis Function (RBF) in forecasting the volume fractions in a gas-oil-water multiphase system. Indeed, in the present research, the volume fractions in the annular three-phase flow are measured based on a dual energy metering system including the 152Eu and 137Cs and one NaI detector, and then modeled by a RBF model. Since the summation of volume fractions are constant (equal to 100%), therefore it is enough for the RBF model to forecast only two volume fractions. In this investigation, three RBF models are employed. The first model is used to forecast the oil and water volume fractions. The next one is utilized to forecast the water and gas volume fractions, and the last one to forecast the gas and oil volume fractions. In the next stage, the numerical data obtained from MCNP-X code must be introduced to the RBF models. Then, the average errors of these three models are calculated and compared. The model which has the least error is picked up as the best predictive model. Based on the results, the best RBF model, forecasts the oil and water volume fractions with the mean relative error of less than 0.5%, which indicates that the RBF model introduced in this study ensures an effective enough mechanism to forecast the results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnquist, Norman [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Qi, Xuele [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Raminosoa, Tsarafidy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Salas, Ken [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Samudrala, Omprakash [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Shah, Manoj [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Van Dam, Jeremy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Yin, Weijun [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  2. Reproducibility of fractional ventilation derived by Fourier decomposition after adjusting for tidal volume with and without an MRI compatible spirometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskrebenzev, Andreas; Gutberlet, Marcel; Becker, Lena; Wacker, Frank; Vogel-Claussen, Jens

    2016-11-01

    To reduce the influence of tidal volume on fractional ventilation (FV) derived by Fourier decomposition (FD). Twelve volunteers were examined on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. Spoiled gradient echo imaging of coronal and sagittal slices of the lung were performed. The tidal volume variations between different acquisitions were studied by reproducibility and repeatability measurements. To adjust the FV derived by FD for tidal volume differences between the measurements, during all acquisitions, the lung volume changes were measured by a spirometer and used to calculate a global FV parameter. As an alternative, using the FD data, the lung area changes were calculated and used for the adjustment. Reproducibility analysis of unadjusted coronal FV showed a determination coefficient of R2 = 71% and an intraclass correlation coefficient of ICC = 93%. Differences in the measurements could be ascribed to different tidal volumes. Area adjusted values exhibited an increased R2 of 84% and a higher ICC of 97%. For the coronal middle slice/sagittal slices in free breathing, the inter-volunteer coefficient of variation was reduced from 0.23/0.28 (unadjusted) to 0.16/0.20 (spirometer) or 0.12/0.13 (area). The calculation of lung area changes is sufficient to increase the reproducibility of FV in a volunteer cohort avoiding the need for an MRI compatible spirometer. Magn Reson Med 76:1542-1550, 2016. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Prediction of gas volume fraction in fully-developed gas-liquid flow in a vertical pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, A.S.M.A.; Adoo, N.A.; Bergstrom, D.J., E-mail: nana.adoo@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Wang, D.F. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    An Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid model has been implemented for the prediction of the gas volume fraction profile in turbulent upward gas-liquid flow in a vertical pipe. The two-fluid transport equations are discretized using the finite volume method and a low Reynolds number κ-ε turbulence model is used to predict the turbulence field for the liquid phase. The contribution to the effective turbulence by the gas phase is modeled by a bubble induced turbulent viscosity. For the fully-developed flow being considered, the gas volume fraction profile is calculated using the radial momentum balance for the bubble phase. The model potentially includes the effect of bubble size on the interphase forces and turbulence model. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data from the literature. The one-dimensional formulation being developed allows for the efficient assessment and further development of both turbulence and two-fluid models for multiphase flow applications in the nuclear industry. (author)

  4. Pulse volume discharges in high pressure gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamshchikov, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    New approach for suppression of plasma inhomogeneities and instabilities in the volume self-sustained discharge is offered. The physical model is offered and conditions of obtaining extremely homogeneous self-sustained discharge are defined (with full suppression of plasma inhomogeneity and instability). Results of calculations agree with experiments.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of left and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction during dobutamine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandapaka, Sangeeta; Hamilton, Craig A; Morgan, Timothy M; Hundley, William Gregory

    2011-01-01

    During cardiovascular stress, if right ventricular (RV) stroke volume exceeds left ventricular (LV) stroke volume, then a large volume of blood is displaced into the pulmonary circulation that may precipitate pulmonary edema. We sought to determine the metrics by which cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) could measure simultaneous displacement of RV and LV stroke volumes during dobutamine stress. Thirteen healthy subjects (5 women) aged 53 ± 10 years without medical conditions and taking no medications underwent 2 CMR examinations at 1.5 T separated by 4 to 8 weeks in which RV and LV stroke volumes were determined during intravenous dobutamine and atropine infused to achieve 80% of the maximum predicted heart rate response for age. The RV and LV stroke volumes were highly correlated at each level of stress (rest: r = 0.98, P = 0.007; low stress: r = 0.87, P = 0.001; and peak stress: r = 0.88, P = 0.001), and the mean difference in SV at each level of stress (rest, low stress, and peak stress was 0 to 2 mL on examinations 1 and 2. Simultaneous change in right and left ventricular stroke volumes can be assessed in a highly reproducible manner throughout the course of dobutamine CMR stress administered to achieve 80% of maximum predicted heart rate response for age. This technology may help identify discrepancies in RV and LV stroke volumes during cardiovascular stress that are associated with the development of pulmonary edema.

  6. Theoretical Model for Volume Fraction of UC, 235U Enrichment, and Effective Density of Final U 10Mo Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Prabhakaran, Ramprashad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Hu, Shenyang Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); McGarrah, Eric J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL)

    2016-04-12

    The purpose of this document is to provide a theoretical framework for (1) estimating uranium carbide (UC) volume fraction in a final alloy of uranium with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) as a function of final alloy carbon concentration, and (2) estimating effective 235U enrichment in the U-10Mo matrix after accounting for loss of 235U in forming UC. This report will also serve as a theoretical baseline for effective density of as-cast low-enriched U-10Mo alloy. Therefore, this report will serve as the baseline for quality control of final alloy carbon content

  7. Integer, fractional, and anomalous quantum Hall effects explained with Eyring's rate process theory and free volume concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tian

    2017-02-22

    The Hall effects, especially the integer, fractional and anomalous quantum Hall effects, have been addressed using Eyring's rate process theory and free volume concept. The basic assumptions are that the conduction process is a common rate controlled "reaction" process that can be described with Eyring's absolute rate process theory; the mobility of electrons should be dependent on the free volume available for conduction electrons. The obtained Hall conductivity is clearly quantized as with prefactors related to both the magnetic flux quantum number and the magnetic quantum number via the azimuthal quantum number, with and without an externally applied magnetic field. This article focuses on two dimensional (2D) systems, but the approaches developed in this article can be extended to 3D systems.

  8. Extracellular Volume Fraction Is More Closely Associated With Altered Regional Left Ventricular Velocities Than Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Non-Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jeremy; Sommerville, Cort; Magrath, Patrick; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Freed, Benjamin H; Benzuly, Keith H; Gordon, Robert; Vidula, Himabindu; Lee, Dan C; Yancy, Clyde; Carr, James; Markl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) is a common cause of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to non-invasively evaluate changes in segmental LV extracellular volume fraction (ECV), LV velocities, myocardial scar, and wall motion in NICM patients. Methods and Results Cardiac MRI including pre- and post-contrast myocardial T1-mapping and velocity quantification (tissue phase mapping, TPM) of the LV (basal, mid-ventricular, apical short axis) was applied in 31 patients with NICM (50±18years). Analysis based on the 16-segment AHA model was employed to evaluate the segmental distribution of ECV, peak systolic and diastolic myocardial velocities, scar determined by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and wall motion abnormalities. LV segments with scar or impaired wall motion were significantly associated with elevated ECV (r=0.26, pECV were similar for patients with reduced (n=12, ECV=0.28±0.06) and preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF) (n=19, ECV=0.30±0.09). Patients with preserved LVEF showed significant relationships between increasing ECV and reduced systolic (r=−0.19, r=−0.30) and diastolic (r=0.34, r=0.26) radial and long-axis peak velocities (pECV and segmental LV velocities were maintained indicating the potential of elevated ECV to identify regional diffuse fibrosis not visible by LGE which was associated with impaired regional LV function Conclusions Regionally elevated ECV negatively impacted myocardial velocities. The association of elevated regional ECV with reduced myocardial velocities independent of LVEF suggests a structure-function relationship between altered ECV and segmental myocardial function in NICM. PMID:25552491

  9. Semi-automated quantification of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunde Ketil

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that real-time three-dimensional (3D echocardiography (RT3DE gives more accurate and reproducible left ventricular (LV volume and ejection fraction (EF measurements than traditional two-dimensional methods. A new semi-automated tool (4DLVQ for volume measurements in RT3DE has been developed. We sought to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of this method compared to a 3D echo standard. Methods LV end-diastolic volumes (EDV, end-systolic volumes (ESV, and EF measured using 4DLVQ were compared with a commercially available semi-automated analysis tool (TomTec 4D LV-Analysis ver. 2.2 in 35 patients. Repeated measurements were performed to investigate inter- and intra-observer variability. Results Average analysis time of the new tool was 141s, significantly shorter than 261s using TomTec (p p = NS, with bias and 95% limits of agreement of 2.1 ± 21 ml, -0.88 ± 17 ml, and 1.6 ± 11% for EDV, ESV, and EF respectively. Intra-observer variability of 4DLVQ vs. TomTec was 7.5 ± 6.2 ml vs. 7.7 ± 7.3 ml for EDV, 5.5 ± 5.6 ml vs. 5.0 ± 5.9 ml for ESV, and 3.0 ± 2.7% vs. 2.1 ± 2.0% for EF (p = NS. The inter-observer variability of 4DLVQ vs. TomTec was 9.0 ± 5.9 ml vs. 17 ± 6.3 ml for EDV (p p p = NS. Conclusion In conclusion, the new analysis tool gives rapid and reproducible measurements of LV volumes and EF, with good agreement compared to another RT3DE volume quantification tool.

  10. High-speed volume measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Michael H.; Doyle, Jr., James L.; Brinkman, Michael J.

    2018-01-30

    Disclosed is a volume sensor having a first axis, a second axis, and a third axis, each axis including a laser source configured to emit a beam; a parallel beam generating assembly configured to receive the beam and split the beam into a first parallel beam and a second parallel beam, a beam-collimating assembly configured to receive the first parallel beam and the second parallel beam and output a first beam sheet and a second beam sheet, the first beam sheet and the second beam sheet being configured to traverse the object aperture; a first collecting lens and a second collecting lens; and a first photodetector and a second photodetector, the first photodetector and the second photodetector configured to output an electrical signal proportional to the object; wherein the first axis, the second axis, and the third axis are arranged at an angular offset with respect to each other.

  11. Effect of SiC volume fraction and particle size on the fatigue resistance of a 2080 Al/SiC{sub p} composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, N.; Andres, C.; Jones, J.W. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Allison, J.E. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The effect of SiC volume fraction and particle size on the fatigue behavior of 2080 Al was investigated. Matrix microstructure in the composite and the unreinforced alloy was held relatively constant by the introduction of a deformation stage prior to aging. It was found that increasing volume fraction and decreasing particle size resulted in an increase in fatigue resistance. Mechanisms responsible for this behavior are described in terms of load transfer from the matrix to the high stiffness reinforcement, increasing obstacles for dislocation motion in the form of S{prime} precipitates, and the decrease in strain localization with decreasing reinforcement interparticle spacing as a result of reduced particle size. Microplasticity was also observed in the composite, in the form of stress-strain hysteresis loops, and is related to stress concentrations at the poles of the reinforcement. Finally, intermetallic inclusions in the matrix acted as fatigue crack initiation sites. The effect of inclusion size and location on fatigue life of the composites is discussed.

  12. An efficient algorithm for some highly nonlinear fractional PDEs in mathematical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jamshad; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a fractional complex transform (FCT) is used to convert the given fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs) into corresponding partial differential equations (PDEs) and subsequently Reduced Differential Transform Method (RDTM) is applied on the transformed system of linear and nonlinear time-fractional PDEs. The results so obtained are re-stated by making use of inverse transformation which yields it in terms of original variables. It is observed that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient and appropriate for fractional PDEs and hence can be extended to other complex problems of diversified nonlinear nature.

  13. An efficient algorithm for some highly nonlinear fractional PDEs in mathematical physics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshad Ahmad

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fractional complex transform (FCT is used to convert the given fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs into corresponding partial differential equations (PDEs and subsequently Reduced Differential Transform Method (RDTM is applied on the transformed system of linear and nonlinear time-fractional PDEs. The results so obtained are re-stated by making use of inverse transformation which yields it in terms of original variables. It is observed that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient and appropriate for fractional PDEs and hence can be extended to other complex problems of diversified nonlinear nature.

  14. Prediction of the Soil Water Characteristic from Soil Particle Volume Fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    2012-01-01

    ) for the SWC, derived from readily available soil properties such as texture and bulk density. A total of 46 soils from different horizons at 15 locations across Denmark were used for models evaluation. The Xw-model predicts the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric fines content (organic matter......Modelling water distribution and flow in partially saturated soils requires knowledge of the soil-water characteristic (SWC). However, measurement of the SWC is challenging and time-consuming, and in some cases not feasible. This study introduces two predictive models (Xw-model and Xw*-model...... and clay). It performed reasonably well for the dry-end (above a pF value of 2.0; pF = log(|Ψ|), where Ψ is the matric potential in cm), but did not do as well closer to saturated conditions. The Xw*-model gives the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric content of particle size fractions...

  15. Three-dimensional simulations of microstructural evolution in polycrystalline dual-phase materials with constant volume fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Stefan Othmar; Voorhees, P.W.; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal

    2013-01-01

    -state distributions of grain sizes and topology were determined. It was found that the grain size distributions were in good agreement with experimentally characterized size distributions for solid particles coarsening in a liquid matrix, and that the distributions of the number of faces were in good agreement....../50 and 40/60 were examined. After an initial transient, the number of grains decrease from ∼2600 to ∼500. It was found that the mean grain size of grains of both phases obeyed a power law with an exponent of 3, and the microstructural evolution was found to be controlled by diffusion. Steady...... with the topology of single-phase grain structures as determined by experiment and simulation. The evolution of size and number of faces for the minority and majority phase grains in the 40/60 volume fraction simulation is presented and discussed. Non-constant curvature across some interphase boundaries...

  16. Tunable 3D and 2D polystyrene nanoparticle assemblies using surface wettability, low volume fraction and surfactant effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, S.; Hemmersam, A. G.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Meyer, R. L.; Moghimi, S. M.; Besenbacher, F.; Kingshott, P.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer-based nanopatterning on metal surfaces is of increasing importance to a number of applications, including biosensors, bioelectronic devices and medical implants. Here we show that polycrystalline gold surfaces can be functionalized with monocomponent nanoparticle (NP) assemblies by a simple drop deposition method. Ordered 3D hexagonal close-packed structures consisting of 350 nm polystyrene (PS) NPs on hydrophobically modified gold surfaces from solutions of very low volume fraction (phiv = 0.0006) were obtained as a result of capillary force induced self-assembly, whilst 2D self-assembly of PS NPs was generated over large area on hydrophilic gold and TiO2 surfaces by spin coating. Furthermore, we show that when Triton X-100 is added to the PS NP suspending medium longer range ordering is obtained. Our observations may initiate interesting applications in the areas of nanoengineering of metal-based sensors and as a means to design new nanostructures for biocompatible implant surfaces.

  17. Myocardial extracellular volume fraction from T1 measurements in healthy volunteers and mice: relationship to aging and cardiac dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Tomas G; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R; Shah, Ravi V; Abbasi, Siddique A; Heydari, Bobak; Watanabe, Eri; Chen, Yucheng; Mandry, Damien; Pierre-Mongeon, Francois; Blankstein, Ron; Kwong, Raymond Y; Jerosch-Herold, Michael

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to test the characteristics of the myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV) derived from pre- and post-contrast T1 measurements among healthy volunteers. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 measurements of myocardium and blood before and after contrast allow quantification of the ECV, a tissue parameter that has been shown to change in proportion to the connective tissue fraction. Healthy volunteers underwent standard CMR imaging with administration of gadolinium. T1 measurements were performed with a Look-Locker sequence followed by gradient-echo acquisition. We tested the segmental, interslice, inter-, intra-, and test-retest characteristics of the ECV, as well as the association of the ECV with other variables. Juvenile and aged mice underwent a similar protocol, and cardiac sections were harvested for measurement of fibrosis. In healthy volunteers (N = 32, 56% female; age 21 to 72 years), the ECV averaged 0.28 ± 0.03 (range 0.23 to 0.33). The intraclass coefficients for the intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest absolute agreements of the ECV were 0.94 (95% confidence interval: 0.84 to 0.98), 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.80 to 0.98), and 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.52 to 0.99), respectively. In volunteers, the ECV was associated with age (r = 0.74, p volunteers, the myocardial ECV ranges from 0.23 to 0.33, has acceptable test characteristics, and is associated with age, left atrial volume, and left ventricular mass. In mice, the ECV also increases with age and strongly correlates with the extent of myocardial fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Myocardial Extracellular Volume Fraction from T1 Measurements in Healthy Volunteers and Mice; Relationship to Aging and Cardiac Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Tomas G.; Coelho-Filho, Otavio R.; Shah, Ravi V.; Abbasi, Siddique A.; Heydari, Bobak; Watanabe, Eri; Chen, Yucheng; Mandry, Damien; Pierre-Mongeon, Francois; Blankstein, Ron; Kwong, Raymond; Jerosch-Herold, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to test the characteristics of the myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) fraction derived from pre and post-contrast T1 measurements among healthy volunteers. Background Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 measurements of myocardium and blood before and after contrast allow quantification of the ECV, a tissue parameter that has been shown to change in proportion to the connective tissue fraction. Methods Healthy volunteers underwent a standard CMR with administration of gadolinium. T1 measurements were performed with a Look-Locker sequence followed by gradient-echo acquisition. We tested the segmental, inter-slice, inter-, intra-, and test-retest characteristics of the ECV, as well as the association of the ECV with other variables. Juvenile and aged mice underwent a similar protocol and cardiac sections were harvested for measurement of fibrosis. Results In healthy volunteers (n=32, 56% female; ages 21 to 72), the ECV averaged 0.28 ± 0.03 (range 0.23 to 0.33). The intra-class coefficients for the intra-observer, inter-observer, and test-retest absolute agreements of the ECV were 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 0.98), 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.80 to 0.98), and 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.99), respectively. In volunteers, the ECV was associated with age (r=0.74, pvolunteers, the myocardial ECV ranges from 0.23 to 0.33, has acceptable test characteristics, and is associated with age, LA volume, and LV mass. In mice, the ECV also increases with age and strongly correlates with the extent of myocardial fibrosis. PMID:23643283

  19. Existence of high-energy solutions for supercritical fractional Schrodinger equations in R^N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Gan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study supercritical fractional Schr\\"odinger equations. Applying the finite-dimensional reduction method and the penalization method, we obtain the high-energy solutions for this equation.

  20. Low or High Fractionation Dose {beta}-Radiotherapy for Pterygium? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Fendi, Ligia Issa; Fonseca, Ellen Carrara [Department of Ophthalmology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Postoperative adjuvant treatment using {beta}-radiotherapy (RT) is a proven technique for reducing the recurrence of pterygium. A randomized trial was conducted to determine whether a low fractionation dose of 2 Gy within 10 fractions would provide local control similar to that after a high fractionation dose of 5 Gy within 7 fractions for surgically resected pterygium. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted in 200 patients (216 pterygia) between February 2006 and July 2007. Only patients with fresh pterygium resected using a bare sclera method and given RT within 3 days were included. Postoperative RT was delivered using a strontium-90 eye applicator. The pterygia were randomly treated using either 5 Gy within 7 fractions (Group 1) or 2 Gy within 10 fractions (Group 2). The local control rate was calculated from the date of surgery. Results: Of the 216 pterygia included, 112 were allocated to Group 1 and 104 to Group 2. The 3-year local control rate for Groups 1 and 2 was 93.8% and 92.3%, respectively (p = .616). A statistically significant difference for cosmetic effect (p = .034), photophobia (p = .02), irritation (p = .001), and scleromalacia (p = .017) was noted in favor of Group 2. Conclusions: No better local control rate for postoperative pterygium was obtained using high-dose fractionation vs. low-dose fractionation. However, a low-dose fractionation schedule produced better cosmetic effects and resulted in fewer symptoms than high-dose fractionation. Moreover, pterygia can be safely treated in terms of local recurrence using RT schedules with a biologic effective dose of 24-52.5 Gy{sub 10.}.

  1. A fractional transient model for the viscoplastic response of polymers based on a micro-mechanism of free volume distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spathis, G.; Kontou, E.

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, the nonlinear viscoelastic/viscoplastic response of polymeric materials is described by introducing essential modifications on a model developed in previous works. A constitutive equation of viscoelasticity, based on the transient network theory, is introduced in a more generalized form, which takes into account volume changes during deformation. This time-dependent equation accounts for the nonlinearity and viscoplasticity at small elastic and finite plastic strain regime. The present description was proved to be more flexible, given that it contains a relaxation function that has been derived by considering instead of first order kinetics a fractional derivative that controls the rate of molecular chain detachment from their junctions. Therefore, the new equation has a more global character, appropriate for cases where heavy tails are expected. On the basis of the distributed nature of free volume, a new functional form of the rate of plastic deformation is developed, which is combined with a proper kinematic formulation and leads to the separation of the total strain into the elastic and plastic part. A three-dimensional constitutive equation is then derived for an isotropic, compressible medium. This analysis was proved to be capable of capturing the main aspects of inelastic response as well as the instability stage taking place at the tertiary creep, related to the creep failure.

  2. Serum monocyte fraction of white blood cells is increased in patients with high Gleason score prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takuji; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Tanigawa, Go; Kawashima, Atsunari; Nagahara, Akira; Ujike, Takeshi; Uemura, Motohide; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Nonomura, Norio

    2017-05-23

    Systemic inflammation and immune responses are reported to be associated with progressive prostate cancer. In this study, we explored which among the fractions of white blood cell (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level were associated with high Gleason score prostate cancer. Prostate needle biopsy was performed in 966 men with suspicion of prostate cancer. We assessed age, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, WBC count, fractions of WBCs (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils), and CRP level before biopsy for associations with biopsy findings. Among all men, 553 (57.2%) were positive for prostate cancer including 421 with high Gleason score cancer (Gleason score ≥7). Age, PSA, PSA density (PSAD), serum monocyte fraction of WBC, monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and CRP were significantly associated with high Gleason score cancer (pGleason score prostate cancer (p Gleason score prostate cancer (pGleason score prostate cancer (pGleason score prostate cancer, suggesting an interaction of monocytes with the progression of prostate cancer.

  3. Maternal plasma fetal DNA fractions in pregnancies with low and high risks for fetal chromosomal aneuploidies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Hudecova

    Full Text Available Recently published international guidelines recommend the clinical use of noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT for aneuploidy screening only among pregnant women whose fetuses are deemed at high risk. The applicability of NIPT to aneuploidy screening among average risk pregnancies requires additional supportive evidence. A key determinant of the reliability of aneuploidy NIPT is the fetal DNA fraction in maternal plasma. In this report, we investigated if differences in fetal DNA fractions existed between different pregnancy risk groups. One hundred and ninety-five singleton pregnancies with male fetuses divided into 3 groups according to first trimester screening parameters were examined for fetal DNA percentage by counting Y chromosome DNA sequences using massively parallel sequencing. Fetal DNA fractions were compared between risk groups and assessed for correlations with first trimester screening parameters. There was no statistically significant difference in fetal DNA fractions across the high, intermediate and low risk groups. Fetal DNA fraction showed a strong negative correlation with maternal weight. Fetal DNA fraction also showed weak but significant correlations with gestational age, crown-rump length, multiple of medians of free β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. Similar fetal DNA fractions in maternal plasma between high, intermediate and low risk pregnant women is a precondition for uniform performance of the aneuploidy NIPTs for the general population. This study thus shows that the aneuploidy screening by NIPT is likely to offer similar analytical reliability without respect to the a priori fetal aneuploidy risk.

  4. High energy gain by volume ignition-A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliezer, S.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Piera, M. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Polytechnical University of Madrid (Spain); Hora, H. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Polytechnical University of Madrid (Spain)]|[Theoretical Physics Department, University of New South Wales, Kensington (Australia)

    1994-10-05

    Ignition models for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are analyzed on the basis of fuel energy balances. Spark ignition models are in general identified as more effective alternatives than raw volume ignition. Nevertheless, it is demonstrated that volume ignition can yield very high energy gains comparable to spark ignition if the whole picture is properly taken into account. References are made to some outstanding experiments and to numerical simulations which support this tutorial explanation. {copyright} 1994 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  5. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume in peripheral arterial disease: initial findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Versluis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (V(p, unit: % of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. RESULTS: V(p was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%. Differences in V(p between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of V(p varied from 10-14% and 11-16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. V(p was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic biomarker for the

  6. Radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses of repeated single-fraction hdr-irradiation of intersecting small liver volumes for recurrent hepatic metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wust Peter

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses as well as other toxic effects derived from repeated applications of single-fraction high dose rate irradiation of small liver volumes in clinical practice. Methods Twenty patients with liver metastases were treated repeatedly (2 - 4 times at identical or intersecting locations by CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy with varying time intervals. Magnetic resonance imaging using the hepatocyte selective contrast media Gd-BOPTA was performed before and after treatment to determine the volume of hepatocyte function loss (called pseudolesion, and the last acquired MRI data set was merged with the dose distributions of all administered brachytherapies. We calculated the BED (biologically equivalent dose for a single dose d = 2 Gy for different α/β values (2, 3, 10, 20, 100 based on the linear-quadratic model and estimated the tolerance dose for liver parenchyma D90 as the BED exposing 90% of the pseudolesion in MRI. Results The tolerance doses D90 after repeated brachytherapy sessions were found between 22 - 24 Gy and proved only slightly dependent on α/β in the clinically relevant range of α/β = 2 - 10 Gy. Variance analysis showed a significant dependency of D90 with respect to the intervals between the first irradiation and the MRI control (p 90 and the pseudolesion's volume. No symptoms of liver dysfunction or other toxic effects such as abscess formation occurred during the follow-up time, neither acute nor on the long-term. Conclusions Inactivation of liver parenchyma occurs at a BED of approx. 22 - 24 Gy corresponding to a single dose of ~10 Gy (α/β ~ 5 Gy. This tolerance dose is consistent with the large potential to treat oligotopic and/or recurrent liver metastases by CT-guided HDR brachytherapy without radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Repeated small volume irradiation may be applied safely within the limits of this study.

  7. The effect of different fibre volume fraction on mechanical properties of banana/pineapple leaf (PaLF)/glass hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafee, Z. M.; Khalina, A.; Norkhairunnisa, M.; Syams, Z. Edi; Liew, K. E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of fibre volume fraction on mechanical properties of banana-pineapple leaf (PaLF)-glass reinforced epoxy resin under tensile loading. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out on specimens with different fibre contents (30%, 40%, 50% in weight). The composite specimens consists of 13 different combinations. The effect of hybridisation between synthetic and natural fibre onto tensile properties was determined and the optimum fibre volume fraction was obtained at 50% for both banana and PaLF composites. Additional 1 layer of woven glass fibre increased the tensile strength of banana-PaLF composite up to 85%.

  8. High-resolution fractionation after gas chromatography for Effect Directed Analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieke, E.; Heus, F.A.H.; Kamstra, J.; Mladic, M.; van Velzen, M.; Kamminga, D.; Lamoree, M.H.; Hamers, T.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Kool, J.

    2013-01-01

    This research presents an analytical technology for highly efficient, high-resolution, and high-yield fractionation of compounds after gas chromatography (GC) separations. The technology is straightforward, does not require sophisticated cold traps or adsorbent traps, and allows collecting large

  9. High lung volume increases stress failure in pulmonary capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z.; Costello, M. L.; Tsukimoto, K.; Prediletto, R.; Elliott, A. R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We previously showed that when pulmonary capillaries in anesthetized rabbits are exposed to a transmural pressure (Ptm) of approximately 40 mmHg, stress failure of the walls occurs with disruption of the capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium, or sometimes all layers. The present study was designed to test whether stress failure occurred more frequently at high than at low lung volumes for the same Ptm. Lungs of anesthetized rabbits were inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 20 cmH2O, perfused with autologous blood at 32.5 or 2.5 cmH2O Ptm, and fixed by intravascular perfusion. Samples were examined by both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with those of a previous study in which the lung was inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O. There was a large increase in the frequency of stress failure of the capillary walls at the higher lung volume. For example, at 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the number of endothelial breaks per millimeter cell lining was 7.1 +/- 2.2 at the high lung volume compared with 0.7 +/- 0.4 at the low lung volume. The corresponding values for epithelium were 8.5 +/- 1.6 and 0.9 +/- 0.6. Both differences were significant (P less than 0.05). At 52.5 cmH2O Ptm, the results for endothelium were 20.7 +/- 7.6 (high volume) and 7.1 +/- 2.1 (low volume), and the corresponding results for epithelium were 32.8 +/- 11.9 and 11.4 +/- 3.7. At 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the thickness of the blood-gas barrier was greater at the higher lung volume, consistent with the development of more interstitial edema. Ballooning of the epithelium caused by accumulation of edema fluid between the epithelial cell and its basement membrane was seen at 32.5 and 52.5 cmH2O Ptm. At high lung volume, the breaks tended to be narrower and fewer were oriented perpendicular to the axis of the pulmonary capillaries than at low lung volumes. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements agreed well. Our findings provide a physiological

  10. Analysis of electrophoretic soil humic acids fractions by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with on-line absorbance and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoj, Oleg A; Richard, Claire; Guyot, Ghislain; Voyard, Guillaume; Trubetskaya, Olga E

    2012-06-22

    A combination of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP HPLC) with on-line absorbance and fluorescence detection was used for analysis of chernozem soil humic acids (HAs) and their fractions A, B and C+D with different electrophoretic mobility (EM) and molecular size (MS). Samples were injected onto the column at the identical volume and absorbance. All chromatograms exhibit the resolution of seven peaks. The estimation of relative recovery of HAs and fractions from the reverse-phase column has been done. High MS fraction A, which possesses the low EM, is essentially more hydrophobic (73% of the fraction amount remained adsorbed on the column) and aliphatic than medium MS and EM fraction B (33% of the fraction amount remained adsorbed on the column). The most hydrophilic and aromatic properties belong to low MS fraction C+D, which possess the highest EM and practically was not adsorbed on the column. The hydrophobicity of the bulk HAs lies within the range of fractions hydrophobicity. The absorption spectra of bulk HAs, electrophoretic fractions A, B, C+D and corresponding RP HPLC peaks were featureless but had differences in the values of absorbance ratio at 300 and 400 nm (A3/A4). For fractions A and B this ratio gradually decreased from peak 1 to 7 (from 3.05 to 2.80 and 3.00 to 2.40, respectively). This trend was less pronounced in HAs and practically absent in fraction C+D, where ratio A3/A4 varied within a small range. The strong relationship between fluorescence properties, EM, MS, polarity and aliphaticity/aromaticity of HAs fractions was found. Humic and protein-like fluorescence had different polarity nature. The protein-like fluorescence is located in humic material which irreversibly adsorbed on the reverse-phase column and not subjected to RP HPLC characterization. The humic-like fluorescence at Ex/Em 270/450 nm is mostly located in the hydrophilic peak of low MS fraction C+D. Taking into account that high MS fraction A consisted

  11. Loss-less Nano-fractionator for High Sensitivity, High Coverage Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulak, Nils A; Geyer, Philipp E; Mann, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    to be particularly powerful. This first dimension is typically performed with milliliter/min flow and relatively large column inner diameters, which allow efficient pre-fractionation but typically require peptide amounts in the milligram range. Here, we describe a novel approach termed "spider fractionator" in which...... the post-column flow of a nanobore chromatography system enters an eight-port flow-selector rotor valve. The valve switches the flow into different flow channels at constant time intervals, such as every 90 s. Each flow channel collects the fractions into autosampler vials of the LC-MS/MS system. Employing...... a freely configurable collection mechanism, samples are concatenated in a loss-less manner into 2-96 fractions, with efficient peak separation. The combination of eight fractions with 100 min gradients yields very deep coverage at reasonable measurement time, and other parameters can be chosen for even...

  12. Junior high school students’ reflective thinking on fraction problem solving: In case of gender differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyid, M. A.; Budiarto, M. T.; Lukito, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to describe reflective thinking of junior high school students on solving the fractions problem in terms of gender differences. This research is a qualitative approach involving one male student and one female student in seventh grade. The data were collected through the assignment of fractional problem solving and interview, then the data were triangulated and analyzed by three stages, namely data condensation, data display and conclusion. The results showed that the subjects of male and female were reacting, elaborating and contemplating at each stage of solving the fractions problem. But at the stage of devising the plan, the female subject was contemplating, relying more on their beliefs, did not consider their experience, in addition, the female subject didn’t use experience of the steps she planned to solve the problem of fractions.

  13. The potential of aqueous fractionation of lupin seeds for high-protein foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghout, J A M; Boom, R M; van der Goot, A J

    2014-09-15

    Aqueous fractionation of protein from lupin seeds was investigated as an alternative to the conventional wet fractionation processes, which make use of organic solvents. The effect of extraction temperature was studied and the consequences for downstream processing were analysed. Omitting the extraction of oil with organic solvents resulted in a protein isolate that contained 0.02-0.07 g oil g(-1) protein isolate, depending on the exact extraction conditions. Nevertheless, the protein functionality of the aqueous fractionated lupin protein isolate was similar to the conventional lupin protein isolate. The protein isolate suspension could be concentrated to 0.25 g mL(-1) using ultrafiltration, which provides a relevant concentration for a range of high-protein products. Based on the results, we conclude that aqueous fractionation can be a method to lower the environmental impact of the extraction of proteins from legumes that contain water- and dilute salt-soluble proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of the Surface and Volume Porosity, on the Basis of the Main Fraction of the Polifractional Matrix of Moulding and Core Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the hereby paper is to present the developed model of determining the volume and surface porosity based on the main fraction of polifractional materials, its experimental verification and utilisation for the interpretation of effects accompanying the formation of a moulding sand apparent density, porosity and permeability in the blowing processes of the core and moulds technology.

  15. Application of artificial neural networks for the prediction of volume fraction using spectra of gamma rays backscattered by three-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour Peyvandi, R.; Islami Rad, S. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The determination of the volume fraction percentage of the different phases flowing in vessels using transmission gamma rays is a conventional method in petroleum and oil industries. In some cases, with access only to the one side of the vessels, attention was drawn toward backscattered gamma rays as a desirable choice. In this research, the volume fraction percentage was measured precisely in water-gasoil-air three-phase flows by using the backscatter gamma ray technique andthe multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network. The volume fraction determination in three-phase flows requires two gamma radioactive sources or a dual-energy source (with different energies) while in this study, we used just a 137Cs source (with the single energy) and a NaI detector to analyze backscattered gamma rays. The experimental set-up provides the required data for training and testing the network. Using the presented method, the volume fraction was predicted with a mean relative error percentage less than 6.47%. Also, the root mean square error was calculated as 1.60. The presented set-up is applicable in some industries with limited access. Also, using this technique, the cost, radiation safety and shielding requirements are minimized toward the other proposed methods.

  16. Effect of High Inspiratory Oxygen Fraction on Endothelial Dysfunction in Healthy Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mikkel Hjordt Holm; Ekeløf, Sara; Kokotovic, Dunja

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that high inspiratory oxygen concentrations during anesthesia may be associated with higher postoperative mortality due to endothelial dysfunction. A randomized controlled crossover study was conducted with 25 healthy male volunteers. They inhaled an oxygen concentration of ...... unaffected. Inhalation of a high oxygen fraction in healthy volunteers did not result in a significant reduction of endothelial function....

  17. Myocardial extracellular volume fraction quantified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance is increased in hypertension and associated with left ventricular remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuli; Li, Jinghui; Chen, Xiuyu; Yin, Gang; Lan, Tian; Dai, Linlin; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Xiaorong; Zhao, Shihua [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiovascular Imaging and Intervention Center, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing (China); Hu, Hongjie [Zhejiang University, Department of Radiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Lu, Minjie [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiovascular Imaging and Intervention Center, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing (China); Laboratory for Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sirajuddin, Arlene; Arai, Andrew E. [Laboratory for Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD (United States); An, Jing [Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Siemens MRI Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); Song, Lei; Dang, Aimin [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Cardiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing (China); Kellman, Peter [National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), US Department of Health and Human Services, Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Branch, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2017-11-15

    To determine whether extracellular volume fraction (ECV) quantification by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can demonstrate left ventricle (LV) abnormalities and relationship between ECV and LV remodeling in hypertension (HTN) patients ECV quantification was prospectively performed in 134 consecutive HTN patients and 97 healthy subjects. Individual and regional ECV were compared to the regions on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images. Statistical analysis of the relationship between LV global functional parameters and ECV was carried out using Pearson's correlation, Student's t test and multiple regressions. In the HTN group, 70.1% (94/134) were LGE negative and 29.9% (40/134) LGE positive. The mean ECV after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, diabetes, smoking and dyslipidaemia in healthy controls and LGE-negative patients were 26.9 ± 2.67% and 28.5 ± 2.9% (p < 0.001), respectively. The differences in ECV reached statistical significance among the regions of LGE, LGE-Peri, LGE remote and the normal area between the control and LGE-positive subgroup (all p < 0.05). Global ECV significantly correlated with LVEF (r = -0.466, p < 0.001) and LV hypertrophy (r = 0.667, p < 0.001). ECV can identify LV abnormalities at an early stage in HTN patients without LGE. These abnormalities may reflect an increase in diffuse myocardial fibrosis and are associated with LV remodeling. (orig.)

  18. T1, T2 Mapping and Extracellular Volume Fraction (ECV): Application, Value and Further Perspectives in Myocardial Inflammation and Cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, F C; Harth, S; Schneider, C; Krombach, G A

    2015-09-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is a versatile diagnostic tool. One of its main advantages is the possibility of tissue characterization. T1-weighted images for scar and T2-weighted images for edema visualization are key methods for tissue characterization. Otherwise these sequences are strongly limited for the detection of diffuse myocardial pathologies. Recently, rapid technical innovations have generated new techniques. T1, T2 mapping and evaluation of the extracellular volume fraction (ECV) allow quantification of diffuse myocardial pathologies and showed great potential in the visualization of fibrosis, edema, amyloid, iron overload and lipid. In the future these techniques might enable the detection of early cardiac involvement, even act as a prognosticator. Moreover, therapy monitoring and follow-up might be possible due to versatile parameter quantification with these new techniques. CMR allows for tissue characterization via T1- and T2-weighted sequences. In cases of diffuse, global myocardial pathologies, correct image interpretation with traditional CMR sequences might be difficult. T1, T2 mapping and ECV can quantify diffuse, global myocardial pathologies. Alterations of myocardial T1 and T2 relaxation times occur in various myocardial diseases (e.g. acute myocarditis). In the future mapping might act as a prognosticator or therapy monitoring tool. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. FIELD EVALUATION OF A HIGH-VOLUME DICHOTOMOUS SAMPLER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents the field evaluation of a high-volume dichotomous sampler that collects coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter. The key feature of this device is the utilization of a round-nozzle virtual impactor with a 50% cutpoint at 2.5 5m to split PM10 into...

  20. High-volume recycled materials for sustainable pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of using high-volume recycled materials for concrete production in rigid pavement. The goal was to replace 50% of the solids with recycled materials and industrial by-products. The pe...

  1. High-Volume Repeaters of Self-Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Jennifer; Hawton, Keith; Bergen, Helen; Waters, Keith; Kapur, Navneet; Cooper, Jayne; Steeg, Sarah; Clarke, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Repetition of self-harm is common and is strongly associated with suicide. Despite this, there is limited research on high-volume repetition. To investigate individuals with high-volume repeat self-harm attendances to the emergency department (ED), including their patterns of attendance and mortality. Data from the Multicentre Study of Self-Harm in England were used. High-volume repetition was defined as ⩾15 attendances within 4 years. An attendance timeline was constructed for each high-volume repeater (HVR) and the different patterns of attendance were explored using an executive sorting task and hierarchical cluster analysis. A small proportion of self-harm patients are HVRs (0.6%) but they account for a large percentage of self-harm attendances (10%). In this study, the new methodological approach resulted in three types of attendance patterns. All of the HVRs had clusters of attendance and a greater proportion died from external causes compared with non-HVRs. The approach used in this study offers a new method for investigating this problem that could have both clinical and research benefits. The need for early intervention is highlighted by the large number of self-harm episodes per patient, the clustered nature of attendances, and the higher prevalence of death from external causes.

  2. Loss-less Nano-fractionator for High Sensitivity, High Coverage Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulak, Nils A; Geyer, Philipp E; Mann, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    to be particularly powerful. This first dimension is typically performed with milliliter/min flow and relatively large column inner diameters, which allow efficient pre-fractionation but typically require peptide amounts in the milligram range. Here, we describe a novel approach termed "spider fractionator" in which...... more rapid or for extremely deep measurements. We demonstrate excellent sensitivity by decreasing sample amounts from 100 μg into the sub-microgram range, without losses attributable to the spider fractionator and while quantifying close to 10,000 proteins. Finally, we apply the system to the rapid...

  3. Ultrasound-guided tissue fractionation by high intensity focused ultrasound in an in vivo porcine liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Simon, Julianna C; Cunitz, Bryan W; Starr, Frank; Paun, Marla; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R; Khokhlova, Vera A

    2014-06-03

    The clinical use of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy for noninvasive tissue ablation has been recently gaining momentum. In HIFU, ultrasound energy from an extracorporeal source is focused within the body to ablate tissue at the focus while leaving the surrounding organs and tissues unaffected. Most HIFU therapies are designed to use heating effects resulting from the absorption of ultrasound by tissue to create a thermally coagulated treatment volume. Although this approach is often successful, it has its limitations, such as the heat sink effect caused by the presence of a large blood vessel near the treatment area or heating of the ribs in the transcostal applications. HIFU-induced bubbles provide an alternative means to destroy the target tissue by mechanical disruption or, at its extreme, local fractionation of tissue within the focal region. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a recently developed approach to HIFU-induced ultrasound-guided tissue fractionation in an in vivo pig model. In this approach, termed boiling histotripsy, a millimeter-sized boiling bubble is generated by ultrasound and further interacts with the ultrasound field to fractionate porcine liver tissue into subcellular debris without inducing further thermal effects. Tissue selectivity, demonstrated by boiling histotripsy, allows for the treatment of tissue immediately adjacent to major blood vessels and other connective tissue structures. Furthermore, boiling histotripsy would benefit the clinical applications, in which it is important to accelerate resorption or passage of the ablated tissue volume, diminish pressure on the surrounding organs that causes discomfort, or insert openings between tissues.

  4. Pre-chemotherapy values for left and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by gated tomographic radionuclide angiography using a cadmium-zinc-telluride detector gamma camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Haase, Christine; Jensen, Maria Maj

    2016-01-01

    age and both left and right ventricular volumes in women (r = -0.4, P right end systolic ventricular volume in men (r = -0.3, P = .001). CONCLUSION: A set of reference values for cardiac evaluation prior to chemotherapy in cancer patients without other known cardiopulmonary......BACKGROUND: Estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using equilibrium radionuclide angiography is an established method for assessment of left ventricular function. The purpose of this study was to establish normative data on left and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction......, using cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT camera. METHODS AND RESULTS: From routine assessments of left ventricular function in 1172 patients, we included 463 subjects (194 men and 269 women) without diabetes, previous potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy, known cardiovascular or pulmonary disease. The lower...

  5. Impact of leakage delay on bifurcation in high-order fractional BAM neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengdai; Cao, Jinde

    2018-02-01

    The effects of leakage delay on the dynamics of neural networks with integer-order have lately been received considerable attention. It has been confirmed that fractional neural networks more appropriately uncover the dynamical properties of neural networks, but the results of fractional neural networks with leakage delay are relatively few. This paper primarily concentrates on the issue of bifurcation for high-order fractional bidirectional associative memory(BAM) neural networks involving leakage delay. The first attempt is made to tackle the stability and bifurcation of high-order fractional BAM neural networks with time delay in leakage terms in this paper. The conditions for the appearance of bifurcation for the proposed systems with leakage delay are firstly established by adopting time delay as a bifurcation parameter. Then, the bifurcation criteria of such system without leakage delay are successfully acquired. Comparative analysis wondrously detects that the stability performance of the proposed high-order fractional neural networks is critically weakened by leakage delay, they cannot be overlooked. Numerical examples are ultimately exhibited to attest the efficiency of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Three-dimensional reconstruction for high-speed volume measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dah-Jye; Lane, Robert M.; Chang, Guang-Hwa

    2001-02-01

    Volume measurement is an important process for various industries such as food processing, fruit and vegetable grading, etc. Value or price is often determined by the size of product. In seafood industry, for example, oyster meat is separated into four grades before being packaged. Large size grade means higher selling price than small size. More consistent packaging size is also an indication of high quality. Product size can be measured optically with machine vision technology for on-line inspection and grading systems. Most optical grading techniques use a two-dimensional area projection or the weight of the product to estimate the actual product volume. These methods are subject to measurement inaccuracy because of the missing thickness information. An algorithm combines laser triangulation technique with two-dimensional measurement to reconstruct a three-dimensional surface for volume measurement is introduced in this paper. The result of this technique shows a significant accuracy improvement from the area-projection method

  7. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-10-05

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  8. Scattering and Physical Aging in High-Free-Volume Polymeric Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Amanda G.; Budd, Peter M.; McKeown, Neil B.; Colina, Coray M.; Runt, James

    2013-03-01

    Polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) form glassy, rigid membranes featuring a large concentration of pores smaller than 1 nm, large internal surface area, and high gas permeability and selectivity. Porosity in these materials--equivalent to free volume--arises from an unusual chain structure combining rigid segments with sites of contortion. Like other glasses, PIMs are subject to physical aging, which reduces the permeability of films over time. Although it is possible to derive useful information such as surface areas and pore sizes from the scattering patterns of many porous materials, scattering from PIMs includes some unusual features. A robust interpretation of these features is presented with support from molecular dynamics simulations. The sensitivity of PIM SAXS/WAXS patterns to time, temperature and film thickness is shown to be qualitatively consistent with physical aging. Models for extracting quantitative information about changes in the sizes and volume fraction of pores are also discussed. Supported by NSF

  9. Increased long-term mortality after a high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction during abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyhoff, Christian Sylvest; Jorgensen, Lars N; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (80%) has been recommended to prevent postoperative wound infections. However, the most recent and one of the largest trials, the PROXI trial, found no reduction in surgical site infection, and 30-day mortality was higher in patients given 80% oxyg....... In this follow-up study of the PROXI trial we assessed the association between long-term mortality and perioperative oxygen fraction in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.......A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (80%) has been recommended to prevent postoperative wound infections. However, the most recent and one of the largest trials, the PROXI trial, found no reduction in surgical site infection, and 30-day mortality was higher in patients given 80% oxygen...

  10. Access to high-volume surgeons and the opportunity cost of performing radical prostatectomy by low-volume providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzi, Afsaneh; Klein, Eric A; Daneshmand, Siamak; Gill, Inderbir; Quinn, David I; Sadeghi, Sarmad

    2017-07-01

    Evidence suggests that redirecting surgeries to high-volume providers may be associated with better outcomes and significant societal savings. Whether such referrals are feasible remains unanswered. Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data, SEER 18, and US Incidence data were used to determine the geographic distribution and radical prostatectomy volume for providers. Access was defined as availability of a high-volume provider within driving distance of 100 miles. The opportunity cost was defined as the value of benefits achievable by performing the surgery by a high-volume provider that was forgone by not making a referral. The savings per referral were derived from a published Markov model for radical prostatectomy. A total of 14% of providers performed>27% of the radical prostatectomies with>30 cases per year and were designated high-volume providers. Providers with below-median volume (≤16 prostatectomies per year) performed>32% of radical prostatectomies. At least 47% of these were within a 100-mile driving distance (median = 22 miles), and therefore had access to a high-volume provider (>30 prostatectomies per year). This translated into a discounted savings of more than $24 million per year, representing the opportunity cost of not making a referral. The average volume for high- and low-volume providers was 55 and 13, respectively, resulting in an annual experience gap of 43 and a cumulative gap of 125 surgeries over 3 years. In 2014, the number of surgeons performing radical prostatectomy decreased by 5% while the number of high- and low-volume providers decreased by 25% and 11% showing a faster decline in the number of high-volume providers compared with low-volume surgeons. About half of prostatectomies performed by surgeons with below-median annual volume were within a 100-mile driving distance (median of 22 miles) of a high-volume surgeon. Such a referral may result in minimal additional costs and substantially improved outcomes. Copyright

  11. Myocardial extracellular volume fraction measurement in chronic total coronary occlusion: Association with myocardial injury, angiographic collateral flow, and functional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Yin; Ren, Dao-Yuan; Zeng, Meng-Su; Yang, Shan; Yun, Hong; Fu, Cai-Xia; Ge, Jun-Bo; Jin, Hang; Qian, Ju-Ying; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV) measurement by cardiac MR is indicative of myocardial injury, angiographic collateral flow, and functional recovery in patients with chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO). A total of 50 CTO patients undergoing 1.5 Tesla MR were prospectively enrolled, and 28 underwent a second MR 6 months after revascularization. T1-mapping based indices, including pre- and postcontrast T1 values and ECV, were obtained from infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium, myocardial segments, and coronary territory. The severity of myocardial injury was rated by transmurality extent of infarction (TEI) and regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA) score. Angiographic collateral flow was evaluated using Rentrop classification. Improvement in segmental wall motion at 6 months was also assessed. ECV and postcontrast T1 value significantly outperformed precontrast T1 value for identifying myocardial infarction (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]: 0.998 and 0.953 versus 0.824, all P < 0.02). Myocardial ECV was strongly correlated with TEI (P = 0.000), RWMA score (P = 0.000), and collateral classification (P = 0.007 for left anterior descending artery [LAD] territory, P = 0.001 for non-LAD territory). Furthermore, the likelihood of functional recovery was better predicted by ECV than by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) (AUC: 0.76 versus 0.68, P < 0.02). Myocardial ECV may be a useful surrogate to assess myocardial injury and angiographic collateral flow in CTO, and ECV provides incremental value to LGE in assessing functional recovery after revascularization. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2016;44:972-982. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Myocardial extracellular volume fraction quantified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance is increased in hypertension and associated with left ventricular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuli; Hu, Hongjie; Lu, Minjie; Sirajuddin, Arlene; Li, Jinghui; An, Jing; Chen, Xiuyu; Yin, Gang; Lan, Tian; Dai, Linlin; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Xiaorong; Song, Lei; Dang, Aimin; Kellman, Peter; Arai, Andrew E; Zhao, Shihua

    2017-04-24

    To determine whether extracellular volume fraction (ECV) quantification by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can demonstrate left ventricle (LV) abnormalities and relationship between ECV and LV remodeling in hypertension (HTN) patients METHODS: ECV quantification was prospectively performed in 134 consecutive HTN patients and 97 healthy subjects. Individual and regional ECV were compared to the regions on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images. Statistical analysis of the relationship between LV global functional parameters and ECV was carried out using Pearson's correlation, Student's t test and multiple regressions. In the HTN group, 70.1% (94/134) were LGE negative and 29.9% (40/134) LGE positive. The mean ECV after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, diabetes, smoking and dyslipidaemia in healthy controls and LGE-negative patients were 26.9 ± 2.67% and 28.5 ± 2.9% (p ECV reached statistical significance among the regions of LGE, LGE-Peri, LGE remote and the normal area between the control and LGE-positive subgroup (all p ECV significantly correlated with LVEF (r = -0.466, p ECV can identify LV abnormalities at an early stage in HTN patients without LGE. These abnormalities may reflect an increase in diffuse myocardial fibrosis and are associated with LV remodeling. • Diffuse myocardial fibrosis may develop in hypertensive cardiomyopathy before conventional MRI detectable LGE. • ECV can identify myocardial fibrosis at an early stage in hypertensive patients. • Elevated ECV is associated with decreased LV global function and LV remodeling in hypertension.

