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Sample records for high volume fly

  1. Durability properties of high volume fly ash self compacting concretes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dinakar; K.G. Babu; Manu Santhanam [Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai (India). Building Technology Division

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents an experimental study on the durability properties of self compacting concretes (SCCs) with high volume replacements of fly ash. Eight fly ash self compacting concretes of various strength grades were designed at desired fly ash percentages of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 85%, in comparison with five different mixtures of normal vibrated concretes (NCs) at equivalent strength grades. The durability properties were studied through the measurement of permeable voids, water absorption, acid attack and chloride permeation. The results indicated that the SCCs showed higher permeable voids and water absorption than the vibrated normal concretes of the same strength grades. However, in acid attack and chloride diffusion studies the high volume fly ash SCCs had significantly lower weight losses and chloride ion diffusion.

  2. SCC with high volume of fly ash content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhrakh Anton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete is a very perspective building material. It provides great benefits during the construction of heavily reinforced buildings. SCC has outstanding properties such as high flowability, dense structure and high strength due to specific quality of aggregates, fillers, their proportion in mix, use of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers. Main disadvantages of SCC are high price and the difficulty of obtaining a proper mix. Use of fillers, such as fly ash type F, is a way to make SCC cheaper by replacing part of cement. Fly ash also provides some technological and operating advantages. In this paper the influence of high volume (60% from cement fly ash type F on the properties of concrete mixture and hardened concrete is investigated. The result of the work shows the possibility of reduction the cost of SCC using ordinary fillers and high amount of fly ash. The investigated SCC has low speed of hardening (7-day compressive strength at the range of 41.8 MPa and high volume of entrained air content (3.5%.

  3. Self compacting concrete incorporating high-volumes of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzoubaa, N. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). International Centre for Sustainable Development of Cement and Concrete; Lachemi, M. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is now widely used in reinforced concrete structures. Fine materials such as fly ash ensure that the concrete has the necessary properties of high fluidity and cohesiveness. An experimental study was conducted in which 9 SCC mixtures and one control concrete were produced in order to evaluate SCC made with high-volumes of fly ash. The content of the cementitious materials remained constant at 400 kg/cubic metre, but the ratio of water to cementitious material ranged from 0.35 to 0.45. The viscosity and stability of the fresh concrete was determined for self-compacting mixtures of 40, 50 and 60 per cent Class F fly ash. The compressive strength and drying shrinkage were also determined for the hardened concretes. Results showed that the SCCs developed a 28-day compressive strength ranging from 26 to 48 MPa. It was concluded that high-volumes of Class F fly ash could offer the following advantages to an SCC: reduced construction time and labour cost; eliminate the need for vibration; reduce noise pollution; improve the filling capacity of highly congested structural members; and, ensure good structural performance. 19 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Rheology and setting of high volume fly ash mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale P. Bentz; Chiara F. Ferraris [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Laboratory

    2010-04-15

    While high volume fly ash (HVFA) concretes can be designed and produced to meet 28-d strength requirements and often even exceed the durability performance of conventional concretes, a persistent problem is the potentially long delay in setting time that produces concurrently long delays in finishing the concrete in the field. Previous isothermal calorimetry studies on two different powder additions, namely calcium hydroxide and a rapid set cement, have shown that these powders can mitigate excessive retardation of the hydration reactions. In this paper, rheological measurements and conventional Vicat setting time studies are conducted to verify that these powder additions do indeed reduce setting times in paste systems based on both ASTM Class C and ASTM Class F fly ashes. The reductions depend on the class of fly ash and suggest that trial mixtures would be a necessity to apply these technologies to each specific fly ash/cement/admixture combination being employed in the field. Potentially, for such screening studies, the rheological measurement of yield stress may provide a faster indication of setting (and finishability) than conventional Vicat needle penetration measurements on pastes.

  5. Laboratory Investigations on Mechanical Properties of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete and Composite Sections

    OpenAIRE

    Aravindkumar B. Harwalkar; S. S. Awanti

    2013-01-01

    Use of fly ash as a supplementary cementing material in large volumes can bring both technological and economic benefits for concrete industry. In this investigation mix proportions for high volume fly ash concrete were determined at cement replacement levels of 50%, 55%, 60% and 65% with low calcium fly ash. Flexural and compressive strengths of different mixes were measured at ages of 7, 28 and 90 days. Flexural strength of composite section prepared from pavement quali...

  6. An Experimental Study of High Strength-High Volume Fly Ash Concrete for Sustainable Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Gunavant K.; Thakare, Sunil B., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Concrete is the most widely used building material in the construction of infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, highways, dams, and many other facilities. This paper reports the development, the basic idea, the main properties of high strength-high volume fly ash with application in concrete associated with the development and implementation of Sustainable Properties of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete (HVFAC) Mixtures and Early Age Shrinkage and mechanical properties of concrete for 7,28,56 and 90days. Another alternative to make environment-friendly concrete is the development of high strength-high-volume fly ash concrete which is an synthesized from materials of geological origin or by-product materials such as fly ash which is rich in silicon and aluminum. In this paper 6 concrete mixtures were produced to evaluate the effect of key parameters on the mechanical properties of concrete and its behavior. The study key parameters are; binder material content, cement replacement ratios, and the steel fibers used to High Volume Fly Ash mixtures for increasing performance of concrete.

  7. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-08-21

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability.

  8. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-01-01

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone powder was added to improve the early strength; flexural strength at two days reached 3.5 MPa, the minimum strength for traffic service in Japan. The matured fly ash concrete made with a cement content of 200 kg/m3 achieved a flexural strength almost equal to that of the control concrete without fly ash. Additionally, Portland cement made from the tested fly ash concrete was tested to confirm recyclability, with the cement quality meeting the Japanese classification of ordinary Portland cement. Limestone-based recyclable fly ash concrete pavement is, thus, a preferred material in terms of sustainability. PMID:28793518

  9. The Effects of Design Strength, Fly Ash Content and Curing Method on Compressive Strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete: A Design of Experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Solikin Mochamad; Setiawan Budi

    2017-01-01

    High volume fly ash concrete becomes one of alternatives to produce green concrete as it uses waste material and significantly reduces the utilization of Portland cement in concrete production. Although using less cement, its compressive strength is comparable to ordinary Portland cement (hereafter OPC) and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly ...

  10. Statistical evaluation of the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Macphee, Donald E.; Glasser, Fredrik P.; Imbabi, Mohammed Salah-Eldin

    2014-01-01

    the authors experimentally and statistically investigated the effects of mix-design factors on the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes. A total of 240 and 32 samples were produced and tested in the laboratory to measure compressive

  11. Porosity of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) incorporating high volume fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Sunarmasto; Murti, G. Y.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation of concrete could be triggered by the presence of aggressive agents from the environment into the body of concrete. The penetration of these agents is influenced by the pore characteristics of the concrete. Incorporating a pozzolanic material such as fly ash could modify the pore characteristic of the concrete. This research aims to investigate the influence of incorporating fly ash at high volume level on the porosity of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). Laboratory investigations were carried out following the ASTM C642 for measuring density and volume of permeable pores (voids) of the SCC with varying fly ash contents (50-70% by weight of total binder). In addition, a measurement of permeable voids by saturation method was carried out to obtain an additional volume of voids that could not be measured by the immersion and boiling method of ASTM C642. The results show that the influence of fly ash content on the porosity appears to be dependent on age of SCC. At age less than 56 d, fly ash tends to cause an increase of voids but at 90 d of age it reduces the pores. The additional pores that can be penetrated by vacuum saturation method counts about 50% of the total voids.

  12. High volume fly ash RCC for dams - I : mixture optimization and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, S. [PEAB Construction Co., Oslo (Norway); Lahus, O. [Norwegian Building Research Inst., Oslo (Norway)

    2001-07-01

    Roller compacted concretes (RCC) were developed for the Norwegian Skjerka hydropower project. RCCs were developed to have a high-volume fly ash content to address environmental issues, including the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions associated with dam construction. They also makes good use of waste product and conserve natural resources. This study examined a series of mixtures to determine the appropriateness of using RCC as a competing alternative to the traditional rock fill dam proposed for the Skjerka hydropower project. The main advantage of RCC is speed, allowing a relatively large dam to be constructed in just one summer season, saving financial costs and providing early return on the investment. In addition, fly ash can be used in the structure, using clean and renewable energy. Several procedures to proportion RCC mixtures were proposed, including the optimal paste volume method which is based on the assumption that an optimal RCC should have just enough paste to fill the space between particles when the granular skeleton has reached its maximum density under compaction. With this assumption, RCC tests began in 1998 in the laboratories of the Norwegian Building Research Institute. An ordinary portland cement was used and combined with ordinary low lime fly ash. Both coarse and fine aggregate were used. The tests determined the optimum paste-mortar ratio, the content of coarse aggregates and the production of specimens for test on hardened and fresh concrete. The study showed that the compressive strength of RCC increased with increasing cement/(cement + fly ash) ratio. The permeability coefficient decreased with increasing cement-content and increasing cement/(cement + fly ash) ratio due to the slow pozzolanic reaction of fly ash making a more open pore structure. It was concluded that an optimized mixture can result in a high performance RCC in terms of fresh and hardened concrete properties. 15 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs.

  13. A Study on the Evaluation of Field Application of High-Fluidity Concrete Containing High Volume Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Wang Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent concrete industry, high-fluidity concrete is being widely used for the pouring of dense reinforced concrete. Normally, in the case of high-fluidity concrete, it includes high binder contents, so it is necessary to replace part of the cement through admixtures such as fly ash to procure economic feasibility and durability. This study shows the mechanical properties and field applicability of high-fluidity concrete using mass of fly ash as alternative materials of cement. The high-fluidity concrete mixed with 50% fly ash was measured to manufacture concrete that applies low water/binder ratio to measure the mechanical characteristics as compressive strength and elastic modulus. Also, in order to evaluate the field applicability, high-fluidity concrete containing high volume fly ash was evaluated for fluidity, compressive strength, heat of hydration, and drying shrinkage of concrete.

  14. Resistance to Corrosion of Reinforcement of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S. O.; Bae, S. H.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, K. M.; Jung, S. H.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing of interest about the eco-friendly concrete, it is increased to use concretes containing by-products of industry such as fly ash(FA), ground granulated blast furnace slag(GGBFS), silica fume(SF), and etc. Especially, these are well known for improving the resistances to reinforcement corrosion in concrete and decreasing chloride ion penetration. The purpose of this experimental research is to evaluate the resistance against corrosion of reinforcement of high volume fly ash(HVFA) concrete which is replaced with high volume fly ash for cement volume. For this purpose, the concrete test specimens were made for various strength level and replacement ratio of FA, and then the compressive strength and diffusion coefficient for chloride ion of them were measured for 28, 91, and 182 days, respectively. Also, corrosion monitoring by half cell potential method was carried out for the made lollypop concrete test specimens to detect the time of corrosion initiation for reinforcement in concrete. As a result, it was observed from the test results that the compressive strength of HVFA concrete was decreased with increasing replacement ratio of FA but long-term resistances against reinforcement corrosion and chloride ion penetration of that were increased

  15. Statistical evaluation of the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2014-03-01

    High-Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) concretes are seen by many as a feasible solution for sustainable, low embodied carbon construction. At the moment, fly ash is classified as a waste by-product, primarily of thermal power stations. In this paper the authors experimentally and statistically investigated the effects of mix-design factors on the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes. A total of 240 and 32 samples were produced and tested in the laboratory to measure compressive strength and Young\\'s modulus respectively. Applicability of the CEB-FIP (Comite Euro-international du Béton - Fédération Internationale de la Précontrainte) and ACI (American Concrete Institute) Building Model Code (Thomas, 2010; ACI Committee 209, 1982) [1,2] to the experimentally-derived mechanical property data for HVFA concretes was established. Furthermore, using multiple linear regression analysis, Mean Squared Residuals (MSRs) were obtained to determine whether a weight- or volume-based mix proportion is better to predict the mechanical properties of HVFA concrete. The significance levels of the design factors, which indicate how significantly the factors affect the HVFA concrete\\'s mechanical properties, were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests. The results show that a weight-based mix proportion is a slightly better predictor of mechanical properties than volume-based one. The significance level of fly ash substitution rate was higher than that of w/b ratio initially but reduced over time. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Utilization of High-Volumes of Class F Fly Ash on the Abrasion Resistance of Concrete

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    William PRINCE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of large volumes of fly ash in various concrete applications is a becoming a more general practice in an efforts towards using large quantities of fly ash. Around the world, Class C or Class F or both as available have been used in high volumes in cement-based materials. In India, majority of fly generated is of Class F type as per ASTM C 618. Yearly fly ash generation in India is approximately 95 million tonnes. Out of which around 15-20% is utilized in cement production and cement/concrete related activities. In order to increase its percentage utilization, an investigation was carried out to use it in concrete.In this paper, abrasion resistance of high volume fly ash (HVFA concretes made with 35, 45, 55, and 65% of cement replacement was evaluated in terms of its relation with compressive strength. Comparison was made between ordinary Portland cement and fly ash concrete. Test results indicated that abrasion resistance of concrete having cement replacement up to 35 percent was comparable to the normal concrete mix with out fly ash. Beyond 35% cement replacement, fly ash concretes exhibited slightly lower resistance to abrasion relative to non-fly ash concretes. Test results further indicated that abrasion resistance of concrete is closely related with compressive strength, and had a very good correlation between abrasion resistance and compressive strength (R2 value between 0.9018 and 0.9859 depending upon age.

  17. A comparative study of self-consolidating concretes incorporating high-volume natural pozzolan or high-volume fly ash

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Kemal

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Portland cement replacement on the strength and durability of self-consolidating concretes (SSC). The two replacement materials used are high-volume natural pozzolan (HVNP), a Saudi Arabian aluminum-silica rich basaltic glass and high-volume Class-F fly ash (HVFAF), from Jim Bridger Power Plant, Wyoming, US. As an extension of the study, limestone filler (LF) is also used to replace Portland cement, alongside HVNP or HVFAF, forming ternary blends. Along with compressive strength tests, non-steady state chloride migration and gas permeability tests were performed, as durability indicators, on SCC specimens. The results were compared to two reference concretes; 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 85% OPC - 15% LF by mass. The HVNP and HVFAF concrete mixes showed strength and durability results comparable to those of the reference concretes; identifying that both can effectively be used to produce low-cost and environmental friendly SCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative study of self-consolidating concretes incorporating high-volume natural pozzolan or high-volume fly ash

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Kemal; Meral, Cagla; Mancio, Mauricio; Mehta, P. Kumar; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of Portland cement replacement on the strength and durability of self-consolidating concretes (SSC). The two replacement materials used are high-volume natural pozzolan (HVNP), a Saudi Arabian aluminum-silica rich basaltic glass and high-volume Class-F fly ash (HVFAF), from Jim Bridger Power Plant, Wyoming, US. As an extension of the study, limestone filler (LF) is also used to replace Portland cement, alongside HVNP or HVFAF, forming ternary blends. Along with compressive strength tests, non-steady state chloride migration and gas permeability tests were performed, as durability indicators, on SCC specimens. The results were compared to two reference concretes; 100% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and 85% OPC - 15% LF by mass. The HVNP and HVFAF concrete mixes showed strength and durability results comparable to those of the reference concretes; identifying that both can effectively be used to produce low-cost and environmental friendly SCC. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-healing of mechanically-loaded self consolidating concretes with high volumes of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa Sahmaran; Suleyman B. Keskin; Gozde Ozerkan; Ismail O. Yaman [University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering

    2008-11-15

    This article discusses the effects of self-healing on self consolidating concretes incorporating high volumes of fly ash (HVFA-SCC) when subjected to continuous water exposure. For this purpose, self consolidating concretes with fly ash replacement ratios of 0%, 35%, and 55% were prepared having a constant water-cementitious material ratio of 0.35. A uniaxial compression load was applied to generate microcracks in concrete where cylindrical specimens were pre-loaded up to 70% and 90% of the ultimate compressive load determined at 28 days. Later, the extent of damage was determined as percentage of loss in mechanical properties and percentage of increase in permeation properties. After pre-loading, concrete specimens were stored in water for a month and the mechanical and permeation properties are monitored at every two weeks. It was observed that HVFA-SCC mixtures initially lost 27% of their strength when pre-loaded up to 90% of their ultimate strength, and after 30 days of water curing that reduction was only 7%, indicating a substantial healing. On the other hand, for SCC specimens without fly ash that were pre-loaded to the same level, the loss in strength was initially 19%, and after a month of moist curing it was only 13%. Similar observations were also made on the permeation properties with greater effects. As the HVFA-SCCs studied have an important amount of unhydrated fly ash available in their microstructure, these observations are attributed to the self-healing of the pre-existing cracks, mainly by hydration of anhydrous fly ash particles on the crack surfaces.

  20. The Effects of Design Strength, Fly Ash Content and Curing Method on Compressive Strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete: A Design of Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikin Mochamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High volume fly ash concrete becomes one of alternatives to produce green concrete as it uses waste material and significantly reduces the utilization of Portland cement in concrete production. Although using less cement, its compressive strength is comparable to ordinary Portland cement (hereafter OPC and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete. The experiment and data analysis were prepared using minitab, a statistic software for design of experimental. The specimens were concrete cylinder with diameter of 15 cm and height of 30 cm, tested for its compressive strength at 56 days. The result of the research demonstrates that high volume fly ash concrete can produce comparable compressive strength which meets the strength of OPC design strength especially for high strength concrete. In addition, the best mix proportion to achieve the design strength is the combination of high strength concrete and 50% content of fly ash. Moreover, the use of spraying method for curing method of concrete on site is still recommended as it would not significantly reduce the compressive strength result.

  1. Impact of Micro Silica on the properties of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete (HVFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripragadeesh, R.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Pugazhmani, G.; Ramasundram, S.; Muthu, D.; Venkatasubramanian, C.

    2017-07-01

    In the current situation, to overcome the difficulties of feasible construction, concrete made with various mixtures of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and diverse mineral admixtures, is the wise choice for engineering construction. Mineral admixtures viz. Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), Meta kaolin (MK), Fly Ash (FA) and Silica Fume (SF) etc. are used as Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) in binary and ternary blend cement system to enhance the mechanical and durability properties. Investigation on the effect of different replacement levels of OPC in M25 grade with FA + SF in ternary cement blend on the strength characteristics and beam behavior was studied. The OPC was partially replaced (by weight) with different combinations of SF (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) and FA as 50% (High Volume Fly Ash - HVFA). The amount of FA addition is kept constant at 50% for all combinations. The compressive strength and tensile strength tests on cube and cylinder specimens, at 7 and 28 days were carried out. Based on the compressive strength results, optimum mix proportion was found out and flexural behaviour was studied for the optimum mix. It was found that all the mixes (FA + SF) showed improvement in compressive strength over that of the control mix and the mix with 50% FA + 10% SF has 20% increase over the control mix. The tensile strength was also increased over the control mix. Flexural behaviour also showed a significant improvement in the mix with FA and SF over the control mix.

  2. Compression Behavior of Confined Columns with High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete

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    Sung-Won Yoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fly ash in ordinary concrete provides practical benefits to concrete structures, such as a gain in long-term strength, reduced hydration heat, improved resistance to chloride, and enhanced workability. However, few studies with high-volume fly ash (HVFA concrete have been conducted that focus on the structural applications such as a column. Thus, there is a need to promote field applications of HVFA concrete as a sustainable construction material. To this end, this study investigated the compressive behavior of reinforced concrete columns that contain HVFA with a 50 percent replacement rate. Six columns were fabricated for this study. The study variables were the HVFA replacement rate, tied steel ratio, and tie steel spacing. The computed ultimate strength by the American Concrete Institute (ACI code conservatively predicted the measured values, and, thus, the existing equation in the ACI code is feasible for confined RC columns that contain HVFA. In addition, an analysis model was calibrated based on the experimental results and is recommended for predicting the stress-strain relationship of confined reinforced concrete columns that contain HVFA.

  3. Effect of total cementitious content on shear strength of high-volume fly ash concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arezoumandi, Mahdi; Volz, Jeffery S.; Ortega, Carlos A.; Myers, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Existing design standards conservatively predicted the capacity of the HVFAC beams. ► In general, the HVFAC beams exceeded the code predicted shear strengths. ► The cementitious content did not have effect on the shear behavior of the HVFAC beams. - Abstract: The production of portland cement – the key ingredient in concrete – generates a significant amount of carbon dioxide. However, due to its incredible versatility, availability, and relatively low cost, concrete is the most consumed manmade material on the planet. One method of reducing concrete’s contribution to greenhouse gas emissions is the use of fly ash to replace a significant amount of the cement. This paper compares two experimental studies that were conducted to investigate the shear strength of full-scale beams constructed with high-volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) – concrete with at least 50% of the cement replaced with fly ash. The primary difference between the two studies involved the amount of cementitious material, with one mix having a relatively high total cementitious content (502 kg/m 3 ) and the other mix having a relatively low total cementitious content (337 kg/m 3 ). Both mixes utilized a 70% replacement of portland cement with a Class C fly ash. Each of these experimental programs consisted of eight beams (six without shear reinforcing and two with shear reinforcing in the form of stirrups) with three different longitudinal reinforcement ratios. The beams were tested under a simply supported four-point loading condition. The experimental shear strengths of the beams were compared with both the shear provisions of selected standards (US, Australia, Canada, Europe, and Japan) and a shear database of conventional concrete (CC) specimens. Furthermore, statistical data analyses (both parametric and nonparametric) were performed to evaluate whether or not there is any statistically significant difference between the shear strength of both mixes. Results of these

  4. Design and evaluation of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete mixes, report C : shear behavior of HVFA reinforced concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Concrete is the most widely used man-made material on the planet. Unfortunately, producing Portland cement generates carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) at roughly a pound for pound ratio. High-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete concrete with at least ...

  5. Mechanical Properties and Shear Strengthening Capacity of High Volume Fly Ash-Cementitious Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Aswin K.; Anand, K. B.

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses development of Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) fibre reinforced cementitious composites taking into account environmental sustainability. Composites with fly ash to cement ratios from 0 to 3 are investigated in this study. The mechanical properties of HVFA-cement composite are discussed in this paper at PVA fiber volume fraction maintained at 1% of total volume of composite. The optimum replacement of cement with fly ash was found to be 75%, i.e. fly ash to cement ratio (FA/C) of 3. The increase in fiber content from 1% to 2% showed better mechanical performance. A strain capacity of 2.38% was obtained for FA/C ratio of 3 with 2% volume fraction of fiber. With the objective of evaluating the performance of cementitious composites as a strengthening material in reinforced concrete beams, the beams deficient in shear capacity were strengthened with optimal mix having 2% volume fraction of fiber as the strengthening material and tested under four-point load. The reinforced concrete beams designed as shear deficient were loaded to failure and retrofitted with the composite in order to assess the efficiency as a repair material under shear.

  6. Mechanical Properties of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete Reinforced with Hybrid Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooban Chakravarthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash substitution to cement is a well-recognized approach to reduce CO2 emissions. Although fly ash concrete is prone to brittle behavior, researchers have shown that addition of fibers could reduce brittle behavior. Previous research efforts seem to have utlised a single type of fiber or two types of fibers. In this research, three types of fibers, steel, polypropylene, and basalt as 0%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1% by volume of concrete, were mixed in varying proportions with concrete specimens substituted with 50% fly ash (class F. All specimens were tested for compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, and flexural strength over a period of 3 to 56 days of curing. Test results showed that significant improvement in mechanical properties could be obtained by a particular hybrid fiber reinforcement combination (1% steel fiber, 0.75% polypropylene fiber, and 0.75% basalt fiber. The strength values were observed to exceed previous research results. Workability of concrete was affected when the fiber combination exceeded 3%. Thus a limiting value for adding fibers and the combination to achieve maximum strengths have been identified in this research.

  7. Design and evaluation of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete mixes, report D : creep, shrinkage, and abrasion resistance of HVFA concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effect on shrinkage, creep, : and abrasion resistance of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete. The HVFA concrete : test program consisted of comparing the shrinkage, creep, and abrasion performance...

  8. A study on the effect of nano silica on compressive strength of high volume fly ash mortars and concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, F.U.A.; Supit, S.W.M.; Sarker, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The addition of NS compensates low early age compressive strength of HVFA system. • NS also contributes to later age compressive strength gain of HVFA system. • The XRD results confirm the reduction of CH in HVFA paste due to addition of NS. - Abstract: This paper presents the effect of nano silica (NS) on the compressive strength of mortars and concretes containing different high volume fly ash (HVFA) contents ranging from 40% to 70% (by weight) as partial replacement of cement. The compressive strength of mortars is measured at 7 and 28 days and that for concretes is measured at 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. The effects of NS in microstructure development and pozzolanic reaction of pastes containing above HVFA contents are also studied through backscattered electron (BSE) image and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Results show that among different NS contents ranging from 1% to 6%, cement mortar containing 2% NS exhibited highest 7 and 28 days compressive strength. This NS content (2%) is then added to the HVFA mortars and concretes and the results show that the addition of 2% NS improved the early age (7 days) compressive strength of mortars containing 40% and 50% fly ash by 5% and 7%, respectively. However, this improvement is not observed at high fly ash contents beyond 50%. On the other hand, all HVFA mortars exhibited improvement in 28 days compressive strength due to addition of 2% NS and the most significant improvement is noticed in mortars containing more than 50% fly ash. In HVFA concretes, the improvement of early age (3 days) compressive strength is also noticed due to addition of 2% NS. The BSE and XRD analysis results also support the above findings

  9. Very high volume fly ash green concrete for applications in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Mishra, Dhanada K; Wu, Chang; Leung, Christopher Ky

    2018-06-01

    Safe disposal of fly ash generated by coal-based thermal power plants continues to pose significant challenges around the world and in India in particular. Green structural concrete with 80% cement replaced by local Chinese fly ash has been recently developed to achieve a target characteristic compressive strength of 45 MPa. Such green concrete mixes are not only cheaper in cost, but also embody lower energy and carbon footprint, compared with conventional mixes. This study aims to adopt such materials using no less than 80% fly ash as binder in routine concrete works in countries like India with the commonly used lower target characteristic compressive strength of 30 MPa. It is achieved by the simple and practical method of adjusting the water/binder ratio and/or superplasticiser dosage. The proposed green concrete shows encouraging mechanical properties at 7 days and 28 days, as well as much lower material cost and environmental impact compared with commercial Grade 30 concrete. This technology can play an important role in meeting the huge infrastructure demands in India in a sustainable manner.

  10. Processed bottom ash for replacing fine aggregate in making high-volume fly ash concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottom ash is a coal plant by-product that is abundant and underutilized. There is the potential use of bottom ash as a fine aggregate replacement in concrete mixtures; however, the problems of water absorption and uniformity of quality of the material need to be overcome first. In this study, bottom ash was treated by sieve separation and pounding to smaller particle size for use as a sand substitute. The physical and chemical characteristics of bottom ash were tested after treatment including water absorption, sieve analysis, and fineness modulus. Highvolume fly ash (HVFA mortar specimens were made and the compressive strength and flowability test using bottom ash after treatment are compared with that of the sand specimen. Low water to cementitious ratio was used to ensure higher strength from the cementitious paste and superplasticizer demand was determined for each treatment. The result showed that bottom ash can be used as fine aggregate replacement material. Sieve separation of the bottom ash could produce 75% of the compressive strength compared with the control sand specimen, whereas pounded bottom ash could have up to 96% of the compressive strength of the control specimen. A 28-day compressive strength of 45 MPa was achievable with 100% replacement of fine aggregate with bottom ash.

  11. Effect of Copolymer Latexes on Physicomechanical Properties of Mortar Containing High Volume Fly Ash as a Replacement Material of Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Negim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume of fly ash (FA as partial replacement of cement in presence of copolymer latexes. Portland cement (PC was partially replaced with 0, 10, 20, 30 50, and 60% FA. Copolymer latexes were used based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA and 2-hydroxymethylacrylate (2-HEMA. Testing included workability, setting time, absorption, chemically combined water content, compressive strength, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The addition of FA to mortar as replacement of PC affected the physicomechanical properties of mortar. As the content of FA in the concrete increased, the setting times (initial and final were elongated. The results obtained at 28 days of curing indicate that the maximum properties of mortar occur at around 30% FA. Beyond 30% FA the properties of mortar reduce and at 60% FA the properties of mortar are lower than those of the reference mortar without FA. However, the addition of polymer latexes into mortar containing FA improved most of the physicomechanical properties of mortar at all curing times. Compressive strength, combined water, and workability of mortar containing FA premixed with latexes are higher than those of mortar containing FA without latexes.

  12. Effect of copolymer latexes on physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume fly ash as a replacement material of cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negim, El-Sayed; Kozhamzharova, Latipa; Gulzhakhan, Yeligbayeva; Khatib, Jamal; Bekbayeva, Lyazzat; Williams, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume of fly ash (FA) as partial replacement of cement in presence of copolymer latexes. Portland cement (PC) was partially replaced with 0, 10, 20, 30 50, and 60% FA. Copolymer latexes were used based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA) and 2-hydroxymethylacrylate (2-HEMA). Testing included workability, setting time, absorption, chemically combined water content, compressive strength, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of FA to mortar as replacement of PC affected the physicomechanical properties of mortar. As the content of FA in the concrete increased, the setting times (initial and final) were elongated. The results obtained at 28 days of curing indicate that the maximum properties of mortar occur at around 30% FA. Beyond 30% FA the properties of mortar reduce and at 60% FA the properties of mortar are lower than those of the reference mortar without FA. However, the addition of polymer latexes into mortar containing FA improved most of the physicomechanical properties of mortar at all curing times. Compressive strength, combined water, and workability of mortar containing FA premixed with latexes are higher than those of mortar containing FA without latexes.

  13. Degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack: Experiment investigation on the effect of high volume fly ash content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Sunarmasto; Tyas, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Concrete is susceptible to a variety of chemical attacks. In the sulfuric acid environment, concrete is subjected to a combination of sulfuric and acid attack. This research is aimed to investigate the degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack based on measurement of compressive strength loss and diameter change. Since the proportion of SCC contains higher cement than that of normal concrete, the vulnerability of this concrete to sulfuric acid attack could be reduced by partial replacement of cement with fly ash at high volume level. The effect of high volume fly ash at 50-70% cement replacement levels on the extent of degradation owing to sulfuric acid will be assessed in this study. It can be shown that an increase in the utilization of fly ash to partially replace cement tends to reduce the degradation as confirmed by less compressive strength loss and diameter change. The effect of fly ash to reduce the degradation of SCC is more pronounced at a later age.

  14. Evaluating the effect of crumb rubber and nano silica on the properties of high volume fly ash roller compacted concrete pavement using non-destructive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar S. Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The major problems related to roller compacted concrete (RCC pavement are high rigidity, lower tensile strength which causes a tendency of cracking due to thermal or plastic shrinkage, flexural and fatigue loads. Furthermore, RCC pavement does not support the use of dowel bars or reinforcement due to the way it is placed and compacted, these also aided in cracking and consequently increased maintenance cost. To address these issues, high volume fly ash (HVFA RCC pavement was developed by partially replacing 50% cement by volume with fly ash. Crumb rubber was used as a partial replacement to fine aggregate in HVFA RCC pavement at 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% replacement by volume. Nano silica was added at 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% by weight of cementitious materials to improve early strength development in HVFA RCC pavement and mitigate the loss of strength due to the incorporation of crumb rubber. The nondestructive technique using the rebound hammer test (RHT and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV were used to evaluate the effect of crumb rubber and nano silica on the performance of HVFA RCC pavement. The results showed that the use of HVFA as cement replacement decreases both the unit weight, compressive strength, rebound number (RN. Furthermore, the unit weight, compressive strength, RN, UPV and dynamic modulus of elasticity of HVFA RCC pavement all decreases with increase in crumb rubber content and increases with the addition of nano-silica. Combined UPV-RN (SonReb models for predicting the 28 days strength of HVFA RCC pavement based on combining UPV and RN were developed using multivariable regression (double power, bilinear, and double exponential models. The exponential combined SonReb model is the most suitable for predicting the compressive strength of HVFA RCC pavement using UPV and RN as the independent variable with better predicting ability, higher correlation compared to the single variable models. Keywords: Crumb rubber, High volume fly ash, Nano

  15. High flying physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Cosmic ray physicists have always had to aim high. In the constant search for interactions produced as close as possible to the immensely high primary particles entering the earth's atmosphere from outer space, they have installed experiments on high mountain peaks and flown detectors aloft in balloons. In these studies, there have been periodic sightings of remarkable configurations of secondary particles. These events, many of which bear exotic names like Centauro, Andromeda, Texas Lone Star, etc., frequently defy explanation in terms of conventional physics ideas and give a glimpse of what may lie beyond the behaviour seen so far under laboratory conditions

  16. Effect of Climate Change on Service Life of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete Subjected to Carbonation—A Korean Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Bong Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in CO2 concentrations and global warming will increase the carbonation depth of concrete. Furthermore, temperature rise will increase the rate of corrosion of steel rebar after carbonation. On the other hand, compared with normal concrete, high volume fly ash (HVFA concrete is more vulnerable to carbonation-induced corrosion. Carbonation durability design with climate change is crucial to the rational use of HVFA concrete. This study presents a probabilistic approach that predicts the service life of HVFA concrete structures subjected to carbonation-induced corrosion resulting from increasing CO2 concentrations and temperatures. First, in the corrosion initiation stage, a hydration-carbonation integration model is used to evaluate the contents of the carbonatable material, porosity, and carbonation depth of HVFA concrete. The Monte Carlo method is adopted to determine the probability of corrosion initiation. Second, in the corrosion propagation stage, an updated model is proposed to evaluate the rate of corrosion, degree of corrosion for cover cracking of concrete, and probability of corrosion cracking. Third, the whole service life is determined considering both corrosion initiation stage and corrosion propagation stage. The analysis results show that climate change creates a significant impact on the service life of durable concrete.

  17. Design and evaluation of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete mixes, report E : hardened mechanical properties and durability performance of HVFA concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    A rising concern in todays construction industry is environmental responsibility. : The addition of fly ash is a leading innovation in sustainable design of concrete. Fly ash, : a waste by-product of coal burning power plants, can be used to repla...

  18. Design and evaluation of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete mixes, report A : evaluation of HVFA cementitious paste and concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    In the Paste Screening Study, 25 combinations of five Type I/II portland cements : and five Class C fly ashes commonly used in Missouri were tested in paste form with no : chemical or powder additives. Testing procedures included semi-adiabatic calor...

  19. High precision relative position sensing system for formation flying spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and test an optical sensing system that provides high precision relative position sensing for formation flying spacecraft.  A high precision...

  20. High filler concrete using fly ash. Chloride penetration and microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Polder, R.B.; Nijland, T.G.; Leegwater, G.A.; Visser, J.H.M.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Most high filler concrete studies are based on relatively high contents of powder (cement + filler) (>400 kg m-3). This paper aims to increase the total fly ash content relative to the clinker content, while simultaneously minimizing the total powder content in the concrete to values lower than 300

  1. High filler concrete using fly ash : Chloride penetration and microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Polder, R.B.; Nijland, T.G.; Leegwater, G.A.; Visser, J.H.M.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Most high filler concrete studies are based on relatively high contents of powder (cement + filler) (>400 kg m-3). This paper aims to increase the total fly ash content relative to the clinker content, while simultaneously minimizing the total powder content in the concrete to values lower than 300

  2. Visualization of Projectile Flying at High Speed in Dusty Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Chihiro; Watanabe, Yasumasa; Suzuki, Kojiro

    2017-10-01

    Considering a spacecraft that encounters particle-laden environment, such as dust particles flying up over the regolith by the jet of the landing thruster, high-speed flight of a projectile in such environment was experimentally simulated by using the ballistic range. At high-speed collision of particles on the projectile surface, they may be reflected with cracking into smaller pieces. On the other hand, the projectile surface will be damaged by the collision. To obtain the fundamental characteristics of such complicated phenomena, a projectile was launched at the velocity up to 400 m/s and the collective behaviour of particles around projectile was observed by the high-speed camera. To eliminate the effect of the gas-particle interaction and to focus on only the effect of the interaction between the particles and the projectile's surface, the test chamber pressure was evacuated down to 30 Pa. The particles about 400μm diameter were scattered and formed a sheet of particles in the test chamber by using two-dimensional funnel with a narrow slit. The projectile was launched into the particle sheet in the tangential direction, and the high-speed camera captured both projectile and particle motions. From the movie, the interaction between the projectile and particle sheet was clarified.

  3. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste using high-calcium fly ash. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogburn, C.O.; Hodgson, L.M.; Ragland, R.C.

    1986-04-01

    The feasibility of using calcium-rich fly ash from coal-fired power plants in the disposal of low-level radioactive waste was examined. The proposed areas of use were: (1) fly-ash cement as a trench lining material; (2) fly ash as a backfill material; and (3) fly ash as a liquid waste solidifier. The physical properties of fly-ash cement were determined to be adequate for trench liner construction, with compressive strengths attaining greater than 3000 psi. Hydraulic conductivities were determined to be less than that for clay mineral deposits, and were on the order of 10 -7 cm/sec, with some observed values as low as 10 -9 cm/sec. Removal of radioisotopes from acidified solutions by fly ash was good for all elements tested except cesium. The removal of cesium by fly ash was similar to that of montmorillonite clay. The corrosive effects on metals in fly ash environments was determined to be slight, if not non-existent. Coatings at the fly-ash/metal interfaces were observed which appeared to inhibit or diminish corrosion. The study has indicated that high-calcium fly ash appears to offer considerable potential for improved retention of low-level radioactive wastes in shallow land disposal sites. Further tests are needed to determine optimum methods of use. 8 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Indigenous high volume air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotrappa, P.; Setty, N.P.N.; Raghunath, B.; Sivasubrahmanyam, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    A high volume air sampler for use in assessing concentrations of low levels of air borne particulates has been fabricated. The sampler will be of use in radioactive installations, conventional industries and environmental pollution analysis. It is comparable in performance with the imported Staplex air samplers. A turbine and motor system similar to the one found in conventional vacuum cleaners is used in its design. The sampler units can be produced in large numbers. (M.G.B.)

  5. Adaptive-Repetitive Visual-Servo Control of Low-Flying Aerial Robots via Uncalibrated High-Flying Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dejun; Bourne, Joseph R.; Wang, Hesheng; Yim, Woosoon; Leang, Kam K.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an adaptive-repetitive visual-servo control system for a moving high-flying vehicle (HFV) with an uncalibrated camera to monitor, track, and precisely control the movements of a low-flying vehicle (LFV) or mobile ground robot. Applications of this control strategy include the use of high-flying unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with computer vision for monitoring, controlling, and coordinating the movements of lower altitude agents in areas, for example, where GPS signals may be unreliable or nonexistent. When deployed, a remote operator of the HFV defines the desired trajectory for the LFV in the HFV's camera frame. Due to the circular motion of the HFV, the resulting motion trajectory of the LFV in the image frame can be periodic in time, thus an adaptive-repetitive control system is exploited for regulation and/or trajectory tracking. The adaptive control law is able to handle uncertainties in the camera's intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. The design and stability analysis of the closed-loop control system is presented, where Lyapunov stability is shown. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for controlling the movement of a low-flying quadcopter, demonstrating the capabilities of the visual-servo control system for localization (i.e.,, motion capturing) and trajectory tracking control. In fact, results show that the LFV can be commanded to hover in place as well as track a user-defined flower-shaped closed trajectory, while the HFV and camera system circulates above with constant angular velocity. On average, the proposed adaptive-repetitive visual-servo control system reduces the average RMS tracking error by over 77% in the image plane and over 71% in the world frame compared to using just the adaptive visual-servo control law.

  6. High tensile strength fly ash based geopolymer composite using copper coated micro steel fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjbar, Navid; Mehrali, Mehdi; Mehrali, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    -matrix interaction. In this present study, effects of micro steel fibers (MSF) incorporation on mechanical properties of fly ash based geopolymer was investigated at different volume ratio of matrix. Various properties of the composite were compared in terms of fresh state by flow measurement and hardened state......As a ceramic-like material, geopolymers show a high quasi-brittle behavior and relatively low fracture energy. To overcome this, the addition of fibers to a brittle matrix is a well-known method to improve the flexural strength. Moreover, the success of the reinforcements is dependent on the fiber...... by variation of shrinkage over time to assess performance of the composites subjected to flexural and compressive load. The fiber-matrix interface, fiber surface and toughening mechanisms were assessed using field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) through a period...

  7. A volume of intersection approach for on-the-fly system matrix calculation in 3D PET image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lougovski, A; Hofheinz, F; Maus, J; Schramm, G; Will, E; Hoff, J van den

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the evaluation of on-the-fly volume of intersection computation for system’s geometry modelling in 3D PET image reconstruction. For this purpose we propose a simple geometrical model in which the cubic image voxels on the given Cartesian grid are approximated with spheres and the rectangular tubes of response (ToRs) are approximated with cylinders. The model was integrated into a fully 3D list-mode PET reconstruction for performance evaluation. In our model the volume of intersection between a voxel and the ToR is only a function of the impact parameter (the distance between voxel centre to ToR axis) but is independent of the relative orientation of voxel and ToR. This substantially reduces the computational complexity of the system matrix calculation. Based on phantom measurements it was determined that adjusting the diameters of the spherical voxel size and the ToR in such a way that the actual voxel and ToR volumes are conserved leads to the best compromise between high spatial resolution, low noise, and suppression of Gibbs artefacts in the reconstructed images. Phantom as well as clinical datasets from two different PET systems (Siemens ECAT HR + and Philips Ingenuity-TF PET/MR) were processed using the developed and the respective vendor-provided (line of intersection related) reconstruction algorithms. A comparison of the reconstructed images demonstrated very good performance of the new approach. The evaluation showed the respective vendor-provided reconstruction algorithms to possess 34–41% lower resolution compared to the developed one while exhibiting comparable noise levels. Contrary to explicit point spread function modelling our model has a simple straight-forward implementation and it should be easy to integrate into existing reconstruction software, making it competitive to other existing resolution recovery techniques. (paper)

  8. Thermal stability of nano structured fly ash synthesized by high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Casting, as a liquid phase process, is capable of producing products with ... materials, including stiffness, strength and wear resistance and reduce the density. .... been destroyed; and in this 10h milling stage the fly ash is in cold welding ..... 2004, Nanostructures and Nano materials- Synthesis, properties and Applications, ...

  9. High-Speed Surface Reconstruction of Flying Birds Using Structured Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetjen, Marc; Lentink, David

    2017-11-01

    Birds fly effectively through complex environments, and in order to understand the strategies that enable them to do so, we need to determine the shape and movement of their wings. Previous studies show that even small perturbations in wing shape have dramatic aerodynamic effects, but these shape changes have not been quantified automatically at high temporal and spatial resolutions. Hence, we developed a custom 3D surface mapping method which uses a high-speed camera to view a grid of stripes projected onto a flying bird. Because the light is binary rather than grayscale, and each frame is separately analyzed, this method can function at any frame rate with sufficient light. The method is automated, non-invasive, and able to measure a volume by simultaneously reconstructing from multiple views. We use this technique to reconstruct the 3D shape of the surface of a parrotlet during flapping flight at 3200 fps. We then analyze key dynamic parameters such as wing twist and angle of attack, and compute aerodynamic parameters such as lift and drag. While this novel system is designed to quantify bird wing shape and motion, it is adaptable for tracking other objects such as quickly deforming fish, especially those which are difficult to reconstruct using other 3D tracking methods. The presenter needs to leave by 3 pm on the final day of the conference (11/21) in order to make his flight. Please account for this in the scheduling if possible by scheduling the presentation earlier in the day or a different day.

  10. Vector soup: high-throughput identification of Neotropical phlebotomine sand flies using metabarcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Arthur; Gantier, Jean-Charles; Gaborit, Pascal; Zinger, Lucie; Holota, Helene; Valiere, Sophie; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Murienne, Jerome

    2017-03-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are haematophagous dipterans of primary medical importance. They represent the only proven vectors of leishmaniasis worldwide and are involved in the transmission of various other pathogens. Studying the ecology of sand flies is crucial to understand the epidemiology of leishmaniasis and further control this disease. A major limitation in this regard is that traditional morphological-based methods for sand fly species identifications are time-consuming and require taxonomic expertise. DNA metabarcoding holds great promise in overcoming this issue by allowing the identification of multiple species from a single bulk sample. Here, we assessed the reliability of a short insect metabarcode located in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA for the identification of Neotropical sand flies, and constructed a reference database for 40 species found in French Guiana. Then, we conducted a metabarcoding experiment on sand flies mixtures of known content and showed that the method allows an accurate identification of specimens in pools. Finally, we applied metabarcoding to field samples caught in a 1-ha forest plot in French Guiana. Besides providing reliable molecular data for species-level assignations of phlebotomine sand flies, our study proves the efficiency of metabarcoding based on the mitochondrial 16S rRNA for studying sand fly diversity from bulk samples. The application of this high-throughput identification procedure to field samples can provide great opportunities for vector monitoring and eco-epidemiological studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Combined treatment of SO2 and high resistivity fly ash using a pulse energized electron reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, A.; Clements, J.S.; Davis, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The combined removal of SO 2 and high resistivity fly ash has been demonstrated in a pulse energized electron reactor (PEER). The PEER system which was originally developed for the removal of SO 2 utilizes a positive pulse streamer corona discharge in a non-uniform field geometry. In performance tests on SO 2 , more than 90% was removed with an advantageously small power requirement. Combined treatment performance was demonstrated by introducing high resistivity fly ash into the test gas and the PEER is significantly more efficient than a conventional electrostatic precipitator operated with a dc voltage. Observations show that the PEER agglomerates the fly ash and further that the SO 2 removal efficiency is improved by the presence of fly ash. The electrode configuration and performance results make retrofit consideration attractive

  12. U.S. Geological Survey flies high for now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton is asking Congress to keep the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) alive and well in FY 1996. With a proposed 2.6% increase to $586 million, the Clinton request flies in the face of the Republican Contract with America that calls for abolishing the survey.Indeed, Clinton has made it clear that the onus will be on Congress if it wants to make major cuts at USGS. As Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt puts it: “Good science is essential to good management.”

  13. Stabilisation of clayey soils with high calcium fly ash and cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Kolias; V. Kasselouri-Rigopoulou; A. Karahalios [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2005-02-01

    The effectiveness of using high calcium fly ash and cement in stabilising fine-grained clayey soils (CL,CH) was investigated in the laboratory. Strength tests in uniaxial compression, in indirect (splitting) tension and flexure were carried out on samples to which various percentages of fly ash and cement had been added. Modulus of elasticity was determined at 90 days with different types of load application and 90-day soaked CBR values are also reported. Pavement structures incorporating subgrades improved by in situ stabilisation with fly ash and cement were analyzed for construction traffic and for operating traffic. These pavements are compared with conventional flexible pavements without improved subgrades and the results clearly show the technical benefits of stabilising clayey soils with fly ash and cement. In addition TG-SDTA and XRD tests were carried out on certain samples in order to study the hydraulic compounds, which were formed.

  14. When high-volume PCI operators in high-volume hospitals move to lower volume hospitals-Do they still maintain high volume and quality of outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Li, Sheng-Tun; Liang, Fu-Wen; Lee, Jo-Chi; Yin, Wei-Hsian

    2017-10-31

    The aim of this quasi-experimental study was to examine whether high-volume percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) operators still maintain high volume and quality of outcomes when they moved to lower volume hospitals. Systematic reviews have indicated that high-volume PCI operators and hospitals have higher quality outcomes. However, little is known on whether high PCI volume and high quality outcomes are mainly due to operator characteristics (i.e., skill and experience) and is portable across organizations or whether it is due to hospital characteristics (i.e., equipment, team, and management system) and is less portable. We used Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data 2000-2012 to identify 98 high-volume PCI operators, 10 of whom moved from one hospital to another during the study period. We compared the PCI volume, risk-adjusted mortality ratio, and major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) ratio before and after moving. Of the 10 high-volume operators who moved, 6 moved from high- to moderate- or low-volume hospitals, with median annual PCI volumes (interquartile range) of 130 (117-165) in prior hospitals and 54 (46-84) in subsequent hospitals (the hospital the operator moved to), and the remaining 4 moved from high to high-volume hospitals, with median annual PCI volumes (interquartile range) of 151 (133-162) in prior hospitals and 193 (178-239) in subsequent hospitals. No significant differences were observed in the risk-adjusted mortality ratios and MACE ratios between high-volume operators and matched controls before and after moving. High-volume operators cannot maintain high volume when they moved from high to moderate or low-volume hospitals; however, the quality of care is maintained. High PCI volume and high-quality outcomes are less portable and more hospital bound. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. USAF Test Pilot School. Flying Qualities Textbook, Volume 2, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Qualities Flight Testing, Performance and Flying Qaulities Branch, Flight Test Engneerd ision, 6510th Test Wing, Air Force Flight Mayst Ce1ter, Edwards...For these aircraft, the program manager may re*uire a mil spec written specifically for the aircraft and control system involwd. 5.20.2 _EL k,Tt...OR MANAGED IN CONTEXT OF MISSION, WITH AVAILABLE PILOT ATTENTION. S UNCONTROLLABLE CONTROL WILL BE LOST DURING SOME PORTION OF MISSION. ACCEPTABLE

  16. Prediction of the Chloride Resistance of Concrete Modified with High Calcium Fly Ash Using Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michał; Glinicki, Michał A; Gibas, Karolina

    2015-12-11

    The aim of the study was to generate rules for the prediction of the chloride resistance of concrete modified with high calcium fly ash using machine learning methods. The rapid chloride permeability test, according to the Nordtest Method Build 492, was used for determining the chloride ions' penetration in concrete containing high calcium fly ash (HCFA) for partial replacement of Portland cement. The results of the performed tests were used as the training set to generate rules describing the relation between material composition and the chloride resistance. Multiple methods for rule generation were applied and compared. The rules generated by algorithm J48 from the Weka workbench provided the means for adequate classification of plain concretes and concretes modified with high calcium fly ash as materials of good, acceptable or unacceptable resistance to chloride penetration.

  17. High-resolution remotely sensed small target detection by imitating fly visual perception mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fengchen; Xu, Lizhong; Li, Min; Tang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The difficulty and limitation of small target detection methods for high-resolution remote sensing data have been a recent research hot spot. Inspired by the information capture and processing theory of fly visual system, this paper endeavors to construct a characterized model of information perception and make use of the advantages of fast and accurate small target detection under complex varied nature environment. The proposed model forms a theoretical basis of small target detection for high-resolution remote sensing data. After the comparison of prevailing simulation mechanism behind fly visual systems, we propose a fly-imitated visual system method of information processing for high-resolution remote sensing data. A small target detector and corresponding detection algorithm are designed by simulating the mechanism of information acquisition, compression, and fusion of fly visual system and the function of pool cell and the character of nonlinear self-adaption. Experiments verify the feasibility and rationality of the proposed small target detection model and fly-imitated visual perception method.

  18. High-Resolution Remotely Sensed Small Target Detection by Imitating Fly Visual Perception Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchen Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty and limitation of small target detection methods for high-resolution remote sensing data have been a recent research hot spot. Inspired by the information capture and processing theory of fly visual system, this paper endeavors to construct a characterized model of information perception and make use of the advantages of fast and accurate small target detection under complex varied nature environment. The proposed model forms a theoretical basis of small target detection for high-resolution remote sensing data. After the comparison of prevailing simulation mechanism behind fly visual systems, we propose a fly-imitated visual system method of information processing for high-resolution remote sensing data. A small target detector and corresponding detection algorithm are designed by simulating the mechanism of information acquisition, compression, and fusion of fly visual system and the function of pool cell and the character of nonlinear self-adaption. Experiments verify the feasibility and rationality of the proposed small target detection model and fly-imitated visual perception method.

  19. Cloud formations caused by emissions from high-flying aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, H

    1990-09-01

    Kerosene combustion in aircraft engines leads to the emission of gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapour, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, sulphur dioxide and poorly or incompletely burnt hydrocarbons, as well as to particulate emissions which mainly consist of carbon black. In higher atmospheric strata with temperatures below -50deg C, these gas and particle emissions are no longer negligible when compared to the concentrations prevailing in the absence of air traffic; i.e. aircraft emissions produce the wellknown condensation trails which persist for a longer period of time. Since these trails are similar to natural ice clouds, their effect on the atmosphere's radiation balance almost invariably is that of an additional greenhouse agent. They change climatic parameters, probably not only locally but alos regionally via feedback mechanisms. After describing efforts aimed at separating the effect of condensation trails from natural variations, this paper will conclude with reduction proposals which will primarily demonstrate that the likelihood of the formation of condensation trails decreases drastically at only slightly lower flying altitudes. (orig.).

  20. Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O' Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

    2011-02-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

  1. High volume medical web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, B; Elliott, G

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, 22 million individuals reported surfing the web for medical information, and this number will increase to over 30 million by 2000. Fifteen of the highest volume medical web sites are described in this paper. Sponsorship and/or ownership of the fifteen sites varied. The government sponsors one, and some are the products of well-known educational institutions. One site is supported by a consumer health organization, and the American Medical Association was in the top 15. However, the most common owners are commercial, for-profit businesses. Attributes of the ideal site were categorized, and include a robust privacy and disclosure statement with an emphasis on education and an appropriate role for advertising. The covering of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) should be in a balanced and unbiased manner. There has to be an emphasis on knowledge based evidence as opposed to testimonials, and sources should be timely and reviewed. Bibliographies of authors need to be available. Hyperlinking to other web resources is valuable, as even the largest of sites cannot come close to covering all of medicine.

  2. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  3. MANAGING HIGH-END, HIGH-VOLUME INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembong Baskoro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuses the concept of managing high-end, high-volume innovative products. High-end, high-volume consumer products are products that have considerable influence to the way of life. Characteristic of High-end, high-volume consumer products are (1 short cycle time, (2 quick obsolete time, and (3 rapid price erosion. Beside the disadvantages that they are high risk for manufacturers, if manufacturers are able to understand precisely the consumer needs then they have the potential benefit or success to be the market leader. High innovation implies to high utilization of the user, therefore these products can influence indirectly to the way of people life. The objective of managing them is to achieve sustainability of the products development and innovation. This paper observes the behavior of these products in companies operated in high-end, high-volume consumer product.

  4. Mechanically activated fly ash as a high performance binder for civil engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, D; Kullová, L; Čekalová, M; Novotný, P; Pola, M

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed for investigation of fly ash binder with suitable properties for civil engineering needs. The fly ash from Czech brown coal power plant Prunerov II was used and mechanically activated to achieve suitable particle size for alkaline activation of hardening process. This process is driven by dissolution of aluminosilicate content of fly ash and by subsequent development of inorganic polymeric network called geopolymer. Hardening kinetics at 25 and 30 °C were measured by strain controlled small amplitude oscillatory rheometry with strain of 0.01 % and microstructure of hardened binder was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Strength development of hardened binder was investigated according to compressional and flexural strength for a period of 180 days. Our investigation finds out, that mechanically activated fly ash can be comparable to metakaolin geopolymers, according to setting time and mechanical parameters even at room temperature curing. Moreover, on the bases of long time strength development, achieved compressional strength of 134.5 after 180 days is comparable to performance of high grade Portland cement concretes. (paper)

  5. Back pain and its consequences among Polish Air Force pilots flying high performance aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Truszczyńska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Back pain in Air Force fast jet pilots has been studied by several air forces and found to be relatively common. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and degree of the pain intensity in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, subjective risk factors and their effect on the pilots' performance while flying high maneuver aircrafts and the consequences for cognitive deficiencies. Material and Methods: The study was designed as a retrospective, anonymous questionnaire survey, collecting data on the age, aircraft type, flying hours, pain characteristics, physical activity, etc. The study was participated by 94 pilots aged 28-45 years (mean age: 35.9±3.3 years, actively flying fast jet aircrafts Su-22, Mig-29 and F-16. The estimates regarding the level of the subjective back pain were established using visual analogue scales (VAS. Results: The values of the Cochran and Cox T-test for heterogeneous variances are as follows: for the total number of flying hours: F = 2.53, p = 0.0145, for the pilot's age: F = 3.15, p = 0.003, and for the BMI factor F = 2.73, p = 0.008. Conclusions: Our questionnaire survey showed a significant problem regarding spinal conditions in high performance aircraft pilots. The determination of the risk factors may lead to solving this problem and help eliminate the effect of the unfavorable environment on piloting jet aircrafts. Experiencing back pain during the flight might influence the mission performance and flight safety. The costs of pilots education are enormous and inability to fly, or even disability, leads to considerable economic loss. More research on specific prevention strategies is warranted in order to improve the in-flight working environment of fighter pilots.

  6. High-flying Mini-Sniffer RPV - Mars bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    The Mini-Sniffer is a small unmanned survey aircraft developed by NASA to conduct turbulence and atmospheric pollution measurements from ground level to an altitude of 90,000 ft. Carrying a 25-lb air sampling apparatus, the Mini-Sniffer typically cruises for one hour at 70,000 ft before being remotely piloted back to earth. A hydrazine monopropellant engine powers the craft, while a PCM telemetering system and a radar transponder provide control functions. Development of a high-performance low-Reynolds-number airfoil could make the research craft suitable for a low-altitude terrain-following mission on Mars.

  7. Speciation of zinc in secondary fly ashes of municipal solid waste at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Meijuan; Chu, Wangsheng; Chen, Dongliang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Tian, Shulei [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Wang, Qi [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing (China); Wu, Ziyu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China). National Synchrotron Radiation Lab.; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities

    2009-07-15

    The evaporation aerosols produced during the vitrification process of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) fly ash represent a potential environmental risk owing to their high content of heavy metals. In this research, high-temperature heating processes were carried out on fly ashes collected from bag houses in a Chinese MSWI plant and the secondary fly ashes (SFA) were separately collected at three high temperatures (1273 K, 1423 K and 1523 K) below the melting range. Elemental analysis showed that high contents of both zinc and chlorine were present in these SFA samples and, according to the standard of the heavy metals industrial grade of ore, SFAs can be re-used as metallurgical raw materials or rich ore. Moreover, as shown by XAS analysis and for different high temperatures, zinc environments in the three SFA samples were characterized by the same local structure of the zinc chloride. As a consequence, a zinc recycling procedure can be easily designed based on the configuration information. (orig.)

  8. Speciation of zinc in secondary fly ashes of municipal solid waste at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Meijuan; Chu, Wangsheng; Chen, Dongliang; Wu, Ziyu; Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2009-01-01

    The evaporation aerosols produced during the vitrification process of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) fly ash represent a potential environmental risk owing to their high content of heavy metals. In this research, high-temperature heating processes were carried out on fly ashes collected from bag houses in a Chinese MSWI plant and the secondary fly ashes (SFA) were separately collected at three high temperatures (1273 K, 1423 K and 1523 K) below the melting range. Elemental analysis showed that high contents of both zinc and chlorine were present in these SFA samples and, according to the standard of the heavy metals industrial grade of ore, SFAs can be re-used as metallurgical raw materials or rich ore. Moreover, as shown by XAS analysis and for different high temperatures, zinc environments in the three SFA samples were characterized by the same local structure of the zinc chloride. As a consequence, a zinc recycling procedure can be easily designed based on the configuration information. (orig.)

  9. Dispersion of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at high and low densities and consequences of mismatching dispersions of wild and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meats, A.

    2007-01-01

    Both wild and released (sterile) Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and wild Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) in Australia had patchy distributions and comparisons with predictions of the negative binomial model indicated that the degree of clumping was sometimes very high, particularly at low densities during eradication. An increase of mean recapture rate of sterile B. tryoni on either of 2 trap arrays was not accompanied by a reduction in its coefficient of variation and when recapture rates were high, the percentage of traps catching zero decreased only slightly with increase in recapture rate, indicating that it is not practicable to decrease the heterogeneity of dispersion of sterile flies by increasing the number released. There was often a mismatch between the dispersion patterns of the wild and sterile flies, and the implications of this for the efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) were investigated with a simulation study with the observed degrees of mismatch obtained from the monitoring data and assuming the overall ratio of sterile to wild flies to be 100:1. The simulation indicated that mismatches could result in the imposed rate of increase of wild flies being up to 3.5 times higher than that intended (i.e., 0.35 instead of 0.1). The effect of a mismatch always reduces the efficiency of SIT. The reason for this asymmetry is discussed and a comparison made with host-parasitoid and other systems. A release strategy to counter this effect is suggested. (author) [es

  10. Formation Design Strategy for SCOPE High-Elliptic Formation Flying Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuichi

    2007-01-01

    The new formation design strategy using simulated annealing (SA) optimization is presented. The SA algorithm is useful to survey a whole solution space of optimum formation, taking into account realistic constraints composed of continuous and discrete functions. It is revealed that this method is not only applicable for circular orbit, but also for high-elliptic orbit formation flying. The developed algorithm is first tested with a simple cart-wheel motion example, and then applied to the formation design for SCOPE. SCOPE is the next generation geomagnetotail observation mission planned in JAXA, utilizing a formation flying techonology in a high elliptic orbit. A distinctive and useful heuristics is found by investigating SA results, showing the effectiveness of the proposed design process.

  11. Flying High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Lee; Paglin, Catherine; Jarrett, Denise; Kneidek, Tony

    1998-01-01

    Profiles 10 technology-based programs in Montana, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Idaho schools that use computers, the Internet, and multimedia to teach math, science, information skills, economics, English, history, and graphic design. Includes teacher comments on hardware, software, costs, the changing role of the teacher, Internet safety, and…

  12. Development of autonomous controller system of high speed UAV from simulation to ready to fly condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhi Irwanto, Herma

    2018-02-01

    The development of autonomous controller system that is specially used in our high speed UAV, it’s call RKX-200EDF/TJ controlled vehicle needs to be continued as a step to mastery and to developt control system of LAPAN’s satellite launching rocket. The weakness of the existing control system in this high speed UAV needs to be repaired and replaced using the autonomous controller system. Conversion steps for ready-to-fly system involved controlling X tail fin, adjusting auto take off procedure by adding X axis sensor, procedure of way points reading and process of measuring distance and heading to the nearest way point, developing user-friendly ground station, and adding tools for safety landing. The development of this autonomous controller system also covered a real flying test in Pandanwangi, Lumajang in November 2016. Unfortunately, the flying test was not successful because the booster rocket was blown right after burning. However, the system could record the event and demonstrated that the controller system had worked according to plan.

  13. Identification of high molecular weight nitroaromatic compounds from coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.R.; Okamoto, D.J.; Chess, E.K.; Wilson, B.W.

    1983-01-01

    A large sample of stack-collected coal fly ash was extracted with 60:40 nu/nu benzene:methanol to remove as much of the soluble organic material as possible. This solution was concentrated by gentle evaporation, and was then fractionated on a series of high performance liquid chromatography columns to generate samples suitable for probe mass spectrometric analysis. A series of nitrated derivatives of C 21 H 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon have been tentatively identified by low and high resolution mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. The series includes a mononitro, two dinitro isomers, and a trinitro derivative

  14. Distribution and occurrence of lithium in high-alumina-coal fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Pengpeng; Hou, Xinjuan; Zhang, Jianbo

    2018-01-01

    the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) method indicated that Li occurred in Q3(0Al) and Q3(1Al) structures by reacting with Q4(0Al) and Q4(1Al). Based on the experimental and simulation results, we propose extracting Li during the pre-desilication process by dissolving the glass phase.......High-alumina-coal fly ash (HAFA) with a high Li content is regarded as a potential resource for Li production. To support the development of Li recovery technology from HAFA, the distribution and modes of occurrence of Li in HAFA were investigated. HAFA was separated into magnetic particles, glass...

  15. Sulfate and Chloride Resistance of High Fluidity Concrete including Fly Ash and GGBS for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Jea Myoung; Cho, Myung Sug

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash mixed concrete has been used for NPP concrete structures in Korea in order to prevent aging and improve durability since the Shin.Kori no.1,2 in 2005. Concentrated efforts to develop technology for the streamlining of construction work and to affect labor savings have been conducted in construction. The application of high fluidity concrete for nuclear power plants has been the research subject with the aim of further rationalization of construction works. Since high fluidity concrete can have the characteristics of high density and high strength without compaction. However, high fluidity concrete can cause thermal cracking by heat of hydration. For this reason, the amount of pozzolan binder should be increased in high fluidity concrete for nuclear power plants. In this study, the resistance of high fluidity concrete on sulfate and chloride was compared with that of the concrete currently using for nuclear power plants

  16. High tidal volume ventilation in infant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Vincenzo; Zosky, Graeme R; Hantos, Zoltán; Turner, Debra J; Sly, Peter D

    2008-06-30

    Infant mice were ventilated with either high tidal volume (V(T)) with zero end-expiratory pressure (HVZ), high V(T) with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (HVP), or low V(T) with PEEP. Thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined plethysmographically and low-frequency forced oscillations were used to measure the input impedance of the respiratory system. Inflammatory cells, total protein, and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were measured as markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response, respectively. Coefficients of tissue damping and tissue elastance increased in all ventilated mice, with the largest rise seen in the HVZ group where TGV rapidly decreased. BALF protein levels increased in the HVP group, whereas serum IL-6 rose in the HVZ group. PEEP keeps the lungs open, but provides high volumes to the entire lungs and induces lung injury. Compared to studies in adult and non-neonatal rodents, infant mice demonstrate a different response to similar ventilation strategies underscoring the need for age-specific animal models.

  17. High Strength Lightweight Concrete Made with Ternary Mixtures of Cement-Fly Ash-Silica Fume and Scoria as Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    YAŞAR, Ergül; ATIŞ, Cengiz Duran; KILIÇ, Alaettin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents part of the results of an ongoing laboratory study carried out to design a structural lightweight high strength concrete (SLWHSC) made with and without ternary mixtures of cement-fly ash-silica fume. In the mixtures, lightweight basaltic-pumice (scoria) aggregate was used. A concrete mixture made with lightweight scoria, and another lightweight scoria concrete mixture incorporating 20% fly ash and 10% silica fume as a cement replacement, were prepared. Two normal...

  18. Observations of movement dynamics of flying insects using high resolution lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Wellenreuther, Maren; Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    insects (wing size cross-section) moved across the field and clustered near the light trap around 22:00 local time, while larger insects (wing size >2.5 mm2 in cross-section) were most abundant near the lidar beam before 22:00 and then moved towards the light trap between 22:00 and 23:30. We......Insects are fundamental to ecosystem functioning and biodiversity, yet the study of insect movement, dispersal and activity patterns remains a challenge. Here we present results from a novel high resolution laser-radar (lidar) system for quantifying flying insect abundance recorded during one...

  19. On-the-Fly Control of High-Harmonic Generation Using a Structured Pump Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareli, Liran; Lobachinsky, Lilya; Shoulga, Georgiy; Eliezer, Yaniv; Michaeli, Linor; Bahabad, Alon

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a relatively simple yet powerful all-optical enhancement and control technique for high harmonic generation. This is achieved by using as a pump beam two different spatial optical modes interfering together to realize tunable periodic quasi-phase matching of the interaction. With this technique, we demonstrate on-the-fly quasi-phase matching of harmonic orders 29-41 at ambient gas pressure levels of 50 and 100 Torr, where an up to 100-fold enhancement of the emission is observed. The technique is scalable to different harmonic orders and ambient pressure conditions.

  20. High resolution gas volume change sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirckx, Joris J. J.; Aernouts, Jef E. F.; Aerts, Johan R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Changes of gas quantity in a system can be measured either by measuring pressure changes or by measuring volume changes. As sensitive pressure sensors are readily available, pressure change is the commonly used technique. In many physiologic systems, however, buildup of pressure influences the gas exchange mechanisms, thus changing the gas quantity change rate. If one wants to study the gas flow in or out of a biological gas pocket, measurements need to be done at constant pressure. In this article we present a highly sensitive sensor for quantitative measurements of gas volume change at constant pressure. The sensor is based on optical detection of the movement of a droplet of fluid enclosed in a capillary. The device is easy to use and delivers gas volume data at a rate of more than 15 measurements/s and a resolution better than 0.06 μl. At the onset of a gas quantity change the sensor shows a small pressure artifact of less than 15 Pa, and at constant change rates the pressure artifact is smaller than 10 Pa or 0.01% of ambient pressure

  1. Self-cementitious properties of fly ashes from CFBC boilers co-firing coal and high-sulphur petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Guanghong; Li Qin; Zhai Jianping; Li Feihu

    2007-01-01

    Self-cementitious properties of fly ash from circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler co-firing coal and high-sulphur petroleum coke (CPFA) were investigated. CPFA was self-cementitious which was affected by its fineness and chemical compositions, especially the contents of SO 3 and free lime (f-CaO). Higher contents of SO 3 and f-CaO were beneficial to self-cementitious strength; the self-cementitious strength increases with a decrease of its 45 μm sieve residue. The expansive ratio of CPFA hardened paste was high because of generation of ettringite (AFt), which was influenced by its water to binder ratio (W/A), curing style and grinding of the ash. The paste cured in water had the highest expansive ratio, and grinding of CPFA was beneficial to its volume stability. The hydration products of CPFA detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were portlandite, gypsum, AFt and hydrated calcium silicate (C-S-H)

  2. High Temperature Fission Chamber for He- and FLiBe-cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Zane W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giuliano, Dominic R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lance, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Roger G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warmack, Robert J. Bruce [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We have evaluated candidate technologies for in-core fission chambers for high-temperature reactors to monitor power level via measurements of neutron flux from start-up through full power at up to 800°C. This research is important because there are no commercially available instruments capable of operating above 550 °C. Component materials and processes were investigated for fission chambers suitable for operation at 800 °C in reactors cooled by molten fluoride salt (FLiBe) or flowing He, with an emphasis placed on sensitivity (≥ 1 cps/nv), service lifetime (2 years at full power), and resistance to direct immersion in FLiBe. The latter gives the instrument the ability to survive accidents involving breach of a thimble. The device is envisioned to be a two-gap, three-electrode instrument constructed from concentric nickel-plated alumina cylinders and using a noble gas–nitrogen fill-gas. We report the results of measurements and calculations of the response of fill gasses, impurity migration in nickel alloy, brazing of the alumina insulator, and thermodynamic calculations.

  3. Influence of high volumes of ultra-fine additions on self-compacting concrete[ACI SP-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioffi, R. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Faculty of Engineering; Colangelo, F. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Dept. of Technologies; Caputo, D.; Liguori, B. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Dept. of Materials and Production Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The addition of fine minerals can reduce water demand and increase the slump characteristics of concrete. This paper examined the influence of high volumes of ultra-fine fly ash, raw fly ash, silica fume and natural zeolites on the properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Three samples of SCC were prepared using various mineral additions to determine normal slump and J-ring slump flows of fresh concrete as well as the compressive strength and elastic modulus properties of hardened concrete. Cement and crushed limestone natural aggregates were used. The fly ash, silica fume and natural zeolites were subjected to wet high energy milling. The rotating speed, milling time, water-to-solid ratio, and size of milling media were optimized to obtain powders with varying qualities. Results of the study showed that values for the normal slump flow ranged between 604 and 785 mm, while the differences with the J-ring slump flow were less than 30 mm. The samples were then tested to evaluate the mechanical properties of the hardened concrete after 7 and 28 curing days. The modulus of elasticity and compressive strength showed improvements in the concretes containing the ultra-fine fly ash. No segregation phenomena were observed in the case of the cylindrical column specimens. It was concluded that all the specimens provided environmentally sustainable, high workability concretes which can be successfully prepared with the addition of high volumes of minerals. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. Ultrasonic characterization of GRC with high percentage of fly ash substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovés, V; Gosálbez, J; Miralles, R; Bonilla, M; Payá, J

    2015-07-01

    New applications of non-destructive techniques (NDT) with ultrasonic tests (attenuation and velocity by means of ultrasonic frequency sweeps) have been developed for the characterization of fibre-reinforced cementitious composites. According to new lines of research on glass-fibre reinforced cement (GRC) matrix modification, two similar GRC composites with high percentages of fly ash and different water/binder ratios will be studied. Conventional techniques have been used to confirm their low Ca(OH)(2) content (thermogravimetry), fibre integrity (Scanning Electron Microscopy), low porosity (Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry) and good mechanical properties (compression and four points bending test). Ultrasound frequency sweeps allowed the estimation of the attenuation and pulse velocity as functions of frequency. This ultrasonic characterization was correlated successfully with conventional techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The maximum percentage of fly ash to replace part of original Portland cement (OPC) in producing high strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallisa, Harun; Turuallo, Gidion

    2017-11-01

    This research investigates the maximum percent of fly ash to replace part of Orginal Portland Cement (OPC) in producing high strength concrete. Many researchers have found that the incorporation of industrial by-products such as fly ash as in producing concrete can improve properties in both fresh and hardened state of concrete. The water-binder ratio was used 0.30. The used sand was medium sand with the maximum size of coarse aggregate was 20 mm. The cement was Type I, which was Bosowa Cement produced by PT Bosowa. The percentages of fly ash to the total of a binder, which were used in this research, were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%; while the super platicizer used was typed Naptha 511P. The results showed that the replacement cement up to 25 % of the total weight of binder resulted compressive strength higher than the minimum strength at one day of high-strength concrete.

  6. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  7. Testing candidate genes for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in fruit flies using a high throughput assay for complex behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Madsen, Lisbeth Strøm; Arvidson, Sandra Marie Neumann

    2016-01-01

    Fruit flies are important model organisms for functional testing of candidate genes in multiple disciplines, including the study of human diseases. Here we use a high-throughput locomotor activity assay to test the response on activity behavior of gene disruption in Drosophila melanogaster. The aim...

  8. High-throughput mosquito and fly bioassay system for natural and artificial substrates treated with residual insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert L; Wynn, W Wayne; Britch, Seth C; Allan, Sandra A; Walker, Todd W; Geden, Christopher J; Hogsette, Jerome A; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2013-03-01

    A high-throughput bioassay system to evaluate the efficacy of residual pesticides against mosquitoes and muscid flies with minimal insect handling was developed. The system consisted of 4 components made of readily available materials: 1) a CO2 anaesthetizing chamber, 2) a specialized aspirator, 3) a cylindrical flat-bottomed glass bioassay chamber assembly, and 4) a customized rack.

  9. Design of a high altitude long endurance flying-wing solar-powered unmanned air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahlani, A. A.; Johnston, L. J.; Atcliffe, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    The low-Reynolds number environment of high-altitude §ight places severe demands on the aerodynamic design and stability and control of a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) unmanned air vehicle (UAV). The aerodynamic efficiency of a §ying-wing configuration makes it an attractive design option for such an application and is investigated in the present work. The proposed configuration has a high-aspect ratio, swept-wing planform, the wing sweep being necessary to provide an adequate moment arm for outboard longitudinal and lateral control surfaces. A design optimization framework is developed under a MATLAB environment, combining aerodynamic, structural, and stability analysis. Low-order analysis tools are employed to facilitate efficient computations, which is important when there are multiple optimization loops for the various engineering analyses. In particular, a vortex-lattice method is used to compute the wing planform aerodynamics, coupled to a twodimensional (2D) panel method to derive aerofoil sectional characteristics. Integral boundary-layer methods are coupled to the panel method in order to predict §ow separation boundaries during the design iterations. A quasi-analytical method is adapted for application to flyingwing con¦gurations to predict the wing weight and a linear finite-beam element approach is used for structural analysis of the wing-box. Stability is a particular concern in the low-density environment of high-altitude flight for flying-wing aircraft and so provision of adequate directional stability and control power forms part of the optimization process. At present, a modified Genetic Algorithm is used in all of the optimization loops. Each of the low-order engineering analysis tools is validated using higher-order methods to provide con¦dence in the use of these computationally-efficient tools in the present design-optimization framework. This paper includes the results of employing the present optimization tools in the design of a

  10. Production of highly porous glass-ceramics from metallurgical slag, fly ash and waste glass

    OpenAIRE

    Mangutova Bianka V.; Fidancevska Emilija M.; Milosevski Milosav I.; Bossert Joerg H.

    2004-01-01

    Glass-ceramics composites were produced based on fly-ash obtained from coal power stations, metallurgical slag from ferronickel industry and waste glass from TV monitors, windows and flasks. Using 50% waste flask glass in combination with fly ash and 20% waste glass from TV screens in combination with slag, E-modulus and bending strength values of the designed systems are increased (system based on fly ash: E-modulus from 6 to 29 GPa, and bending strength from 9 to 75 MPa). The polyurethane f...

  11. Leaching of saltstones containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of fly ash were incorporated in saltstones designed for potential encapsulation of Savannah River Plant low level defense waste. These fly ashes have some cementitious properties while at the same time their presence in substitution for cement slows early hydration. Class C fly ash has a high calcium content and is considered cementitious; Class F fly ash has a low calcium content and is not classified as cementitious. Leach tests were performed and physical properties were measured for saltstones containing each class, to see the differences in the effect of the fly ashes. The four waste ions nitrate, nitrite, sodium and sulfate were shown to leach by diffusion. Effective diffusivities were determined for these ions. Data for nitrate, the most important species from the environmental point of view, are shown in Table A. Saltstones made with Class C fly ash have substantially lower leach rates than those made with Class F fly ash. The leach rates, and therefore the square roots of the effective diffusivities, have been found to be proportional to the pore surface area per unit volume (or the ratio of pore volume to pore radius), to the fraction of waste containing solution, and to the inverse of the fraction of calcium in the saltstone. Rates and diffusivities are not proportional to the water to cement ratio, because this number depends on whether the fly ash is counted as cementitious, as in Class C cement, or not cementitious, as in Class F cement. In fact the relatively small amount of calcium in Class F cement contributes to the cementitious properties overall, though not so much as Class C cement. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Evaluation of the Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Hardening High-Calcium Fly Ash Blended Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Yong; Park, Ki-Bong

    2015-09-07

    High-calcium fly ash (FH) is the combustion residue from electric power plants burning lignite or sub-bituminous coal. As a mineral admixture, FH can be used to produce high-strength concrete and high-performance concrete. The development of chemical and mechanical properties is a crucial factor for appropriately using FH in the concrete industry. To achieve sustainable development in the concrete industry, this paper presents a theoretical model to systematically evaluate the property developments of FH blended concrete. The proposed model analyzes the cement hydration, the reaction of free CaO in FH, and the reaction of phases in FH other than free CaO. The mutual interactions among cement hydration, the reaction of free CaO in FH, and the reaction of other phases in FH are also considered through the calcium hydroxide contents and the capillary water contents. Using the hydration degree of cement, the reaction degree of free CaO in FH, and the reaction degree of other phases in FH, the proposed model evaluates the calcium hydroxide contents, the reaction degree of FH, chemically bound water, porosity, and the compressive strength of hardening concrete with different water to binder ratios and FH replacement ratios. The evaluated results are compared to experimental results, and good consistencies are found.