  13. Cardiac T1 mapping in congenital heart disease: bolus vs. infusion protocols for measurements of myocardial extracellular volume fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wakeel-Marquard, Nadya; Rastin, Sanaz; Muench, Frédéric; O H-Ici, Darach; Yilmaz, Sevim; Berger, Felix; Kuehne, Titus; Messroghli, Daniel R

    2017-12-01

    Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV) reflecting diffuse myocardial fibrosis can be measured with T1 mapping cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) before and after the application of a gadolinium-based extracellular contrast agent. The equilibrium between blood and myocardium contrast concentration required for ECV measurements can be obtained with a primed contrast infusion (equilibrium contrast-CMR). We hypothesized that equilibrium can also be achieved with a single contrast bolus to accurately measure diffuse myocardial fibrosis in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Healthy controls (n = 17; median age 24.0 years) and patients with CHD (n = 19; 25.0 years) were prospectively enrolled. Using modified Look-Locker inversion recovery T1 mapping before, 15 min after bolus injection, and during constant infusion of gadolinium-DOTA, T1 values were obtained for blood pool and myocardium of the left ventricle (LV), the interventricular septum (IVS), and the right ventricle (RV) in a single midventricular plane in short axis or in transverse orientation. ECV of LV, IVS and RV by bolus-only and bolus-infusion correlated significantly in CHD patients (r = 0.94, 0.95, and 0.74; p < 0.01, respectively) and healthy controls (r = 0.96, 0.89, and 0.64; p < 0.05, respectively). Bland-Altman plots revealed no significant bias between the techniques for any of the analyzed regions. ECV of LV and RV myocardium measured by bolus-only T1 mapping agrees well with bolus-infusion measurements in patients with CHD. The use of a bolus-only approach facilitates the integration of ECV measurements into existing CMR imaging protocols, allowing for assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in CHD in clinical routine.

  14. Offline High pH Reversed-Phase Peptide Fractionation for Deep Phosphoproteome Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batth, Tanveer S; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation, a process in which kinases modify serines, threonines, and tyrosines with phosphoryl groups is of major importance in eukaryotic biology. Protein phosphorylation events are key initiators of signaling responses which determine cellular outcomes after environmental...... peptide mixtures based on high pH (basic) reversed-phase chromatography prior to phosphopeptide enrichment and mass spectrometric analysis. Peptides are separated on a C18 reversed-phase column under basic conditions and fractions collected in timed intervals followed by concatenation of the fractions...

  15. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the development, execution outcomes and lessons learned of the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program carried out over a three-year period from 2009 through 2012. The primary goals of the program were met: 1) reduce the incremental cost of highly insulating windows compared to ENERGY STAR windows; and 2) raise the public and potential buyers’ awareness of highly insulating windows and their benefits. A key outcome of the program is that the 2013 ENERGY STAR Most Efficient criteria for primary residential windows were adopted from the technical specifications set forth in the WVP program.

  16. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-10-01

    A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.

  17. Durability properties of high volume fly ash self compacting concretes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dinakar; K.G. Babu; Manu Santhanam [Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai (India). Building Technology Division

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents an experimental study on the durability properties of self compacting concretes (SCCs) with high volume replacements of fly ash. Eight fly ash self compacting concretes of various strength grades were designed at desired fly ash percentages of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 85%, in comparison with five different mixtures of normal vibrated concretes (NCs) at equivalent strength grades. The durability properties were studied through the measurement of permeable voids, water absorption, acid attack and chloride permeation. The results indicated that the SCCs showed higher permeable voids and water absorption than the vibrated normal concretes of the same strength grades. However, in acid attack and chloride diffusion studies the high volume fly ash SCCs had significantly lower weight losses and chloride ion diffusion.

  18. Use of image analysis to determine algal and bacterial biomass in a high rate algal pond following Percoll fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromar, N J; Fallowfield, H J

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the results of work to allow a more accurate enumeration, and gravimetric determination, of the relative proportions of algae and bacteria within the floccular matrix present in a High Rate Algal Pond (HRAP). Methodology involving a combination of physical and chemical treatments was used and the resulting material was separated using density gradient centrifugation. The "fractions" were analysed using microscopical image analysis. Each "fraction" was categorised as containing bacteria only, algae only or an association of bacteria and algae, the relative proportions of which were then determined by image analysis to enable a "true" gravimetric determination of the algal and bacterial components of HRAP biomass for the first time. The biomass from HRAPs operated both outdoors and in a glasshouse was examined over complete operational seasons to investigate environmental effects as well as possible effects of variation in COD loading rate and retention time on cell biovolumes and cell quotients. In this study, the accurate assessment of both algal and bacterial biomass, determined as cell volume or dry matter, in addition to measurement of carbon and nitrogen has enabled the calculation of cell quotients. This allows a direct comparison between these values obtained from a nutrient-rich system and those published values obtained from systems with various nutrient status. Conversion factors obtained may also be of value for deriving inputs for computer models for the design and operation of high rate algal ponds.

  19. High-order sliding mode observer for fractional commensurate linear systems with unknown input

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2017-05-20

    In this paper, a high-order sliding mode observer (HOSMO) is proposed for the joint estimation of the pseudo-state and the unknown input of fractional commensurate linear systems with single unknown input and a single output. The convergence of the proposed observer is proved using a Lyapunov-based approach. In addition, an enhanced variant of the proposed fractional-HOSMO is introduced to avoid the peaking phenomenon and thus to improve the estimation results in the transient phase. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed fractional observer in both noise-free and noisy cases. The effect of the observer’s gains on the estimated pseudo-state and unknown input is also discussed.

  20. Volume analysis of supercooled water under high pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Duki, Solomon F.; Tsige, Mesfin

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental findings on the volume of supercooled water at high pressure [O. Mishima, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144503 (2010)] we performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations study of bulk water in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. Cooling and heating cycles at different isobars and isothermal compression at different temperatures are performed on the water sample with pressures that range from 0 to 1.0 GPa. The cooling simulations are done at temperatures that range from...

  1. Evaporative fractions and elevation effects on stable isotopes of high elevation lakes and streams in arid western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Trent W.; Lai, Chun-Ta; Chandan, Pankaj; Lee, Raymond Mark; Messina, Alex; Lesher, Rebecca S.; Khatoon, Nisa

    2015-03-01

    Isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water from streams, snow, and lakes were used to model the ratio of evaporation to total inflow (E/I) of four high elevation lakes in closed basins in the Indian Himalaya. Air temperature and relative humidity (h) data from meteorological stations and global climate grids (GMAO-MERRA) were used as input to the model. A second model of the volume of inflow during snowmelt constrained the magnitude of seasonal variability in isotopic composition. Similar to other areas of the Himalaya, elevation was a strong determinant of isotopic composition of stream water, suggesting that heavier isotopes rain out at lower elevations. Deuterium excess (d) in stream water suggests that summer precipitation originating from the Bay of Bengal rather than winter precipitation from Central Asia is the dominant source of precipitation. For the largest and deepest lakes (>15 m), E/I was 77-87%, and 18-50% for two shallow lakes (GMAO also produced reasonable E/I values. The results suggest that some lakes in closed basins in the Himalaya lose a significant fraction of their inflow to groundwater, particularly shallow lakes with a low ratio of lake volume to watershed area. Isotopic values from the mainstem of the Indus River suggest that evaporatively enriched waters have limited impact on both wet and dry season discharge at the basin scale. Lakes with a high evaporative fraction may be uniquely sensitive to climate, and isotopic analysis can help identify lakes that may be vulnerable to climate fluctuations and change.

  2. High-Dose, Single-Fraction Irradiation Rapidly Reduces Tumor Vasculature and Perfusion in a Xenograft Model of Neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jani, Ashish; Shaikh, Fauzia; Barton, Sunjay [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Willis, Callen [Department of Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Banerjee, Debarshi [Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Mitchell, Jason [Department of Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Hernandez, Sonia L. [Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Hei, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Kadenhe-Chiweshe, Angela [Department of Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamashiro, Darrell J. [Department of Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Connolly, Eileen P., E-mail: epc2116@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To characterize the effects of high-dose radiation therapy (HDRT) on neuroblastoma tumor vasculature, including the endothelial cell (EC)–pericyte interaction as a potential target for combined treatment with antiangiogenic agents. Methods and Materials: The vascular effects of radiation therapy were examined in a xenograft model of high-risk neuroblastoma. In vivo 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (3D-CEUS) imaging and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed. Results: HDRT significantly reduced tumor blood volume 6 hours after irradiation compared with the lower doses used in conventionally fractionated radiation. There was a 63% decrease in tumor blood volume after 12-Gy radiation compared with a 24% decrease after 2 Gy. Analysis of tumor vasculature by lectin angiography showed a significant loss of small vessel ends at 6 hours. IHC revealed a significant loss of ECs at 6 and 72 hours after HDRT, with an accompanying loss of immature and mature pericytes at 72 hours. Conclusions: HDRT affects tumor vasculature in a manner not observed at lower doses. The main observation was an early reduction in tumor perfusion resulting from a reduction of small vessel ends with a corresponding loss of endothelial cells and pericytes.

  3. SCC with high volume of fly ash content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrakh Anton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete is a very perspective building material. It provides great benefits during the construction of heavily reinforced buildings. SCC has outstanding properties such as high flowability, dense structure and high strength due to specific quality of aggregates, fillers, their proportion in mix, use of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers. Main disadvantages of SCC are high price and the difficulty of obtaining a proper mix. Use of fillers, such as fly ash type F, is a way to make SCC cheaper by replacing part of cement. Fly ash also provides some technological and operating advantages. In this paper the influence of high volume (60% from cement fly ash type F on the properties of concrete mixture and hardened concrete is investigated. The result of the work shows the possibility of reduction the cost of SCC using ordinary fillers and high amount of fly ash. The investigated SCC has low speed of hardening (7-day compressive strength at the range of 41.8 MPa and high volume of entrained air content (3.5%.

  4. Volume Fraction Effect of V8C7 Particulates on Impact Toughness and Wear Performance of V8C7/Fe Monolithic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fangxia; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Xu, Yunhua; Zhong, Lisheng; Yan, Honghua; Chen, Zhe

    2014-04-01

    The V8C7 particulates-reinforced iron-based metal matrix composite with 8-33 vol.% V8C7 was produced by infiltration casting process with subsequent heat treatment at 1164 °C for 3 h. With increasing the volume fraction of V8C7 in the composite, microhardness of the composite increases, while its impact toughness decreases. Relative wear resistance of the composite with different volume fractions of V8C7 was also investigated in this study. The composite with 24 vol.% V8C7 shows the highest relative wear resistance, which is much higher than that of gray cast iron. Microcracking, microploughing, and the fragmentation of particulates are found to be the dominant wear mechanisms.

  5. Verification and validation guidelines for high integrity systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Dinsmore, G.; Hecht, S.; Tang, D. [SoHaR, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    High integrity systems include all protective (safety and mitigation) systems for nuclear power plants, and also systems for which comparable reliability requirements exist in other fields, such as in the process industries, in air traffic control, and in patient monitoring and other medical systems. Verification aims at determining that each stage in the software development completely and correctly implements requirements that were established in a preceding phase, while validation determines that the overall performance of a computer system completely and correctly meets system requirements. Volume I of the report reviews existing classifications for high integrity systems and for the types of errors that may be encountered, and makes recommendations for verification and validation procedures, based on assumptions about the environment in which these procedures will be conducted. The final chapter of Volume I deals with a framework for standards in this field. Volume II contains appendices dealing with specific methodologies for system classification, for dependability evaluation, and for two software tools that can automate otherwise very labor intensive verification and validation activities.

  6. The effects of bone and pore volume fraction on the mechanical properties of PMMA/bone biopsies extracted from augmented vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, M; Boger, A; Zysset, P K; Pahr, D H

    2011-10-13

    Vertebroplasty forms a porous PMMA/bone composite which was shown to be weaker and less stiff than pure PMMA. It is not known what determines the mechanical properties of such composites in detail. This study investigated the effects of bone volume fraction (BV/TV), cement porosity (PV/(TV-BV), PV…pore volume) and cement stiffness. Nine human vertebral bodies were augmented with either standard or low-modulus PMMA cement and scanned with a HR-pQCT system before and after augmentation. Fourteen cylindrical PMMA/bone biopsies were extracted from the augmented region, scanned with a micro-CT system and tested in compression until failure. Micro-finite element (FE) models of the complete biopsies, of the trabecular bone alone as well as of the porous cement alone were generated from CT images to gain more insight into the role of bone and pores. PV/(TV-BV) and experimental moduli of standard/low-modulus cement (R(2)=0.91/0.98) as well as PV/(TV-BV) and yield stresses (R(2)=0.92/0.83) were highly correlated. No correlation between BV/TV (ranging from 0.057 to 0.138) and elastic moduli was observed (R(2)< 0.05). Interestingly, the micro-FE models of the porous cement alone reproduced the experimental elastic moduli of the standard/low-modulus cement biopsies (R(2)=0.75/0.76) more accurately than the models with bone (R(2)=0.58/0.31). In conclusion, the mechanical properties of the biopsies were mainly determined by the cement porosity and the cement material properties. The study showed that bone tissue inside the biopsies was mechanically "switched off" such that load was carried essentially by the porous PMMA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A small fraction of strongly cooperative sodium channels boosts neuronal encoding of high frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    Full Text Available Generation of action potentials (APs is a crucial step in neuronal information processing. Existing biophysical models for AP generation almost universally assume that individual voltage-gated sodium channels operate statistically independently, and their avalanche-like opening that underlies AP generation is coordinated only through the transmembrane potential. However, biological ion channels of various types can exhibit strongly cooperative gating when clustered. Cooperative gating of sodium channels has been suggested to explain rapid onset dynamics and large threshold variability of APs in cortical neurons. It remains however unknown whether these characteristic properties of cortical APs can be reproduced if only a fraction of channels express cooperativity, and whether the presence of cooperative channels has an impact on encoding properties of neuronal populations. To address these questions we have constructed a conductance-based neuron model in which we continuously varied the size of a fraction [Formula: see text] of sodium channels expressing cooperativity and the strength of coupling between cooperative channels [Formula: see text]. We show that starting at a critical value of the coupling strength [Formula: see text], the activation curve of sodium channels develops a discontinuity at which opening of all coupled channels becomes an all-or-none event, leading to very rapid AP onsets. Models with a small fraction, [Formula: see text], of strongly cooperative channels generate APs with the most rapid onset dynamics. In this regime APs are triggered by simultaneous opening of the cooperative channel fraction and exhibit a pronounced biphasic waveform often observed in cortical neurons. We further show that presence of a small fraction of cooperative Na+ channels significantly improves the ability of neuronal populations to phase-lock their firing to high frequency input fluctuation. We conclude that presence of a small fraction of

  8. Efficient high-quality volume rendering of SPH data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraedrich, Roland; Auer, Stefan; Westermann, Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    High quality volume rendering of SPH data requires a complex order-dependent resampling of particle quantities along the view rays. In this paper we present an efficient approach to perform this task using a novel view-space discretization of the simulation domain. Our method draws upon recent work on GPU-based particle voxelization for the efficient resampling of particles into uniform grids. We propose a new technique that leverages a perspective grid to adaptively discretize the view-volume, giving rise to a continuous level-of-detail sampling structure and reducing memory requirements compared to a uniform grid. In combination with a level-of-detail representation of the particle set, the perspective grid allows effectively reducing the amount of primitives to be processed at run-time. We demonstrate the quality and performance of our method for the rendering of fluid and gas dynamics SPH simulations consisting of many millions of particles.

  9. Axon diameter and intra-axonal volume fraction of the corticospinal tract in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus measured by q-space imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouhei Kamiya

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that compression and stretching of the corticospinal tract (CST potentially cause treatable gait disturbance in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH. Measurement of axon diameter with diffusion MRI has recently been used to investigate microstructural alterations in neurological diseases. In this study, we investigated alterations in the axon diameter and intra-axonal fraction of the CST in iNPH by q-space imaging (QSI analysis. METHODS: Nineteen patients with iNPH and 10 age-matched controls were recruited. QSI data were obtained with a 3-T system by using a single-shot echo planar imaging sequence with the diffusion gradient applied parallel to the antero-posterior axis. By using a two-component low-q fit model, the root mean square displacements of intra-axonal space ( =  axon diameter and intra-axonal volume fraction of the CST were calculated at the levels of the internal capsule and body of the lateral ventricle, respectively. RESULTS: Wilcoxon's rank-sum test revealed a significant increase in CST intra-axonal volume fraction at the paraventricular level in patients (p<0.001, whereas no significant difference was observed in the axon diameter. At the level of the internal capsule, neither axon diameter nor intra-axonal volume fraction differed significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that in patients with iNPH, the CST does not undergo irreversible axonal damage but is rather compressed and/or stretched owing to pressure from the enlarged ventricle. These analyses of axon diameter and intra-axonal fraction yield insights into microstructural alterations of the CST in iNPH.

  10. Large volume TENAX {sup registered} extraction of the bioaccessible fraction of sediment-associated organic compounds for a subsequent effect-directed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, K.; Brack, W. [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre or Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Effect-Directed Analysis

    2007-06-15

    Background, Aim and Scope: Effect-directed analysis (EDA) is a powerful tool for the identification of key toxicants in complex environmental samples. In most cases, EDA is based on total extraction of organic contaminants leading to an erroneous prioritization with regard to hazard and risk. Bioaccessibility-directed extraction aims to discriminate between contaminants that take part in partitioning between sediment and biota in a relevant time frame and those that are enclosed in structures, that do not allow rapid desorption. Standard protocols of targeted extraction of rapidly desorbing, and thus bioaccessible fraction using TENAX {sup registered} are based only on small amounts of sediment. In order to get sufficient amounts of extracts for subsequent biotesting, fractionation, and structure elucidation a large volume extraction technique needs to be developed applying one selected extraction time and excluding toxic procedural blanks. Materials and Methods: Desorption behaviour of sediment contaminants was determined by a consecutive solid-solid extraction of sediment using TENAX {sup registered} fitting a tri-compartment model on experimental data. Time needed to remove the rapidly desorbing fraction trap was calculated to select a fixed extraction time for single extraction procedures. Up-scaling by about a factor of 100 provided a large volume extraction technique for EDA. Reproducibility and comparability to small volume approach were proved. Blanks of respective TENAX {sup registered} mass were investigated using Scenedesmus vacuolatus and Artemia salina as test organisms. Results: Desorption kinetics showed that 12 to 30 % of sediment associated pollutants are available for rapid desorption. t{sub r}ap is compound dependent and covers a range of 2 to 18 h. On that basis a fixed extraction time of 24 h was selected. Validation of large volume approach was done by the means of comparison to small method and reproducibility. The large volume showed a good

  11. VOLUME STUDY WITH HIGH DENSITY OF PARTICLES BASED ON CONTOUR AND CORRELATION IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Yu. Nikolaeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study is the techniques of particle statistics evaluation, in particular, processing methods of particle images obtained by coherent illumination. This paper considers the problem of recognition and statistical accounting for individual images of small scattering particles in an arbitrary section of the volume in case of high concentrations. For automatic recognition of focused particles images, a special algorithm for statistical analysis based on contouring and thresholding was used. By means of the mathematical formalism of the scalar diffraction theory, coherent images of the particles formed by the optical system with high numerical aperture were simulated. Numerical testing of the method proposed for the cases of different concentrations and distributions of particles in the volume was performed. As a result, distributions of density and mass fraction of the particles were obtained, and the efficiency of the method in case of different concentrations of particles was evaluated. At high concentrations, the effect of coherent superposition of the particles from the adjacent planes strengthens, which makes it difficult to recognize images of particles using the algorithm considered in the paper. In this case, we propose to supplement the method with calculating the cross-correlation function of particle images from adjacent segments of the volume, and evaluating the ratio between the height of the correlation peak and the height of the function pedestal in the case of different distribution characters. The method of statistical accounting of particles considered in this paper is of practical importance in the study of volume with particles of different nature, for example, in problems of biology and oceanography. Effective work in the regime of high concentrations expands the limits of applicability of these methods for practically important cases and helps to optimize determination time of the distribution character and

  12. Fractionation and Characterization of High Aspect Ratio Gold Nanorods Using Asymmetric-Flow Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao M. Nguyen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanorods (GNRs are of particular interest for biomedical applications due to their unique size-dependent longitudinal surface plasmon resonance band in the visible to near-infrared. Purified GNRs are essential for the advancement of technologies based on these materials. Used in concert, asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (A4F and single particle inductively coupled mass spectrometry (spICP-MS provide unique advantages for fractionating and analyzing the typically complex mixtures produced by common synthetic procedures. A4F fractions collected at specific elution times were analyzed off-line by spICP-MS. The individual particle masses were obtained by conversion of the ICP-MS pulse intensity for each detected particle event, using a defined calibration procedure. Size distributions were then derived by transforming particle mass to length assuming a fixed diameter. The resulting particle lengths correlated closely with ex situ transmission electron microscopy. In contrast to our previously reported observations on the fractionation of low-aspect ratio (AR GNRs (AR < 4, under optimal A4F separation conditions the results for high-AR GNRs of fixed diameter (≈20 nm suggest normal, rather than steric, mode elution (i.e., shorter rods with lower AR generally elute first. The relatively narrow populations in late eluting fractions suggest the method can be used to collect and analyze specific length fractions; it is feasible that A4F could be appropriately modified for industrial scale purification of GNRs.

  13. Native T1 Relaxation Time and Extracellular Volume Fraction as Accurate Markers of Diffuse Myocardial Fibrosis in Heart Valve Disease - Comparison With Targeted Left Ventricular Myocardial Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockova, Radka; Kacer, Petr; Pirk, Jan; Maly, Jiri; Sukupova, Lucie; Sikula, Viktor; Kotrc, Martin; Barciakova, Lucia; Honsova, Eva; Maly, Marek; Kautzner, Josef; Sedmera, David; Penicka, Martin

    2016-04-25

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between the cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived native T1 relaxation time and myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) fraction and the extent of diffuse myocardial fibrosis (DMF) on targeted myocardial left ventricular (LV) biopsy. The study population consisted of 40 patients (age 63±8 years, 65% male) undergoing valve and/or ascending aorta surgery for severe aortic stenosis (77.5%), root dilatation (7.5%) or valve regurgitation (15%). The T1 relaxation time was assessed in the basal interventricular septum pre- and 10-min post-contrast administration using the modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery sequence prior to surgery. LV myocardial biopsy specimen was obtained during surgery from the basal interventricular septal segment matched with the T1 mapping assessment. The percentage of myocardial collagen was quantified using picrosirius red staining. The average percentage of myocardial collagen was 22.0±14.8%. Both native T1 relaxation time with cutoff value ≥1,010 ms (sensitivity=90%, specificity=73%, area under the curve=0.82) and ECV with cutoff value ≥0.32 (sensitivity=80%, specificity=90%, area under the curve=0.85) showed high accuracy to identify severe (>30%) DMF. The native T1 relaxation time showed significant correlation with LV mass (Pmarkers of DMF. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1202-1209).

  14. Accuracy of maximal expiratory flow-volume curve curvilinearity and fractional exhaled nitric oxide for detection of children with atopic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hoo; Im, Min Ji; Eom, Sang-Yong; Hahn, Youn-Soo

    2017-09-01

    Airway pathology in children with atopic asthma can be reflected by the concave shape of the maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve and high fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) values. We evaluated the capacity of the curvilinearity of the MEFV curve, FeNO, and their combination to distinguish subjects with atopic asthma from healthy individuals. FeNO and angle β, which characterizes the general configuration of the MEFV curve, were determined in 119 steroid-naïve individuals with atopic asthma aged 8 to 16 years, and in 92 age-matched healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine the cutoff points of FeNO and angle β that provided the best combination of sensitivity and specificity for asthma detection. Asthmatic patients had a significantly smaller angle β and higher FeNO compared with healthy controls (both, Pcurve for the combination of angle β and FeNO improved to 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-0.95) from 0.80 (95% CI, 0.75-0.86; Pcurve and FeNO is a useful tool to differentiate between children with and without atopic asthma.

  15. Quantitative grain-scale ferroic domain volume fractions and domain switching strains from three-dimensional X-ray diffraction data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Majkut, Marta; Caosyd, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    a bulk sample. Such information is critical to furthering our understanding of the grainscale interactions of ferroic domains and their influence on bulk properties. The method also provides a validation tool for mesoscopic ferroic domain modelling efforts. The mathematical formulations presented here......A method for the extension of the three-dimensional X-ray diffraction technique to allow the extraction of domain volume fractions in polycrystalline ferroic materials is presented. This method gives access to quantitative domain volume fractions of hundreds of independent embedded grains within...... are applied to tetragonal coarse-grained Ba0.88Ca0.12Zr0.06Ti0.94O3 and rhombohedral fine-grained (0.82)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–(0.18)Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 electroceramic materials. The fitted volume fraction information is used to calculate grain-scale non-180° ferroelectric domain switching strains. The absolute errors...

  16. The effect of the volume fraction and viscosity on the compression and tension behavior of the cobalt-ferrite magneto-rheological fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shokrollahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of the volume fraction and bimodal distribution of solid particles on the compression and tension behavior of the Co-ferrite-based magneto-rheological fluids (MRFs containing silicon oil as a carrier. Hence, Co-ferrite particles (CoFe2O4 with two various sizes were synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method and mixed so as to prepare the bimodal MRF. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Laser Particle Size Analysis (LPSA and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM were conducted to examine the structural and magnetic properties, respectively. The results indicated that the increase of the volume fraction has a direct increasing influence on the values of the compression and tension strengths of fluids. In addition, the compression and tension strengths of the mixed MRF sample (1.274 and 0.647 MPa containing 60 and 550 nm samples were higher than those of the MRF sample with the same volume fraction and uniform particle size of 550 nm.

  17. Self compacting concrete incorporating high-volumes of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzoubaa, N. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). International Centre for Sustainable Development of Cement and Concrete; Lachemi, M. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is now widely used in reinforced concrete structures. Fine materials such as fly ash ensure that the concrete has the necessary properties of high fluidity and cohesiveness. An experimental study was conducted in which 9 SCC mixtures and one control concrete were produced in order to evaluate SCC made with high-volumes of fly ash. The content of the cementitious materials remained constant at 400 kg/cubic metre, but the ratio of water to cementitious material ranged from 0.35 to 0.45. The viscosity and stability of the fresh concrete was determined for self-compacting mixtures of 40, 50 and 60 per cent Class F fly ash. The compressive strength and drying shrinkage were also determined for the hardened concretes. Results showed that the SCCs developed a 28-day compressive strength ranging from 26 to 48 MPa. It was concluded that high-volumes of Class F fly ash could offer the following advantages to an SCC: reduced construction time and labour cost; eliminate the need for vibration; reduce noise pollution; improve the filling capacity of highly congested structural members; and, ensure good structural performance. 19 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs.

  18. Regulation of blood volume in lowlanders exposed to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Robach, Paul; Lundby, Carsten

    2017-10-01

    Humans ascending to high altitude (HA) experience a reduction in arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation and, as a result, arterial O2 content ([Formula: see text]). As HA exposure extends, this reduction in [Formula: see text] is counteracted by an increase in arterial hemoglobin concentration. Initially, hemoconcentration is exclusively related to a reduction in plasma volume (PV), whereas after several weeks a progressive expansion in total red blood cell volume (RCV) contributes, although often to a modest extent. Since the decrease in PV is more rapid and usually more pronounced than the expansion in RCV, at least during the first weeks of exposure, a reduction in circulating blood volume is common at HA. Although the regulation of hematological responses to HA has been investigated for decades, it remains incompletely understood. This is not only related to the large number of mechanisms that could be involved and the complexity of their interplay but also to the difficulty of conducting comprehensive experiments in the often secluded HA environment. In this review, we present our understanding of the kinetics, the mechanisms and the physiological relevance of the HA-induced reduction in PV and expansion in RCV. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. High Performance GPU-Based Fourier Volume Rendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Abdellah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier volume rendering (FVR is a significant visualization technique that has been used widely in digital radiography. As a result of its O(N2log⁡N time complexity, it provides a faster alternative to spatial domain volume rendering algorithms that are O(N3 computationally complex. Relying on the Fourier projection-slice theorem, this technique operates on the spectral representation of a 3D volume instead of processing its spatial representation to generate attenuation-only projections that look like X-ray radiographs. Due to the rapid evolution of its underlying architecture, the graphics processing unit (GPU became an attractive competent platform that can deliver giant computational raw power compared to the central processing unit (CPU on a per-dollar-basis. The introduction of the compute unified device architecture (CUDA technology enables embarrassingly-parallel algorithms to run efficiently on CUDA-capable GPU architectures. In this work, a high performance GPU-accelerated implementation of the FVR pipeline on CUDA-enabled GPUs is presented. This proposed implementation can achieve a speed-up of 117x compared to a single-threaded hybrid implementation that uses the CPU and GPU together by taking advantage of executing the rendering pipeline entirely on recent GPU architectures.

  20. High Performance GPU-Based Fourier Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Marwan; Eldeib, Ayman; Sharawi, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Fourier volume rendering (FVR) is a significant visualization technique that has been used widely in digital radiography. As a result of its (N (2)log⁡N) time complexity, it provides a faster alternative to spatial domain volume rendering algorithms that are (N (3)) computationally complex. Relying on the Fourier projection-slice theorem, this technique operates on the spectral representation of a 3D volume instead of processing its spatial representation to generate attenuation-only projections that look like X-ray radiographs. Due to the rapid evolution of its underlying architecture, the graphics processing unit (GPU) became an attractive competent platform that can deliver giant computational raw power compared to the central processing unit (CPU) on a per-dollar-basis. The introduction of the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) technology enables embarrassingly-parallel algorithms to run efficiently on CUDA-capable GPU architectures. In this work, a high performance GPU-accelerated implementation of the FVR pipeline on CUDA-enabled GPUs is presented. This proposed implementation can achieve a speed-up of 117x compared to a single-threaded hybrid implementation that uses the CPU and GPU together by taking advantage of executing the rendering pipeline entirely on recent GPU architectures.

  1. Extreme Ultraviolet Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Beams from High Harmonic Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; Picón, Antonio; San Román, Julio; Hernández-García, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    We investigate theoretically the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum. To this end, we drive high-order harmonic generation with infrared conical refraction (CR) beams. We show that the high-order harmonic beams emitted in the EUV/soft x-ray regime preserve the characteristic signatures of the driving beam, namely ringlike transverse intensity profile and CR-like polarization distribution. As a result, through orbital and spin angular momentum conservation, harmonic beams are emitted with fractional orbital angular momentum, and they can be synthesized into structured attosecond helical beams -or “structured attosecond light springs”- with rotating linear polarization along the azimuth. Our proposal overcomes the state of the art limitations for the generation of light beams far from the visible domain carrying non-integer orbital angular momentum and could be applied in fields such as diffraction imaging, EUV lithography, particle trapping, and super-resolution imaging.

  2. Vector wave analysis of an electromagnetic high-order Bessel vortex beam of fractional type α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2011-03-01

    The scalar wave theory of nondiffracting electromagnetic (EM) high-order Bessel vortex beams of fractional type α has been recently explored, and their novel features and promising applications have been revealed. However, complete characterization of the properties for this new type of beam requires a vector analysis to determine the fields' components in space because scalar wave theory is inadequate to describe such beams, especially when the central spot is comparable to the wavelength (k(r)/k≈1, where k(r) is the radial component of the wavenumber k). Stemming from Maxwell's vector equations and the Lorenz gauge condition, a full vector wave analysis for the electric and magnetic fields is presented. The results are of particular importance in the study of EM wave scattering of a high-order Bessel vortex beam of fractional type α by particles.

  3. Extreme Ultraviolet Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Beams from High Harmonic Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; Picón, Antonio; San Román, Julio; Hernández-García, Carlos

    2017-03-10

    We investigate theoretically the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum. To this end, we drive high-order harmonic generation with infrared conical refraction (CR) beams. We show that the high-order harmonic beams emitted in the EUV/soft x-ray regime preserve the characteristic signatures of the driving beam, namely ringlike transverse intensity profile and CR-like polarization distribution. As a result, through orbital and spin angular momentum conservation, harmonic beams are emitted with fractional orbital angular momentum, and they can be synthesized into structured attosecond helical beams -or "structured attosecond light springs"- with rotating linear polarization along the azimuth. Our proposal overcomes the state of the art limitations for the generation of light beams far from the visible domain carrying non-integer orbital angular momentum and could be applied in fields such as diffraction imaging, EUV lithography, particle trapping, and super-resolution imaging.

  4. The effect of high fiber fraction on some mechanical properties of unidirectional glass fiber-reinforced composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Närhi, Timo O; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of an increase of fiber-density on some mechanical properties of higher volume fiber-reinforced composite (FRC). Five groups of FRC with increased fiber-density were fabricated and two additional groups were prepared by adding silanated barium-silicate glass fillers (0.7 μm) to the FRC. The unidirectional E-glass fiber rovings were impregnated with light-polymerizable bisGMA-TEGDMA (50-50%) resin. The fibers were pulled through a cylindrical mold with an opening diameter of 4.2mm, light cured for 40s and post-cured at elevated temperature. The cylindrical specimens (n=12) were conditioned at room temperature for 2 days before testing with the three-point bending test (Lloyd Instruments Ltd.) adapted to ISO 10477. Fiber-density was analyzed by combustion and gravimetric analyzes. ANOVA analysis revealed that by increasing the vol.% fraction of E-glass fibers from 51.7% to 61.7% there was a change of 27% (pfibers and volume of the polymer matrix more precisely than flexural strength when high fiber-density is used. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Magneto-Hydrodynamic Fractionation (MHF) for continuous and sheathless sorting of high-concentration paramagnetic microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikash; Rezai, Pouya

    2017-06-01

    Sorting cells, microorganisms and particles from a solution is of paramount importance in many biological applications. An ideal sorting device should work at high throughput, involve simple design, avoid energy consumption, operate without a diluting sheath flow and perform separation with high purity. However, currently available sorting methods such as pinched flow fractionation, hydrodynamic filtration, magnetophoresis and deterministic lateral displacement meet only a few of the above-mentioned characteristics. In this paper, we report a hybrid technique combining magnetic focusing of particles in a thin microchannel and their hydrodynamic fractionation at a downstream expansion region, to devise a sheathless and high-throughput Magneto-Hydrodynamic Fractionation (MHF) method. First, sheathless magnetic focusing of 11 μm microparticles against the wall of the thin microchannel was investigated over a wide range of flow rates (0.5-5 mL h-1). Then, a mixture of 5 μm and 11 μm paramagnetic particles was injected into the device at a flow rate of 5 mL h-1 to demonstrate their sorting. Both of these magnetic particles were aligned along the wall of the channel and hence focused in the device, however their centers were lying on different streamlines due to their different sizes. Therefore, they were separated into distinct streamlines upon entering into the expansion region. Using this device, we achieved a high throughput sorting of more than 104 particles per second with an approximate on-chip fractionation purity of 98%. This technique has a great potential for separation of more than two magnetic particles for application in immunomagnetic affinity-based sorting of multiple biological substances.

  6. Search for Fractionally Charged Nuclei in High-Energy Oxygen-Lead Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to use stacks of CR-39 plastic track detectors to look for fractionally charged projectile fragments produced in collisions of high-energy oxygen, sulfur, and calcium nuclei with a lead target. The expected charge resolution is @s^z~=~0.06e for fragments with 17e/3~@$<$~Z~@$<$~23e/3. We request that two target + stack assemblies be exposed to 1~x~10|5 oxygen nuclei at maximum available energy.

  7. Fractional high-harmonic combs by attosecond-precision split-spectrum pulse control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laux Martin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Few-cycle laser fields enable pulse-shaping control of high-order harmonic generation by time delaying variable broadband spectral sections. We report the experimental generation of fractional (noninteger high-harmonic combs by the controlled interference of two attosecond pulse trains. Additionally the energy of the high harmonics is strongly tuned with the relative time delay. We quantify the tuning to directly result from the controlled variation of the instantaneous laser frequency at the shaped driver pulse intensity maximum.

  8. High-volume infiltration analgesia in bilateral hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Ø; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Husted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    was instituted preoperatively with a multimodal regimen (gabapentin, celecoxib, and acetaminophen). Pain was assessed repeatedly for 48 hours postoperatively, at rest and with 45° hip flexion. Results Pain scores were low and similar between ropivacaine and saline administration. Median hospital stay was 4...... (range 2-7) days. Interpretation Intraoperative high-volume infiltration with 0.2% ropivacaine with repeated intraarticular injections postoperatively may not give a clinically relevant analgesic effect in THA when combined with a multimodal oral analgesic regimen with gabapentin, celecoxib...

  9. High-volume infiltration analgesia in bilateral hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Ø; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Husted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) in a fast-track setting, saline or high-volume (170 mL) ropivacaine (0.2%) with epinephrine (1:100,000) was administered to the wound intraoperatively along with supplementary postoperative injections via an intraarticular epidural catheter. Oral analgesia...... was instituted preoperatively with a multimodal regimen (gabapentin, celecoxib, and acetaminophen). Pain was assessed repeatedly for 48 hours postoperatively, at rest and with 45° hip flexion. Results Pain scores were low and similar between ropivacaine and saline administration. Median hospital stay was 4...

  10. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Morrell, Jonathan S [Knoxville, TN; Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ludtka, Gerald M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-03-22

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  11. Effect of fiber volume fraction and length on the wear characteristics of glass fiber-reinforced dental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, David J; Vaziri, Ashkan; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the wear characteristics of fiber-reinforced dental composites. Variables under investigation include the fiber weight percent added to the matrix as well as fiber length. Dental specimens with glass fiber content of 2, 5.1, 5.7, and 7.6 wt% with fiber length of either 1.5 or 3 mm, were prepared by mixing an activated dental resin with commercial glass fibers. The specimens were then tested on a pin on disc setup, where the antagonist disc was manufactured of a similar fiber-reinforced composite with 5.1 wt% fiber and fiber length of 3 mm. The volume loss and coefficient of friction of the specimens was monitored periodically throughout testing. In addition, the wear surfaces of all specimens were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope. The specimens with 5.7 wt% fibers and fiber length of 3 mm performed better in this study compared to all other fiber-reinforced specimens under all load conditions. In fact, this specimen had a comparable wear rate to a particle-filled dental composite. For the fiber lengths considered, increasing the length of the fibers increased the wear resistance of the specimen. The coefficient of friction showed a good correlation with the wear resistance of specimens. Fiber-reinforced composites demonstrated a high resistance to wear and may therefore be advantageous for dental applications, where high wear resistance is essential to functionality.

  12. Void fraction in horizontal bulk flow boiling at high flow qualities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Fancisco J.; Monne, Carlos [Dpto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad de Zaragoza-CPS, Maria de Luna 3, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain); Pascau, Antonio [Dpto. de Ciencia de los Materiales y Fluidos, Universidad de Zaragoza-CPS, Maria de Luna 3, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    In this work, a new thermodynamic prediction of the vapor void fraction in bulk flow boiling, which is the core process of many energy conversion systems, is analyzed. The current heat balance is based on the flow quality, which is closely related to the measured void fraction, although some correlation for the vapor-liquid velocity ratio is needed. So here, it is suggested to work with the 'static' or thermodynamic quality, which is directly connected to the void fraction through the densities of the phases. Thus, the relation between heat and the mixture enthalpy (here based on the thermodynamic quality instead of the flow one) should be analyzed in depth. The careful void fraction data taken by Thom during the 'Cambridge project' for horizontal saturated flow boiling with high flow qualities ({<=}0.8) have been used for this analysis. As main results, first, we have found that the applied heat and the increment of the proposed thermodynamic enthalpy mixture throughout the heated duct do not agree, and for closure, a parameter is needed. Second, it has been checked that this parameter is practically equal to the classic velocity ratio or 'slip' ratio, suggesting that it should be included in a true thermodynamic heat balance. Furthermore, it has been clearly possible to improve the 'Cambridge project' correlations for the 'slip' ratio, here based on inlet pressure and water velocity, and heat flux. The calculated void fractions compare quite well with the measured ones. Finally, the equivalence of the suggested new heat balance with the current one through the 'slip' ratio is addressed. Highlighted is the same new energetic relation for saturated flow boiling that has been recently confirmed by the authors for Knights data, also taken during the 'Cambridge project', which include not only horizontal but also vertical upwards flows with moderate outlet flow quality ({<=}0.2). (author)

  13. Effect of Coarse Particle Volume Fraction on the Yield Stress of Muddy Sediments from Marennes Oléron Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pantet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal erosion results from a combination of various factors, both natural and humaninduced, which have different time and space patterns. In addition, uncertainties still remain about the interactions of the forcing agents, as well as on the significance of non-local causes of erosion. We focused about the surface sediments in the Marennes Oléron bay, after a general description of the site that has many various activities. The superficial sediments show a mechanical behavior, mainly depends on the fine fraction for a composition that contains up to 60% of sandy material. Fine sediments fraction has a typical yield stress depending naturally of concentration or water content. This yield could be modified slightly or significantly by adding silt or sand. As a result, the rheological measurement sensitivity allows us to characterize five typical sediments that correlate with solid fraction and fine fraction.

  14. Unsupervised Learning Through Randomized Algorithms for High-Volume High-Velocity Data (ULTRA-HV).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, Ali [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kolda, Tamara G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, MA (United States); Ballard, Grey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mahoney, Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Through long-term investments in computing, algorithms, facilities, and instrumentation, DOE is an established leader in massive-scale, high-fidelity simulations, as well as science-leading experimentation. In both cases, DOE is generating more data than it can analyze and the problem is intensifying quickly. The need for advanced algorithms that can automatically convert the abundance of data into a wealth of useful information by discovering hidden structures is well recognized. Such efforts however, are hindered by the massive volume of the data and its high velocity. Here, the challenge is developing unsupervised learning methods to discover hidden structure in high-volume, high-velocity data.

  15. Fractionation of whey proteins with high-capacity superparamagnetic ion-exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Justesen, S.F.L.; Thomas, Owen R. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we describe the design, preparation and testing of superparamagnetic anion-exchangers, and their use together with cation-exchangers in the fractionation of bovine whey proteins as a model study for high-gradient magnetic fishing. Adsorbents prepared by attachment of trimethyl amine...... to 337 mg g(-1) with a dissociation constant of 0.042 muM. The latter anion-exchanger was selected for studies of whey protein fractionation. In these, crude bovine whey was treated with a superparamagnetic cation-exchanger to adsorb basic protein species, and the supernatant arising from this treatment......) was achieved with some simultaneous binding of immunoglobulins (1g). The immunoglobulins were separated from the other two proteins by desorbing with a low concentration of NaCl (less than or equal to0.4 M), whereas lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase were co-eluted in significantly purer form, e...

  16. Fractionation of whey proteins with high-capacity superparamagnetic ion-exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Justesen, Sune; Thomas, Owen R. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we describe the design, preparation and testing of superparamagnetic anion-exchangers, and their use together with cation-exchangers in the fractionation of bovine whey proteins as a model study for high-gradient magnetic fishing. Adsorbents prepared by attachment of trimethyl amine...... to 337 mg g-1 with a dissociation constant of 0.042 µM. The latter anion-exchanger was selected for studies of whey protein fractionation. In these, crude bovine whey was treated with a superparamagnetic cation-exchanger to adsorb basic protein species, and the supernatant arising from this treatment......) was achieved with some simultaneous binding of immunoglobulins (Ig). The immunoglobulins were separated from the other two proteins by desorbing with a low concentration of NaCl (=0.4 M), whereas lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase were co-eluted in significantly purer form, e.g. lactoperoxidase was purified 28...

  17. On mixed derivatives type high dimensional multi-term fractional partial differential equations approximate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Imran; Belgacem, Fethi Bin Muhammad; Asif, Naseer Ahmad; Khalil, Hammad

    2017-01-01

    In this research article, we derive and analyze an efficient spectral method based on the operational matrices of three dimensional orthogonal Jacobi polynomials to solve numerically the mixed partial derivatives type multi-terms high dimensions generalized class of fractional order partial differential equations. We transform the considered fractional order problem to an easily solvable algebraic equations with the aid of the operational matrices. Being easily solvable, the associated algebraic system leads to finding the solution of the problem. Some test problems are considered to confirm the accuracy and validity of the proposed numerical method. The convergence of the method is ensured by comparing our Matlab software simulations based obtained results with the exact solutions in the literature, yielding negligible errors. Moreover, comparative results discussed in the literature are extended and improved in this study.

  18. High-dose-rate brachytherapy for uterine cervical cancer: the results of different fractionation regimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Won Sup; Kim, Tae Hyun; Yang, Dae Sik; Choi, Myung Sun; Kim, Chul Yong [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Although high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy regimens have been practiced with a variety of modalities and various degrees of success, few studies on the subject have been conducted. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of local control and late complication rate according to different HDR brachytherapy fractionation regimens in uterine cervical cancer patients. From November 1992 to March 1998, 224 patients with uterine cervical cancer were treated with external beam irradiation and HDR brachytherapy. In external pelvic radiation therapy, the radiation dose was 45 {approx} 54 Gy (median dose 54 Gy) with daily fraction size 1.8 Gy, five times per week. In HDR brachytherapy, 122 patients (Group A) were treated with three times weekly with 3 Gy to line-A (isodose line of 2 cm radius from source) and 102 patients (Group B) underwent the HDR brachytherapy twice weekly with 4 or 4.5 Gy to line-A after external beam irradiation. Iridium-192 was used as the source of HDR brachytherapy. Late complication was assessed from grade 1 to 5 using the RTOG morbidity grading system. The local control rate (LCR) at 5 years was 80% in group A and 84% in group B ({rho} = 0.4523). In the patients treated with radiation therapy alone, LCR at 5 years was 60.9% in group A and 76.9% in group B ({rho} = 0.2557). In post-operative radiation therapy patients, LCR at 5 years was 92.6% in group A and 91.6% in group B ({rho} 0.8867). The incidence of late complication was 18% (22 patients) and 29.4% (30 patients), of bladder complication was 9.8% (12 patients) and 14.7% (15 patients), and of rectal complication was 9.8% (12 patients) and 21.6% (22 patients), in group A and B, respectively. Lower fraction sized HDR brachytherapy was associated with decrease in late complication ({rho} =0.0405) (rectal complication, {rho} = 0.0147; bladder complication, {rho} =0.115). The same result was observed in postoperative radiation therapy patients ({rho} = 0.0860) and radiation only

  19. MR imaging of the heart in patients after myocardial infarction: effect of increasing intersection gap on measurements of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and wall thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Y; Touzery, C; Guy, F; Lalande, A; Ressencourt, O; Roy, S; Walker, P M; Louis, P; Brunotte, F; Wolf, J E

    1999-11-01

    To determine the extent to which the number of planes imaged at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging could be reduced without modifying the calculated volume and thickness of the left ventricle. Sixty-one patients were examined after a myocardial infarction. The whole left ventricle was imaged by using 5-mm contiguous breath-hold cine MR short-axis sections with no gap (SAng) (two-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequence, 9/4.8 [repetition time msec/echo time msec]). The effect of omitting one section in two (short-axis sections with 5-mm gap [SA5 mm]) or two sections in three (short-axis sections with 10-mm gap [SA10 mm]) was studied. In the comparison of SA5 mm or SA10 mm with respect to the reference SAng, the standard error of the estimate (SEE) for the diastolic volume did not exceed the 6.1% interobserver SEE, and the SEE for the ejection fraction remained lower than the 3% interobserver SEE. The measured wall thickness was not affected. In addition, six simple geometric models were compared with SAng and yielded an SEE of 9.5%-28.1% for the diastolic volume and 3.8%-13.3% for the ejection fraction. In the study of left ventricles with heterogeneous contractility, short-axis imaging is more accurate than geometric modeling and permits wall thickness measurements when an intersection gap of 5 or 10 mm is used.

  20. A comparative study of self-consolidating concretes incorporating high-volume natural pozzolan or high-volume fly ash

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Kemal

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Portland cement replacement on the strength and durability of self-consolidating concretes (SSC). The two replacement materials used are high-volume natural pozzolan (HVNP), a Saudi Arabian aluminum-silica rich basaltic glass and high-volume Class-F fly ash (HVFAF), from Jim Bridger Power Plant, Wyoming, US. As an extension of the study, limestone filler (LF) is also used to replace Portland cement, alongside HVNP or HVFAF, forming ternary blends. Along with compressive strength tests, non-steady state chloride migration and gas permeability tests were performed, as durability indicators, on SCC specimens. The results were compared to two reference concretes; 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 85% OPC - 15% LF by mass. The HVNP and HVFAF concrete mixes showed strength and durability results comparable to those of the reference concretes; identifying that both can effectively be used to produce low-cost and environmental friendly SCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Global fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity together with segmented brain volumes assemble a predictive discriminant model for young and elderly healthy brains: a pilot study at 3T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee Guadalupe; Becerra-Laparra, Ivonne; Cortez-Conradis, David; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Several parameters of brain integrity can be derived from diffusion tensor imaging. These include fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Combination of these variables using multivariate analysis might result in a predictive model able to detect the structural changes of human brain aging. Our aim was to discriminate between young and older healthy brains by combining structural and volumetric variables from brain MRI: FA, MD, and white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes. This was a cross-sectional study in 21 young (mean age, 25.71±3.04 years; range, 21–34 years) and 10 elderly (mean age, 70.20±4.02 years; range, 66–80 years) healthy volunteers. Multivariate discriminant analysis, with age as the dependent variable and WM, GM and CSF volumes, global FA and MD, and gender as the independent variables, was used to assemble a predictive model. The resulting model was able to differentiate between young and older brains: Wilks’ λ = 0.235, χ2 (6) = 37.603, p = .000001. Only global FA, WM volume and CSF volume significantly discriminated between groups. The total accuracy was 93.5%; the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 91.30%, 100%, 100% and 80%, respectively. Global FA, WM volume and CSF volume are parameters that, when combined, reliably discriminate between young and older brains. A decrease in FA is the strongest predictor of membership of the older brain group, followed by an increase in WM and CSF volumes. Brain assessment using a predictive model might allow the follow-up of selected cases that deviate from normal aging. PMID:27027893

  2. Land-use intensification impact on phosphorus fractions in highly weathered tropical soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranguit, Deejay; Guillaume, Thomas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Deforestation and land-use intensification in tropics have increased over the past decades, driven by the demand for agricultural products. Despite the fact that phosphorus (P) is one of the main limiting nutrients for agricultural productivity in the tropics, the effect of land-use intensification on P availability remains unclear. The objective was to assess the impacts of land-use intensification on soil inorganic and organic P fractions of different availability (Hedley sequential fractionation) and P stocks in highly weathered tropical soils. We compared the P availability under extensive land-use (rubber agroforest) and intensive land-use with moderate fertilization (rubber monoculture plantations) or high fertilization (oil palm monoculture plantations) in Indonesia. The phosphorus stock was dominated by inorganic forms (60 to 85%) in all land-use types. Fertilizer application increased easily-available inorganic P (i.e., H2O-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi) in intensive rubber and oil palm plantations compared to agroforest. However, the easily-available organic P (NaHCO3-extractable Po) was reduced by half under oil palm and rubber. The decrease of moderately available and non-available P by land-use intensification means that fertilization maintains only short-term soil fertility that is not sustainable in the long run due to the depletion of P reserves. The mechanisms of this P reserve depletion are: soil erosion (here assessed by C/P ratio), mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and export of P with yield products. Easily-available P fractions (i.e., H2O-Pi, NaHCO3-Pi and Po) and total organic P were strongly positively correlated with carbon content suggesting that SOM plays a critical role in maintaining P availability. Therefore, the ecologically based management is necessary in mitigating SOM losses to increase the sustainability of agricultural production in P limited highly weathered tropical soils.

  3. High-gain volume ignition for inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hora, H. [University of New South Wales, Kensington 2033 (Australia); Eliezer, S. [University of New South Wales, Kensington 2033 (Australia)]|[SOREQ Nuclear Research Centre, Yavne (Israel); Martinez-Val, J.M. [University of New South Wales, Kensington 2033 (Australia)]|[Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, ETSI Industriales, Madrid (Spain); Miley, G.H. [University of New South Wales, Kensington 2033 (Australia)]|[Fusion Studies Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois (United States)

    1994-10-05

    Since 1976, volume ignition calculations of pellet-fueled inertial confinement fusion have shown very high fusion gains due to the strong temperature increases caused by self-heating. This phenomenon was first reported in 1978 (Hora & Ray) and subsequently named the ``Wheeler modes.`` The very low optimum initial temperatures ({approx}1 keV) and the fuel burn of up to 80% permit gains of {gt}100, for compression of D-T to 2000--10,000 times the solid state for total input driver energy of a few MJ per pulse. The simple, smooth density and temperature profiles---unlike those of spark ignition---indicate it may be a faster and easier route to pellet fueling for a fusion power reactor capable of low-cost energy production. {copyright} 1994 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  4. A high volume, batch mode {sup 129}Xe polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojna-Pelczar, Anna, E-mail: anna.wojna.pelczar@mail.muni.cz [Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic); Formerly: Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków (Poland); Pałasz, Tadeusz [Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków (Poland)

    2017-06-01

    Numerous designs of optical gas polarizers have been proposed, broadening possible applications of the hyperpolarized gases as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. We present a home–made {sup 129}Xe polarizer based on the spin exchange optical pumping method. The polarizer operates under 1 bar of the gas mixture (at the maximum temperature of 160 °C) in a high volume optical cell (5025 cm{sup 3}). Approximately 100 cm{sup 3} of {sup 129}Xe polarized at 1.50±0.37% is produced in a single cycle of polarization. Operation under standard pressure imposes polarization transfer mainly via van der Waals molecules, resulting in the efficient spin exchange between rubidium and {sup 129}Xe atoms. The design, construction and operation of the polarizer are described in details.

  5. Comparison of stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of acoustic neurinomas according to 3-D tumor volume shrinkage and quality of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzel, Martin; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Philipps Univ. Marburg (Germany); Hamm, Klaus; Surber, Gunnar; Kleinert, Gabriele [Dept. of Stereotactic Neurosurgery and Radiosurgery, HELIOS Klinikum, Erfurt (Germany); Sitter, Helmut [Dept. of Theoretical Surgery, Philipps Univ. Marburg (Germany); Gross, Markus W. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Philipps Univ. Marburg (Germany); Dept. of Radio-Oncology, Univ. Hospital of Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-09-15

    Background and purpose: stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and also fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) offer high local control (LC) rates (> 90%). This study aimed to evaluate three-dimensional (3-D) tumor volume (TV) shrinkage and to assess quality of life (QoL) after SRS/SRT. Patients and methods: from 1999 to 2005, 35/74 patients were treated with SRS, and 39/74 with SRT. Median age was 60 years. Treatment was delivered by a linear accelerator. Median single dose was 13 Gy (SRS) or 54 Gy (SRT). Patients were followed up {>=} 12 months after SRS/SRT. LC and toxicity were evaluated by clinical examinations and magnetic resonance imaging. 3-D TV shrinkage was evaluated with the planning system. QoL was assessed using the questionnaire Short Form-36. Results: Median follow-up was 50/36 months (SRS/SRT). Actuarial 5-year freedom from progression/overall survival was 88.1%/100% (SRS), and 87.5%/87.2% (SRT). TV shrinkage was 15.1%/40.7% (SRS/SRT; p = 0.01). Single dose (< 13 Gy) was the only determinant factor for TV shrinkage after SRS (p = 0.001). Age, gender, initial TV, and previous operations did not affect TV shrinkage. Acute or late toxicity ({>=} grade 3) was never seen. Concerning QoL, no significant differences were observed after SRS/SRT. Previous operations and gender did not affect QoL (p > 0.05). Compared with the German normal population, patients had worse values for all domains except for mental health. Conclusion: TV shrinkage was significantly higher after SRT than after SRS. Main symptoms were not affected by SRS/SRT. Retrospectively, QoL was neither affected by SRS nor by SRT. (orig.)

  6. Identification of myocardial diffuse fibrosis by 11 heartbeat MOLLI T1mapping: averaging to improve precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Vassilios S; Wassilew, Katharina; Cameron, Donnie; Heng, Ee Ling; Nyktari, Evangelia; Asimakopoulos, George; de Souza, Anthony; Giri, Shivraman; Pierce, Iain; Jabbour, Andrew; Firmin, David; Frenneaux, Michael; Gatehouse, Peter; Pennell, Dudley J; Prasad, Sanjay K

    2018-02-01

    Our objectives involved identifying whether repeated averaging in basal and mid left ventricular myocardial levels improves precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction for 11 heartbeat MOLLI T 1 mapping versus assessment at a single ventricular level. For assessment of T 1 mapping precision, a cohort of 15 healthy volunteers underwent two CMR scans on separate days using an 11 heartbeat MOLLI with a 5(3)3 beat scheme to measure native T 1 and a 4(1)3(1)2 beat post-contrast scheme to measure post-contrast T 1 , allowing calculation of partition coefficient and ECV. To assess correlation of T 1 mapping with collagen volume fraction, a separate cohort of ten aortic stenosis patients scheduled to undergo surgery underwent one CMR scan with this 11 heartbeat MOLLI scheme, followed by intraoperative tru-cut myocardial biopsy. Six models of myocardial diffuse fibrosis assessment were established with incremental inclusion of imaging by averaging of the basal and mid-myocardial left ventricular levels, and each model was assessed for precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction. A model using 11 heart beat MOLLI imaging of two basal and two mid ventricular level averaged T 1 maps provided improved precision (Intraclass correlation 0.93 vs 0.84) and correlation with histology (R 2  = 0.83 vs 0.36) for diffuse fibrosis compared to a single mid-ventricular level alone. ECV was more precise and correlated better than native T 1 mapping. T 1 mapping sequences with repeated averaging could be considered for applications of 11 heartbeat MOLLI, especially when small changes in native T 1 /ECV might affect clinical management.

  7. Training for intense exercise performance: high-intensity or high-volume training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, P B

    2010-10-01

    Performance in intense exercise events, such as Olympic rowing, swimming, kayak, track running and track cycling events, involves energy contribution from aerobic and anaerobic sources. As aerobic energy supply dominates the total energy requirements after ∼75s of near maximal effort, and has the greatest potential for improvement with training, the majority of training for these events is generally aimed at increasing aerobic metabolic capacity. A short-term period (six to eight sessions over 2-4 weeks) of high-intensity interval training (consisting of repeated exercise bouts performed close to or well above the maximal oxygen uptake intensity, interspersed with low-intensity exercise or complete rest) can elicit increases in intense exercise performance of 2-4% in well-trained athletes. The influence of high-volume training is less discussed, but its importance should not be downplayed, as high-volume training also induces important metabolic adaptations. While the metabolic adaptations that occur with high-volume training and high-intensity training show considerable overlap, the molecular events that signal for these adaptations may be different. A polarized approach to training, whereby ∼75% of total training volume is performed at low intensities, and 10-15% is performed at very high intensities, has been suggested as an optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who perform intense exercise events. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. An Experimental Study of High Strength-High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Sustainable Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Gunavant K.; Thakare, Sunil B., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Concrete is the most widely used building material in the construction of infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, highways, dams, and many other facilities. This paper reports the development, the basic idea, the main properties of high strength-high volume fly ash with application in concrete associated with the development and implementation of Sustainable Properties of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete (HVFAC) Mixtures and Early Age Shrinkage and mechanical properties of concrete for 7,28,56 and 90days. Another alternative to make environment-friendly concrete is the development of high strength-high-volume fly ash concrete which is an synthesized from materials of geological origin or by-product materials such as fly ash which is rich in silicon and aluminum. In this paper 6 concrete mixtures were produced to evaluate the effect of key parameters on the mechanical properties of concrete and its behavior. The study key parameters are; binder material content, cement replacement ratios, and the steel fibers used to High Volume Fly Ash mixtures for increasing performance of concrete.

  9. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Øyvind; Halle, Martin; Conraads, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small studies have suggested that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate continuous training (MCT) in reversing cardiac remodeling and increasing aerobic capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The present multicenter trial...... ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks. RESULTS: Groups did not differ in age (median, 60 years), sex (19% women), ischemic pathogenesis (59%), or medication. Change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks was not different between HIIT and MCT (P=0.45); left...

  10. Fractionated exposure of high energy iron ions has a sparing effect in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P. Y.; Bakke, J.; Puey, A.

    The radiation environment in deep space is complex and includes a broad spectrum of charged and highly energetic particle radiations. Exposure to these types of radiations may pose potential health risks in manned space missions. The detection of particle radiation-induced genomic alterations in vivo, particularly in slow or non-dividing tissues, is therefore important to provide relevant information in estimating risks. We are using a plasmid-based lacZ transgenic mouse model system to rapidly measure, in a statistically reliable way, the mutagenic potential of charged particle radiations relevant in the space environment. The lacZ transgenic mouse has been constructed so that every cell of the animal contains multiple copies of an integrated target reporter gene, allowing us to measure tissue-specific radiation-induced changes as a function of dosing regime. The nature of these mutations can also be characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). To examine the impact of dose protraction, animals were exposed to a single dose or daily fractions of 1 GeV/n iron ions. Cytotoxicity in the peripheral blood was measured by enumerating the frequency of circulating micronucleated reticulocytes (fMN-RET) in a time course from 24 h up to 1 week after completion of the radiation protocol. Brain and spleen tissues were harvested at 8 weeks after exposure and mutant frequencies (MF) in the transgene in these tissues were measured. Results from the fractionated protocol were compared to the responses obtained after the animals were exposed to the single dose treatment. We noted significantly lower levels of micronucleated reticulocytes in peripheral blood at 48 h after fractionated doses of iron ions when compared to the same total dose delivered in a single exposure demonstrating that protracted exposures of particle radiation resulted in an overall sparing effect in cytogenetic toxicity in the hematopoietic system in animals. Transgene mutation analysis

  11. Ribbon scanning confocal for high-speed high-resolution volume imaging of brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Watson

    Full Text Available Whole-brain imaging is becoming a fundamental means of experimental insight; however, achieving subcellular resolution imagery in a reasonable time window has not been possible. We describe the first application of multicolor ribbon scanning confocal methods to collect high-resolution volume images of chemically cleared brains. We demonstrate that ribbon scanning collects images over ten times faster than conventional high speed confocal systems but with equivalent spectral and spatial resolution. Further, using this technology, we reconstruct large volumes of mouse brain infected with encephalitic alphaviruses and demonstrate that regions of the brain with abundant viral replication were inaccessible to vascular perfusion. This reveals that the destruction or collapse of large regions of brain micro vasculature may contribute to the severe disease caused by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Visualization of this fundamental impact of infection would not be possible without sampling at subcellular resolution within large brain volumes.

  12. Main chamber wall plasma loads in JET-ITER-like wall at high radiated fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Guillemaut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Future tokamak reactors of conventional design will require high levels of exhaust power dissipation (more than 90% of the input power if power densities at the divertor targets are to remain compatible with active cooling. Impurity seeded H-mode discharges in JET-ITER-like Wall (ILW have reached a maximum radiative fraction (Frad of ∼75%. Divertor Langmuir probe (LP measurements in these discharges indicate, however, that less than ∼3% of the thermal plasma power reaches the targets, suggesting a missing channel for power loss. This paper presents experimental evidence from limiter LP for enhanced cross-field particle fluxes on the main chamber walls at high Frad. In H-mode nitrogen-seeded discharges with Frad increasing from ∼30% to up to ∼75%, the main chamber wall particle fluence rises by a factor ∼3 while the divertor plasma fluence drops by one order of magnitude. Contribution of main chamber wall particle losses to detachment, as suggested by EDGE2D-EIRENE modeling, is not sufficient to explain the magnitude of the observed divertor fluence reduction. An intermediate detached case obtained at Frad ∼ 60% with neon seeding is also presented. Heat loads were measured using the main chamber wall thermocouples. Comparison between thermocouple and bolometry measurements shows that the fraction of the input power transported to the main chamber wall remains below ∼5%, whatever the divertor detachment state is. Main chamber sputtering of beryllium by deuterium is reduced in detached conditions only on the low field side. If the fraction of power exhaust dissipated to the main chamber wall by cross-field transport in future reactors is similar to the JET-ILW levels, wall plasma power loading should not be an issue. However, other contributions such as charge exchange may be a problem.

  13. Characterization of segmented large volume, high purity germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyneel, B. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2006-07-01

    {gamma}-ray tracking in future HPGe arrays like AGATA will rely on pulse shape analysis (PSA) of multiple {gamma}-interactions. For this purpose, a simple and fast procedure was developed which enabled the first full characterization of a segmented large volume HPGe detector. An analytical model for the hole mobility in a Ge crystal lattice was developed to describe the hole drift anisotropy with experimental velocity values along the crystal axis as parameters. The new model is based on the drifted Maxwellian hole distribution in Ge. It is verified by reproducing successfully experimental longitudinal hole anisotropy data. A comparison between electron and hole mobility shows large differences for the longitudinal and tangential velocity anisotropy as a function of the electrical field orientation. Measurements on a 12 fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by {gamma}-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60 keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356 keV rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and the digital electronics

  14. Highly efficient organosolv fractionation of cornstalk into cellulose and lignin in organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Tao; Feng, Shanghuan; Yuan, Zhongshun; Kuboki, Takashi; Xu, Chunbao Charles

    2016-10-01

    In this study, effects of fractionation solvents, catalysts, temperatures and residence time on yields, purity and chemical composition of the products were investigated at the solid/solvent ratio of 1:5 (g/g). It was revealed that mixture of acetic acid/formic acid/water at the ratio of 3:6:1 (v/v/v) resulted in crude cellulose and lignin products of relatively high purity. The use of HCl catalyst contributed to a high crude cellulose yield, while H2SO4 showed an adverse effect on cellulose yield. However, both of these acidic catalysts contributed to much lower hemicellulose contents in the resulted crude cellulose products compared with those obtained without a catalyst. Fractionation at 90°C for 180min in mixed solvents of acetic acid/formic acid/water (3:6:1, v/v/v) with or without catalyst produced crude cellulose with very low residual lignin contents (<4%). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Internal filtration, filtration fraction, and blood flow resistance in high- and low-flux dialyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneditz, Daniel; Zierler, Edda; Vanholder, Raymond; Eloot, Sunny

    2014-01-01

    It was the aim to examine the fluid flow in blood and dialysate compartments of highly permeable hollow fiber dialyzers where internal filtration contributes to solute removal but where excessive filtration bears a risk of cell activation and damage. Flow characteristics of high- (HF) and low-flux (LF) dialyzers were studied in lab-bench experiments using whole bovine blood. Measurements obtained under different operating conditions and under zero net ultrafiltration were compared to theoretical calculations obtained from a mathematical model. Experimental resistances in the blood compartment were within ±2% of those calculated from the model when dialysate was used as a test fluid. With whole blood, the experimental resistances in the blood compartment were only 81.8 ± 2.8% and 83.7 ± 4.3% of those calculated for the LF and HF dialyzer, respectively. Surprisingly, measured blood flow resistance slightly but significantly decreased with increasing flow rate (p filtration fraction, while overall internal filtration increased. The increase in internal filtration when increasing blood flow is associated with a beneficial reduction in internal filtration fraction. Concerns of increased hemoconcentration when increasing blood flow therefore appear to be unwarranted.

  16. Profiling the main cell wall polysaccharides of grapevine leaves using high-throughput and fractionation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John P; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Hugo, Annatjie; Vivier, Melané A

    2014-01-01

    Vitis species include Vitis vinifera, the domesticated grapevine, used for wine and grape agricultural production and considered the world's most important fruit crop. A cell wall preparation, isolated from fully expanded photosynthetically active leaves, was fractionated via chemical and enzymatic reagents; and the various extracts obtained were assayed using high-throughput cell wall profiling tools according to a previously optimized and validated workflow. The bulk of the homogalacturonan-rich pectin present was efficiently extracted using CDTA treatment, whereas over half of the grapevine leaf cell wall consisted of vascular veins, comprised of xylans and cellulose. The main hemicellulose component was found to be xyloglucan and an enzymatic oligosaccharide fingerprinting approach was used to analyze the grapevine leaf xyloglucan fraction. When Paenibacillus sp. xyloglucanase was applied the main subunits released were XXFG and XLFG; whereas the less-specific Trichoderma reesei EGII was also able to release the XXXG motif as well as other oligomers likely of mannan and xylan origin. This latter enzyme would thus be useful to screen for xyloglucan, xylan and mannan-linked cell wall alterations in laboratory and field grapevine populations. This methodology is well-suited for high-throughput cell wall profiling of grapevine mutant and transgenic plants for investigating the range of biological processes, specifically plant disease studies and plant-pathogen interactions, where the cell wall plays a crucial role. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Crystallins in water soluble-high molecular weight protein fractions and water insoluble protein fractions in aging and cataractous human lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Veronica; McCall, Shantis; Huynh, Sy; Srivastava, Kiran; Srivastava, Om P

    2004-07-19

    The aim of the study was to comparatively analyze crystallin fragments in the water soluble high molecular weight (WS-HMW) and in the water insoluble (WI) protein fractions of human cataractous (with nuclear opacity) and age matched normal lenses to determine the identity of crystallin species that show cataract specific changes such as truncation and post-translational modifications. Because these changes were cataract specific and not aging specific, the results were expected to provide information regarding potential mechanisms of age related cataract development. The WS-alpha-crystallin, WS-HMW protein, and WI protein fractions were isolated from normal lenses of different ages and from cataractous lenses. The three fractions were subjected to two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis (IEF in the first dimension and SDS-PAGE in the second dimension). Individual spots from 2D gels were trypsin digested and the tryptic fragments were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The 2D protein profiles of WS-alpha-crystallin fractions of normal human lenses showed an age related increase in the number of crystallin fragments. In young normal lenses, the WS-alpha-crystallin fragments were mostly C-terminally truncated, but in older lenses these were both N- and C-terminally truncated. The WS-HMW protein fraction from normal lenses contained mainly fragments of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin, whereas additional fragments of betaB1- and betaA3-crystallin were present in this fraction from cataractous lenses. Similarly, the WI proteins in normal lenses contained fragments of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin, but cataractous lenses contained additional fragments of betaA3- and betaB1-crystallin. The modifications identified in the WS-HMW and WI crystallin species of cataractous lenses were truncation, oxidation of Trp residues, and deamidation of Asn to Asp residues. The results show that the components of WS-HMW and

  18. Effect of volume fraction of (Cr, Fe7C3 carbides on corrosion resistance of the Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys at Cr/C=6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Sabet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, three different chemical compositions of Fe-Cr-C alloys were fabricated on AISI 1010 steel substrates by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW. The optical emission spectroscopy (OES, optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, techniques and corrosion test were used for determining chemical composition studying the microstructure and corrosion behavior of the Fe-Cr-C alloys. The OM and SEM results show that the microstructure of these alloys consisted of (Cr,Fe7C3 carbides with austenite, and by increasing of the carbon and chromium content in hardfacing alloys, the volume fraction of (Cr,Fe7C3 carbides in microstructure was increased. The polarization curves of the corrosion tests show that the increase of the volume fraction of (Cr,Fe7C3 carbides in the microstructure promotes the corrosion resistance of the Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys. The corrosion mechanism of the Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys was intergranular and galvanic corrosion.

  19. One-Lung Ventilation with Additional Ipsilateral Ventilation of Low Tidal Volume and High Frequency in Lung Lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong; Wang, Jianyue; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Shiduan

    2016-05-11

    BACKGROUND To investigate the protective effects of additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume and high frequency on lung functions in the patients receiving lobectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty patients receiving lung lobectomy were randomized into the conventional one-lung ventilation (CV) group (n=30) and the ipsilateral low tidal volume high frequency ventilation (LV) group (n=30). In the CV group, patients received only contralateral OLV. In the LV group, patients received contralateral ventilation and additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume of 1-2 ml/kg and high frequency of 40 times/min. Normal lung tissues were biopsied for the analysis of lung injury. Lung injury was scored by evaluating interstitial edema, alveolar edema, neutrophil infiltration, and alveolar congestion. RESULTS At 30 min and 60 min after the initiation of one-lung ventilation and after surgery, patients in the LV group showed significantly higher ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen than those in the CV group (PLung injury was significantly less severe (2.7±0.7) in the LV group than in the CV group (3.1±0.7) (P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS Additional ipsilateral ventilation of low tidal volume and high frequency can decrease the risk of hypoxemia and alleviate lung injury in patients receiving lobectomy.

  20. Quantifying Fractional Ground Cover on the Climate Sensitive High Plains Using AVIRIS and Landsat TM Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Amanda Susan

    2002-01-01

    The High Plains is an economically important and climatologically sensitive region of the United States and Canada. The High Plains contain 100,000 sq km of Holocene sand dunes and sand sheets that are currently stabilized by natural vegetation. Droughts and the larger threat of global warming are climate phenomena that could cause depletion of natural vegetation and make this region susceptible to sand dune reactivation. This thesis is part of a larger study that is assessing the effect of climate variability on the natural vegetation that covers the High Plains using Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 data. The question this thesis addresses is how can fractional vegetation cover be mapped with the Landsat instruments using linear spectral mixture analysis and to what accuracy. The method discussed in this thesis made use of a high spatial and spectral resolution sensor called AVIRIS (Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) and field measurements to test vegetation mapping in three Landsat 7 sub-scenes. Near-simultaneous AVIRIS images near Ft. Morgan, Colorado and near Logan, New Mexico were acquired on July 10, 1999 and September 30, 1999, respectively. The AVIRIS flights preceded Landsat 7 overpasses by approximately one hour. These data provided the opportunity to test spectral mixture algorithms with AVIRIS and to use these data to constrain the multispectral mixed pixels of Landsat 7. The comparisons of mixture analysis between the two instruments showed that AVIRIS endmembers can be used to unmix Landsat 7 data with good estimates of soil cover, and reasonable estimates of non-photosynthetic vegetation and green vegetation. Landsat 7 derived image endmembers correlate with AVIRIS fractions, but the error is relatively large and does not give a precise estimate of cover.

  1. Effect of Bombay high crude oil and its water-soluble fraction on growth and metabolism of diatom Thalassiosira sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.R.; Pandit, R.A.; Kadam, A.N.; Indap, M.M.

    in protein and RNA content indicating increased metabolism. High concentrations of oil and its fraction had inhibitory effect on growth, protein content and nucleic acid content. This indicates that biosynthesis of these molecules may be probable targets...

  2. Polyphenol-Rich Fraction of Ecklonia cava Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Park

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecklonia cava (E. cava; CA is an edible brown alga with beneficial effects in diabetes via regulation of various metabolic processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system in liver and adipose tissue. We investigated the effect of the polyphenol-rich fraction of E. cava produced from Gijang (G-CA on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice. C57BL6 mice were fed a HFD for six weeks and then the HFD group was administered 300 mg/kg of G-CA extracts by oral intubation for 10 weeks. Body weight, fat mass, and serum biochemical parameters were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. MRI/MRS analysis showed that liver fat and liver volume in HFD-induced obese mice were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. Further, we analyzed hepatic gene expression related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased in G-CA-treated HFD mice. The mRNA expression levels of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1, the key enzyme in bile acid synthesis, were dramatically increased by G-CA treatment in HFD mice. We suggest that G-CA treatment ameliorated hepatic steatosis by inhibiting inflammation and improving lipid metabolism.

  3. Open Repair of AAA in a High Volume Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovic, Lazar B; Maksic, Milanko; Koncar, Igor; Ilic, Nikola; Dragas, Marko; Fatic, Nikola; Markovic, Miroslav; Banzic, Igor; Mutavdzic, Perica

    2017-03-01

    To assess results of open repair (OR) of AAA in a single high volume center. We analyzed prospectively collected data of 450 patients who underwent elective OR of AAA at the Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery of the Serbian Clinical Centre in the period between January 2013 and September 2014. Postoperative death occurred in seven patients (1. 55%) during the first 30 postoperative days. The mortality was caused by: uncontrolled bleeding-1, acute myocardial infarction-1, ischemic colitis-2, MOFS-2, sepsis due to infection and dehiscence of laparotomy wound-1. Coronary artery disease (OR 3.89; CI 0.85-17.7; p = 0.0058), postoperative acute myocardial infarction (OR 29.9; CI 2.56-334.95; p = 0.0053), chronic renal failure (OR 7.5; CI 1.35-8.5; p = 0.0073), colonic necrosis (OR 88.2; CI 4.77-1629.69; p = 0.0026), occlusion of the both hypogastric arteries and the inability to preserve at least one hypogastric artery (OR 17.4; CI 1.99-178.33; p = 0.0230), aortobifemoral reconstruction (OR 9.06; CI 1.76-46.49; p = 0.016), significant perioperative bleeding (>2 L) (OR 7.32; CI 1.31-10.79; p = 0.0001), hostile abdomen (OR 5.25; CI 1.3-21.1; p = 0.0055), inflammatory aneurysm (OR 13.99; CI 2.88-65.09; p = 0.0002), supraceliac aortic cross-clamping (OR 18.7; CI 3.8-90.6; p = 0.0003), prolonged aortic cross-clamping (>60 min) (OR 14.25; CI 2.75-64.5; p = 0.0003), the intraoperative hypotension (OR 6.61; CI 0.71-61.07; p = 0.0545), the prolonged operation (>240 min) (OR 8.66; CI 0.91-81.56; p = 0.0585) and complete dehiscence of the laparotomy (OR 44.1; CI 3.39-572.78; p = 0.0396) increased the 30-day mortality in our study. Early mortality after open repair of AAA in high volume center might be very low due to experienced multidisciplinary team. Centralized open aortic surgery might be solution for effective treatment of patients with unsuitable anatomy or for young patients with long life expectancy.

  4. Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1 and a follow-up (visit 2 at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85% were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments.

  5. Identification of early-stage usual interstitial pneumonia from low-dose chest CT scans using fractional high-density lung distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yiting; Salvatore, Mary; Liu, Shuang; Jirapatnakul, Artit; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2017-03-01

    A fully-automated computer algorithm has been developed to identify early-stage Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) using features computed from low-dose CT scans. In each scan, the pre-segmented lung region is divided into N subsections (N = 1, 8, 27, 64) by separating the lung from anterior/posterior, left/right and superior/inferior in 3D space. Each subsection has approximately the same volume. In each subsection, a classic density measurement (fractional high-density volume h) is evaluated to characterize the disease severity in that subsection, resulting in a feature vector of length N for each lung. Features are then combined in two different ways: concatenation (2*N features) and taking the maximum in each of the two corresponding subsections in the two lungs (N features). The algorithm was evaluated on a dataset consisting of 51 UIP and 56 normal cases, a combined feature vector was computed for each case and an SVM classifier (RBF kernel) was used to classify them into UIP or normal using ten-fold cross validation. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) was used for evaluation. The highest AUC of 0.95 was achieved by using concatenated features and an N of 27. Using lung partition (N = 27, 64) with concatenated features had significantly better result over not using partitions (N = 1) (p-value < 0.05). Therefore this equal-volume partition fractional high-density volume method is useful in distinguishing early-stage UIP from normal cases.

  6. Five-Year Outcomes of High-Dose Single-Fraction Spinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussazadeh, Nelson [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States); Lis, Eric [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Katsoulakis, Evangelia [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Kahn, Sweena; Svoboda, Marek; DiStefano, Natalie M.; McLaughlin, Lily [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bilsky, Mark H. [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Laufer, Ilya, E-mail: lauferi@mskcc.org [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To characterize local tumor control and toxicity risk in very long-term survivors (>5 years) after high-dose spinal image guided, intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered as single-dose stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Previously published spinal SRS outcome analyses have included a heterogeneous population of cancer patients, mostly with short survival. This is the first study reporting the long-term tumor control and toxicity profiles after high-dose single-fraction spinal SRS. Methods and Materials: The study population included all patients treated from June 2004 to July 2009 with single-fraction spinal SRS (dose 24 Gy) who had survived at least 5 years after treatment. The endpoints examined included disease progression, surgical or radiation retreatment, in-field fracture development, and radiation-associated toxicity, scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiation morbidity scoring criteria and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Local control and fracture development were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Of 278 patients, 31 (11.1%), with 36 segments treated for spinal tumors, survived at least 5 years after treatment and were followed up radiographically and clinically for a median of 6.1 years (maximum 102 months). The histopathologic findings for the 5-year survivors included radiation-resistant metastases in 58%, radiation-sensitive metastases in 22%, and primary bone tumors in 19%. In this selected cohort, 3 treatment failures occurred at a median of 48.6 months, including 2 recurrences in the radiation field and 1 patient with demonstrated progression at the treatment margins. Ten lesions (27.8%) were associated with acute grade 1 cutaneous or gastrointestinal toxicity. Delayed toxicity ≥3 months after treatment included 8 cases (22.2%) of mild neuropathy, 2 (5.6%) of gastrointestinal discomfort, 8 (22.2%) of dermatitides, and 3 (8.3%) of myalgias/myositis. Thirteen

  7. A glimpse beneath Antarctic sea ice: observation of platelet-layer thickness and ice-volume fraction with multi-frequency EM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, S.; Hoppmann, M.; Hunkeler, P. A.; Kalscheuer, T.; Gerdes, R.

    2015-12-01

    In Antarctica, ice crystals (platelets) form and grow in supercooled waters below ice shelves. These platelets rise and accumulate beneath nearby sea ice to form a several meter thick sub-ice platelet layer. This special ice type is a unique habitat, influences sea-ice mass and energy balance, and its volume can be interpreted as an indicator for ice - ocean interactions. Although progress has been made in determining and understanding its spatio-temporal variability based on point measurements, an investigation of this phenomenon on a larger scale remains a challenge due to logistical constraints and a lack of suitable methodology. In the present study, we applied a lateral constrained Marquardt-Levenberg inversion to a unique multi-frequency electromagnetic (EM) induction sounding dataset obtained on the ice-shelf influenced fast-ice regime of Atka Bay, eastern Weddell Sea. We adapted the inversion algorithm to incorporate a sensor specific signal bias, and confirmed the reliability of the algorithm by performing a sensitivity study using synthetic data. We inverted the field data for sea-ice and sub-ice platelet-layer thickness and electrical conductivity, and calculated ice-volume fractions from platelet-layer conductivities using Archie's Law. The thickness results agreed well with drill-hole validation datasets within the uncertainty range, and the ice-volume fraction also yielded plausible results. Our findings imply that multi-frequency EM induction sounding is a suitable approach to efficiently map sea-ice and platelet-layer properties. However, we emphasize that the successful application of this technique requires a break with traditional EM sensor calibration strategies due to the need of absolute calibration with respect to a physical forward model.

  8. Volume Based DTM Generation from Very High Resolution Photogrammetric Dsms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltz, B.; Bayer, S.; Poznanska, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose a new algorithm for digital terrain (DTM) model reconstruction from very high spatial resolution digital surface models (DSMs). It represents a combination of multi-directional filtering with a new metric which we call normalized volume above ground to create an above-ground mask containing buildings and elevated vegetation. This mask can be used to interpolate a ground-only DTM. The presented algorithm works fully automatically, requiring only the processing parameters minimum height and maximum width in metric units. Since slope and breaklines are not decisive criteria, low and smooth and even very extensive flat objects are recognized and masked. The algorithm was developed with the goal to generate the normalized DSM for automatic 3D building reconstruction and works reliably also in environments with distinct hillsides or terrace-shaped terrain where conventional methods would fail. A quantitative comparison with the ISPRS data sets Potsdam and Vaihingen show that 98-99% of all building data points are identified and can be removed, while enough ground data points (~66%) are kept to be able to reconstruct the ground surface. Additionally, we discuss the concept of size dependent height thresholds and present an efficient scheme for pyramidal processing of data sets reducing time complexity to linear to the number of pixels, O(WH).

  9. Equilibrium Iron Isotope Fractionation at Ultra-High Pressures: Focus on Mantle-Core Differentiation. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, V. B.

    2009-12-01

    Iron isotope fractionation studies provide an insight into chemical and phase transformations accompanying high-pressure core-mantle differentiation processes in planetary interiors. A method for determination of equilibrium iron isotope fractionation factors (β-factors) at wide range of pressures (up to ~ 150 GPa) was recently established (Polyakov et al., 2005, 2007; Polyakov 2009). The method consists in obtaining 57Fe partial vibration densities of states (PVDOS) at different pressures from synchrotron inelastic nuclear resonance x-ray scattering (INRXS) experiments followed by calculations of iron β-factors from the 57Fe PVDOS. Using INRXS-derived 57Fe PVDOS of Fe-metal (Mao et al., 2001), ferropericlase (FeP) (Lin et al., 2006), and postperovskite (PPV) (Mao et al., 2006), it was shown (Polyakov, 2009) that at high pressures FeP and PPV are enriched in heavy iron isotopes relative to Fe-metal contrary to the low-pressure iron isotope fractionation regularity. Earth's core may contain also Ni, Si, S, H, C, etc. along with iron. I estimated effect of these elements on iron β-factors using INRXS-derived 57Fe PVDOS for Fe0.92Ni0.08 and Fe0.85Si0.15 (Lin et al., 2003), FeS (Kobayashi et al., 2004), Fe3S (Lin et al., 2004), FeHx (Mao et al., 2004), Fe3C (Gao et al., 2008). Additions of Ni and Si to Fe-metal do not affect the iron β-factor contrary to additions of S, H, and C (see figure), which reduce the iron β-factors and aid in heavy iron isotope enrichment of silicate fraction during metal-silicate differentiation. This consits with the explanation of the observed enrichment (~ 0.1‰ for 57Fe/54Fe) of Earth's basalts in heavy isotopes with respect to those from Vesta and Mars (Poitrasson et al., 2004; Weyer et al., 2005; Shoenberg and von Blanckenburg, 2006) in terms of the equilibrium iron isotope fractionation during core-mantle differentiation processes as proposed in Polyakov (2009). Figure. Pressure dependence of 57Fe/54Fe β-factors. Open circles

  10. A prospective phase III randomized trial of hypofractionation versus conventional fractionation in patients with high-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangeli, Giorgio; Saracino, Biancamaria; Gomellini, Sara; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Arcangeli, Stefano; Sentinelli, Steno; Marzi, Simona; Landoni, Valeria; Fowler, Jack; Strigari, Lidia

    2010-09-01

    To compare the toxicity and efficacy of hypofractionated (62 Gy/20 fractions/5 weeks, 4 fractions per week) vs. conventional fractionation radiotherapy (80 Gy/40 fractions/8 weeks) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. From January 2003 to December 2007, 168 patients were randomized to receive either hypofractionated or conventional fractionated schedules of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to the prostate and seminal vesicles. All patients received a 9-month course of total androgen deprivation (TAD), and radiotherapy started 2 months thereafter. The median (range) follow-up was 32 (8-66) and 35 (7-64) months in the hypofractionation and conventional fractionation arms, respectively. No difference was found for late toxicity between the two treatment groups, with 3-year Grade 2 rates of 17% and 16% for gastrointestinal and 14% and 11% for genitourinary in the hypofractionation and conventional fractionation groups, respectively. The 3-year freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) rates were 87% and 79% in the hypofractionation and conventional fractionation groups, respectively (p = 0.035). The 3-year FFBF rates in patients at a very high risk (i.e., pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (iPSA) >20 ng/mL, Gleason score >or=8, or T >or=2c), were 88% and 76% (p = 0.014) in the former and latter arm, respectively. The multivariate Cox analysis confirmed fractionation, iPSA, and Gleason score as significant prognostic factors. Our findings suggest that late toxicity is equivalent between the two treatment groups and that the hypofractionated schedule used in this trial is superior to the conventional fractionation in terms of FFBF. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Favorable Preliminary Outcomes for Men With Low- and Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer Treated With 19-Gy Single-fraction High-dose-rate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Daniel J., E-mail: dkrauss@beaumont.edu [Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Ye, Hong [Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Martinez, Alvaro A. [21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States); Mitchell, Beth; Sebastian, Evelyn; Limbacher, Amy; Gustafson, Gary S. [Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To report the toxicity and preliminary clinical outcomes of a prospective trial evaluating 19-Gy, single-fraction high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for men with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 63 patients were treated according to an institutional review board-approved prospective study of single-fraction HDR brachytherapy. Eligible patients had tumor stage ≤T2a, prostate-specific antigen level ≤15 ng/mL, and Gleason score ≤7. Patients with a prostate gland volume >50 cm{sup 3} and baseline American Urologic Association symptom score >12 were ineligible. Patients underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided transperineal implantation of the prostate, followed by single-fraction HDR brachytherapy. Treatment was delivered using {sup 192}Ir to a dose of 19 Gy prescribed to the prostate, with no additional margin applied. Results: Of the 63 patients, 58 had data available for analysis. Five patients had withdrawn consent during the follow-up period. The median follow-up period was 2.9 years (range 0.3-5.2). The median age was 61.4 years. The median gland volume at treatment was 34.8 cm{sup 3}. Of the 58 patients, 91% had T1 disease, 71% had Gleason score ≤6 (29% with Gleason score 7), and the median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level was 5.1 ng/mL. The acute and chronic grade 2 genitourinary toxicity incidence was 12.1% and 10.3%, respectively. No grade 3 urinary toxicity occurred. No patients experienced acute rectal toxicity grade ≥2, and 2 experienced grade ≥2 chronic gastrointestinal toxicity. Three patients experienced biochemical failure, yielding a 3-year cumulative incidence estimate of 6.8%. Conclusions: Single-fraction HDR brachytherapy is well-tolerated, with favorable preliminary biochemical and clinical disease control rates.

  12. Fractional rate of change of swim-bladder volume is reliably related to absolute depth during vertical displacements in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Graham K; Holbrook, Robert Iain; de Perera, Theresa Burt

    2010-09-06

    Fish must orient in three dimensions as they navigate through space, but it is unknown whether they are assisted by a sense of depth. In principle, depth can be estimated directly from hydrostatic pressure, but although teleost fish are exquisitely sensitive to changes in pressure, they appear unable to measure absolute pressure. Teleosts sense changes in pressure via changes in the volume of their gas-filled swim-bladder, but because the amount of gas it contains is varied to regulate buoyancy, this cannot act as a long-term steady reference for inferring absolute pressure. In consequence, it is generally thought that teleosts are unable to sense depth using hydrostatic pressure. Here, we overturn this received wisdom by showing from a theoretical physical perspective that absolute depth could be estimated during fast, steady vertical displacements by combining a measurement of vertical speed with a measurement of the fractional rate of change of swim-bladder volume. This mechanism works even if the amount of gas in the swim-bladder varies, provided that this variation occurs over much longer time scales than changes in volume during displacements. There is therefore no a priori physical justification for assuming that teleost fish cannot sense absolute depth by using hydrostatic pressure cues.

  13. Possible hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera L. high molecular weight fractions on type 2 diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Akira; Hegazy, Sahar; Kabbash, Amal; Wahab, Engy Abd-El

    2009-01-01

    Aloe vera L. high molecular weight fractions (AHM) containing less than 10 ppm of barbaloin and polysaccharide (MW: 1000 kDa) with glycoprotein, verectin (MW: 29 kDa), were prepared by patented hyper-dry system in combination of freeze–dry technique with microwave and far infrared radiation. AHM produced significant decrease in blood glucose level sustained for 6 weeks of the start of the study. Significant decrease in triglycerides was only observed 4 weeks after treatment and continued thereafter. No deterious effects on kidney and liver functions were apparent. Treatment of diabetic patients with AHM may relief vascular complications probably via activation of immunosystem. PMID:23964163

  14. Desorption of Herbicides from Atmospheric Particulates During High-Volume Air Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight V. Quiring

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides can be present in the atmosphere either as vapours and/or in association with suspended particles. High-volume air sampling, in which air is aspirated first through a glass fibre filter to capture pesticides associated with atmospheric particulates and then polyurethane foam (PUF, often in combination with an adsorbent resin such as XAD-2, to capture pesticides present as vapours, is generally employed during atmospheric monitoring for pesticides. However, the particulate fraction may be underestimated because some pesticides may be stripped or desorbed from captured particulates due to the pressure drop created by the high flow of air through the filter. This possibility was investigated with ten herbicide active ingredients commonly used on the Canadian prairies (dimethylamine salts of 2,4-D, MCPA and dicamba, 2,4-D 2-ethylhexyl ester, bromoxynil octanoate, diclofop methyl ester, fenoxaprop ethyl ester, trifluralin, triallate and ethalfluralin and seven hydrolysis products (2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba, bromoxynil, diclofop, clopyralid and mecoprop. Finely ground heavy clay soil fortified with active ingredients/hydrolysis products was evenly distributed on the glass fibre filters of high-volume air samplers and air aspirated through the samplers at a flow rate of 12.5 m3/h for a 7-day period. The proportion desorbed as vapour from the fortified soil was determined by analysis of the PUF/XAD-2 resin composite cartridges. The extent of desorption from the fortified soil applied to the filters varied from 0% for each of the dimethylamine salts of 2,4-D, MCPA and dicamba to approximately 50% for trifluralin, triallate and ethalfluralin.

  15. The effect of bonding environment on iron isotope fractionation between minerals at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossi, Paolo A.; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.

    2017-01-01

    Central to understanding the processes that drive stable isotope fractionation in nature is their quantification under controlled experimental conditions. The polyvalent element iron, given its abundance in terrestrial rocks, exerts controls on the structural and chemical properties of minerals and melts. The iron isotope compositions of typical high temperature minerals are, however, poorly constrained and their dependence on intensive (e.g. fO2) and extensive (e.g. compositional) variables is unknown. In this work, experiments involving a reference phase, 2 M FeCl2·4H2O(l), together with an oxide mix corresponding to the bulk composition of the chosen mineral were performed in a piston cylinder in Ag capsules. The oxide mix crystallised in situ at 1073 K and 1 GPa, in equilibrium with the iron chloride, and was held for 72 h. In order to characterise the effect of co-ordination and oxidation state on the isotope composition independently, exclusively Fe2+ minerals were substituted in: VIII-fold almandine, VI-fold ilmenite, fayalite and IV-fold chromite and hercynite. Δ57FeMin-FeCl2 increases in the order VIII iron being the smaller, ferric ion. The composition of the VIFe2+-bearing minerals is similar to that of the aqueous FeCl2 fluid. To the degree that this represents the speciation of iron in fluids exsolving from magmas, the fractionation between them should be small, unless the iron is hosted in magnetite. By contrast, predominantly Fe2+-bearing mantle garnets should preserve a much lighter δ57Fe than their lower pressure spinel counterparts, a signature that may be reflected in partial melts from these lithologies. As the Fe-O bond lengths in fayalite and ilmenite are comparable, their isotope compositions overlap, suggesting that high Ti mare basalts acquired their heavy isotopic signature from ilmenite that crystallised late during lunar magma ocean solidification.

  16. Most clinical laboratory testing in Kampala occurs in high-volume, high-quality laboratories or low-volume, low-quality laboratories. A tale of two cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Schroeder, Lee F; Jackson, J Brooks; Elbireer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    To describe key characteristics (laboratory quality, test volumes, and complexity) of clinical laboratories in Kampala, Uganda (population ~1.7 million). Cross-sectional survey using a standard questionnaire to document laboratory type and quality, as well as test menus and volumes. Quality was based on the World Health Organization-Africa Region checklist. Of the 954 laboratories identified (a density of one laboratory per 1,781 persons), 779 (82%) performed only simple kit tests or light microscope examinations. The 95% (907/954) of laboratories for whom volumes were obtained performed an average aggregate of 13,189 tests daily, for a test utilization rate of around 2 tests per individual per year. Laboratories could be segregated into eight groups based on quality, test volume, and complexity. However, 90% of the testing was performed by just two groups: (1) low-volume (≤100 tests daily), low-quality laboratories performing simple tests or (2) high-volume (>100 tests daily), high-quality laboratories. Each of these two groups did 45% of the daily testing volume (90% combined). Clinical laboratory density in Kampala (1/1,781 persons) is high, approaching that in the United States (1/1,347 persons). Low-volume/low-quality and high-volume/high-quality laboratories do 90% of the daily aggregate testing. Quality improvement (QI) schemes for Africa must be appropriate to low-volume laboratories as well as to the large laboratories that have been the focus of previous QI efforts. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  17. Enhanced diesel fuel fraction from waste high-density polyethylene and heavy gas oil pyrolysis using factorial design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppert, Ney; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina

    2015-02-01

    Factorial Design Methodology (FDM) was developed to enhance diesel fuel fraction (C9-C23) from waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and Heavy Gas Oil (HGO) through co-pyrolysis. FDM was used for optimization of the following reaction parameters: temperature, catalyst and HDPE amounts. The HGO amount was constant (2.00 g) in all experiments. The model optimum conditions were determined to be temperature of 550 °C, HDPE = 0.20 g and no FCC catalyst. Under such conditions, 94% of pyrolytic oil was recovered, of which diesel fuel fraction was 93% (87% diesel fuel fraction yield), no residue was produced and 6% of noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction was obtained. Seeking to reduce the cost due to high process temperatures, the impact of using higher catalyst content (25%) with a lower temperature (500 °C) was investigated. Under these conditions, 88% of pyrolytic oil was recovered (diesel fuel fraction yield was also 87%) as well as 12% of the noncondensable gaseous/volatile fraction. No waste was produced in these conditions, being an environmentally friendly approach for recycling the waste plastic. This paper demonstrated the usefulness of using FDM to predict and to optimize diesel fuel fraction yield with a great reduction in the number of experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fractionation of high Kappa number kraft pulps of the South African softwoods and sulfonating of coarse fibre enriched fraction for production of sack paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available the range 9 to 10 (15). After confirming the pH, the contents of the polyethylene bag was then transferred into the rotating digester. The digester was closed and the heating programme was started up. The ramping time to the maximum tempera- ture of 90... con- sistency above 0.3% for fractionating Scandinavian softwood pulp (Kappa number 33), a high tendency to form fibre networks (solid body like rotating) was observed. It was presumed that fibre net- work formation is responsible for the lim...

  19. Off-Line High-pH Reversed-Phase Fractionation for In-Depth Phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batth, Tanveer S; Francavilla, Chiara; Olsen, Jesper V

    2014-01-01

    H) before subsequent titanium dioxide (TiO2) enrichment and LC-MS/MS analysis. Our results demonstrate that HpH is superior to standard strong-cation exchange (SCX) fractionation in the total number of phosphopeptides detected when analyzing the same number of fractions by identical LC-MS/MS gradients. From...... 14 HpH fractions, we routinely identified over 30 000 unique phosphopeptide variants, which is more than twice the number of that obtained from SCX fractionation. HpH chromatography displayed an exceptional ability to fractionate singly phosphorylated peptides, with minor benefits for doubly...... phosphorylated peptides over that with SCX. Further optimizations in the pooling and concatenation strategy increased the total number of multiphosphorylated peptides detected after HpH fractionation. In conclusion, we provide a basic framework and resource for performing in-depth phosphoproteome studies...

  20. High Reliability, High Mix, Ultralow Volume Surface Mount Technology for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barela, P.; Bonner, K.; Cornford, S.; Wen, A.

    1995-01-01

    For the past two years, JPL has been working to introduce surface mount technology (SMT) for high reliability space applications. The thrust has centered around four research and development projects, the aim of which is to facilitate the use of SMT for designing, producing, inspecting, and quantifying surface mount printed wiring assemblies for ultralow volume, long life space applications. This paper explores the current approach being pursued at JPL and some of the problems peculiar to applying SMT to spacecraft applications.