  13. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopareva-Pohu, Alena [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Pourrut, Bertrand; Waterlot, Christophe [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Garcon, Guillaume [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Bidar, Geraldine; Pruvot, Christelle [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, Pirouz [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Douay, Francis, E-mail: f.douay@isa-lille.fr [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France)

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable management of large surface areas contaminated with trace elements is a real challenge, since currently applied remediation techniques are too expensive for these areas. Aided phytostabilisation appears to be a cost efficient technique to reduce metal mobility in contaminated soils and contaminated particle spread. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated with trace elements. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments to reduce metal mobility was investigated. Before being planted with a tree mix, the study site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, the second amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and the third with sulfo-calcic fly ash. After eight years, some soil physico-chemical parameters, including cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) extractability were modified. In particular, pH decreased on the whole site while organic carbon content increased. The alteration of these parameters influencing trace element mobility is explained by afforestation. Over time, concentrations of CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals increased and were correlated with the soil pH decrease. In the amended soils, extractable Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were lower than in the reference soil. The results indicated that the two fly ashes buffered natural soil acidification due to vegetation development and limited trace element mobility and thus could limit their bioavailability. For long-term phytostabilisation, special attention should be focused on the soil pH, metal mobility and phytoavailability analysis. - Research Highlights: {yields} Afforestation leads to soil pH decrease and organic carbon content increase. {yields} Fly ashes buffered natural soil acidification. {yields} Fly ashes limited metal mobility.

  14. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopareva-Pohu, Alena; Pourrut, Bertrand; Waterlot, Christophe; Garcon, Guillaume; Bidar, Geraldine; Pruvot, Christelle; Shirali, Pirouz; Douay, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable management of large surface areas contaminated with trace elements is a real challenge, since currently applied remediation techniques are too expensive for these areas. Aided phytostabilisation appears to be a cost efficient technique to reduce metal mobility in contaminated soils and contaminated particle spread. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated with trace elements. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments to reduce metal mobility was investigated. Before being planted with a tree mix, the study site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, the second amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and the third with sulfo-calcic fly ash. After eight years, some soil physico-chemical parameters, including cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) extractability were modified. In particular, pH decreased on the whole site while organic carbon content increased. The alteration of these parameters influencing trace element mobility is explained by afforestation. Over time, concentrations of CaCl 2 -extractable metals increased and were correlated with the soil pH decrease. In the amended soils, extractable Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were lower than in the reference soil. The results indicated that the two fly ashes buffered natural soil acidification due to vegetation development and limited trace element mobility and thus could limit their bioavailability. For long-term phytostabilisation, special attention should be focused on the soil pH, metal mobility and phytoavailability analysis. - Research Highlights: → Afforestation leads to soil pH decrease and organic carbon content increase. → Fly ashes buffered natural soil acidification. → Fly ashes limited metal mobility.

  15. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  16. Natural revegetation of coal fly ash in a highly saline disposal lagoon in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, L.M. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Biology

    2008-08-15

    Question: What is the relationship of the naturally colonizing vegetation and substrate characteristics in fly ash lagoons? Location: West lagoon, Deep Bay, a 13-ha coastal lagoon in Hong Kong in subtropical Southeast Asia. Methods: Vegetation establishment was examined in a coal fly ash lagoon two years after its abandonment to investigate the distribution of vegetation in relationship to the chemical properties of the fly ash in the lagoon. A greenhouse experiment assessed the limits imposed on plant growth in fly ash. Results: The fly ash was saline, slightly alkaline and very poor in organic matter and nitrogen. Ash from bare and vegetated areas differed significantly in their salinity and extractable concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and various metals. Bare ash had a significantly higher conductivity and extractable sodium, aluminum, manganese, potassium. and lead. In total 11 plant species that belonged to seven families were found growing on the fly ash: all species except the shrub Tamarix chinensis were herbaceous. Using discriminant analysis, the most important factors in distinguishing bare and vegetated ashes were conductivity and sodium. Cluster analysis of bare samples gave two distinct groups, one from the periphery of the lagoon, which had lower sodium, conductivity, organic carbon, potassium and copper, and the other from a second group that contained ashes from the central region of the lagoon. Results of the greenhouse experiment showed that the inhibition of plant growth was significantly correlated with the presence of soluble toxic elements in ash. Conclusion: Toxicity and salinity seem to be the major limiting factors to plant establishment in fly ash, and these factors must be ameliorated for the successful reclamation of these fly ash lagoons.

  17. Effect of rice husk ash and fly ash on the compressive strength of high performance concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lam, Tang; Bulgakov, Boris; Aleksandrova, Olga; Larsen, Oksana; Anh, Pham Ngoc

    2018-03-01

    The usage of industrial and agricultural wastes for building materials production plays an important role to improve the environment and economy by preserving nature materials and land resources, reducing land, water and air pollution as well as organizing and storing waste costs. This study mainly focuses on mathematical modeling dependence of the compressive strength of high performance concrete (HPC) at the ages of 3, 7 and 28 days on the amount of rice husk ash (RHA) and fly ash (FA), which are added to the concrete mixtures by using the Central composite rotatable design. The result of this study provides the second-order regression equation of objective function, the images of the surface expression and the corresponding contours of the objective function of the regression equation, as the optimal points of HPC compressive strength. These objective functions, which are the compressive strength values of HPC at the ages of 3, 7 and 28 days, depend on two input variables as: x1 (amount of RHA) and x2 (amount of FA). The Maple 13 program, solving the second-order regression equation, determines the optimum composition of the concrete mixture for obtaining high performance concrete and calculates the maximum value of the HPC compressive strength at the ages of 28 days. The results containMaxR28HPC = 76.716 MPa when RHA = 0.1251 and FA = 0.3119 by mass of Portland cement.

  18. Applying GIS and high performance agent-based simulation for managing an Old World Screwworm fly invasion of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, M C; Kwan, P W; Sajeev, A S M

    2014-10-01

    Agent-based modelling has proven to be a promising approach for developing rich simulations for complex phenomena that provide decision support functions across a broad range of areas including biological, social and agricultural sciences. This paper demonstrates how high performance computing technologies, namely General-Purpose Computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU), and commercial Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be applied to develop a national scale, agent-based simulation of an incursion of Old World Screwworm fly (OWS fly) into the Australian mainland. The development of this simulation model leverages the combination of massively data-parallel processing capabilities supported by NVidia's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) and the advanced spatial visualisation capabilities of GIS. These technologies have enabled the implementation of an individual-based, stochastic lifecycle and dispersal algorithm for the OWS fly invasion. The simulation model draws upon a wide range of biological data as input to stochastically determine the reproduction and survival of the OWS fly through the different stages of its lifecycle and dispersal of gravid females. Through this model, a highly efficient computational platform has been developed for studying the effectiveness of control and mitigation strategies and their associated economic impact on livestock industries can be materialised. Copyright © 2014 International Atomic Energy Agency 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High activity antioxidant enzymes protect flying-fox haemoglobin against damage: an evolutionary adaptation for flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, N B; O'Brien, G M

    2006-11-01

    Flying-foxes are better able to defend haemoglobin against autoxidation than non-volant mammals such as sheep. When challenged with the common physiological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, haemolysates of flying-fox red blood cells (RBC) were far less susceptible to methaemoglobin formation than sheep. Challenge with 1-acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine (APH) caused only half as much methaemoglobin formation in flying-fox as in ovine haemolysates. When intact cells were challenged with phenazine methosulfate (PMS), flying-fox RBC partially reversed the oxidant damage, and reduced methaemoglobin from 40 to 20% over 2 h incubation, while ovine methaemoglobin remained at 40%. This reflected flying-fox cells' capacity to replenish GSH fast enough that it did not deplete beyond 50%, while ovine RBC GSH was depleted to around 20%. The greater capacity of flying-foxes to defend haemoglobin against oxidant damage may be explained in part by antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome-b ( 5 ) reductase having two- to four-fold higher activity than in sheep (P foxes.

  20. Mechanism of alkalinity lowering and chemical equilibrium model of high fly ash silica fume cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Seiichi; Honda, Akira; Negishi, Kumi

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of alkalinity lowering of a High Fly ash Silica fume Cement (HFSC) under liquid/solid ratio conditions where the pH is largely controlled by the soluble alkali components (Region I) has been studied. This mechanism was incorporated in the chemical equilibrium model of HFSC. As a result, it is suggested that the dissolution and precipitation behavior of SO 4 2- partially contributes to alkalinity lowering of HFSC in Region I. A chemical equilibrium model of HFSC incorporating alkali (Na, K) adsorption, which was presumed as another contributing factor of the alkalinity lowering effect, was also developed, and an HFSC immersion experiment was analyzed using the model. The results of the developed model showed good agreement with the experiment results. From the above results, it was concluded that the alkalinity lowering of HFSC in Region I was attributed to both the dissolution and precipitation behavior of SO 4 2- and alkali adsorption, in addition to the absence of Ca(OH) 2 . A chemical equilibrium model of HFSC incorporating alkali and SO 4 2- adsorption was also proposed. (author)

  1. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Lopareva-Pohu, Alena; Pruvot, Christelle; Garcon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony; Waterlot, Christophe; Bidar, Geraldine; Shirali, Pirouz

    2011-01-01

    Aided phytostabilisation is a cost-efficient technique to manage metal-contaminated areas, particularly in the presence of extensive pollution. Plant establishment and survival in highly metal-contaminated soils are crucial for phytostabilisation success, as metal toxicity for plants is widely reported. A relevant phytostabilisation solution must limit metal transfer through the food chain. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated by cadmium, lead, and zinc. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments on reducing metal phytoavailability was investigated as were their effects on plant development. Before being planted with a tree mix, the site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, a plot amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and one with sulfo-calcic fly ash. Unlike Salix alba and Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Acer pseudoplatanus and Robinia pseudoacacia grew well on the site and accumulated, overall, quite low concentrations of metals in their leaves and young twigs. This suggests that these three species have an excluder phenotype for Cd, Zn and Pb. After 8 years, metal availability to A. glutinosa, A. pseudoplatanus and R. pseudoacacia, and translocation to their above-ground parts, strongly decreased in fly ash-amended soils. Such decreases fit well together with the depletion of CaCl 2 -extractable metals in amended soils. Although both fly ashes were effective to decrease Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in above-ground parts of trees, the sulfo-calcic ash was more efficient.

  2. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourrut, Bertrand [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Lopareva-Pohu, Alena [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Pruvot, Christelle [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Garcon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Waterlot, Christophe; Bidar, Geraldine [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, Pirouz [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); and others

    2011-10-01

    Aided phytostabilisation is a cost-efficient technique to manage metal-contaminated areas, particularly in the presence of extensive pollution. Plant establishment and survival in highly metal-contaminated soils are crucial for phytostabilisation success, as metal toxicity for plants is widely reported. A relevant phytostabilisation solution must limit metal transfer through the food chain. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated by cadmium, lead, and zinc. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments on reducing metal phytoavailability was investigated as were their effects on plant development. Before being planted with a tree mix, the site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, a plot amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and one with sulfo-calcic fly ash. Unlike Salix alba and Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Acer pseudoplatanus and Robinia pseudoacacia grew well on the site and accumulated, overall, quite low concentrations of metals in their leaves and young twigs. This suggests that these three species have an excluder phenotype for Cd, Zn and Pb. After 8 years, metal availability to A. glutinosa, A. pseudoplatanus and R. pseudoacacia, and translocation to their above-ground parts, strongly decreased in fly ash-amended soils. Such decreases fit well together with the depletion of CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals in amended soils. Although both fly ashes were effective to decrease Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in above-ground parts of trees, the sulfo-calcic ash was more efficient.

  3. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnquist, Norman [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Qi, Xuele [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Raminosoa, Tsarafidy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Salas, Ken [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Samudrala, Omprakash [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Shah, Manoj [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Van Dam, Jeremy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Yin, Weijun [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  4. R&D of Novel Materials for Animal Litters Using High Carbon Fly Ash Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxley, Chett J. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kadota, Rod [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-10-29

    This research program performed by Ceramatec may significantly increase the beneficial utilization of fly ash, and improve the overall performance of high quality animal litter products. Ceramatec has developed a novel high surface area material, which is capable of ammonia adsorption. High surface area zeolites when combined with agglomerated fly ash can significantly reduce the use of naturally mined materials (i.e. clay bentonite) for animal litter manufacture. This not only preserves natural resources and the natural environment, but it also will reduce CO2 emissions, via the reduced need for heavy mining equipment. This novel animal litter is made with over 85% of recycled materials, thus preventing their disposition to landfills. The novel litter material is similar to traditional clay-like litters, and it is clumpable and has superior odor control properties.

  5. Development of High Temperature Short Time Vertebrate-Blood Pasteurization Equipment for Tsetse Fly Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moravek, I; Lach, J [Department of Manufacturing Systems, Slovak Technical University Namestie Slobody 17 812 31 Bratislava (Slovakia); Takac, P [Institute of Zoology, SAV, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-07-15

    Tsetse flies feed only on vertebrate blood, but the collection and processing of blood is expensive, it must be stored at -20{sup o}C requiring costly storage rooms and reliable electricity, and it must be irradiated to reduce bacterial contamination. This is tolerable for small colonies, but as colony size increases to service large- scale programmes, the supply and processing of blood becomes critical. Blood is normally collected from cattle at slaughter. This process is necessarily not aseptic, and large-scale collection is only possible where the animals are suspended for bleeding. One alternative to blood decontamination is using the High Temperature Short time Pasteurization (HTST) method. The food processing industry uses pasteurization to reduce bacterial load in a wide range of products. Our previous results indicated that for the control of the blood pasteurization process, to reach satisfactory bacteriological purity and at the same time to prevent the blood from coagulating, it is important to study temperature and time and also some other parameters that could predict blood coagulation. Crucial for blood coagulation is to study blood viscosity. Classical heat exchangers are not suitable for blood pasteurization. In such equipment the blood coagulation depends on temperature and time. Besides the relatively low temperatures, blood is coagulating with cumulative time until total shutdown of blood flow. After a series of experiments we found a solution using microwave systems. To verify the microwave heating concept, we built an experimental workstation. First we verified the accuracy of the applicator design from the aspect of output adaptation to the power source. Also we installed measuring equipment. This system complies with the requirements of quick heating with sufficiently high heat accumulation. By utilizing standard components for the base of the microwave generator, it is possible to markedly reduce the final price of the equipment. (author)

  6. Using Cementitious Materials Such as Fly Ash to Replace a Part of Cement in Producing High Strength Concrete in Hot Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuallo, Gidion; Mallisa, Harun

    2018-03-01

    The use of waste materials in concrete gave many advantages to prove the properties of concrete such as its workability, strength and durability; as well to support sustaianable development programs. Fly ash was a waste material produced from coal combustion. This research was conducted to find out the effect of fly ash as a part replacement of cement to produce high strength concrete. The fly ash, which was used in this research, was taken from PLTU Mpanau Palu, Central Sulawesi. The water-binder ratio used in this research was 0.3 selected from trial mixes done before. The results of this research showed that the strength of fly ash concretes were higher than concrete with PCC only. The replacement of cement with fly ash concrete could be up to 20% to produce high strength concrete.

  7. Production of highly porous glass-ceramics from metallurgical slag, fly ash and waste glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangutova Bianka V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics composites were produced based on fly-ash obtained from coal power stations, metallurgical slag from ferronickel industry and waste glass from TV monitors, windows and flasks. Using 50% waste flask glass in combination with fly ash and 20% waste glass from TV screens in combination with slag, E-modulus and bending strength values of the designed systems are increased (system based on fly ash: E-modulus from 6 to 29 GPa, and bending strength from 9 to 75 MPa. The polyurethane foam was used as a pore creator which gave the material porosity of 70(5% (fly ash-glass composite and a porosity of 65( 5% (slag-glass composite. E-modulus values of the designed porous systems were 3.5(1.2 GPa and 8.1(3 GPa, while the bending strength values were 6.0(2 MPa and 13.2(3.5 MPa, respectively. These materials could be used for the production of tiles, wall bricks, as well as for the construction of air diffusers for waste water aeration.

  8. Surface chemical properties of novel high surface area solids synthesized from coal fly ash

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, PJ

    2003-07-23

    Full Text Available The zeolite, Na-P1, was synthesized from fly ash samples originating from coal-fired power stations in South Africa by hydrothermal treatment of the raw ash with concentrated aqueous NaOH solutions. The zeolite was then further modified by acid...

  9. Ternary Blends of High Aluminate Cement, Fly ash and Blast-furnace slag for Sewerage Lining Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, L. C.; Kuo, C. P.

    2018-01-01

    High aluminate cement (HAC), fly ash (FA) and blast-furnace slag (BFS) have been treated sustainable materials for the use of cement products for wastewater infrastructure due to their capabilities of corrosion resistance. The purpose of this study is to optimize a ternary blend of above mentioned materials for a special type of mortar for sewerage lining. By the using of Taguchi method, four control parameters including water/cementitious material ratio, mix water content, fly ash content and blast-furnace slag content were considered in nine trial mix designs in this study. By evaluating target properties including (1) maximization of compressive strength, (2) maximization of electricity resistance and (3) minimization of water absorption rate, the best possible levels for each control parameter were determined and the optimal mix proportions were verified. Through the implementation of the study, a practical and completed idea for designing corrosion resistive mortar comprising HAC, FA and BSF is provided.

  10. High-speed volume measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Michael H.; Doyle, Jr., James L.; Brinkman, Michael J.

    2018-01-30

    Disclosed is a volume sensor having a first axis, a second axis, and a third axis, each axis including a laser source configured to emit a beam; a parallel beam generating assembly configured to receive the beam and split the beam into a first parallel beam and a second parallel beam, a beam-collimating assembly configured to receive the first parallel beam and the second parallel beam and output a first beam sheet and a second beam sheet, the first beam sheet and the second beam sheet being configured to traverse the object aperture; a first collecting lens and a second collecting lens; and a first photodetector and a second photodetector, the first photodetector and the second photodetector configured to output an electrical signal proportional to the object; wherein the first axis, the second axis, and the third axis are arranged at an angular offset with respect to each other.

  11. Review: Potential Strength of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Paste with Substitution of Local Waste Materials with High-Temperature Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subekti, S.; Bayuaji, R.; Darmawan, M. S.; Husin, N. A.; Wibowo, B.; Anugraha, B.; Irawan, S.; Dibiantara, D.

    2017-11-01

    This research provided an overview of the potential fly ash based geopolymer paste for application in building construction. Geopolymer paste with various variations of fly ash substitution with local waste material and high-temperature influence exploited with the fresh and hardened condition. The local waste material which utilized for this study were sandblasting waste, carbide waste, shell powder, bagasse ash, rice husk and bottom ash. The findings of this study indicated that fly-based geopolymer paste with local waste material substitution which had high-temperature influence ash showed a similar nature of OPC binders potentially used in civil engineering applications.

  12. Influence of Temperature on Workability and Compressive Strength of Ordinary Concrete with High Calcium Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołaszewski Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of fresh ordinary concrete are closely affected by temperature and time. The paper presents the study of consistency of fresh concrete mixtures made with Portland cement and cement with calcareous fly ash. Two types of admixtures were used. It was proven that the temperature has a clear effect on workability and compressive strength concrete. Influence on workability can be reduced by selecting the appropriate superplasticizer and cement.

  13. High-order finite volume advection

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, James

    2018-01-01

    The cubicFit advection scheme is limited to second-order convergence because it uses a polynomial reconstruction fitted to point values at cell centres. The highOrderFit advection scheme achieves higher than second order by calculating high-order moments over the mesh geometry.

  14. Sustainable concrete with high volume GGBFS to build Masdar City in the UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elchalakani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Masdar City (MC is leading the Middle East in the development of energy and resource efficient low-carbon construction in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. One of its major goals is to develop and specify materials and processes that will help reducing its environmental footprint through resource and energy conservation, as well as renewable energy generation. In 2010 MC announced on its website a prized-competition for the best proposal of “Sustainable Concrete” and “Lowest Carbon Footprint” to build MC with a total of two million cubic meter of concrete on 4 years period. This paper presents the experimental test results of 13 types of concrete mixes made with high volume of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS cement with 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC to reduce the carbon emissions. A fly ash-blended mix made with 30% fly ash was also tested. The paper provides more information on the mix design parameter, full justification of CO2 footprint, and cost reduction for each concrete type. The hardened and plastic properties and durability test parameters for each mix are presented. The results show that the slag concrete mixes significantly reduce the carbon footprint and meet the requirements of MC. An economical mix with 80% GGBFS and 20% OPC was nominated for use in the future construction of MC with 154 kg/m3 carbon foot print.

  15. Bacterial diversity of the American sand fly Lutzomyia intermedia using high-throughput metagenomic sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Carolina Cunha; Villegas, Luis Eduardo Martinez; Campolina, Thais Bonifácio; Pires, Ana Clara Machado Araújo; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paolucci; Secundino, Nagila Francinete Costa

    2016-08-31

    Parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a broad spectrum of diseases, collectively known as leishmaniasis, in humans worldwide. American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected disease transmitted by sand fly vectors including Lutzomyia intermedia, a proven vector. The female sand fly can acquire or deliver Leishmania spp. parasites while feeding on a blood meal, which is required for nutrition, egg development and survival. The microbiota composition and abundance varies by food source, life stages and physiological conditions. The sand fly microbiota can affect parasite life-cycle in the vector. We performed a metagenomic analysis for microbiota composition and abundance in Lu. intermedia, from an endemic area in Brazil. The adult insects were collected using CDC light traps, morphologically identified, carefully sterilized, dissected under a microscope and the females separated into groups according to their physiological condition: (i) absence of blood meal (unfed = UN); (ii) presence of blood meal (blood-fed = BF); and (iii) presence of developed ovaries (gravid = GR). Then, they were processed for metagenomics with Illumina Hiseq Sequencing in order to be sequence analyzed and to obtain the taxonomic profiles of the microbiota. Bacterial metagenomic analysis revealed differences in microbiota composition based upon the distinct physiological stages of the adult insect. Sequence identification revealed two phyla (Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria), 11 families and 15 genera; 87 % of the bacteria were Gram-negative, while only one family and two genera were identified as Gram-positive. The genera Ochrobactrum, Bradyrhizobium and Pseudomonas were found across all of the groups. The metagenomic analysis revealed that the microbiota of the Lu. intermedia female sand flies are distinct under specific physiological conditions and consist of 15 bacterial genera. The Ochrobactrum, Bradyrhizobium and Pseudomonas were the common genera. Our results detailing

  16. Ultrastructural findings in the brain of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and mice exposed to high-energy particle radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Kraft, L.M.; D'Antoni-D'Amelio, E.; Benton, E.V.; Miquel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of high energy, heavy particle (HZE) radiation were studied in the brain of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) exposed to argon (40Ar) or krypton (84Kr) ions. In the flies exposed to argon the fluence ranged from 6 X 10(4) to 8 X 10(7) particles/cm2. The insects were killed 35 days after exposure. Extensive tissue fragmentation was observed at the higher fluence employed. At fluences ranging from 5 X 10(6) (one hit/two cell bodies) to 9 X 10(4) (one hit/90 cell bodies) particles/cm2, swelling of the neuronal cytoplasm and focally fragmented membranes was observed. Marked increase of glial lamellae around nerve cell processes was seen at fluences ranging from one hit/six to one hit/135 cell bodies. In the flies irradiated with krypton, the fluences employed were 5.8 X 10(3) and 2.2 X 10(6) particles/cm2. Acute and late effects were evaluated. In the flies killed 36 hours after exposure (acute effects) to either fluence, glycogen particles were found in the neuroglial compartment. The granules were no longer present in flies killed 35 days later (late effects). From these studies it appears that the Drosophila brain is a useful model to investigate radiation damage to mature neurons, neuroglia, and therefore, to the glio-neuronal metabolic unit. In a separate study, the synaptic profiles of the neuropil in layers II-III of the frontal cerebral cortex of anesthesized adult LAFl mice were quantitatively appraised after exposure to argon (40Ar) particles. The absorbed dose ranged from 0.05 to 5 gray (Gy) plateau. It was determined that the sodium pentobarbital anesthesia per se results in a significant decrease in synaptic profile length one day after anesthetization, with return to normal values after 2-28 days. Irradiation with 0.05-5 Gy argon particles significantly inhibited the synaptic shortening effect of anesthesia at one day after exposure

  17. Processed bottom ash for replacing fine aggregate in making high-volume fly ash concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Antoni; Sulistio Aldi Vincent; Wahjudi Samuel; Hardjito Djwantoro; Hardjito Djwantoro

    2017-01-01

    Bottom ash is a coal plant by-product that is abundant and underutilized. There is the potential use of bottom ash as a fine aggregate replacement in concrete mixtures; however, the problems of water absorption and uniformity of quality of the material need to be overcome first. In this study, bottom ash was treated by sieve separation and pounding to smaller particle size for use as a sand substitute. The physical and chemical characteristics of bottom ash were tested after treatment includi...

  18. THE EFFECT OF SINGLE AND HYBRID FIBRES ON FIBRE REINFORCED SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE PRODUCED WITH HIGH LEVEL OF FLY ASH USAGE

    OpenAIRE

    BOZKURT, Nusret; YAZICIOĞLU, Salih; GÖNEN, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present results of investigation carried out on fresh and mechanical properties of Fibre Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete (FRSCC) produced with fly ash which is an industrial waste material. Concrete industry is an important one between the industry branches for sustainability. In this study, high level of fly ash was used to reduce Portland Cement (PC) consumption as well as CO2 emission through the use of that waste material. For this purpose, a control Self C...

  19. The use of a non-standard high calcium fly ash in concrete and its response to accelerated curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atis, C. D.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental work was carried out to investigate the use of a non-standard high calcium fly ash in concrete. The response of the same fly ash to the accelerated curing was also explored. With three different cementitious material contents, a total of 48 concretes were produced. The water/ cement ratios were varied from 0.40 to 0.87. Compressive strengths of the moist cured cube specimens cast from the concrete mixtures made with 0%, 15%, 30% and 45% replacement of normal Portland cement with fly ash were measured at 28 days and 3 months. Accelerated compressive strengths were also measured using warmwater method and boiling-water method in accordance with the relevant ASTM and Turkish Standards. Despite the fact that the fly ash used was a non-standard, the laboratory test results showed that it could be utilized in concrete production at a replacement level between 15% and 30% by weight basis because fly ash concrete developed comparable or higher compressive strength than that of corresponding normal Portland cement concrete. The laboratory test results also indicated that the accelerated curing could be used to predict the compressive strength of fly ash concrete with 85% correlation coefficient. The amount of fly ash was found to be immaterial in the strength prediction. The relation between warm-water method and boiling-water method was of linear form with 93% correlation coefficient.

    Se llevó a cabo un trabajo experimental para investigar el uso de una ceniza volante de alto contenido en cal en el hormigón, la cual no cumple las especificaciones recogidas en norma. También, se estudió el comportamiento de la ceniza bajo un curado acelerado. Se elaboraron un total de 48 hormigones con tres proporciones diferentes de material cementante. Las relaciones agua/cemento (a/c usadas estaban comprendidas entre 0,40 y 0,87. A 28 días y 3 meses de curado, se determinaron las resistencias a compresión de probetas cúbicas de hormig

  20. Study on the High Volume Reduction of Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Sik, Kang Il; Seok, Hong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Jeon Gil [RADIN Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The solidification of radioactive wastes by the mixing method always increases their volume due to the limitation of incorporation ratio (waste/solidification agent). But if the powdered wastes can be compacted as the high density pellets and also the pellets can be filled up in a waste drum as much as possible while solidifying them with a very sticky solidification agent including a void formed in the filling step of pellets, it might be more desirable to reduce the waste volume as compared with the mixing method. So in this study, we designed and manufactured a high volume reduction machine which has the special size and shape of a pellet pocket, which the pellets can be extracted from easily and filled up in a large amount in drum, a pressurizing device to press 2 rolls, and the uniform feeding device of powder to the roll tyre. Some operational parameters which affect the formation of pellets from a powder were investigated, and then the volume reduction of a powder was evaluated. The briquetting machine, popular in general industry, was modified to apply for the volume reduction of the powered radioactive wastes (dried concentrate, sludge, spent ion-exchange resin, ash, depleted uranium powder, and etc.). In this developed high volume reduction machine, the capacity was 25 ∼ 62.5 kg/h at the optimum conditions, and the estimated volume reduction was about 2.95 (2.74/0.93) on the basis of between a powder (bulk density = 0.93 g/cm{sup 3}) and the pellet (2.74 g/cm{sup 3}). But on the basis of 200L drum, the calculated volume reduction was about 1.34 in consideration of a void volume originated in the filling step of the pellets.

  1. Perspectives on High School Reform. NCREL Viewpoints, Volume 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), 2005

    2005-01-01

    Viewpoints is a multimedia package containing two audio CDs and a brief, informative booklet. This volume of Viewpoints focuses on issues related to high school reform. This booklet offers background information explaining the issues surrounding high school reform with perspectives from research, policy, and practice. It also provides a list of…

  2. Flexural toughness of steel fiber reinforced high performance concrete containing nano-SiO2 and fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Ya-Nan; Li, Qing-Fu; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Tian-Hang

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the effect of steel fiber on the flexural toughness of the high performance concrete containing fly ash and nano-SiO2. The flexural toughness was evaluated by two methods, which are based on ASTM C1018 and DBV-1998, respectively. By means of three-point bending method, the flexural toughness indices, variation coefficients of bearing capacity, deformation energy, and equivalent flexural strength of the specimen were measured, respectively, and the relational curves between the vertical load and the midspan deflection (P(V)-δ) were obtained. The results indicate that steel fiber has great effect on the flexural toughness parameters and relational curves (P(V)-δ) of the three-point bending beam specimen. When the content of steel fiber increases from 0.5% to 2%, the flexural toughness parameters increase gradually and the curves are becoming plumper and plumper with the increase of steel fiber content, respectively. However these flexural toughness parameters begin to decrease and the curves become thinner and thinner after the steel fiber content exceeds 2%. It seems that the contribution of steel fiber to the improvement of flexural toughness of the high performance concrete containing fly ash and nano-SiO2 is well performed only when the steel fiber content is less than 2%.

  3. Peculiar high temperature corrosion of martensite alloy under impact of Estonian oil shale fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H.; Klevtsov, I. [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The superheaters` surfaces of oil shale steam boiler made of pearlitic and austenitic alloys, are subject to intensive corrosion, mainly due to presence of chlorine in external deposits. The applicability of martensitic alloys X1OCrMoVNb91 and X20CrMoV121 for superheaters is examined here and empirical equations allowing to predict alloys` corrosion resistance in the range of operational temperatures are established. Alloy X1OCrMoVNb91 is found been most perspective for superheaters of boilers firing fossil fuel that contain alkaline metals and chlorine. The abnormal dependence of corrosion resistance of martensitic alloys on temperature is revealed, namely, corrosion at 580 deg C in presence of oil shale fly ash is more intensive than at 620 deg C. (orig.) 2 refs.

  4. Peculiar high temperature corrosion of martensite alloy under impact of Estonian oil shale fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H; Klevtsov, I [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-12-31

    The superheaters` surfaces of oil shale steam boiler made of pearlitic and austenitic alloys, are subject to intensive corrosion, mainly due to presence of chlorine in external deposits. The applicability of martensitic alloys X1OCrMoVNb91 and X20CrMoV121 for superheaters is examined here and empirical equations allowing to predict alloys` corrosion resistance in the range of operational temperatures are established. Alloy X1OCrMoVNb91 is found been most perspective for superheaters of boilers firing fossil fuel that contain alkaline metals and chlorine. The abnormal dependence of corrosion resistance of martensitic alloys on temperature is revealed, namely, corrosion at 580 deg C in presence of oil shale fly ash is more intensive than at 620 deg C. (orig.) 2 refs.

  5. High lung volume increases stress failure in pulmonary capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z.; Costello, M. L.; Tsukimoto, K.; Prediletto, R.; Elliott, A. R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We previously showed that when pulmonary capillaries in anesthetized rabbits are exposed to a transmural pressure (Ptm) of approximately 40 mmHg, stress failure of the walls occurs with disruption of the capillary endothelium, alveolar epithelium, or sometimes all layers. The present study was designed to test whether stress failure occurred more frequently at high than at low lung volumes for the same Ptm. Lungs of anesthetized rabbits were inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 20 cmH2O, perfused with autologous blood at 32.5 or 2.5 cmH2O Ptm, and fixed by intravascular perfusion. Samples were examined by both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared with those of a previous study in which the lung was inflated to a transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O. There was a large increase in the frequency of stress failure of the capillary walls at the higher lung volume. For example, at 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the number of endothelial breaks per millimeter cell lining was 7.1 +/- 2.2 at the high lung volume compared with 0.7 +/- 0.4 at the low lung volume. The corresponding values for epithelium were 8.5 +/- 1.6 and 0.9 +/- 0.6. Both differences were significant (P less than 0.05). At 52.5 cmH2O Ptm, the results for endothelium were 20.7 +/- 7.6 (high volume) and 7.1 +/- 2.1 (low volume), and the corresponding results for epithelium were 32.8 +/- 11.9 and 11.4 +/- 3.7. At 32.5 cmH2O Ptm, the thickness of the blood-gas barrier was greater at the higher lung volume, consistent with the development of more interstitial edema. Ballooning of the epithelium caused by accumulation of edema fluid between the epithelial cell and its basement membrane was seen at 32.5 and 52.5 cmH2O Ptm. At high lung volume, the breaks tended to be narrower and fewer were oriented perpendicular to the axis of the pulmonary capillaries than at low lung volumes. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements agreed well. Our findings provide a physiological

  6. The impacts of coal refuse/fly ash bulk bends on water quality and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewar, B.R.; Daniels, W.L. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the beneficial reuse of coal fly ash as a soil amendment on coal refuse piles. One method of application would be to blend the coal refuse and the fly ash before deposition in a refuse pile. A field experiment was initiated to measure the effects of bulk blending fly ash with coal refuse on water quality and plant growth parameters. Fly ash (class F) from three sources were used in the experiment. Two of the fly ashes were acidic and the third was alkaline. Trenches were excavated in a coal refuse pile to a depth of 2 m and the refuse was blended with fly ash and then returned to the trench. In other plots the ash was applied as a surface amendment. A treatment of a bulk blend of 5% (w/w) rock phosphate was also included in the experiment. Large volume lysimeters were installed in some trenches to collect the leachates. The fly ash treatments appear to improve the quality of the leachates when compared to the leachates from the untreated plots. The fly ash amended treatments have lower leachate concentrations of Fe and Al. Initially the fly ash treatments showed high levels of leachate B, however those levels have decreased with time. Millet (Setaria italica) yields from the first year of the experiment were highest n the alkaline fly ash and rock phosphate blended plots. In the second growing season, the two bulk blends with alkaline fly ash had the highest yields. In the third growing season all treatments had higher yield levels than the untreated control plots. The positive effects of the fly ash on leachate quality were attributed to the alkalinity of the ash, and the increase in yield was attributed to the increases in water holding capacity due to fly ash treatments.

  7. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  8. High-volume recycled materials for sustainable pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of using high-volume recycled materials for concrete production in rigid pavement. The goal was to replace 50% of the solids with recycled materials and industrial by-products. The pe...

  9. Distribution of phlebotomine sand fly genotypes (Lutzomyia shannoni, Diptera: Psychodidae) across a highly heterogeneous landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, J; Ghosh, K; Ferro, C; Munstermann, L E

    2001-03-01

    Genetic variability of eight Colombian field populations and two laboratory colonies of a tropical forest sand fly, Lutzomyia shannoni Dyar, was assessed by comparing allozyme frequencies at 20 enzyme loci. Substantial genetic variability was noted in all strains, with mean heterozygosities of 13-21% and alleles per locus of 2.0-2.8. Four loci were monomorphic. Six populations in north and central Colombia showed close genetic similarity (Nei's distances, 0.01-0.09), despite mountainous environment, discontinuous forest habitat, and elevation differences from 125 to 1,220 m. Two samples representing the Orinoco (near Villavicencio) and Amazon (near Leticia) river basins were similar (Nei's distance, 0.08) but diverged substantially from the central six samples (Nei's distances, 0.26-0.40). Although the range of L. shannoni extends from the southeastern United States to northern Argentina, three genetically distinct, geographically discrete, groups were discerned by the current analysis: Orinoco-Amazon river basins, north-central Colombia, and eastern United States.

  10. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  11. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  12. Towards high-resolution positron emission tomography for small volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Some arguments are made regarding the medical usefulness of high spatial resolution in positron imaging, even if limited to small imaged volumes. Then the intrinsic limitations to spatial resolution in positron imaging are discussed. The project to build a small-volume, high resolution animal research prototype (SHARP) positron imaging system is described. The components of the system, particularly the detectors, are presented and brief mention is made of data acquisition and image reconstruction methods. Finally, some preliminary imaging results are presented; a pair of isolated point sources and 18 F in the bones of a rabbit. Although the detector system is not fully completed, these first results indicate that the goals of high sensitivity and high resolution (4 mm) have been realized. (Auth.)

  13. Developing Quality Control Procedures to Sustain a Supply of High Quality Blood for Mass Rearing Tsetse Flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Beer, C J; Venter, G J; Potgieter, F T [ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Old Soutpans Road, Private Bag X05, 0110 Onderstepoort (South Africa)

    2012-07-15

    Mass rearing tsetse flies Glossina spp. is dependent on the sustained availability of a high quality blood diet. In any mass rearing facility, the logistics for obtaining sterile, high quality fresh blood is challenging. An added complication is the influence of potential chemical, physical and microbiological elements present in the blood of donors, as well as contamination during collection, handling and storage. Research at the Agricultural Research Council - Onderstepoort Veterinary institute (ARC-OVI) is directed towards the development of quality control procedures for the supply of the in vitro diet used to maintain productive colonies of Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead. Factors that may influence the blood diet, e.g. defibrination, feeding times, collection of blood in anticoagulants, treatment of blood with taste stimuli, repeated freezing and thawing of blood, effect of bovine growth hormones, and also a preference for bovine or porcine blood were tested. A 25 day bioassay was used to determine the effects of these factors on tsetse survival and reproduction. Defibrination of the blood for 10 to 15 minutes gave the best results for both species. It was found that G. brevipalpis should be fed three times per week for 5 minutes each time, and G. austeni three times per week for 10 minutes. Heparin, acid citrate dextrose (ACD), citric acid, citrate phosphate dextrose adenine (CPDA) and a combination of sodium citrate and citric acid were effective anticoagulants in the blood diets of G. brevipalpis and G. austeni. Blood treated with inosine triphosphate (ITP) gave the highest quality factor (QFC) values for both G. austeni and G. brevipalpis. Repeated freezing and thawing of blood definitely affects pupal production negatively; G. brevipalpis especially produced significantly smaller pupae. A premixed diet of equal amounts of bovine and porcine blood was found to be best suited for G. brevipalpis, and for G. austeni a mixture of

  14. Ternary blends containing demercurated lighting phosphor and MSWI fly ash as high-performance binders for stabilizing and recycling electroplating sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-Jang; Wu, Chia-Teng; Wu, Chang-En; Hsieh, Lin-Huey; Li, Chang-Chien; Lain, Chi-Yuan; Chu, Wei

    2008-08-15

    This paper describes the solidification and stabilization of electroplating sludge treated with a high-performance binder made from portland type-I cement, municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, and lighting phosphor powder (called as cement-fly ash-phosphor binder, CFP). The highest 28-day unconfined compressive strength of the CFP-treated paste was 816 kg/cm(2) at a ratio of cement to fly ash to lighting phosphor powder of 90:5:5; the strength of this composition also fulfilled the requirement of a high-strength concrete (>460 kg/cm(2) at 28 days). The CFP-stabilized sludge paste samples passed the Taiwanese EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test and, therefore, could be used either as a building material or as a controlled low-strength material, depending on the sludge-to-CFP binder ratio.