  1. High brightness diode lasers controlled by volume Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebov, Leonid

    2017-02-01

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) recorded in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass are holographic optical elements that are effective spectral and angular filters withstanding high power laser radiation. Reflecting VBGs are narrow-band spectral filters while transmitting VBGs are narrow-band angular filters. The use of these optical elements in external resonators of semiconductor lasers enables extremely resonant feedback that provides dramatic spectral and angular narrowing of laser diodes radiation without significant power and efficiency penalty. Spectral narrowing of laser diodes by reflecting VBGs demonstrated in wide spectral region from near UV to 3 μm. Commercially available VBGs have spectral width ranged from few nanometers to few tens of picometers. Efficient spectral locking was demonstrated for edge emitters (single diodes, bars, modules, and stacks), vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), grating coupled surface emitting lasers (GCSELs), and interband cascade lasers (ICLs). The use of multiplexed VBGs provides multiwavelength emission from a single emitter. Spectrally locked semiconductor lasers demonstrated CW power from milliwatts to a kilowatt. Angular narrowing by transmitting VBGs enables single transverse mode emission from wide aperture diode lasers having resonators with great Fresnel numbers. This feature provides close to diffraction limit divergence along a slow axis of wide stripe edge emitters. Radiation exchange between lasers by means of spatially profiled or multiplexed VBGs enables coherent combining of diode lasers. Sequence of VBGs or multiplexed VBGs enable spectral combining of spectrally narrowed diode lasers or laser modules. Thus the use of VBGs for diode lasers beam control provides dramatic increase of brightness.

  2. Radiological and material characterization of high volume fly ash concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatović, I; Sas, Z; Dragaš, J; Somlai, J; Kovács, T

    2017-03-01

    The main goal of research presented in this paper was the material and radiological characterization of high volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) in terms of determination of natural radionuclide content and radon emanation and exhalation coefficients. All concrete samples were made with a fly ash content between 50% and 70% of the total amount of cementitious materials from one coal burning power plant in Serbia. Physical (fresh and hardened concrete density) and mechanical properties (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity) of concrete were tested. The radionuclide content (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and radon massic exhalation of HVFAC samples were determined using gamma spectrometry. Determination of massic exhalation rates of HVFAC and its components using radon accumulation chamber techniques combined with a radon monitor was performed. The results show a beneficial effect of pozzolanic activity since the increase in fly ash content resulted in an increase in compressive strength of HVFAC by approximately 20% for the same mass of cement used in the mixtures. On the basis of the obtained radionuclide content of concrete components the I -indices of different HVFAC samples were calculated and compared with measured values (0.27-0.32), which were significantly below the recommended 1.0 index value. The prediction was relatively close to the measured values as the ratio between the calculated and measured I-index ranged between 0.89 and 1.14. Collected results of mechanical and radiological properties and performed calculations clearly prove that all 10 designed concretes with a certain type of fly ash are suitable for structural and non-structural applications both from a material and radiological point of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low etiologic fraction for high-risk human papillomavirus in oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingen, Mark W; Xiao, Weihong; Schmitt, Alessandra; Jiang, Bo; Pickard, Robert; Kreinbrink, Paul; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Jordan, Richard C; Gillison, Maura L

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a cause of oropharyngeal cancer, but a role for HPV in the etiology of oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OCSCC) remains uncertain. We sought to estimate the etiologic fraction for HPV among consecutive, incident OCSCC diagnosed from 2005 to 2011 at four North American hospitals. DNA and RNA purified from paraffin-embedded tumors were considered evaluable if positive for DNA and mRNA control genes by quantitative PCR. Fifteen high-risk (HR) HPV types were detected in tumors by consensus PCR followed by type-specific HR-HPV E6/7 oncogene expression by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. P16 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A study of 400 cases allowed for precision to estimate an etiologic fraction of as low as 0% (97.5% confidence interval, 0-0.92%). Of 409 evaluable OCSCC, 24 (5.9%, 95%CI 3.6-8.2) were HR-HPV E6/7 expression positive; 3.7% (95%CI 1.8-5.5) for HPV16 and 2.2% (95%CI 0.8-3.6) for other HR-HPV types. HPV-positive tumors arose from throughout the oral cavity (floor of mouth [n=9], anterior tongue [6], alveolar process [4], hard palate [3], gingiva [1] and lip [1]) and were significantly associated with male gender, small tumor stage, poor tumor differentiation, and basaloid histopathology. P16 IHC had very good-to-excellent sensitivity (79.2%, 95%CI 57.9-92.9), specificity (93.0%, 95%CI 90.0-95.3), and negative-predictive value (98.6%, 95%CI 96.8-99.6), but poor positive-predictive value (41.3%, 95%CI 27.0-56.8) for HR-HPV E6/7 expression in OCSCC. The etiologic fraction for HR-HPV in OCSCC was 5.9%. p16 IHC had poor positive predictive value for detection of HPV in these cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antihepatoma Activity of Artocarpus communis Is Higher in Fractions with High Artocarpin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Tzeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from natural plants have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries worldwide. Artocarpus communis is one such plant that has been used to treat liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the antihepatoma activity of A. communis toward HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells and the first to explore the relationship between antihepatoma activity and the active compound artocarpin content in different fractions of A. communis. A. communis methanol extract and fractions induced dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability. DNA laddering analysis revealed that A. communis extract and fractions did not induce apoptosis in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that A. communis triggered autophagic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The antihepatoma activity of A. communis is attributable to artocarpin. The fractions with the highest artocarpin content were also the fractions with the highest antihepatoma activity in the following order: dichloromethane fraction > methanol extract > ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > n-hexane fraction. Taken together, A. communis showed antihepatoma activity through autophagic cell death. The effect was related to artocarpin content. Artocarpin could be considered an indicator of the anticancer potential of A. communis extract.

  5. LIMITS TO THE FRACTION OF HIGH-ENERGY PHOTON EMITTING GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerlof, Carl W.; Zheng, WeiKang, E-mail: akerlof@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    After almost four years of operation, the two instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have shown that the number of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV cannot exceed roughly 9% of the total number of all such events, at least at the present detection limits. In a recent paper, we found that GRBs with photons detected in the Large Area Telescope have a surprisingly broad distribution with respect to the observed event photon number. Extrapolation of our empirical fit to numbers of photons below our previous detection limit suggests that the overall rate of such low flux events could be estimated by standard image co-adding techniques. In this case, we have taken advantage of the excellent angular resolution of the Swift mission to provide accurate reference points for 79 GRB events which have eluded any previous correlations with high-energy photons. We find a small but significant signal in the co-added field. Guided by the extrapolated power-law fit previously obtained for the number distribution of GRBs with higher fluxes, the data suggest that only a small fraction of GRBs are sources of high-energy photons.

  6. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 20 Appendix S - Historical Sea Ice Area Fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  7. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 21 Appendix T - Forecast Sea Ice Area Fraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  8. Indicators of optimal lung volume during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingay, David G; Mills, John F; Morley, Colin J; Pellicano, Anastasia; Dargaville, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    During high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, an understanding of the relationship between lung volume and lung mechanics may help clinicians better apply ventilation. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the relationship between lung volume and lung function parameters during mapping of the deflation limb of the pressure-volume relationship in infants receiving high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, and 2) to determine whether these parameters might be useful in targeting an optimal volume to apply ventilation. Observational physiological study. Tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in a pediatric hospital. Fifteen infants receiving high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and muscle relaxants. The deflation limb of the pressure-volume relationship was mapped in each infant, after recruitment to total lung capacity, using stepwise airway pressure decrements. Total lung capacity and closing volume were defined by oxygenation response. Lung volume (respiratory inductive plethysmography), oxygen saturation, transcutaneous carbon dioxide, and indicators of lung mechanics were recorded at each pressure. A distinct bell-shaped relationship between lung volume and carbon dioxide, minute ventilation, and tidal volume (both at airway opening and by inductive plethysmography) could be identified on the deflation limb, with an improvement of 21.6 mm Hg (CO2), 168 mL/sec (minute ventilation), 0.25 mL/kg (airway opening tidal volume), and 13.7% (plethysmography tidal volume) compared with total lung capacity levels. The mean (SD) optimal volumes and pressures for these parameters were significantly lower than total lung capacity, occurring at volumes between 38.6 (39.8)% and 62.8 (31.1)% of total lung capacity, and 28 (36.3)% and 41.3 (38.7)% of pressure at total lung capacity (p volumes that maintained the oxygenation benefit of recruitment. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide, tidal volume, and minute ventilation may assist in refining strategies to identify optimal

  9. CFD Simulation of Flow in an Abrasive Water Suspension Jet: The Effect of Inlet Operating Pressure and Volume Fraction on Skin Friction and Exit Kinetic Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abrasive particles in the suspension mixture in an abrasive water suspension jet (AWSJ machining causes acute skin friction effect thereby effectively changing the jet diameter due to wear, which in turn influences jet exit kinetic energy. This results in lowering the life of the jet for effective machining. In consideration of this aspect, the present work examines the effect of inlet pressure on skin friction coefficient and jet exit kinetic energy. It is inferred from the analysis that an increase in inlet pressure causes a significant increase in skin friction coefficient and also results in proportional increase in the exit kinetic energy of the jet. Further, it is revealed from the analysis that an increase volume fraction of abrasive (abrasive concentration in water results in significant decrease in the skin friction coefficient and jet exit kinetic energy.

  10. Impact of nanoparticle volume fraction on squeezed MHD water based Cu, Al2O3 and SWCNTs flow over a porous sensor surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kandasamy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The squeezed MHD flow of water based metallic nanoparticles over a porous sensor surface in the presence of heat source has been investigated. The physical significance of the problem is water based on the geometry and the interaction of copper (Cu, aluminum oxide (Al2O3 and SWCNTs. The governing partial differential equations of momentum and energy are converted into ODEs for assured groups of the controlling parameters. The numerical and analytical results of the ODEs are determined utilizing fourth or fifth order Fehlberg method with shooting technique and OHAM and it is analyzed that there is no import difference between them. It is investigated that in squeezing flow phenomena, the effect of nanoparticle volume fraction on SWCNTs–water in the presence of magnetic field with thermal radiation energy plays a dominant role on heat transfer as compared to the other mixtures in the flow regime.

  11. Effects of nano anatase-rutile TiO2 volume fraction with natural dye containing anthocyanin on the dye sensitized solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustini, S.; Wahyuono, R. A.; Sawitri, D.; Risanti, D. D.

    2013-09-01

    Since its first development, efforts to improve efficiency of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) are continuously carried out, either through selection of dye materials, the type of semiconductor, counter electrode design or the sandwiched structure. It is widely known that anatase and rutile are phases of TiO2 that often being used for fabrication of DSSC. Rutile is thermodynamically more stable phase having band-gap suitable for absorption of sunlight spectrum. On the other hand, anatase has higher electrical conductivity, capability to adsorp dye as well as higher electron diffusion coefficient than those of rutile. Present research uses mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea extracted in ethanol as natural dye containing anthocyanin. These dyes were characterized by using UV-Vis and FTIR, showing that the absorption maxima peaks obtained at 389 nm and 413 nm, for mangosteen and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively. The nano TiO2 was prepared by means of co-precipitation method. The particle size were 9-11 nm and 54.5 nm for anatase and rutile, respectively, according to Scherrer's equation. DSSCs were fabricated in various volume fractions of anatase and rutile TiO2. The fabricated DSSCs were tested under 17 mW/cm2 of solar irradiation. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of DSSCs employing 75%: 25% volume fraction of anatase and rutile TiO2 have outstanding result than others. The highest conversion efficiencies of 0.037% and 0.013% are obtained for DSSC employing natural dye extract from mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively.

  12. The potential of aqueous fractionation of lupin seeds for high-protein foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, J.A.M.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous fractionation of protein from lupin seeds was investigated as an alternative to the conventional wet fractionation processes, which make use of organic solvents. The effect of extraction temperature was studied and the consequences for downstream processing were analysed. Omitting the

  13. Low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid versus high-volume PEG as bowel preparation for colonoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corporaal, Sietske; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Koornstra, Jan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. High volumes of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based solutions as bowel preparation for colonoscopy are effective, but often poorly tolerated. To compare a 2 l PEG-based solution combined with ascorbic acid (PEG + Asc) with 4 l PEG-based solution (PEG). Methods. In a single blind,

  14. Native T1 mapping and extracellular volume fraction measurement for assessment of right ventricular insertion point and septal fibrosis in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Fritz C; Wiedenroth, Christoph; Breithecker, Andreas; Liebetrau, Christoph; Mayer, Eckhard; Schneider, Christian; Rolf, Andreas; Hamm, Christian; Krombach, Gabriele A

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess septal and right ventricular insertion point (RVIP) fibrosis in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) via native T1 mapping and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) determination and to analyze correlations with functional parameters. Imaging was performed at 1.5 Tesla in 24 patients diagnosed with CTEPH and 24 controls. T1 values were measured within the septal myocardium, the upper and lower RVIP, and the lateral wall at basal short axis section. The mean septal native T1 values were 1012.8 ms ± 50.5 in the CTEPH group and 956.9 ms ± 24.4 in controls (p T1 showed a strong negative correlation with right ventricular ejection fraction (k = -0.92; p = 0.01). We conclude that native T1 mapping and ECV assessment enable visualization and quantification of septal fibrosis in CTEPH patients. The results also correlate well with right ventricular ejection fraction. Therefore, these parameters might be useful for prognosis and as therapy-monitoring tool in the future. • Septal native T1 and ECV values are significantly higher in CTEPH patients. • Native T1 and ECV values are elevated even in absence of LGE. • These techniques therefore enable an improved quantification of septal fibrosis in CTEPH. • Native T1 values also correlate well with right ventricular EF and PA-pressure. • Prognosis and therapy-monitoring might be assessable in the future with these parameters.

  15. Perioperative high inspired oxygen fraction therapy reduces surgical site infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroin, Jeffrey S; Li, Jinyuan; Goldufsky, Josef W; Gupta, Kajal H; Moghtaderi, Masoomeh; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Shafikhani, Sasha H

    2016-08-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) remains one of the most important causes of healthcare-associated infections, accounting for ~17 % of all hospital-acquired infections. Although short-term perioperative treatment with high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) has shown clinical benefits in reducing SSI in colorectal resection surgeries, the true clinical benefits of FiO2 therapy in reducing SSI remain unclear because randomized controlled trials on this topic have yielded disparate results and inconsistent conclusions. To date, no animal study has been conducted to determine the efficacy of short-term perioperative treatments with high (FiO2>60 %) versus low (FiO2oxygen in reducing SSI. In this report, we designed a rat model for muscle surgery to compare the effectiveness of short-term perioperative treatments with high (FiO2=80 %) versus a standard low (FiO2=30 %) oxygen in reducing SSI with Pseudomonas aeruginosa - one of the most prevalent Gram-negative pathogens, responsible for nosocomial SSIs. Our data demonstrate that 5 h perioperative treatment with 80 % FiO2 is significantly more effective in reducing SSI with P. aeruginosa compared to 30 % FiO2 treatment. We further show that whilst 80 % FiO2 treatment does not affect neutrophil infiltration into P. aeruginosa-infected muscles, neutrophils in the 80 % FiO2-treated and infected animal group are significantly more activated than neutrophils in the 30 % FiO2-treated and infected animal group, suggesting that high oxygen perioperative treatment reduces SSI with P. aeruginosa by enhancing neutrophil activation in infected wounds.

  16. High-Volume Utilization of Cotton in Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article briefly explores possible utilization of cotton in volume in the traditional textile sector and in the growing nontraditional nonwovens sector and covers the challenges and opportunities that may exist on the way. Some new concepts in the development of predominantly cotton-based textil...

  17. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography with High-Contrast Dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) system has been designed to complement the tools created to sense the presence of water in nonconductive spacecraft materials, by helping to not only find the approximate location of moisture but also its quantity and depth. The ECVT system has been created for use with a new image reconstruction algorithm capable of imaging high-contrast dielectric distributions. Rather than relying solely on mutual capacitance readings as is done in traditional electrical capacitance tomography applications, this method reconstructs high-resolution images using only the self-capacitance measurements. The image reconstruction method assumes that the material under inspection consists of a binary dielectric distribution, with either a high relative dielectric value representing the water or a low dielectric value for the background material. By constraining the unknown dielectric material to one of two values, the inverse math problem that must be solved to generate the image is no longer ill-determined. The image resolution becomes limited only by the accuracy and resolution of the measurement circuitry. Images were reconstructed using this method with both synthetic and real data acquired using an aluminum structure inserted at different positions within the sensing region. The cuboid geometry of the system has two parallel planes of 16 conductors arranged in a 4 4 pattern. The electrode geometry consists of parallel planes of copper conductors, connected through custom-built switch electronics, to a commercially available capacitance to digital converter. The figure shows two 4 4 arrays of electrodes milled from square sections of copper-clad circuit-board material and mounted on two pieces of glass-filled plastic backing, which were cut to approximately square shapes, 10 cm on a side. Each electrode is placed on 2.0-cm centers. The parallel arrays were mounted with the electrode arrays approximately 3 cm apart. The open ends

  18. A two-phase debris-flow model that includes coupled evolution of volume fractions, granular dilatancy, and pore-fluid pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David L.; Iverson, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Pore-fluid pressure plays a crucial role in debris flows because it counteracts normal stresses at grain contacts and thereby reduces intergranular friction. Pore-pressure feedback accompanying debris deformation is particularly important during the onset of debrisflow motion, when it can dramatically influence the balance of forces governing downslope acceleration. We consider further effects of this feedback by formulating a new, depth-averaged mathematical model that simulates coupled evolution of granular dilatancy, solid and fluid volume fractions, pore-fluid pressure, and flow depth and velocity during all stages of debris-flow motion. To illustrate implications of the model, we use a finite-volume method to compute one-dimensional motion of a debris flow descending a rigid, uniformly inclined slope, and we compare model predictions with data obtained in large-scale experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume. Predictions for the first 1 s of motion show that increasing pore pressures (due to debris contraction) cause liquefaction that enhances flow acceleration. As acceleration continues, however, debris dilation causes dissipation of pore pressures, and this dissipation helps stabilize debris-flow motion. Our numerical predictions of this process match experimental data reasonably well, but predictions might be improved by accounting for the effects of grain-size segregation.

  19. Endochondral fracture healing with external fixation in the Sost knockout mouse results in earlier fibrocartilage callus removal and increased bone volume fraction and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A; Yu, N Y C; Peacock, L; Mikulec, K; Kramer, I; Kneissel, M; McDonald, M M; Little, D G

    2015-02-01

    Sclerostin deficiency, via genetic knockout or anti-Sclerostin antibody treatment, has been shown to cause increased bone volume, density and strength of calluses following endochondral bone healing. However, there is limited data on the effect of Sclerostin deficiency on the formative early stage of fibrocartilage (non-bony tissue) formation and removal. In this study we extensively investigate the early fibrocartilage callus. Closed tibial fractures were performed on Sost(-/-) mice and age-matched wild type (C57Bl/6J) controls and assessed at multiple early time points (7, 10 and 14days), as well as at 28days post-fracture after bony union. External fixation was utilized, avoiding internal pinning and minimizing differences in stability stiffness, a variable that has confounded previous research in this area. Normal endochondral ossification progressed in wild type and Sost(-/-) mice with equivalent volumes of fibrocartilage formed at early day 7 and day 10 time points, and bony union in both genotypes by day 28. There were no significant differences in rate of bony union; however there were significant increases in fibrocartilage removal from the Sost(-/-) fracture calluses at day 14 suggesting earlier progression of endochondral healing. Earlier bone formation was seen in Sost(-/-) calluses over wild type with greater bone volume at day 10 (221%, pfractured Sost(-/-) tibiae was greater than that that of wild type fractured tibiae. In summary, bony union was not altered by Sclerostin deficiency in externally-fixed closed tibial fractures, but fibrocartilage removal was enhanced and the resultant united bony calluses had increased bone fraction and increased strength. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of high and low volume of strength training on muscle strength, muscle volume and lipid profile in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lipid profile are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, especially in postmenopausal woman who have been associated with age-related loss of muscle mass. The beneficial role of aerobic exercise in the prevention of CVD has been well documented. However, the effect of strength training has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes of lipoprotein levels after 12 weeks of different volumes of strength training and its correlation with strength and muscle volume in postmenopausal women. The participants were randomized into three groups: low volume (LVST; n = 12, 1 set and high volume of strength training (HVST; n = 11, 3 sets, or control group (n = 12. Training groups performed 12 weeks of supervised strength exercises, 15 maximum repetitions, five times a week, 20 minutes for LVST and 40 minutes for HVST for each training session. Measurements included body composition, strength and muscle volume, as well as blood analysis (glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein pre- and post-training. The HVST and LVST improved the one-repetition maximum knee extension strength (p < 0.001, maximal dynamic strength (p < 0.001, and muscle volume (p = 0.048. Post-training triglyceride was lower in HVST when compared to LVST and the control group (p = 0.047. Even though they present the same neuromuscular and morphological adaptations in postmenopausal women, the HVST is more effective than LVST in improving the lipid profile of postmenopausal woman, and can be considered as an ideal program of intervention to reverse changes in lipid metabolism commonly found in this group.

  1. Evaluating inhibition conditions in high-solids anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Malagutti, Luca; Fragali, Emilio; Ruboni, Gabriella; Adani, Fabrizio

    2010-07-01

    High-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) processes, when applied to different types of organic fractions of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), may easily be subjected to inhibition due to organic overloading. In this study, a new approach for predicting these phenomena was proposed based on the estimation of the putrescibility (oxygen consumption in 20 h biodegradation, OD(20)) of the organic mixtures undergoing the HSAD process. Different wastes exhibiting different putrescibility were subjected to lab-scale batch-HSAD. Measuring the organic loading (OL) as volatile solids (VS) was found unsuitable for predicting overload inhibition, because similar VS contents corresponded to both inhibited and successful trials. Instead, the OL calculated as OD(20) was a very good indicator of the inhibiting conditions (inhibition started for OD(20)>17-18 g O(2)kg(-1)). This new method of predicting inhibition in the HSAD process of diverse OFMSW may be useful for developing a correct approach to the technology in very different contexts. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Slow Learner Errors Analysis in Solving Fractions Problems in Inclusive Junior High School Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitasari, N.; Lukito, A.; Ekawati, R.

    2018-01-01

    A slow learner whose IQ is between 71 and 89 will have difficulties in solving mathematics problems that often lead to errors. The errors could be analyzed to where the errors may occur and its type. This research is qualitative descriptive which aims to describe the locations, types, and causes of slow learner errors in the inclusive junior high school class in solving the fraction problem. The subject of this research is one slow learner of seventh-grade student which was selected through direct observation by the researcher and through discussion with mathematics teacher and special tutor which handles the slow learner students. Data collection methods used in this study are written tasks and semistructured interviews. The collected data was analyzed by Newman’s Error Analysis (NEA). Results show that there are four locations of errors, namely comprehension, transformation, process skills, and encoding errors. There are four types of errors, such as concept, principle, algorithm, and counting errors. The results of this error analysis will help teachers to identify the causes of the errors made by the slow learner.

  3. Implementation of Ultrasonic Sensing for High Resolution Measurement of Binary Gas Mixture Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Richard; Berry, Stephane; Bitadze, Alexander; Bonneau, Pierre; Bousson, Nicolas; Boyd, George; Bozza, Gennaro; Crespo-Lopez, Olivier; Da Riva, Enrico; Degeorge, Cyril; Deterre, Cecile; DiGirolamo, Beniamino; Doubek, Martin; Favre, Gilles; Godlewski, Jan; Hallewell, Gregory; Hasib, Ahmed; Katunin, Sergey; Langevin, Nicolas; Lombard, Didier; Mathieu, Michel; McMahon, Stephen; Nagai, Koichi; Pearson, Benjamin; Robinson, David; Rossi, Cecilia; Rozanov, Alexandre; Strauss, Michael; Vitek, Michal; Vacek, Vaclav; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    We describe an ultrasonic instrument for continuous real-time analysis of the fractional mixture of a binary gas system. The instrument is particularly well suited to measurement of leaks of a high molecular weight gas into a system that is nominally composed of a single gas. Sensitivity < 5 ×10−5 is demonstrated to leaks of octaflouropropane (C3F8) coolant into nitrogen during a long duration (18 month) continuous study. The sensitivity of the described measurement system is shown to depend on the difference in molecular masses of the two gases in the mixture. The impact of temperature and pressure variances on the accuracy of the measurement is analysed. Practical considerations for the implementation and deployment of long term, in situ ultrasonic leak detection systems are also described. Although development of the described systems was motivated by the requirements of an evaporative fluorocarbon cooling system, the instrument is applicable to the detection of leaks of many other gases and to proce...

  4. Cardiac size of high-volume resistance trained female athletes: shaping the body but not the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully.

  5. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Øyvind; Halle, Martin; Conraads, Viviane; Støylen, Asbjørn; Dalen, Håvard; Delagardelle, Charles; Larsen, Alf-Inge; Hole, Torstein; Mezzani, Alessandro; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Videm, Vibeke; Beckers, Paul; Christle, Jeffrey W; Winzer, Ephraim; Mangner, Norman; Woitek, Felix; Höllriegel, Robert; Pressler, Axel; Monk-Hansen, Tea; Snoer, Martin; Feiereisen, Patrick; Valborgland, Torstein; Kjekshus, John; Hambrecht, Rainer; Gielen, Stephan; Karlsen, Trine; Prescott, Eva; Linke, Axel

    2017-02-28

    Small studies have suggested that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate continuous training (MCT) in reversing cardiac remodeling and increasing aerobic capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The present multicenter trial compared 12 weeks of supervised interventions of HIIT, MCT, or a recommendation of regular exercise (RRE). Two hundred sixty-one patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% and New York Heart Association class II to III were randomly assigned to HIIT at 90% to 95% of maximal heart rate, MCT at 60% to 70% of maximal heart rate, or RRE. Thereafter, patients were encouraged to continue exercising on their own. Clinical assessments were performed at baseline, after the intervention, and at follow-up after 52 weeks. Primary end point was a between-group comparison of change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks. Groups did not differ in age (median, 60 years), sex (19% women), ischemic pathogenesis (59%), or medication. Change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks was not different between HIIT and MCT ( P =0.45); left ventricular end-diastolic diameter changes compared with RRE were -2.8 mm (-5.2 to -0.4 mm; P =0.02) in HIIT and -1.2 mm (-3.6 to 1.2 mm; P =0.34) in MCT. There was also no difference between HIIT and MCT in peak oxygen uptake ( P =0.70), but both were superior to RRE. However, none of these changes was maintained at follow-up after 52 weeks. Serious adverse events were not statistically different during supervised intervention or at follow-up at 52 weeks (HIIT, 39%; MCT, 25%; RRE, 34%; P =0.16). Training records showed that 51% of patients exercised below prescribed target during supervised HIIT and 80% above target in MCT. HIIT was not superior to MCT in changing left ventricular remodeling or aerobic capacity, and its feasibility remains unresolved in patients with heart failure. URL: http

  6. Highly resolved thermal analysis as a tool for soil organic carbon fractionation - methodological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkamp, Felix; Vuong, Xuan; Reimer, Andreas; Jungkunst, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Organic carbon (OC) in environmental samples consists of a continuum of molecules with different chemistry and turnover. Thermal methods provide a useful tool to differentiate OC fractions according to their activation energies. The higher the temperature needed for combustion, the higher the activation energy and the lower the energy-gain for microorganisms in the decomposition process. However, until now there is no method, which is able to quantify organic carbon fractions as well as total, organic and inorganic carbon in one analytical run. Here, we present methodological tests regarding effects of (1) ramp speed (12 vs. 35°C), (2) introduction of temperature plateaus (hold) for better peak separation and (3) sample amount, all of which potentially affecting results of thermal analysis. The used machine is a MCD RC-412 (Leco corporation) with highly resolved IR detection of CO2 (3 times per second) during ramped combustion. Regression analysis of the two ramp speeds showed, that the outcome of anlysis was not affected. The intercept was not significantly different from 0 (0.14 ±3.15, p = 0.961) and the slope not significantly different from 1 (0.996 ±0.0094, p = 0.969). A ramp speed of 35oC min-1 is preferred because of decreased analysis time. Performing analytical runs with and without holds showed again, that the intercept was not significantly different from 0 (-1.40 ± 1.14, p = 0.232) and the slope did not differ significantly from 1 (1.081 ± 0.042, p =0.067). Inclusion of a ramp increases confidence in results due to better peak separation. However, this was only tested for a range of different soils and care should be taken to transfer results to other environmental media and should be tested specifically for soil types not tested, yet. The amount of sample had some effect, especially when using more than 20 mg sample. Thus, sample amount shoulb be kept low, which calls for excellent homogenization of sample material. Overall, the MCD RC-412 with

  7. High-Volume Production of Lightweight Multijunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youtsey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    MicroLink Devices, Inc., has transitioned its 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable of sustaining large-volume production. This Phase II project improves the ELO process by reducing cycle time and increasing the yield of large-area devices. In addition, all critical device fabrication processes have transitioned to 6-inch production tool sets designed for volume production. An emphasis on automated cassette-to-cassette and batch processes minimizes operator dependence and cell performance variability. MicroLink Devices established a pilot production line capable of at least 1,500 6-inch wafers per month at greater than 80 percent yield. The company also increased the yield and manufacturability of the 6-inch reclaim process, which is crucial to reducing the cost of the cells.

  8. The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

  9. In vivo dosimetry of high-dose fractionated irradiation in an experimental set-up with rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortan, L.; Van Hecke, H.; Van Duyse, B.; De Neve, W.; De Meerleer, B. [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde; Pattyn, P.; Van Renthergem, K. [Ghent University (Belgium). Dept. of Surgery

    1995-12-01

    The feasibility to irradiate a limited section of a rat abdomen with well-defined edges was assessed. Because of the relative small volume involved, in vivo dosimetry with TLDs was necessary in providing us information about the accuracy of the irradiation method. Three to five days prior to the start of the radiotherapy treatment, two plastic strips - each containing a TLD-dosimeter (Harshaw TLD10 LiF rods, 1 mm dia x 6 mm) sealed in polyethylene tubing, and a lead bean - were implanted in the rat abdomen. The plastic strips made a closed loop around the bowel, through the mesenterium, and were fixed with a single stitch on the inner abdominal wall. One loop was made in the hepatic area; another was made in the lower abdomen, around the rectosigmoid. Conscious animals were irradiated using a purpose-build plexi-holder, with rear legs immobilised to avoid longitudinal movements. The implanted lead beans enabled us to simulate the rat prior to each radiation session. This way, the radiation field could be set up individually for each rat, in such way that the rectosigmoid area received full dose and the hepatic area received no irradiation dose at all. Irradiation was carried out, using 5 MV photons of a linear accelerator. Fifteen animals per group were irradiated according a conventional (2.0 Gy / fraction; 5 fractions / week) or a hyperfractionated (1.6 Gy / fraction; 2 daily fractions; 5 days / week) schedule, with different total doses. Prior to implantation, TLDs were individually calibrated and checked for stability. After removal from the abdomen . TLDs were tested again for accuracy. TLDs with an unacceptable read-out curve were rejected (about 2 to 4 TLDs per group of 15). The obtained accumulated doses - as determined by TLD read-outs-were comparable to the theoretical doses, indicating that fractionated radiation of small fields, with well defined mark off, in rats is feasible.

  10. Ab initio calculations of Li and B equilibrium isotope fractionation between high -P and -T minerals and aqueous fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, P.; Jahn, S.; Wunder, B.

    2011-12-01

    Stable isotopes are excellent geochemical tracers widely used in petrology. Among them the isotopes of light elements such as Li or B strongly fractionate between minerals and aqueous fluids during fluid-rock interaction processes, which makes them excellent tracers of mass transfer processes in the subduction cycle. In order to use the full power of isotopes tracing methods the isotope fractionation mechanisms and fractionation factors between minerals and fluids of interest must be well known and characterized. One of the most important mechanisms leading to the formation of isotopic signatures is the equilibrium isotope fractionation, which nowadays can be modeled on the atomic scale by modern computational methods. However, due to high computational requirements the current works have been limited to calculations of simple materials only. In order to overcome these limitations we develop an efficient ab initio based computational approach for prediction of the equilibrium isotope fractionation factors between high pressure and temperature materials, including fluids, which would allow for efficient calculations of the isotope fractionation factors of complex minerals and fluids containing even hundreds of atoms in the supercell. We will show our results for the Li and B stable equilibrium isotope fractionation factors between complex Li/B-bearing crystalline solids (staurolite, spodumene, tourmaline, olenite and micas) and aqueous fluids. The fractionation factors were obtained in an efficient way by simplifying the consideration to calculations of the properties of fractionating atoms only. The comparison of the calculated fractionation factors, on the qualitative and quantitative levels, with the existing experimental data show the comparable to the in situ experimental techniques, predictive power of the computations. We show that with the atomistic scale modelling we are able to reproduce correctly the experimental isotope fractionation sequences

  11. A highly purified vegetal fraction able to modulate HMGB1 and to attenuate septic shock in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Natalia Simona; Călugăru, Ana; Kerek, F; Panteli, Minerva; Rasit, I; Cremer, Lidia; Szegli, G; Lupu, Andreea-Roxana

    2011-01-01

    High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is an intracellular protein that may be released actively from monocytes and macrophages or passively from necrotic or damaged cells. Its inhibition in animal experiments, even in the late phase of septic shock, significantly enhanced the survival rate of rodents. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of a vegetal fraction isolated and highly purified from Helleborus purpurascens regarding the modulation of HMGB1 release either from tumor cells or human blood mononuclear cells. Our results showed that the vegetal fraction was able to down-regulate the release of HMGB1 from activated human blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tumor cells. By combining the purified fraction with Cyclophosphamide the release of HMGB1 from tumor cells was strongly decreased. This synergism was not noticed when the ve getal product was associated with Doxorubicin. We also studied the effect of the purified fraction in mice with septic shock induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method. The tested vegetal product increased significantly the survival rate of animals compared to the mice not treated with it. Our data suggest that the purified vegetal fraction may modulate inflammation by down-regulating the HMGB1, which can also explain its efficacy in septic shock in mice.

  12. Results of volume-staged fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery for large complex arteriovenous malformations: obliteration rates and clinical outcomes of an evolving treatment paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzin, Alberto; Panni, Pietro; Spatola, Giorgio; Vecchio, Antonella Del; Gallotti, Alberto L; Gigliotti, Carmen R; Cavalli, Andrea; Donofrio, Carmine A; Mortini, Pietro

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE There are few reported series regarding volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of large, complex, cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The object of this study was to report the results of using volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery for patients affected by large and complex AVMs. METHODS Data from 20 patients with large AVMs were prospectively included in the authors' AVM database between 2004 and 2012. A staging strategy was used when treating lesion volumes larger than 10 cm(3). Hemorrhage and seizures were the presenting clinical feature for 6 (30%) and 8 (40%) patients, respectively. The median AVM volume was 15.9 cm(3) (range 10.1-34.3 cm(3)). The mean interval between stages (± standard deviation) was 15 months (± 9 months). The median margin dose for each stage was 20 Gy (range 18-25 Gy). RESULTS Obliteration was confirmed in 8 (42%) patients after a mean follow-up of 45 months (range 19-87 months). A significant reduction (> 75%) of the original nidal volume was achieved in 4 (20%) patients. Engel Class I-II seizure status was reported by 75% of patients presenting with seizures (50% Engel Class I and 25% Engel Class II) after radiosurgery. After radiosurgery, 71.5% (5/7) of patients who had presented with a worsening neurological deficit reported a complete resolution or amelioration. None of the patients who presented acutely because of hemorrhage experienced a new bleeding episode during follow-up. One (5%) patient developed radionecrosis that caused sensorimotor hemisyndrome. Two (10%) patients sustained a bleeding episode after GKRS, although only 1 (5%) was symptomatic. High nidal flow rate and a time interval between stages of less than 11.7 months were factors significantly associated with AVM obliteration (p = 0.021 and p = 0.041, respectively). Patient age younger than 44 years was significantly associated with a greater than 75% reduction in AVM volume but not with AVM obliteration (p = 0

  13. Risk-adapted single or fractionated stereotactic high-precision radiotherapy in a pooled series of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. High local control and low toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostroem, Jan Patrick [MediClin Robert Janker Clinic and MediClin MVZ Bonn, Department of Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiotherapy, Bonn (Germany); University Hospital of Bonn, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn (Germany); Meyer, Almuth [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Department of Endocrinology, Erfurt (Germany); Pintea, Bogdan [University Hospital of Bonn, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn (Germany); Gerlach, Ruediger [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Department of Neurosurgery, Erfurt (Germany); Surber, Gunnar; Hamm, Klaus [HELIOS Klinikum Erfurt, Department of Radiosurgery, Erfurt (Germany); Lammering, Guido [MediClin Robert Janker Clinic and MediClin MVZ Bonn, Department of Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiotherapy, Bonn (Germany); Heinrich-Heine-University of Duesseldorf, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate a prospectively initiated two-center protocol of risk-adapted single-fraction (SRS) or fractionated radiotherapy (SRT) in patients with nonsecretory pituitary adenomas (NSA). A total of 73 NSA patients (39 men/34 women) with a median age of 62 years were prospectively included in a treatment protocol of SRS [planning target volume (PTV) < 4 ccm, > 2 mm to optic pathways = low risk] or SRT (PTV ≥ 4 ccm, ≤ 2 mm to optic pathways = high risk) in two Novalis registered centers. Mean tumor volume was 7.02 ccm (range 0.58-57.29 ccm). Based on the protocol guidelines, 5 patients were treated with SRS and 68 patients with SRT. Median follow-up (FU) reached 5 years with 5-year overall survival (OS) of 90.4 % (CI 80.2-95 %) and 5-year local control and progression-free survival rates of 100 % (CI 93.3-100 %) and 90.4 % (CI 80.2-95 %), respectively. A post-SRS/SRT new visual disorder occurred in 2 patients (2.7 %), a new oculomotor nerve palsy in one pre-irradiated patient, in 3 patients (4.1 %) a pre-existing visual disorder improved. New complete hypopituitarism occurred in 4 patients (13.8 %) and in 3 patients (25 %) with pre-existing partial hypopituitarism. Pituitary function in 26 % of patients retained normal. Patients with tumor shrinkage (65.75 %) had a significantly longer FU (p = 0.0093). Multivariate analysis confirmed correlation of new hypopituitarism with duration of FU (p = 0.008) and correlation of new hypopituitarism and tumor volume (p = 0.023). No significant influence factors for occurrence of visual disorders were found. Our SRS/SRT protocol proved to be safe and successful in terms of tumor control and protection of the visual system, especially for large tumors located close to optic pathways. (orig.) [German] Evaluation eines prospektiv angelegten Behandlungsprotokolls einer risikoadaptierten Radiochirurgie (SRS) oder stereotaktischen Radiotherapie (SRT) von Patienten mit hormoninaktiven Hypophysenadenomen

  14. Going the Extra Mile: Improved Survival for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Traveling to High-volume Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidsky, Michael E; Sun, Zhifei; Nussbaum, Daniel P; Adam, Mohamed A; Speicher, Paul J; Blazer, Dan G

    2017-08-01

    This study compares outcomes following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for patients treated at local, low-volume centers and those traveling to high-volume centers. Although outcomes for PD are superior at high-volume institutions, not all patients live in proximity to major medical centers. Theoretical advantages for undergoing surgery locally exist. The 1998 to 2012 National Cancer Data Base was queried for T1-3N0-1M0 pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent PD. Travel distances to treatment centers were calculated. Overlaying the upper and lower quartiles of travel distance with institutional volume established short travel/low-volume (ST/LV) and long travel/high-volume (LT/HV) cohorts. Overall survival was evaluated. Of 7086 patients, 773 ST/LV patients traveled ≤6.3 (median 3.2) miles to centers performing ≤3.3 PDs yearly, and 758 LT/HV patients traveled ≥45 (median 97.3) miles to centers performing ≥16 PDs yearly. LT/HV patients had higher stage disease (P travel to a high-volume center remained associated with reduced long-term mortality (hazard ratio 0.75, P travel burden, patients treated at high-volume centers had improved perioperative outcomes, short-term mortality, and overall survival. These data support ongoing efforts to centralize care for patients undergoing PD.

  15. Blood Volume, Plasma Volume and Circulation Time in a High-Energy-Demand Teleost, the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacares)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brill, R.W.; Cousins, K.L.; Jones, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    We measured red cell space with 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, and dextran space with 500 kDa fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran), in two groups of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Red cell space was 13.8+/-0.7 ml kg-1 (mean +/- s.e.m.) Assuming a whole- body hematocrit...... that the volume of the secondary circulatory system of yellowfin tuna is small, and its exact volume is not measurable by our methods. Although blood volume is not exceptional, circulation time (blood volume/cardiac output) is clearly shorter in yellowfin tuna than in other active teleosts. In a 1 kg yellowfin...... tuna, circulation time is approximately 0.4 min (47 ml kg-1/115 ml min-1 kg- 1) compared with 1.3 min (46 ml kg-1/35 ml min-1 kg-1) in yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) and 1.9 min (35 ml kg-1/18 ml min-1 kg-1) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In air-breathing vertebrates, high metabolic rates...

  16. Antiedematogenic and antioxidant properties of high molecular weight protein sub-fraction of Calotropis procera latex in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; de Araújo Viana, Carolina; Ramos, Marcio V; Kumar, Vijay L

    2015-03-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of high molecular weight protein fraction of Calotropis procera latex on edema formation and oxidative stress in carrageenan-induced paw inflammation. A sub-plantar injection of carrageenan was given to induce edema in the hind paw of the rat. The inhibitory effect of high molecular weight protein fraction of C. procera latex was evaluated following intravenous administration (5 and 25 mg/kg body weight) and was compared with that of diclofenac given orally (5 mg/kg). The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the inflamed paw tissue at the end of the study. The high molecular weight protein fraction obtained from the latex of C. procera produced a dose-dependent inhibition of edema formation that was accompanied by normalization of levels of oxidative stress markers (GSH and TBARS) and MPO, a marker for neutrophils in the paw tissue. The high molecular weight protein fraction of C. procera latex ameliorates acute inflammation in the paw through its antioxidant effect.

  17. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the functional and rheological properties of the protein fraction extracted from pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Baiying; Fang, Li; Liu, Chunlei; Min, Weihong; Liu, Jingsheng

    2017-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure treatments could increase the protein solubility (200 MPa), water holding capacity (400 MPa), and oil holding capacity (400 MPa) of pine nuts protein fractions, respectively. The exposed sufhydryl content for albumin was highest at 100 MPa while for other fractions it was 400 MPa, contrary for total sufhydryl content-generally it was at 100 MPa, except glutelin (400 MPa). Pine nuts protein fractions demonstrated the typical behavior of weak gels (G' > G″). After the treatments of high hydrostatic pressure the specific surface area of pine nuts protein particle was increased upon pressure, and the surface of protein became rough which increased the particle size. The functional groups of protein were found to be unchanged, but the characteristic peaks of pine nuts protein moved to a low-band displacement and the value of peaks was amplified accordingly to the pressure. The high hydrostatic pressure treatments were found to improve the functional properties of pine nuts protein isolates by enhancing the heat-induced gel strength of pine nuts protein isolates which make proteins more stretchable. These results suggest that high hydrostatic pressure treatments can increase the functional properties and alter the rheological properties of pine nuts protein fractions which will broaden its applications in food industry.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and thiotepa in a conventional fractionated high-dose regimen compared with a novel simplified unfractionated regimen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekhart, Corine; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Beijnen, Jos H.; Huitema, Alwin D. R.

    2009-01-01

    High-dose alkylating chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide (4000 or 6000 mg/m2) and thiotepa (320 or 480 mg/m2) has commonly been administered in a fractionated regimen over 4 days. A simplified unfractionated regimen would be preferable, especially because cyclophosphamide and thiotepa have been shown

  19. Myocardial fibrosis imaging based on T1-mapping and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) measurement in muscular dystrophy patients: diagnostic value compared with conventional late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Anca; Ludwig, Anna; Rösch, Sabine; Yildiz, Handan; Sechtem, Udo; Yilmaz, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Cardiac involvement with progressive myocardial fibrosis leading to dilated cardiomyopathy is a major cause of death in muscular dystrophy patients. Extracellular volume fraction (ECV) measurement based on T1-mapping pre- and post-contrast promises the detection of early 'diffuse' myocardial fibrosis that cannot be depicted by conventional contrast-imaging based on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). With this study, we evaluated the presence of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in regions of 'normal' (LGE-negative) and 'diseased' (LGE-positive) appearing myocardium as well as its relation to the extent of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and the occurrence of arrhythmias in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) patients. Twenty-seven BMD patients (35 ± 12 years) and 17 matched male healthy controls (33 ± 8 years) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) studies including ECV measurement and LGE-imaging. Ambulatory monitoring of arrhythmic events was performed by means of an external event loop recorder. Twenty BMD patients (74%) demonstrated cardiac involvement as detected by typical inferolateral presence of LGE. Twelve patients (44%) had an impaired LV ejection fraction-all being LGE-positive. Global myocardial ECV was significantly higher in the BMD group (29 ± 6%) compared with the control group (24 ± 2%, P = 0.001). Patients with cardiac involvement demonstrated higher global ECV (31 ± 6%) as well as significantly increased regional ECV not only in LGE-positive segments (34 ± 6%), but also in LGE-negative segments (28 ± 6%) compared with BMD patients without cardiac involvement and to controls, respectively (24 ± 3 and 24 ± 2%, P = 0.005). Global ECV in patients with cardiac involvement substantially correlated to LV ejection fraction (r = -0.629, P = 0.003) and to the number of LGE-positive segments (r = 0.783, P ECV-but not the categorical presence of LGE per se--was significantly associated with arrhythmic events (OR: 1.97, CI: 32.22-1.21, P = 0

  20. Myocardial Fibrosis Quantified by Extracellular Volume Is Associated With Subsequent Hospitalization for Heart Failure, Death, or Both Across the Spectrum of Ejection Fraction and Heart Failure Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelbert, Erik B; Piehler, Kayla M; Zareba, Karolina M; Moon, James C; Ugander, Martin; Messroghli, Daniel R; Valeti, Uma S; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Diez, Javier; Miller, Christopher A; Schmitt, Matthias; Kellman, Peter; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Wong, Timothy C

    2015-12-18

    Myocardial fibrosis (MF) in noninfarcted myocardium may be an interstitial disease pathway that confers vulnerability to hospitalization for heart failure, death, or both across the spectrum of heart failure and ejection fraction. Hospitalization for heart failure is an epidemic that is difficult to predict and prevent and requires potential therapeutic targets associated with outcomes. We quantified MF with cardiovascular magnetic resonance extracellular volume fraction (ECV) measures in 1172 consecutive patients without amyloidosis or hypertrophic or stress cardiomyopathy and assessed associations with outcomes using Cox regression. ECV ranged from 16.6% to 47.8%. Over a median of 1.7 years, 111 patients experienced events after cardiovascular magnetic resonance, 55 had hospitalization for heart failure events, and there were 74 deaths. ECV was more strongly associated with outcomes than "nonischemic" MF observed with late gadolinium enhancement, thus ECV quantified MF in multivariable models. Adjusting for age, sex, renal function, myocardial infarction size, ejection fraction, hospitalization status, and heart failure stage, higher ECV was associated with hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio 1.77; 95% CI 1.32 to 2.36 for every 5% increase in ECV), death (hazard ratio 1.87 95% CI 1.45 to 2.40) or both (hazard ratio 1.85, 95% CI 1.50 to 2.27). ECV improved classification of persons at risk and improved model discrimination for outcomes (eg, hospitalization for heart failure: continuous net reclassification improvement 0.33, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.66; P=0.02; 0.16, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.33; P=0.02; integrated discrimination improvement 0.037, 95% CI 0.008 to 0.073; Pheart failure, death, or both. MF may represent a principal phenotype of cardiac vulnerability that improves risk stratification. Because MF can be reversible, cells and enzymes regulating collagen could be potential therapeutic targets. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  1. High-speed volume measurement system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Michael H.; Doyle, Jr., James L.; Brinkman, Michael J.

    2017-12-12

    Disclosed is a volume sensor having first, second, and third laser sources emitting first, second, and third laser beams; first, second, and third beam splitters splitting the first, second, and third laser beams into first, second, and third beam pairs; first, second, and third optical assemblies expanding the first, second, and third beam pairs into first, second, and third pairs of parallel beam sheets; fourth, fifth, and sixth optical assemblies focusing the first, second, and third beam sheet pairs into fourth, fifth, and sixth beam pairs; and first, second, and third detector pairs receiving the fourth, fifth, and sixth beam pairs and converting a change in intensity of at least one of the beam pairs resulting from an object passing through at least one of the first, second, and third parallel beam sheets into at least one electrical signal proportional to a three-dimensional representation of the object.

  2. Achieving high convection volumes in postdilution online hemodiafiltration : a prospective multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roij van Zuijdewijn, Camiel L M; Chapdelaine, Isabelle; Nubé, Menso J.; Blankestijn, Peter J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086704850; Bots, Michiel L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110610032; Konings, Constantijn J A M; Kremer Hovinga, Ton K; Molenaar, Femke M; van der Weerd, Neelke C.; Grooteman, Muriel P C

    2017-01-01

    Background. Available evidence suggests a reduced mortality risk for patients treated with high-volume postdilution hemodiafiltration (HDF) when compared with hemodialysis (HD) patients. As the magnitude of the convection volume depends on treatment-related factors rather than patient-related

  3. A New Route for Evaluating Short Chain Branching Distribution of High Density Polyethylene by Measuring Crystallizability of Molar Mass Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres KRUMME

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A bimodal high density polyethylene (HDPE has been successfully fractionated by analytical size exclusion chromatography into molar mass fractions with Mw's ranging from 3.6 kg/mol to 8 000 kg/mol, and subsequently deposited on germanium disks using the Lab Connections Transform method. After removal of the fractions from the disks, having masses in between 10 µg - 150 µg, differential scanning calorimetry has been successful in measuring the (recrystallization and melting behavior of these fractions. Comparing the crystallization and melting peak temperatures of the fractions with those of narrow molar mass linear polyethylenes points to the HDPE being linear below and short chain branched above 100 kg/mol respectively. This value coincides roughly with the 'split' between the molar mass distributions resulting from the first and the second polymerization reactor - confirming the addition of 1-butene in the second reactor.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.590

  4. A new model for volume recombination in plane-parallel chambers in pulsed fields of high dose-per-pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotz, M.; Karsch, L.; Pawelke, J.

    2017-11-01

    In order to describe the volume recombination in a pulsed radiation field of high dose-per-pulse this study presents a numerical solution of a 1D transport model of the liberated charges in a plane-parallel ionization chamber. In addition, measurements were performed on an Advanced Markus ionization chamber in a pulsed electron beam to obtain suitable data to test the calculation. The experiment used radiation pulses of 4 μs duration and variable dose-per-pulse values up to about 1 Gy, as well as pulses of variable duration up to 308 μs at constant dose-per-pulse values between 85 mGy and 400 mGy. Those experimental data were compared to the developed numerical model and existing descriptions of volume recombination. At low collection voltages the observed dose-per-pulse dependence of volume recombination can be approximated by the existing theory using effective parameters. However, at high collection voltages large discrepancies are observed. The developed numerical model shows much better agreement with the observations and is able to replicate the observed behavior over the entire range of dose-per-pulse values and collection voltages. Using the developed numerical model, the differences between observation and existing theory are shown to be the result of a large fraction of the charge being collected as free electrons and the resultant distortion of the electric field inside the chamber. Furthermore, the numerical solution is able to calculate recombination losses for arbitrary pulse durations in good agreement with the experimental data, an aspect not covered by current theory. Overall, the presented numerical solution of the charge transport model should provide a more flexible tool to describe volume recombination for high dose-per-pulse values as well as for arbitrary pulse durations and repetition rates.

  5. High-performance fractional order terminal sliding mode control strategy for DC-DC Buck converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlin; Xu, Dan; Zhou, Huan; Bai, Anning; Lu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an adaption of the fractional order terminal sliding mode control (AFTSMC) strategy for DC-DC Buck converter. The following strategy aims to design a novel nonlinear sliding surface function, with a double closed-loop structure of voltage and current. This strategy is a fusion of two characteristics: terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) and fractional order calculation (FOC). In addition, the influence of "the controller parameters" on the "performance of double closed-loop system" is investigated. It is observed that the value of terminal power has to be chosen to make a compromise between start-up and transient response of the converter. Therefore the AFTSMC strategy chooses the value of the terminal power adaptively, and this strategy can lead to the appropriate number of fractional order as well. Furthermore, through the fractional order analysis, the system can reach the sliding mode surface in a finite time. And the theoretical considerations are verified by numerical simulation. The performance of the AFTSMC and TSMC strategies is tested by computer simulations. And the comparison simulation results show that the AFTSMC exhibits a considerable improvement in terms of a faster output voltage response during load changes. Moreover, AFTSMC obtains a faster dynamical response, smaller steady-state error rate and lower overshoot.

  6. High-performance fractional order terminal sliding mode control strategy for DC-DC Buck converter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlin Wang

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaption of the fractional order terminal sliding mode control (AFTSMC strategy for DC-DC Buck converter. The following strategy aims to design a novel nonlinear sliding surface function, with a double closed-loop structure of voltage and current. This strategy is a fusion of two characteristics: terminal sliding mode control (TSMC and fractional order calculation (FOC. In addition, the influence of "the controller parameters" on the "performance of double closed-loop system" is investigated. It is observed that the value of terminal power has to be chosen to make a compromise between start-up and transient response of the converter. Therefore the AFTSMC strategy chooses the value of the terminal power adaptively, and this strategy can lead to the appropriate number of fractional order as well. Furthermore, through the fractional order analysis, the system can reach the sliding mode surface in a finite time. And the theoretical considerations are verified by numerical simulation. The performance of the AFTSMC and TSMC strategies is tested by computer simulations. And the comparison simulation results show that the AFTSMC exhibits a considerable improvement in terms of a faster output voltage response during load changes. Moreover, AFTSMC obtains a faster dynamical response, smaller steady-state error rate and lower overshoot.

  7. Contrast-enhanced T1 mapping-based extracellular volume fraction independently predicts clinical outcome in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy: a prospective cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Jong-Chan [Hallym University College of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Han, Kyunghwa; Suh, Young Joo; Hur, Jin; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Kang, Seok-Min [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR)-based extracellular volume fraction (ECV) in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and compare it with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) parameters. This was a single-center, prospective, cohort study of 117 NIDCM patients (71 men, 51.9 ± 16.7 years) who underwent clinical 3.0-T CMR. Myocardial ECV and LGE were quantified on the left ventricular myocardium. The presence of midwall LGE was also detected. Nineteen healthy subjects served as controls. The primary end points were cardiovascular (CV) events defined by CV death, rehospitalization due to heart failure, and heart transplantation. During the follow-up period (median duration, 11.2 months; 25{sup th}-75{sup th} percentile, 7.8-21.9 months), the primary end points occurred in 19 patients (16.2%). The ECV (per 3% and 1% increase) was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.80 and 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-2.20 and 1.14-1.30, respectively; p < 0.001) for the CV events. Multivariable analysis also indicated that ECV was an independent prognostic factor and had a higher prognostic value (Harrell's c statistic, 0.88) than LGE quantification values (0.77) or midwall LGE (0.80). CMR-based ECV independently predicts the clinical outcome in NIDCM patients. (orig.)

  8. Assessment of pulmonary vascular reactivity to oxygen using fractional moving blood volume in fetuses with normal lung development and pulmonary hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKoninck, Philip; Jimenez, Julio; Russo, Francesca M; Hodges, Ryan; Gratacós, Eduard; Deprest, Jan

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate whether assessment pulmonary vascular reactivity in response to maternal hyperoxygenation using fractional moving blood volume (FMBV) is associated with lesser variability between individual measurements than what is observed with direct Doppler measurements. Forty-five measurements were performed in 15 singleton fetuses with normal lung development at three time points in the latter half of pregnancy (range: 25.9-36.7 weeks). We further evaluated five fetuses with severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Lung perfusion was assessed using power Doppler ultrasound, and images were stored for offline FMBV calculation, both at base line and during oxygen administration (9 L/min for 10 min). The proportionate difference between both measurements is further referred to as deltaFMBV. Overall, 91% of images were of sufficient quality for further analysis. There was no correlation between pulmonary reactivity to oxygen (deltaFMBV) and gestational age in controls (12.9 ± 32.1%). Moreover, deltaFMBV showed large variability between subjects, as well as within the same fetus throughout gestation. We observed good intraobserver (0.88; 0.84) and interobserver (0.88; 0.77) reproducibility for both controls and congenital diaphragmatic hernia, respectively (intraclass correlation coefficients). Despite being a reproducible method to study the lung vasculature, the large variability of FMBV following hyperoxygenation limits its clinical translation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Performance of a hydrogen burner to simulate air entering scramjet combustors. [simulation of total temperature, total pressure, and volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russin, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the performance of a hydrogen burner used to produce a test gas that simulates air entering a scramjet combustor at various flight conditions. The test gas simulates air in that it duplicates the total temperature, total pressure, and the volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions. The main objective of the tests was to determine the performance of the burner as a function of the effective exhaust port area. The conclusions were: (1) pressure oscillations of the chugging type were reduced in amplitude to plus or minus 2 percent of the mean pressure level by proper sizing of hydrogen, oxygen, and air injector flow areas; (2) combustion efficiency remained essentially constant as the exhaust port area was increased by a factor of 3.4; (3) the mean total temperature determined from integrating the exit radial gas property profiles was within plus or minus 5 percent of the theoretical bulk total temperature; (4) the measured exit total temperature profile had a local peak temperature more than 30 percent greater than the theoretical bulk total temperature; and (5) measured heat transfer to the burner liner was 75 percent of that predicted by theory based on a flat radial temperature profile.

  10. Significantly enhanced creep resistance of low volume fraction in-situ TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites by architectured network reinforcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Huang, L J; Geng, L; Scarpa, F; Jiao, Y; Peng, H X

    2017-01-17

    We present a new class of TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites with a network reinforcement architecture that exhibits a significant creep resistance compared to monolithic Ti6Al4V alloys. Creep tests performed at temperatures between 773 K and 923 K and stress range of 100 MPa-300 MPa indicate both a significant improvement of the composites creep resistance due to the network architecture made by the TiB whiskers (TiBw), and a decrease of the steady-state creep rates by augmenting the local volume fractions of TiBw in the network region. The deformation behavior is driven by a diffusion-controlled dislocation climb process. Moreover, the activation energies of these composites are significantly higher than that of Ti6Al4V alloys, indicating a higher creep resistance. The increase of the activation energy can be attributed to the TiBw architecture that severely impedes the movements of dislocation and grain boundary sliding and provides a tailoring of the stress transfer. These micromechanical mechanisms lead to a remarkable improvement of the creep resistance of these networked TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites featuring the special networked architecture.

  11. Significantly enhanced creep resistance of low volume fraction in-situ TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites by architectured network reinforcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Huang, L. J.; Geng, L.; Scarpa, F.; Jiao, Y.; Peng, H. X.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new class of TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites with a network reinforcement architecture that exhibits a significant creep resistance compared to monolithic Ti6Al4V alloys. Creep tests performed at temperatures between 773 K and 923 K and stress range of 100 MPa-300 MPa indicate both a significant improvement of the composites creep resistance due to the network architecture made by the TiB whiskers (TiBw), and a decrease of the steady-state creep rates by augmenting the local volume fractions of TiBw in the network region. The deformation behavior is driven by a diffusion-controlled dislocation climb process. Moreover, the activation energies of these composites are significantly higher than that of Ti6Al4V alloys, indicating a higher creep resistance. The increase of the activation energy can be attributed to the TiBw architecture that severely impedes the movements of dislocation and grain boundary sliding and provides a tailoring of the stress transfer. These micromechanical mechanisms lead to a remarkable improvement of the creep resistance of these networked TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites featuring the special networked architecture.

  12. Simultaneous changes in gray matter volume and white matter fractional anisotropy in Alzheimer's disease revealed by multimodal CCA and joint ICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, X; Chen, K; Yao, L; Hu, B; Wu, X; Ye, Q; Guo, X

    2015-08-20

    The prominent morphometric alterations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) occur both in gray matter and in white matter. Multimodal fusion can examine joint information by combining multiple neuroimaging datasets to identify the covariant morphometric alterations in AD in greater detail. In the current study, we conducted a multimodal canonical correlation analysis and joint independent component analysis to identify the covariance patterns of the gray and white matter by fusing structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data of 39 AD patients (23 males and 16 females, mean age: 74.91±8.13years) and 41 normal controls (NCs) (20 males and 21 females, mean age: 73.97±6.34years) derived from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. The results revealed 25 joint independent components (ICs), of which three joint ICs exhibited strong links between the gray matter volume and the white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) and significant differences between the AD and NC group. The joint IC maps revealed that the simultaneous changes in the gray matter and FA values primarily involved the following areas: (1) the temporal lobe/hippocampus-cingulum, (2) the frontal/cingulate gyrus-corpus callosum, and (3) the temporal/occipital/parietal lobe-corpus callosum/corona radiata. Our findings suggest that gray matter atrophy is associated with reduced white matter fiber integrity in AD and possibly expand the understanding of the neuropathological mechanisms in AD. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved Short-Term Outcomes following Orthognathic Surgery Are Associated with High-Volume Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Nicholas L; Tuggle, Charles T; Steinbacher, Derek M

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies assessing outcomes following orthognathic surgery rely primarily on single-center/surgeon experience. In addition to issues of generalizability, these studies are limited in evaluating the effect of operative volume on patient outcomes. Orthognathic procedures were identified in the 1999 to 2011 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Outcomes included occurrence of any in-hospital complication, extended length of stay (>2 days), and increased costs (>$10,784). High-volume hospitals were defined as the 90th percentile of case volume or higher (>31 cases/year). Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify independent predictors of outcomes. Trend analyses were performed to assess changes in the annual rate of patients treated at high-volume hospitals over the study period. Among 101,692 orthognathic surgery patients, 19.6 percent underwent concurrent ancillary procedures (i.e., genioplasty, rhinoplasty, or septoplasty), and 37.6 percent underwent double-jaw surgery. Fifty-three percent were treated at high-volume hospitals. High-volume hospitals more often performed ancillary procedures (21.4 percent versus 17.4 percent; p surgery (41.3 percent versus 33.4 percent; p orthognathic cases nationwide are performed at a small number of high-volume hospitals. These hospitals discharge patients earlier, perform more complex procedures, and have fewer complications. Risk, III.

  14. Assessment Alternatives for a High Skill MOS. Volume I. Problem Procedures and Results. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Edward W.; And Others

    The development and evaluation of prototype hands-on equipment, job sample performance tests for a high skilled technical Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) are described. An electronic maintenance MOS (26C20) was used as the research vehicle. The results led to the conclusion that valid and reliable performance tests could be constructed, but…

  15. Pulse electric current sintering of cubic boron nitride/tungsten carbide–cobalt (cBN/WC–Co) composites: Effect of cBN particle size and volume fraction on their microstructure and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo, E-mail: xiaoboking@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xianning West Road No. 28, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi Province (China); State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xianning West Road No. 28, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi Province (China); Qin, Yi [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xianning West Road No. 28, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi Province (China); Jin, Feng [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xianning West Road No. 28, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi Province (China); Yang, Jian-Feng, E-mail: yang155@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xianning West Road No. 28, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi Province (China); Ishizaki, Kozo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Cubic boron nitride/tungsten carbide–cobalt (cBN/WC–Co) composites were fabricated by pulse electric current sintering (PECS), using Ni–P as sintering additives to promote low temperature densification. The effect of cBN particle size and volume fraction on the densification, microstructure and mechanical properties of WC–Co composites was investigated. There was no phase transformation from cBN to hBN (hexagonal BN) with low-hardness due to low sintering temperature (1100–1200 °C) and short sintering time. Smaller cBN particle led to lower sinter-ability of the composites due to its high specific surface area. The 30 vol% 10–14 µm cBN/WC–Co composite (P14V30) exhibited high hardness (18.3 GPa, 1200 °C) and high fracture toughness (15.6 MP·m{sup 1/2}, 1000 °C). The high hardness resulted from the homogeneously dispersed cBN particles, which had a good bonding with the WC matrix. Increased fracture toughness was mainly attributed to crack deflection or bridging and pullout of cBN grains.

  16. The Oxford unicompartmental knee fails at a high rate in a high-volume knee practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, William C; Barnes, C Lowry; Diesfeld, Paul; LeMarr, Angela; Ingrassia, Rachel; Morton, Diane J; Reedy, Mary

    2013-11-01

    The Oxford knee is a unicompartmental implant featuring a mobile-bearing polyethylene component with excellent long-term survivorship results reported by the implant developers and early adopters. By contrast, other studies have reported higher revision rates in large academic practices and in national registries. Registry data have shown increased failure with this implant especially by lower-volume surgeons and institutions. In the setting of a high-volume knee arthroplasty practice, we sought to determine (1) the failure rate of the Oxford unicompartmental knee implant using a failure definition for aseptic loosening that combined clinical features, plain radiographs, and scintigraphy, and (2) whether increased experience with this implant would decrease failure rate, if there is a learning curve effect. Eighty-three Oxford knee prostheses were implanted between September 2005 and July 2008 by the principal investigator. Radiographic and clinical data were available for review for all cases. A failed knee was defined as having recurrent pain after an earlier period of recovery from surgery, progressive radiolucent lines compared with initial postoperative radiographs, and a bone scan showing an isolated area of uptake limited to the area of the replaced compartment. Eleven knees in this series failed (13%); Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 86.5% (95% CI, 78.0%-95.0%) at 5 years. Failure occurrences were distributed evenly over the course of the study period. No learning curve effect was identified. Based on these findings, including a high failure rate of the Oxford knee implant and the absence of any discernible learning curve effect, the principal investigator no longer uses this implant.

  17. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisenkov, V.S.; Kiyko, V.V.; Vdovin, G.V.

    2015-01-01

    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface

  18. The Praeger Handbook of American High Schools. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; Cahill, Spencer E., Ed.; Cotner, Bridget A., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The Praeger Handbook of American High Schools contains entries that explore the topic of secondary schools in the United States. Entries are arranged alphabetically and cover topics as varied as assessment to the history of the American high school, from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to gay and straight student alliances, from the No…

  19. Miniaturized, High Flow, Low Dead Volume Preconcentrator for Trace Contaminants in Water under Microgravity Conditions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. has demonstrated feasibility in Phase I and now proposes a Phase II effort to develop a miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume...

  20. High Resolving Power Volume Diffractive Gratings for 400-2700 nm Spectral Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main purpose of this NASA SBIR Phase II proposal is development of a novel type of high resolving power diffraction gratings based on volume Bragg gratings...

  1. High Resolving Power Volume Diffractive Gratings for 400-2700 nm Spectral Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this NASA SBIR Phase I proposal is to develop a novel type of high resolving power diffraction gratings based on volume Bragg gratings technology. The...

  2. Proceedings of the 1984 workshop on high-energy excitations in condensed matter. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.N. (comp.)

    1984-12-01

    This volume covers electronic excitations, momentum distributions, high energy photons, and a wrap-up session. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  3. Functionality and Performance Visualization of the Distributed High Quality Volume Renderer (HVR)

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2012-07-01

    Volume rendering systems are designed to provide means to enable scientists and a variety of experts to interactively explore volume data through 3D views of the volume. However, volume rendering techniques are computationally intensive tasks. Moreover, parallel distributed volume rendering systems and multi-threading architectures were suggested as natural solutions to provide an acceptable volume rendering performance for very large volume data sizes, such as Electron Microscopy data (EM). This in turn adds another level of complexity when developing and manipulating volume rendering systems. Given that distributed parallel volume rendering systems are among the most complex systems to develop, trace and debug, it is obvious that traditional debugging tools do not provide enough support. As a consequence, there is a great demand to provide tools that are able to facilitate the manipulation of such systems. This can be achieved by utilizing the power of compute graphics in designing visual representations that reflect how the system works and that visualize the current performance state of the system.The work presented is categorized within the field of software Visualization, where Visualization is used to serve visualizing and understanding various software. In this thesis, a number of visual representations that reflect a number of functionality and performance aspects of the distributed HVR, a high quality volume renderer system that uses various techniques to visualize large volume sizes interactively. This work is provided to visualize different stages of the parallel volume rendering pipeline of HVR. This is along with means of performance analysis through a number of flexible and dynamic visualizations that reflect the current state of the system and enables manipulation of them at runtime. Those visualization are aimed to facilitate debugging, understanding and analyzing the distributed HVR.

  4. High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation: Pneumotachograph Validation and Tidal Volume Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    percussive ventilation (HFPV) is an increasingly used mode of mechanical ventilation , for which there is no proven real-time means of measuring delivered... mechanical ventilation ; tidal volume; VT; pneumotachography. [Respir Care 2010;55(6):734–740] Introduction Clinical application of high-frequency percussive...conventional mechanical ventilation (Fig. 1). How- ever, neither the low-frequency nor the high-frequency volumes administered by HFPV are measured by the

  5. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.

  6. Continued Fractions for e

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 1. Continued Fractions for e. Shailesh A Shirali. General Article Volume 5 Issue 1 January 2000 pp 14-28. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/01/0014-0028. Author Affiliations.

  7. Fraction of high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions attributable to genotypes targeted by a nonavalent HPV vaccine in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, S; Iñarrea, A; Pérez-Tanoira, R; Gil, M; López-Díez, E; Valenzuela, O; Porto, M; Alberte-Lista, L; Peteiro-Cancelo, M A; Treinta, A; Carballo, R; Reboredo, M C; Alvarez-Argüelles, M E; Purriños, M J

    2017-11-06

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines have been widely implemented in worldwide organized immunization programs. A nonavalent HPV vaccine is now available in several countries. The objective was to describe the fraction of squamous non-invasive high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions attributable to genotypes targeted by bi-quadrivalent vaccines and by nonavalent vaccine according to age and diagnosis in women living in the city of Vigo (Galicia, Spain). Cervical scrapings (2009-2014) of women with histological diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2, n = 145) and grade 3-carcinoma in situ (CIN3-CIS, n = 244) were tested with Linear Array HPV Genotyping test (Roche diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). Hierarchical estimation of the fraction attributable to HPV 16/18 or HPV 31/33/45/52/58 detected alone or in combination was calculated. Absolute additional fraction attributable to genotypes targeted by nonavalent vaccine compared to genotypes targeted by bi-quadrivalent vaccines was calculated as the increment of attributable cases with respect to all studied cases. Age group 1, 2 and 3 included women 18 to 34, 35-44 and ≥45 years old, respectively. EPIDAT 3.1 was used. Fraction attributable to genotypes targeted by bi-quadrivalent vaccines was 59% CIN2 vs. 69% CIN3-CIS (p < 0.001). It was 63/51/50% of CIN2 and 78/66/45% of CIN3-CIS in age group 1, 2, 3, respectively. Fraction attributable to genotypes targeted by nonavalent vaccine was 86% CIN2 and 86% CIN3-CIS. It was 87/91/75% of CIN2 and 90/86/76% of CIN3-CIS in age group 1, 2, 3, respectively. Fraction attributable to genotypes targeted by these vaccines tended to decrease as age increased (p-trend <0.05). Globally, absolute additional attributable fraction was 16%, 26% and 29% in age group 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.005). Absolute additional fraction of CIN2 and CIN3-CIS attributable to genotypes targeted by nonavalent vaccine was observed in women

  8. Synthetic hematocrit derived from the longitudinal relaxation of blood can lead to clinically significant errors in measurement of extracellular volume fraction in pediatric and young adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucci, Frank J; Parra, David A; Christensen, Jason T; Hernandez, Lazaro E; Markham, Larry W; Xu, Meng; Slaughter, James C; Soslow, Jonathan H

    2017-08-02

    Extracellular volume fraction (ECV) is altered in pathological cardiac remodeling and predicts death and arrhythmia. ECV can be quantified using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping but calculation requires a measured hematocrit (Hct). The longitudinal relaxation of blood has been used in adults to generate a synthetic Hct (estimate of true Hct) but has not been validated in pediatric populations. One hundred fourteen children and young adults underwent a total of 163 CMRs with T1 mapping. The majority of subjects had a measured Hct the same day (N = 146). Native and post-contrast T1 were determined in blood pool, septum, and free wall of mid-LV, avoiding areas of late gadolinium enhancement. Synthetic Hct and ECV were calculated and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and linear regression were used to compare measured and synthetic values. The mean age was 16.4 ± 6.4 years and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 59% ± 9%. The mean measured Hct was 41.8 ± 3.0% compared to the mean synthetic Hct of 43.2% ± 2.9% (p ECV was 30.5% ± 4.8% and mean synthetic mid-free wall ECV of local model was 29.7% ± 4.6% (p ECV ranged from -8.4% to 4.3% in the septum and -12.6% to 15.8% in the free wall. Using our laboratory's normal cut-off of 28.5%, 59 patients (37%) were miscategorized (53 false negatives, 6 false positives) with published model ECV. The local model had 37 miscategorizations (20 false negatives, 17 false positives), significantly fewer but still a substantial number (23%). Our data suggest that use of synthetic Hct for the calculation of ECV results in miscategorization of individual patients. This difference may be less significant once synthetic ECV is calculated and averaged over a large research cohort, making it potentially useful as a research tool. However, we recommend formal measurement of Hct in children and young adults for clinical CMRs.

  9. Assessment of changes in vascularity and blood volume in canine sarcomas and squamous cell carcinomas during fractionated radiation therapy using quantified contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlerth, Stefanie; Bley, Carla Rohrer; Laluhová, Dagmar; Roos, Malgorzata; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Radiation therapy does not only target tumour cells but also affects tumour vascularity. In the present study, changes in tumour vascularity and blood volume were investigated in five grade 1 oral fibrosarcomas, eight other sarcomas (non-oral soft tissue and bone sarcomas) and 12 squamous cell carcinomas in dogs during fractionated radiation therapy (total dose, 45-56 Gy). Contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasound was performed before fraction 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 15 or 16 (sarcomas) or 17 (squamous cell carcinomas). Prior to treatment, median vascularity and blood volume were significantly higher in squamous cell carcinomas (P=0.0005 and 0.001), whereas measurements did not differ between oral fibrosarcomas and other sarcomas (P=0.88 and 0.999). During the course of radiation therapy, only small, non-significant changes in vascularity and blood volume were observed in all three tumour histology groups (P=0.08 and P=0.213), whereas median tumour volume significantly decreased until the end of treatment (P=0.04 for fibrosarcomas and other sarcomas, P=0.008 for squamous cell carcinomas). It appeared that there was a proportional decrease in tumour volume, vascularity and blood volume. Doppler measurements did not predict progression free interval or survival in any of the three tumour groups (P=0.06-0.86). However, the number of tumours investigated was small and therefore, the results can only be considered preliminary. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Balancing current drive and heating in DIII-D high noninductive current fraction discharges through choice of the toroidal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, J. R.; Holcomb, C. T.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Turco, F.; DeBoo, J. C.; Doyle, E. J.; In, Y.; La Haye, R. J.; Murakami, M.; Okabayashi, M.; Park, J. M.; Petrie, T. W.; Petty, C. C.; Reimerdes, H.

    2011-11-01

    In order to maintain stationary values of the stored energy and the plasma current in a tokamak discharge with all of the current driven noninductively, the sum of the α-heating power and the power required to provide externally driven current must be equal to the power required to maintain the pressure against transport losses. In a study of high noninductive current fraction discharges in the DIII-D tokamak, it is shown that in the case of present-day tokamaks with no α-heating, adjustment of the toroidal field strength (BT) is a tool to obtain this balance between the required current drive and heating powers with other easily modifiable discharge parameters (βN, q95, discharge shape, ne) fixed at values chosen to satisfy specific constraints. With all of the external power sources providing both heating and current drive, and βN and q95 fixed, the fraction of externally driven current scales with BT with little change in the bootstrap current fraction, thus allowing the noninductive current fraction to be adjusted.

  11. Why choose high volume online post-dilution hemodiafiltration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basile, Carlo; Davenport, Andrew; Blankestijn, Peter J.

    The mortality rate of patients on maintenance dialysis remains alarmingly high, at approximately 15–20 % per year. Increasing dialyzer urea clearance has not been shown to improve survival and hence interest has shifted towards convective therapies, such as hemodiafiltration (HDF) which can remove

  12. Delayed High School Starting Times. Information Capsule. Volume 0908

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Educators around the nation are considering pushing high school starting times back until later in the morning, based on evidence suggesting that amount of sleep and circadian rhythms play a part in adolescents' academic performance. While research confirms that adolescents do not get enough sleep and that insufficient sleep can negatively…

  13. Regulation of blood volume in lowlanders exposed to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Robach, Paul; Lundby, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Humans ascending to high altitude (HA) experience a reduction in arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation and, as a result, arterial O2 content ([Formula: see text]). As HA exposure extends, this reduction in [Formula: see text] is counteracted by an increase in arterial hemoglobin concentration. Initia...

  14. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for High Volume Composite Part Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lokitz, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Springfield, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    ORNL worked with TruDesign, LLC to develop viable coating solutions to enable the use of large scale 3D printing for both low-temperature and high-temperature composite molds. This project resulted in two commercial products and successfully demonstrated the use of printed molds for autoclave processing for the first time.

  15. Association of high-volume hospitals with greater likelihood of discharge to home following colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balentine, Courtney J; Naik, Aanand D; Robinson, Celia N; Petersen, Nancy J; Chen, G John; Berger, David H; Anaya, Daniel A

    2014-03-01

    Discharge disposition is a patient-centered quality metric that reflects differences in quality of life and recovery following surgery. The effect of hospital volume on quality of recovery measured by rates of successful discharge to home remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that patients having colorectal surgery at high-volume hospitals would more likely be discharged to home rather than discharged to skilled rehabilitation facilities to complete recovery. Longitudinal analysis of 2008 hospital inpatient data to identify patients undergoing colorectal surgery who survived to discharge. The setting was the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, the largest all-payer inpatient care database, containing data from more than 1000 hospitals. Participants were 280,644 patients (≥ 18 years) who underwent colorectal resections for benign or malignant disease and survived to discharge. The primary end point was discharge to home (with or without home health care) vs discharge to skilled facilities (skilled nursing, short-term recovery, or rehabilitation hospitals or other institutions). The secondary end point was discharge to home with home health care rather than to a skilled facility for patients with postdischarge care needs. Multiple logistic regression using robust standard errors was used to compute the odds ratios of each outcome based on hospital volume, while adjusting for other important variables. The odds of discharge to home vs discharge to skilled facilities were significantly greater in high-volume hospitals compared with low-volume hospitals (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.70-2.56), with an absolute increase of 9%. For patients with postdischarge care needs, high-volume hospitals were less likely than low-volume hospitals to use skilled facilities rather than home health care (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.27-0.45), with an absolute difference of 10%. Patients having colorectal surgery at high-volume hospitals are significantly more likely to recover and return home

  16. Trends in hospital volume and operative mortality for high-risk surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finks, Jonathan F; Osborne, Nicholas H; Birkmeyer, John D

    2011-06-02

    There were numerous efforts in the United States during the previous decade to concentrate selected surgical procedures in high-volume hospitals. It remains unknown whether referral patterns for high-risk surgery have changed as a result and how operative mortality has been affected. We used national Medicare data to study patients undergoing one of eight different cancer and cardiovascular operations from 1999 through 2008. For each procedure, we examined trends in hospital volume and market concentration, defined as the proportion of Medicare patients undergoing surgery in the top decile of hospitals by volume per year. We used regression-based techniques to assess the effects of volume and market concentration on mortality over time, adjusting for case mix. Median hospital volumes of four cancer resections (lung, esophagus, pancreas, and bladder) and of repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rose substantially. Depending on the procedure, higher hospital volumes were attributable to an increasing number of cases nationwide, an increasing market concentration, or both. Hospital volumes rose slightly for aortic-valve replacement but fell for coronary-artery bypass grafting and carotid endarterectomy. Operative mortality declined for all eight procedures, ranging from a relative decline of 8% for carotid endarterectomy (1.3% mortality in 1999 and 1.2% in 2008) to 36% for AAA repair (4.4% in 1999 and 2.8% in 2008). Higher hospital volumes explained a large portion of the decline in mortality for pancreatectomy (67% of the decline), cystectomy (37%), and esophagectomy (32%), but not for the other procedures. Operative mortality with high-risk surgery fell substantially during the previous decade. Although increased market concentration and hospital volume have contributed to declining mortality with some high-risk cancer operations, declines in mortality with other procedures are largely attributable to other factors. (Funded by the National Institute on Aging.).

  17. Automated Extracellular Volume Fraction Mapping Provides Insights Into the Pathophysiology of Left Ventricular Remodeling Post-Reperfused ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Rosmini, Stefania; Abdel-Gadir, Amna; White, Steven K; Bhuva, Anish N; Treibel, Thomas A; Fontana, Marianna; Gonzalez-Lopez, Esther; Reant, Patricia; Ramlall, Manish; Hamarneh, Ashraf; Sirker, Alex; Herrey, Anna S; Manisty, Charlotte; Yellon, Derek M; Kellman, Peter; Moon, James C; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-07-11

    Whether the remote myocardium of reperfused ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients plays a part in adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling remains unclear. We aimed to use automated extracellular volume fraction (ECV) mapping to investigate whether changes in the ECV of the remote (ECVR emote) and infarcted myocardium (ECVI nfarct) impacted LV remodeling. Forty-eight of 50 prospectively recruited reperfused STEMI patients completed a cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 4±2 days and 40 had a follow-up scan at 5±2 months. Twenty healthy volunteers served as controls. Mean segmental values for native T1, T2, and ECV were obtained. Adverse LV remodeling was defined as ≥20% increase in LV end-diastolic volume. ECVR emote was higher on the acute scan when compared to control (27.9±2.1% vs 26.4±2.1%; P=0.01). Eight patients developed adverse LV remodeling and had higher ECVR emote acutely (29.5±1.4% vs 27.4±2.0%; P=0.01) and remained higher at follow-up (28.6±1.5% vs 26.6±2.1%; P=0.02) compared to those without. Patients with a higher ECVR emote and a lower myocardial salvage index (MSI) acutely were significantly associated with adverse LV remodeling, independent of T1Remote, T1Core and microvascular obstruction, whereas a higher ECVI nfarct was significantly associated with worse wall motion recovery. ECVR emote was increased acutely in reperfused STEMI patients. Those with adverse LV remodeling had higher ECVR emote acutely, and this remained higher at follow-up than those without adverse LV remodeling. A higher ECVR emote and a lower MSI acutely were significantly associated with adverse LV remodeling whereas segments with higher ECVI nfarct were less likely to recover wall motion. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. High-Volume Airborne Fluids Handling Technologies to Fight Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Mark; Cox, Timothy; Hale, Cliff; Hatton, Rick

    2010-01-01

    specific wildfire situation. The system was manufactured by Jordan Air of Central Point, OR, and was installed by Victorville Aerospace in Victorville, CA. It can deliver 12,000 gallons (45.4 kL) of retardant in as little as eight seconds. The aircraft can deliver a partial load of retardant and make multiple drops on the same flight, or the entire load can be rapidly delivered in one pass if required for maximum coverage. The Evergreen 747 uses internal tankage and a pressurized delivery system to enable volume and coverage levels that also meet USFS requirements, but enables computer control of flow for desired precision. This system was designed and built by Adaptive Aerospace of Tehachapi, CA and can deliver about 20,000 gallons (75.7 kL) of retardant in approximately ten seconds. The 747 can also make multiple independent drops, or deliver the entire load at once. NASA found that both of these VLAT aircraft are compatible with the wildfire suppression mission when used to supplement other aerial retardant delivery platforms. The major recommendations for deployment that resulted from this study relate to terrain clearance, the type of terrain in the drop area, availability of qualified lead planes to guide the VLAT approach to the drop area, and low-altitude maneuvering limitations. NASA s analysis suggests that with the appropriate flight procedures, these aircraft will provide a powerful set of tools to fight wildfires.

  19. Impact of the target volume (prostate alone vs. prostate with seminal vesicles) and fraction dose (1.8 Gy vs. 2.0 Gy) on quality of life changes after external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eble, Michael J. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Pinkawa, Michael; Piroth, Marc D.; Fischedick, Karin; Holy, Richard; Klotz, Jens; Nussen, Sandra; Krenkel, Barbara

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the impact of the clinical target volume (CTV) and fraction dose on quality of life (QoL) after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. Patients and methods: a group of 283 patients has been surveyed prospectively before, at the last day, at a median time of 2 months and 15 months after EBRT (70.2-72 Gy) using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). FBRT of prostate alone (P, n = 70) versus prostate with seminal vesicles (PS, n = 213) was compared. Differences of fraction doses (1.8 Gy, n = 80, vs. 2.0 Gy, n = 69) have been evaluated in the patient group receiving a total dose of 72 Gy. Results: significantly higher bladder and rectum volumes were found at all dose levels for the patients with PS versus P within the CTV (p < 0.001). Similar volumes resulted in the groups with different fraction doses. Paradoxically, bowel function scores decreased significantly less 2 and 15 months after EBRT of PS versus P. 2 months after EBRT, patients with a fraction dose of 2.0 Gy versus 1.8 Gy reported pain with urination ({>=} once a day in 12% vs. 3%; p = 0.04) and painful bowel movements ({>=} rarely in 46% vs. 29%; p = 0.05) more frequently. No long-term differences were found. Conclusion: the risk of adverse QoL changes after EBRT for prostate cancer cannot be derived from the dose-volume histogram alone. Seminal vesicles can be included in the CTV up to a moderate total dose without adverse effects on QoL. Apart from a longer recovery period, higher fraction doses were not associated with higher toxicity. (orig.)

  20. Dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with high-dose-rate brachytherapy for large prostate volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, George; Strom, Tobin J.; Shrinath, Kushagra; Mellon, Eric A.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Biagioli, Matthew C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States); Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: mcbiagioli@yahoo.com [Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Newnan, GA (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: to evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes. Materials and methods: one hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL) were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38%) unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4. Results: median follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3%) patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17%) patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p-0.04). There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity. Conclusions: dosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes. (author)

  1. High-precision, large-volume, particle tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Bratzler, U

    1998-01-01

    Muon measurement in the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to be built at the European Center for Particle Physics, CERN, requires a tracking precision of 50 mu m along particle trajectories of typical path lengths of $9 5-20 m. The overall active area to be covered by the tracking devices, so-called Monitored Drift Tube Chambers, is 5,500 m/sup 2/. Requirements on fabrication, chamber alignment and operation are, in many respects, unprecedented and $9 can only be met by a combination of novel optical monitoring devices and a high-precision chamber construction technique. (1 refs).

  2. Finite volume analysis and optimisation of a high pressure homogeniser

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Andrew P.

    2009-01-01

    The homogeniser is a machine that is mostly used to change the appearance and rheological properties of a fluid by means of a high pressure radial gap. It can be implemented to kill off harmful bacteria and organisms as well as reduce the size of individual components or particles to increase the shelf live of many products. The homogeniser can be used to release useful organic materials from within cells or microbes. The homogeniser can be found in small scale production and large scale prod...

  3. Tumour volume and high grade tumour volume are the best predictors of pathologic stage and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Felix K-H; Briganti, Alberto; Jeldres, Claudio; Gallina, Andrea; Erbersdobler, Andreas; Schlomm, Thorsten; Walz, Jochen; Eichelberg, Christian; Salomon, Georg; Haese, Alexander; Currlin, Eike; Ahyai, Sascha A; Bénard, François; Huland, Hartwig; Graefen, Markus; Karakiewicz, Pierre I

    2007-02-01

    Our goal was to examine to what extent tumour volume (TV) and percentage of high grade tumour volume (%HGTV) affect the rate of positive surgical margins and the rate of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. TV and %HGTV were routinely planimetrically quantified in a cohort of 780 consecutive patients. Mean follow-up was 46.7 months. Multivariable regression models addressed two separate endpoints: positive surgical margins and biochemical recurrence. The increase in model predictive accuracy related to the addition of TV and %HGTV to radical prostatectomy stage and grade was assessed, after 200 bootstrap resamples to reduce overfit bias. In multivariable logistic regression models addressing positive surgical margins rate, predictive accuracy increased by 1.9% (p<0.001) when TV was added to other covariates. No further increment was noted when %HGTV was added (p=0.3). In multivariable Cox regression models addressing biochemical recurrence, accuracy increased by 0.6% (p=0.002) when TV was added and an additional increase of 0.7% was recorded when %HGTV (p<0.001) was added. Tumour bulk reflected by TV affects local cancer control rate, which is reflected in the rate of positive surgical margins. Conversely, high grade cancer determines the rate of biochemical recurrence. These two variables represent the most powerful predictors of cancer control in men treated for localised prostate cancer. Moreover, they increase the ability of established predictors to predict the outcomes of interest. In consequence, they warrant consideration in future predictive and prognostic tools.

  4. Impact of cannabis use on thalamic volume in people at familial high risk of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Killian A; Stanfield, Andrew C; McIntosh, Andrew M; Whalley, Heather C; Job, Dominic E; Moorhead, Thomas W; Owens, David G C; Lawrie, Stephen M; Johnstone, Eve C

    2011-11-01

    No longitudinal study has yet examined the association between substance use and brain volume changes in a population at high risk of schizophrenia. To examine the effects of cannabis on longitudinal thalamus and amygdala-hippocampal complex volumes within a population at high risk of schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from individuals at high genetic risk of schizophrenia at the point of entry to the Edinburgh High-Risk Study (EHRS) and approximately 2 years later. Differential thalamic and amygdala-hippocampal complex volume change in high-risk individuals exposed (n = 25) and not exposed (n = 32) to cannabis in the intervening period was investigated using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Cannabis exposure was associated with bilateral thalamic volume loss. This effect was significant on the left (F = 4.47, P = 0.04) and highly significant on the right (F= 7.66, P= 0.008). These results remained significant when individuals using other illicit drugs were removed from the analysis. These are the first longitudinal data to demonstrate an association between thalamic volume loss and exposure to cannabis in currently unaffected people at familial high risk of developing schizophrenia. This observation may be important in understanding the link between cannabis exposure and the subsequent development of schizophrenia.

  5. Age-, body size-, and sex-specific reference values for right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by three-dimensional echocardiography: a multicenter echocardiographic study in 507 healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffessanti, Francesco; Muraru, Denisa; Esposito, Roberta; Gripari, Paola; Ermacora, Davide; Santoro, Ciro; Tamborini, Gloria; Galderisi, Maurizio; Pepi, Mauro; Badano, Luigi P

    2013-09-01

    Right ventricular (RV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF) vary significantly with demographic and anthropometric factors and are associated with poor prognosis in several cardiovascular diseases. This multicenter study was designed to (1) establish the reference values for RV volumes and EF using transthoracic three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography; (2) investigate the influence of age, sex, and body size on RV anatomy; (3) develop normative equations. RV volumes (end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume), stroke volume, and EF were measured by 3D echocardiography in 540 healthy adult volunteers, prospectively enrolled, evenly distributed across age and sex. The relation of age, sex, and body size parameters was investigated using bivariate and multiple linear regression. Analysis was feasible in 507 (94%) subjects (260 women; age, 45 ± 16 years; range, 18-90). Age, sex, height, and weight significantly influenced RV volumes and EF. Sex effect was significant (Pallometric indexing for age, sex, and body size resulted in no significant residual correlation between RV measures and height or weight. The presented normative ranges and equations could help standardize the 3D echocardiography assessment of RV volumes and function in clinical practice, considering the effects of age, sex, and body size.

  6. High-speed mixture fraction and temperature imaging of pulsed, turbulent fuel jets auto-igniting in high-temperature, vitiated co-flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorge, Michael J.; Arndt, Christoph; Fuest, Frederik; Meier, Wolfgang; Sutton, Jeffrey A.

    2014-07-01

    In this manuscript, we describe an experimental approach to simultaneously measure high-speed image sequences of the mixture fraction and temperature fields during pulsed, turbulent fuel injection into a high-temperature, co-flowing, and vitiated oxidizer stream. The quantitative mixture fraction and temperature measurements are determined from 10-kHz-rate planar Rayleigh scattering and a robust data processing methodology which is accurate from fuel injection to the onset of auto-ignition. In addition, the data processing is shown to yield accurate temperature measurements following ignition to observe the initial evolution of the "burning" temperature field. High-speed OH* chemiluminescence (CL) was used to determine the spatial location of the initial auto-ignition kernel. In order to ensure that the ignition kernel formed inside of the Rayleigh scattering laser light sheet, OH* CL was observed in two viewing planes, one near-parallel to the laser sheet and one perpendicular to the laser sheet. The high-speed laser measurements are enabled through the use of the unique high-energy pulse burst laser system which generates long-duration bursts of ultra-high pulse energies at 532 nm (>1 J) suitable for planar Rayleigh scattering imaging. A particular focus of this study was to characterize the fidelity of the measurements both in the context of the precision and accuracy, which includes facility operating and boundary conditions and measurement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The mixture fraction and temperature fields deduced from the high-speed planar Rayleigh scattering measurements exhibited SNR values greater than 100 at temperatures exceeding 1,300 K. The accuracy of the measurements was determined by comparing the current mixture fraction results to that of "cold", isothermal, non-reacting jets. All profiles, when properly normalized, exhibited self-similarity and collapsed upon one another. Finally, example mixture fraction, temperature, and OH* emission

  7. Predictors of individual adaptation to high-volume or high-intensity endurance training in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, V; Häkkinen, K; Laine, T; Hynynen, E; Mikkola, J; Nummela, A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors that can predict individual adaptation to high-volume or high-intensity endurance training. After the first 8-week preparation period, 37 recreational endurance runners were matched into the high-volume training group (HVT) and high-intensity training group (HIT). During the next 8-week training period, HVT increased their running training volume and HIT increased training intensity. Endurance performance characteristics, heart rate variability (HRV), and serum hormone concentrations were measured before and after the training periods. While HIT improved peak treadmill running speed (RSpeak ) 3.1 ± 2.8% (P endurance training in recreational runners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. High-Q Fabry–Pérot Micro-Cavities for High-Sensitivity Volume Refractometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Gaber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a novel structure for a Fabry–Pérot micro cavity that combines the highest reported quality factor for an on-chip Fabry–Pérot resonator that exceeds 9800, and a very high sensitivity for an on-chip volume refractometer based on a Fabry–Pérot cavity that is about 1000 nm/refractive index unit (RIU. The structure consists of two cylindrical Bragg micromirrors that achieve confinement of the Gaussian beam in the plan parallel to the chip substrate, while for the perpendicular plan, external fiber rod lenses (FRLs are placed in the optical path of the input and the output of the cavity. This novel structure overcomes number of the drawbacks presented in previous designs. The analyte is passed between the mirrors, enabling its detection from the resonance peak wavelengths of the transmission spectra. Mixtures of ethanol and deionized (DI-water with different ratios are used as analytes with different refractive indices to exploit the device as a micro-opto-fluidic refractometer. The design criteria are detailed and the modeling is based on Gaussian-optics equations, which depicts a scenario closer to reality than the usually used ray-optics modeling.

  9. High-performance technology for indexing of high volumes of Earth remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotov, Valery V.; Taganov, Alexander I.; Kolesenkov, Aleksandr N.; Kostrov, Boris V.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper has suggested a technology for search, indexing, cataloging and distribution of aerospace images on the basis of geo-information approach, cluster and spectral analysis. It has considered information and algorithmic support of the system. Functional circuit of the system and structure of the geographical data base have been developed on the basis of the geographical online portal technology. Taking into account heterogeneity of information obtained from various sources it is reasonable to apply a geoinformation platform that allows analyzing space location of objects and territories and executing complex processing of information. Geoinformation platform is based on cartographic fundamentals with the uniform coordinate system, the geographical data base, a set of algorithms and program modules for execution of various tasks. The technology for adding by particular users and companies of images taken by means of professional and amateur devices and also processed by various software tools to the array system has been suggested. Complex usage of visual and instrumental approaches allows significantly expanding an application area of Earth remote sensing data. Development and implementation of new algorithms based on the complex usage of new methods for processing of structured and unstructured data of high volumes will increase periodicity and rate of data updating. The paper has shown that application of original algorithms for search, indexing and cataloging of aerospace images will provide an easy access to information spread by hundreds of suppliers and allow increasing an access rate to aerospace images up to 5 times in comparison with current analogues.

  10. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of pressed biowaste for high energy yields recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micolucci, Federico; Gottardo, Marco; Cavinato, Cristina; Pavan, Paolo; Bolzonella, David

    2016-02-01

    Deep separate collection of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste generates streams with relatively low content of inert material and high biodegradability. This material can be conveniently treated to recovery both energy and material by means of simplified technologies like screw-press and extruder: in this study, the liquid fraction generated from pressed biowaste from kerbside and door-to-door collection was anaerobically digested in both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions while for the solid fraction composting is suggested. Continuous operation results obtained both in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions indicated that the anaerobic digestion of pressed biowaste was viable at all operating conditions tested, with the greatest specific gas production of 0.92m(3)/kgVSfed at an organic loading rate of 4.7kgVS/m(3)d in thermophilic conditions. Based on calculations the authors found that the expected energy recovery is highly positive. The contents of heavy metals and pathogens of fed substrate and effluent digestates were analyzed, and results showed low levels (below End-of-Waste 2014 criteria limits) for both the parameters thus indicating the good quality of digestate and its possible use for agronomic purposes. Therefore, both energy and material were effectively recovered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluctuating feedback-regulated escape fraction of ionizing radiation in low-mass, high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebitsch, Maxime; Blaizot, Jérémy; Rosdahl, Joakim; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne

    2017-09-01

    Low-mass galaxies are thought to provide the bulk of the ionizing radiation necessary to reionize the Universe. The amount of photons escaping the galaxies is poorly constrained theoretically, and difficult to measure observationally. Yet it is an essential parameter of reionization models. We study in detail how ionizing radiation can leak from high-redshift galaxies. For this purpose, we use a series of high-resolution radiation hydrodynamics simulations, zooming on three dwarf galaxies in a cosmological context. We find that the energy and momentum input from the supernova explosions has a pivotal role in regulating the escape fraction by disrupting dense star-forming clumps, and clearing sightlines in the halo. In the absence of supernovae, photons are absorbed very locally, within the birth clouds of massive stars. We follow the time evolution of the escape fraction and find that it can vary by more than six orders of magnitude. This explains the large scatter in the value of the escape fraction found by previous studies. This fast variability also impacts the observability of the sources of reionization: a survey even as deep as M1500 = -14 would miss about half of the underlying population of Lyman-continuum emitters.

  12. Comparison of Chemical Characteristics of High Oleic Acid Fraction of Moringa oleifera Oil with Some Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rahman1

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characteristics of High oleic acid fraction (HOF of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO was compared with sunflower, soybean and canola oils. HOF of MOO was obtained by dry fractionation at 0oC. Iodine value and C18:1 in HOF increased from 61.55 to 82.47 points and 70.29% to 81.15%, respectively. Cloud point of HOF was 1.1oC as compared to 10.2oC in MOO. The induction period of HOF was greater than all the vegetable oils tested in this investigation. HOF can be used as a source of edible oil with better health attributes and superior storage stability.

  13. Characterization of enzymatic hydrolyzed snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) by-product fractions: a source of high-valued biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Lucie; Thibodeau, Jacinthe; Bryl, Piotr; Carbonneau, Marie-Elise

    2009-07-01

    Snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) constitutes valuable and nutritional sources of components, such as proteins, lipids and chitin. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of applying a pilot scale enzymatic hydrolysis process of snow crab by-products, followed by fractionation, in order to recover enriched high-valued compounds. The yield of snow crab by-products recovered after manual processing; on a dry weight was 87.4%. The by-products (raw materials) were mainly moist (approximately 78%), and contained 42.9% proteins, 14.8% lipids, 25.7% minerals, 16.2% chitin, all expressed on a dry weight. The fatty acid profile of snow crab by-products and all fractions obtained following processing showed a higher content in mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs; approximately 50%), followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; approximately 20%) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs; approximately 15%). The n-3/n-6 ratio was approximately 10 and represents a good index of nutritional value for snow crab oil by-products. Most protein enriched fractions demonstrate a well-balanced amino acid composition, notably the most essential amino acids. These protein fractions are characterized by biomolecules having a relatively low molecular weight (35 kDa and less) range. The enzymatic hydrolysis process developed in this study shows that snow crab by-products should to be viewed as having the potential of being identified as high-valued products. Even though the process could be optimized, it is controllable, and depending on hydrolyses conditions, the products obtained are reproducible and well defined. Results presented in this study indicate that snow crab by-products may serve as excellent nutritional components for future applications in the health and food sectors.

  14. High-Flux Hemodialysis and High-Volume Hemodiafiltration Improve Serum Calcification Propensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Dekker

    Full Text Available Calciprotein particles (CPPs may play an important role in the calcification process. The calcification propensity of serum (T50 is highly predictive of all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease patients. Whether T50 is therapeutically improvable, by high-flux hemodialysis (HD or hemodiafiltration (HDF, has not been studied yet.We designed a cross-sectional single center study, and included stable prevalent in-center dialysis patients on HD or HDF. Patients were divided into two groups based on dialysis modality, were on a thrice-weekly schedule, had a dialysis vintage of > 3 months and vascular access providing a blood flow rate > 300 ml/min. Calcification propensity of serum was measured by the time of transformation from primary to secondary CPP (T50 test, by time-resolved nephelometry.We included 64 patients, mean convective volume was 21.7L (SD 3.3L. In the pooled analysis, T50 levels increased in both the HD and HDF group with pre- and post-dialysis (mean (SD of 244(64 - 301(57 and 253(55 - 304(61 min respectively (P = 0.43(HD vs. HDF. The mean increase in T50 was 26.29% for HD and 21.97% for HDF patients (P = 0.61 (HD vs. HDF. The delta values (Δ of calcium, phosphate and serum albumin were equal in both groups. Baseline T50 was negatively correlated with phosphate, and positively correlated with serum magnesium and fetuin-A. The ΔT50 was mostly influenced by Δ phosphate (r = -0.342; P = 0.002 HD and r = -0.396; P<0.001 HDF in both groups.HD and HDF patients present with same baseline T50 calcification propensity values pre-dialysis. Calcification propensity is significantly improved during both HD and HDF sessions without significant differences between both modalities.