  15. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 4: late papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneringer, G; Roedhammer, P; Wildner, H [eds.

    2001-07-01

    This is the fourth volume (late papers) of the 15th International Plansee seminar 2001 which general theme was 'Powder metallurgical high performance materials'. The seminar looked beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain as its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. This volume 4 contains papers dealing with high performance P/M metals (ITER and fusion reactors, solid targets, materials microstructure, novel alloys, etc.), P/M hard materials ( production and characterization, tungsten carbides, titanium carbides, microstructural design, coatings composition and performance, etc.) and general topics. From 37 papers 24 correspond to INIS subject scope and they were indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  16. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 4: late papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    This is the fourth volume (late papers) of the 15th International Plansee seminar 2001 which general theme was 'Powder metallurgical high performance materials'. The seminar looked beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain as its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. This volume 4 contains papers dealing with high performance P/M metals (ITER and fusion reactors, solid targets, materials microstructure, novel alloys, etc.), P/M hard materials ( production and characterization, tungsten carbides, titanium carbides, microstructural design, coatings composition and performance, etc.) and general topics. From 37 papers 24 correspond to INIS subject scope and they were indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  17. Effective moduli of high volume fraction particulate composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, P.; Dharan, C.K.H.

    1995-01-01

    Predictions using current micromechanics theories for the effective moduli of particulate-reinforced composites tend to break down at high volume fractions of the reinforcing phase. The predictions are usually well below experimentally measured values of the Young's modulus for volume fractions exceeding about 0.6. In this paper, the concept of contiguity, which is a measure of phase continuity, is applied to Mori-Tanaka micromechanics theory. It is shown that contiguity of the second phase increases with volume fraction, leading eventually to a reversal in the roles of the inclusion and matrix. In powder metallurgy practice, it is well known that at high volume fractions, sintering and consolidation of the reinforcement make it increasingly continuous and more like the matrix phase, while the former matrix tends to become more like the inclusion phase. The concept of contiguity applied to micromechanics theory results in very good agreement between the predicted Young's modulus and experimental data on tungsten carbide particulate-reinforced cobalt

  18. UCLA High Speed, High Volume Laboratory Network for Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    of Human Influenza A( H1N2 ) Reassortant Viruses during the 2001–2002 Influenza Season. Journal Infectious Diseases 2002;186:1490–1493...X, Smith CB, Mungall BA, Lindstrom SE, Hall HE, Subbarao K, et al. Intercontinental circulation of human influenza A( H1N2 ) reas- sortant viruses...numerous samples containing highly pathologic avian influenza and other select agents (dual-use). With FY07 (available), FY08 (available) and FY 09

  19. An examination of endoparasites and fecal testosterone levels in flying squirrels (Glaucomys spp.) using high performance liquid chromatography-ultra-violet (HPLC-UV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksmonski, Sarah N; Huffman, Justin M; Mahan, Carolyn G; Steele, Michael A

    2017-08-01

    The immuno-competence hypothesis proposes that higher levels of testosterone increases the susceptibility to parasitism. Here we examined the testosterone levels in two species of flying squirrels ( Glaucomys ): one known to regularly host a nematode species ( Strongyloides robustus ) without ill effects ( G. volans ) and a closely related species that is considered negatively affected by the parasite. We quantified fecal testosterone levels in northern and southern flying squirrels ( G. sabrinus, G. volans ) with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV), and compared levels to endoparasites detected in individual squirrels. Qualitatively, we found highest levels of testosterone in male northern flying squirrels infected with Strongyloides robustus . This analytical approach represents an alternative and equally reliable method to using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), for detecting and quantifying fecal testosterone levels.

  20. An examination of endoparasites and fecal testosterone levels in flying squirrels (Glaucomys spp. using high performance liquid chromatography-ultra-violet (HPLC-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N. Waksmonski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The immuno-competence hypothesis proposes that higher levels of testosterone increases the susceptibility to parasitism. Here we examined the testosterone levels in two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys: one known to regularly host a nematode species (Strongyloides robustus without ill effects (G. volans and a closely related species that is considered negatively affected by the parasite. We quantified fecal testosterone levels in northern and southern flying squirrels (G. sabrinus, G. volans with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV, and compared levels to endoparasites detected in individual squirrels. Qualitatively, we found highest levels of testosterone in male northern flying squirrels infected with Strongyloides robustus. This analytical approach represents an alternative and equally reliable method to using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, for detecting and quantifying fecal testosterone levels.

  1. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the development, execution outcomes and lessons learned of the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program carried out over a three-year period from 2009 through 2012. The primary goals of the program were met: 1) reduce the incremental cost of highly insulating windows compared to ENERGY STAR windows; and 2) raise the public and potential buyers’ awareness of highly insulating windows and their benefits. A key outcome of the program is that the 2013 ENERGY STAR Most Efficient criteria for primary residential windows were adopted from the technical specifications set forth in the WVP program.

  2. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-10-01

    A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.

  3. High-volume infiltration analgesia in bilateral hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Ø; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Husted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) in a fast-track setting, saline or high-volume (170 mL) ropivacaine (0.2%) with epinephrine (1:100,000) was administered to the wound intraoperatively along with supplementary postoperative injections via an intraarticular epidural catheter. Oral analgesia...... was instituted preoperatively with a multimodal regimen (gabapentin, celecoxib, and acetaminophen). Pain was assessed repeatedly for 48 hours postoperatively, at rest and with 45° hip flexion. Results Pain scores were low and similar between ropivacaine and saline administration. Median hospital stay was 4...... (range 2-7) days. Interpretation Intraoperative high-volume infiltration with 0.2% ropivacaine with repeated intraarticular injections postoperatively may not give a clinically relevant analgesic effect in THA when combined with a multimodal oral analgesic regimen with gabapentin, celecoxib...

  4. High-volume infiltration analgesia in bilateral hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Ø; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Husted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose High-volume infiltration analgesia may be effective in postoperative pain management after hip arthroplasty but methodological problems prevent exact interpretation of previous studies. Methods In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 12 patients undergoing...... bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) in a fast-track setting, saline or high-volume (170 mL) ropivacaine (0.2%) with epinephrine (1:100,000) was administered to the wound intraoperatively along with supplementary postoperative injections via an intraarticular epidural catheter. Oral analgesia...... was instituted preoperatively with a multimodal regimen (gabapentin, celecoxib, and acetaminophen). Pain was assessed repeatedly for 48 hours postoperatively, at rest and with 45° hip flexion. Results Pain scores were low and similar between ropivacaine and saline administration. Median hospital stay was 4...

  5. High volume tidal or current flow harnessing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlov, A.M.

    1984-08-07

    Apparatus permitting the utilization of large volumes of water in the harnessing and extracting of a portion of the power generated by the rise and fall of ocean tides, ocean currents, or flowing rivers includes the provision of a dam, and a specialized single cavity chamber of limited size as compared with the water head enclosed by the dam, and an extremely high volume gating system in which all or nearly all of the water between the high and low levels on either side of the dam is cyclically gated through the single chamber from one side of the dam to the other so as to alternately provide positive air pressure and a partial vacuum within the single chamber. In one embodiment, the specialized chamber has a barrier at the bottom which divides the bottom of the chamber in half, large ports at the bottom of the chamber to permit inflow and outflow of high volumes of water, and ganged structures having a higher total area than that of corresponding ports, in which the structures form sluice gates to selectively seal off and open different sets of ports. In another embodiment, a single chamber is used without a barrier. In this embodiment, vertical sluice gates are used which may be activated automatically by pressures acting on the sluice gates as a result of ingested and expelled water.

  6. Two new species of sympatric Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex) in the Australian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...

  7. "Flying the Plane while We Build It": A Case Study of an Early College High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Candace; Ongaga, Kennedy

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the perceived failed promise of the comprehensive high school to effectively educate America's youth has generated a national interest in high school reform. One such area of reform is a movement to restructure high schools as small learning communities centered around unique curriculum and state-of-the-art teaching.…

  8. Photogrammetry and ballistic analysis of a high-flying projectile in the STS-124 space shuttle launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.; Carilli, Robert A.; Long, Jason M.; Shawn, Kathy L.

    2010-07-01

    A method combining photogrammetry with ballistic analysis is demonstrated to identify flying debris in a rocket launch environment. Debris traveling near the STS-124 Space Shuttle was captured on cameras viewing the launch pad within the first few seconds after launch. One particular piece of debris caught the attention of investigators studying the release of flame trench fire bricks because its high trajectory could indicate a flight risk to the Space Shuttle. Digitized images from two pad perimeter high-speed 16-mm film cameras were processed using photogrammetry software based on a multi-parameter optimization technique. Reference points in the image were found from 3D CAD models of the launch pad and from surveyed points on the pad. The three-dimensional reference points were matched to the equivalent two-dimensional camera projections by optimizing the camera model parameters using a gradient search optimization technique. Using this method of solving the triangulation problem, the xyz position of the object's path relative to the reference point coordinate system was found for every set of synchronized images. This trajectory was then compared to a predicted trajectory while performing regression analysis on the ballistic coefficient and other parameters. This identified, with a high degree of confidence, the object's material density and thus its probable origin within the launch pad environment. Future extensions of this methodology may make it possible to diagnose the underlying causes of debris-releasing events in near-real time, thus improving flight safety.

  9. Verification and validation guidelines for high integrity systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Dinsmore, G.; Hecht, S.; Tang, D. [SoHaR, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    High integrity systems include all protective (safety and mitigation) systems for nuclear power plants, and also systems for which comparable reliability requirements exist in other fields, such as in the process industries, in air traffic control, and in patient monitoring and other medical systems. Verification aims at determining that each stage in the software development completely and correctly implements requirements that were established in a preceding phase, while validation determines that the overall performance of a computer system completely and correctly meets system requirements. Volume I of the report reviews existing classifications for high integrity systems and for the types of errors that may be encountered, and makes recommendations for verification and validation procedures, based on assumptions about the environment in which these procedures will be conducted. The final chapter of Volume I deals with a framework for standards in this field. Volume II contains appendices dealing with specific methodologies for system classification, for dependability evaluation, and for two software tools that can automate otherwise very labor intensive verification and validation activities.

  10. Verification and validation guidelines for high integrity systems. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Dinsmore, G.; Hecht, S.; Tang, D.

    1995-03-01

    High integrity systems include all protective (safety and mitigation) systems for nuclear power plants, and also systems for which comparable reliability requirements exist in other fields, such as in the process industries, in air traffic control, and in patient monitoring and other medical systems. Verification aims at determining that each stage in the software development completely and correctly implements requirements that were established in a preceding phase, while validation determines that the overall performance of a computer system completely and correctly meets system requirements. Volume I of the report reviews existing classifications for high integrity systems and for the types of errors that may be encountered, and makes recommendations for verification and validation procedures, based on assumptions about the environment in which these procedures will be conducted. The final chapter of Volume I deals with a framework for standards in this field. Volume II contains appendices dealing with specific methodologies for system classification, for dependability evaluation, and for two software tools that can automate otherwise very labor intensive verification and validation activities

  11. Automated high speed volume computed tomography for inline quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, R.; Kugel, A.; Troup, P.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing complexity of innovative products as well as growing requirements on quality and reliability call for more detailed knowledge about internal structures of manufactured components rather by 100 % inspection than just by sampling test. A first-step solution, like radioscopic inline inspection machines, equipped with automated data evaluation software, have become state of the art in the production floor during the last years. However, these machines provide just ordinary two-dimensional information and deliver no volume data e.g. to evaluate exact position or shape of detected defects. One way to solve this problem is the application of X-ray computed tomography (CT). Compared to the performance of the first generation medical scanners (scanning times of many hours), today, modern Volume CT machines for industrial applications need about 5 minutes for a full object scan depending on the object size. Of course, this is still too long to introduce this powerful method into the inline production quality control. In order to gain acceptance, the scanning time including subsequent data evaluation must be decreased significantly and adapted to the manufacturing cycle times. This presentation demonstrates the new technical set up, reconstruction results and the methods for high-speed volume data evaluation of a new fully automated high-speed CT scanner with cycle times below one minute for an object size of less than 15 cm. This will directly create new opportunities in design and construction of more complex objects. (author)

  12. Performance of double-layer biofilter packed with coal fly ash ceramic granules in treating highly polluted river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Zhaoqian; Li, Yu-You; Cao, Shiwei; Liu, Yuyu

    2012-09-01

    To improve trickling filters' denitrification efficiency, a biofilter with a trickling upper layer and a submerged lower layer was developed and applied in treating highly polluted river water. It was packed with porous coal fly ash ceramic granules. Its start-up characteristics, influence of hydraulic loading rates (HLR), carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and filter depth on pollutants removal were investigated. The results indicated this biofilter was started quickly in 16 days with river sediment as inoculum. Alternating nitrification and denitrification were achieved when water flowed downwards. COD and nitrogen were mainly removed in the upper layer and the lower layer, respectively. With HLR of 4.0-5.0m(3)/(m(2)d), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium (NH(4)(+)-N) and total nitrogen (TN) in the effluent were below 50, 5 and 15 mg/L, respectively. This biofilter removed more than 80% of COD, 85% of NH(4)(+)-N and 60% of TN with C/N ratios ranging from 6 to 10. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High speed analysis of high pressure combustion in a constant volume cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, P.J.M.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Manski, S.S.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dias, V.

    2005-01-01

    A combustion process with N2, O2 and C2H4 as fuel used in an opticallyaccessible, high pressure, high temperature, constant volume cell forresearch on diesel fuel spray formation, is studied. The flame frontspeed Vf,HS is determined using high speed imaging. The pressure traceof the combustion

  14. Assessment of high performance concrete containing fly ash and calcium nitrite based corrosion inhibitor as a mean to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes-García, P; Jiménez-Quero, V; López-Calvo, H

    2015-01-01

    This research analyses the effectiveness of the water-to-cement ratio (w/c), fly ash and a calcium nitrite based corrosion inhibitor to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel embedded in high performance concrete. The interactive effect between the inhibitor and fly ash was evaluated because the occurrence of a negative effect when both ingredients are added together in a concrete mixture has been reported. All the concrete mixtures studied in this investigation had 8.2% of silica fume. Twenty seven prismatic concrete specimens were fabricated with dimensions of 55 × 230 × 300 mm each containing two steel rods embedded for the purpose of corrosion monitoring. The specimens were exposed to a simulated marine environment with two daily cycles of wetting and drying for one year. To evaluate the deterioration of the specimens corrosion potentials and linear polarization resistance tests were carried out. The results indicate that the use of a low w/c, the addition of fly ash and the addition of the corrosion inhibitor contributed to the reduction of the corrosion of steel in the concrete specimens. The results further suggest that the combination of fly ash and corrosion inhibitor does not promote the deterioration of the concrete matrix

  15. A study on the practicability of highly containing fly ash and silica fume cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, Hitoshi; Mihara, Morihiro; Iriya, Keishiro; Matsui, Jun

    2000-01-01

    Cementitious materials have been planed to be used for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and TRU waste. Degrading of host rock and buffer material induced by high pH leachate, however, is pointed out as one of technical issues. The authors have been developing a low alkalinity cement (the pH of the leachate of this cement is about 11) as an enhanced material to reduce the effect of the high pH problem. In this study, the applicability of low alkalinity cement developed to solve this problem was evaluated. The fluidity of the mortar was sufficient to fill the aperture in a structure filled with coarse aggregate. The concrete using the low alkalinity cement was also enough to fill a structure with the reinforcing steel. The compressive strength of a test-piece produced by the JIS method and of a core collected from the trial structure were over 60 MPa. These evaluation results show that developed low alkalinity cement had higher performances in mechanical properties and execution characteristics than JIS ordinary Portland cement. (author)

  16. Unsupervised Learning Through Randomized Algorithms for High-Volume High-Velocity Data (ULTRA-HV).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, Ali [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kolda, Tamara G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, MA (United States); Ballard, Grey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mahoney, Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Through long-term investments in computing, algorithms, facilities, and instrumentation, DOE is an established leader in massive-scale, high-fidelity simulations, as well as science-leading experimentation. In both cases, DOE is generating more data than it can analyze and the problem is intensifying quickly. The need for advanced algorithms that can automatically convert the abundance of data into a wealth of useful information by discovering hidden structures is well recognized. Such efforts however, are hindered by the massive volume of the data and its high velocity. Here, the challenge is developing unsupervised learning methods to discover hidden structure in high-volume, high-velocity data.

  17. Total flying hours and risk of high systolic blood pressure in the civilian pilot in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Afian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang: Tekanan darah sistolik tinggi di antara pilot sipil antara lain akan menyebabkan gangguan kardiovaskular sehingga akan mengganggu kelancaran penerbangan. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor dominan terhadap tekanan darah sistolik tinggi pada pilot sipil. Metode: Penelitian potong lintang dengan metode sampling purposif pada pilot yang melakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan berkala di Balai Kesehatan Penerbangan pada tanggal 18-29 Mei 2015. Data yang dikumpulkan adalah karakteristik demografi dan pekerjaan, klinis, kebiasaan olahraga, kebiasaan makan, indeks massa tubuh dan riwayat penyakit. Tekanan darah sistolik tinggi ialah tekanan darah sistolik140 mmHg atau lebih. Hasil: Dari 690 pilot yang melakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan berkala, 428 pilot laki-laki bersedia berpartisipasi mengikuti penelitian ini. Usia dan riwayat penyakit hipertensi merupakan faktor risiko dominan yang berhubungan dengan tekanan darah sistolik tinggi. Jika dibandingkan dengan pilot usia 19-39 tahun, yang berusia 40-65 tahun mempunyai 15,1 kali lipat lebih besar risiko terkena tekanan darah sistolik tinggi [rasio odds suaian (ORa= 15,12; p= 0,001]. Pilot dengan riwayat penyakit hipertensi dibandingkan dengan yang tidak ada riwayat memiliki risiko tekanan darah sistolik tinggi 93,2 kali lipat lebih besar (ORa= 93,21; p= 0,001 Kesimpulan: Usia 40-65 tahun dan memiliki riwayat hipertensi meningkatkan risiko tekanan darah sistolik tinggi di antara pilot sipil di Indonesia. Kata kunci: tekanan darah sistolik, total jam terbang, pilot sipil, Indonesia.  Abstract Background: Systolic high blood pressure among civilian pilots among others will cause cardiovascular disease and this condition will disrupt the flight.The purpose of this study was to identified the dominant factors related to high systolic blood pressure in the civilian pilots. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a purposive sampling method on a pilot who performed periodic

  18. Effect of Rice Husk Ash and Fly Ash on the workability of concrete mixture in the High-Rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tang, Lam; Bulgakov, Boris; Bazhenova, Sofia; Aleksandrova, Olga; Pham, Anh Ngoc; Dinh Vu, Tho

    2018-03-01

    The dense development of high-rise construction in urban areas requires a creation of new concretes with essential properties and innovative technologies for preparing concrete mixtures. Besides, it is necessary to develop new ways of presenting concrete mixture and keeping their mobility. This research uses the mathematical method of two-factors rotatable central compositional planning to imitate the effect of amount of rice husk (RHA) and fly ash of thermal power plants (FA) on the workability of high-mobility concrete mixtures. The results of this study displays regression equation of the second order dependence of the objective functions - slump cone and loss of concrete mixture mobility due to the input factors - the amounts RHA (x1) and FA (x2), as well as the surface expression image of these regression equations. An analysis of the regression equations also shows that the amount of RHA and FA had a significant influence on the concrete mixtures mobility. In fact, the particles of RHA and FA will play the role as peculiar "sliding bearings" between the grains of cement leading to the dispersion of cement in the concrete mixture. Therefore, it is possible to regulate the concrete mixture mobility when transporting fresh concrete to the formwork during the high-rise buildings construction in the hot and humid climate of Vietnam. Although the average value of slump test of freshly mixed concrete, measured 60 minutes later after the mixing completion, decreased from 18.2 to 10.52 cm, this value still remained within the allowable range to maintain the mixing and and the delivery of concrete mixture by pumping.

  19. The durability of concrete containing a high-level of fly ash or a ternary blend of supplementary cementing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Christine M.

    The research for this study was conducted in two distinct phases as follows: Phase 1: The objective was to determine the effect of fly ash on the carbonation of concrete. The specimens made for this phase of the study were larger in size than those normally used in carbonation studies and were are meant to more accurately reflect real field conditions. The results from early age carbonation testing indicate that the larger size specimens do not have a measured depth of carbonation as great as that of the smaller specimens typically used in carbonation studies at the same age and under the same conditions. Phase 2: The objective was to evaluate the performance of ternary concrete mixes containing a ternary cement blend consisting of Portland cement, slag and Type C fly ash. It was found that concrete mixtures containing the fly ash with the lower calcium (CaO) content (in binary or ternary blends) provided superior durability performance and resistance to ASR compared to that of the fly ash with the higher CaO content. Ternary blends (regardless of the CaO content of the fly ash) provided better overall durability performance than binary blends of cementing materials or the control.

  20. Flip, flop and fly: modulated motor control and highly variable movement patterns of autotomized gecko tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Timothy E; Russell, Anthony P

    2010-02-23

    Many animals lose and regenerate appendages, and tail autotomy in lizards is an extremely well-studied example of this. Whereas the energetic, ecological and functional ramifications of tail loss for many lizards have been extensively documented, little is known about the behaviour and neuromuscular control of the autotomized tail. We used electromyography and high-speed video to quantify the motor control and movement patterns of autotomized tails of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius). In addition to rhythmic swinging, we show that they exhibit extremely complex movement patterns for up to 30 min following autotomy, including acrobatic flips up to 3 cm in height. Unlike the output of most central pattern generators (CPGs), muscular control of the tail is variable and can be arrhythmic. We suggest that the gecko tail is well suited for studies involving CPGs, given that this spinal preparation is naturally occurring, requires no surgery and exhibits complex modulation.

  1. Future fly ash marketing; Flugaschevermarktung in der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauder, R.; Hugot, A. [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig.)

  2. Falling, flapping, flying, swimming,...: High-Re fluid-solid interactions with vortex shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelin, Sebastien Honore Roland

    The coupling between the motion of a solid body and the dynamics of the surrounding flow is essential to the understanding of a large number of engineering and physical problems, from the stability of a slender structure exposed to the wind to the locomotion of insects, birds and fishes. Because of the strong coupling on a moving boundary of the equations for the solid and fluid, the simulation of such problems is computationally challenging and expensive. This justifies the development of simplified models for the fluid-solid interactions to study their physical properties and behavior. This dissertation proposes a reduced-order model for the interaction of a sharp-edged solid body with a strongly unsteady high Reynolds number flow. In such a case, viscous forces in the fluid are often negligible compared to the fluid inertia or the pressure forces, and the thin boundary layers separate from the solid at the edges, leading to the shedding of large and persistent vortices in the solid's wake. A general two-dimensional framework is presented based on complex potential flow theory. The formation of the solid's vortical wake is accounted for by the shedding of point vortices with unsteady intensity from the solid's sharp edges, and the fluid-solid problem is reformulated exclusively as a solid-vortex interaction problem. In the case of a rigid solid body, the coupled problem is shown to reduce to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations. This model is used to study the effect of vortex shedding on the stability of falling objects. The solid-vortex model is then generalized to study the fluttering instability and non-linear flapping dynamics of flexible plates or flags. The uttering instability and resulting flapping motion result from the competing effects of the fluid forcing and of the solid's flexural rigidity and inertia. Finally, the solid-vortex model is applied to the study of the fundamental effect of bending rigidity on the flapping performance of

  3. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  4. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  5. A high volume, batch mode {sup 129}Xe polarizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojna-Pelczar, Anna, E-mail: anna.wojna.pelczar@mail.muni.cz [Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic); Formerly: Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków (Poland); Pałasz, Tadeusz [Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Kraków (Poland)

    2017-06-01

    Numerous designs of optical gas polarizers have been proposed, broadening possible applications of the hyperpolarized gases as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. We present a home–made {sup 129}Xe polarizer based on the spin exchange optical pumping method. The polarizer operates under 1 bar of the gas mixture (at the maximum temperature of 160 °C) in a high volume optical cell (5025 cm{sup 3}). Approximately 100 cm{sup 3} of {sup 129}Xe polarized at 1.50±0.37% is produced in a single cycle of polarization. Operation under standard pressure imposes polarization transfer mainly via van der Waals molecules, resulting in the efficient spin exchange between rubidium and {sup 129}Xe atoms. The design, construction and operation of the polarizer are described in details.

  6. Nuclear power flies high

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power in aircraft, rockets and satellites is discussed. No nuclear-powered rockets or aircraft have ever flown, but ground tests were successful. Nuclear reactors are used in the Soviet Cosmos serles of satellites, but only one American satellite, the SNAP-10A, contained a reactor. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators, many of which use plutonium 238, have powered more than 20 satellites launched into deep space by the U.S.A

  7. Effect of high and low ultrafiltration volume during hemodialysis on relative blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, JJ; de Jong, PE; Huisman, RM; Franssen, CFM

    2006-01-01

    Achieving an optimal posthemodialysis hydration status may be difficult because objective criteria for dry weight are lacking. Both relative blood volume changes (Delta RBV) at the end of hemodialysis and Delta RBV normalized for ultrafiltration volume (Delta RBV/UF ratio) have been reported to

  8. High Power Microwave Tubes: Basics and Trends, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Vishal; Basu, B. N.

    2018-01-01

    Volume 2 of the book begins with chapter 6, in which we have taken up conventional MWTs (such as TWTs, klystrons, including multi-cavity and multi-beam klystrons, klystron variants including reflex klystron, IOT, EIK, EIO and twystron, and crossed-field tubes, namely, magnetron, CFA and carcinotron). In chapter 7, we have taken up fast-wave tubes (such as gyrotron, gyro-BWO, gyro-klystron, gyro-TWT, CARM, SWCA, hybrid gyro-tubes and peniotron). In chapter 8, we discuss vacuum microelectronic tubes (such as klystrino module, THz gyrotron and clinotron BWO); plasma-assisted tubes (such as PWT, plasma-filled TWT, BWO, including PASOTRON, and gyrotron); and HPM (high power microwave) tubes (such as relativistic TWT, relativistic BWO, RELTRON (variant of relativistic klystron), relativistic magnetron, high power Cerenkov tubes including SWO, RDG or orotron, MWCG and MWDG, bremsstrahlung radiation type tube, namely, vircator, and M-type tube MILO). In Chapter 9, we provide handy information about the frequency and power ranges of common MWTs, although more such information is provided at relevant places in the rest of the book as and where necessary. Chapter 10 is an epilogue that sums up the authors' attempt to bring out the various aspects of the basics of and trends in high power MWTs.

  9. Characterization of segmented large volume, high purity germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyneel, B. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2006-07-01

    {gamma}-ray tracking in future HPGe arrays like AGATA will rely on pulse shape analysis (PSA) of multiple {gamma}-interactions. For this purpose, a simple and fast procedure was developed which enabled the first full characterization of a segmented large volume HPGe detector. An analytical model for the hole mobility in a Ge crystal lattice was developed to describe the hole drift anisotropy with experimental velocity values along the crystal axis as parameters. The new model is based on the drifted Maxwellian hole distribution in Ge. It is verified by reproducing successfully experimental longitudinal hole anisotropy data. A comparison between electron and hole mobility shows large differences for the longitudinal and tangential velocity anisotropy as a function of the electrical field orientation. Measurements on a 12 fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by {gamma}-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60 keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356 keV rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and the digital electronics

  10. Characterization of segmented large volume, high purity germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyneel, B.

    2006-01-01

    γ-ray tracking in future HPGe arrays like AGATA will rely on pulse shape analysis (PSA) of multiple γ-interactions. For this purpose, a simple and fast procedure was developed which enabled the first full characterization of a segmented large volume HPGe detector. An analytical model for the hole mobility in a Ge crystal lattice was developed to describe the hole drift anisotropy with experimental velocity values along the crystal axis as parameters. The new model is based on the drifted Maxwellian hole distribution in Ge. It is verified by reproducing successfully experimental longitudinal hole anisotropy data. A comparison between electron and hole mobility shows large differences for the longitudinal and tangential velocity anisotropy as a function of the electrical field orientation. Measurements on a 12 fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by γ-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60 keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356 keV rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and the digital electronics. The results are

  11. Ribbon scanning confocal for high-speed high-resolution volume imaging of brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Watson

    Full Text Available Whole-brain imaging is becoming a fundamental means of experimental insight; however, achieving subcellular resolution imagery in a reasonable time window has not been possible. We describe the first application of multicolor ribbon scanning confocal methods to collect high-resolution volume images of chemically cleared brains. We demonstrate that ribbon scanning collects images over ten times faster than conventional high speed confocal systems but with equivalent spectral and spatial resolution. Further, using this technology, we reconstruct large volumes of mouse brain infected with encephalitic alphaviruses and demonstrate that regions of the brain with abundant viral replication were inaccessible to vascular perfusion. This reveals that the destruction or collapse of large regions of brain micro vasculature may contribute to the severe disease caused by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Visualization of this fundamental impact of infection would not be possible without sampling at subcellular resolution within large brain volumes.

  12. Studies on the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in high-transmission areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Republic of Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the vectors of Leishmania parasites, the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem in the Republic of Suriname and is mainly caused by Leishmania (Vianna) guyanensis, but L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (L.) amazonensis, and L. (V.) naiffi also infect humans. Transmission occurs predominantly in the forested hinterland of the country. Information regarding the potential vectors of leishmaniasis in Suriname is limited. This study aims to broaden the knowledge about vectors involved in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname. For this purpose, sand flies were characterized in various foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the country, the districts of Para, Brokopondo, and Sipaliwini. Methods Sand flies were collected in areas around mining plots and villages using CDC light traps in the period between February 2011 and March 2013. They were categorized by examination of the spermathecea (females) and the external genitalia (males). Results A total of 2,743 sand fly specimens belonging to 34 different species were captured, including four species (Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lu. ayrozai, Lu. damascenoi, and Lu. sordellii) that had never before been described for Suriname. Five percent of the catch comprised Lu. squamiventris sensu lato, one female of which was positive with L. (V.) braziliensis and was captured in a gold mining area in Brokopondo. Other sand fly species found positive for Leishmania parasites were Lu. trichopyga, Lu. ininii, and Lu. umbratilis, comprising 32, 8, and 4%, respectively, of the catch. These were captured at gold mining areas in Brokopondo and Sipaliwini, but the Leishmania parasites they had ingested could not be identified due to insufficient amounts of DNA. Conclusions The sand fly fauna in Suriname is highly diverse and comprises Lutzomyia species capable of transmitting Leishmania parasites. Four new Lutzomyia species have been found

  13. Low-volume plus ascorbic acid vs high-volume plus simethicone bowel preparation before colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontone, Stefano; Angelini, Rita; Standoli, Monica; Patrizi, Gregorio; Culasso, Franco; Pontone, Paolo; Redler, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of low-volume plus ascorbic acid [polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid (PEG + Asc)] and high-volume plus simethicone [polyethylene glycol plus simethicone (PEG + Sim)] bowel preparations. METHODS: A total of one hundred and forty-four outpatients (76 males), aged from 20 to 84 years (median age 59.5 years), who attended our Department, were divided into two groups, age and sex matched, and underwent colonoscopy. Two questionnaires, one for patients reporting acceptability and the other for endoscopists evaluating bowel cleansing effectiveness according to validated scales, were completed. Indications, timing of examination and endoscopical findings were recorded. Biopsy forceps were used as a measuring tool in order to determine polyp endoscopic size estimation. Difficulty in completing the preparation was rated in a 5-point Likert scale (1 = easy to 5 = unable). Adverse experiences (fullness, cramps, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache and insomnia), number of evacuations and types of activities performed during preparation (walking or resting in bed) were also investigated. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients were selected for each group. The two groups were age and sex matched as well as being comparable in terms of medical history and drug therapies taken. Fourteen patients dropped out from the trial because they did not complete the preparation procedure. Ratings of global bowel cleansing examinations were considered to be adequate in 91% of PEG + Asc and 88% of PEG + Sim patients. Residual Stool Score indicated similar levels of amount and consistency of residual stool; there was a significant difference in the percentage of bowel wall visualization in favour of PEG + Sim patients. In the PEG + Sim group, 12 adenomas ≤ 10 mm diameter (5/left colon + 7/right colon) vs 9 (8/left colon + 1/right colon) in the PEG + Asc group were diagnosed. Visualization of small lesions seems to be one of the primary advantages of the

  14. Destruction of inorganic municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in a DC arc plasma furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Ni, Guohua; Jiang, Yiman; Chen, Longwei; Chen, Mingzhou; Meng, Yuedong

    2010-09-15

    Due to the toxicity of dioxins, furans and heavy metals, there is a growing environmental concern on municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash in China. The purpose of this study is directed towards the volume-reduction of fly ash without any additive by thermal plasma and recycling of vitrified slag. This process uses extremely high-temperature in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose complex waste into very simple molecules. For developing the proper plasma processes to treat MSWI fly ash, a new crucible-type plasma furnace was built. The melting process metamorphosed fly ash to granulated slag that was less than 1/3 of the volume of the fly ash, and about 64% of the weight of the fly ash. The safety of the vitrified slag was tested. The properties of the slag were affected by the differences in the cooling methods. Water-cooled and composite-cooled slag showed more excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals and can be utilized as building material without toxicity problems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cross-amplified microsatellites in the European cherry fly, Rhagoletis cerasi: medium polymorphic-highly informative markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, A A; Asimakopoulou, A K; Papadopoulos, N T; Bourtzis, K

    2011-02-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of cherries in Europe and parts of Asia. Despite its big economic significance, there is a lack of studies on the genetic structure of its natural populations. Knowledge about an insect pest on molecular, genetic and population levels facilitates the development of environmentally friendly control methods. In this study, we present the development of 13 microsatellite markers for R. cerasi, through cross-species amplification. These markers have been used for the genotyping of 130 individuals from five different sampling sites in Greece. Our results indicate that (i) cross-species amplification is a versatile and rapid tool for developing microsatellite markers in Rhagoletis spp., (ii) the microsatellite markers presented here constitute an important tool for population studies on this pest, and (iii) there is clear structuring of natural European cherry fly populations.

  16. Volumizing effects of a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid volumizing filler: prospective European study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial volume loss contributes significantly to facial aging. The 20-mg/mL hyaluronic acid (HA formulation used in this study is a smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, fully reversible, volumizing filler indicated to restore facial volume. This first prospective study evaluated use in current aesthetic clinical practice. Methods A pan-European evaluation conducted under guidelines of the World Association of Opinion and Marketing Research, the trial comprised a baseline visit (visit 1 and a follow-up (visit 2 at 14 ± 7 days posttreatment. Physicians photographed patients at each visit. Each patient was treated with the 20-mg/mL HA volumizing filler as supplied in standard packaging. Procedural details, aesthetic outcomes, safety, and physician and patient ratings of their experience were recorded. Results Fifteen physicians and 70 patients (91% female; mean age: 50 years participated. Mean volume loss at baseline was 3.7 (moderate on the Facial Volume Loss Scale. Local anesthesia was used in 64.3% of cases. Most injections (85% were administered with needles rather than cannulas. Of the 208 injections, 59% were in the malar region, primarily above the periosteum. Subcutaneous injections were most common for other sites. The mean total injection volume per patient was 4.6 mL. The mean volume loss score declined significantly (P Conclusion The 20-mg/mL smooth, highly cohesive, viscous, volumizing HA filler was effective, well tolerated, and easy to use in current clinical practice. Participants were very likely to recommend this product to colleagues and friends, and patients would be very or quite likely to request this product for future treatments.

  17. EUV source development for high-volume chip manufacturing tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Uwe; Yoshioka, Masaki; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen; Ziener, Christian; Schriever, Guido; Schürmann, Max C.; Hergenhan, Guido; Borisov, Vladimir M.

    2007-03-01

    Xenon-fueled gas discharge produced plasma (DPP) sources were integrated into Micro Exposure Tools already in 2004. Operation of these tools in a research environment gave early learning for the development of EUV sources for Alpha and Beta-Tools. Further experiments with these sources were performed for basic understanding on EUV source technology and limits, especially the achievable power and reliability. The intermediate focus power of Alpha-Tool sources under development is measured to values above 10 W. Debris mitigation schemes were successfully integrated into the sources leading to reasonable collector mirror lifetimes with target of 10 billion pulses due to the effective debris flux reduction. Source collector mirrors, which withstand the radiation and temperature load of Xenon-fueled sources, have been developed in cooperation with MediaLario Technologies to support intermediate focus power well above 10 W. To fulfill the requirements for High Volume chip Manufacturing (HVM) applications, a new concept for HVM EUV sources with higher efficiency has been developed at XTREME technologies. The discharge produced plasma (DPP) source concept combines the use of rotating disk electrodes (RDE) with laser exited droplet targets. The source concept is called laser assisted droplet RDE source. The fuel of these sources has been selected to be Tin. The conversion efficiency achieved with the laser assisted droplet RDE source is 2-3x higher compared to Xenon. Very high pulse energies well above 200 mJ / 2π sr have been measured with first prototypes of the laser assisted droplet RDE source. If it is possible to maintain these high pulse energies at higher repetition rates a 10 kHz EUV source could deliver 2000 W / 2π sr. According to the first experimental data the new concept is expected to be scalable to an intermediate focus power on the 300 W level.

  18. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies of graphite materials prepared by high-temperature treatment of unburned carbon concentrates from combustion fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel Cabielles; Jean-Nol Rouzaud; Ana B. Garcia [Instituto Nacional del Carbn (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has been used in this work to study the microstructural (structure and microtexture) changes occurring during the high-temperature treatment of the unburned carbon concentrates from coal combustion fly ashes. Emphasis was placed on two aspects: (i) the development of graphitic carbon structures and (ii) the disordered carbon forms remaining in the graphitized samples. In addition, by coupling HRTEM with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, the transformations with the temperature of the inorganic matter (mainly iron- and silicon-based phases) of the unburned carbon concentrates were evidenced. The HRTEM results were compared to the averaged structural order of the materials as evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. As indicated by XRD and Raman parameters, more-ordered materials were obtained from the unburned carbon concentrates with higher mineral/inorganic matter, thus inferring the catalytic effect of some of their components. However, the average character of the information provided by these instrumental techniques seems to be inconclusive in discriminating between carbon structures with different degrees of order (stricto sensu graphite, graphitic, turbostratic, etc.) in a given graphitized unburned carbon. Unlike XRD and Raman, HRTEM is a useful tool for imaging directly the profile of the polyaromatic layers (graphene planes), thus allowing the sample heterogeneity to be looked at, specifically the presence of disordered carbon phases. 49 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. VOLUME BASED DTM GENERATION FROM VERY HIGH RESOLUTION PHOTOGRAMMETRIC DSMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piltz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new algorithm for digital terrain (DTM model reconstruction from very high spatial resolution digital surface models (DSMs. It represents a combination of multi-directional filtering with a new metric which we call normalized volume above ground to create an above-ground mask containing buildings and elevated vegetation. This mask can be used to interpolate a ground-only DTM. The presented algorithm works fully automatically, requiring only the processing parameters minimum height and maximum width in metric units. Since slope and breaklines are not decisive criteria, low and smooth and even very extensive flat objects are recognized and masked. The algorithm was developed with the goal to generate the normalized DSM for automatic 3D building reconstruction and works reliably also in environments with distinct hillsides or terrace-shaped terrain where conventional methods would fail. A quantitative comparison with the ISPRS data sets Potsdam and Vaihingen show that 98-99% of all building data points are identified and can be removed, while enough ground data points (~66% are kept to be able to reconstruct the ground surface. Additionally, we discuss the concept of size dependent height thresholds and present an efficient scheme for pyramidal processing of data sets reducing time complexity to linear to the number of pixels, O(WH.

  20. Critical factors for assembling a high volume of DNA barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; deWaard, Jeremy R; Ivanova, Natalia V; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Dooh, Robert T; Kirk, Stephanie L; Mackie, Paula M; Hebert, Paul D.N

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale DNA barcoding projects are now moving toward activation while the creation of a comprehensive barcode library for eukaryotes will ultimately require the acquisition of some 100 million barcodes. To satisfy this need, analytical facilities must adopt protocols that can support the rapid, cost-effective assembly of barcodes. In this paper we discuss the prospects for establishing high volume DNA barcoding facilities by evaluating key steps in the analytical chain from specimens to barcodes. Alliances with members of the taxonomic community represent the most effective strategy for provisioning the analytical chain with specimens. The optimal protocols for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification of the barcode region depend strongly on their condition, but production targets of 100K barcode records per year are now feasible for facilities working with compliant specimens. The analysis of museum collections is currently challenging, but PCR cocktails that combine polymerases with repair enzyme(s) promise future success. Barcode analysis is already a cost-effective option for species identification in some situations and this will increasingly be the case as reference libraries are assembled and analytical protocols are simplified. PMID:16214753

  1. High accurate volume holographic correlator with 4000 parallel correlation channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kai; Qu, Zongyao; Cao, Liangcai; Su, Ping; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2008-03-01

    Volume holographic correlator allows simultaneously calculate the two-dimensional inner product between the input image and each stored image. We have recently experimentally implemented in VHC 4000 parallel correlation channels with better than 98% output accuracy in a single location in a crystal. The speckle modulation is used to suppress the sidelobes of the correlation patterns, allowing more correlation spots to be contained in the output plane. A modified exposure schedule is designed to ensure the hologram in each channel with unity diffraction efficiency. In this schedule, a restricted coefficient was introduced into the original exposure schedule to solve the problem that the sensitivity and time constant of the crystal will change as a time function when in high-capacity storage. An interleaving method is proposed to improve the output accuracy. By unifying the distribution of the input and stored image patterns without changing the inner products between them, this method could eliminate the impact of correlation pattern variety on calculated inner product values. Moreover, by using this method, the maximum correlation spot size is reduced, which decreases the required minimum safe clearance between neighboring spots in the output plane, allowing more spots to be parallely detected without crosstalk. The experimental results are given and analyzed.

  2. Microstrain evolution during creep of a high volume fraction superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, S. [Materials Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Brown, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bourke, M.A.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Daymond, M.R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, ISIS Facility, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Majumdar, B.S. [Materials Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)]. E-mail: majumdar@nmt.edu

    2005-06-15

    The creep of superalloys containing a high volume fraction of {gamma}' phase is significantly influenced by initial misfit and by the evolution of internal stresses. An in situ neutron diffraction technique was used to monitor elastic microstrains in a polycrystalline superalloy, CM247 LC. The misfit was nearly zero at room temperature and it increased to -0.17% at 900 deg. C. These values are rationalized in terms of thermal mismatch using an eigenstrain formulation and a simple formula is derived to relate the thermal mismatch to the misfit strain. During creep at 425 MPa at 900 deg. C, the material exhibited primarily tertiary behavior. For grains with [0 0 1] axis close to the loading direction, the elastic microstrain in the loading direction increased with creep time for the {gamma}' phase, whereas the opposite occurred for the {gamma} phase. These results are explained in terms of constrained deformation in the narrow {gamma} channels and by an interface dislocation buildup. TEM analysis of the crept microstructure provides evidence of the interface dislocation network.

  3. Abundances and distribution of minerals and elements in high-alumina coal fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Zhao, L.; Peng, S.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, D.; Sun, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, is unique because it is highly enriched in alumina (Al2O3>50%). The fly ash mainly consists of amorphous glass and mullite and trace amounts of corundum, quartz, char, calcite, K-feldspar, clay minerals, and Fe-bearing minerals. The mullite content in fly ash is as high as 37.4% because of high boehmite and kaolinite contents in feed coal. Corundum is a characteristic mineral formed during the combustion of boehmite-rich coal.Samples from the economizer were sieved into six size fractions (500 mesh) and separated into magnetic, mullite+corundum+quartz (MCQ) and glass phases for mineralogical and chemical analysis. The corundum content increases but amorphous glass decreases with decreasing particle size. Fractions of small particle sizes are relatively high in mullite, probably because mullite was formed from fine clay mineral particles under high-temperature combustion condition. Similarly, fine corundum crystals formed in the boiler from boehmite in feed coal. The magnetic phase consists of hematite, magnetite, magnesioferrite, and MgFeAlO4 crystals. The MCQ phase is composed of 89% mullite, 6.1% corundum, 4.5% quartz, and 0.5% K-feldspar.Overall, the fly ash from the power plant is significantly enriched in Al2O3 with an average of 51.9%, but poor in SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, P2O5, and As. Arsenic, TiO2, Th, Al2O3, Bi, La, Ga, Ni, and V are high in mullite, and the magnetic matter is enriched in Fe2O3, CaO, MnO, TiO2, Cs, Co, As, Cd, Ba, Ni, Sb, MgO, Zn, and V. The remaining elements are high in the glass fraction. The concentration of K2O, Na2O, P2O5, Nb, Cr, Ta, U, W, Rb, and Ni do not clearly vary with particle size, while SiO2 and Hg decrease and the remaining elements clearly increase with decreasing particle size. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  4. The deflation limb of the pressure-volume relationship in infants during high-frequency ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingay, David G; Mills, John F; Morley, Colin J; Pellicano, Anastasia; Dargaville, Peter A

    2006-02-15

    The importance of applying high-frequency oscillatory ventilation with a high lung volume strategy in infants is well established. Currently, a lack of reliable methods for assessing lung volume limits clinicians' ability to achieve the optimum volume range. To map the pressure-volume relationship of the lung during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in infants, to determine at what point ventilation is being applied clinically, and to describe the relationship between airway pressure, lung volume, and oxygenation. In 12 infants, a partial inflation limb and the deflation limb of the pressure-volume relationship were mapped using a quasi-static lung volume optimization maneuver. This involved stepwise airway pressure increments to total lung capacity, followed by decrements until the closing pressure of the lung was identified. Lung volume and oxygen saturation were recorded at each airway pressure. Lung volume was measured using respiratory inductive plethysmography. A distinct deflation limb could be mapped in each infant. Overall, oxygenation and lung volume were improved by applying ventilation on the deflation limb. Maximal lung volume and oxygenation occurred on the deflation limb at a mean airway pressure of 3 and 5 cm H(2)O below the airway pressure approximating total lung capacity, respectively. Using current ventilation strategies, all infants were being ventilated near the inflation limb. It is possible to delineate the deflation limb in infants receiving high-frequency oscillatory ventilation; in doing so, greater lung volume and oxygenation can be achieved, often at lower airway pressures.

  5. Investigation on the Rheological Behavior of Fly Ash Cement Composites at Paste and Concrete Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Hemalatha; Mapa, Maitri; Kushwaha, Rakhi

    2018-06-01

    Towards developing sustainable concrete, nowadays, high volume replacement of cement with fly ash (FA) is more common. Though the replacement of fly ash at 20-30% is widely accepted due to its advantages at both fresh and hardened states, applicability and acceptability of high volume fly ash (HVFA) is not so popular due to some adverse effects on concrete properties. Nowadays to suit various applications, flowing concretes such as self compacting concrete is often used. In such cases, implications of usage of HVFA on fresh properties are required to be investigated. Further, when FA replacement is beyond 40% in cement, it results in the reduction of strength and in order to overcome this drawback, additions such as nano calcium carbonate (CC), lime sludge (LS), carbon nano tubes (CNT) etc. are often incorporated to HVFA concrete. Hence, in this study, firstly, the influence of replacement level of 20-80% FA on rheological property is studied for both cement and concrete. Secondly, the influence of additions such as LS, CC and CNT on rheological parameters are discussed. It is found that the increased FA content improved the flowability in paste as well as in concrete. In paste, the physical properties such as size and shape of fly ash is the reason for increased flowability whereas in concrete, the paste volume contributes dominantly for the flowability rather than the effect due to individual FA particle. Reduced density of FA increases the paste volume in FA concrete thus reducing the interparticle friction by completely coating the coarse aggregate.

  6. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  7. High brightness diode lasers controlled by volume Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebov, Leonid

    2017-02-01

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) recorded in photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass are holographic optical elements that are effective spectral and angular filters withstanding high power laser radiation. Reflecting VBGs are narrow-band spectral filters while transmitting VBGs are narrow-band angular filters. The use of these optical elements in external resonators of semiconductor lasers enables extremely resonant feedback that provides dramatic spectral and angular narrowing of laser diodes radiation without significant power and efficiency penalty. Spectral narrowing of laser diodes by reflecting VBGs demonstrated in wide spectral region from near UV to 3 μm. Commercially available VBGs have spectral width ranged from few nanometers to few tens of picometers. Efficient spectral locking was demonstrated for edge emitters (single diodes, bars, modules, and stacks), vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), grating coupled surface emitting lasers (GCSELs), and interband cascade lasers (ICLs). The use of multiplexed VBGs provides multiwavelength emission from a single emitter. Spectrally locked semiconductor lasers demonstrated CW power from milliwatts to a kilowatt. Angular narrowing by transmitting VBGs enables single transverse mode emission from wide aperture diode lasers having resonators with great Fresnel numbers. This feature provides close to diffraction limit divergence along a slow axis of wide stripe edge emitters. Radiation exchange between lasers by means of spatially profiled or multiplexed VBGs enables coherent combining of diode lasers. Sequence of VBGs or multiplexed VBGs enable spectral combining of spectrally narrowed diode lasers or laser modules. Thus the use of VBGs for diode lasers beam control provides dramatic increase of brightness.

  8. High-pressure-assisted synthesis of high-volume ZnGeP2 polycrystalline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changbao; Wu, Haixin; Xiao, Ruichun; Chen, Shijing; Ma, Jiaren

    2018-06-01

    The pnictide and chalcogenide semiconductors are promising materials for the applications in the field of photoelectric. High-purity and high-volume polycrystalline required in the real-world applications is hard to be synthesized due to the high vapor pressure of phosphorus and sulfur components at high temperature. A new high-pressure-resisted method was used to investigate the synthesis of the nonlinear-optical semiconductor ZnGeP2. The high-purity ZnGeP2 polycrystalline material of approximately 500 g was synthesized in one run, which enables the preparation of nominally stoichiometric material. Since increasing internal pressure resistance of quartz crucible and reducing the reaction space, the high-pressure-resisted method can be used to rapidly synthesize other pnictide and chalcogenide semiconductors and control the components ratio.

  9. Influence of fly ash aided phytostabilisation of Pb, Cd and Zn highly contaminated soils on Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens metal transfer and physiological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopareva-Pohu, Alena; Verdin, Anthony; Garcon, Guillaume; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Pourrut, Bertrand; Debiane, Djouher; Waterlot, Christophe; Laruelle, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, large extends of soils are highly contaminated by Metal Trace Element (MTE). Aided phytostabilisation aims to establish a vegetation cover in order to promote in situ immobilisation of trace elements by combining the use of metal-tolerant plants and inexpensive mineral or organic soil amendments. Eight years after Coal Fly Ash (CFA) soil amendment, MTE bioavailability and uptake by two plants, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens, were evaluated, as some biological markers reflecting physiological stress. Results showed that the two plant species under study were suitable to reduce the mobility and the availability of these elements. Moreover, the plant growth was better on CFA amended MTE-contaminated soils, and the plant sensitivity to MTE-induced physiological stress, as studied through photosynthetic pigment contents and oxidative damage was lower or similar. In conclusion, these results supported the usefulness of aided phytostabilisation of MTE-highly contaminated soils. - Highlights: → Aided phytostabilisation aims to establish a vegetation cover in order to promote immobilisation of MTE. → 8 years after the soil amendments, a pot culture study was carried out in greenhouse conditions. → MTE bioavailability and uptake by the two plants was drastically decreased with amendments. → Our results support the usefulness of aided phytostabilisation of MTE-highly contaminated soils. → CFA addition contributed to the reduction of the MTE mobility and availability for the plants. - Efficiency of Coal Fly Ash amendment for phytostabilisation of Pb, Cd and Zn in MTE-highly contaminated soils.

  10. Evaluation of ultra low volume and thermal fog pesticide applications against Old World Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    One component of the Department of Defense (DoD) pest management system is ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog aerosol pesticide application. Despite widespread implementations of this and other components of the system, such as use of repellents and permethrin, US military operations in hot-a...

  11. High call volume at poison control centers: identification and implications for communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravati, E M; Latimer, S; Reblin, M; Bennett, H K W; Cummins, M R; Crouch, B I; Ellington, L

    2012-09-01

    High volume surges in health care are uncommon and unpredictable events. Their impact on health system performance and capacity is difficult to study. To identify time periods that exhibited very busy conditions at a poison control center and to determine whether cases and communication during high volume call periods are different from cases during low volume periods. Call data from a US poison control center over twelve consecutive months was collected via a call logger and an electronic case database (Toxicall®).Variables evaluated for high call volume conditions were: (1) call duration; (2) number of cases; and (3) number of calls per staff member per 30 minute period. Statistical analyses identified peak periods as busier than 99% of all other 30 minute time periods and low volume periods as slower than 70% of all other 30 minute periods. Case and communication characteristics of high volume and low volume calls were compared using logistic regression. A total of 65,364 incoming calls occurred over 12 months. One hundred high call volume and 4885 low call volume 30 minute periods were identified. High volume periods were more common between 1500 and 2300 hours and during the winter months. Coded verbal communication data were evaluated for 42 high volume and 296 low volume calls. The mean (standard deviation) call length of these calls during high volume and low volume periods was 3 minutes 27 seconds (1 minute 46 seconds) and 3 minutes 57 seconds (2 minutes 11 seconds), respectively. Regression analyses revealed a trend for fewer overall verbal statements and fewer staff questions during peak periods, but no other significant differences for staff-caller communication behaviors were found. Peak activity for poison center call volume can be identified by statistical modeling. Calls during high volume periods were similar to low volume calls. Communication was more concise yet staff was able to maintain a good rapport with callers during busy call periods

  12. Isoflurane Impairs Low-Frequency Feedback but Leaves High-Frequency Feedforward Connectivity Intact in the Fly Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dror; van Swinderen, Bruno; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchically organized brains communicate through feedforward (FF) and feedback (FB) pathways. In mammals, FF and FB are mediated by higher and lower frequencies during wakefulness. FB is preferentially impaired by general anesthetics in multiple mammalian species. This suggests FB serves critical functions in waking brains. The brain of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is also hierarchically organized, but the presence of FB in these brains is not established. Here, we studied FB in the fly brain, by simultaneously recording local field potentials (LFPs) from low-order peripheral structures and higher-order central structures. We analyzed the data using Granger causality (GC), the first application of this analysis technique to recordings from the insect brain. Our analysis revealed that low frequencies (0.1-5 Hz) mediated FB from the center to the periphery, while higher frequencies (10-45 Hz) mediated FF in the opposite direction. Further, isoflurane anesthesia preferentially reduced FB. Our results imply that the spectral characteristics of FF and FB may be a signature of hierarchically organized brains that is conserved from insects to mammals. We speculate that general anesthetics may induce unresponsiveness across species by targeting the mechanisms that support FB.

  13. Current Methods to Detoxify Fly Ash from Waste Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, Christine; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Fly ash from waste incineration contains large amounts of heavy metals and dioxins, which will cause a significant disposal problem within the coming years. The amount of fly ash produced in Sweden is currently approximately 60,000 tons/y. New technological options for the decontamination and/or inertization of incinerator fly ash are being developed with the objective of rendering a product that can be reused or, at least, be deposited at standard landfill sites with no risk. Many of these technologies have been tested at industrial scale or in pilot projects. The proposed alternatives include: Thermal treatments; Immobilization/stabilization by cement based techniques; Wet chemical treatments (extractions, immobilizations); Microbiological treatments. Of these, thermal treatments are the most promising solution. Depending on the temperature thermal treatments are classified in two main types: 1) low temperature (below 600 deg C) thermal treatments and 2) high temperature (above 1200 deg C) thermal treatments (vitrification). Most dioxins can be successfully destroyed at temperatures up to 400 deg C under oxygen deficient conditions and at temperatures up to 600 deg C under oxidising conditions. However most heavy metals remain in the fly ash after low temperature treatment. At a temperature of 900 deg C most heavy metals can also be removed in a 10% HCl atmosphere by forming volatile metal chlorides (CT-Fluapur process). During vitrification processes the fly ash melts and forms an inert glassy slag. The product does not leach any significant amount of heavy metals and is free from dioxin. The volume of the fly ash is significantly reduced. The product can be land filled at low costs or used as construction material. The properties of the product depend on the cooling process and on additives such as sand, limestone or waste glass. A series of vitrification methods at industrial size or in pilot scale using different furnaces are studied. Among these, plasma

  14. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography with High-Contrast Dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) system has been designed to complement the tools created to sense the presence of water in nonconductive spacecraft materials, by helping to not only find the approximate location of moisture but also its quantity and depth. The ECVT system has been created for use with a new image reconstruction algorithm capable of imaging high-contrast dielectric distributions. Rather than relying solely on mutual capacitance readings as is done in traditional electrical capacitance tomography applications, this method reconstructs high-resolution images using only the self-capacitance measurements. The image reconstruction method assumes that the material under inspection consists of a binary dielectric distribution, with either a high relative dielectric value representing the water or a low dielectric value for the background material. By constraining the unknown dielectric material to one of two values, the inverse math problem that must be solved to generate the image is no longer ill-determined. The image resolution becomes limited only by the accuracy and resolution of the measurement circuitry. Images were reconstructed using this method with both synthetic and real data acquired using an aluminum structure inserted at different positions within the sensing region. The cuboid geometry of the system has two parallel planes of 16 conductors arranged in a 4 4 pattern. The electrode geometry consists of parallel planes of copper conductors, connected through custom-built switch electronics, to a commercially available capacitance to digital converter. The figure shows two 4 4 arrays of electrodes milled from square sections of copper-clad circuit-board material and mounted on two pieces of glass-filled plastic backing, which were cut to approximately square shapes, 10 cm on a side. Each electrode is placed on 2.0-cm centers. The parallel arrays were mounted with the electrode arrays approximately 3 cm apart. The open ends

  15. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  16. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    mechanical action. It is known, that performance of fly ash in concrete improves with its increased fineness. Intensive milling of fly ash leads to the increasing fly ash fineness and to the enhancement of its hydration activity. The cement-fly ash composites with 25 wt.% of activated fly ash as cement replacement have exhibited a higher 28-day compressive strength in comparison with a reference concrete sample without fly ash. An unfavorable effect in milling process is the agglomeration of fine particles of fly ash. By high-energy milling of fly ash with addition of surfactants, the ultrafine products can be prepared. Concrete samples containing such fly ash have achieved higher compressive strengths than the reference sample without fly ash or with addition of non-milled fly ash. The considerable physical effect of ultrafine fly ash consists in superior filling of spaces between coarser cement particles and in the favorable influence of hardness of the mixtures at setting.The current research activities in mechanochemistry are oriented to the mechanical activation of poly-component systems. The knowledge in this field indicate that by high-energy milling of fly ash as a poly-component system and following heating of prepared metastable precursors, the cement minerals could be prepared.

  17. High-Volume Production of Lightweight Multijunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youtsey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    MicroLink Devices, Inc., has transitioned its 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable of sustaining large-volume production. This Phase II project improves the ELO process by reducing cycle time and increasing the yield of large-area devices. In addition, all critical device fabrication processes have transitioned to 6-inch production tool sets designed for volume production. An emphasis on automated cassette-to-cassette and batch processes minimizes operator dependence and cell performance variability. MicroLink Devices established a pilot production line capable of at least 1,500 6-inch wafers per month at greater than 80 percent yield. The company also increased the yield and manufacturability of the 6-inch reclaim process, which is crucial to reducing the cost of the cells.

  18. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibility...... to break through a common way of depicting the world, trying to find different surfaces and using strange apparatus to insist in the interstice of visibility. The Fly Printer is a printing apparatus in a form of a closed environment that contains a flock of fruit flies. The flies eat special food...... that is prepared for them that is mixed with laser jet printer inks. The flies digest the food and gradually print different color dots onto the paper that is placed under the fly habitat. In the Fly Printer biological organisms are used for replacing a standard part of our common printer technology. The work...

  19. Can E. coli fly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin

    2018-01-01

    , and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of E. coli and genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella strains. RESULTS: Rice was at greater risk (p ... with E. coli if flies landed on the rice than if no flies landed on the rice (odds ratio 5·4 (p ...-landings, the average CFU per fly-landing was > 0·6 x 103 CFU. Genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified; the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). CONCLUSION: Flies may...

  20. Electrodialytic upgrading of municipal waste incineration fly ash for reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    As incineration becomes a more widespread means of waste treatment, volumes of incineration residues increase and new means of handling become a demand. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash is hazardous material, which is presently disposed off as such; primarily due to its high......]. In order to optimize the process and reach the lowest possible leachability of target constituents (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cl, Na and SO4) at minimum time and energy consumption, the present work gives results of 10 pilot scale (8 kg MSWI fly ash each) electrodialysis experiments at different...... to investigate the leachability of salts and toxic elements as a function of treatment time and current density. Results show that a delicate balance between pH and treatment-time exist and that continuous monitoring of pH and conductivity may be used for controlling of the process at an industrial scale...

  1. The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

  2. Volume measurement variability in three-dimensional high-frequency ultrasound images of murine liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtzfeld, L A; Graham, K C; Groom, A C; MacDonald, I C; Chambers, A F; Fenster, A; Lacefield, J C

    2006-01-01

    The identification and quantification of tumour volume measurement variability is imperative for proper study design of longitudinal non-invasive imaging of pre-clinical mouse models of cancer. Measurement variability will dictate the minimum detectable volume change, which in turn influences the scheduling of imaging sessions and the interpretation of observed changes in tumour volume. In this paper, variability is quantified for tumour volume measurements from 3D high-frequency ultrasound images of murine liver metastases. Experimental B16F1 liver metastases were analysed in different size ranges including less than 1 mm 3 , 1-4 mm 3 , 4-8 mm 3 and 8-70 mm 3 . The intra- and inter-observer repeatability was high over a large range of tumour volumes, but the coefficients of variation (COV) varied over the volume ranges. The minimum and maximum intra-observer COV were 4% and 14% for the 1-4 mm 3 and 3 tumours, respectively. For tumour volumes measured by segmenting parallel planes, the maximum inter-slice distance that maintained acceptable measurement variability increased from 100 to 600 μm as tumour volume increased. Comparison of free breathing versus ventilated animals demonstrated that respiratory motion did not significantly change the measured volume. These results enable design of more efficient imaging studies by using the measured variability to estimate the time required to observe a significant change in tumour volume

  3. Preferential effects of low volume versus high volume replacement with crystalloid fluid in a hemorrhagic shock model in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponschab, Martin; Schöchl, Herbert; Keibl, Claudia; Fischer, Henrik; Redl, Heinz; Schlimp, Christoph J

    2015-10-06

    Fluid resuscitation is a core stone of hemorrhagic shock therapy, and crystalloid fluids seem to be associated with lower mortality compared to colloids. However, as redistribution starts within minutes, it has been suggested to replace blood loss with a minimum of a three-fold amount of crystalloids. The hypothesis was that in comparison to high volume (HV), a lower crystalloid volume (LV) achieves a favorable coagulation profile and exerts sufficient haemodynamics in the acute phase of resuscitation. In 24 anaesthetized pigs, controlled arterial blood loss of 50 % of the estimated blood volume was either (n = 12) replaced with a LV (one-fold) or a HV (three-fold) volume of a balanced, acetated crystalloid solution at room temperature. Hemodynamic parameters, dilution effects and coagulation profile by standard coagulation tests and thromboelastometry at baseline and after resuscitation were determined in both groups. LV resuscitation increased MAP significantly less compared to the HV, 61 ± 7 vs. 82 ± 14 mmHg (p controlled blood loss, a one fold LV crystalloid replacement strategy is sufficient to adequately raise blood pressure up to a mean arterial pressure >50 mm Hg. The concept of damage control resuscitation (DCR) with permissive hypotension may be better met by using LV as compared to a three fold HV resuscitation strategy. High volume administration of an acetated balanced crystalloid does not lead to hyperchloraemic acidosis, but may negatively influence clinical parameters, such as higher blood pressure, lower body temperature and impaired coagulation parameters, which could potentially increase bleeding after trauma. Replacement of acute blood loss with just an equal amount of an acetated balanced crystalloid appears to be the preferential treatment strategy in the acute phase after controlled bleeding.

  4. Trading volume and the number of trades : a comparative study using high frequency data

    OpenAIRE

    Izzeldin, Marwan

    2007-01-01

    Trading volume and the number of trades are both used as proxies for market activity, with disagreement as to which is the better proxy for market activity. This paper investigates this issue using high frequency data for Cisco and Intel in 1997. A number of econometric methods are used, including GARCH augmented with lagged trading volume and number of trades, tests based on moment restrictions, regression analysis of volatility on volume and trades, normality of returns when standardized by...

  5. Fly ash aggregates. Vliegaskunstgrind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A study has been carried out into artificial aggregates made from fly ash, 'fly ash aggregates'. Attention has been drawn to the production of fly ash aggregates in the Netherlands as a way to obviate the need of disposal of fly ash. Typical process steps for the manufacturing of fly ash aggregates are the agglomeration and the bonding of fly ash particles. Agglomeration techniques are subdivided into agitation and compaction, bonding methods into sintering, hydrothermal and 'cold' bonding. In sintering no bonding agent is used. The fly ash particles are more or less welded together. Sintering in general is performed at a temperature higher than 900 deg C. In hydrothermal processes lime reacts with fly ash to a crystalline hydrate at temperatures between 100 and 250 deg C at saturated steam pressure. As a lime source not only lime as such, but also portland cement can be used. Cold bonding processes rely on reaction of fly ash with lime or cement at temperatures between 0 and 100 deg C. The pozzolanic properties of fly ash are used. Where cement is applied, this bonding agent itself contributes also to the strength development of the artificial aggregate. Besides the use of lime and cement, several processes are known which make use of lime containing wastes such as spray dry absorption desulfurization residues or fluid bed coal combustion residues. (In Dutch)

  6. Going the Extra Mile: Improved Survival for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Traveling to High-volume Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidsky, Michael E; Sun, Zhifei; Nussbaum, Daniel P; Adam, Mohamed A; Speicher, Paul J; Blazer, Dan G

    2017-08-01

    This study compares outcomes following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for patients treated at local, low-volume centers and those traveling to high-volume centers. Although outcomes for PD are superior at high-volume institutions, not all patients live in proximity to major medical centers. Theoretical advantages for undergoing surgery locally exist. The 1998 to 2012 National Cancer Data Base was queried for T1-3N0-1M0 pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent PD. Travel distances to treatment centers were calculated. Overlaying the upper and lower quartiles of travel distance with institutional volume established short travel/low-volume (ST/LV) and long travel/high-volume (LT/HV) cohorts. Overall survival was evaluated. Of 7086 patients, 773 ST/LV patients traveled ≤6.3 (median 3.2) miles to centers performing ≤3.3 PDs yearly, and 758 LT/HV patients traveled ≥45 (median 97.3) miles to centers performing ≥16 PDs yearly. LT/HV patients had higher stage disease (P travel to a high-volume center remained associated with reduced long-term mortality (hazard ratio 0.75, P travel burden, patients treated at high-volume centers had improved perioperative outcomes, short-term mortality, and overall survival. These data support ongoing efforts to centralize care for patients undergoing PD.

  7. Volume Bragg grating narrowed high-power and highly efficient cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yao, Weichao; Zhao, Chujun; Shen, Deyuan; Fan, Dianyuan

    2014-12-10

    High-power and highly efficient operation of a single-mode cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser with narrow lasing bandwidth is demonstrated. The spectral narrowing was realized by an external cavity containing a volume Bragg grating with a center wavelength of 1658 nm. A maximum output power of 10.4 W at 1658.3 nm with a spectral linewidth (FWHM) of ∼0.1  nm was obtained for the launched pump power of 18.4 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 109% with respect to the launched pump power. Lasing characteristics of free-running operation are also evaluated and discussed.

  8. APPHi: Automated Photometry Pipeline for High Cadence Large Volume Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, E.; Castro, J.; Silva, J.; Hernández, J.; Reyes, M.; Hernández, B.; Alvarez, F.; García T.

    2018-04-01

    APPHi (Automated Photometry Pipeline) carries out aperture and differential photometry of TAOS-II project data. It is computationally efficient and can be used also with other astronomical wide-field image data. APPHi works with large volumes of data and handles both FITS and HDF5 formats. Due the large number of stars that the software has to handle in an enormous number of frames, it is optimized to automatically find the best value for parameters to carry out the photometry, such as mask size for aperture, size of window for extraction of a single star, and the number of counts for the threshold for detecting a faint star. Although intended to work with TAOS-II data, APPHi can analyze any set of astronomical images and is a robust and versatile tool to performing stellar aperture and differential photometry.

  9. High calcium fly ash geopolymer stabilized lateritic soil and granulated blast furnace slag blends as a pavement base material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phummiphan, Itthikorn; Horpibulsuk, Suksun; Rachan, Runglawan; Arulrajah, Arul; Shen, Shui-Long; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2018-01-05

    Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) was used as a replacement material in marginal lateritic soil (LS) while class C Fly Ash (FA) was used as a precursor for the geopolymerization process to develop a low-carbon pavement base material at ambient temperature. Unconfined Compression Strength (UCS) tests were performed to investigate the strength development of geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends. Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis were undertaken to examine the role of the various influencing factors on UCS development. The influencing factors studied included GBFS content, Na 2 SiO 3 :NaOH ratio (NS:NH) and curing time. The 7-day soaked UCS of FA geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends at various NS:NH ratios tested was found to satisfy the specifications of the Thailand national road authorities. The GBFS replacement was found to be insignificant for the improvement of the UCS of FA geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends at low NS:NH ratio of 50:50. Microstructural analysis indicated the coexistence of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (CSH) and Sodium Alumino Silicate Hydrate products in FA geopolymer stabilized LS/GBFS blends. This research enables GBFS, which is traditionally considered as a waste material, to be used as a replacement and partially reactive material in FA geopolymer pavement applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Flying Fast and High: Operational Flight Planning for Maximum Data Return for Airborne Snow Observatory Mountain Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisford, D. F.; Painter, T. H.; Richardson, M.; Wallach, A.; Deems, J. S.; Bormann, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO - http://aso.jpl.nasa.gov) uses an airborne laser scanner to map snow depth, and imaging spectroscopy to map snow albedo in order to estimate snow water equivalent and melt rate over mountainous, hydrologic basin-scale areas. Optimization of planned flight lines requires the balancing of many competing factors, including flying altitude and speed, bank angle limitation, laser pulse rate and power level, flightline orientation relative to terrain, surface optical properties, and data output requirements. These variables generally distill down to cost vs. higher resolution data. The large terrain elevation variation encountered in mountainous terrain introduces the challenge of narrow swath widths over the ridgetops, which drive tight flightline spacing and possible dropouts over the valleys due to maximum laser range. Many of the basins flown by ASO exceed 3,000m of elevation relief, exacerbating this problem. Additionally, sun angle may drive flightline orientations for higher-quality spectrometer data, which may change depending on time of day. Here we present data from several ASO missions, both operational and experimental, showing the lidar performance and accuracy limitations for a variety of operating parameters. We also discuss flightline planning strategies to maximize data density return per dollar, and a brief analysis on the effect of short turn times/steep bank angles on GPS position accuracy.

  11. Disposal of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Foley, C.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical arguments and pilot plant results have shown that the transport of fly-furnace ash from the power station to the disposal area as a high concentration slurry is technically viable and economically attractive. Further, lack of free water, when transported as a high concentration slurry, offers significant advantages in environmental management and rehabilitation of the disposal site. This paper gives a basis for the above observations and discusses the plans to exploit the above advantages at the Stanwell Power Station. (4 x 350 MWe). This will be operated by the Queensland Electricity Commission. The first unit is to come into operation in 1992 and other units are to follow progressively on a yearly basis

  12. Case mix-adjusted cost of colectomy at low-, middle-, and high-volume academic centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex L; Kim, Young; Ertel, Audrey E; Hoehn, Richard S; Wima, Koffi; Abbott, Daniel E; Shah, Shimul A

    2017-05-01

    Efforts to regionalize surgery based on thresholds in procedure volume may have consequences on the cost of health care delivery. This study aims to delineate the relationship between hospital volume, case mix, and variability in the cost of operative intervention using colectomy as the model. All patients undergoing colectomy (n = 90,583) at 183 academic hospitals from 2009-2012 in The University HealthSystems Consortium Database were studied. Patient and procedure details were used to generate a case mix-adjusted predictive model of total direct costs. Observed to expected costs for each center were evaluated between centers based on overall procedure volume. Patient and procedure characteristics were significantly different between volume tertiles. Observed costs at high-volume centers were less than at middle- and low-volume centers. According to our predictive model, high-volume centers cared for a less expensive case mix than middle- and low-volume centers ($12,786 vs $13,236 and $14,497, P case mix at low-volume centers, which may lead to perceived poor performance at these centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Flying Qualities (Qualites de Vol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    CIIANAIT DUMINIIG MA𔃼I1 FXCURSIOH /~o --- ~A 0- /10 CMFIGURE 4 AL-PHA-JETr ELEVATOR CONTROL CINEMATIC ; LP HEINi" KINEMATIC HORIZONTAL STABILIZER...ih-flight simulation is the ultimale assessment techntque providing high realism , flexibility, and credibility. rhe utilization (,f an in-fli:,ht si...1london, UK ()PERATIONAL H-ELICOPTER IIN - FLIGHT SIMULATOR (HIGH REALISM ) I(HIGH FLEAiBILITY Fligt t A tehrtqueTechnology implementation Flight t

  14. HIGH-TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION OF RDF WASTE AND MELTING OF FLY ASH OBTAINED FROM THE INCINERATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Lázár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this paper is to describe innovative solutions of thermal processing of selected components of municipal waste (so-called RDF waste using low-ionized depended plasma arc generated by a progressive and promising technology, which is plasma reactor. Its application can transform hazardous waste into inert waste while significantly reducing the volume of waste. Results given in this paper indicate experimentally achieved outputs with thermal disposal of RDF waste and ash from municipal waste. 

  15. Improved Short-Term Outcomes following Orthognathic Surgery Are Associated with High-Volume Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Nicholas L; Tuggle, Charles T; Steinbacher, Derek M

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies assessing outcomes following orthognathic surgery rely primarily on single-center/surgeon experience. In addition to issues of generalizability, these studies are limited in evaluating the effect of operative volume on patient outcomes. Orthognathic procedures were identified in the 1999 to 2011 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Outcomes included occurrence of any in-hospital complication, extended length of stay (>2 days), and increased costs (>$10,784). High-volume hospitals were defined as the 90th percentile of case volume or higher (>31 cases/year). Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify independent predictors of outcomes. Trend analyses were performed to assess changes in the annual rate of patients treated at high-volume hospitals over the study period. Among 101,692 orthognathic surgery patients, 19.6 percent underwent concurrent ancillary procedures (i.e., genioplasty, rhinoplasty, or septoplasty), and 37.6 percent underwent double-jaw surgery. Fifty-three percent were treated at high-volume hospitals. High-volume hospitals more often performed ancillary procedures (21.4 percent versus 17.4 percent; p surgery (41.3 percent versus 33.4 percent; p orthognathic cases nationwide are performed at a small number of high-volume hospitals. These hospitals discharge patients earlier, perform more complex procedures, and have fewer complications. Risk, III.

  16. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisenkov, V.S.; Kiyko, V.V.; Vdovin, G.V.

    2015-01-01

    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface

  17. The flying radiation case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum

  18. Proceedings of the 1984 workshop on high-energy excitations in condensed matter. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, R.N.

    1984-12-01

    This volume covers electronic excitations, momentum distributions, high energy photons, and a wrap-up session. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base

  19. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 3: general topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of these seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. The 15 th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgy High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (boteke)

  20. Functionality and Performance Visualization of the Distributed High Quality Volume Renderer (HVR)

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2012-07-01

    Volume rendering systems are designed to provide means to enable scientists and a variety of experts to interactively explore volume data through 3D views of the volume. However, volume rendering techniques are computationally intensive tasks. Moreover, parallel distributed volume rendering systems and multi-threading architectures were suggested as natural solutions to provide an acceptable volume rendering performance for very large volume data sizes, such as Electron Microscopy data (EM). This in turn adds another level of complexity when developing and manipulating volume rendering systems. Given that distributed parallel volume rendering systems are among the most complex systems to develop, trace and debug, it is obvious that traditional debugging tools do not provide enough support. As a consequence, there is a great demand to provide tools that are able to facilitate the manipulation of such systems. This can be achieved by utilizing the power of compute graphics in designing visual representations that reflect how the system works and that visualize the current performance state of the system.The work presented is categorized within the field of software Visualization, where Visualization is used to serve visualizing and understanding various software. In this thesis, a number of visual representations that reflect a number of functionality and performance aspects of the distributed HVR, a high quality volume renderer system that uses various techniques to visualize large volume sizes interactively. This work is provided to visualize different stages of the parallel volume rendering pipeline of HVR. This is along with means of performance analysis through a number of flexible and dynamic visualizations that reflect the current state of the system and enables manipulation of them at runtime. Those visualization are aimed to facilitate debugging, understanding and analyzing the distributed HVR.

  1. Effect of high-volume systematic local infiltration analgesia in Caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Richter; Kristensen, B B; Rasmussen, M A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain after Caesarean section is often treated with opioids with a risk of side effects. Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics is effective and has few side effects, but volume vs. dose concentration has not been examined. METHODS: Ninety patients scheduled for elective Caesarean...... found concerning time spent in the PACU, to first mobilisation or in number of women with nausea/vomiting (P ≥ 0.05). No complications related to ropivacaine were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic infiltration with a high concentration, low volume compared with low concentration, high volume showed...