  15. High-Temperature Fractionation of Iron Isotopes During Metal Segregation From a Silicate Melt: Experimental Study of Kinetic and Equilibrium Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskosz, M.; Luais, B.; Watson, H.; Toplis, M. J.; Alexander, C. M.; Mysen, B. O.

    2005-12-01

    Advances in mass spectrometry make it possible to measure isotopic variations of iron in meteoritic and igneous materials. However, interpreting these data is hampered by a lack of theoretical and experimental knowledge concerning how Fe isotopes fractionate during magmatic processes. As a first step in this direction we have performed experiments in which metallic iron was reduced and segregated from a silicate melt at one bar as a function of f(O2) and time. The starting material was a glass of anorthite-diopside eutectic composition, to which 9 wt% Fe2O3 was added. Experiments were performed at 1500 circC and f(O2) in the range 10-0.7 to 10-8 bars. A proportion of this iron is extracted through formation of an alloy with the Pt-capsule in which the melt was held. The silicate and metallic portions were physically separated and bulk analyses of each fraction performed using standard MC-ICP-MS methods. Furthermore, a Cameca 6f ion microprobe was used to measure isotopic profiles in metallic samples, such that kinetic and equilibrium effects may be disentangled and quantified. Large isotopic variations are observed and attributed to kinetic fractionation during incorporation of iron into the initially Fe-free Pt-capsule. This process leads to the formation of isotopically light metal and a heavy silicate. For instance, in samples heat-treated for 24 hours, metal fractions have δ56Fe/54Fe from 0 to -2‰, whereas silicate fractions have δ56Fe/54Fe from 0 to 4.8‰. These values are positively correlated with the fraction of iron lost to the platinum. Ion-probe analyses and time-series experiments confirm that Fe isotopes are strongly fractionated during diffusion of Fe in the Pt,Fe alloy, and the observed profiles are used to calculate the diffusion coefficients of individual iron isotopes. With increasing time at fixed oxygen fugacity, iron in the alloy reaches a constant isotopic composition. At these conditions, assumed to represent equilibrium, iron in the

  16. Determination of volume fraction in biphasic flows oil-gas and water-gas using artificial neural network and gamma densitometry; Determinacao de fracoes de volume em fluxos bifasicos oleo-gas e agua-gas utilizando redes neurais artificiais e densitometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Philippe Netto Belache

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a methodology based on the principles of gamma ray attenuation to identify volume fractions in biphasic systems composed of oil-gas-water and gas which are found in the offshore oil industry. This methodology is based on the acknowledgment counts per second on the photopeak energy using a detection system composed of a NaI (Tl) detector, a source of {sup 137}Cs without collimation positioned at 180 ° relative to the detector on a smooth stratified flow regime. The mathematical modeling for computational simulation using the code MCNP-X was performed using the experimental measurements of the detector characteristics (energy resolution and efficiency), characteristics of the material water and oil (density and coefficient attenuation) and measurement of the volume fractions. To predict these fractions were used artificial neural networks (ANNs), and to obtain an adequate training the ANNs for the prediction of volume fractions were simulated a larger number of volume fractions in MCNP-X. The experimental data were used in the set data necessary for validation of ANNs and the data generated using the computer code MCNP-X were used in training and test sets of the ANNs. Were used ANNs of type feed-forward Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and analyzed two functions of training, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) and gradient descent with momentum (GDM), both using the Backpropagation training algorithm. The ANNs identified correctly the volume fractions of the multiphase system with mean relative errors lower than 1.21 %, enabling the application of this methodology for this purpose. (author)

  17. Perioperative mortality in cats and dogs undergoing spay or castration at a high-volume clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J K; Bard, K M; Tucker, S J; Diskant, P D; Dingman, P A

    2017-06-01

    High volume spay-neuter (spay-castration) clinics have been established to improve population control of cats and dogs to reduce the number of animals admitted to and euthanazed in animal shelters. The rise in the number of spay-neuter clinics in the USA has been accompanied by concern about the quality of animal care provided in high volume facilities, which focus on minimally invasive, time saving techniques, high throughput and simultaneous management of multiple animals under various stages of anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine perioperative mortality for cats and dogs in a high volume spay-neuter clinic in the USA. Electronic medical records and a written mortality log were used to collect data for 71,557 cats and 42,349 dogs undergoing spay-neuter surgery from 2010 to 2016 at a single high volume clinic in Florida. Perioperative mortality was defined as deaths occurring in the 24h period starting with the administration of the first sedation or anesthetic drugs. Perioperative mortality was reported for 34 cats and four dogs for an overall mortality of 3.3 animals/10,000 surgeries (0.03%). The risk of mortality was more than twice as high for females (0.05%) as for males (0.02%) (P=0.008) and five times as high for cats (0.05%) as for dogs (0.009%) (P=0.0007). High volume spay-neuter surgery was associated with a lower mortality rate than that previously reported in low volume clinics, approaching that achieved in human surgery. This is likely to be due to the young, healthy population of dogs and cats, and the continuous refinement of techniques based on experience and the skills and proficiency of teams that specialize in a limited spectrum of procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume II. High School Youth. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

    The second part of a two-part, two volume study deals with high school youth and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Data, collected from interviews and questionnaires, are summarized and presented in tabular form. One fourth of high schoolers in a…

  19. Crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets with ultrahigh pore volume for high-performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Zhenhai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 North Cramer Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Wang, Xinchen [Colloid Chemistry, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam/Golm (Germany); Mao, Shun; Bo, Zheng; Kim, Haejune; Cui, Shumao; Lu, Ganhua; Chen, Junhong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 North Cramer Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Feng, Xinliang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2012-11-02

    A reliable route for preparing highly crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets (C-NGNSs) with ultrahigh pore volume was developed. The unique electrochemical properties of C-NGNSs make them a promising electrode for supercapacitors with high capacity, excellent rate capability, and long-term stability. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Dispersion curves of viscoelastic plane waves and Rayleigh surface wave in high frequency range with fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Tsuneo

    2013-09-01

    The moduli of conventional elastic structural materials are extended to one of the viscoelastic materials through a modification whereby the dynamic moduli converge to the static moduli of elasticity as the fractional order approaches zero. By plotting phase velocity curves and group velocity curves of plane waves and Rayleigh surface wave for a viscoelastic material (polyvinyl chloride foam), the influence of the fractional order of viscoelasticity is examined. The phase and group velocity curves in the high frequency range were derived for longitudinal, transverse, and Rayleigh waves inherent to the viscoelastic material. In addition, the equation for the phase velocity was mathematically derived on the complex plane, too, and graphically illustrated. A phenomenon was found that, at the moment when the fractional order of the time derivative reaches an integer value 1, the curve on the complex plane becomes completely different, exhibiting snap-through behavior. We examined the mechanism of the snap-through mathematically. Numerical calculation examples were solved, and good agreement was confirmed between the numerical calculation and the analytical expression mentioned above. From the results of the numerical example, regularities were derived for the absolute value of the complex phase and group velocities on the complex plane.

  1. Forearm Muscle Volumes Can Be Accurately Quantified From High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Carolyn M.; Abrams, Geoff D.; Smallwood, Laura R.; Lieber, Richard L.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2007-01-01

    Upper extremity musculoskeletal modeling is becoming increasingly sophisticated, creating a growing need for subject-specific muscle size parameters. One method for determining subject-specific muscle volume is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of MRI-derived muscle volumes in the human forearm across a variety of muscle sizes and shapes. Seventeen cadaveric forearms were scanned using a fast spoiled gradient echo pulse sequence with high isotropic spatial resolution (1 mm3 voxels) on a 3T MR system. Pronator teres (PT), extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB), extensor pollicis longus (EPL), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), and brachioradialis (BR) muscles were manually segmented allowing volume to be calculated. Forearms were then dissected, muscles isolated, and muscle masses obtained, which allowed computation of muscle volume. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) and absolute volume differences were used to compare measurement methods. There was excellent agreement between the anatomical and MRI-derived muscle volumes (ICC = 0.97, relative error = 12.8%) when all 43 muscles were considered together. When individual muscles were considered, there was excellent agreement between measurement methods for PT (ICC = 0.97, relative error = 8.4%), ECRB (ICC = 0.93, relative error = 7.7%), and FCU (ICC = 0.91, relative error = 9.8%), and fair agreement for EPL (ICC = 0.68, relative error = 21.6%) and BR (ICC = 0.93, relative error = 17.2%). Thus, while MRI-based measurements of muscle volume produce relatively small errors in some muscles, muscles with high surface area-to-volume ratios may predispose them to segmentation error, and, therefore, the accuracy of these measurements may be unacceptable. PMID:17521657

  2. Impact of stapling devices on radical cystectomy: comparative study between low- and high-volume surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzis, Vassilios; Gravas, Stavros; Mitsogiannis, Iraklis C; Moutzouris, Georgios; Karatzas, Anastasios; Leventis, Angelos; Mpouzalas, Ioannis; Melekos, Michael D

    2008-02-01

    To compare effectiveness in terms of blood loss and operative time of stapling devices among surgeons with different levels of surgical volume. We evaluated a group of 29 male patients with invasive bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy by two groups of surgeons. The first group included two high-volume surgeons, and the second group two low-volume surgeons. All cystectomies were performed using the multifire autosuture articulated vascular Endo-GIA. We compared patients with a series of 28 patients who had undergone radical cystectomy during the same period using standard technique by the same surgeons. Blood loss was defined as the difference between the hemoglobin at the beginning and at the end of cystectomy. In the group of high-volume surgeons, the mean operative time was 81.4 +/- 17 minutes and 79.3 +/- 20 minutes for the classical and stapler arm, respectively (P = 0.551). In the low-volume surgeons group, the mean operative time was 114.3 +/- 22 minutes and 92.4 +/- 12 minutes for the two methods (P = 0.003). The mean intraoperative blood loss in the experienced surgeons was 2.3 +/- 0.82 g/dL and 1.49 +/- 0.66 g/dL for the classical and stapler arm, respectively (P = 0.008). In the group of low-volume surgeons, the difference in hemoglobin was 3.02 +/- 0.84 g/dL and 1.91 +/- 0.6 g/dL for the two methods (P = 0.02). Stapling devices seem to make cystectomy safer and faster in surgeons with different surgical volumes. The group of low-volume surgeons benefited more.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste combining two pretreatment modalities, high temperature microwave and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, Haleh; Warith, Mostafa; Hamoda, Mohamed; Kennedy, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    In order to enhance anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), pretreatment combining two modalities, microwave (MW) heating in presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were investigated. The main pretreatment variables affecting the characteristics of the OFMSW were temperature (T) via MW irradiation and supplemental water additions of 20% and 30% (SWA20 and SW30). Subsequently, the focus of this study was to evaluate mesophilic batch AD performance in terms of biogas production, as well as changes in the characteristics of the OFMSW post digestion. A high MW induced temperature range (115-175°C) was applied, using sealed vessels and a bench scale MW unit equipped with temperature and pressure controls. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted on the whole OFMSW as well as the liquid fractions. The whole OFMSW pretreated at 115°C and 145°C showed 4-7% improvement in biogas production over untreated OFMSW (control). When pretreated at 175°C, biogas production decreased due to formation of refractory compounds, inhibiting the digestion. For the liquid fraction of OFMSW, the effect of pretreatment on the cumulative biogas production (CBP) was more pronounced for SWA20 at 145°C, with a 26% increase in biogas production after 8days of digestion, compared to the control. When considering the increased substrate availability in the liquid fraction after MW pretreatment, a 78% improvement in biogas production vs. the control was achieved. Combining MW and H(2)O(2) modalities did not have a positive impact on OFMSW stabilization and enhanced biogas production. In general, all samples pretreated with H(2)O(2) displayed a long lag phase and the CBP was usually lower than MW irradiated only samples. First order rate constant was calculated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Myocardial T1 and extracellular volume fraction measurement in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis: reproducibility and comparison with age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anvesha; Horsfield, Mark A; Bekele, Soliana; Khan, Jamal N; Greiser, Andreas; McCann, Gerry P

    2015-07-01

    (i) To establish the test-retest reproducibility of myocardial T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) fraction measurement in asymptomatic patients with moderate-severe aortic stenosis (AS), (ii) to compare reproducibility using motion-corrected (MOCO) parametric T1 maps for analysis vs. full MOLLI series of images, and (iii) to compare T1 and ECV between patients and age-matched controls. 3 T cardiac MRI was performed twice on 10 patients (median interval 7 days) to assess reproducibility. An additional 40 patients and 22 asymptomatic controls underwent a single MRI. Native T1 and ECV were calculated by outlining the myocardium on T1 maps generated inline, and using an offline T1 fit on the MOCO multiple inversion-time raw image series, in the reproducibility cohort (n = 10). Reproducibility was excellent using the inline T1 maps (CoVs for T1: 1.77%; ECV: 6.52%) and good using the full MOLLI series (CoVs for T1: 8.52%; ECV: 12.98%). On comparing AS and controls, who were well matched for age, gender and co-morbidities, there was no significant difference in the native T1 or ECV (T1 = 1103.32 ± 33.07 vs. 1092.27 ± 34.29; ECV = 0.243 ± 0.019 vs. 0.251 ± 0.026 in patients and controls, P > 0.05), which was maintained even after splitting the patients into moderate and severe AS subgroups. The test-retest reproducibility of myocardial T1 quantification using MOLLI is excellent in patients with AS and is highest using inline generated T1 maps for analysis. There was no difference in native myocardial T1 or ECV between asymptomatic patients with moderate-severe AS and age-matched controls without valve disease. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. High versus moderate energy use of bipolar fractional radiofrequency in the treatment of acne scars: a split-face double-blinded randomized control trial pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phothong, Weeranut; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Sathaworawong, Angkana; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2016-02-01

    Bipolar fractional radiofrequency (FRF) device was firstly FDA-approved for treating atrophic acne scar in 2008 through the process of dermal coagulation and minimal epidermal ablation. The average energy at 60 mJ/pin was widely used to treat atrophic acne scars. However, the higher energy was delivered, the deeper ablation and coagulation were found. At present, the new generation of a device with bipolar FRF technology with electrode-pin tip was developed to maximize ability to deliver energy up to 100 mJ/pin. The objective of the study was to explore and compare the efficacy of utilizing high energy (100 mJ/pin) and moderate energy (60 mJ/pin) of bipolar fractional radiofrequency in treatment of atrophic acne scar in Asians. This is a split-face, double-blinded, randomized control trial, pilot study by using parallel group design technique. Thirty healthy subjects with Fitzpatrick skin phototype III-IV diagnosed as atrophic acne scares were enrolled. All subjects received four monthly sessions of bipolar FRF treatment. Left and right facial sides of individual patients were randomly assigned for different energy (high energy at 100 mJ/pin versus moderate energy at 60 mJ/pin). Acne scars improvement was blinded graded by dermatologist using global acne scarring score (GASS) which was subjectively evaluated at baseline, 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. Objective scar analysis was also done using UVA-light video camera to measure scar volume, skin smoothness, and wrinkle at baseline, 3-, and 6-month follow-up after the last treatment. Side effects including pain, erythema, swelling, and crusting were also recorded. Thirty subjects completed the study with full 4-treatment course. The mean GASS of high energy side and moderate energy side was significantly reduced at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up visits. At 1 month follow-visit, high energy side demonstrated significant improvement compared with moderate energy side (p = 0.03). Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation

  6. Air-Induced Drag Reduction at High Reynolds Numbers: Velocity and Void Fraction Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Mäkiharju, Simo; Wiggins, Andrew; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven

    2010-11-01

    The injection of air into a turbulent boundary layer forming over a flat plate can reduce the skin friction. With sufficient volumetric fluxes an air layer can separate the solid surface from the flowing liquid, which can produce drag reduction in excess of 80%. Several large scale experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat plate model investigating bubble drag reduction (BDR), air layer drag reduction (ALDR) and the transition between BDR and ALDR. The most recent experiment acquired phase velocities and void fraction profiles at three downstream locations (3.6, 5.9 and 10.6 m downstream from the model leading edge) for a single flow speed (˜6.4 m/s). The profiles were acquired with a combination of electrode point probes, time-of-flight sensors, Pitot tubes and an LDV system. Additional diagnostics included skin-friction sensors and flow-field image visualization. During this experiment the inlet flow was perturbed with vortex generators immediately upstream of the injection location to assess the robustness of the air layer. From these, and prior measurements, computational models can be refined to help assess the viability of ALDR for full-scale ship applications.

  7. High molecular gas fractions in normal massive star-forming galaxies in the young Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, L J; Genzel, R; Neri, R; Cox, P; Cooper, M C; Shapiro, K; Bolatto, A; Bouché, N; Bournaud, F; Burkert, A; Combes, F; Comerford, J; Davis, M; Schreiber, N M Förster; Garcia-Burillo, S; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lutz, D; Naab, T; Omont, A; Shapley, A; Sternberg, A; Weiner, B

    2010-02-11

    Stars form from cold molecular interstellar gas. As this is relatively rare in the local Universe, galaxies like the Milky Way form only a few new stars per year. Typical massive galaxies in the distant Universe formed stars an order of magnitude more rapidly. Unless star formation was significantly more efficient, this difference suggests that young galaxies were much more molecular-gas rich. Molecular gas observations in the distant Universe have so far largely been restricted to very luminous, rare objects, including mergers and quasars, and accordingly we do not yet have a clear idea about the gas content of more normal (albeit massive) galaxies. Here we report the results of a survey of molecular gas in samples of typical massive-star-forming galaxies at mean redshifts of about 1.2 and 2.3, when the Universe was respectively 40% and 24% of its current age. Our measurements reveal that distant star forming galaxies were indeed gas rich, and that the star formation efficiency is not strongly dependent on cosmic epoch. The average fraction of cold gas relative to total galaxy baryonic mass at z = 2.3 and z = 1.2 is respectively about 44% and 34%, three to ten times higher than in today's massive spiral galaxies. The slow decrease between z approximately 2 and z approximately 1 probably requires a mechanism of semi-continuous replenishment of fresh gas to the young galaxies.

  8. Fractional correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendlovic, D; Ozaktas, H M; Lohmann, A W

    1995-01-10

    Recently, optical interpretations of the fractional-Fourier-transform operator have been introduced. On the basis of this operator the fractional correlation operator is defined in two different ways that are both consistent with the definition of conventional correlation. Fractional correlation is not always a shift-invariant operation. This property leads to some new applications for fractional correlation as shift-variant image detection. A bulk-optics implementation of fractional correlation is suggested and demonstrated with computer simulations.

  9. Temporal variability in dynamic and colloidal metal fractions determined by high resolution in situ measurements in a UK estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braungardt, Charlotte B; Howell, Kate A; Tappin, Alan D; Achterberg, Eric P

    2011-07-01

    In recent environmental legislation, such as the Water Framework Directive in the European Union (WFD, 2000/60/EC), the importance of metal speciation and biological availability is acknowledged, although analytical challenges remain. In this study, the Voltammetric In situ Profiler (VIP) was used for high temporal resolution in situ metal speciation measurements in estuarine waters. This instrument simultaneously determines Cd, Cu and Pb species within a size range (ca. colloidal metal fraction can be quantified through a combination of VIP measurements and analyses of total dissolved metal concentrations. VIP systems were deployed over tidal cycles in a seasonal study of metal speciation in the Fal Estuary, southwest England. Total dissolved concentrations were 4.97-315 nM Cu, 0.13-8.53 nM Cd and 0.35-5.75 nM Pb. High proportions of Pb (77±17%) and Cu (60±25%) were present as colloids, which constituted a less important fraction for Cd (37±30%). The study elucidated variations in the potentially toxic metal fraction related to river flow, complexation by organic ligands and exchanges between dissolved and colloidal phases and the sediment. Based on published toxicity data, the bioavailable Cu concentrations (1.7-190 nM) in this estuary are likely to severely compromise the ecosystem structure and functioning with respect to species diversity and recruitment of juveniles. The study illustrates the importance of in situ speciation studies at high resolution in pursuit of a better understanding of metal (bio)geochemistry in dynamic coastal systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Service expectations from high- and low-volume customers in the alcoholic beverage industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Beukes

    2013-08-01

    Research purpose: This research study investigated the relationship between the volume a customer buys from an alcoholic beverage supply company and what influence this volume has on their customer service expectations. Motivation for the study: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate what influence the volume an organisation buys from alcoholic beverage suppliers has on their service quality expectations. Research design, approach and method: A non-probability judgement sample method was used, with a sample size of 220 respondents. The questionnaire requested respondents (high- and low-volume to rank their customer service expectations and opinions with reference to Parasuraman’s service delivery dimensions. Ranking was done using a five-point Likert scale. Main findings: The findings of the study indicated that both the high- and low-volume customers felt that alcoholic beverage supply companies had to deliver on all five service delivery dimensions but failed to do so to full satisfaction. Practical and managerial implications: It is recommended that the alcoholic beverage supply companies should address the problem areas identified in this study to avoid defection of customers. Contribution and value add: This may assist alcoholic beverage supply companies to better understand the customers’ demographic profiles. The study also revealed that the satisfaction level experienced by customers in both sections of the study (high- and low-demand, with a considerable gap between expectations and opinions within the empathy dimension.

  11. Effects of alkalinity and salinity at low and high light intensity on hydrogen isotope fractionation of long-chain alkenones produced by Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Gabriella M.; Pfannerstill, Eva Y.; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; van der Meer, Marcel T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade, hydrogen isotopes of long-chain alkenones have been shown to be a promising proxy for reconstructing paleo sea surface salinity due to a strong hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity across different environmental conditions. However, to date, the decoupling of the effects of alkalinity and salinity, parameters that co-vary in the surface ocean, on hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones has not been assessed. Furthermore, as the alkenone-producing haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi, is known to grow in large blooms under high light intensities, the effect of salinity on hydrogen isotope fractionation under these high irradiances is important to constrain before using δDC37 to reconstruct paleosalinity. Batch cultures of the marine haptophyte E. huxleyi strain CCMP 1516 were grown to investigate the hydrogen isotope fractionation response to salinity at high light intensity and independently assess the effects of salinity and alkalinity under low-light conditions. Our results suggest that alkalinity does not significantly influence hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones, but salinity does have a strong effect. Additionally, no significant difference was observed between the fractionation responses to salinity recorded in alkenones grown under both high- and low-light conditions. Comparison with previous studies suggests that the fractionation response to salinity in culture is similar under different environmental conditions, strengthening the use of hydrogen isotope fractionation as a paleosalinity proxy.

  12. Multi-crystallin complexes exist in the water-soluble high molecular weight protein fractions of aging normal and cataractous human lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, K; Chaves, J M; Srivastava, O P; Kirk, M

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify non-covalently held complexes that exist in the water-soluble high molecular weight (WS-HMW) protein fractions of normal human lenses of 20-year-old and 60- to 70-year-old, and in the age-matched 60- to 70-year-old cataractous lenses. The WS protein fractions were prepared from five pooled normal lenses of 20-year-old donors or five pooled lenses of 60- to 70-year-old donors or four pooled cataractous lenses (with nuclear opacity) of 60- to 70-year-old donors. Each WS protein fraction was subjected to size-exclusion chromatography using an Agarose A 5m column to recover the void volume WS-HMW protein fraction. A method known as blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE), which allows the isolation of large multi-protein complexes (MPCs) in their native state for further characterization, was used to separate such complexes from individual WS-HMW protein fractions. The protein species that existed as a complex were excised from a gel and trypsin-digested, and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic fragments analyzed by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS/MS). After the second-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE during BN-PAGE, protein complexes containing a total of 16, 12, and 24 species with M(r) between 10 and 90 kDa were identified in the HMW protein fractions of normal lenses of 20-year-old, 60- to 70-year-old and cataractous lenses of 60- to 70-year-old donors, respectively. Based on the amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides of individual protein species in the complexes by the ES-MS/MS method, the presence of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallin species along with beaded filament proteins (filensin and phakinin) was observed in the 20-year-old normal lenses. The 60- to 70-year-old normal lenses contained filensin and aldehyde dehydrogenase in addition to the above crystallins. Similarly, the age-matched cataractous lenses also contained the above crystallins and aldehyde dehydrogenase but

  13. Protective Effect of High Molecular Weight Protein Sub-fraction of Calotropis procera Latex in Monoarthritic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; Ramos, Marcio V; Vasconcelos, Mirele da Silveira; Kumar, Vijay L

    2016-05-01

    Proteins present in the latex of Calotropis procera have been shown to produce anti-inflammatory effect and to afford protection in various disease models. To determine the efficacy of high molecular weight protein sub-fraction (LPPI) of latex of C. procera in ameliorating joint inflammation and hyperalgesia in a preclinical model of arthritis. Monoarthritis was induced in rats by intra-articular injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and the effect of two doses of LPPI (5 and 25 mg/kg) and diclofenac (5 mg/kg) was evaluated on joint swelling, stair climbing ability, motility, and dorsal flexion pain on day 3. The rats were sacrificed on day 3 to measure tissue levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Evaluation of joint histology was also made. Intra-articular injection of FCA produced joint swelling and difficulty in stair climbing ability, motility, and pain on flexion of the joint as revealed by scores obtained for these functional parameters. LPPI produced a dose-dependent decrease in joint swelling and improved joint functions. Arthritic rats also revealed altered oxidative homeostasis where joint tissue GSH levels were decreased and TBARS levels were increased as compared to normal rats. The levels of these oxidative stress markers were near normal in arthritic rats treated with LPPI. Moreover, treatment with LPPI also maintained the structural integrity of the joint. The protective effect of LPPI was comparable to the standard anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac. The findings of the present study show that LPPI fraction comprising high molecular weight proteins could be used for the alleviation of arthritic symptoms. High molecular weight protein sub-fraction of latex of Calotropis procera (LPPI) reduced joint swelling and hyperalgesia in arthritic ratsLPPI produced a significant improvement in stair climbing ability and motility in arthritic ratsLPPI normalized the levels of oxidative stress markers in

  14. Understanding fraction concepts of Indonesian junior high school students: A case of field independent and field dependent students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamonto, K.; Juniati, D.; Siswono, T. Y. E.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to describe the students’ understanding of fraction concepts. This research is descriptive with the qualitative approach. The subjects consisted of 1 Field Independent (FI) and 1 Field Dependent (FD) students. Setting subjects based on Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT) results and meeting equivalent mathematical ability. Data obtained techniques through Task-based interview. The results show that FI students were represented a complete fractional concept and express the meaning of fractional notation with its own words.The students use of fractional concept such as the idea of dividing equally, fractional equivalents, and the relative size of the fraction to classify fractions based on certain properties, giving fractional examples and non-fractional examples, and comparing fractions. However, FD students represented declarative farctional concepts, had difficulty in giving a good meaning notation, relation between components, classifying fractions and comparing them. FD students are fixated on fraction notation and the visualization of concrete objects. Overall, these results provide a detailed picture of the understanding of fractional concepts that, FI students tend to use coherent analysis, while FD students tended to be fixated on fractional notation and visualization of concrete objects.

  15. A flexible and accurate digital volume correlation method applicable to high-resolution volumetric images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bing; Wang, Bo

    2017-10-01

    Digital volume correlation (DVC) is a powerful technique for quantifying interior deformation within solid opaque materials and biological tissues. In the last two decades, great efforts have been made to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the DVC algorithm. However, there is still a lack of a flexible, robust and accurate version that can be efficiently implemented in personal computers with limited RAM. This paper proposes an advanced DVC method that can realize accurate full-field internal deformation measurement applicable to high-resolution volume images with up to billions of voxels. Specifically, a novel layer-wise reliability-guided displacement tracking strategy combined with dynamic data management is presented to guide the DVC computation from slice to slice. The displacements at specified calculation points in each layer are computed using the advanced 3D inverse-compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm with the complete initial guess of the deformation vector accurately predicted from the computed calculation points. Since only limited slices of interest in the reference and deformed volume images rather than the whole volume images are required, the DVC calculation can thus be efficiently implemented on personal computers. The flexibility, accuracy and efficiency of the presented DVC approach are demonstrated by analyzing computer-simulated and experimentally obtained high-resolution volume images.

  16. Fractional laser-mediated photodynamic therapy of high-risk basal cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, C S; Togsverd-Bo, K; Thaysen-Petersen, D

    2015-01-01

    efficacy and safety of AFXL-mediated PDT (AFXL-PDT) compared with conventional PDT of high-risk nBCC. METHODS: Patients with histologically verified facial nBCC (n = 32) defined as high-risk tumours were included; diameter > 15 mm, tumours located in high-risk zones, or on severely sun-damaged skin...... PDT (25%, 38%, 44%) (P = 0·114). Histology at 12 months documented equal tumour clearance after AFXL-PDT (63%, 10 of 16) and PDT (56%, 9 of 16). Cosmetic outcomes were highly satisfactory after both treatments (P > 0·090). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term efficacy was similar after PDT and AFXL-PDT with a trend...

  17. Operating manual for the High Flux Isotope Reactor. Volume I. Description of the facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    This volume contains a comprehensive description of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Facility. Its primary purpose is to supplement the detailed operating procedures, providing the reactor operators with background information on the various HFIR systems. The detailed operating procdures are presented in another report.

  18. Adoption of Lean Principles in a High-Volume Molecular Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P. Shawn; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical laboratories are constantly facing challenges to do more with less, enhance quality, improve test turnaround time, and reduce operational expenses. Experience with adopting and applying lean concepts and tools used extensively in the manufacturing industry is described for a high-volume clinical molecular microbiology laboratory, illustrating how operational success and benefits can be achieved. PMID:24829247

  19. High-volume plasma exchange in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Schmidt, Lars Ebbe; Bernsmeier, Christine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute liver failure (ALF) often results in cardiovascular instability, renal failure, brain oedema and death either due to irreversible shock, cerebral herniation or development of multiple organ failure. High-volume plasma exchange (HVP), defined as exchange of 8-12 or 15...... organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores fell in the treated group compared to control group, over the study period (p

  20. High-energy molecular lasers self-controlled volume-discharge lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, V V

    2016-01-01

    This book displays the physics and design of high-power molecular lasers. The lasers described are self-controlled volume-discharge lasers. The book explains self-sustained discharge lasers, self-initiated discharge lasers and technical approaches to laser design. Important topics discussed are laser efficiency, laser beam quality and electric field homogeneity. The book contains many new innovative applications.

  1. A lean production control system for high-variety/low-volume environments : a case study implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Germs, R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the success of lean manufacturing, many companies are interested in implementing a lean production control system. Lean production control principles include the levelling of production, the use of pull mechanisms and takt time control. These principles have mainly been applied in high volume

  2. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Larsson, Tanja Hultengren; Jørgensen, Majke

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT...

  3. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II.

  4. A new procedure for the determination of distillation temperature distribution of high-boiling petroleum products and fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marian

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of distillation temperatures of liquid and semi-fluid products, including petroleum fractions and products, is an important process and practical parameter. It provides information on properties of crude oil and content of particular fractions, classified on the basis of their boiling points, as well as the optimum conditions of atmospheric or vacuum distillation. At present, the distribution of distillation temperatures is often investigated by simulated distillation (SIMDIS) using capillary gas chromatography (CGC) with a short capillary column with polydimethylsiloxane as the stationary phase. This paper presents the results of investigations on the possibility of replacing currently used CGC columns for SIMDIS with a deactivated fused silica capillary tube without any stationary phase. The SIMDIS technique making use of such an empty fused silica column allows a considerable lowering of elution temperature of the analytes, which results in a decrease of the final oven temperature while ensuring a complete separation of the mixture. This eliminates the possibility of decomposition of less thermally stable mixture components and bleeding of the stationary phase which would result in an increase of the detector signal. It also improves the stability of the baseline, which is especially important in the determination of the end point of elution, which is the basis for finding the final temperature of distillation. This is the key parameter for the safety process of hydrocracking, where an excessively high final temperature of distillation of a batch can result in serious damage to an expensive catalyst bed. This paper compares the distribution of distillation temperatures of the fraction from vacuum distillation of petroleum obtained using SIMDIS with that obtained by the proposed procedure. A good agreement between the two procedures was observed. In addition, typical values of elution temperatures of n-paraffin standards obtained by the two

  5. DETERMINATION OF PROTEIN FRACTIONS IN THE BLOOD OF THE HIGH ECONOMIC VALUE FISH FARMED SPECIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. PATRICHE

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In aquaculture, as in any other sector where work is carried out on live bodies, to get a high production yield depends upon maintenance and monitoring of an unaltered health condition of the biological material. To monitor the health condition of the biological material in a fish farm allows us to establish the preventive measures required to stop the spread of disease and the treatment to be applied in case a mass disease occurs. For this reason to know the value of the total protein and the protein fractions in serum enables us to differentiate the normal physiological condition of the fish material under research, from the eventual pathological modifications having occurred due to the defence reaction of the body. The most part of diseases have but a little influence on the concentration of the total protein in the blood, but some influence on certain protein fractions, and they alter the ratio between albumins and globulins. The level of the total protein in serum is, first of all, a synthetic indicator of the nutritional condition of the body, presenting, at the same time, ample qualitative and quantitative variations depending on species, age, sex, stage of sexual maturity, water temperature and especially in correlation with the health condition of fish. Alterations of the ratio albumins/globulins or of the ratio between different protein fractions have important pathological implications, especially concerning the immunity capacity of fish, a decrease below 0.3 in value of the ratio albumins/globulins in serum being significant for the health condition of fish.

  6. A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: Animal tissue evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Robert Y., E-mail: rx-tang@laurentian.ca [Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); McDonald, Nancy, E-mail: mcdnancye@gmail.com; Laamanen, Curtis, E-mail: cx-laamanen@laurentian.ca [Department of Physics, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); LeClair, Robert J., E-mail: rleclair@laurentian.ca [Department of Physics, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6, Canada and Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient μ{sub s} of the remaining fatless tissue. Methods: The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, ν{sub fat} for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 × 10{sup −5} sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, μ{sub s} was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the μ{sub s} of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to μ{sub s} of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. Results: For chicken and beef composites, ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}=0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of μ{sub s} for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and μ{sub s} of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the

  7. Toxicity and efficacy of re-irradiation of high-grade glioma in a phase I dose- and volume escalation trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Munck Af Rosenschöld, Per; Costa, Junia

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of PET and MRI guided re-irradiation of recurrent high-grade glioma (HGG) and to assess the impact of radiotherapy dose, fractionation and irradiated volume. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with localized, recurrent HGG...... (grades III-IV) and no other treatment options were eligible for a prospective phase I trial. Gross tumor volumes for radiotherapy were defined using T1-contrast enhanced MRI and (18)F-fluoro-ethyl tyrosine PET. Radiotherapy was delivered using volumetric modulated arc therapy with a 2-mm margin. The dose...... and irreversible white matter changes. CONCLUSION: Re-irradiation showed limited efficacy and 43% of patients achieving disease control suffered late toxicity that was manageable but not negligible....

  8. High volume Pozzolan concrete:three years of industrial experience in Texas with CemPozz

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Clinton W; Ronin, Vladimir; Elfgren, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    High Volume Pozzolan Concrete (HVPC) can be manufactured with low carbon dioxide footprint and energy consumption with the help of a new technology based on Energetically Modified Cement (EMC). The technology consists of mechanical processing a blend of ordinary portland cement (PC) and a pozzolan (Class F fly ash) through multiple high intensity grinding mills. The process imparts an increased surface activation of the PC and the pozzolan particles. Fly ash may be processed with all cements ...

  9. Spatiotemporal Fractionation Schemes for Irradiating Large Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkelbach, Jan, E-mail: junkelbach@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bussière, Marc R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chapman, Paul H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S.; Shih, Helen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: To optimally exploit fractionation effects in the context of radiosurgery treatments of large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). In current practice, fractionated treatments divide the dose evenly into several fractions, which generally leads to low obliteration rates. In this work, we investigate the potential benefit of delivering distinct dose distributions in different fractions. Methods and Materials: Five patients with large cerebral AVMs were reviewed and replanned for intensity modulated arc therapy delivered with conventional photon beams. Treatment plans allowing for different dose distributions in all fractions were obtained by performing treatment plan optimization based on the cumulative biologically effective dose delivered at the end of treatment. Results: We show that distinct treatment plans can be designed for different fractions, such that high single-fraction doses are delivered to complementary parts of the AVM. All plans create a similar dose bath in the surrounding normal brain and thereby exploit the fractionation effect. This partial hypofractionation in the AVM along with fractionation in normal brain achieves a net improvement of the therapeutic ratio. We show that a biological dose reduction of approximately 10% in the healthy brain can be achieved compared with reference treatment schedules that deliver the same dose distribution in all fractions. Conclusions: Boosting complementary parts of the target volume in different fractions may provide a therapeutic advantage in fractionated radiosurgery treatments of large cerebral AVMs. The strategy allows for a mean dose reduction in normal brain that may be valuable for a patient population with an otherwise normal life expectancy.

  10. Early Fluid Resuscitation and High Volume Hemofiltration Decrease Septic Shock Progression in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effects of early fluid resuscitation (EFR combined with high volume hemofiltration (HVHF on the cardiopulmonary function and removal of inflammatory mediators in a septic shock swine model. Eighteen swine were randomized into three groups: control (n=6 (extracorporeal circulating blood only, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT (n=6; ultrafiltration volume = 25 mL/Kg/h, and HVHF (n=6; ultrafiltration volume = 85 mL/Kg/h. The septic shock model was established by intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharides (50 µg/kg/h. Hemodynamic parameters (arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume variability, left ventricular contractility, systemic vascular resistance, and central venous pressure, vasoactive drug parameters (dose and time of norepinephrine and hourly fluid intake, pulmonary function (partial oxygen pressure and vascular permeability, and cytokines (interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 were observed. Treatment resulted in significant changes at 4–6 h. HVHF was beneficial, as shown by the dose of vasoactive drugs, fluid intake volume, left ventricular contractility index, and partial oxygen pressure. Both CRRT and HVHF groups showed improved removal of inflammatory mediators compared with controls. In conclusion, EFR combined with HVHF improved septic shock in this swine model. The combination decreased shock progression, reduced the need for vasoactive drugs, and alleviated the damage to cardiopulmonary functions.

  11. Mechanical ventilation with high tidal volume and associated mortality in the cardiac intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorofsky, Matthew; Jayaraman, Dev; Lellouche, Francois; Husa, Regina; Lipes, Jed

    2014-03-01

    Use of protective ventilation has been shown to decrease mortality in medical-surgical ICUs. There is limited data on tidal volume use in ventilated patients in the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU). We hypothesized that large tidal volumes are used in the CICU and that they could contribute to an increase in morbidity and mortality. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all mechanically ventilated patients with congestive heart failure or cardiac arrest in a single tertiary care CICU between April 2010 and February 2012. Ventilator settings were analyzed and tidal volume for predicted body weight (VT/PBW) was calculated for 51 patients. The median initial tidal volume was 525 ml (IQR: 500-600) and median VT/PBW was 9.3 ml/kg (IQR: 8.3-10.1). Overall mortality was 29.4%. On univariate analysis, patients that received a VT/PBW below the median, mortality was 23.1% (95% CI: 7.9-39.3) compared to 36.0% (95% CI: 17.2-55.0) in patients that received a VT/PBW above themedian (P = 0.31). On multivariate analysis, the OR for death was 9.0 (95% CI: 1.3-62.0, P = 0.03) with VT/PBW above the median. Mechanical ventilation with high tidal volumes was associated with increased mortality in patients with congestive heart failure and post cardiac arrest in our CICU.

  12. Comparison of urine specimen collection times and testing fractions for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus and high-grade cervical precancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkomago, V; Des Marais, A C; Rahangdale, L; Vibat, C R T; Erlander, M G; Smith, J S

    2016-01-01

    Urine testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) detection could provide a non-invasive, simple method for cervical cancer screening. We examined whether HR-HPV detection is affected by urine collection time, portion of urine stream, or urine fraction tested, and assessed the performance of HR-HPV testing in urine for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II or worse (CIN2+). A total of 37 female colposcopy clinic attendees, ≥ 30 years, provided three urine samples: "first void" urine collected at home, and "initial stream" and "mid-stream" urine samples collected at the clinic later in the day. Self- and physician-collected brush specimens were obtained at the same clinic visit. Colposcopy was performed and directed biopsies obtained if clinically indicated. For each urine sample, HR-HPV DNA testing was conducted for unfractionated, pellet, and supernatant fractions using the Trovagene test. HR-HPV mRNA testing was performed on brush specimens using the Aptima HPV assay. HR-HPV prevalence was similar in unfractionated and pellet fractions of all urine samples. For supernatant urine fractions, HR-HPV prevalence appeared lower in mid-stream urine (56.8%[40.8-72.7%]) than in initial stream urine (75.7%[61.9-89.5%]). Sensitivity of CIN2+ detection was identical for initial stream urine and physician-collected cervical specimen (89.9%[95%CI=62.7-99.6%]), and similar to self-collected vaginal specimen (79.1%[48.1-96.6%]). This is among the first studies to compare methodologies for collection and processing of urine for HR-HPV detection. HR-HPV prevalence was similar in first void and initial stream urine, and was highly sensitive for CIN2+ detection. Additional research in a larger and general screening population is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (%1 repetition maximum-1RM and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifteen men (21+/-1 years; BMI=24.1+/-0.8 kg/m2 performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM until volitional failure (90FAIL, 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM, or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL. Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX, myofibrillar (MYO, and sarcoplasmic (SARC protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121% and MYO (87% protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199% above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P=0.023 and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P=0.025. Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (P<0.05 only in the 30FAIL condition at 4 h post-exercise, whereas, 4E-BP1Thr37/46 phosphorylation was greater 24 h after exercise than at rest in both 90FAIL (237% and 30FAIL (312% conditions. Pax7 mRNA expression increased at 24 h post-exercise (P=0.02 regardless of condition. The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that low-load high volume resistance exercise is more effective in inducing acute muscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes.

  14. Cleavage Fracture Toughness of SA508 Gr.4N High Strength Low Alloy Steel with Different Phase Fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Hyoung; Kim, Min Chul; Choi, Kwon Jae; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Materials for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) are required to have good mechanical properties to endure the severe operating conditions inside the reactor. Various researches have focused on improving mechanical properties by the controlling the heat treatment process of commercial SA508 Gr.3 RPV steel. Some studies for identifying new material with high strength and toughness for larger capacity and longer lifetime of reactor are being performed. SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel may be a promising RPV material due to its excellent mechanical properties from its tempered martensitic microstructure. Recently, some research showed that F/M steel composed of the tempered martensite has a steeper temperature dependency of the fracture toughness than the master curve expression. We have also focused on the steep transition properties of tempered martensitic SA508 Gr.4N steel in previous research. However, it has not yet confirmed that the transition behavior including temperature dependency with tempered martensite fraction. This investigation aims to evaluate the relationship between cleavage fracture toughness and tempered martensite fraction for SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel. For this purpose, the model alloys were prepared by controlling the cooling rate from the austenitization temperature. The cleavage fracture toughness was characterized in transition temperature region by 3-point bending tests. Based on the test results and a stress distribution near crack tip calculated in FE analysis, the relationship between the carbide size distributions and the transition properties are analyzed

  15. Unidirectional Cordenka Fibre-Reinforced Furan Resin Full Biocomposite: Properties and Influence of High Fibre Mass Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talent Malaba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A full biocomposite was fabricated from Cordenka CR fibre and furan resin. High fibre mass fractions (FMF were achieved by pressing the CR fibres into unidirectional sheets prior to incorporation into the resin. Results of testing indicated that the tensile properties of the biocomposite were improved by the initial increase of FMF from 51 to 64%, with a subsequent increase of FMF to 75% resulting in a deterioration of those properties. Examination of the tensile fracture surfaces with a scanning electron microscope (SEM revealed moderate deterioration in fibre-matrix adhesion after the initial increase of FMF. Further increase of the FMF to 75% was shown by SEM to result in worse fibre-matrix adhesion. On the other hand, the flexural, interlaminar-shear, and dynamic mechanical properties were adversely affected by the increase in fibre-mass fraction from 51 through 75%. These effects were mainly attributed to reduced fibre wetting that resulted in weakened fibre-matrix interfacial bonding and subsequent poor stress exchange at the fibre-matrix interface. Observations made with a digital microscope revealed normal crack behaviour in the laminated composite, and the shear fracture modes were I and II. This biocomposite has mechanical properties comparable to those of flax and glass fibre-reinforced furan resin biocomposites.

  16. Improvement of Oxygenation in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome With High-Volume Continuous Veno-venous Hemofiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenmin; Hong, Jie; Zeng, Qiyi; Tao, Jianping; Chen, Feiyan; Dang, Run; Liang, Yufeng; Wu, Zhiyuan; Yang, Yiyu

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and therapeutic mechanisms of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for improvement of oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain controversial. These questions were addressed by retrospective analysis of severe ARDS patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of our hospital from 2009 to 2015 who received high-volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration during mechanical ventilation. There was a significant improvement in partial oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) 24 hours after CRRT onset compared with baseline (median change = 51.5; range = −19 to 450.5; P CRRT. White blood cell (WBC) count decreased in the subgroup with high baseline WBC count (P < .05). PaO2/FiO2 was higher in ARDS patients with extrapulmonary etiology than in those with pulmonary etiology (P < .05). Improvement in oxygenation is likely related to both restoration of fluid balance and clearance of inflammatory mediators. PMID:27336018

  17. Improvement of Oxygenation in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome With High-Volume Continuous Veno-venous Hemofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenmin Yang MD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and therapeutic mechanisms of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT for improvement of oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS remain controversial. These questions were addressed by retrospective analysis of severe ARDS patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of our hospital from 2009 to 2015 who received high-volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration during mechanical ventilation. There was a significant improvement in partial oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2 24 hours after CRRT onset compared with baseline (median change = 51.5; range = −19 to 450.5; P < .001 as well as decreases in FiO2, peak inspiratory pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, and mean airway pressure (P < .05. The majority of patients had a negative fluid balance after 24 hours of CRRT. White blood cell (WBC count decreased in the subgroup with high baseline WBC count (P < .05. PaO2/FiO2 was higher in ARDS patients with extrapulmonary etiology than in those with pulmonary etiology (P < .05. Improvement in oxygenation is likely related to both restoration of fluid balance and clearance of inflammatory mediators.

  18. Whole-Body High-Pitch CT Angiography: Strategies to Reduce Radiation Dose and Contrast Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manneck, Sebastian; Hurwitz, Lynne M; Seaman, Danielle M; Heye, Tobias; Boll, Daniel T

    2017-10-05

    The purpose of this study was to assess the noninferiority of dual-source high-pitch CT angiography (CTA) performed with high-concentration (iopamidol 370) low-volume (60 mL) iodinated contrast material at low voltage (100 kVp) in comparison with dual-source high-pitch CTA with standard-of-care low-concentration (iopamidol 300) standard-volume (75 mL) iodinated contrast material at high voltage (120 kVp) to determine whether use of the high-concentration low-volume method would afford a reduction in radiation dose and contrast volume without negatively affecting vascular opacification. This study had three arms. A phantom was used to assess vascular contrast enhancement at different iodine and saline solution dilutions with iopamidol 300 or 370 to compare lower-iodination (iopamidol 300) high-voltage (120 kVp) high-pitch (120 kVp, 250 mAs) imaging with higher-iodination (iopamidol 370) low-voltage (100 kVp) high-pitch (100 kVp, 100-240 mAs) acquisition. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors were placed in an anthropomorphic phantom to extract organ-based radiation profiles, and ANOVA was performed. The study prospectively enrolled 150 patients: 50 patients received 75 mL iopamidol 300, and image acquisition was performed at 120 kVp and 250 mAs; 50 patients received 75 mL iopamidol 370, and acquisition was performed at 100 kVp and 240 mAs; and 50 patients received 60 mL iopamidol, and acquisition was performed at 370 at 100 kVp and 240 mAs. Vascular signal-to-noise ratio was evaluated at 18 anatomic locations. Longitudinal signal-to-noise ratio was used to assess homogeneity of contrast enhancement. Size-specific dose estimates were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed by ANOVA. Noninferiority of high-concentration (iopamidol 370) low-voltage (100 kVp) high-pitch acquisitions compared with low-concentration (iopamidol 300) high-voltage (120 kVp) high-pitch acquisition was achieved at 170 mAs in vitro. Radiation assessment showed significant

  19. Effects of Feeding Periods of High Cholesterol and Saturated Fat Diet on Blood Biochemistry and Hydroxyproline Fractions in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Siddiqi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia are considered as important risk factors during the atherosclerotic process. The aim of the present investigation was to study the total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, triglyceride (TG, platelet levels and hydroxyproline fractions during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. For this purpose, twenty five 12-weeks, New Zealand white male rabbits, were purchased, individually caged, and divided into either control group or cholesterol-fed group. The control group (n = 10 was fed 100 g/day of normal diet, ORC-4 (Oriental Yeast Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan for a period of 15 weeks. The cholesterol-fed group (n = 15 was fed a high cholesterol and saturated fat diet of ORC-4 containing 1% cholesterol plus 1% olive oil (100 g/day for periods of 5 (group 1, 10 (group 2 and 15 (group 3 weeks. Blood sample from each animal was taken at the end of the experimental period for the biochemical analysis. The results of the present study showed that TC, LDLC, TG, HDLC and platelets were significantly (P0.05. There was no significant (P>0.05 decrease of free serum hydroxyproline in group 3 rabbits when compared to control rabbits. On the other hand, group 3 rabbits showed a significant increase in peptide–bound and protein- bound Hyp by 517% (P0.05 change when compared to control rabbits. These results suggest that feeding rabbits high cholesterol and saturated fat diet for feeding periods of 5 , 10 and 15 weeks induced significant change in TC, LDLC, HDL, TG, platelet levels and various Hyp fractions in serum without any significant change in the total Hyp content.

  20. Power and pulse energy scaling for high-volume UV-laser microprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmdahl, Ralph; Haupt, Oliver; Bragin, Igor; Albrecht, Hans-Stephan

    2017-02-01

    In industrial laser micro processing, throughput is as important as process quality. Treating large areas in minimum time is pivotal in achieving reduced unit costs in high-volume production. Excimer lasers meet the requirements for clean and precise structuring and enable the smallest structures in an efficient way. The latest technical developments in high power excimer lasers is bound to take cost-efficient UV-laser micro processing to the next level and bridges the gap between achievable precision and achievable throughput. New excimer laser developments and beam concepts together with latest performance data for upscaling both UV power and UV pulse energy will be the topic of this paper against the background of upcoming market trends and high volume applications.