  2. Development of alkali activated cements and concrete mixture design with high volumes of red mud

    OpenAIRE

    Krivenko, Pavel; Kovalchuk, Oleksandr; Pasko, Anton; Croymans, Tom; Hutt, Mikael; Lutter, Guillaume; Vandevenne, Niels; Schreurs, Sonja; Schroeyers, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Dedicated cement compositions were formulated to enable the incorporation of large volume fractions of red mud in alkali activated cements, taking into account the role of the aluminosilicate phase in the processes of hydration and hardening. High volume red mud alkali activated cements were synthesized using a proper combination of red mud, low basic aluminosilicate compounds with a glass phase (blast-furnace slag) and additives selected from high-basic Ca-containing cements with a crystalli...

  3. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunnane, J.C.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste

  4. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.

  5. Corrosion of 316 stainless steel in high temperature molten Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (FLiBe) salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Guiqiu, E-mail: guiqiuzheng@gmail.com; Kelleher, Brian; Cao, Guoping; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd; Sridharan, Kumar

    2015-06-15

    In support of structural material development for the fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR), corrosion tests of 316 stainless steel were performed in the potential primary coolant, molten Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (FLiBe) at 700 °C for an exposure duration up to 3000 h. Tests were performed in both 316 stainless steel and graphite capsules. Corrosion in both capsule materials occurred by the dissolution of chromium from the stainless steel into the salt which led to the depletion of chromium predominantly along the grain boundaries of the test samples. The samples tested in graphite capsules showed a factor of two greater depth of corrosion attack as measured in terms of chromium depletion, compared to those tested in 316 stainless steel capsules. The samples tested in graphite capsules showed the formation of Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} particulate phases throughout the depth of the corrosion layer. Samples tested in both types of capsule materials showed the formation of MoSi{sub 2} phase due to increased activity of Mo and Si as a result of Cr depletion, and furthermore corrosion promoted the formation of a α-ferrite phase in the near-surface regions of the 316 stainless steel. Based on the corrosion tests, the corrosion attack depth in FLiBe salt was predicted as 17.1 μm/year and 31.2 μm/year for 316 stainless steel tested in 316 stainless steel and in graphite capsules respectively. It is in an acceptable range compared to the Hastelloy-N corrosion in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel salt.

  6. I-PFO: the new technology for simple and flexible implementation of high productive on-the-fly remote processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllegger, Andreas; Ryba, Tracey

    2017-02-01

    Standardized production systems which can be implemented, programmed, maintained and sourced in a simple and efficient way are key for a successful global production of automobiles or related parts at component suppliers. This is also valid for systems, which are built by laser based processes. One of the key applications is remote laser welding (RLW) of "Body in White" (BIW) parts (such as hang-on parts, B-Pillars, side frames, etc.), but also builtin components (such as car seats, batteries, etc.). The majority of RLW applications are based on the implementation of a 3-D scanner optic (e.g. the PFO 3D from TRUMPF) which positions the laser beam on the various component surfaces to be welded. Over the past 10 years it has been proven that the most efficient way to build up the RLW process is to have a system where an industrial robot and a scanner optic are combined in one production cell. They usually cooperate within an "On-The-Fly" (OTF) process as this ensures minimum cycle times. Until now there are several technologies on the market which can coordinate both the robot and scanner in the OTF mode. But none of them meet all requirements of global standardized production solutions. With the introduction of the I-PFO (Intelligent Programmable Focusing Optics) technology the situation has changed. It is now possible to program or adopt complex remote processes in a fast and easy way by the "Teach-in" function via the robot teach pendant. Additionally a 3D offline designer software is an option for this system. It automatically creates the ideal remote process based on the part, fixture, production cell and required process parameters. The I-PFO technology doesn't need additional hardware due to the fact that it runs on the controller within the PFO 3D. Furthermore it works together with different types of industrial robots (e.g. ABB, Fanuc and KUKA) which allow highest flexibility for the production planning phase. Finally a single TRUMPF laser source can supply

  7. Why choose high volume online post-dilution hemodiafiltration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basile, Carlo; Davenport, Andrew; Blankestijn, Peter J.

    The mortality rate of patients on maintenance dialysis remains alarmingly high, at approximately 15–20 % per year. Increasing dialyzer urea clearance has not been shown to improve survival and hence interest has shifted towards convective therapies, such as hemodiafiltration (HDF) which can remove

  8. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for High Volume Composite Part Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lokitz, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Springfield, Robert M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    ORNL worked with TruDesign, LLC to develop viable coating solutions to enable the use of large scale 3D printing for both low-temperature and high-temperature composite molds. This project resulted in two commercial products and successfully demonstrated the use of printed molds for autoclave processing for the first time.

  9. Delayed High School Starting Times. Information Capsule. Volume 0908

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    Educators around the nation are considering pushing high school starting times back until later in the morning, based on evidence suggesting that amount of sleep and circadian rhythms play a part in adolescents' academic performance. While research confirms that adolescents do not get enough sleep and that insufficient sleep can negatively…

  10. Performance enhancement of direct ethanol fuel cell using Nafion composites with high volume fraction of titania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, B. R.; Isidoro, R. A.; Santiago, E. I.; Fonseca, F. C.

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports on the performance enhancement of direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) at 130 °C with Nafion-titania composite electrolytes prepared by sol-gel technique and containing high volume fractions of the ceramic phase. It is found that for high volume fractions of titania (>10 vol%) the ethanol uptake of composites is largely reduced while the proton conductivity at high-temperatures is weakly dependent on the titania content. Such tradeoff between alcohol uptake and conductivity resulted in a boost of DEFC performance at high temperatures using Nafion-titania composites with high fraction of the inorganic phase.

  11. The onion fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loosjes, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the origin, practical application, problems in application and prospects of control of the onion fly, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in the Netherlands by the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The larva of the onion fly is a severe pest in onions in temperate regions. Development of resistance of the onion fly against insecticides caused research on the SIT to be started by the Dutch Government in 1965. This research was on mass-rearing, long-term storage of pupae, sterilization, and release and ratio assessment techniques. By 1979 sufficient information had been turned over to any interested private company. In the case of the onion fly the SIT can be applied like a control treatment instead of chemical control to individual onion fields. This is due to the limited dispersal activity of the flies and the scattered distribution of onion fields in the Netherlands, with 5-10% of the onion growing areas planted with onions

  12. MBE growth of VCSELs for high volume applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Roland; Riedl, Michael C.

    2011-05-01

    Mass market applications like laser computer mouse or optical data transmission based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) chips need a high over all yield including epitaxy, processing, dicing, mounting and testing. One yield limitation for VCSEL structures is the emission wavelength variation of the substrate surface area leading to the fraction on laser chips which are below or above the specification limits. For most 850 nm VCSEL products a resonator wavelength variation of ±2 nm is common. This represents an average resonator thickness variation of much less than 1% which is quite challenging to be fulfilled on the entire processed wafer surface area. A high over all yield is demonstrated on MBE grown VCSEL structures.

  13. High Power Microwave Tubes: Basics and Trends, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Vishal; Basu, B. N.

    2018-01-01

    Our aim in this book is to present a bird's-eye view of microwave tubes (MWTs) which continue to be important despite competitive incursions from solid-state devices (SSDs). We have presented a broad and introductory survey which we hope the readers would be encouraged to read rather than going through lengthier books, and subsequently explore the field of MWTs further in selected areas of relevance to their respective interests. We hope that the present book would motivate newcomers to pursue research in MWTs and apprise them as well as decision makers of the salient features and prospects of as well as the trends of progress in MWTs. The scope of ever expanding applications of MWTs in the high power and high frequency regime will sustain and intensify the research and development in MWTs in coming years.

  14. Volume generation of negative ions in high density hydrogen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    A parametric survey is made of a high-density tandem two-chamber hydrogen negative ion system. The optimum extracted negative ion current densities are sensitive to the atom concentration in the discharge and to the system scale length. For scale lengths ranging from 10 cm to 0.1 cm optimum current densities range from of order 1 to 100 mA cm -2 , respectively

  15. High volume fabrication of laser targets using MEMS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindloe, C; Tomlinson, S; Green, J; Booth, N.; Tolley, M K; Arthur, G; Hall, F; Potter, R; Kar, S; Higginbotham, A

    2016-01-01

    The latest techniques for the fabrication of high power laser targets, using processes developed for the manufacture of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) devices are discussed. These laser targets are designed to meet the needs of the increased shot numbers that are available in the latest design of laser facilities. Traditionally laser targets have been fabricated using conventional machining or coarse etching processes and have been produced in quantities of 10s to low 100s. Such targets can be used for high complexity experiments such as Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) studies and can have many complex components that need assembling and characterisation with high precision. Using the techniques that are common to MEMS devices and integrating these with an existing target fabrication capability we are able to manufacture and deliver targets to these systems. It also enables us to manufacture novel targets that have not been possible using other techniques. In addition, developments in the positioning systems that are required to deliver these targets to the laser focus are also required and a system to deliver the target to a focus of an F2 beam at 0.1Hz is discussed. (paper)

  16. High volume improves outcomes: The argument for centralization of rectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquina, Christopher T; Probst, Christian P; Becerra, Adan Z; Iannuzzi, James C; Kelly, Kristin N; Hensley, Bradley J; Rickles, Aaron S; Noyes, Katia; Fleming, Fergal J; Monson, John R T

    2016-03-01

    Centralization of care to "centers of excellence" in Europe has led to improved oncologic outcomes; however, little is known regarding the impact of nonmandated regionalization of rectal cancer care in the United States. The Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) was queried for elective abdominoperineal and low anterior resections for rectal cancer from 2000 to 2011 in New York with the use of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. Surgeon volume and hospital volume were grouped into quartiles, and high-volume surgeons (≥ 10 resections/year) and hospitals (≥ 25 resections/year) were defined as the top quartile of annual caseload of rectal cancer resection and compared with the bottom 3 quartiles during analyses. Bivariate and multilevel regression analyses were performed to assess factors associated with restorative procedures, 30-day mortality, and temporal trends in these endpoints. Among 7,798 rectal cancer resections, the overall rate of no-restorative proctectomy and 30-day mortality decreased by 7.7% and 1.2%, respectively, from 2000 to 2011. In addition, there was a linear increase in the proportion of cases performed by both high-volume surgeons and high-volume hospitals and a decrease in the number of surgeons and hospitals performing rectal cancer surgery. High-volume surgeons at high-volume hospitals were associated independently with both less nonrestorative proctectomies (odds ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.48-0.89) and mortality (odds ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.21-0.87) rates. No patterns of significant improvement within the volume strata of the surgeon and hospitals were observed over time. This study suggests that the current trend toward regionalization of rectal cancer care to high-volume surgeons and high-volume centers has led to improved outcomes. These findings have implications regarding the policy of health care delivery in the United States, supporting referral to high-volume

  17. Volume measurement of thalami in normal Chinese Han nationality adults by the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shuai; Chen Nan; Guo Yulin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To measure the volume of thalamus in 1000 healthy Chinese Han nationality adults, and to analyze the relationship between thalamic volume and age, sex, weight and cerebral volume, to provide reliable data for the construction of database of Chinese adults' digital standard brain. Methods: Totally 1000 healthy Chinese adults of Han nationality aged from 18 to 80 years were recruited.They were divided into 5 groups by age: 18-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60 and 61-80 years. Each group included 100 males and 100 females. Brain images were obtained on a 1.5 T MR, and the outline of thalami was drawn with Aquariusws software. Then the thalamic volume was calculated automatically. The volumes of left and right thalamus were compared by paired sample t-test. Thalamic volumes of the same side were compared between males and females by independent sample t-test. And thalamic volumes of different age groups were compared by one-way ANOVA. The relationships between thalamic volume and age, sex, weight and cerebral volume were analyzed respectively. Results: The males' standardized volumes of left and right thalamus of healthy Chinese Han nationality adults were (5776 ± 780), (5655 ± 759) mm 3 , and they were (5464 ±573), (5360 ± 542) mm 3 for female. The males' thalamic volume was more than the females' on the same side (t=2.245, 2.200, P<0.01). The left thalamic volumes of various age groups were (6180 ± 534), (6047 ± 562), (5426 ± 471), (5552 ± 526), (4866 ± 552) mm 3 , respectively, while the right thalamic volumes of the 5 groups were (6069 ± 532), (5895 ± 539), (5357 ± 480), (5396 ± 445),(4791 ± 558)mm 3 , respectively. There were statistically significant difference among the 5 groups (F=165.686, 165.235, P<0.01). The left and right thalamic volume were all negatively correlated with age (r=-0.633, -0.645, P<0.05). Conclusions: With high resolution 1.5 T MR scanner,grey matter and white matter can be depicted clearly and the outline

  18. High-volume manufacturing device overlay process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Honggoo; Han, Sangjun; Woo, Jaeson; Lee, DongYoung; Song, ChangRock; Heo, Hoyoung; Brinster, Irina; Choi, DongSub; Robinson, John C.

    2017-03-01

    Overlay control based on DI metrology of optical targets has been the primary basis for run-to-run process control for many years. In previous work we described a scenario where optical overlay metrology is performed on metrology targets on a high frequency basis including every lot (or most lots) at DI. SEM based FI metrology is performed ondevice in-die as-etched on an infrequent basis. Hybrid control schemes of this type have been in use for many process nodes. What is new is the relative size of the NZO as compared to the overlay spec, and the need to find more comprehensive solutions to characterize and control the size and variability of NZO at the 1x nm node: sampling, modeling, temporal frequency and control aspects, as well as trade-offs between SEM throughput and accuracy.

  19. Long-Term and Seismic Performance of Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns with Conventional and High-Volume SCM Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Production of Portland Cement for concrete is a major source of CO2 emission. Concrete can be made more sustainable by replacing a large volume of the cement with Supplementary Cementitous Materials (SCMs) such as fly ash and slag. The amount of ceme...

  20. The High-Potential Fast-Flying Achiever: Themes from the English Language Literature 1976-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Yochanan

    1997-01-01

    Review of business management literature from the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada identified the following: the images of high flyer, fast track, and high achiever; the meaning of success; emphasis on performance; corporate rites of passage; and opportunities for women to be high flyers. (SK)

  1. Moderator's view: High-volume plasma exchange: pro, con and consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Andre A

    2017-09-01

    I have been asked to comment on the pro and con opinions regarding high-volume plasma exchange. The authors of both positions have provided cogent arguments and a reasonable approach to choosing the exchange volume for any given therapeutic plasma exchange. The major issue of relevance in this discussion is the nature of the toxins targeted for removal. These parameters include molecular weight, the apparent volume of distribution, the degree of protein binding, the biologic and chemical half-life, and the severity and rapidity of its toxicity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  2. Do high-volume hospitals and surgeons provide better care in urologic oncology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, James A

    2009-01-01

    Studies focusing primarily on hospital or surgical volume as a surrogate for surgical experience have found substantial variations in outcomes. Increasing surgical experience has been shown to improve outcomes after multiple procedures, including esophagectomy, pancreatectomy, and primary surgery for colon and breast cancer. More recently, evidence has been presented that surgical volume/experience affects quality of life and cancer control outcomes after urologic oncology procedures. Although most of these data pertain to radical prostatectomy, similar conclusions have been reached for radical cystectomy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, and management of renal cell carcinoma. This review highlights data indicating that high-volume surgeons and hospitals provide better care for radical prostatectomy.

  3. Secure data storage by three-dimensional absorbers in highly scattering volume medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, Osamu; Matsuki, Shinichiro; Nitta, Kouichi

    2008-01-01

    A novel data storage in a volume medium with highly scattering coefficient is proposed for data security application. Three-dimensional absorbers are used as data. These absorbers can not be measured by interferometer when the scattering in a volume medium is strong enough. We present a method to reconstruct three-dimensional absorbers and present numerical results to show the effectiveness of the proposed data storage.

  4. High-Q Fabry–Pérot Micro-Cavities for High-Sensitivity Volume Refractometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Gaber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a novel structure for a Fabry–Pérot micro cavity that combines the highest reported quality factor for an on-chip Fabry–Pérot resonator that exceeds 9800, and a very high sensitivity for an on-chip volume refractometer based on a Fabry–Pérot cavity that is about 1000 nm/refractive index unit (RIU. The structure consists of two cylindrical Bragg micromirrors that achieve confinement of the Gaussian beam in the plan parallel to the chip substrate, while for the perpendicular plan, external fiber rod lenses (FRLs are placed in the optical path of the input and the output of the cavity. This novel structure overcomes number of the drawbacks presented in previous designs. The analyte is passed between the mirrors, enabling its detection from the resonance peak wavelengths of the transmission spectra. Mixtures of ethanol and deionized (DI-water with different ratios are used as analytes with different refractive indices to exploit the device as a micro-opto-fluidic refractometer. The design criteria are detailed and the modeling is based on Gaussian-optics equations, which depicts a scenario closer to reality than the usually used ray-optics modeling.

  5. High-performance technology for indexing of high volumes of Earth remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotov, Valery V.; Taganov, Alexander I.; Kolesenkov, Aleksandr N.; Kostrov, Boris V.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper has suggested a technology for search, indexing, cataloging and distribution of aerospace images on the basis of geo-information approach, cluster and spectral analysis. It has considered information and algorithmic support of the system. Functional circuit of the system and structure of the geographical data base have been developed on the basis of the geographical online portal technology. Taking into account heterogeneity of information obtained from various sources it is reasonable to apply a geoinformation platform that allows analyzing space location of objects and territories and executing complex processing of information. Geoinformation platform is based on cartographic fundamentals with the uniform coordinate system, the geographical data base, a set of algorithms and program modules for execution of various tasks. The technology for adding by particular users and companies of images taken by means of professional and amateur devices and also processed by various software tools to the array system has been suggested. Complex usage of visual and instrumental approaches allows significantly expanding an application area of Earth remote sensing data. Development and implementation of new algorithms based on the complex usage of new methods for processing of structured and unstructured data of high volumes will increase periodicity and rate of data updating. The paper has shown that application of original algorithms for search, indexing and cataloging of aerospace images will provide an easy access to information spread by hundreds of suppliers and allow increasing an access rate to aerospace images up to 5 times in comparison with current analogues.

  6. Sampling of high amounts of bioaerosols using a high-volume electrostatic field sampler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, A. M.; Sharma, Anoop Kumar

    2008-01-01

    For studies of the biological effects of bioaerosols, large samples are necessary. To be able to sample enough material and to cover the variations in aerosol content during and between working days, a long sampling time is necessary. Recently, a high-volume transportable electrostatic field...... and 315 mg dust (net recovery of the lyophilized dust) was sampled during a period of 7 days, respectively. The sampling rates of the electrostatic field samplers were between 1.34 and 1.96 mg dust per hour, the value for the Gravikon was between 0.083 and 0.108 mg dust per hour and the values for the GSP...... samplers were between 0.0031 and 0.032 mg dust per hour. The standard deviations of replica samplings and the following microbial analysis using the electrostatic field sampler and GSP samplers were at the same levels. The exposure to dust in the straw storage was 7.7 mg m(-3) when measured...

  7. High-Flux Hemodialysis and High-Volume Hemodiafiltration Improve Serum Calcification Propensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Dekker

    Full Text Available Calciprotein particles (CPPs may play an important role in the calcification process. The calcification propensity of serum (T50 is highly predictive of all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease patients. Whether T50 is therapeutically improvable, by high-flux hemodialysis (HD or hemodiafiltration (HDF, has not been studied yet.We designed a cross-sectional single center study, and included stable prevalent in-center dialysis patients on HD or HDF. Patients were divided into two groups based on dialysis modality, were on a thrice-weekly schedule, had a dialysis vintage of > 3 months and vascular access providing a blood flow rate > 300 ml/min. Calcification propensity of serum was measured by the time of transformation from primary to secondary CPP (T50 test, by time-resolved nephelometry.We included 64 patients, mean convective volume was 21.7L (SD 3.3L. In the pooled analysis, T50 levels increased in both the HD and HDF group with pre- and post-dialysis (mean (SD of 244(64 - 301(57 and 253(55 - 304(61 min respectively (P = 0.43(HD vs. HDF. The mean increase in T50 was 26.29% for HD and 21.97% for HDF patients (P = 0.61 (HD vs. HDF. The delta values (Δ of calcium, phosphate and serum albumin were equal in both groups. Baseline T50 was negatively correlated with phosphate, and positively correlated with serum magnesium and fetuin-A. The ΔT50 was mostly influenced by Δ phosphate (r = -0.342; P = 0.002 HD and r = -0.396; P<0.001 HDF in both groups.HD and HDF patients present with same baseline T50 calcification propensity values pre-dialysis. Calcification propensity is significantly improved during both HD and HDF sessions without significant differences between both modalities.

  8. An examination of endoparasites and fecal testosterone levels in flying squirrels (Glaucomys spp.) using high performance liquid chromatography-ultra-violet (HPLC-UV)

    OpenAIRE

    Waksmonski, Sarah N.; Huffman, Justin M.; Mahan, Carolyn G.; Steele, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    The immuno-competence hypothesis proposes that higher levels of testosterone increases the susceptibility to parasitism. Here we examined the testosterone levels in two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys): one known to regularly host a nematode species (Strongyloides robustus) without ill effects (G. volans) and a closely related species that is considered negatively affected by the parasite. We quantified fecal testosterone levels in northern and southern flying squirrels (G. sabrinus, G...

  9. The Role of Clay Swelling and Mineral Neoformation in the Stabilization of High Plasticity Soils Treated with the Fly Ash- and Metakaolin-Based Geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Mahrous

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the southern U.S. states, expansive soils are frequently encountered, presenting an important hazard in geotechnical engineering. This research relies on mineralogical and geochemical clues to explain the swelling behavior of smectite-rich, high-plasticity soils, documented in a series of geomechanical swelling tests that were performed on the soils stabilized with the metakaolin (MKG and fly ash (FAG based geopolymers. These geopolymers were mixed with the soil at several concentration levels. The lowest swelling percentage was shown to correspond to the sample stabilized with 12% FAG and was attributed to the neoformation of calcium silicate hydrates that acted as a cementitious material, preventing the soil from expanding by occupying the pore space, thus binding the clay particles together. Conversely, the 12% MKG-stabilized soil exhibited enormous expansion, which was explained by montmorillonite swelling to the point that it gradually began to lose its structural periodicity. The relatively high abundance of the newly formed feldspathoids in MKG-treated samples is believed to have greatly contributed to the overall soil expansion. Finally, the cation exchange capacity tests showed that the percentage of Na+ and Ca2+, as well as the pH value, exercised strong control on the swelling behavior of smectitic soils.

  10. High initial tidal volumes in emergency department patients at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Michael G; Scott, Michael C; Hu, Kami M; Witting, Michael D; Winters, Michael E

    2015-04-01

    Emergency department (ED) patients are at high risk for the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Settings only 1 mL/kg above recommended tidal volumes confers harm for these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ED physicians routinely initiate mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes in patients at risk for ARDS. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all adult patients who were intubated in an urban, academic ED. The charts were analyzed to identify patients in whom ARDS developed within 48 hours after ED admission. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they had bilateral infiltrates on imaging, had a Pao2/Fio2 ratio less than 300 mm Hg and did not have heart failure contributing to their presentation. The tidal volumes set in the ED were then compared with the recommended tidal volume of 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight. The initial tidal volumes set in the ED were higher than recommended by an average of 80 mL (95% confidence interval, 60-110, P tidal volume ventilation setting. In an academic, tertiary hospital, newly intubated ED patients in whom ARDS developed within 48 hours after intubation were ventilated with tidal volumes that exceeded recommendations by an average of 1.5 mL/kg. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Perioperative mortality in cats and dogs undergoing spay or castration at a high-volume clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J K; Bard, K M; Tucker, S J; Diskant, P D; Dingman, P A

    2017-06-01

    High volume spay-neuter (spay-castration) clinics have been established to improve population control of cats and dogs to reduce the number of animals admitted to and euthanazed in animal shelters. The rise in the number of spay-neuter clinics in the USA has been accompanied by concern about the quality of animal care provided in high volume facilities, which focus on minimally invasive, time saving techniques, high throughput and simultaneous management of multiple animals under various stages of anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine perioperative mortality for cats and dogs in a high volume spay-neuter clinic in the USA. Electronic medical records and a written mortality log were used to collect data for 71,557 cats and 42,349 dogs undergoing spay-neuter surgery from 2010 to 2016 at a single high volume clinic in Florida. Perioperative mortality was defined as deaths occurring in the 24h period starting with the administration of the first sedation or anesthetic drugs. Perioperative mortality was reported for 34 cats and four dogs for an overall mortality of 3.3 animals/10,000 surgeries (0.03%). The risk of mortality was more than twice as high for females (0.05%) as for males (0.02%) (P=0.008) and five times as high for cats (0.05%) as for dogs (0.009%) (P=0.0007). High volume spay-neuter surgery was associated with a lower mortality rate than that previously reported in low volume clinics, approaching that achieved in human surgery. This is likely to be due to the young, healthy population of dogs and cats, and the continuous refinement of techniques based on experience and the skills and proficiency of teams that specialize in a limited spectrum of procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Feeding and rearing behaviour in tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otieno, L.H.; Youdeowei, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Batwing membrane was used to study salivation and feeding behaviour of tsetse flies. Probing and salivation were observed to be stimulated by tarsal contact with the membrane. Salivation and feeding responses varied from day to day with characteristic alternating high and low responses. The feeding process was invariably accompanied by a resting period. Attempts to rear G. morsitans artificially through the use of batwing membrane showed that the flies needed an initial adjustment period to in vitro maintenance. (author)

  13. Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume II. High School Youth. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

    The second part of a two-part, two volume study deals with high school youth and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Data, collected from interviews and questionnaires, are summarized and presented in tabular form. One fourth of high schoolers in a…

  14. Fly Ash in Civil Engineering Stage 1: Inventory/Application; Flygaska i geotekniska anlaeggningar Etapp 1: Inventering/Tillaemplighet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Svedberg, Bo; Lenstroemer, Stina; Nilsson, Thomas [Scandiaconsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    frost-thaw durability of these fly ashes is also expected to be good but can be further improved by addition of cement. Potential civil engineering use of fly ashes from this group are as liners in landfills, sub-base and base course in secondary roads such as gravel roads or low trafficked paved roads or as stabilising agent in soils (compare to LC-columns or mass stabilisation). Group C fly ashes have high shear strength. These fly ashes can be used without adding cement. Cement can, however, increase shear strength and frost-thaw durability. The need of a stabilising agent should be investigated for each fly ash separately. Potential examples of applications correspond to group B and furthermore they can, for example, be used for stabilising of hazardous waste (such as fly ashes originating from household waste) or contaminated soils. This project indicates that determination of a limited set of properties of a fly ash can identification potential applications. Properties such as void ratio and shear strength give a good indication of appropriate application. The investigation have furthermore shown, for fly ashes in group B and C, that the optimum water content for compaction is lower than the water content needed to achieve a maximum development of strength. It is also obvious that dry storage of fly ashes is important to enable use without need of adding stabilising agents. In other corresponding projects, in Sweden and Finland, the excellent curing properties of fly ashes have been used in order to renovate gravel roads. These applications use large volumes of fly ashes. At the same time the supplies are limited, especially in comparison with the supplies of traditional materials. On the other hand, now ongoing projects indicate that no more than 15% of fresh fly ash applied to the bearing course is adequate to give the road better performance. It is therefore important to investigate how added water (15-30%) reduces the curing properties with time and to study

  15. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  16. EUV mask defect inspection and defect review strategies for EUV pilot line and high volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. David; Rastegar, Abbas; Yun, Henry; Putna, E. Steve; Wurm, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    Reducing mask blank and patterned mask defects is the number one challenge for extreme ultraviolet lithography. If the industry succeeds in reducing mask blank defects at the required rate of 10X every year for the next 2-3 years to meet high volume manufacturing defect requirements, new inspection and review tool capabilities will soon be needed to support this goal. This paper outlines the defect inspection and review tool technical requirements and suggests development plans to achieve pilot line readiness in 2011/12 and high volume manufacturing readiness in 2013. The technical specifications, tooling scenarios, and development plans were produced by a SEMATECH-led technical working group with broad industry participation from material suppliers, tool suppliers, mask houses, integrated device manufacturers, and consortia. The paper summarizes this technical working group's assessment of existing blank and mask inspection/review infrastructure capabilities to support pilot line introduction and outlines infrastructure development requirements and tooling strategies to support high volume manufacturing.

  17. Producing zeolites from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayalu, S.; Labhestwar, N.K.; Biniwale, R.B.; Udhoji, J.S.; Meshram, S.U.; Khanna, P.

    1998-01-01

    Fly ash has virtually become a menace of thermal power generation, leading to its devastating effects on the environment. Development of alternate methods of its disposal - especially those with recourse to recovery of valuable materials-has thus become imperative. This paper deals with the utilisation of fly ash for the production of high value-added products, viz., commercial grade zeolites. The physico-chemical and morphological characteristics of fly ash based Zeolite-A (FAZ-A) compares well with commercial Zeolite-A. High calcium binding capacity, appropriate particle/pore size and other detergency characteristics of FAZ-A brings forth its potential as a substitute for phosphatic detergent builder. The technology is extremely versatile, and other products like Zeolite-X, Zeolite-Y, sodalite and mordenite are also amenable for cost effective production with modifications in certain reaction parameters. Low temperature operations, ready availability of major raw materials, simplicity of process and recycling of unused reactants and process water are special features of the process. (author)

  18. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high-order characteristics of the system. In this paper only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles of attack: 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of the identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the estimated closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  19. Dietary incorporation of feedstuffs naturally high in organic selenium for racing pigeons (Columba livia): effects on plasma antioxidant markers after a standardised simulation of a flying effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonheere, N; Dotreppe, O; Pincemail, J; Istasse, L; Hornick, J L

    2009-06-01

    Selenium is a trace element of importance for animal health. It is essential for adequate functioning of many enzymes such as, the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, which protects the cell against free radicals. A muscular effort induces a rise in reactive oxygen species production which, in turn, can generate an oxidative stress. Two groups of eight racing pigeons were fed respectively with a diet containing 30.3 (control group) and 195.3 (selenium group) microg selenium/kg diet. The pigeons were submitted to a standardised simulation of a flying effort during 2 h. Blood was taken before and after the effort to measure antioxidant markers and blood parameters related to muscle metabolism. Plasma selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly higher in the selenium group. There were no significant differences for the other measured parameters. As a consequence of the effort, the pigeons of the selenium group showed a higher increase of glutathione peroxidase activity and a smaller increase of plasma lactate concentration. Variations because of the effort in the other markers were not significantly different between the two groups. It is concluded that the selenium status was improved with the feeding of feedstuffs high in Selenium.

  20. US evaluation of volume brain lesions produced by high-intensity focused US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, R.V.; Chua, G.T.; Fry, F.J.; Franklin, T.D.; Wills, E.R.; Hastings, J.S.; Sanghui, N.T.

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen volume brain lesions produced by high-intensity focused US in the right cerebral hemispheres of research canines were evaluated by diagnostic US from immediately after ablation up to 62 days later. Animals were killed and perfused for whole-brain recovery. US evaluation of whole-brain specimens was performed. Histologic analysis of brain sections verified lesion placement, size, and tissue response to US. These sections were compared with US studies for correlation data. Correlation data suggest that US visualization may aid in accurate placement of volume brain lesions and in evaluation of effects of high-intensity focuses US in normal brain

  1. Service expectations from high- and low-volume customers in the alcoholic beverage industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Beukes

    2013-08-01

    Research purpose: This research study investigated the relationship between the volume a customer buys from an alcoholic beverage supply company and what influence this volume has on their customer service expectations. Motivation for the study: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate what influence the volume an organisation buys from alcoholic beverage suppliers has on their service quality expectations. Research design, approach and method: A non-probability judgement sample method was used, with a sample size of 220 respondents. The questionnaire requested respondents (high- and low-volume to rank their customer service expectations and opinions with reference to Parasuraman’s service delivery dimensions. Ranking was done using a five-point Likert scale. Main findings: The findings of the study indicated that both the high- and low-volume customers felt that alcoholic beverage supply companies had to deliver on all five service delivery dimensions but failed to do so to full satisfaction. Practical and managerial implications: It is recommended that the alcoholic beverage supply companies should address the problem areas identified in this study to avoid defection of customers. Contribution and value add: This may assist alcoholic beverage supply companies to better understand the customers’ demographic profiles. The study also revealed that the satisfaction level experienced by customers in both sections of the study (high- and low-demand, with a considerable gap between expectations and opinions within the empathy dimension.

  2. Açai Palm Fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp Improves Survival of Flies on a High Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T.; Schauss, Alexander G.; Zou, Sige

    2010-01-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementat...

  3. Quality characteristics of Greek fly ashes and potential uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Grammelis, P.; Kakaras, E. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Ptolemais (Greece); Karangelos, D.; Anagnostakis, M.; Hinis, E. [Nuclear Engineering Section, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2007-01-15

    The main characteristics of fly ash from Greek coal-fired boilers are presented in this paper in relation to its exploitation potential. Both fuel and fly ash samples were collected and analyzed according to the ASTM Standards. Apart from the typical analyses (proximate, ultimate, ash analysis and calorific value), an ICP-AES spectrometer was used for the analysis of heavy metals in the ash. Experimental measurements in order to determine the radioactivity content of raw fuel and the fly ash were carried out as well. A representative fly ash sample from Ptolemais power plant was evaluated and tested as filler in Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). Ashes from the Greek brown coal are classified in type C, most of the fly ash being produced in Ptolemais of Northern Greece, while the rest in Megalopolis. Ptolemais fly ash is rich in calcium compounds, while Megalopolis fly ash contains more pyrite. Increased heavy metal concentrations are observed in the fly ash samples of Greek coal. Greek fly ash appears to have not only pozzolanic but also hydraulic behaviour. Furthermore, Greek fly ash, depending on its origin, may have relatively high natural radioactivity content, reaching in the case of Megalopolis fly ash 1 kBq kg{sup -1} of {sup 226}Ra. The laboratory results showed that fly ashes can be a competitive substitute to conventional limestone filler material in SCC. Fly ash is mostly used in Greece in cement industry replacing cement clinker and aiming to the production of special types of Portland cements. However, a more aggressive utilisation strategy should be developed, since low quantities of the total produced fly ash are currently further utilised. (author)

  4. A Microchannel Inlet to Reduce High-Velocity Impact Fragmentation of Molecules in Orbital and Fly-by Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brandon; Anupriya, Anupriya; Sevy, Eric; Austin, Daniel E.

    2017-10-01

    Closed source neutral mass spectrometers are often used on flyby missions to characterize the molecular components of planetary exospheres. In a typical closed source, neutrals are thermalized as they deflect off the walls within a spherical antechamber prior to ionization and mass analysis. However, the high kinetic energy of each molecule as it impacts the chamber can lead to fragmentation before the ionization region is reached. Due to this fragmentation, the original composition of the molecule can be altered, leading to ambiguous identification.Even knowing the fragmentation pathways that occur may not allow deconvolution of data to give the correct composition. Only stable, volatile fragments will be observed in the subsequent mass spectrometer and different organic compounds likely give similar fragmentation products. Simply detecting these products will not lead to unambiguous identication of the precursor molecules. Here, we present a hardware solution to this problem—an inlet that reduces the fragmentation of molecules that impact at high velocities.We present a microchannel inlet that reduces the impact fragmentation by allowing the molecules to dissipate kinetic energy faster than their respective dissociation lifetimes. Preliminary calculations indicate that impact-induced fragmentation will be reduced up to three orders of magnitude compared with conventional closed sources by using this inlet. The benefits of such an inlet apply to any orbital or flyby velocity. The microchannel inlet enables detection of semi-volatile molecules that were previously undetectable due to impact fragmentation.

  5. High Energy Performance Tests of Large Volume LaBr{sub 3}:Ce Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Gondal, M.A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Dastageer, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M.M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-01

    High energy prompt gamma ray tests of a large volume cylindrical 100 mm x 100 mm (height x diameter) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector were carried out using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. In this study prompt gamma-rays yield were measured from water samples contaminated with toxic elements such nickel, chromium and mercury compounds with gamma ray energies up to 10 MeV. The experimental yield of prompt gamma-rays from toxic elements were compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations. In spite of its higher intrinsic background due to its larger volume, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of high energy gamma-rays from Ni, Cr and Hg samples has been achieved for the large volume LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector. (authors)

  6. Development of a high-resolution Thomson scattering system for plasma interactions with molten salt (FLiNaK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. Y. [National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A high-resolution Thomson scattering system is presently being developed to measure the electron temperature and density profile during plasma interaction with molten salt. The system uses a 20-Hz Nd:YAG laser operating at the second harmonic (532 nm). The collection lens, having a 1:10 magnification ratio, measures 63 points along the 10-cm profile. The scattered light is transmitted by using an optical-fiber bundle, and is analyzed with a triple-grating spectrometer to further reduce stray light. Its spectral resolution is expected to be 0.03 nm. An intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera consisting of a gated image intensifier coupled to the CCD camera is used to record the spectral distribution of the scattered light. An additional feature of operating the ICCD camera at 40-Hz to record the background signal is incorporated.

  7. Low versus high volume of culture medium during embryo transfer: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalos, George Α; Michalopoulos, Yannis; Kastoras, Athanasios G; Triantafyllidou, Olga; Vlahos, Nikos F

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized control trial was to evaluate if the use of two different volumes (20-25 vs 40-45 μl) of media used for embryo transfer affects the clinical outcomes in fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. In total, 236 patients were randomized in two groups, i.e., "low volume" group (n = 118) transferring the embryos with 20-25 μl of medium and "high volume" group (n = 118) transferring the embryos with 40-45 μl of medium. The clinical pregnancy, implantation, and ongoing pregnancy rates were compared between the two groups. No statistically significant differences were observed in clinical pregnancy (46.8 vs 54.3%, p = 0.27), implantation (23.7 vs 27.8%, p = 0.30), and ongoing pregnancy (33.3 vs 40.0%, p = 0.31) rates between low and high volume group, respectively. Higher volume of culture medium to load the embryo into the catheter during embryo transfer does not influence the clinical outcome in fresh IVF cycles. NCT03350646.

  8. A flexible and accurate digital volume correlation method applicable to high-resolution volumetric images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bing; Wang, Bo

    2017-10-01

    Digital volume correlation (DVC) is a powerful technique for quantifying interior deformation within solid opaque materials and biological tissues. In the last two decades, great efforts have been made to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the DVC algorithm. However, there is still a lack of a flexible, robust and accurate version that can be efficiently implemented in personal computers with limited RAM. This paper proposes an advanced DVC method that can realize accurate full-field internal deformation measurement applicable to high-resolution volume images with up to billions of voxels. Specifically, a novel layer-wise reliability-guided displacement tracking strategy combined with dynamic data management is presented to guide the DVC computation from slice to slice. The displacements at specified calculation points in each layer are computed using the advanced 3D inverse-compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm with the complete initial guess of the deformation vector accurately predicted from the computed calculation points. Since only limited slices of interest in the reference and deformed volume images rather than the whole volume images are required, the DVC calculation can thus be efficiently implemented on personal computers. The flexibility, accuracy and efficiency of the presented DVC approach are demonstrated by analyzing computer-simulated and experimentally obtained high-resolution volume images.

  9. High-pitch dual-source CT coronary angiography with low volumes of contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembcke, Alexander; Hein, Patrick A.; Knobloch, Gesine; Durmus, Tahir; Hamm, Bernd; Schwenke, Carsten; Huppertz, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effect of lower volumes of contrast medium (CM) on image quality in high-pitch dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). One-hundred consecutive patients (body weight 65-85 kg, stable heart rate ≤65 bpm, cardiac index ≥2.5 L/min/m 2 ) referred for CTCA were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to one of five groups of different CM volumes (G 30 , 30 mL; G 40 , 40 mL; G 50 , 50 mL; G 60 , 60 mL; G 70 , 70 mL; flow rate 5 mL/s each, iodine content 370 mg/mL). Attenuation within the proximal and distal coronary artery segments was analysed. Mean attenuation for men and women ranged from 345.0 and 399.1 HU in G 30 to 478.2 and 571.8 HU in G 70 . Mean attenuation values were higher in groups with higher CM volumes (P 30 , G 40 , G 50 , G 60 and G 70 were 89 %, 95 %, 98 %, 98 % and 99 %. CM volume of 30 mL in women and 40 mL in men proved to be sufficient to guarantee attenuation of at least 300 HU. In selected patients high-pitch dual-source CTCA can be performed with CM volumes of 40 mL in men or 30 mL in women. (orig.)

  10. Estimating the abundance of airborne pollen and fungal spores at variable elevations using an aircraft: how high can they fly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damialis, Athanasios; Kaimakamis, Evangelos; Konoglou, Maria; Akritidis, Ioannis; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Gioulekas, Dimitrios

    2017-03-16

    Airborne pollen and fungal spores are monitored mainly in highly populated, urban environments, for allergy prevention purposes. However, their sources can frequently be located outside cities' fringes with more vegetation. So as to shed light to this paradox, we investigated the diversity and abundance of airborne pollen and fungal spores at various environmental regimes. We monitored pollen and spores using an aircraft and a car, at elevations from sea level to 2,000 m above ground, in the region of Thesssaloniki, Greece. We found a total of 24 pollen types and more than 15 spore types. Pollen and spores were detected throughout the elevational transect. Lower elevations exhibited higher pollen concentrations in only half of plant taxa and higher fungal spore concentrations in only Ustilago. Pinaceae and Quercus pollen were the most abundant recorded by airplane (>54% of the total). Poaceae pollen were the most abundant via car measurements (>77% of the total). Cladosporium and Alternaria spores were the most abundant in all cases (aircraft: >69% and >17%, car: >45% and >27%, respectively). We conclude that pollen and fungal spores can be diverse and abundant even outside the main source area, evidently because of long-distance transport incidents.

  11. Ecology, feeding and natural infection by Leishmania spp. of phlebotomine sand flies in an area of high incidence of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ávila, Márcia Moreira; Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; de Souza, Cristian Ferreira; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2018-01-26

    = 1). Only Ps. ayrozai possessed a sequence similar to that of L. (V.) guyanensis (99%). Through microscopic analysis, five specimens of Ev. saulensis were found to possess flagellate forms in the hindgut, with an infection rate of 2.4%. Samples from 33 fed females were submitted to cytb gene amplification, for which sequencing determined that all were similar to the sequence deposited on GenBank for Gallus gallus (domestic chicken). The high abundance of Trichophoromyia auraensis and Ev. saulensis, and the detection of L. (V.) braziliensis DNA, suggests that both species may be vectors of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Psychodopygus ayrozai was found to be infected by L. (V) braziliesnsis and L. (V.) guyanensis, and although collected in low abundance, it may be a potential vector in the region. The sand fly fauna was found to be rich and diverse with predominance of the genus Psychodopygus. Identification of food sources of fed females showed that 100% amplified a gene region compatible with the domestic chicken, which although considered refractory in the disease transmission cycle, may have an influence on the population dynamics of sand flies.

  12. High-energy molecular lasers self-controlled volume-discharge lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, V V

    2016-01-01

    This book displays the physics and design of high-power molecular lasers. The lasers described are self-controlled volume-discharge lasers. The book explains self-sustained discharge lasers, self-initiated discharge lasers and technical approaches to laser design. Important topics discussed are laser efficiency, laser beam quality and electric field homogeneity. The book contains many new innovative applications.

  13. 76 FR 1067 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Mfg & NOES (number based criteria based criteria significant chemicals (lbs) industrial of workers... 2070-AD16 Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals AGENCY... section 4(a)(1)(B) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to require manufacturers, importers, and...

  14. Operating manual for the High Flux Isotope Reactor. Volume I. Description of the facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    This volume contains a comprehensive description of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Facility. Its primary purpose is to supplement the detailed operating procedures, providing the reactor operators with background information on the various HFIR systems. The detailed operating procdures are presented in another report

  15. Thermosetting resins with high fractions of free volume and inherently low dielectric constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang-Kai; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Su, Wen-Chiung; Liu, Ying-Ling

    2015-08-18

    This work demonstrates a new class of thermosetting resins, based on Meldrum's acid (MA) derivatives, which have high fractions of free volume and inherently low k values of about 2.0 at 1 MHz. Thermal decomposition of the MA groups evolves CO2 and acetone to create air-trapped cavities so as to reduce the dielectric constants.

  16. Operating manual for the High Flux Isotope Reactor. Volume I. Description of the facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    This volume contains a comprehensive description of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Facility. Its primary purpose is to supplement the detailed operating procedures, providing the reactor operators with background information on the various HFIR systems. The detailed operating procdures are presented in another report.

  17. Lean Production Control at a High-Variety, Low-Volume Parts Manufacturer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Slomp, Jannes

    2010-01-01

    Eaton Electric General Supplies, a parts manufacturing unit that supplies parts for Eaton's electrical business unit, implemented several lean control elements in its high-variety, low-volume production units. These control elements include a constant work-in-process mechanism to limit and control

  18. A lean production control system for high-variety/low-volume environments : a case study implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Germs, R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the success of lean manufacturing, many companies are interested in implementing a lean production control system. Lean production control principles include the levelling of production, the use of pull mechanisms and takt time control. These principles have mainly been applied in high volume

  19. High tidal volume decreases adult respiratory distress syndrome, atelectasis, and ventilator days compared with low tidal volume in pediatric burned patients with inhalation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousse, Linda E; Herndon, David N; Andersen, Clark R; Ali, Arham; Benjamin, Nicole C; Granchi, Thomas; Suman, Oscar E; Mlcak, Ronald P

    2015-04-01

    Inhalation injury, which is among the causes of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), continues to represent a significant source of mortality in burned patients. Inhalation injury often requires mechanical ventilation, but the ideal tidal volume strategy is not clearly defined in burned pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of low and high tidal volume on the number of ventilator days, ventilation pressures, and incidence of atelectasis, pneumonia, and ARDS in pediatric burned patients with inhalation injury within 1 year post burn injury. From 1986 to 2014, inhalation injury was diagnosed by bronchoscopy in pediatric burned patients (n = 932). Patients were divided into 3 groups: unventilated (n = 241), high tidal volume (HTV, 15 ± 3 mL/kg, n = 190), and low tidal volume (LTV, 9 ± 3 mL/kg, n = 501). High tidal volume was associated with significantly decreased ventilator days (p tidal volume significantly decreases ventilator days and the incidence of both atelectasis and ARDS compared with low tidal volume in pediatric burned patients with inhalation injury. Therefore, the use of HTV may interrupt sequences leading to lung injury in our patient population. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunnane, J.C.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II

  1. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C. [comp.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II.

  2. High-volume intensive training course: a new paradigm for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihoe, Alan D L; Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego; Yang, Timothy Y; Zhu, Yuming; Jiang, Gening

    2018-03-27

    The emergence of ultra-high-volume centres promises new opportunities for thoracic surgical training. The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a novel observership course in teaching video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) at an ultra-high-volume centre. Two-week courses in VATS at a specialist unit now performing >10 000 major lung resections annually (>50 daily on average) were attended by 230 surgeons from around the world from 2013 to 2016. An online survey preserving responder anonymity was completed by 156 attendees (67.8%). Attendees included 37% from Western Europe, 18% from Eastern Europe and 17% from Latin America. Experience with open thoracic surgery for more than 5 years was reported by 67%, but 79% had less than 5 years of VATS lobectomy experience. During the course, 70% observed over 30 uniportal VATS operations (including 38% observing over 50), and 69% attended an animal wet lab. Although 72% of the responders attended the course less than 12 months ago, the number of ports used (P < 0.001), operation times (P < 0.001) and conversion rates (P < 0.001) reported by the responders were reduced significantly after the course. Improvements in the problem areas of tissue retraction, instrumentation, stapler application and coordination with the assistant during VATS were reported by 56%, 57%, 58% and 53%, respectively. Of those who had attended other VATS courses previously, 87% preferred the training from this high-volume course. High-volume intensive observership training at an ultra-high-volume centre may improve VATS proficiency in a short period of time, and may provide a time-efficient modality for future thoracic surgical training.

  3. Flies without centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto, Renata; Lau, Joyce; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Gardiol, Alejandra; Woods, C Geoffrey; Khodjakov, Alexey; Raff, Jordan W

    2006-06-30

    Centrioles and centrosomes have an important role in animal cell organization, but it is uncertain to what extent they are essential for animal development. The Drosophila protein DSas-4 is related to the human microcephaly protein CenpJ and the C. elegans centriolar protein Sas-4. We show that DSas-4 is essential for centriole replication in flies. DSas-4 mutants start to lose centrioles during embryonic development, and, by third-instar larval stages, no centrioles or centrosomes are detectable. Mitotic spindle assembly is slow in mutant cells, and approximately 30% of the asymmetric divisions of larval neuroblasts are abnormal. Nevertheless, mutant flies develop with near normal timing into morphologically normal adults. These flies, however, have no cilia or flagella and die shortly after birth because their sensory neurons lack cilia. Thus, centrioles are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella, but, remarkably, they are not essential for most aspects of Drosophila development.

  4. Amygdalar, hippocampal, and thalamic volumes in youth at high risk for development of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchemskiy, Asya; Garrett, Amy; Howe, Meghan; Adleman, Nancy; Simeonova, Diana I; Alegria, Dylan; Reiss, Allan; Chang, Kiki

    2011-12-30

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD), especially those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and symptoms of depression or mania, are at significantly high risk for developing BD. As we have previously shown amygdalar reductions in pediatric BD, the current study examined amygdalar volumes in offspring of parents (BD offspring) who have not yet developed a full manic episode. Youth participating in the study included 22 BD offspring and 22 healthy controls of comparable age, gender, handedness, and IQ. Subjects had no history of a manic episode, but met criteria for ADHD and moderate mood symptoms. MRI was performed on a 3T GE scanner, using a 3D volumetric spoiled gradient echo series. Amygdalae were manually traced using BrainImage Java software on positionally normalized brain stacks. Bipolar offspring had similar amygdalar volumes compared to the control group. Exploratory analyses yielded no differences in hippocampal or thalamic volumes. Bipolar offspring do not show decreased amygdalar volume, possibly because these abnormalities occur after more prolonged illness rather than as a preexisting risk factor. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether amygdalar volumes change during and after the development of BD. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ge extraction from gasification fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Angel Lopez-Soler; Jose M. Chimenos; Ana I. Fernandez; Silvia Burgos; Francisco Garcia Pena [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    Water-soluble germanium species (GeS{sub 2}, GeS and hexagonal-GeO{sub 2}) are generated during coal gasification and retained in fly ash. This fact together with the high market value of this element and the relatively high contents in the fly ashes of the Puertollano Integrated Gasification in Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant directed our research towards the development of an extraction process for this element. Major objectives of this research was to find a low cost and environmentally suitable process. Several water based extraction tests were carried out using different Puertollano IGCC fly ash samples, under different temperatures, water/fly ash ratios, and extraction times. High Ge extraction yields (up to 84%) were obtained at room temperature (25{sup o}C) but also high proportions of other trace elements (impurities) were simultaneously extracted. Increasing the extraction temperature to 50, 90 and 150{sup o}C, Ge extraction yields were kept at similar levels, while reducing the content of impurities, the water/fly ash ratio and extraction time. The experimental data point out the influence of chloride, calcium and sulphide dissolutions on the Ge extraction. 16 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (%1 repetition maximum-1RM and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifteen men (21+/-1 years; BMI=24.1+/-0.8 kg/m2 performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM until volitional failure (90FAIL, 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM, or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL. Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX, myofibrillar (MYO, and sarcoplasmic (SARC protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121% and MYO (87% protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199% above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P=0.023 and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P=0.025. Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (P<0.05 only in the 30FAIL condition at 4 h post-exercise, whereas, 4E-BP1Thr37/46 phosphorylation was greater 24 h after exercise than at rest in both 90FAIL (237% and 30FAIL (312% conditions. Pax7 mRNA expression increased at 24 h post-exercise (P=0.02 regardless of condition. The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that low-load high volume resistance exercise is more effective in inducing acute muscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes.

  7. An overview of quarantine for fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    What is meant by 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The Collins dictionary describes 'quarantine' as a period of isolation or detention, especially of persons or animals arriving from abroad, to prevent the spread of disease. In providing an overview of quarantine for fruit flies, a broader definition needs to be applied, that is, the combination of activities required to maintain the fruit fly status of a particular geographical area - perhaps better referred to as a 'quarantine system'. Familiarity with New Zealand's quarantine system for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provides a useful basis for subsequent comparison with other countries' systems where some fruit fly species may be present. But, why have 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The multivoltine life history of many species. combined with a relatively long-lived adult stage and highly fecund females, results in a high potential for rapid population increase (Bateman 1979, Fletcher 1987). These factors and the close association of fruit flies with harvested fruit or vegetables explain the high quarantine profile of these insects. However, there is no international requirement for a country to have a quarantine system and unless there are natural quarantine barriers (e.g., mountain range, oceans, deserts) that can be utilised, effective quarantine by an individual country may be an impossible task. The implementation of a successful quarantine system is very expensive and therefore, it would be expected that any benefits attained outweigh the costs (Ivess 1998). Ivess (1998) listed the following benefits from the implementation of an effective quarantine system: minimising production costs (including post harvest treatments), maintaining competitive advantages for market access due to the ongoing freedom from particular pests of quarantine significance, an environment free from many pests harmful to plant health, the maintenance of ecosystems

  8. Analysis of the high water wave volume for the Sava River near Zagreb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trninic, Dusan

    2010-05-01

    The paper analyses volumes of the Sava River high water waves near Zagreb during the period: 1926-2008 (N = 83 years), which is needed for more efficient control of high and flood waters. The primary Sava flood control structures in the City of Zagreb are dikes built on both riverbanks, and the Odra Relief Canal with lateral spillway upstream from the City of Zagreb. Intensive morphological changes in the greater Sava area near Zagreb, and anthropological and climate variations and changes at the Sava catchment up to the Zagreb area require detailed analysis of the water wave characteristics. In one analysis, maximum annual volumes are calculated for high water waves with constant duration of: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days. Such calculations encompass total quantity of water (basic and surface runoff). The log Pearson III distribution is adapted for this series of maximum annual volumes. Based on the results obtained, the interrelations are established between the wave volume as function of duration and occurrence probability. In addition to the analysis of maximum volumes of constant duration, it is interesting to carry out the analyses of maximum volume in excess of the reference discharge since it is very important for the flood control. To determine the reference discharges, a discharge of specific duration is used from an average discharge duration curve. The adopted reference discharges have durations of 50, 40, 30, 20 and 10%. Like in the previous case, log Pearson III distribution is adapted to the maximum wave data series. For reference discharge Q = 604 m3/s (duration 10%), a linear trend is calculated of maximum annual volumes exceeding the reference discharge for the Sava near Zagreb during the analyzed period. The analysis results show a significant decrease trend. A similar analysis is carried out for the following three reference discharges: regular flood control measures at the Sava near Zagreb, which are proclaimed when the water level is 350 cm

  9. Blood-meal identification in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Valle Hermoso, a high prevalence zone for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaguano, David F; Ponce, Patricio; Baldeón, Manuel E; Santander, Stephanie; Cevallos, Varsovia

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia. In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in the majority of countries. There are no previous reports of phlebotomine sand fly host feeding sources in Ecuador. We identified blood meal sources for phlebotomine sand fly species in Valle Hermoso, a hyper endemic area for leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Phlebotomine sand fly collections were carried out during the dry and rainy seasons. PCR and multiplex PCR were performed from DNA extracted from the abdomens of blood-fed females to specifically identify the avian and mammalian blood meal sources. Avian-blood (77%), mammalian-blood (16%) and mixed avian-mammalian blood (7%) were found in the samples. At the species level, blood from chickens (35.5%), humans (2.8%), cows (2.8%) and dogs (1.9%) was specifically detected. Nyssomyia trapidoi was the most common species of Lutzomyia found that fed on birds. The present results may aid the development of effective strategies to control leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in high-transmission areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Republic of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kent, Alida D.; Dos Santos, Thiago V.; Gangadin, Anielkoemar; Samjhawan, Ashok; Mans, Dennis R. A.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the vectors of Leishmania parasites, the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem in the Republic of Suriname and is mainly caused by Leishmania (Vianna) guyanensis, but L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (L.)

  11. Machine vision for high-precision volume measurement applied to levitated containerless material processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, R.C.; Schmidt, D.P.; Rogers, J.R.; Kelton, K.F.; Hyers, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    By combining the best practices in optical dilatometry with numerical methods, a high-speed and high-precision technique has been developed to measure the volume of levitated, containerlessly processed samples with subpixel resolution. Containerless processing provides the ability to study highly reactive materials without the possibility of contamination affecting thermophysical properties. Levitation is a common technique used to isolate a sample as it is being processed. Noncontact optical measurement of thermophysical properties is very important as traditional measuring methods cannot be used. Modern, digitally recorded images require advanced numerical routines to recover the subpixel locations of sample edges and, in turn, produce high-precision measurements

  12. Protein-bound toxins: added value in their removal with high convective volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Soraya; Vega, Almudena; Quiroga, Borja; Arroyo, David; Panizo, Nayara; Reque, Javier Eduardo; López-Gómez, Juan Manuel

    Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. In recent years, protein-bound toxins have become more important due to their association with increased morbidity and mortality, characterised by inadequate clearance during dialysis. The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of high convective volumes on postdilution online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) on the removal of medium-sized molecules, small molecules and protein-bound molecules. In forty postdilutional OL-HDF sessions, the reduction rates of toxins of different molecular weights were measured in 13 patients, including protein-bound molecules such as p-cresyl sulphate, indoxyl sulphate and homocysteine. Total convective volume was 28.3 (5.1) litres (range 16.3-38.0 litres). Mean reduction rate of protein-bound molecules was 44.4% (15.7%), 48.7% (14.1%) and 58.6% (8.8%) for p-cresyl sulphate, indoxyl sulphate and homocysteine, respectively. Moreover, a statistically significant direct association was found between the reduction rates of all three molecules, the replacement volume and the Kt/V. High convective volumes during postdilution OL-HDF are associated with increased removal of protein-bound uraemic toxins. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. ESTIMATION OF STAND HEIGHT AND FOREST VOLUME USING HIGH RESOLUTION STEREO PHOTOGRAPHY AND FOREST TYPE MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha using normalized digital surface model (nDSM from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching. Then, digital terrain model (DTM was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.. Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (% and stand height (m. First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri’s ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service’s FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s–present will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

  14. Scoping studies to reduce ICPP high-level radioactive waste volumes for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, D.A.; Berreth, J.R.; Chipman, N.A.; Cole, H.S.; Geczi, L.S.; Kerr, W.B.; Staples, B.A.

    1985-08-01

    This report presents the results of scoping studies carried out to determine the feasibility of the following candidate options to reduce high-level waste volume: (1) low-fluoride, low-volume glass, (2) glass-ceramic and ceramic, (3) Modified Zirflex, (4) inerts removal by neutralization, and (5) modified Fluorinel processes. The results of the scoping studies show that the glass-ceramic/ceramic waste forms and neutralization process with potential HLW volume reductions ranging from 60 to 80% appear feasible, based on laboratory-scale tests. The presently used Fluorinel process modified by reducing HF usage also appears to be feasible and could result in up to a 10% potential volume reduction. If the current process start-up tests verify the practicality, reduced HF usage will be implemented. The low-volume glass and Modified Zirflex processes may also be feasible, based on laboratory tests, but would require significantly more process development and/or modifications and could result in only a 20 to 30% potential volume reduction. Based on these scoping studies, it is recommended that (1) the glass-ceramic/ceramic and neutralization processes be developed further, (2) reduced HF use for the Modified Fluorinel process be implemented as soon as practical and other options reducing chemical usage for criticality control be evaluated, (3) basic development for the glass process be continued as a back-up technology, and (4) laboratory-scale radioactive fuel dissolution testing for the Modified Zirflex process be completed with further process development discontinued unless needed in the future

  15. Fourth international conference on fly ash, silica fume, slag, and natural pozzolans in concrete: Supplemental proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, E.E.; Hemmings, R.T.; Zhang, M.H.; Malhotra, V.M.

    1992-03-01

    This report consists of four papers presented at a special session on high volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete. These four papers summarize an EPRI research project currently in progress that is investigating HVFA concretes. This objective of this research is to commercialize the HVFA concrete technology through: (1) an extensive measurement of basic engineering and durability properties; (2) an examination of the binder microstructure and cementation hydration reactions; and (3) technology transfer to industry and the construction community. Overall the data from the project that are summarized in these papers, show that commercial quality structural grade concrete (up to 50 MPa compressive strength at 90 days) can be made from a wide range of fly ashes and cements available throughout the USA. It has been shown in this project that fly ash is a reactive participant with the Portland cement in the cementing process, and also serves as a microaggregate in a multiphase composite binder formed during curing. The properties of the binder were found to significantly influence strength development, elastic modulus, and the stress-strain behavior of HVFA concrete. Overall, the data presented show that regardless of the type of fly ash (from the nine US ashes evaluated) and the two cements used, that air-entrained HVFA concrete exhibits excellent durability in all respects except under application of deicing salts where some surface scaling has been observed in the laboratory

  16. Sensitizing pigment in the fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, K.; Kirschfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing pigment hypothesis for the high UV sensitivity in fly photoreceptors (R1-6) is further substantiated by measurements of the polarisation sensitivity in the UV. The quantum yield of the energy transfer from sensitizing pigment to rhodopsin was estimated by electrophysiological measurements of the UV sensitivity and the rhabdomeric absorptance (at 490 nm) in individual receptor cells. The transfer efficiency is >=0.75 in receptors with an absorptance in the rhabdomeres of 0.55-0.95. This result suggests that the sensitizing pigment is bound in some way to the rhodopsin. A ratio of two molecules of sensitizing pigment per one rhodopsin is proposed. (orig.)

  17. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other to make the aircraft roll. For example, a downward dis- placement of the left aileron causes the airplane to roll to the right. In Figure 4 the elevators have been deflected downwards, giving rise to a 'nose-down' moment about the pitch axis. Delaying Turbulence. In the last few decades, flying machines have proliferated ...

  18. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fetal lung volume measurement by MRI with high-speed imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osada, Hisao; Kaku, Kenshi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-08-01

    Although ultrasonography is widely used for fetal morphologic observation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has gained popularity as a new prenatal diagnostic method with recent introduction of high-speed imaging systems. Infants with lung hypoplasia affecting respiratory function require intensive management starting immediately after birth. Therefore, accurate prenatal differential diagnosis and severity evaluation are extremely important for these fetuses. The aim of this study is to measure fetal lung volume using a computer-based, three-dimensional MRI imaging system and to evaluate the possibility of clinical applications of this procedure. A total of 96 fetuses were evaluated, all were morphologically abnormal, and MRI was done for advanced assessment from 24 to 39 weeks gestation. Three-directional views of fetal chest were imaged by Signa Horizon, 1.5 Tesla, version 5.6 (General Electronics) with the following conditions; coil: TORSO coil, sequence: SSFSE (single shot fast spin echo), slice thickness: 5 mm, and imaging speed: 2 seconds/slice. To calculate the lung volume and create three-dimensional image, the lung area in each slice was traced out, then multiplied using computer image processing. Simultaneously, the volumes of all slices were summed to give the volume of each lung. Linear regression analysis and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used for statistical analyses. In all cases, clear images were obtained, and were adequate for three-dimensional evaluation of the fetal lung. Thirty-five fetuses had poor outcomes, such as intrauterine fetal death, neonatal death, and intensive respiratory care. Regression lines of lung volume versus gestational week were calculated for these fetuses with poor outcome and 61 other fetuses with good outcome. ANCOVA, with gestational week as a covariant, revealed a significant intergroup difference in the lung volume (p<0.001). Similarly, regression lines of lung volume versus fetal body weight estimated by

  20. A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitre, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

  1. High-pitch dual-source CT coronary angiography with low volumes of contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembcke, Alexander; Hein, Patrick A.; Knobloch, Gesine; Durmus, Tahir; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schwenke, Carsten [SCO:SSiS - Schwenke Consulting, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); ISI - Imaging Science Institute Charite, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    To assess the effect of lower volumes of contrast medium (CM) on image quality in high-pitch dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). One-hundred consecutive patients (body weight 65-85 kg, stable heart rate ≤65 bpm, cardiac index ≥2.5 L/min/m{sup 2}) referred for CTCA were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to one of five groups of different CM volumes (G{sub 30}, 30 mL; G{sub 40}, 40 mL; G{sub 50}, 50 mL; G{sub 60}, 60 mL; G{sub 70}, 70 mL; flow rate 5 mL/s each, iodine content 370 mg/mL). Attenuation within the proximal and distal coronary artery segments was analysed. Mean attenuation for men and women ranged from 345.0 and 399.1 HU in G{sub 30} to 478.2 and 571.8 HU in G{sub 70}. Mean attenuation values were higher in groups with higher CM volumes (P < 0.0001) and higher in women than in men (P < 0.0001). The proportions of segments with attenuation of at least 300 HU in G{sub 30}, G{sub 40}, G{sub 50}, G{sub 60} and G{sub 70} were 89 %, 95 %, 98 %, 98 % and 99 %. CM volume of 30 mL in women and 40 mL in men proved to be sufficient to guarantee attenuation of at least 300 HU. In selected patients high-pitch dual-source CTCA can be performed with CM volumes of 40 mL in men or 30 mL in women. (orig.)

  2. Back-end interconnection. A generic concept for high volume manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosman, J.; Budel, T.; De Kok, C.J.G.M.

    2013-10-15

    The general method to realize series connection in thin film PV modules is monolithical interconnection through a sequence of laser scribes (P1, P2 and P3) and layer depositions. This method however implies that the deposition processes are interrupted several times, an undesirable situation in high volume processing. In order to eliminate this drawback we focus our developments on the so called 'back-end interconnection concept' in which series interconnection takes place AFTER the deposition of the functional layers of the thin film PV device. The process of making a back-end interconnection combines laser scribing, curing, sintering and inkjet processes. These different processes interacts with each other and are investigated in order to create processing strategies that are robust to ensure high volume production. The generic approach created a technology base that can be applied to any thin film PV technology.

  3. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Updating Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Fly Ash for Use in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-22

    When incorporated in concrete mixtures, fly ashes are known to influence both its fresh and hardened properties. An accurate and quick technique to predict the extent of this influence based on the characteristics of fly ash would be highly beneficia...

  5. Alkali content of fly ash : measuring and testing strategies for compliance : [tech transfer summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the test methods used to determine the : alkali content of fly ash. It also evaluated if high-alkali fly ash : exacerbates alkali-silica reaction in laboratory tests and field : concrete.

  6. Adoption of lean principles in a high-volume molecular diagnostic microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P Shawn; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Yao, Joseph D C

    2014-07-01

    Clinical laboratories are constantly facing challenges to do more with less, enhance quality, improve test turnaround time, and reduce operational expenses. Experience with adopting and applying lean concepts and tools used extensively in the manufacturing industry is described for a high-volume clinical molecular microbiology laboratory, illustrating how operational success and benefits can be achieved. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Novel reprocessing methods with nuclide separation for volume reduction of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposing system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the MA separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In our proposing processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. We expect that our proposing will contribute to that volume reduction of high level radioactive waste by combining the transmutation techniques, usage of valuable elements, and so on. (author)

  8. VOLUME STUDY WITH HIGH DENSITY OF PARTICLES BASED ON CONTOUR AND CORRELATION IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Yu. Nikolaeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study is the techniques of particle statistics evaluation, in particular, processing methods of particle images obtained by coherent illumination. This paper considers the problem of recognition and statistical accounting for individual images of small scattering particles in an arbitrary section of the volume in case of high concentrations. For automatic recognition of focused particles images, a special algorithm for statistical analysis based on contouring and thresholding was used. By means of the mathematical formalism of the scalar diffraction theory, coherent images of the particles formed by the optical system with high numerical aperture were simulated. Numerical testing of the method proposed for the cases of different concentrations and distributions of particles in the volume was performed. As a result, distributions of density and mass fraction of the particles were obtained, and the efficiency of the method in case of different concentrations of particles was evaluated. At high concentrations, the effect of coherent superposition of the particles from the adjacent planes strengthens, which makes it difficult to recognize images of particles using the algorithm considered in the paper. In this case, we propose to supplement the method with calculating the cross-correlation function of particle images from adjacent segments of the volume, and evaluating the ratio between the height of the correlation peak and the height of the function pedestal in the case of different distribution characters. The method of statistical accounting of particles considered in this paper is of practical importance in the study of volume with particles of different nature, for example, in problems of biology and oceanography. Effective work in the regime of high concentrations expands the limits of applicability of these methods for practically important cases and helps to optimize determination time of the distribution character and

  9. 77 FR 21065 - Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Test Rule and Significant New Use Rule; Fourth Group of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... 2070-AJ66 Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Test Rule and Significant New Use Rule; Fourth... an opportunity to comment on a proposed test rule for 23 high production volume (HPV) chemical... necessary, to prohibit or limit that activity before it occurs. The opportunity to present oral comment was...

  10. A reliable and consistent production technology for high volume compacted graphite iron castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jincheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The demands for improved engine performance, fuel economy, durability, and lower emissions provide a continual challenge for engine designers. The use of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI has been established for successful high volume series production in the passenger vehicle, commercial vehicle and industrial power sectors over the last decade. The increased demand for CGI engine components provides new opportunities for the cast iron foundry industry to establish efficient and robust CGI volume production processes, in China and globally. The production window range for stable CGI is narrow and constantly moving. Therefore, any one step single addition of magnesium alloy and the inoculant cannot ensure a reliable and consistent production process for complicated CGI engine castings. The present paper introduces the SinterCast thermal analysis process control system that provides for the consistent production of CGI with low nodularity and reduced porosity, without risking the formation of flake graphite. The technology is currently being used in high volume Chinese foundry production. The Chinese foundry industry can develop complicated high demand CGI engine castings with the proper process control technology.

  11. The current status of emergency operations at a high-volume cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Koji; Kimura, Kenya; Kinoshita, Takashi; Ito, Seiji; Abe, Tetsuya; Senda, Yoshiki; Misawa, Kazunari; Ito, Yuichi; Uemura, Norihisa; Natsume, Seiji; Kawai, Ryosuke; Kawakami, Jiro; Asano, Tomonari; Iwata, Yoshinori; Kurahashi, Shintaro; Tsutsuyama, Masayuki; Shigeyoshi, Itaru; Shimizu, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the pathogenic causes, clinical conditions, surgical procedures, in-hospital mortality, and operative death associated with emergency operations at a high-volume cancer center. Although many reports have described the contents, operative procedures, and prognosis of elective surgeries in high-volume cancer centers, emergency operations have not been studied in sufficient detail. We retrospectively enrolled 28 consecutive patients who underwent emergency surgery. Cases involving operative complications were excluded. The following surgical procedures were performed during emergency operations: closure in 3 cases (10.7%), diversion in 22 cases (78.6%), ileus treatment in 2 cases (7.1%), and hemostasis in 1 case (3.6%). Closure alone was performed only once for peritonitis. Diversion was performed in 17 cases (77.3%) of peritonitis, 4 cases (18.2%) of stenosis of the gastrointestinal tract, and 1 case (4.5%) of bleeding. There was a significant overall difference (P = 0.001). The frequency of emergency operations was very low at a high-volume cancer center. However, the recent shift in treatment approaches toward nonoperative techniques may enhance the status of emergency surgical procedures. The results presented in this study will help prepare for emergency situations and resolve them as quickly and efficiently as possible.

  12. Microstructural and compositional change of NaOH-activated high calcium fly ash by incorporating Na-aluminate and co-existence of geopolymeric gel and C–S–H(I)

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Jae Eun

    2012-05-01

    This study explores the reaction products of alkali-activated Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate samples by means of high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (HSXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and compressive strength tests to investigate how the readily available aluminum affects the reaction. Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate raw materials were prepared by incorporating Na-aluminate into the original fly ashes, then alkali-activated by 10 M NaOH solution. Incorporating Na-aluminate reduced the compressive strength of samples, with the reduction magnitude relatively constant regardless of length of curing period. The HSXRD provides evidence of the co-existence of C-S-H with geopolymeric gels and strongly suggests that the C-S-H formed in the current system is C-S-H(I). The back-scattered electron images suggest that the C-S-H(I) phase exists as small grains in a finely intermixed form with geopolymeric gels. Despite providing extra source of aluminum, adding Na-aluminate to the mixes did not decrease the Si/Al ratio of the geopolymeric gel. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Microstructural and compositional change of NaOH-activated high calcium fly ash by incorporating Na-aluminate and co-existence of geopolymeric gel and C–S–H(I)

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Jae Eun; Moon, Juhyuk; Oh, Sang-Gyun; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the reaction products of alkali-activated Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate samples by means of high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (HSXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and compressive strength tests to investigate how the readily available aluminum affects the reaction. Class C fly ash-based aluminosilicate raw materials were prepared by incorporating Na-aluminate into the original fly ashes, then alkali-activated by 10 M NaOH solution. Incorporating Na-aluminate reduced the compressive strength of samples, with the reduction magnitude relatively constant regardless of length of curing period. The HSXRD provides evidence of the co-existence of C-S-H with geopolymeric gels and strongly suggests that the C-S-H formed in the current system is C-S-H(I). The back-scattered electron images suggest that the C-S-H(I) phase exists as small grains in a finely intermixed form with geopolymeric gels. Despite providing extra source of aluminum, adding Na-aluminate to the mixes did not decrease the Si/Al ratio of the geopolymeric gel. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Extract of the seeds of the plant Vitex agnus castus proven to be highly efficacious as a repellent against ticks, fleas, mosquitoes and biting flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schmahl, Günter; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2005-03-01

    About 70 plant extracts were tested for their ability to repel the attacks of blood-sucking arthropods. It was found that a CO2 extract of the seeds of the Mediterranean plant Vitex agnus castus (monk's pepper) can be used as a spray to keep away especially Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from animals and humans for at least 6 h. In addition mosquitoes, biting flies and fleas are also repelled for about 6 h.