  1. Highly dealuminated Y zeolite as efficient adsorbent for the hydrophobic fraction from wastewater treatment plants effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalon, Sergio; Alvaro, Mercedes; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2009-07-15

    In this work we report that highly dealuminated zeolite Y is a hydrophobic material that is able to remove selectively fatty acids and hydrocarbon compounds from the effluent of an urban wastewater treatment plant (UWTP). This adsorbent capability of zeolite Y could lead to an improved quality of UWTP effluents. Typical domestic wastewaters contain detergents, soaps and surfactants that are only partially removed in conventional UWTP. In the present work using an effluent from a UWTP located at Ribarroja del Turia (Valencia, Spain) containing 10 ppm of total organic carbon, we have been able to retain by adsorption on the dealuminated Y zeolite up to 16 and 60% of the organic matter of the effluent at pH values 7.2 and 4, respectively. Characterization of the adsorbed organic matter by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), (1)H NMR and GC-MS after derivatization has shown that the zeolite adsorbs selectively the hydrophobic compounds of the effluent.

  2. A High Mass & Low Envelope Fraction for the Warm Neptune K2-55b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney; Sinukoff, Evan; Fulton, Benjamin; Lopez, Eric; Beichman, Charles; Howard, Andrew; Knutson, Heather; Werner, Michael; Schlieder, Joshua; Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Isaacson, Howard; Krick, Jessica; Gorjian, Varoujan; Livingston, John; Petigura, Erik; Akeson, Rachel; Batygin, Konstantin; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David; Crepp, Justin; Jasmine Gonzales, Erica; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Hirsch, Lea; Kosiarek, Molly; Weiss, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    The NASA K2 mission is using the Kepler spacecraft to search for transiting planets in multiple fields along the ecliptic plane. One of the planets detected by K2 is K2-55b, a warm Neptune in a short-period orbit (2.8 days) around a late K dwarf. We previously obtained near-infrared spectra from IRTF/SpeX to characterize the system and found that the host star K2-55 has a radius of 0.715 (+0.043/-0.040) solar radii, a mass of 0.668 (+/- 0.069) solar masses, and an effective temperature of 4300K (+100/-107). We then combined our updated stellar properties with new fits to the K2 photometry to estimate a planet radius of 4.38 (+0.29/-0.25) Earth radii, confirmed the transit ephemeris using Spitzer/IRAC (GO 11026, PI Werner), and embarked on radial velocity observations with Keck/HIRES to measure the planet mass. Our RV data suggest that K2-55b is much more massive than expected, indicating that the planet has a high density despite having a relatively high mass. The lack of a significant volatile envelope tests current theories of gas giant formation and indicates that K2-55b may have avoided runaway accretion by migration, delayed formation, or inefficient core accretion. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the NASA Sagan Fellowship Program and the NASA K2 Guest Observer Program. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  3. Fractional thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Povstenko, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to fractional thermoelasticity, i.e. thermoelasticity based on the heat conduction equation with differential operators of fractional order. Readers will discover how time-fractional differential operators describe memory effects and space-fractional differential operators deal with the long-range interaction. Fractional calculus, generalized Fourier law, axisymmetric and central symmetric problems and many relevant equations are featured in the book. The latest developments in the field are included and the reader is brought up to date with current research.  The book contains a large number of figures, to show the characteristic features of temperature and stress distributions and to represent the whole spectrum of order of fractional operators.  This work presents a picture of the state-of-the-art of fractional thermoelasticity and is suitable for specialists in applied mathematics, physics, geophysics, elasticity, thermoelasticity and engineering sciences. Corresponding sections of ...

  4. [Effects and mechanisms of high-volume hemofiltration on endotoxin-induced acute lung injury of piglets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W M; Yan, G F; Lu, Z J; Lu, G P

    2017-05-04

    Objective: To compare the effects of high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) and continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) on cardiopulmonary functions, lung fluid balance, lung damage and cytokine expression in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury piglet model, and to further evaluate the value of high-volume hemofiltration in acute lung injury. Method: Eighteen piglets were randomly divided into the control group (6 piglets), the CVVH group (6 piglets) and the HVHF group (6 piglets). By general anesthesia, the intravenous infusion of 0.15 mg/kg endotoxin were received in all the animals and induced acute lung injury.High-volume hemofiltration and continuous veno-venous hemofiltration were addressed to different groups.Subsequently, hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulse contour cardiac index, systemic venous resistance index and extravascular lung water index) as well as gas exchange and lung mechanics parameters (respiratory rate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen, dynamic lung compliance and airway resistance) were intermittently measured.Lung tissues were collected for further analysis (the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, lung injury scoring). The plasma protein levels of cytokines (interleukin(IL) -6, 10 and tumor necrosis factors alpha(TNF-α)) were also assessed.Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni post-test were conducted to identify significant differences among the control, CVVH and HVHF group. Result: Compared with CVVH, HVHF had the capacity to improve significantly the index of Cdyn(HVHF (2.3±0.5) vs. CVVH (1.5±0.5) ml/(cmH(2)O·kg), 1 cmH(2)O=0.098 kPa, Plung water accumulation(index of EVLWI in HVHF (22.7±2.1) vs.CVVH (39.5±2.6) ml/m(2,) Plung injury scoring of HVHF group was significantly lower than those of CVVH group((7.8±1.9) vs. (11.3±2.2) scores, Pvolume hemofiltration can improve respiratory function of piglets

  5. Prediction of equilibrium Li isotope fractionation between minerals and aqueous solutions at high P and T: An efficient ab initio approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr M.; Jahn, Sandro

    2011-10-01

    The mass-dependent equilibrium stable isotope fractionation between different materials is an important geochemical process. Here we present an efficient method to compute the isotope fractionation between complex minerals and fluids at high pressure, P, and temperature, T, representative for the Earth's crust and mantle. The method is tested by computation of the equilibrium fractionation of lithium isotopes between aqueous fluids and various Li bearing minerals such as staurolite, spodumene and mica. We are able to correctly predict the direction of the isotope fractionation as observed in the experiments. On the quantitative level the computed fractionation factors agree within 1.0‰ with the experimental values indicating predictive power of ab initio methods. We show that with ab initio methods we are able to investigate the underlying mechanisms driving the equilibrium isotope fractionation process, such as coordination of the fractionating elements, their bond strengths to the neighboring atoms, compression of fluids and thermal expansion of solids. This gives valuable insight into the processes governing the isotope fractionation mechanisms on the atomic scale. The method is applicable to any state and does not require different treatment of crystals and fluids.

  6. [Research on single phase high solid anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid wastes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-guo; Wu, Shi-yao; Sui, Ji-chao; Wang, Yan

    2008-04-01

    Under mesophilic condition (35 degrees C), a bench-scale experiment based on high solid anaerobic digestion process was conducted in a fed-batch single phase reactor to treat the OFMSW. The experiment has lasted for more than half a year and significant results were obtained. At the start-up stage, acidification occurred and showed large inhibition to gas production and the gas production rate once dropped to 0. After pH conditioning, the system has recovered and began to stably running. In this period, gas production rate reached 746.33 L/kg volatile solids (VS) [3.69 L/(L x d)] when the total solids (TS) content of the feeding waste was 24.79% and the VS content was 23.06%. The organic loading rate and hydraulic retention time(HRT) was 4.94 kg/(m3 x d) and 47 d respectively. However, with time went by, accumulated ammonia exceeded its limited value, which is deduced as 2000 mg/L, and the gas production rate dropped below half of the maximum value. By adding chemicals to diminish the amount of ammonia and adjusting the C/N of the feeding, inhibition was relaxed and gas production rate increased gradually.

  7. Fractionated high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the management of uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Chul; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon

    2002-12-01

    It is well known that intracavitary radiotherapy (ICR), either alone or in combination with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is an essential component of the radiation treatment of uterine cervical cancer. Although low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been successfully applied to the management of such patients, several radiation oncologists have experience of using high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with promising clinical results over the past 4 decades. However, there has been a considerable reluctance by radiation oncologists and gynecologists in North America to employ the HDR remote afterloading technique instead of the more firmly established LDR treatment modality. In contrast, the HDR-ICR system is rapidly gaining acceptance in Korea since the introduction of the Ralstron, remotely controlled afterloading system using HDR Co-60 sources, at the Yonsei Cancer Center in 1979. According to brachytherapy statistics reported by the Korean Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, in 1997, brachytherapy was performed upon 1,758 Korean patients with uterine cervical cancer, of whom approximately 83% received HDR brachytherapy. In this review, we present our experiences of HDR-ICR for the treatment of uterine cervical cancer. In addition, we discuss the controversial points, which are raised by those considering the use of HDR-ICR for uterine cervical cancer; these issues include physical and radiobiological considerations, and the prospect of future technical improvements.

  8. ESTIMATION OF STAND HEIGHT AND FOREST VOLUME USING HIGH RESOLUTION STEREO PHOTOGRAPHY AND FOREST TYPE MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha using normalized digital surface model (nDSM from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching. Then, digital terrain model (DTM was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.. Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (% and stand height (m. First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri’s ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service’s FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s–present will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

  9. Estimation of Stand Height and Forest Volume Using High Resolution Stereo Photography and Forest Type Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. M.

    2016-06-01

    Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha) using normalized digital surface model (nDSM) from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution) and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM) was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching). Then, digital terrain model (DTM) was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.). Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (%) and stand height (m). First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri's ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service's FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s-present) will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

  10. High-fluence and high-density treatment of perioral rhytides using a new, fractionated 2,790-nm ablative erbium-doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocon, David H; Hussain, Mussarat; Goldberg, David J

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel 2,790-nm erbium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser system for the treatment of facial photodamage and perioral wrinkles using a single-treatment, high-fluence, high-density protocol. Eleven female participants with Fitzpatrick skin types II to III and facial wrinkles underwent a single full-face fractional ablative treatment with a 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser. Follow-up visits were completed at 1, 2, and 6 weeks 3 and 6 months. Quartile improvement scale (0-4) and Fitzpatrick wrinkle scores (1-9) were used for the assessments. Based on blinded photographic assessments, the mean difference in Fitzpatrick wrinkle scores for full face wrinkles was 1.5 ± 1.2 (a reduction from 6.6 to 5.1; paired t-test, p = .003). There was also a statistically significant mean reduction of 1.7 ± 1.3 in perioral wrinkle scores (from 6.7 to 5.0; p = .002). No serious adverse events were reported. A novel, fractionated, ablative 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser can safely and effectively treat photodamage and perioral wrinkles in a single treatment using a high-fluence, high-density protocol. Cutera provided the equipment used in this study and funding to Dr. Goldberg. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  11. Validated high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method for simultaneous determination of nadifloxacin, mometasone furoate, and miconazole nitrate cream using fractional factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana G. Patel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of nadifloxacin, mometasone furoate, and miconazole nitrate was developed and validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. High-performance thin-layer chromatographic separation was performed on aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 and methanol:ethyl acetate:toluene: acetonitrile:3M ammonium formate in water (1:2.5:6.0:0.3:0.2, % v/v as optimized mobile phase at detection wavelength of 224 nm. The retardation factor (Rf values for nadifloxacin, mometasone furoate, and miconazole nitrate were 0.23, 0.70, and 0.59, respectively. Percent recoveries in terms of accuracy for the marketed formulation were found to be 98.35–99.76%, 99.36–99.65%, and 99.16–100.25% for nadifloxacin, mometasone furoate, and miconazole nitrate, respectively. The pooled percent relative standard deviation for repeatability and intermediate precision studies was found to be < 2% for three target analytes. The effect of four independent variables, methanol content in total mobile phase, wavelength, chamber saturation time, and solvent front, was evaluated by fractional factorial design for robustness testing. Amongst all four factors, volume of methanol in mobile phase appeared to have a possibly significant effect on retention factor of miconazole nitrate compared with the other two drugs nadifloxacin and mometasone furoate, and therefore it was important to be carefully controlled. In summary, a novel, simple, accurate, reproducible, and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method was developed, which would be of use in quality control of these cream formulations.

  12. Use of bran fractions and debranned kernels for the development of pasta with high nutritional and healthy potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccoritti, Roberto; Taddei, Federica; Nicoletti, Isabella; Gazza, Laura; Corradini, Danilo; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Martini, Daniela

    2017-06-15

    The quality of pasta produced with debranning products (bran fractions, BF, and debranned kernels, DK) of durum wheat was investigated by evaluating their total antioxidant capacity, occurrence of nutritional and bioactive compounds, and sensory properties. Two pasta samples, produced with BF-enriched semolina (BF pasta) or only with micronized DK (DK pasta), respectively, were compared with pasta made with traditional semolina (control pasta). BF pasta and DK pasta displayed significantly higher content of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds and dietary fibre, than control pasta, to a different extent for the diverse compounds. The present study indicates that the debranning process allows to produce pasta with a high content of healthy compounds and minimal effects on sensory properties, using only the natural endowment of durum wheat. This approach is suitable to produce cereal-based foods with the potential nutritional and health benefits of partially refined cereals and limitation of their main drawbacks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Atrial Fibrillation in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Association With Exercise Capacity, Left Ventricular Filling Pressures, Natriuretic Peptides, and Left Atrial Volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Carolyn S. P.; Rienstra, Michiel; Tay, Wan-Ting; Liu, Licette C. Y.; Hummel, Yoran M.; van der Meer, Peter; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Hoendermis, Elke S.

    OBJECTIVES This study sought to study the association of atrial fibrillation (AF) with exercise capacity, left ventricular filling pressure, natriuretic peptides, and left atrial size in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). BACKGROUND The diagnosis of HFpEF in patients with AF

  14. A Study on the Evaluation of Field Application of High-Fluidity Concrete Containing High Volume Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Wang Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent concrete industry, high-fluidity concrete is being widely used for the pouring of dense reinforced concrete. Normally, in the case of high-fluidity concrete, it includes high binder contents, so it is necessary to replace part of the cement through admixtures such as fly ash to procure economic feasibility and durability. This study shows the mechanical properties and field applicability of high-fluidity concrete using mass of fly ash as alternative materials of cement. The high-fluidity concrete mixed with 50% fly ash was measured to manufacture concrete that applies low water/binder ratio to measure the mechanical characteristics as compressive strength and elastic modulus. Also, in order to evaluate the field applicability, high-fluidity concrete containing high volume fly ash was evaluated for fluidity, compressive strength, heat of hydration, and drying shrinkage of concrete.

  15. Changes of the transverse diameter and volume and dosimetry before the 25th fraction during the course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Haihua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Taizhou, Zhejiang (China); Hu Wei, E-mail: huw@tzhospital.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Taizhou, Zhejiang (China); Ding Weijun; Shan Guoping; Wang Wei; Yu Changhui; Wang Biyun; Shao Minghai; Wang Jianhua; Yang Weifang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Taizhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2012-07-01

    To quantify changes of the transverse diameter and volume and dosimetry, and to illustrate the inferiority of non-replanning during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Fifty-three NPC patients who received IMRT in 33 fractions were enrolled in this prospective trial. Before the 25th fraction, a new simulation computed tomography (CT) scan was acquired for all patients. The dose-volume histograms of the phantom plan were compared with the initial plan. Significant reduction of the transverse diameter of the nasopharyngeal, the neck, and 2 parotid glands volume was observed on second CT compared with the first CT (mean reduction 7.48 {+-} 4.45 mm, 6.80 {+-} 15.14 mm, 5.70 {+-} 6.26 mL, and 5.04 {+-} 5.85 mL, respectively; p < 0.01). The maximum dose and V-40 of the spinal cord, mean dose, and V30 of the left and right parotid, and V-50 of the brain stem were increased significantly in the phantom plan compared with the initial plan (mean increase 4.75 {+-} 5.55 Gy, 7.18 {+-} 10.07%, 4.51 {+-} 8.55 Gy, 6.59 {+-} 17.82%, 5.33 {+-} 8.55 Gy, 11.68 {+-} 17.11% and 1.48 {+-} 3.67%, respectively; p < 0.01). On the basis of dose constraint criterion in the RTOG0225 protocol, the dose of the normal critical structures for 52.83% (28/53) of the phantom plans were out of limit compared with 1.89% (1/53) of the initial plans (p < 0.0001). Because of the significant change in anatomy and dose before the 25th fraction during IMRT, replanning should be necessary during IMRT with NPC.

  16. Nitrogen and hydrogen fractionation in high-mass star-forming cores from observations of HCN and HNC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, L.; Fontani, F.; Caselli, P.; Ceccarelli, C.; Hily-Blant, P.; Bizzocchi, L.

    2018-02-01

    The ratio between the two stable isotopes of nitrogen, 14N and 15N, is well measured in the terrestrial atmosphere ( 272), and for the pre-solar nebula ( 441, deduced from the solar wind). Interestingly, some pristine solar system materials show enrichments in 15N with respect to the pre-solar nebula value. However, it is not yet clear if and how these enrichments are linked to the past chemical history because we have only a limited number of measurements in dense star-forming regions. In this respect, dense cores, which are believed to be the precursors of clusters and also contain intermediate- and high-mass stars, are important targets because the solar system was probably born within a rich stellar cluster, and such clusters are formed in high-mass star-forming regions. The number of observations in such high-mass dense cores has remained limited so far. In this work, we show the results of IRAM-30 m observations of the J = 1-0 rotational transition of the molecules HCN and HNC and their 15N-bearing counterparts towards 27 intermediate- and high-mass dense cores that are divided almost equally into three evolutionary categories: high-mass starless cores, high-mass protostellar objects, and ultra-compact HII regions. We have also observed the DNC(2-1) rotational transition in order to search for a relation between the isotopic ratios D/H and 14N/15N. We derive average 14N/15N ratios of 359 ± 16 in HCN and of 438 ± 21 in HNC, with a dispersion of about 150-200. We find no trend of the 14N/15N ratio with evolutionary stage. This result agrees with what has been found for N2H+ and its isotopologues in the same sources, although the 14N/15N ratios from N2H+ show a higher dispersion than in HCN/HNC, and on average, their uncertainties are larger as well. Moreover, we have found no correlation between D/H and 14N/15N in HNC. These findings indicate that (1) the chemical evolution does not seem to play a role in the fractionation of nitrogen, and that (2) the

  17. Frequency dependence of lung volume changes during superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation and high-frequency jet ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, R; Priori, R; Larsson, A; LoMauro, A; Frykholm, P; Aliverti, A

    2014-01-01

    Superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation (SHFJV) has proved to be safe and effective in clinical practice. However, it is unclear which frequency range optimizes ventilation and gas exchange. The aim of this study was to systematically compare high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) with HFJV by assessing chest wall volume variations (ΔEEV(CW)) and gas exchange in relation to variable high frequency. SHFJV or HFJV were used alternatively to ventilate the lungs of 10 anaesthetized pigs (21-25 kg). The low-frequency component was kept at 16 min(-1) in SHFJV. In both modes, high frequencies ranging from 100 to 1000 min(-1) were applied in random order and ventilation was maintained for 5 min in all modalities. Chest wall volume variations were obtained using opto-electronic plethysmography. Airway pressures and arterial blood gases were measured repeatedly. SHFJV increased ΔEEV(CW) compared with HFJV; the difference ranged from 43 to 68 ml. Tidal volume (V(T)) was always >240 ml during SHFJV whereas during HFJV ranged from 92 ml at the ventilation frequency of 100 min(-1) to negligible values at frequencies >300 min(-1). We observed similar patterns for Pa(O₂) and Pa(CO₂). SHFJV provided generally higher, frequency-independent oxygenation (Pa(O₂) at least 32.0 kPa) and CO₂ removal (Pa(CO₂) ∼5.5 kPa), whereas HFJV led to hypoxia and hypercarbia at higher rates (Pa(O₂) 10 kPa at f(HF)>300 min(-1)). In a porcine model, SHFJV was more effective in increasing end-expiratory volume than single-frequency HFJV, but both modes may provide adequate ventilation in the absence of airway obstruction and respiratory disease, except for HFJV at frequencies ≥300 min(-1).

  18. Mitochondrial adaptations to high-volume exercise training are rapidly reversed after a reduction in training volume in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Cesare; Oliveira, Rodrigo S F; Little, Jonathan P; Renner, Kathrin; Bishop, David J

    2016-10-01

    Increased mitochondrial content and respiration have both been reported after exercise training. However, no study has directly compared how different training volumes influence mitochondrial respiration and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Ten healthy men performed high-intensity interval cycling during 3 consecutive training phases; 4 wk of normal-volume training (NVT; 3/wk), followed by 20 d of high-volume training (HVT; 2/d) and 2 wk of reduced-volume training (RVT; 5 sessions). Resting biopsy samples (vastus lateralis) were obtained at baseline and after each phase. No mitochondrial parameter changed after NVT. After HVT, mitochondrial respiration and citrate synthase activity (∼40-50%), as well as the protein content of electron transport system (ETS) subunits (∼10-40%), and that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), NRF1, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), PHF20, and p53 (∼65-170%) all increased compared to baseline; mitochondrial specific respiration remained unchanged. After RVT, all the mitochondrial parameters measured except citrate synthase activity (∼36% above initial) were not significantly different compared to baseline (all P > 0.05). Our findings demonstrate that training volume is an important determinant of training-induced mitochondrial adaptations and highlight the rapid reversibility of human skeletal muscle to a reduction in training volume.-Granata, C., Oliveira, R. S. F., Little, J. P., Renner, K., Bishop, D. J. Mitochondrial adaptations to high-volume exercise training are rapidly reversed after a reduction in training volume in human skeletal muscle. © FASEB.

  19. Continuously tunable photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using a high-contrast germanium-doped silica-on-silicon microring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahoei, Hiva; Dumais, Patrick; Yao, Jianping

    2014-05-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a continuously tunable fractional Hilbert transformer (FHT) based on a high-contrast germanium-doped silica-on-silicon (SOS) microring resonator (MRR). The propagation loss of a high-contrast germanium-doped SOS waveguide can be very small (0.02 dB/cm) while the lossless bend radius can be less than 1 mm. These characteristics lead to the fabrication of an MRR with a high Q-factor and a large free-spectral range (FSR), which is needed to implement a Hilbert transformer (HT). The SOS MRR is strongly polarization dependent. By changing the polarization direction of the input signal, the phase shift introduced at the center of the resonance spectrum is changed. The tunable phase shift at the resonance wavelength can be used to implement a tunable FHT. A germanium-doped SOS MRR with a high-index contrast of 3.8% is fabricated. The use of the fabricated MRR for the implementation of a tunable FHT with tunable orders at 1, 0.85, 0.95, 1.05, and 1.13 for a Gaussian pulse with the temporal full width at half-maximum of 80 ps is experimentally demonstrated.

  20. Comparison of Moderate and High Energy of a Nano-Fractional Radiofrequency Treatment on a Photoaging Hairless Mice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjia; Zhang, Chengfeng; Zhao, Juemin; Wu, Jiaqiang; Xiang, Leihong

    2017-10-19

    Fractional radiofrequency (FRF) has been widely used in skin rejuvenation. To explore optimal settings, it is important to compare different treatment parameters. This study was designed to compare the effect of moderate-energy and high-energy FRF treatment on a hairless mice model. Fifteen photoaged hairless mice were assigned to 3 groups: control, moderate energy, and high energy. Two treatment sessions (T × 1 and T × 2) were performed at 1-month interval. Transepidermal water loss was measured at baseline, immediately, 1, 2, and 4 weeks after T × 1. Skin samples were harvested before each treatment, 1 and 2 months after T × 2. Neocollagenesis was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson staining, and immunohistochemistry analysis. Transepidermal water loss of high-energy group was significantly higher than the moderate-energy group (p = .008) immediately after T × 1. Remarkable fibroblast proliferation was observed at 1 month after T × 1, followed by significant dermal thickening, and increase of Type I collagen and Type III collagen. There was no significant difference between 2 energy groups in fibroblast proliferation, dermal thickness, and collagen density. The effect of moderate-energy treatment was comparable with that of high energy in neocollagenesis, whereas moderate energy yielded less damage to skin barrier function.

  1. {sup 90}Y -PET imaging: Exploring limitations and accuracy under conditions of low counts and high random fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.carlier@chu-nantes.fr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Nantes, Place Alexis Ricordeau, Nantes 44093, France and CRCNA–UMR 892 INSERM 6299 CNRS, 8 quai Moncousu BP 70721, Nantes 44007 (France); Willowson, Kathy P. [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Fourkal, Eugene [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States); Bailey, Dale L. [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe 2141, Australia and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales 2065 (Australia); Doss, Mohan [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States); Conti, Maurizio [Siemens Healthcare Molecular Imaging, 810 Innovation Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37932 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: {sup 90}Y -positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is becoming a recognized modality for postinfusion quantitative assessment following radioembolization therapy. However, the extremely low counts and high random fraction associated with {sup 90}Y -PET may significantly impair both qualitative and quantitative results. The aim of this work was to study image quality and noise level in relation to the quantification and bias performance of two types of Siemens PET scanners when imaging {sup 90}Y and to compare experimental results with clinical data from two types of commercially available {sup 90}Y microspheres. Methods: Data were acquired on both Siemens Biograph TruePoint [non-time-of-flight (TOF)] and Biograph microcomputed tomography (mCT) (TOF) PET/CT scanners. The study was conducted in three phases. The first aimed to assess quantification and bias for different reconstruction methods according to random fraction and number of true counts in the scan. The NEMA 1994 PET phantom was filled with water with one cylindrical insert left empty (air) and the other filled with a solution of {sup 90}Y . The phantom was scanned for 60 min in the PET/CT scanner every one or two days. The second phase used the NEMA 2001 PET phantom to derive noise and image quality metrics. The spheres and the background were filled with a {sup 90}Y solution in an 8:1 contrast ratio and four 30 min acquisitions were performed over a one week period. Finally, 32 patient data (8 treated with Therasphere{sup ®} and 24 with SIR-Spheres{sup ®}) were retrospectively reconstructed and activity in the whole field of view and the liver was compared to theoretical injected activity. Results: The contribution of both bremsstrahlung and LSO trues was found to be negligible, allowing data to be decay corrected to obtain correct quantification. In general, the recovered activity for all reconstruction methods was stable over the range studied, with a small bias appearing at extremely

  2. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate of whole was the highest for the LE (p citrus by-products lag time was longer for hemicellulose than other carbohydrate fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p citrus by-products have high potential for degradability. It could also be concluded that carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have remarkable difference in digestion kinetics and digestive behavior.

  3. Explaining Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Use of High-Volume Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Kronebusch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Racial/ethnic minorities are less likely to use higher-quality hospitals than whites. We propose that a higher level of information-related complexity in their local hospital environments compounds the effects of discrimination and more limited access to services, contributing to racial/ethnic disparities in hospital use. While minorities live closer than whites to high-volume hospitals, minorities also face greater choice complexity and live in neighborhoods with lower levels of medical experience. Our empirical results reveal that it is generally the overall context associated with proximity, choice complexity, and local experience, rather than differential sensitivity to these factors, that provides a partial explanation of the disparity gap in high-volume hospital use.

  4. Explaining Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Use of High-Volume Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Bradford H.; Schlesinger, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities are less likely to use higher-quality hospitals than whites. We propose that a higher level of information-related complexity in their local hospital environments compounds the effects of discrimination and more limited access to services, contributing to racial/ethnic disparities in hospital use. While minorities live closer than whites to high-volume hospitals, minorities also face greater choice complexity and live in neighborhoods with lower levels of medical experience. Our empirical results reveal that it is generally the overall context associated with proximity, choice complexity, and local experience, rather than differential sensitivity to these factors, that provides a partial explanation of the disparity gap in high-volume hospital use. PMID:25316717

  5. Mechanical behaviour and durability of high volume fly ash cementitious composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Haider

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to separate different morphological particles of ASTM class F fly ash, and study their effect on mechanical behaviour and durability of high volume cementitious mixtures. In this research wet separation of raw fly ash is carried out, which resulted in three layers of different morphological particles. The first layer of particles float, comprise of about 1-5% of fly ash, is identified as cenospheres or hollow spheres. The second layer of particles is measured to be 55-60% of raw fly ash and consisting of porous spherical and rounded particles rich in Si and Al. The third layer particles is measured to be about 35-40% of raw fly ash. High volume fly ash cementitious composites containing second or third layer particles are tested under compression and bending, highlighting a higher strength and ductility in comparison to cementitious ones containing raw fly ash particles

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of fractional bipolar radiofrequency with high-energy strategy for treatment of acne scars in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaolei; Li, Hui; Jian, Xingling; Yu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Fractional technology overcomes several problems of ablative lasers such as a high incidence rate of post- inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). A new technology fractional radiofrequency, which induces deep dermal heating and leaves the epidermal less affected results in less adverse effect in Chinese. To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerance of fractional bipolar radiofrequency (RF) in the treatment of acne scars in Asian people with the strategy of high energy. Twenty-six healthy Asian patients with acne scars received four monthly high energy (85-95mj/pin) treatments with a fractional bipolar RF device. Improvement and tolerance were evaluated at each treatment and a 4-week and 12-week follow-up visit. Twenty-three patients completed the study. Acne score showed a significantly decrease at 4-week and 12-week follow-up visits. Patients' evaluation of global improvement and satisfaction increased at the 12-week visit compared with baseline. Side effects were limited to transient pain, erythema, dryness and low risk of PIH. Treatment with high energy of fractional bipolar RF is safe and effective for acne scars in Asian people. Common side effects such as PIH, eschars are less than fractional lasers.

  7. A comparison of low volume 'high-intensity-training' and high volume traditional resistance training methods on muscular performance, body composition, and subjective assessments of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessing, J; Eichmann, B; Steele, J; Fisher, J

    2016-09-01

    Most studies of resistance training (RT) examine methods that do not resemble typical training practices of persons participating in RT. Ecologically valid RT programs more representative of such practices are seldom compared. This study compared two such approaches to RT. Thirty participants (males, n = 13; females, n = 17) were randomised to either a group performing low volume 'High Intensity Training' (HIT; n = 16) or high volume 'Body-building' (3ST; n = 14) RT methods 2x/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included muscular performance, body composition, and participant's subjective assessments. Both HIT and 3ST groups improved muscular performance significantly (as indicated by 95% confidence intervals) with large effect sizes (ES; 0.97 to 1.73 and 0.88 to 1.77 respectively). HIT had significantly greater muscular performance gains for 3 of 9 tested exercises compared with 3ST (p < 0.05) and larger effect sizes for 8 of 9 exercises. Body composition did not significantly change in either group. However, effect sizes for whole body muscle mass changes were slightly more favourable in the HIT group compared with the 3ST group (0.27 and -0.34 respectively) in addition to whole body fat mass (0.03 and 0.43 respectively) and whole body fat percentage (-0.10 and -0.44 respectively). Significant muscular performance gains can be produced using either HIT or 3ST. However, muscular performance gains may be greater when using HIT. Future research should look to identify which components of ecologically valid RT programs are primarily responsible for these differences in outcome.

  8. Comparison of Outcomes for Off-Pump Versus On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Low-Volume and High-Volume Centers and by Low-Volume and High-Volume Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Umberto; Lau, Christopher; Caputo, Massimo; Kim, Luke; Feldman, Dmitriy N; Ohmes, Lucas B; Di Franco, Antonino; Soletti, Giovanni; Angelini, Gianni D; Girardi, Leonard N; Gaudino, Mario

    2018-03-01

    In terms of in-hospital outcomes, controversy still remains whether off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting is superior to on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. We investigated whether the volume of off-pump coronary artery bypass procedures by hospital and individual surgeon influences patient outcomes when compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Discharge records from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were retrospectively reviewed for in-hospital admissions from 2003 to 2011, including 999 hospitals in 44 states. A total of 2,094,094 patients undergoing on- and off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery were included. In patients requiring 2 or more grafts, off-pump coronary artery bypass compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass was associated with increased risk-adjusted mortality when performed in low-volume centers (pump coronary artery bypass centers (≥164 cases per year) and surgeons (≥48 cases per year), off-pump coronary artery bypass reduced mortality compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass in cases requiring a single graft (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.89 and OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.47, respectively) or 2 or more grafts (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.99 and OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.81, respectively). In conclusion, the outcome of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting procedures is dependent on volume at both the institution and the individual surgeon level. Off-pump coronary artery bypass should not be performed at low-volume centers and by low-volume surgeons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimating the extent of the health hazard posed by high-production volume chemicals.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, A.R.; Rosenkranz, H S

    2001-01-01

    We used structure-activity relationship modeling to estimate the number of toxic chemicals among the high-production volume (HPV) group. We selected 200 chemicals from among the HPV chemical list and predicted the potential of each for its ability to induce a variety of adverse effects including genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, developmental, and systemic toxicity. We found a significantly less than expected proportion of toxic chemicals among the HPV sample when compared to a reference set of ...

  10. Pozzolanic Activity Assessment of LUSI (LUmpur SIdoarjo) Mud in Semi High Volume Pozzolanic Mortar

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Christianto; Wibowo, Gunadi M.; Djwantoro Hardjito; , Antoni

    2012-01-01

    LUSI mud obtained from the mud volcano in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, is a viable aluminosilicate material to be utilized as pozzolanic material. LUSI is an abbreviation of the local name of the mud, i.e., Lumpur Sidoarjo, meaning Sidoarjo mud. This paper reports the results of an investigation to assess the pozzolanic activity of LUSI mud, especially in semi high volume pozzolanic mortar. In this case, the amount of mud incorporated is between 30% to 40% of total cementitious material, by mass. The...

  11. Optimisation of nano-silica modified self-compacting high-Volume fly ash mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achara, Bitrus Emmanuel; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Fadhil Nuruddin, Muhd

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of the effects of nano-silica amount and superplasticizer (SP) dosage on the compressive strength, porosity and slump flow on high-volume fly ash self-consolidating mortar was investigated. Multiobjective optimisation technique using Design-Expert software was applied to obtain solution based on desirability function that simultaneously optimises the variables and the responses. A desirability function of 0.811 gives the optimised solution. The experimental and predicted results showed minimal errors in all the measured responses.

  12. Testing of Dependencies between Stock Returns and Trading Volume by High Frequency Data

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Gurgul; Robert Syrek

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a dependence analysis of returns, return volatility and trading volume for five companies listed on the Vienna Stock Exchange and five from the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Taking into account high frequency data for these companies, tests based on a comparison of Bernstein copula densities using the Hellinger distance were conducted. The paper presents some patterns of causal and other relationships between stock returns, realized volatility and expected and unexpected...

  13. Animal Use and Lessons Learned in the U.S. High Production Volume Chemicals Challenge Program

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Patricia L.; Manuppello, Joseph R.; Willett, Catherine E.; Sandler, Jessica T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Launched by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1998, the High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program was developed to address the perceived gap in basic hazard information for the 2,800 chemicals produced or imported into the United States in quantities of ? 1 million pounds per year. Health and environmental effects data obtained from either existing information or through new vertebrate animal testing were voluntarily submitted by chemical companies (sponsors) ...

  14. Properties of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Reinforced with Natural Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat SIDDIQUE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Properties of high-volume fly ash concrete incorporating san fibres are presented in this paper. For this investigation, initially, three concrete mixtures were made with 35%, 45%, and 55% of Class F fly as partial replacement of cement. After this, three percentages (0.25, 0.50, and 0.75% of san fibres (25 mm length were added in each of the fly ash concrete mixtures. San is a natural bast fibre, and is also known as Sunn Hemp (Botanical name: Crotalaria Juncea. It is grown in Indian Sub-Continent, Brazil, Eastern and Southern Africa, and also in some parts of U.S.A. Tests were performed for compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and impact strength at the ages of 28, 91 and 365 days. Tests were also performed for fresh concrete properties. 28 days test results indicated that san fibres reduced the compressive strength of high-volume fly ash concrete by 2 to 13%, increased splitting tensile strength by 6 to 26%, flexural strength by 5 to 14%, and enhanced impact strength tremendously (by 100 to 300% depending upon the fly ash content and fibre percentage. Later age (91 and 365 days results showed continuous increase in strength properties of high-volume fly ash concrete. This was probably be possible due to the pozzolanic action of fly ash, leading to more densification of the concrete matrix, and development of more effective bond between fibres and fly ash concrete matrix.

  15. High field volume coil with unbalance current distribution for MRI applications of rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrufo, O. R.; Hernández, J.; Rodríguez, A. O.

    2010-12-01

    The development of transceiver volume coils for high field MRI is still a very dynamic field of investigation and development Temnikov has been recently proposed a new volume coil design, similar to the to the gradiometer coil. It is also claimed that it is possible to individually tune it with a single chip capacitor. This motivated the development of a coil prototype based on this idea for whole-body MRI of rodents at 7 Tesla. Electromagnetic simulations of the RF field generated by this coil design were previously performed to study its properties. Electromagnetic simulations were also conducted for a standard birdcage coil with similar dimensions for fare comparison. In all numerical simulations, an unbalanced currents distribution was assumed by applying half the current intensity to designated legs. This coil design operated in the transceiver mode and was linear-driven. The coil size was manufactured to accommodate small rodents. Numerical simulations showed a field uniformity improvement of our coil over the standard birdcage coil. A popular birdcage coil was also constructed to compare their performances. Phantom and rat images were acquired for both volume coils to prove the viability of this coil design for high field MRI applications and standard spin echo pulse sequences Thus, these preliminary results make this coil design a good candidate for MRI and MRS applications of high magnetic fields.

  16. Feasibility Tests on Concrete with Very-High-Volume Supplementary Cementitious Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Hyeok Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the compressive strength and durability of very high-volume SCM concrete. The prepared 36 concrete specimens were classified into two groups according to their designed 28-day compressive strength. For the high-volume SCM, the FA level was fixed at a weight ratio of 0.4 and the GGBS level varied between the weight ratio of 0.3 and 0.5, which resulted in 70–90% replacement of OPC. To enhance the compressive strength of very high-volume SCM concrete at an early age, the unit water content was controlled to be less than 150 kg/m3, and a specially modified polycarboxylate-based water-reducing agent was added. Test results showed that as SCM ratio (RSCM increased, the strength gain ratio at an early age relative to the 28-day strength tended to decrease, whereas that at a long-term age increased up to RSCM of 0.8, beyond which it decreased. In addition, the beneficial effect of SCMs on the freezing-and-thawing and chloride resistances of the concrete decreased at RSCM of 0.9. Hence, it is recommended that RSCM needs to be restricted to less than 0.8–0.85 in order to obtain a consistent positive influence on the compressive strength and durability of SCM concrete.

  17. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  18. An Improved Estimation of Regional Fractional Woody/Herbaceous Cover Using Combined Satellite Data and High-Quality Training Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapping vegetation cover is critical for understanding and monitoring ecosystem functions in semi-arid biomes. As existing estimates tend to underestimate the woody cover in areas with dry deciduous shrubland and woodland, we present an approach to improve the regional estimation of woody and herbaceous fractional cover in the East Asia steppe. This developed approach uses Random Forest models by combining multiple remote sensing data—training samples derived from high-resolution image in a tailored spatial sampling and model inputs composed of specific metrics from MODIS sensor and ancillary variables including topographic, bioclimatic, and land surface information. We emphasize that effective spatial sampling, high-quality classification, and adequate geospatial information are important prerequisites of establishing appropriate model inputs and achieving high-quality training samples. This study suggests that the optimal models improve estimation accuracy (NMSE 0.47 for woody and 0.64 for herbaceous plants and show a consistent agreement with field observations. Compared with existing woody estimate product, the proposed woody cover estimation can delineate regions with subshrubs and shrubs, showing an improved capability of capturing spatialized detail of vegetation signals. This approach can be applicable over sizable semi-arid areas such as temperate steppes, savannas, and prairies.

  19. A prediction method for entrained liquid fraction in adiabatic gas-liquid flow at high reduced pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minko, M. V.; Yagov, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    A goal of the study is development of an approximate but well-grounded model of entrainment/deposition processes in annular two-phase flow at high reduced pressures (p/pcr>0.45). Nakazatomi and Sekoguchi (1996) have presented the unique experimental data on liquid distribution between the core and the film in air/water two-phase flow at high pressures, up to 20 MPa; at pressures higher 10 MPa the data feature with abnormally high fraction of entrained liquid and manifest very strong deviation from any known empirical correlations, including the recent one by Cioncolini and Thome (2012). In deducing the approximate model of droplets entrainment, we used the experimental observations, according to which a liquid film becomes thin and smooth at high reduced pressures. A plenty of tiny droplets detach from the liquid film surface at the points, which spacing is determined as a length scale in Weber number for gas flow. This spacing and the liquid film thickness are assumed being the parameters controlling a droplet departure diameter. These assumptions allow developing an equation for calculating entrainment intensity at high reduced pressures. A balance between the flows of droplets entrainment and deposition due to turbulent diffusion corresponds to the dynamic equilibrium. The equation based on this balance contains one unknown numerical factor and allows one to calculate liquid distribution in a channel cross section. Comparing the calculation results with the experimental data for the water–air flows at high reduced pressures (more than 0.45) has shown their good agreement at the universal value of the numerical constant.

  20. Peripheral nervous system injury after high-dose single-fraction image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery for spine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Michael D; Ibanez, Katarzyna; Riedel, Elyn R; Barzilai, Ori; Laufer, Ilya; Lis, Eric; Yamada, Yoshiya; Bilsky, Mark H

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to determine the percentage of high-dose (1800-2600 cGy) single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SF-SRS) treatments to the spine that result in peripheral nervous system (PNS) injury. METHODS All patients treated with SF-SRS for primary or metastatic spine tumors between January 2004 and May 2013 and referred to the Rehabilitation Medicine Service for evaluation and treatment of neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, or functional impairments or pain were retrospectively identified. RESULTS Five hundred fifty-seven SF-SRS treatments in 447 patients resulted in 14 PNS injuries in 13 patients. All injures resulted from SF-SRS delivered to the cervical or lumbosacral spine at 2400 cGy. The overall percentage of SF-SRS treatments resulting in PNS injury was 2.5%, increasing to 4.5% when the thoracic spine was excluded from analysis. The median time to symptom onset following SF-SRS was 10 months (range 4-32 months). The plexus (cervical, brachial, and/or lumbosacral) was affected clinically and/or electrophysiologically in 12 (86%) of 14 cases, the nerve root in 2 (14%) of 14, and both in 6 (43%) of 14 cases. All patients experienced pain and most (93%) developed weakness. Peripheral nervous system injuries were CTCAE Grade 1 in 14% of cases, 2 in 64%, and 3 in 21%. No dose relationship between SF-SRS dose and PNS injury was detected. CONCLUSIONS Single-fraction SRS to the spine can result in PNS injury with major implications for function and quality of life.

  1. Estimating fractional vegetation cover and the vegetation index of bare soil and highly dense vegetation with a physically based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wanjuan; Mu, Xihan; Ruan, Gaiyan; Gao, Zhan; Li, Linyuan; Yan, Guangjian

    2017-06-01

    Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of highly dense vegetation (NDVIv) and bare soil (NDVIs), identified as the key parameters for Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) estimation, are usually obtained with empirical statistical methods However, it is often difficult to obtain reasonable values of NDVIv and NDVIs at a coarse resolution (e.g., 1 km), or in arid, semiarid, and evergreen areas. The uncertainty of estimated NDVIs and NDVIv can cause substantial errors in FVC estimations when a simple linear mixture model is used. To address this problem, this paper proposes a physically based method. The leaf area index (LAI) and directional NDVI are introduced in a gap fraction model and a linear mixture model for FVC estimation to calculate NDVIv and NDVIs. The model incorporates the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model parameters product (MCD43B1) and LAI product, which are convenient to acquire. Two types of evaluation experiments are designed 1) with data simulated by a canopy radiative transfer model and 2) with satellite observations. The root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) for simulated data is less than 0.117, depending on the type of noise added on the data. In the real data experiment, the RMSD for cropland is 0.127, for grassland is 0.075, and for forest is 0.107. The experimental areas respectively lack fully vegetated and non-vegetated pixels at 1 km resolution. Consequently, a relatively large uncertainty is found while using the statistical methods and the RMSD ranges from 0.110 to 0.363 based on the real data. The proposed method is convenient to produce NDVIv and NDVIs maps for FVC estimation on regional and global scales.

  2. Predictors of radiation-induced acute skin toxicity in breast cancer at a single institution: Role of fractionation and treatment volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Parekh, MD

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: We identified multiple risk factors for acute skin toxicity, including the use of PMRT and conventionally fractionated regimens. Elevated BMI, regional nodal irradiation, and chemotherapy use were associated with an increased risk of MD. Our findings highlight the need to explore the use of less toxic hypofractionated regimens in patients who are at the highest risk of acute skin toxicity, including those with a higher BMI and those receiving PMRT.

  3. Ureteroscopy for Stone Disease in Paediatric Population is Safe and Effective in Medium-Volume and High-Volume Centres: Evidence from a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Shazna; Jones, Patrick; Pietropaolo, Amelia; Griffin, Stephen; Somani, Bhaskar K

    2017-10-18

    The incidence of urinary stone disease among the paediatric population is increasing. Whilst there has been a rise in the number of original studies published on ureteroscopy (URS) in children, critical review still remains under-reported. A Cochrane style systematic review was performed to identify all original articles on URS (minimum of 25 cases) for stone disease in paediatric patients between Jan. 1996 and Dec. 2016. Based on the number of reported cases, centres were divided into medium (25-49 cases) and high (≥ 50 cases) volume studies. Thirty-four studies (2758 children) satisfied our search criteria and were included in this review. The mean stone size was 8.6 mm with an overall stone-free rate (SFR) of 90.4% (range 58-100). Medium-volume centres reported a mean SFR of 94.1% (range 87.5-100), whilst high-volume centres reported a mean SFR of 88.1% (range 58-98.5). Mean number of sessions to achieve stone-free status in medium-volume and high-volume groups was 1.1 and 1.2 procedures/patient respectively. The overall complication rate was 11.1% (327/2994). Breakdown by Clavien grade was as follows: Clavien I 69% and Clavien II/III 31%. There were no Clavien IV/V complications, and no mortality was recorded across any of the studies. The overall failure to access rate was 2.5% (76/2944). Medium-volume and high-volume studies had overall complication rates of 6.9% (37/530) and 12.1% (287/2222) respectively, but there was no significant difference in major or minor complications between these two groups. Ureteroscopy is a safe and effective treatment for paediatric stone disease. Medium-volume centres can achieve equally high SFRs and safety profiles as high-volume centres. Despite the rarity of paediatric stone disease, our findings might increase the uptake of paediatric URS procedures.

  4. Volume server: A scalable high speed and high capacity magnetic tape archive architecture with concurrent multi-host access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczynski, Fred

    1993-01-01

    A major challenge facing data processing centers today is data management. This includes the storage of large volumes of data and access to it. Current media storage for large data volumes is typically off line and frequently off site in warehouses. Access to data archived in this fashion can be subject to long delays, errors in media selection and retrieval, and even loss of data through misplacement or damage to the media. Similarly, designers responsible for architecting systems capable of continuous high-speed recording of large volumes of digital data are faced with the challenge of identifying technologies and configurations that meet their requirements. Past approaches have tended to evaluate the combination of the fastest tape recorders with the highest capacity tape media and then to compromise technology selection as a consequence of cost. This paper discusses an architecture that addresses both of these challenges and proposes a cost effective solution based on robots, high speed helical scan tape drives, and large-capacity media.

  5. PIEZOELECTRIC WAVEGUIDE SENSOR FOR MEASURING PULSE PRESSURE IN CLOSED LIQUID VOLUMES AT HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRIC DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Zhekul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigations of the characteristics of pressure waves presuppose the registration of the total profile of the pressure wave at a given point in space. For these purposes, various types of «pressure to the electrical signal» transmitters (sensors are used. Most of the common sensors are unsuitable for measuring the pulse pressure in a closed water volume at high hydrostatic pressures, in particular to study the effect of a powerful high-voltage pulse discharge on increasing the inflow of minerals and drinking water in wells. The purpose of the work was to develop antijamming piezoelectric waveguide sensor for measuring pulse pressure at a close distance from a high-voltage discharge channel in a closed volume of a liquid. Methodology. We have applied the calibration method as used as a secondary standard, the theory of electrical circuits. Results. We have selected the design and the circuit solution of the waveguide pressure sensor. We have developed a waveguide pulse-pressure sensor DTX-1 with a measuring loop. This sensor makes it possible to study the spectral characteristics of pressure waves of high-voltage pulse discharge in closed volumes of liquid at a hydrostatic pressure of up to 20 MPa and a temperature of up to 80 °C. The sensor can be used to study pressure waves with a maximum amplitude value of up to 150 MPa and duration of up to 80 µs. According to the results of the calibration, the sensitivity of the developed sensor DTX-1 with a measuring loop is 0.0346 V/MPa. Originality. We have further developed the theory of designing the waveguide piezoelectric pulse pressure sensors for measuring the pulse pressure at a close distance from a high-voltage discharge channel in a closed fluid volume by controlling the attenuation of the amplitude of the pressure signal. Practical value. We have developed, created, calibrated, used in scientific research waveguide pressure pulse sensors DTX-1. We propose sensors DTX-1 for sale

  6. Is the Distance Worth It? Patients With Rectal Cancer Traveling to High-Volume Centers Experience Improved Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaomin; Becerra, Adan Z; Justiniano, Carla F; Boodry, Courtney I; Aquina, Christopher T; Swanger, Alex A; Temple, Larissa K; Fleming, Fergal J

    2017-12-01

    It is unclear whether traveling long distances to high-volume centers would compensate for travel burden among patients undergoing rectal cancer resection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether operative volume outweighs the advantages of being treated locally by comparing the outcomes of patients with rectal cancer treated at local, low-volume centers versus far, high-volume centers. This was a population-based study. The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with rectal cancer. Patients with stage II or III rectal cancer who underwent surgical resection between 2006 and 2012 were included. The outcomes of interest were margins, lymph node yield, receipt of neoadjuvant chemoradiation, adjuvant chemotherapy, readmission within 30 days, 30-day and 90-day mortality, and 5-year overall survival. A total of 18,605 patients met inclusion criteria; 2067 patients were in the long-distance/high-volume group and 1362 in the short-distance/low-volume group. The median travel distance was 62.6 miles for the long-distance/high-volume group and 2.3 miles for the short-distance/low-volume group. Patients who were younger, white, privately insured, and stage III were more likely to have traveled to a high-volume center. When controlled for patient factors, stage, and hospital factors, patients in the short-distance/low-volume group had lower odds of a lymph node yield ≥12 (OR = 0.51) and neoadjuvant chemoradiation (OR = 0.67) and higher 30-day (OR = 3.38) and 90-day mortality (OR = 2.07) compared with those in the long-distance/high-volume group. The short-distance/low-volume group had a 34% high risk of overall mortality at 5 years compared with the long-distance/high-volume group. We lacked data regarding patient and physician decision making and surgeon-specific factors. Our results indicate that when controlled for patient, tumor, and hospital factors, patients who traveled a long distance to a high-volume center had improved lymph node yield

  7. Quantitation of left ventricular ejection fraction reserve from early gated regadenoson stress Tc-99m high efficiency SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodov, Yafim; Fish, Mathews; Rubeaux, Mathieu; Otaki, Yuka; Gransar, Heidi; Lemley, Mark; Gerlach, Jim; Berman, Daniel; Germano, Guido; Slomka, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Background Ejection fraction (EF) reserve has been found to be a useful adjunct for identifying high risk coronary artery disease in cardiac positron emission tomography (PET). We aimed to evaluate EF reserve obtained from technetium-99m sestamibi (Tc-99m) high-efficiency (HE) SPECT. Methods Fifty patients (mean age 69 y) undergoing regadenoson same-day rest (8–11 mCi)/stress (32–42mCi) Tc-99m gated HE SPECT were enrolled. Stress imaging was started one min after sequential intravenous regadenoson 0.4mg and Tc-99m injection, and was composed of five 2 min supine gated acquisitions followed by two 4 min supine and upright images. Ischemic total perfusion deficit (ITPD) ≥ 5 % was considered as significant ischemia. Results Significantly lower mean EF reserve was obtained in the 5th and 9th min after regadenoson bolus in patients with significant ischemia versus patients without (5th min: −4.2 ± 4.6% vs. 1.3 ± 6.6%, p = 0.006; 9th min: −2.7 ± 4.8% vs. 2.0 ± 6.6%, p = 0.03). Conclusions Negative EF reserve obtained between 5th and 9th min of regadenoson stress demonstrated best concordance with significant ischemia and may be a promising tool for detection of myocardial stunning with Tc-99m HE-SPECT. PMID:27387521

  8. Quantitation of left ventricular ejection fraction reserve from early gated regadenoson stress Tc-99m high-efficiency SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodov, Yafim; Fish, Mathews; Rubeaux, Mathieu; Otaki, Yuka; Gransar, Heidi; Lemley, Mark; Gerlach, Jim; Berman, Daniel; Germano, Guido; Slomka, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Ejection fraction (EF) reserve has been found to be a useful adjunct for identifying high risk coronary artery disease in cardiac positron emission tomography (PET). We aimed to evaluate EF reserve obtained from technetium-99m sestamibi (Tc-99m) high-efficiency (HE) SPECT. Fifty patients (mean age 69 years) undergoing regadenoson same-day rest (8-11 mCi)/stress (32-42 mCi) Tc-99m gated HE SPECT were enrolled. Stress imaging was started 1 minute after sequential intravenous regadenoson .4 mg and Tc-99m injections, and was composed of five 2 minutes supine gated acquisitions followed by two 4 minutes supine and upright images. Ischemic total perfusion deficit (ITPD) ≥5 % was considered as significant ischemia. Significantly lower mean EF reserve was obtained in the 5th and 9th minute after regadenoson bolus in patients with significant ischemia vs patients without (5th minute: -4.2 ± 4.6% vs 1.3 ± 6.6%, P = .006; 9th minute: -2.7 ± 4.8% vs 2.0 ± 6.6%, P = .03). Negative EF reserve obtained between 5th and 9th minutes of regadenoson stress demonstrated best concordance with significant ischemia and may be a promising tool for detection of transient ischemic functional changes with Tc-99m HE-SPECT.

  9. Blood and plasma treatments: the rationale of high-volume hemofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Patrick M; Joannes-Boyau, Olivier; Gressens, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, experts in the field have thought that a reduction in cytokines in the blood compartment could, in theory, reduce mortality, but this is perhaps too naive as the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of cytokines throughout the body are not well known and are probably much more complicated than previously thought. This ha now led to three leading theories and concepts. Ronco and Bellomo conceived the peak concentration hypothesis in which clinicians concentrate their efforts to remove mediators and cytokines from the blood compartment at the proinflammatory phase of sepsis. By reducing the amount of free cytokines, it is hoped that the level of remote organ (associated) damages can be dramatically decreased and, as a consequence, the overall death rate. In this regard, it is still not known what will happen at the interstitial and tissue level with regard to mediators and cytokines which are obviously the most important part in terms of consequences at the tissue level. In this setting, techniques that can more rapidly and substantially remove great amounts of cytokines or mediators are privileged. Among these, there is high-volume and very high-volume hemofiltration and a number of hybrid therapies encompassing high-permeability hemofiltration, super high-flux hemofiltration, hemo-adsorption or coupled filtration and adsorption and other types of adsorption using physical or chemical forces rather than driving forces as used normally in hemofiltration-derived techniques. The second concept is called the threshold immunomodulation hypothesis, also called the Honoré concept. In this concept the view of the system is much more dynamic. In experiments when removal is occurring on the blood compartment side, the level on the interstitial side and the tissue side is also changing and, because not only mediators but also pro-mediators are being removed, some pathways have really stopped when enough pro-mediators have been removed by this technique

  10. Reduced-volume antennas with integrated high-impedance electromagnetic surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forman, Michael A.

    2006-11-01

    Several antennas with integrated high-impedance surfaces are presented. The high-impedance surface is implemented as a composite right/left-handed (CRLH) metamaterial fabricated from a periodic structure characterized by a substrate, filled with an array of vertical vias and capped by capacitive patches. Omnidirectional antennas placed in close proximity to the high-impedance surface radiate hemispherically with an increase in boresight far-field pattern gain of up to 10 dB and a front-to-back ratio as high as 13 dB at 2.45 GHz. Several TEM rectangular horn antennas are realized by replacing conductor walls with high-impedance surfaces. The TEM horn antennas are capable of operating below the TE{sub 1,0} cutoff frequency of a standard all-metal horn antenna, enabling a reduction in antenna volume. Above the cutoff frequency the TEM horn antennas function similarly to standard rectangular horn antennas.

  11. Thermal tuning of volume Bragg gratings for spectral beam combining of high-power fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachenberg, Derrek R; Andrusyak, Oleksiy; Venus, George; Smirnov, Vadim; Glebov, Leonid B

    2014-02-20

    High-radiance lasers are desired for many applications in defense and manufacturing. Spectral beam combining (SBC) by volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) is a very promising method for high-radiance lasers that need to achieve 100 kW level power. Laser-induced heating of VBGs under high-power radiation presents a challenge for maintaining Bragg resonance at various power levels without mechanical realignment. A novel thermal tuning technique and apparatus is presented that enables maintaining peak efficiency operation of the SBC system at various power levels without any mechanical adjustment. The method is demonstrated by combining two high-power ytterbium fiber lasers with high efficiency from low power to full combined power of 300 W (1.5 kW effective power), while maintaining peak combining efficiency within 0.5%.

  12. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON...... for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers.......). Eleven swimmers did not complete the questionnaires. For 12 weeks both groups trained ~12 h per week. The amount of HIT was ~5 h vs. 1 h, and total distance was ~17 km vs. ~35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10 × 10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 min of rest...

  13. Trial of obtaining a high-grade gadolinium concentrate using the fractional precipitation together with the ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozga, W.; Soltysiak, I. (Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej, Lublin (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    The modified fractional precipitation of lanthanon-potassium double chromate was used for preliminary separation of gadolinium concentrate containing 60% Gd/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 33.3% Sm/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The 1st fraction enriched with samarium (60% Sm/sub 2/O/sub 3/) and 2nd fraction enriched with gadolinium (80% Gd/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with efficiency of 82% recounting on Gd/sub 2/O/sub 3/) were obtained. Both fractions were separated by the elution with EDTA solution buffered with ammonium acetate. The good results were obtained by ion exchange separation only of the 1st fraction.

  14. Dose-volume analysis of target volume and critical structures in computed tomography image-based multicatheter high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Akiyama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate dose-volume relationships of target volume and critical structures in computed tomography (CT image-based brachytherapy for head and neck cancer. Material and methods : Thirty-seven patients with mobile tongue, floor of mouth, and base of tongue cancer treated with brachytherapy (post-operative alone and as a boost after external beam radiotherapy [EBRT], or definitive alone or as a boost after EBRT were selected. Treatment plans were made using post-implant CT images. The fractionation schedule was 7-15 × 3-5 Gy for post-operative (with or without EBRT, 14-15 × 3 Gy for definitive alone, and 5-10 × 3 Gy for boost treatments. For the target volume, V 100 , D 90 , and dose non-uniformity ratio (DNR were calculated. For the mandible, spinal cord and salivary glands doses to specified volumes were reported. Results : The median values of V 100 and D 90 were 89.9% and 99.9%, respectively; the median values of DNR was 0.46. The median D 2cm 3 of the mandible and spinal cord were 48.3% and 5.8%, respectively. The ipsilateral median D 2cm 3 of parotid and submandibular glands were 6.4% and 12.5%, whereas on the contralateral side, the corresponding values were 5.3% and 7.0%, respectively. Conclusions : Using conformal treatment planning, it was desirable to keep the dose to the mandible, spinal cord, and salivary glands at an acceptable level. The quantitative plan evaluation may help us find correlations between dosimetric parameters and clinical outcome, which may lead to improve the quality of the treatment, but it requires longer follow-up and results from other studies.

  15. Three-Dimensional High-Order Spectral Volume Method for Solving Maxwell's Equations on Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Wang, Z. J.

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional, high-order, conservative, and efficient discontinuous spectral volume (SV) method for the solutions of Maxwell's equations on unstructured grids is presented. The concept of discontinuous 2nd high-order loca1 representations to achieve conservation and high accuracy is utilized in a manner similar to the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, but instead of using a Galerkin finite-element formulation, the SV method is based on a finite-volume approach to attain a simpler formulation. Conventional unstructured finite-volume methods require data reconstruction based on the least-squares formulation using neighboring cell data. Since each unknown employs a different stencil, one must repeat the least-squares inversion for every cell at each time step, or to store the inversion coefficients. In a high-order, three-dimensional computation, the former would involve impractically large CPU time, while for the latter the memory requirement becomes prohibitive. In the SV method, one starts with a relatively coarse grid of triangles or tetrahedra, called spectral volumes (SVs), and partition each SV into a number of structured subcells, called control volumes (CVs), that support a polynomial expansion of a desired degree of precision. The unknowns are cell averages over CVs. If all the SVs are partitioned in a geometrically similar manner, the reconstruction becomes universal as a weighted sum of unknowns, and only a few universal coefficients need to be stored for the surface integrals over CV faces. Since the solution is discontinuous across the SV boundaries, a Riemann solver is thus necessary to maintain conservation. In the paper, multi-parameter and symmetric SV partitions, up to quartic for triangle and cubic for tetrahedron, are first presented. The corresponding weight coefficients for CV face integrals in terms of CV cell averages for each partition are analytically determined. These discretization formulas are then applied to the integral form of

  16. Fractional derivatives for physicists and engineers background and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Uchaikin, Vladimir V

    2013-01-01

    The first derivative of a particle coordinate means its velocity, the second means its acceleration, but what does a fractional order derivative mean? Where does it come from, how does it work, where does it lead to? The two-volume book written on high didactic level answers these questions. Fractional Derivatives for Physicists and Engineers— The first volume contains a clear introduction into such a modern branch of analysis as the fractional calculus. The second develops a wide panorama of applications of the fractional calculus to various physical problems. This book recovers new perspectives in front of the reader dealing with turbulence and semiconductors, plasma and thermodynamics, mechanics and quantum optics, nanophysics and astrophysics.  The book is addressed to students, engineers and physicists, specialists in theory of probability and statistics, in mathematical modeling and numerical simulations, to everybody who doesn't wish to stay apart from the new mathematical methods becoming more and ...

  17. Statistical evaluation of the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2014-03-01

    High-Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) concretes are seen by many as a feasible solution for sustainable, low embodied carbon construction. At the moment, fly ash is classified as a waste by-product, primarily of thermal power stations. In this paper the authors experimentally and statistically investigated the effects of mix-design factors on the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes. A total of 240 and 32 samples were produced and tested in the laboratory to measure compressive strength and Young\\'s modulus respectively. Applicability of the CEB-FIP (Comite Euro-international du Béton - Fédération Internationale de la Précontrainte) and ACI (American Concrete Institute) Building Model Code (Thomas, 2010; ACI Committee 209, 1982) [1,2] to the experimentally-derived mechanical property data for HVFA concretes was established. Furthermore, using multiple linear regression analysis, Mean Squared Residuals (MSRs) were obtained to determine whether a weight- or volume-based mix proportion is better to predict the mechanical properties of HVFA concrete. The significance levels of the design factors, which indicate how significantly the factors affect the HVFA concrete\\'s mechanical properties, were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests. The results show that a weight-based mix proportion is a slightly better predictor of mechanical properties than volume-based one. The significance level of fly ash substitution rate was higher than that of w/b ratio initially but reduced over time. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High Volume Manufacturing of NanoEngineered High ZT Thermoelectrics for Multiple Energy Generation Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SMI has teamed with a leading thermoelectric (TE) research group in order to optimize and convert high-performance TE materials developed in laboratory-scale into...

  19. T1 mapping of the myocardium: intra-individual assessment of post-contrast T1 time evolution and extracellular volume fraction at 3T for Gd-DTPA and Gd-BOPTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawel Nadine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Myocardial T1 relaxation time (T1 time and extracellular volume fraction (ECV are altered in patients with diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to perform an intra-individual assessment of normal T1 time and ECV for two different contrast agents. Methods A modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI sequence was acquired at 3 T in 24 healthy subjects (8 men; 28 ± 6 years at mid-ventricular short axis pre-contrast and every 5 min between 5-45 min after injection of a bolus of 0.15 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA; Magnevist® (exam 1 and 0.1 mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA; Multihance® (exam 2 during two separate scanning sessions. T1 times were measured in myocardium and blood on generated T1 maps. ECVs were calculated as ΔR1myocardium/ΔR1blood*1−hematocrit. Results Mean pre-contrast T1 relaxation times for myocardium and blood were similar for both the first and second CMR exam (p > 0.5. Overall mean post-contrast myocardial T1 time was 15 ± 2 ms (2.5 ± 0.7% shorter for Gd-DTPA at 0.15 mmol/kg compared to Gd-BOPTA at 0.1 mmol/kg (p  0.05. Between 5 and 45 minutes after contrast injection, mean ECV values increased linearly with time for both contrast agents from 0.27 ± 0.03 to 0.30 ± 0.03 (p pre-contrast myocardial T1 relaxation time (CV 4.5% [exam 1] and 3.0% [exam 2], respectively. ECV with Gd-DTPA was highly correlated to ECV by Gd-BOPTA (r = 0.803; p  Conclusion In comparison to pre-contrast myocardial T1 relaxation time, variation in ECV values of normal subjects is larger. However, absolute differences in ECV between Gd-DTPA and Gd-BOPTA were small and rank correlation was high. There is a small and linear increase in ECV over time, therefore ideally images should be acquired at the same delay after contrast injection.

  20. T1 mapping of the myocardium: intra-individual assessment of post-contrast T1 time evolution and extracellular volume fraction at 3T for Gd-DTPA and Gd-BOPTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawel, Nadine; Nacif, Marcelo; Zavodni, Anna; Jones, Jacquin; Liu, Songtao; Sibley, Christopher T; Bluemke, David A

    2012-04-28

    Myocardial T1 relaxation time (T1 time) and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) are altered in patients with diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to perform an intra-individual assessment of normal T1 time and ECV for two different contrast agents. A modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI) sequence was acquired at 3 T in 24 healthy subjects (8 men; 28 ± 6 years) at mid-ventricular short axis pre-contrast and every 5 min between 5-45 min after injection of a bolus of 0.15 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA; Magnevist®) (exam 1) and 0.1 mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA; Multihance®) (exam 2) during two separate scanning sessions. T1 times were measured in myocardium and blood on generated T1 maps. ECVs were calculated as ΔR1 myocardium/ΔR1 blood*1-hematocrit. Mean pre-contrast T1 relaxation times for myocardium and blood were similar for both the first and second CMR exam (p > 0.5). Overall mean post-contrast myocardial T1 time was 15 ± 2 ms (2.5 ± 0.7%) shorter for Gd-DTPA at 0.15 mmol/kg compared to Gd-BOPTA at 0.1 mmol/kg (p T1 time of blood pool (p > 0.05). Between 5 and 45 minutes after contrast injection, mean ECV values increased linearly with time for both contrast agents from 0.27 ± 0.03 to 0.30 ± 0.03 (p T1 relaxation time (CV 4.5% [exam 1] and 3.0% [exam 2], respectively). ECV with Gd-DTPA was highly correlated to ECV by Gd-BOPTA (r = 0.803; p T1 relaxation time, variation in ECV values of normal subjects is larger. However, absolute differences in ECV between Gd-DTPA and Gd-BOPTA were small and rank correlation was high. There is a small and linear increase in ECV over time, therefore ideally images should be acquired at the same delay after contrast injection.

  1. Cell-centered high-order hyperbolic finite volume method for diffusion equation on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Euntaek; Ahn, Hyung Taek; Luo, Hong

    2018-02-01

    We apply a hyperbolic cell-centered finite volume method to solve a steady diffusion equation on unstructured meshes. This method, originally proposed by Nishikawa using a node-centered finite volume method, reformulates the elliptic nature of viscous fluxes into a set of augmented equations that makes the entire system hyperbolic. We introduce an efficient and accurate solution strategy for the cell-centered finite volume method. To obtain high-order accuracy for both solution and gradient variables, we use a successive order solution reconstruction: constant, linear, and quadratic (k-exact) reconstruction with an efficient reconstruction stencil, a so-called wrapping stencil. By the virtue of the cell-centered scheme, the source term evaluation was greatly simplified regardless of the solution order. For uniform schemes, we obtain the same order of accuracy, i.e., first, second, and third orders, for both the solution and its gradient variables. For hybrid schemes, recycling the gradient variable information for solution variable reconstruction makes one order of additional accuracy, i.e., second, third, and fourth orders, possible for the solution variable with less computational work than needed for uniform schemes. In general, the hyperbolic method can be an effective solution technique for diffusion problems, but instability is also observed for the discontinuous diffusion coefficient cases, which brings necessity for further investigation about the monotonicity preserving hyperbolic diffusion method.

  2. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

  3. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

  4. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

  5. Changes in lung volume and ventilation during lung recruitment in high-frequency ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Martijn; de Jongh, Frans H.; Frerichs, Inez; van Veenendaal, Mariëtte B.; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2011-01-01

    To assess global and regional changes in lung volume and ventilation during lung recruitment in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Using electrical impedance tomography, changes in lung volume and ventilation were measured in 15 high-frequency oscillatory ventilated preterm infants

  6. Fractional esterification rate of cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein associates with risk of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junmeng; Yang, Ruiyue; Zhou, Min; Mao, Wen; Li, Hongxia; Zhao, Haijian; Wang, Shu; Chen, Wenxiang; Dong, Jun; He, Qing

    2017-08-24

    Fractional esterification rate of cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (FERHDL) has been found to be closely correlated with atherosclerotic dyslipidemia, especially lipoprotein distributions, and is a potentially useful predictor for coronary heart disease (CHD). The associations of FERHDL, measured by the simple and precise HPLC method, with angiographically defined CHD and its related risk factors in Chinese patients were evaluated. Two hundred and fifty eight Chinese patients who had indications for angiography were enrolled in this study. Coronary angiograms were obtained by the standard techniques. FERHDL was determined by the HPLC method. Cholesterol levels in serum HDL, LDL and subfractions were measured by ultracentrifugation/HPLC method. Associations between FERHDL and CHD and CHD risk factors were analyzed. FERHDL was correlated with almost all the CHD risk factors. Compared with the non-CHD group, the CHD patients had higher values of FERHDL (20.9 ± 7.9%/h vs 17.7 ± 7.1%/h, p = 0.001). FERHDL was found to be independently and positively correlated with log TG (β = 0.386, P risk factors for CHD. FERHDL significantly correlated with both HDL2-C and LDLb-C, and therefore, is the predictor of lipoprotein distributions. In addition, after correcting for the presence of classic risk factors, FERHDL was independently associated with the presence of angiographically defined CHD.

  7. Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33 secreted from impaired vessels in the skin compared to fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Jung, E-mail: forejs2@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Won, E-mail: JUNWON@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hyun, E-mail: gochunghee@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Woori, E-mail: asleo02@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioinformatics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Hoon, E-mail: wonhoon@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seoae, E-mail: seoae@cnkgenomics.com [C& K Genomics, Seoul National University Mt.4-2, Main Bldg. #514, SNU Research Park, NakSeoungDae, Gwanakgu, Seoul 151-919 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yu Jeong, E-mail: yunk9275@daum.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Jin, E-mail: yjlee8@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Effects, Research Center for Radiotherapy, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-760 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaeho, E-mail: jjhmd@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-14

    We have revealed in a porcine skin injury model that eosinophil recruitment was dose-dependently enhanced by a single high-dose irradiation. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of eosinophil-associated skin fibrosis and the effect of high-dose-per-fraction radiation. The dorsal skin of a mini-pig was divided into two sections containing 4-cm{sup 2} fields that were irradiated with 30 Gy in a single fraction or 5 fractions and biopsied regularly over 14 weeks. Eosinophil-related Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and C–C motif chemokine-11 (CCL11/eotaxin) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. RNA-sequencing using 30 Gy-irradiated mouse skin and functional assays in a co-culture system of THP-1 and irradiated-human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed to investigate the mechanism of eosinophil-mediated radiation fibrosis. Single high-dose-per-fraction irradiation caused pronounced eosinophil accumulation, increased profibrotic factors collagen and transforming growth factor-β, enhanced production of eosinophil-related cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, CCL11, IL-13, and IL-33, and reduced vessels compared with 5-fraction irradiation. IL-33 notably increased in pig and mouse skin vessels after single high-dose irradiation of 30 Gy, as well as in irradiated HUVECs following 12 Gy. Blocking IL-33 suppressed the migration ability of THP-1 cells and cytokine secretion in a co-culture system of THP-1 cells and irradiated HUVECs. Hence, high-dose-per-fraction irradiation appears to enhance eosinophil-mediated fibrotic responses, and IL-33 may be a key molecule operating in eosinophil-mediated fibrosis in high-dose-per fraction irradiated skin. - Highlights: • Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33. • Vascular endothelial cells damaged by high-dose radiation secrete IL-33. • Blocking IL-33 suppressed migration of inflammatory cells and cytokine secretion. • IL

  8. Kyanite Formation and Element Fractionation in the High-Al Eclogites from the Sulu UHP Metamorphic Terrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Hsin Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclogite compositions are critical parameters for under standing chemical evolution in the Earth, particularly in subduction zones. A group of eclogites from the Sulu ultra-high pres sure (UHP metamorphic terrane in eastern China shows uncommon petrographic and compositional features. They are characterized by (1 zoisite porphyroblasts coexisting with inclusion-free, inclusion-containing, and net work kyanite, (2 high Al2O3 of 18.4 - 29.2% with high MgO of 8.59 - 11.3%, and (3 intensive HFSE-REE fractionations represented by [Zr/Sm]ch and [Ti/Gd]ch ratios of 0.1 - 3.9 and 1.1 - 9.0, respectively. High-pressure fluids played a major role on developing these features. Kyanite shows two textural varieties. KyI is inclusion-free and in apparent textural equilibrium with gar net and omphacite, implying formation from plagioclase break down. KyII includes kyanite networks and porphyroblasts; the former occurs mostly in gar net, whereas the latter encloses gar net and omphacite grains. KyII were crystallized at the expense of gar net and omphacite during eclogite-fluid interaction. The low [HREE]ch ratios of 1 - 2 indicate that the protoliths were arc cumulates. The well-de fined in verse Al2O3-SiO2 and Al2O3-CaO correlations are not the characteristics of igneous precursors; there fore, must reflect metamorphic modifications. The comparison to mafic cumulates shows that the low-Al samples are compositionally better representatives of protoliths. Mass balance calculations point to anolivine gabbronoritic protolith. The intensive HFSE-REE fractionations reflect compositional differences between two sample groups. Group I samples have superchondritic HFSE-REE ratios [(Nb/La, Zr/Sm, Ti/Gdch = 2 - 7] with depletions in LREE. In contrast, group II samples show HFSE depletions and LREE enrichments. These compositional differences were explained as reflecting element mobility during eclogite-fluid inter action. Released at temperatures > 750°C, the high

  9. Low-volume high-intensity interval training rapidly improves cardiopulmonary function in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonizakis, Markos; Moss, James; Gilbert, Stephen; Broom, David; Foster, Jeff; Tew, Garry A

    2014-10-01

    This study compared the effects of a 2-week program of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) with the effects of higher-volume moderate-intensity continuous training (CT) on cardiopulmonary and vascular functions in postmenopausal women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to undertake six HIT (n = 12) or CT (n = 10) sessions for 2 weeks. HIT sessions consisted of ten 1-minute intervals of cycling exercise at 100% of peak power output separated by 1 minute of active recovery. CT sessions involved 40 minutes of continuous cycling at 65% of peak power output. Variables assessed at baseline and 2 weeks included cardiopulmonary function (ventilatory threshold, peak oxygen uptake), macrovascular endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery), and microvascular function (reactive hyperemia and local thermal hyperemia of forearm skin). Eighteen participants completed the study (HIT, 11; CT, 7). Adherence to the exercise programs was excellent, with 107 of 108 sessions completed. Despite substantially lower total time commitment (∼2.5 vs. ∼5 h) and training volume (558 vs. 1,237 kJ) for HIT versus CT, increases from baseline in peak oxygen uptake achieved significance (P = 0.01) for the HIT group only (Δ = 2.2 mL kg min; P for interaction = 0.688). Improvements in exercise test duration were observed in both groups (HIT, 13%; CT, 5%; P for interaction = 0.194). There were no significant changes in macrovascular or microvascular function in either group. The findings suggest that low-volume HIT is feasible and can lead to rapid improvements in cardiopulmonary function in postmenopausal women.

  10. High intensity focused ultrasound induced in vivo large volume hyperthermia under 3D MRI temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillander, Matti; Hokland, Steffen; Koskela, Julius; Dam, Høgni; Andersen, Niels Peter; Pedersen, Michael; Tanderup, Kari; Ylihautala, Mika; Köhler, Max

    2016-03-01

    Mild hyperthermia can be used as an adjuvant therapy to enhance radiation therapy or chemotherapy of cancer. However, administering mild hyperthermia is technically challenging due to the high accuracy required of the temperature control. MR guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a technology that can address this challenge. In this work, accurate and spatially uniform mild hyperthermia is demonstrated for deep-seated clinically relevant heating volumes using a HIFU system under MR guidance. Mild hyperthermia heating was evaluated for temperature accuracy and spatial uniformity in 11 in vivo porcine leg experiments. Hyperthermia was induced with a commercial Philips Sonalleve MR-HIFU system embedded in a 1.5T Ingenia MR scanner. The operating software was modified to allow extended duration mild hyperthermia. Heating time varied from 10 min up to 60 min and the assigned target temperature was 42.5 °C. Electronic focal point steering, mechanical transducer movement, and dynamic transducer element switch-off were exploited to enlarge the heated volume and obtain uniform heating throughout the acoustic beam path. Multiple temperature mapping images were used to control and monitor the heating. The magnetic field drift and transducer susceptibility artifacts were compensated to enable accurate volumetric MR thermometry. The obtained mean temperature for the target area (the cross sectional area of the heated volume at focal depth primarily used to control the heating) was on average 42.0 ± 0.6 °C. Temperature uniformity in the target area was evaluated using T10 and T90, which were 43.1 ± 0.6 and 40.9 ± 0.6 °C, respectively. For the near field, the corresponding temperatures were 39.3 ± 0.8 °C (average), 40.6 ± 1.0 °C (T10), and 38.0 ± 0.9 °C (T90). The sonications resulted in a concise heating volume, typically in the shape of a truncated cone. The average depth reached from the skin was 86.9 mm. The results show that the heating

  11. High-volume hemofiltration for septic acute kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Edward; Molnar, Amber O; Joannes-Boyau, Olivier; Honoré, Patrick M; Sikora, Lindsey; Bagshaw, Sean M

    2014-01-08

    High-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) is an attractive therapy for the treatment of septic acute kidney injury (AKI). Small experimental and uncontrolled studies have suggested hemodynamic and survival benefits at higher doses of HVHF than those used for the high-intensity arms of the RENAL and ATN studies. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) compared with standard-volume hemofiltration (SVHF) for septic AKI. A systematic review and meta-analysis of publications between 1966 and 2013 was performed. The review was limited to randomized-controlled trials that compared HVHF (effluent rate greater than 50 ml/kg per hour) versus SVHF in the treatment of sepsis and septic shock. The primary outcome assessed was 28-day mortality. Other outcomes assessed were recovery of kidney function, lengths of ICU and hospital stays, vasopressor dose reduction, and adverse events. Four trials, including 470 total participants, were included. Pooled analysis for 28-day mortality did not show any meaningful difference between HVHF compared with SVHF (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.29). No included studies reported statistically significant differences between groups for any of the secondary outcomes. Adverse events, including hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia, were more commonly observed in HVHF-treated patients, although reporting was inconsistent across studies. Insufficient evidence exists of a therapeutic benefit for routine use of HVHF for septic AKI, other than on an experimental basis. Given the logistic challenges related to patient recruitment along with an incomplete understanding of the biologic mechanisms by which HVHF may modify outcomes, further trials should focus on alternative extracorporeal therapies as an adjuvant therapy for septic AKI rather than HVHF.

  12. A regional-scale estimation of ice wedge ice volumes in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, M.; Pollard, W. H.; Grand'Maison, C. B.

    2016-12-01

    Ice wedges are both prominent and environmentally vulnerable features in continuous permafrost environments. As the world's Arctic regions begin to warm, concern over the potential effects of ice wedge melt out has become an immediate issue, receiving much attention in the permafrost literature. In this study we estimate the volume of ice wedge ice for large areas in the Canadian High Arctic through the use of high resolution satellite imagery and the improved capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The methodology used for this study is similar to that of one performed in Siberia and Alaska by Ulrich et al, in 2014. Utilizing Ulrich's technique, this study detected ice wedge polygons from satellite imagery using ArcGIS. The average width and depth of these ice wedges were obtained from a combination of field data and long-term field studies for the same location. The assumptions used in the analysis of ice wedge volume have been tested, including trough width being representative of ice wedge width, and ice wedge ice content (Pollard and French 1980). This study used specific field sites located near Eureka on Ellesmere Island (N80°01', W85°43') and at Expedition Fiord on Axel Heiberg Island (N79°23', W90°59'). The preliminary results indicate that the methodology used by Ulrich et al, 2014 is transferrable to the Canadian High Arctic, and that ice wedge volumes range between 3-10% of the upper part of permafrost. These findings are similar to previous studies and their importance is made all the more evident by the dynamic nature of ice wedges where it could be argued that they are a key driver of thermokarst terrain. The ubiquitous nature of ice wedges across arctic terrain highlights the importance and the need to improve our understanding of ice wedge dynamics, as subsidence from ice wedge melt-out could lead to large scale landscape change.

  13. Modeling Atmospheric Emissions and Calculating Mortality Rates Associated with High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Alyssa

    Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are a growing pollution concern throughout the global community, as they have been linked to numerous health issues. The freight transportation sector is a large source of these emissions and is expected to continue growing as globalization persists. Within the US, the expanding development of the natural gas industry is helping to support many industries and leading to increased transportation. The process of High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) is one of the newer advanced extraction techniques that is increasing natural gas and oil reserves dramatically within the US, however the technique is very resource intensive. HVHF requires large volumes of water and sand per well, which is primarily transported by trucks in rural areas. Trucks are also used to transport waste away from HVHF well sites. This study focused on the emissions generated from the transportation of HVHF materials to remote well sites, dispersion, and subsequent health impacts. The Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was used in this analysis within ArcGIS to identify roadways with high volume traffic and emissions. High traffic road segments were used as emissions sources to determine the atmospheric dispersion of particulate matter using AERMOD, an EPA model that calculates geographic dispersion and concentrations of pollutants. Output from AERMOD was overlaid with census data to determine which communities may be impacted by increased emissions from HVHF transport. The anticipated number of mortalities within the impacted communities was calculated, and mortality rates from these additional emissions were computed to be 1 in 10 million people for a simulated truck fleet meeting stricter 2007 emission standards, representing a best case scenario. Mortality rates due to increased truck emissions from average, in-use vehicles, which represent a mixed age truck fleet, are expected to be higher (1 death per 341,000 people annually).

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of an alkaloid fraction from Piper longum L. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuiyong; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-10

    In a previous research, an alkaloid fraction and 18 alkaloid compounds were prepared from Piper longum L. by series of purification process. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS) was developed to evaluate the alkaloid fraction. Qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was firstly completed by UHPLC-DAD method and 18 amide alkaloid compounds were identified. A further qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was accomplished by UHPLC-MS/MS method. Another 25 amide alkaloids were identified according to their characteristic ions and neutral losses. At last, a quantitative method for the alkaloid fraction was established using four marker compounds including piperine, pipernonatine, guineensine and N-isobutyl-2E,4E-octadecadienamide. After the validation of this method, the contents of above four marker compounds in the alkaloid fraction were 57.5mg/g, 65.6mg/g, 17.7mg/g and 23.9mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the relative response factors of other three compounds to piperine were calculated. A comparative study between external standard quantification and relative response factor quantification proved no remarkable difference. UHPLC-DAD-MS method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the characterization of the alkaloid fraction from P. longum L. and the result proved that the quality of alkaloid fraction was efficiently improved after appropriate purification. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. High internal free volume compositions for low-k dielectric and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Timothy M. (Inventor); Bouffard, Jean (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides materials, devices, and methods involving new heterocyclic, shape-persistent monomeric units with internal free volume. In some cases, materials the present invention may comprise monomers, oligomers, or polymers that incorporate a heterocyclic, shape-persistent iptycene. The present invention may provide materials having low dielectric constants and improved stability at high operating temperatures due to the electron-poor character of materials. In addition, compositions of the invention may be easily synthesized and readily modified to suit a particular application.

  16. Quantification of cerebral lateral ventricular volume in cats by low- and high-field MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyborowska, Paulina; Adamiak, Zbigniew; Zhalniarovich, Yauheni

    2017-10-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate variations in lateral ventricles in the examined feline population with the use of quantitative analysis methods to determine whether sex or body weight influenced the size of the ventricles, and to identify any significant differences in the results of low- and high-field MRI. Methods Twenty healthy European Shorthair cats, aged 1-3 years, with body weights ranging from 2.85-4.35 kg, were studied. MRI of brain structures was performed in a low- and a high-field MRI system. The height of the brain and lateral ventricles at the level of the interthalamic adhesion, and volume of the lateral ventricles were determined in T2-weighted images in the transverse plane. The degree of symmetry of lateral ventricles was analysed based on the ratio of right to left ventricular volume. The measured parameters were processed statistically to determine whether sex and body weight were significantly correlated with variations in ventricular anatomy. The results of low- and high-field MRI were analysed to evaluate for any significant differences. Results The average brain height was determined to be 27.79 mm, and the average height of the left and right ventricles were 2.98 mm and 2.89 mm, respectively. The average ventricle/brain height ratio was 10.61%. The average volume of the left ventricle was 134.12 mm3 and the right ventricle was 130.49 mm3. Moderately enlarged ventricles were observed in two cats. Moderate ventricular asymmetry was described in four cats. Sex and body weight had no significant effect on the evaluated parameters. The differences in the results of low- and high-field MRI were not statistically significant. Conclusions and relevance This study has determined reference intervals for ventricular volume in a population of European Shorthair cats without brain disease, which will facilitate the interpretation of MRI images and the characterisation of brain abnormalities in cats with neurological disease. Further

  17. Spatiotemporal Trends in the Timing and Volume of Snowfall in High Mountain Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Taylor; Bookhagen, Bodo

    2017-04-01

    High Mountain Asia, which encompasses the Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir, Tien Shan, and the Tibetan Plateau, is the primary 'water tower' for much of Asia, serving more than a billion downstream users. Many catchments receive the majority of their yearly water budget in the form of snow - the vast majority of which is not monitored by sparse weather networks in the region. We leverage passive microwave data, flown on five sensors (SSMI, AMSR-E, SSMIS, AMSR2, and GPM, 1987-2016), to examine trends in the timing, volume, and spatial distribution of snowfall. While the total volume of water stored in snowpack has decreased over the study period, this large-scale water-storage loss hides small-scale and seasonal complexities. Some regions, such as the high Tien Shan and Kunlun Shan, have seen increased snow-water storage. Other regions, such as the Pamir and Karakorum, have seen increases in winter snow-water storage, coupled with decreases in summer snow-water storage, implying an intensification of winter storms alongside more rapid spring and summer snowmelt. We also note a non-linear elevation trend, where the mid-elevation zones show the largest negative snow-water storage trends, implying that these areas are the most strongly impacted by increasing temperatures in the region. Our study provides a first-order examination of snow-water trends in High Mountain Asia, and highlights that both small and large-scale snow trends must be considered for effective water planning.

  18. Snow cover volumes dynamic monitoring during melting season using high topographic accuracy approach for a Lebanese high plateau witness sinkhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, Charbel; Somma, Janine; Elali, Taha; Drapeau, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and its negative impact on water resource is well described. For countries like Lebanon, undergoing major population's rise and already decreasing precipitations issues, effective water resources management is crucial. Their continuous and systematic monitoring overs long period of time is therefore an important activity to investigate drought risk scenarios for the Lebanese territory. Snow cover on Lebanese mountains is the most important water resources reserve. Consequently, systematic observation of snow cover dynamic plays a major role in order to support hydrologic research with accurate data on snow cover volumes over the melting season. For the last 20 years few studies have been conducted for Lebanese snow cover. They were focusing on estimating the snow cover surface using remote sensing and terrestrial measurement without obtaining accurate maps for the sampled locations. Indeed, estimations of both snow cover area and volumes are difficult due to snow accumulation very high variability and Lebanese mountains chains slopes topographic heterogeneity. Therefore, the snow cover relief measurement in its three-dimensional aspect and its Digital Elevation Model computation is essential to estimate snow cover volume. Despite the need to cover the all lebanese territory, we favored experimental terrestrial topographic site approaches due to high resolution satellite imagery cost, its limited accessibility and its acquisition restrictions. It is also most challenging to modelise snow cover at national scale. We therefore, selected a representative witness sinkhole located at Ouyoun el Siman to undertake systematic and continuous observations based on topographic approach using a total station. After four years of continuous observations, we acknowledged the relation between snow melt rate, date of total melting and neighboring springs discharges. Consequently, we are able to forecast, early in the season, dates of total snowmelt and springs low

  19. Metals in RDF and other high calorific value fractions from mechanical treatment of MSW: analysis and sampling errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutan, Stefan; Brunner, Paul H

    2012-07-01

    RDF and other high calorific value fractions derived from MSW by mechanical treatment processes contain goods such as cans, cables, zippers or batteries which are highly concentrated in metals. The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of these metal carriers (i) for total metal loads and (ii) for sampling errors. Six different products derived from MSW were analysed for carrier bound and total loads of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn. Sophisticated sample preparation procedures were applied in order to quantify the separate analyte loads from metallic carriers. Typical values for total metal contents and shares of carrier bound loads were found as follows: Al, 20 g kg(-1) (30%); Cr, 0.4 g kg(-1) (50%); Cu, 5 g kg(-1) (80%); Fe, 40 g kg(-1) (80%); Ni, 0.15 g kg(-1) (70%); Pb, 0.4 g kg(-1) (40%); and Zn, 2 g kg(-1) (30%). NiCd-batteries were found in three materials representing 30-70 % of total Cd contents (total 6-20 mg kg(-1)). Sampling errors related to the distribution of analyte carriers were in most cases found in the range of 50-150 % relative standard deviation in spite of the large sample masses of 200-800 kg. The results demonstrate: (1) metal carriers are responsible for significant analyte loads; if they are not adequately considered, total metal contents may be severely underestimated; (2) sampling errors are dominated by the distribution of carriers; (3) correct analysis of total metal contents including loads from metallic components requires expensive sample preparation.

  20. [Hippocampus, brainstem and brain dose-volume constraints for fractionated 3-D radiotherapy and for stereotactic radiation therapy: Limits and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, M; Jumeau, R; Pichon, B; Biau, J; Blais, E; Horion, J; Noël, G

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral radiation-induced toxicities after radiotherapy (RT) of brain tumors are frequent. The protection of organs at risk (OAR) is crucial, especially for brain tumors, to preserve cognition in cancer survivors. Dose constraints of cerebral OAR used in conventional RT, radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) are debated. In fact, they are based on historical cohorts or calculated with old mathematical models. Values of α/β ratio of cerebral OAR are also controversial leading to misestimate the equivalent dose in 2Gy fractions or the biological equivalent dose, especially during hypofractionated RT. Although recent progresses in medical imaging, the diagnosis of radionecrosis remains difficult. In this article, we propose a large review of dose constraints used for three major cerebral OAR: the brain stem, the hippocampus and the brain. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Annual Hospital Volume of High Dose Interleukin-2 and Inpatient Mortality in Melanoma and Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathan Mehta

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy using high dose interleukin-2 (HD IL2 in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC and melanoma is associated with severe toxicities. The association between annual hospital volume of HD IL2 and inpatient mortality is not well studied. In this study we aim to quantify the impact of annual hospital volume of HD IL2 on inpatient mortality using National Inpatient Sample (NIS data.We did a cross-sectional study using NIS, one of the largest inpatient datasets in United States, from 2003 to 2011. Patients with melanoma and RCC receiving HD IL2 were identified by ICD9 procedure code 00.15. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality. Using Joinpoint regression, which detects change in trend of inpatient mortality with change in annual volume, the hospitals were classified in three volume categories (low: 1-40, medium: 41-120, high: >120. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of inpatient mortality controlling for confounders.From 2003 to 2011, 29,532 patients with RCC or melanoma who received HD IL2 were identified, and 124 died during the hospitalization (0.4%. The hospitals with low, medium and high annual volume had significant difference in inpatient mortality (0.83%, 0.29% and 0.13% respectively, p = 0.0003. On multivariate analysis, low volume hospitals were associated with significantly higher odds of inpatient mortality (OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.6-23.2, p = 0.003 as compared to high volume hospitals. Additionally, the hospitals with annual volume of 1-20 had even higher rates (1.31% vs. 0.13%, p<0.0001 and multivariate odds (OR 8.9, 95% CI 2.4-33.2, p = 0.0006 of inpatient mortality as compared to high volume hospitals.Lower annual hospital volume of HD IL2 is associated with worse outcomes. Annual hospital volume of 1-40 and 1-20 treatments per year is associated with 6 and 9 times higher odds of inpatient mortality respectively as compared to high volume hospitals. Our findings provide preliminary evidence for

  2. Lasershot(sm) marking system: high-volume labeling for safety-critical parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane, C B; Hackel, L; Honig, J; Halpin, J; Chen, H-L; Mendieta, F; Harris, F; Lane, L; Daly, J; Harrison, J

    2001-02-16

    The Lasershot Marking System uses laser pulses to safely and permanently impress identification markings on metal components. This process does not remove material or change surface chemistry and actually increases the marked area's resistance to fatigue and corrosion failure. Lasershot marking is ideally suited for marking parts used in situations where safety is critical--from hip-joint replacements to commercial airliner components. The minimum size of the mark is limited only by the resolution of the reading system, allowing manufacturers to mark parts which, up to now, have been too small to label with mechanical peening techniques. The high resolution of the Lasershot marks makes them difficult to reproduce, providing a solution to the ongoing problem of inferior, counterfeited parts. The high marking rate of up to six marks per second makes this system practical and cost-effective for marking high-volume components.

  3. Highly efficient waveguide display with space-variant volume holographic gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Peng, Yifan; Zhao, Qing; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu

    2017-12-01

    We propose a highly efficient waveguide display based on space-variant volume holographic gratings (SVVHGs). The local period and slant angle of the SVVHG vary along the tangential direction, enabling variant incident angles to satisfy the Bragg condition of the local gratings. As a result, we enlarge the field of view (FOV) without using the conventional multiplexing scheme, while achieving high efficiency and large FOV at the same time. We experimentally record the SVVHGs on Bayfol HX200 films. We demonstrate that the proposed display can achieve 31.9% system efficiency for a broadband light source and 52.3% for a coherent light source, 20° FOV, and high brightness uniformity, making it a promising candidate for widespread applications in the augmented reality (AR) industry.

  4. Effect of particle size and volume fraction of BaTiO{sub 3} powders on the functional properties of BaTiO{sub 3}/poly(ε-caprolactone) composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airimioaei, M., E-mail: mirela.airimioaei@yahoo.com [Dielectrics, Ferroelectrics & Multiferroics Group, Department of Physics, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, Blv. Carol I, nr.11, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Stanculescu, R.; Preutu, V.; Ciomaga, C.; Horchidan, N. [Dielectrics, Ferroelectrics & Multiferroics Group, Department of Physics, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, Blv. Carol I, nr.11, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Tascu, S. [Interdisciplinary Research Department – Field Science (RAMTECH), “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, Blv. Carol I, nr.11, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Lutic, D.; Pui, A. [Faculty of Chemistry, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Mitoseriu, L., E-mail: lmtsr@uaic.ro [Dielectrics, Ferroelectrics & Multiferroics Group, Department of Physics, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, Blv. Carol I, nr.11, 700506, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-10-01

    A systematic study concerning the effect of particle size and volume fraction of BaTiO{sub 3} filler on the functional properties of composite materials with poly-(ε-caprolactone) polymer matrix obtained by solvent casting method was performed. Two series of xBT-(1-x)PCL composites prepared by using BaTiO{sub 3} powders with two different particles size (60 nm and 400 nm) in different amounts (x = 2; 5; 10 and 20 vol %) were investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated a particle size dependence of phase symmetry for BT filler powders (cubic phase for ultrafine particles and tetragonal phase for larger particles size) and the formation of pure composites consisting of orthorhombic PCL and cubic or tetragonal BT with no chemical reactions between them. The micrographs of the composites revealed the formation of homogeneous composites with two distinct phases, a good dispersion of ferroelectric phase into the polymer matrix and a low content of air pores. Dielectric investigations at room temperature showed the increases of permittivity with increasing the particle volume fraction of ferroelectric filler as result of the “sum property” of the effective permittivity in composites. For a given concentration, the permittivity of composites increases with particle size, as result of a size effect of BT powder. The composites with low BT addition presents stable dielectric properties at bending cycles. The polarization-field dependences also show a BT-induced size dependence, i.e. at a given value of field, polarization is higher for the composites with coarser BT particles. The composition x = 0.05 with coarse particles can be considered as an optimum among these series for the stored energy density. - Highlights: • Study of particles size effect of BT on the properties of composites with PCL matrix. • xBT-(1-x)PCL composite films were prepared by solvent casting method. • Homogeneous composites with good dispersion of BT filler PCL matrix were

  5. Low-volume high-intensity interval training vs continuous aerobic cycling in patients with chronic heart failure: a pragmatic randomised clinical trial of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufaki, Pelagia; Mercer, Thomas H; George, Keith P; Nolan, James

    2014-04-01

    The health benefits of high-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation warrant further research. We compared the effectiveness of low-volume high-intensity interval training vs continuous aerobic exercise training in chronic heart failure. Unblinded, two arm parallel design with random assignment to exercise interventions in out-patient hospital rehabilitation gym. Patients with signs of chronic heart failure and ejection fraction training (n = 9) or high-intensity interval training (n = 8). Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined during cycle ergometry using respiratory gas exchange analysis. Functional capacity was assessed via sit-to-stand and gait speed. Quality of life was assessed using the MOS Short-Form 36 and Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaires. Cardiac autonomic regulation was assessed using Heart Rate Variability. Analysis of Covariance revealed significant time effects but no group × time interactions for exercise and functional capacity outcomes. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) improved by a mean of 14.9% (SD 16.3%) from baseline and by 22% (SD 28.3) at ventilatory threshold in both groups. Sit-to-stand (11.9 (SD 11%)) and gait speed (16.0 (SD 19%)) improved similarly in both groups. No changes in quality of life or heart rate variability were noted. Training adaptations in high-intensity interval training were achieved despite a significantly reduced time commitment and total work volume compared to continuous aerobic exercise training. Low-volume high-intensity interval training is a feasible and well tolerated training modality in cardiac rehabilitation settings, but is not more effective than continuous aerobic exercise training.

  6. Unbiased estimation of cell number using the automatic optical fractionator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Peter R; Phoulady, Hady Ahmady; Goldgof, Dmitry; Hall, Lawrence O; Gordon, Marcia; Morgan, David

    2017-03-01

    A novel stereology approach, the automatic optical fractionator, is presented for obtaining unbiased and efficient estimates of the number of cells in tissue sections. Used in combination with existing segmentation algorithms and ordinary immunostaining methods, automatic estimates of cell number are obtainable from extended depth of field images built from three-dimensional volumes of tissue (disector stacks). The automatic optical fractionator is more accurate, 100% objective and 8-10 times faster than the manual optical fractionator. An example of the automatic fractionator is provided for counts of immunostained neurons in neocortex of a genetically modified mouse model of neurodegeneration. Evidence is presented for the often overlooked prerequisite that accurate counting by the optical fractionator requires a thin focal plane generated by a high optical resolution lens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Miniaturized, High Flow, Low Dead Volume Pre-Concentrator for Trace Contaminants in Water under Microgravity Conditions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume pre-concentrator for monitoring trace levels of contaminants in water under...

  8. Pozzolanic Activity Assessment of LUSI (LUmpur SIdoarjo) Mud in Semi High Volume Pozzolanic Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardjito, Djwantoro; Antoni; Wibowo, Gunadi M.; Christianto, Danny

    2012-01-01

    LUSI mud obtained from the mud volcano in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, is a viable aluminosilicate material to be utilized as pozzolanic material. LUSI is an abbreviation of the local name of the mud, i.e., Lumpur Sidoarjo, meaning Sidoarjo mud. This paper reports the results of an investigation to assess the pozzolanic activity of LUSI mud, especially in semi high volume pozzolanic mortar. In this case, the amount of mud incorporated is between 30% to 40% of total cementitious material, by mass. The content of SiO2 in the mud is about 30%, whilst the total content of SiO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 is more than 70%. Particle size and degree of partial cement replacement by treated LUSI mud affect the compressive strength, the strength activity index (SAI), the rate of pozzolanic activity development, and the workability of mortar incorporating LUSI mud. Manufacturing semi high volume LUSI mud mortar, up to at least 40% cement replacement, is a possibility, especially with a smaller particle size of LUSI mud, less than 63 μm. The use of a larger percentage of cement replacement by LUSI mud does not show any adverse effect on the water demand, as the flow of the fresh mortar increased with the increase of percentage of LUSI mud usage.

  9. Fast High Resolution Volume Carving for 3D Plant Shoot Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanno Scharr

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Volume carving is a well established method for visual hull reconstruction and has been successfully applied in plant phenotyping, especially for 3d reconstruction of small plants and seeds. When imaging larger plants at still relatively high spatial