  15. 'Information on the fly': Challenges in professional communication in high technological nursing. A focus group study from a radiotherapy department in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmark, Catarina; Tishelman, Carol; Gustafsson, Helena; Sharp, Lena

    2012-07-23

    Radiotherapy (RT) units are high-tech nursing environments. In Sweden, RT registered nurses (RNs) provide and manage RT in close collaboration with other professional groups, as well as providing nursing care for patients with cancer. Communication demands on these RNs are thus particularly complex. In this study, we aimed to better understand problems, strengths and change needs related to professional communication with and within the RT department, as a basis for developing a situation-specific intervention. Focus groups discussions (FGDs) were conducted with different professional (RNs, assistant nurses, physicians, engineers and physicists) and user stakeholders. Transcripts of the FGDs were inductively analyzed by a team of researchers, to generate clinically relevant and useful data. These findings give insight into RT safety climate and are presented under three major headings: Conceptualization of professional domains; Organization and leadership issues; and Communication forms, strategies and processes. The impact of existing hierarchies, including how they are conceptualized and acted out in practice, was noted throughout these data. Despite other differences, participating professionals agreed about communication problems related to RT, i.e. a lack of systems and processes for information transfer, unclear role differentiation, a sense of mutual disrespect, and ad hoc communication taking place 'on the fly'. While all professional groups recognized extensive communication problems, none acknowledged the potential negative effects on patient safety or care described in the FGD with patient representatives. While RNs often initially denied the existence of a hierarchy, they placed themselves on a hierarchy in their descriptions, describing their own role as passive, with a sense of powerlessness. Potential safety hazards described in the FGDs include not reporting medical errors and silently ignoring or actively opposing new guidelines and regulations

  16. Association Between Treatment at High-Volume Facilities and Improved Overall Survival in Soft Tissue Sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venigalla, Sriram; Nead, Kevin T; Sebro, Ronnie; Guttmann, David M; Sharma, Sonam; Simone, Charles B; Levin, William P; Wilson, Robert J; Weber, Kristy L; Shabason, Jacob E

    2018-03-15

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare malignancies that require complex multidisciplinary management. Therefore, facilities with high sarcoma case volume may demonstrate superior outcomes. We hypothesized that STS treatment at high-volume (HV) facilities would be associated with improved overall survival (OS). Patients aged ≥18 years with nonmetastatic STS treated with surgery and radiation therapy at a single facility from 2004 through 2013 were identified from the National Cancer Database. Facilities were dichotomized into HV and low-volume (LV) cohorts based on total case volume over the study period. OS was assessed using multivariable Cox regression with propensity score-matching. Patterns of care were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Of 9025 total patients, 1578 (17%) and 7447 (83%) were treated at HV and LV facilities, respectively. On multivariable analysis, high educational attainment, larger tumor size, higher grade, and negative surgical margins were statistically significantly associated with treatment at HV facilities; conversely, black race and non-metropolitan residence were negative predictors of treatment at HV facilities. On propensity score-matched multivariable analysis, treatment at HV facilities versus LV facilities was associated with improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.87, 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.95; P = .001). Older age, lack of insurance, greater comorbidity, larger tumor size, higher tumor grade, and positive surgical margins were associated with statistically significantly worse OS. In this observational cohort study using the National Cancer Database, receipt of surgery and radiation therapy at HV facilities was associated with improved OS in patients with STS. Potential sociodemographic disparities limit access to care at HV facilities for certain populations. Our findings highlight the importance of receipt of care at HV facilities for patients with STS and warrant further study into improving access to

  17. High-throughput high-volume nuclear imaging for preclinical in vivo compound screening§.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macholl, Sven; Finucane, Ciara M; Hesterman, Jacob; Mather, Stephen J; Pauplis, Rachel; Scully, Deirdre; Sosabowski, Jane K; Jouannot, Erwan

    2017-12-01

    Preclinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging studies are hampered by low throughput, hence are found typically within small volume feasibility studies. Here, imaging and image analysis procedures are presented that allow profiling of a large volume of radiolabelled compounds within a reasonably short total study time. Particular emphasis was put on quality control (QC) and on fast and unbiased image analysis. 2-3 His-tagged proteins were simultaneously radiolabelled by 99m Tc-tricarbonyl methodology and injected intravenously (20 nmol/kg; 100 MBq; n = 3) into patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models. Whole-body SPECT/CT images of 3 mice simultaneously were acquired 1, 4, and 24 h post-injection, extended to 48 h and/or by 0-2 h dynamic SPECT for pre-selected compounds. Organ uptake was quantified by automated multi-atlas and manual segmentations. Data were plotted automatically, quality controlled and stored on a collaborative image management platform. Ex vivo uptake data were collected semi-automatically and analysis performed as for imaging data. >500 single animal SPECT images were acquired for 25 proteins over 5 weeks, eventually generating >3500 ROI and >1000 items of tissue data. SPECT/CT images clearly visualized uptake in tumour and other tissues even at 48 h post-injection. Intersubject uptake variability was typically 13% (coefficient of variation, COV). Imaging results correlated well with ex vivo data. The large data set of tumour, background and systemic uptake/clearance data from 75 mice for 25 compounds allows identification of compounds of interest. The number of animals required was reduced considerably by longitudinal imaging compared to dissection experiments. All experimental work and analyses were accomplished within 3 months expected to be compatible with drug development programmes. QC along all workflow steps, blinding of the imaging contract research organization to compound properties and

  18. PIEZOELECTRIC WAVEGUIDE SENSOR FOR MEASURING PULSE PRESSURE IN CLOSED LIQUID VOLUMES AT HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRIC DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Zhekul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigations of the characteristics of pressure waves presuppose the registration of the total profile of the pressure wave at a given point in space. For these purposes, various types of «pressure to the electrical signal» transmitters (sensors are used. Most of the common sensors are unsuitable for measuring the pulse pressure in a closed water volume at high hydrostatic pressures, in particular to study the effect of a powerful high-voltage pulse discharge on increasing the inflow of minerals and drinking water in wells. The purpose of the work was to develop antijamming piezoelectric waveguide sensor for measuring pulse pressure at a close distance from a high-voltage discharge channel in a closed volume of a liquid. Methodology. We have applied the calibration method as used as a secondary standard, the theory of electrical circuits. Results. We have selected the design and the circuit solution of the waveguide pressure sensor. We have developed a waveguide pulse-pressure sensor DTX-1 with a measuring loop. This sensor makes it possible to study the spectral characteristics of pressure waves of high-voltage pulse discharge in closed volumes of liquid at a hydrostatic pressure of up to 20 MPa and a temperature of up to 80 °C. The sensor can be used to study pressure waves with a maximum amplitude value of up to 150 MPa and duration of up to 80 µs. According to the results of the calibration, the sensitivity of the developed sensor DTX-1 with a measuring loop is 0.0346 V/MPa. Originality. We have further developed the theory of designing the waveguide piezoelectric pulse pressure sensors for measuring the pulse pressure at a close distance from a high-voltage discharge channel in a closed fluid volume by controlling the attenuation of the amplitude of the pressure signal. Practical value. We have developed, created, calibrated, used in scientific research waveguide pressure pulse sensors DTX-1. We propose sensors DTX-1 for sale

  19. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. High Productivity DRIE solutions for 3D-SiP and MEMS Volume Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puech, M; Thevenoud, J M; Launay, N; Arnal, N; Godinat, P; Andrieu, B; Gruffat, J M

    2006-01-01

    Emerging 3D-SiP technologies and high volume MEMS applications require high productivity mass production DRIE systems. The Alcatel DRIE product range has recently been optimised to reach the highest process and hardware production performances. A study based on sub-micron high aspect ratio structures encountered in the most stringent 3D-SiP has been carried out. The optimization of the Bosch process parameters has resulted in ultra high silicon etch rates, with unrivalled uniformity and repeatability leading to excellent process. In parallel, most recent hardware and proprietary design optimization including vacuum pumping lines, process chamber, wafer chucks, pressure control system, gas delivery are discussed. These improvements have been monitored in a mass production environment for a mobile phone application. Field data analysis shows a significant reduction of cost of ownership thanks to increased throughput and much lower running costs. These benefits are now available for all 3D-SiP and high volume MEMS applications. The typical etched patterns include tapered trenches for CMOS imagers, through silicon via holes for die stacking, well controlled profile angle for 3D high precision inertial sensors, and large exposed area features for inkjet printer heads and Silicon microphones

  1. Effect of additional materials on the properties of glass-ceramic produced from incinerator fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T W

    2004-07-01

    There are 21 Metro-waste incinerators in Taiwan under construction and are expected to be finished at year 2003. It is estimated that these incinerators will produce about two million tons of incinerator ash. In order to reduce the volume and eliminate contamination problems, high temperature molten technology studies have been conducted. The purpose of this research was that of trying to control the chemical composition of the glass-ceramic produced from incinerator fly ash, in order to improve the characteristics of the glass-ceramic. The experimental results showed that the additional materials, Mg(OH)2 and waste glass cullet, can change glass-ceramic phases from gehlenite to augite, pigeonite, and diopside. The physical, mechanical and chemical resistance properties of the glass-ceramic also showed much better characteristics than prepared glass-ceramic using incinerator fly ash alone.

  2. Is the Distance Worth It? Patients With Rectal Cancer Traveling to High-Volume Centers Experience Improved Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaomin; Becerra, Adan Z; Justiniano, Carla F; Boodry, Courtney I; Aquina, Christopher T; Swanger, Alex A; Temple, Larissa K; Fleming, Fergal J

    2017-12-01

    It is unclear whether traveling long distances to high-volume centers would compensate for travel burden among patients undergoing rectal cancer resection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether operative volume outweighs the advantages of being treated locally by comparing the outcomes of patients with rectal cancer treated at local, low-volume centers versus far, high-volume centers. This was a population-based study. The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with rectal cancer. Patients with stage II or III rectal cancer who underwent surgical resection between 2006 and 2012 were included. The outcomes of interest were margins, lymph node yield, receipt of neoadjuvant chemoradiation, adjuvant chemotherapy, readmission within 30 days, 30-day and 90-day mortality, and 5-year overall survival. A total of 18,605 patients met inclusion criteria; 2067 patients were in the long-distance/high-volume group and 1362 in the short-distance/low-volume group. The median travel distance was 62.6 miles for the long-distance/high-volume group and 2.3 miles for the short-distance/low-volume group. Patients who were younger, white, privately insured, and stage III were more likely to have traveled to a high-volume center. When controlled for patient factors, stage, and hospital factors, patients in the short-distance/low-volume group had lower odds of a lymph node yield ≥12 (OR = 0.51) and neoadjuvant chemoradiation (OR = 0.67) and higher 30-day (OR = 3.38) and 90-day mortality (OR = 2.07) compared with those in the long-distance/high-volume group. The short-distance/low-volume group had a 34% high risk of overall mortality at 5 years compared with the long-distance/high-volume group. We lacked data regarding patient and physician decision making and surgeon-specific factors. Our results indicate that when controlled for patient, tumor, and hospital factors, patients who traveled a long distance to a high-volume center had improved lymph node yield

  3. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON....... The Recovery Stress Questionnaire - Sport was used to measure the swimmers' stress and recovery levels. After the 12 week intervention, the general stress level was 16.6% (2.6-30.7%; mean and 95% CI) lower and the general recovery level was 6.5% (0.7-12.4%) higher in HIT compared to the CON, after adjusting...... for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers....

  4. Models for high cell density bioreactors must consider biomass volume fraction: Cell recycle example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monbouquette, H G

    1987-06-01

    Intrinsic models, which take into account biomass volume fraction, must be formulated for adequate simulation of high-biomass-density fermentations with cell recycle. Through comparison of corresponding intrinsic and non-intrinsic models in dimensionless form, constraints for non-intrinsic model usage in terms of biokinetic and fermenter operating parameters can be identified a priori. Analysis of a simple product-inhibition model indicates that the non-intrinsic approach is suitable only when the attainable biomass volume fraction in the fermentation broth is less than about 0.10. Inappropriate application of a non-intrinsic model can lead to gross errors in calculated substrate and product concentrations, substrate conversion, and volumetric productivity.

  5. Models for high cell density bioreactors must consider biomass volume fraction: cell recycle example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monbouquette, H.G.

    1987-06-01

    Intrinsic models, which take into account biomass volume fraction, must be formulated for adequate simulation of high-biomass-density fermentations with cell recycle. Through comparison of corresponding intrinsic and non-intrinsic models in dimensionless form, constraints for non-intrinsic model usage in terms of biokinetic and fermenter operating parameters can be identified a priori. Analysis of a simple product-inhibition model indicates that the non-intrinsic approach is suitable only when the attainable biomass volume fraction in the fermentation broth is less than about 0.10. Inappropriate application of a non-intrinsic model can lead to gross errors in calculated substrate and product concentrations, substrate conversion, and volumetric productivity. (Refs. 14).

  6. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-10-05

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  7. Damping behavior of polymer composites with high volume fraction of NiMnGa powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaogang; Song, Jie; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xiaoning; Xie, Chaoying

    2011-03-01

    Polymer composites inserted with high volume fraction (up to 70 Vol%) of NiMnGa powders were fabricated and their damping behavior was investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis. It is found that the polymer matrix has little influence on the transformation temperatures of NiMnGa powders. A damping peak appears for NiMnGa/epoxy resin (EP) composites accompanying with the martensitic transformation or reverse martensitic transformation of NiMnGa powders during cooling or heating. The damping capacity for NiMnGa/EP composites increases linearly with the increase of volume fraction of NiMnGa powders and, decreases dramatically as the test frequency increases. The fracture strain of NiMnGa/EP composites decrease with the increase of NiMnGa powders.

  8. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  9. XMM flying beautifully

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The early orbit phase came to an end on 16 December after XMM had been manoeuvred to its final orbit. This required four firings of its thrusters, on successive passages at apogee, in order to increase XMM's velocity, thus elongating its orbit and raising the perigee from 826 km to 7,365 km. One burn was then made to fine tune the apogee to around 114,000km. The spacecraft, being tracked by ground stations in Perth, Kourou and Villafranca, is now circling the Earth in this highly elliptical orbit once every 48 hours. The XMM flight operations staff have found themselves controlling a spacecraft that responds exceptionally well. During these first orbits, the satellite has been oriented several times with razor-sharp precision. On board systems have responded without incident to several thousand instructions sent by controllers. "XMM is flying so beautifully" says Dietmar Heger, XMM Spacecraft Operations Manager. "The satellite is behaving better in space than all our pre-launch simulations and we have been able to adjust our shifts to this more relaxed situation". On his return from French Guiana, Robert Lainé, XMM Project Manager immediately visited the Darmstadt Mission Control Centre, at ESOC. "The perfect behaviour of XMM at this early stage reflects the constructive cooperation of European industrial companies and top scientists. Spacecraft operations are in the hands of professionals who will endeavour to fulfill the expectations of the astronomers and astrophysicists of the world. I am very happy that ESA could provide them with such a wonderful precision tool". During the early orbit phase, controllers have activated part of XMM's science payload. The three EPIC X-ray cameras have been switched on and vented. On 17 December the telescope doors were opened allowing the spacecraft's golden X-ray Multi Mirror modules to see the sky. The Optical Monitor telescope door was opened on 18 December. During this last weekend, XMM's Radiation Monitor which records

  10. Minimization of storage and disposal volumes by treatment of liquids by highly selective ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, E.; Harjula, R.; Lehto, J.

    2000-01-01

    Novel highly selective inorganic ion exchangers provide new efficient methods for the treatment of nuclear waste liquids. These methods have several advantages compared to conventional technologies such as evaporation, direct solidification or treatment by organic ion exchange resins. Due to high selectivity, the radionuclides can be concentrated to a very small volume even from high-salt effluents. This means that the volume waste will be very small compared to other methods, which brings considerable savings in the cost of intermediate storage and final disposal. Process equipment are highly compact and require little supervision, which brings down the capital and operation costs. The new selective inorganic ion exchangers CsTreat, SrTreat and CoTreat (manufactured by Fortum Engineering Ltd., Finland) have the highest selectivities and processing capacities, exceeding those of zeolites by several orders of magnitude. The materials are now in use in a number of nuclear sites worldwide, including those in the USA, Europe and Japan. Installations include mobile and stationary systems. Considerable experience has been gained in the use of these new materials. Lessons learned, as well as advantages and economic benefits of these highly selective exchangers will be discussed in this paper. (authors)

  11. Comparison of the outcomes for laparoscopic gastrectomy performed by the same surgeon between a low-volume hospital and a high-volume center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Gyu; Kwon, Sung Joon

    2014-05-01

    The volume-outcome relationship in laparoscopic surgery is controversial. This study was designed to identify differences in laparoscopic gastrectomy outcomes between a low-volume hospital and a high-volume center and to provide guidelines for overcoming the problems associated with a low-volume hospital. From April 2009 to November 2012, one surgeon performed 134 totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomies (TLDGs) at a high-volume center (HVC; ASAN Medical Center) and at a low-volume hospital (LVH; Hanyang University Guri Hospital). All laparoscopically assisted gastrectomies were excluded from this study. During the early period of laparoscopic gastrectomy at the low-volume hospital, TLDG with Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy (RYGJ) was performed according to the surgeon's choice. The reconstruction method was classified as gastroduodenostomy (GD) or RYGJ. Early surgical outcomes achieved at the LVH were investigated and compared with those obtained at the HVC. The early surgical outcomes differed significantly between the two hospitals. In particular, the postoperative complication rate for the patients who underwent TLDG RYGJ at the LVH was higher than at the HVC (LVH 15.4 % vs. HVC 0 %; p = 0.037). Furthermore, significant differences were observed in the mean operation time (TLDG GD: LVH 141.0 min vs. HVC 117.4 min, p = 0.001; TLDG RYGJ: LVH 186.3 min vs. HVC 134.6 min, p = 0.009) and length of hospital stay (TLDG GD: LVH 8.1 days vs. HVC 7.2 days, p = 0.044; TLDG RYGJ: LVH 11.5 day vs. HVC 6.8 day, p = 0.009). Although all the operations were performed by one experienced surgeon, the early surgical outcomes differed significantly between the low- and high-volume hospitals. Low-volume hospitals often lack well-trained surgical professionals such as first assistants and scrub nurses. Therefore, the authors recommend that a surgeon who works at an LVH should assess potential personnel shortages and find a solution before operating.

  12. Ageless Aluminum-Cerium-Based Alloys in High-Volume Die Casting for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromme, Eric T.; Henderson, Hunter B.; Sims, Zachary C.; Kesler, Michael S.; Weiss, David; Ott, Ryan T.; Meng, Fanqiang; Kassoumeh, Sam; Evangelista, James; Begley, Gerald; Rios, Orlando

    2018-04-01

    Strong chemical reactions between Al and Ce lead to the formation of intermetallics with exceptional thermal stability. The rapid formation of intermetallics directly from the liquid phase during solidification of Al-Ce alloys leads to an ultrafine microconstituent structure that effectively strengthens as-cast alloys without further microstructural optimization via thermal processing. Die casting is a high-volume manufacturing technology that accounts for greater than 40% of all cast Al products, whereas Ce is highly overproduced as a waste product of other rare earth element (REE) mining. Reducing heat treatments would stimulate significant improvements in manufacturing energy efficiency, exceeding (megatonnes/year) per large-scale heat-treatment line. In this study, multiple compositions were evaluated with wedge mold castings to test the sensitivity of alloys to the variable solidification rate inherent in high-pressure die casting. Once a suitable composition was determined, it was successfully demonstrated at 800 lbs/h in a 600-ton die caster, after which the as-die cast parts performed similarly to ubiquitous A380 in the same geometry without requiring heat treatment. This work demonstrates the compatibility of Al REE alloys with high-volume die-casting applications with minimal heat treatments.

  13. Ageless Aluminum-Cerium-Based Alloys in High-Volume Die Casting for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromme, Eric T.; Henderson, Hunter B.; Sims, Zachary C.; Kesler, Michael S.; Weiss, David; Ott, Ryan T.; Meng, Fanqiang; Kassoumeh, Sam; Evangelista, James; Begley, Gerald; Rios, Orlando

    2018-06-01

    Strong chemical reactions between Al and Ce lead to the formation of intermetallics with exceptional thermal stability. The rapid formation of intermetallics directly from the liquid phase during solidification of Al-Ce alloys leads to an ultrafine microconstituent structure that effectively strengthens as-cast alloys without further microstructural optimization via thermal processing. Die casting is a high-volume manufacturing technology that accounts for greater than 40% of all cast Al products, whereas Ce is highly overproduced as a waste product of other rare earth element (REE) mining. Reducing heat treatments would stimulate significant improvements in manufacturing energy efficiency, exceeding (megatonnes/year) per large-scale heat-treatment line. In this study, multiple compositions were evaluated with wedge mold castings to test the sensitivity of alloys to the variable solidification rate inherent in high-pressure die casting. Once a suitable composition was determined, it was successfully demonstrated at 800 lbs/h in a 600-ton die caster, after which the as-die cast parts performed similarly to ubiquitous A380 in the same geometry without requiring heat treatment. This work demonstrates the compatibility of Al REE alloys with high-volume die-casting applications with minimal heat treatments.

  14. High Center Volume Does Not Mitigate Risk Associated with Using High Donor Risk Organs in Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Eliza W; Black, Sylvester M; Mumtaz, Khalid; Hayes, Don; El-Hinnawi, Ashraf; Washburn, Kenneth; Tumin, Dmitry

    2017-09-01

    High-risk donor allografts increase access to liver transplant, but potentially reduce patient and graft survival. It is unclear whether the risk associated with using marginal donor livers is mitigated by increasing center experience. The United Network for Organ Sharing registry was queried for adult first-time liver transplant recipients between 2/2002 and 12/2015. High donor risk was defined as donor risk index >1.9, and 1-year patient and graft survival were compared according to donor risk index in small and large centers. Multivariable Cox regression estimated the hazard ratio (HR) associated with using high-risk donor organs, according to a continuous measure of annual center volume. The analysis included 51,770 patients. In 67 small and 67 large centers, high donor risk index predicted increased mortality (p = 0.001). In multivariable analysis, high-donor risk index allografts predicted greater mortality hazard at centers performing 20 liver transplants per year (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.22, 1.49; p donor risk index and center volume was not statistically significant (p = 0.747), confirming that the risk associated with using marginal donor livers was comparable between smaller and larger centers. Results were consistent when examining graft loss. At both small and large centers, high-risk donor allografts were associated with reduced patient and graft survival after liver transplant. Specific strategies to mitigate the risk of liver transplant involving high-risk donors are needed, in addition to accumulation of center expertise.

  15. Pore volume is most highly correlated with the visual assessment of skin pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S J; Shin, M K; Back, J H; Koh, J S

    2014-11-01

    Many studies have been focused on evaluating assessment techniques for facial pores amid growing attention on skin care. Ubiquitous techniques used to assess the size of facial pores include visual assessment, cross-section images of the skin surface, and profilometric analysis of silicone replica of the facial skin. In addition, there are indirect assessment methods, including observation of pores based on confocal laser scanning microscopy and the analysis of sebum secretion and skin elasticity. The aim of this study was to identify parameters useful in estimating pore of surface in normal skin. The severity of pores on the cheek area by frontal optical images was divided on a 0-6 scale with '0' being faint and small pore and '6' being obvious and large pore. After the photos of the frontal cheek of 32 women aged between 35 and 49 were taken, the size of their pores was measured on a 0-6 scale; and the correlation between visual grading of pore and various evaluations (pore volume by 3-D image, pore area and number by Optical Image Analyzer) contributing to pore severity investigated using direct, objective, and noninvasive evaluations. The visual score revealed that the size of pores was graded on a 1-6 scale. Visual grading of pore was highly correlated with pore volume measured from 3-D images and pore area measured from 2-D optical images in the order (P pore was also slightly correlated with the number of pores in size of over 0.04 mm(2) (P pore score and pore volume can be explained by 3-D structural characteristics of pores. It is concluded that pore volume and area serve as useful parameters in estimating pore of skin surface. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Dose volume assessment of high dose rate 192IR endobronchial implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, B. Saw; Korb, Leroy J.; Pawlicki, Todd; Wu, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To study the dose distributions of high dose rate (HDR) endobronchial implants using the dose nonuniformity ratio (DNR) and three volumetric irradiation indices. Methods and Materials: Multiple implants were configured by allowing a single HDR 192 Ir source to step through a length of 6 cm along an endobronchial catheter. Dwell times were computed to deliver a dose of 5 Gy to points 1 cm away from the catheter axis. Five sets of source configurations, each with different dwell position spacings from 0.5 to 3.0 cm, were evaluated. Three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions were then generated for each source configuration. Differential and cumulative dose-volume curves were generated to quantify the degree of target volume coverage, dose nonuniformity within the target volume, and irradiation of tissues outside the target volume. Evaluation of the implants were made using the DNR and three volumetric irradiation indices. Results: The observed isodose distributions were not able to satisfy all the dose constraints. The ability to optimally satisfy the dose constraints depended on the choice of dwell position spacing and the specification of the dose constraint points. The DNR and irradiation indices suggest that small dwell position spacing does not result in a more homogeneous dose distribution for the implant. This study supports the existence of a relationship between the dwell position spacing and the distance from the catheter axis to the reference dose or dose constraint points. Better dose homogeneity for an implant can be obtained if the spacing of the dwell positions are about twice the distance from the catheter axis to the reference dose or dose constraint points

  17. Mix design and properties of fly ash waste lightweight aggregates in structural lightweight concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu S. Nadesan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials and has the ability to consume industrial wastes in high volume. As the demand for concrete is increasing, one of the effective ways to reduce the undesirable environmental impact of the concrete is by the use of waste and by-product materials as cement and aggregate substitutes in concrete. One such waste material is fly ash, which is produced in large quantities from thermal power plants as a by-product. A substantial amount of fly ash is left unused posing environmental and storage problems. The production of sintered lightweight aggregate with fly ash is an effective method to dispose of fly ash in large quantities. Due to lack of a proper mix design procedure, the production and application of lightweight aggregate in structural concrete are not much entertained. The absorption characteristic of lightweight aggregate is a major concern, while developing the mix proportioning of lightweight concretes. The present study is an attempt to establish a new mix design procedure for the development of sintered fly ash lightweight aggregate concretes, which is simple and more reliable than the existing procedures. Also, the proposed methodology has been validated by developing a spectrum of concretes having water cement ratios varying from 0.25 to 0.75. From the study, it is obvious that the development of 70 MPa concrete is possible by using cement alone without any additives. Also, it is ensured that all the concretes have densities less than 2000 kg/m3.

  18. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 5) outlines the standards and requirements for the Fire Protection and Packaging and Transportation sections

  19. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

  20. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

  1. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

  2. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction

  3. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations

  4. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety

  5. Best Practices During Hip Arthroscopy: Aggregate Recommendations of High-Volume Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Asheesh; Suarez-Ahedo, Carlos; Redmond, John M; Gerhardt, Michael B; Hanypsiak, Bryan; Stake, Christine E; Finch, Nathan A; Domb, Benjamin G

    2015-09-01

    To survey surgeons who perform a high volume of hip arthroscopy procedures regarding their operative technique, type of procedure, and postoperative management. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 27 high-volume orthopaedic surgeons specializing in hip arthroscopy to report their preferences and practices related to their operative practice and postoperative rehabilitation protocol. All participants completed the survey in person in an anonymous fashion during a meeting of the American Hip Institute. All surgeons perform hip arthroscopy with the patient in the supine position, accessing the central compartment of the hip initially, using intraoperative fluoroscopy. All surgeons perform labral repair (100%), with the majority performing labral reconstructions (77.8%) and gluteus medius repairs (81.5%). There is variability in the type of anchors used during labral repair. Most surgeons perform capsular closure in most cases (88.9%), inject either intra-articular cortisone or platelet-rich plasma at the conclusion of the procedure (59%), and prescribe a postoperative hip brace for some or all patients (59%). There is considerable variability in rehabilitation protocols. All surgeons routinely prescribe postoperative heterotopic ossification prophylaxis to their patients, with most surgeons (88.9%) prescribing a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication for 3 weeks. Forty percent of the respondents use the modified Harris Hip Score as the most important outcome measure. Consistent practices such as use of intraoperative fluoroscopy, heterotopic ossification prophylaxis, and labral repair skills were identified by surveying 27 hip arthroscopy surgeons at high-volume centers. Most of the surgeons performed routine capsular closure unless underlying conditions precluded capsular release or plication. The survey identified higher variability between surgeons regarding postoperative rehabilitation protocols and use of intra-articular pharmacologic injections at the

  6. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 1: high performance P/M metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of this sequence of seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  7. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 1: high performance P/M metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneringer, G; Roedhammer, P; Wildner, H [eds.

    2001-07-01

    The proceedings of this sequence of seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  8. High-Efficiency Volume Reflection of an Ultrarelativistic Proton Beam with a Bent Silicon Crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter; Carnera, Alberto; Della Mea, Gianantonio; De Salvador, Davide; Milan, Riccardo; Vomiero, Alberto; Baricordi, Stefano; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Guidi, Vincenzo; Martinelli,Giuliano; Mazzolari, Andrea; Milan, Emiliano; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Azzarello, Philipp; Battiston, Roberto; Bertucci, Bruna; Burger, William J; Ionica, Maria; Zuccon, Paolo; Cavoto, Gianluca; Santacesaria, Roberta; Valente, Paolo; Vallazza, Erik; Afonin, Alexander G; Baranov, Vladimir T; Chesnokov, Yury A; Kotov, Vladilen I; Maisheev, Vladimir A; Yaznin, Igor A; Afansiev, Sergey V; Kovalenko, Alexander D; Taratin, Alexander M; Denisov, Alexander S; Gavrikov, Yury A; Ivanov, Yuri M; Ivochkin, Vladimir G; Kosyanenko, Sergey V; Petrunin, Anatoli A; Skorobogatov, Vyacheslav V; Suvorov, Vsevolod M; Bolognini, Davide; Foggetta,Luca; Hasan, Said; Prest, Michela

    2007-01-01

    The volume reflection phenomenon was detected while investigating 400 GeV proton interactions with bent silicon crystals in the external beam H8 of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Such a process was observed for a wide interval of crystal orientations relative to the beam axis, and its efficiency exceeds 95%, thereby surpassing any previously observed value. These observations suggest new perspectives for the manipulation of high-energy beams, e.g., for collimation and extraction in new-generation hadron colliders, such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  9. Severe Leptospirosis with Multiple Organ Failure Successfully Treated by Plasma Exchange and High-Volume Hemofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Bourquin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptospirosis is a spirochetal zoonosis with complex clinical features including renal and liver failure. Case report. We report the case of a Swiss fisherman presenting with leptospirosis. After initial improvement, refractory septic shock and severe liver and kidney failure developed. The expected mortality was estimated at 90% with clinical scores. The patient underwent plasma exchanges and high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF with complete recovery of hepatic and kidney functions. Discussion. Plasma exchanges and HVHF may confer survival benefit on patients with severe leptospirosis, refractory septic shock, and multiple-organ failure.

  10. A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Qijing; Chen, Daru; Wu, Genzhu; Peng, Baojin; Xu, Jiancheng

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel hybrid plasmonic microcavity which is composed of a silver nanoring and a silica toroidal microcavity. The hybrid mode of the proposed hybrid plasmonic microcavity due to the coupling between the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and the dielectric mode is demonstrated with a high quality factor (>1000) and an ultrasmall mode volume (∼0.8 μm 3 ). This microcavity shows great potential in fundamental studies of nonlinear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) and applications in low-threshold plasmonic microlasers. (paper)

  11. Snow cover volumes dynamic monitoring during melting season using high topographic accuracy approach for a Lebanese high plateau witness sinkhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, Charbel; Somma, Janine; Elali, Taha; Drapeau, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and its negative impact on water resource is well described. For countries like Lebanon, undergoing major population's rise and already decreasing precipitations issues, effective water resources management is crucial. Their continuous and systematic monitoring overs long period of time is therefore an important activity to investigate drought risk scenarios for the Lebanese territory. Snow cover on Lebanese mountains is the most important water resources reserve. Consequently, systematic observation of snow cover dynamic plays a major role in order to support hydrologic research with accurate data on snow cover volumes over the melting season. For the last 20 years few studies have been conducted for Lebanese snow cover. They were focusing on estimating the snow cover surface using remote sensing and terrestrial measurement without obtaining accurate maps for the sampled locations. Indeed, estimations of both snow cover area and volumes are difficult due to snow accumulation very high variability and Lebanese mountains chains slopes topographic heterogeneity. Therefore, the snow cover relief measurement in its three-dimensional aspect and its Digital Elevation Model computation is essential to estimate snow cover volume. Despite the need to cover the all lebanese territory, we favored experimental terrestrial topographic site approaches due to high resolution satellite imagery cost, its limited accessibility and its acquisition restrictions. It is also most challenging to modelise snow cover at national scale. We therefore, selected a representative witness sinkhole located at Ouyoun el Siman to undertake systematic and continuous observations based on topographic approach using a total station. After four years of continuous observations, we acknowledged the relation between snow melt rate, date of total melting and neighboring springs discharges. Consequently, we are able to forecast, early in the season, dates of total snowmelt and springs low

  12. Development of a high-order finite volume method with multiblock partition techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Lemos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a new numerical methodology to solve the Navier-Stokes equations based on a finite volume method applied to structured meshes with co-located grids. High-order schemes used to approximate advective, diffusive and non-linear terms, connected with multiblock partition techniques, are the main contributions of this paper. Combination of these two techniques resulted in a computer code that involves high accuracy due the high-order schemes and great flexibility to generate locally refined meshes based on the multiblock approach. This computer code has been able to obtain results with higher or equal accuracy in comparison with results obtained using classical procedures, with considerably less computational effort.

  13. Conversion of South African coal fly ash into high-purity ZSM-5 zeolite without additional source of silica or alumina and its application as a methanol-to-olefins catalyst

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Missengue, RNM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of ZSM-5 synthesized from H2SO4-treated coal fly ash and fused coal fly ash extracts are compared in this study. In the synthesis process, fused coal fly ash extract (without an additional silica source) was used in the synthesis...

  14. Flying car design and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, S.; Smrcek, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is primarily concerned with the inverted design process and manufacture of a flying car prototype which can overcome the problem of traffic management in the world today. A possible solution to the problem of overcrowded roads would be to design a flying or hovering car. Given technological advances in aircraft construction, navigation and operation, flying cars or personal aircraft are now a feasible proposition. The viability of such a concept was investigated in terms of produci...

  15. Adjustable mounting device for high-volume production of beam-shaping systems for high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Sebastian; Bernhardt, Henning; Rübenach, Olaf; Haverkamp, Tobias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In many applications for high-power diode lasers, the production of beam-shaping and homogenizing optical systems experience rising volumes and dynamical market demands. The automation of assembly processes on flexible and reconfigurable machines can contribute to a more responsive and scalable production. The paper presents a flexible mounting device designed for the challenging assembly of side-tab based optical systems. It provides design elements for precisely referencing and fixating two optical elements in a well-defined geometric relation. Side tabs are presented to the machine allowing the application of glue and a rotating mechanism allows the attachment to the optical elements. The device can be adjusted to fit different form factors and it can be used in high-volume assembly machines. The paper shows the utilization of the device for a collimation module consisting of a fast-axis and a slow-axis collimation lens. Results regarding the repeatability and process capability of bonding side tab assemblies as well as estimates from 3D simulation for overall performance indicators achieved such as cycle time and throughput will be discussed.

  16. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in ground level air using the ASS-500 high volume sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, E.; Arnold, D.; Wershofen, H.

    1996-01-01

    A method for determination of radionuclide concentrations in air aerosol samples collected by the high volume aerosol sampler ASS-500 was elaborated. The aerosol sampling station ASS-500 is a Stand alone, all-weather proofed instrument. It is designed for representative sampling of airborne radionuclides from ground level air at a height of about 1.5 m above ground level. The ASS-500 station enables continuous air monitoring both normal and emergency Situations. The collection of aerosols on the Petrianov FPP-15-1.5 type filter out of an air volume of about 100,000 m 3 (sampling period 1 wk) or of about 250,000 m 3 (sampling period 3 wk) admits accurate spectrometric low level measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides. The achieved detection limit is 0.5 μBq m -3 and 0.2 μBq m -3 for 137 Cs, respectively. A new developed air flow Meter system allows to enhance the collected air volume to about 150,000 m 3 per week and lowers the detection limit to -3 for 137 Cs for weekly collected aerosol samples. In Poland the CLOR uses 9 Stations ASS-500 at different sites as atmospheric radioactivity control system. On the basis of spectrometric measurements of natural and artificial radionuclides in the collected aerosol samples at the different sites, CLOR establishes a weekly report about the radiological situation at Poland for responsible authorities. The very low achievable detection limit of the Station ASS-500 due 10 the high air flow fate and the long possible sampling period were the key argument for other government radiation protection authorities in Europe to introduce the Station ASS-500 into their low level radionuclide atmospheric monitoring programs (Austria, Belarus, France, Germany, Iceland, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine)

  17. Surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Dharmalingam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fly ash, an inorganic alumino silicate has been used as filler in epoxy matrix, but it reduces the mechanical properties due to its poor dispersion and interfacial bonding with the epoxy matrix. To improve its interfacial bonding with epoxy matrix, surface treatment of fly ash was done using surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate and silane coupling agent glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane. An attempt is also made to reduce the particle size of fly ash using high pressure pulverizer. To improve fly ash dispersion in epoxy matrix, the epoxy was modified by mixing with amine containing liquid silicone rubber (ACS. The effect of surface treated fly ash with varying filler loadings from 10 to 40% weight on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of modified epoxy composites was investigated. The surface treated fly ash was characterized by particle size analyzer and FTIR spectra. Morphological studies of surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites indicate good dispersion of fillers in the modified epoxy matrix and improves its mechanical properties. Impact strength of the surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites show more improvement than unmodified composites.

  18. Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  19. Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  20. Mix design and properties of fly ash waste lightweight aggregates in structural lightweight concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Manu S. Nadesan; P. Dinakar

    2017-01-01

    Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials and has the ability to consume industrial wastes in high volume. As the demand for concrete is increasing, one of the effective ways to reduce the undesirable environmental impact of the concrete is by the use of waste and by-product materials as cement and aggregate substitutes in concrete. One such waste material is fly ash, which is produced in large quantities from thermal power plants as a by-product. A substantial amount of ...

  1. A design study for a simple-to-fly, constant attitude light aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, F. O.; Humphreys, D. E.; Montoya, R. J.; Rickard, W. W.; Wilkinson, I. E.

    1973-01-01

    The activities during a four-year study by doctoral students to evolve in detail a design for a simple-to-fly, constant attitude light airplane are described. The study indicated that such aircraft could materially reduce the hazards to light airplane occupants which arise from the high pilot work load and poor visibility that occur during landing. Preliminary cost studies indicate that in volume production this system would increase the cost of the aircraft in roughly the same fashion that automatic transmission, power steering, power brakes, and cruise control increase the cost of a compact car.

  2. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  3. Pozzolanic Activity Assessment of LUSI (LUmpur SIdoarjo) Mud in Semi High Volume Pozzolanic Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardjito, Djwantoro; Antoni; Wibowo, Gunadi M.; Christianto, Danny

    2012-01-01

    LUSI mud obtained from the mud volcano in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, is a viable aluminosilicate material to be utilized as pozzolanic material. LUSI is an abbreviation of the local name of the mud, i.e., Lumpur Sidoarjo, meaning Sidoarjo mud. This paper reports the results of an investigation to assess the pozzolanic activity of LUSI mud, especially in semi high volume pozzolanic mortar. In this case, the amount of mud incorporated is between 30% to 40% of total cementitious material, by mass. The content of SiO2 in the mud is about 30%, whilst the total content of SiO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 is more than 70%. Particle size and degree of partial cement replacement by treated LUSI mud affect the compressive strength, the strength activity index (SAI), the rate of pozzolanic activity development, and the workability of mortar incorporating LUSI mud. Manufacturing semi high volume LUSI mud mortar, up to at least 40% cement replacement, is a possibility, especially with a smaller particle size of LUSI mud, less than 63 μm. The use of a larger percentage of cement replacement by LUSI mud does not show any adverse effect on the water demand, as the flow of the fresh mortar increased with the increase of percentage of LUSI mud usage.

  4. Blood Volume, Plasma Volume and Circulation Time in a High-Energy-Demand Teleost, the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacares)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brill, R.W.; Cousins, K.L.; Jones, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    We measured red cell space with 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, and dextran space with 500 kDa fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran), in two groups of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Red cell space was 13.8+/-0.7 ml kg-1 (mean +/- s.e.m.) Assuming a whole- body hematocrit...... for albacore (Thunnus alalunga, 82-197 ml kg-1). Plasma volume within the primary circulatory system (calculated from the 51Cr-labeled red blood cell data) was 32.9+/-2.3 ml kg-1. Dextran space was 37.0+/-3.7 ml kg-1. Because 500 kDa FITC-dextran appeared to remain within the vascular space, these data imply...

  5. Development of Small-Volume, High-Precision, and Reliable Cryogenic Linear Actuators by Using Novel Intermetallic Compounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space missions often involve ultra-cold environments, and cryogenic actuators must be mechanically robust for long-term cyclic work, generate high power per volume,...

  6. Immobilization of defense high-level waste: an assessment of technological strategies and potential regulatory goals. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: selected immobilization processes, directory of selected European organizations involved in HLW management, U.S. high-level waste inventories, and selected European HLW program

  7. Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Topics discussed include: The Stellar Imager (SI) "Vision Mission"; First Formation Flying Demonstration Mission Including on Flight Nulling; Formation Flying X-ray Telescope in L2 Orbit; SPECS: The Kilometer-baseline Far-IR Interferometer in NASA's Space Science Roadmap Presentation; A Tight Formation for Along-track SAR Interferometry; Realization of the Solar Power Satellite using the Formation Flying Solar Reflector; SIMBOL-X : Formation Flying for High-Energy Astrophysics; High Precision Optical Metrology for DARWIN; Close Formation Flight of Micro-Satellites for SAR Interferometry; Station-Keeping Requirements for Astronomical Imaging with Constellations of Free-Flying Collectors; Closed-Loop Control of Formation Flying Satellites; Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission; Precision Formation Keeping at L2 Using the Autonomous Formation Flying Sensor; Robust Control of Multiple Spacecraft Formation Flying; Virtual Rigid Body (VRB) Satellite Formation Control: Stable Mode-Switching and Cross-Coupling; Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF) System Design, Mission Capabilities, and Testbed Development; Navigation Algorithms for Formation Flying Missions; Use of Formation Flying Small Satellites Incorporating OISL's in a Tandem Cluster Mission; Semimajor Axis Estimation Strategies; Relative Attitude Determination of Earth Orbiting Formations Using GPS Receivers; Analysis of Formation Flying in Eccentric Orbits Using Linearized Equations of Relative Motion; Conservative Analytical Collision Probabilities for Orbital Formation Flying; Equations of Motion and Stability of Two Spacecraft in Formation at the Earth/Moon Triangular Libration Points; Formations Near the Libration Points: Design Strategies Using Natural and Non-Natural Ares; An Overview of the Formation and Attitude Control System for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Formation Flying Interferometer; GVE-Based Dynamics and Control for Formation Flying Spacecraft; GNC System Design for a New Concept of X

  8. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 4: Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickerson, J.; Freeman, T.J.; Boisson, J.Y.; Murray, C.N.; Gera, F.; Nakamura, H.; Nieuwenhuis, J.D.; Schaller, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report summarizes work performed to develop and evaluate engineering methods of emplacing high level radioactive waste in stable, deep ocean sediments. It includes results of desktop studies, laboratory experiments and field tests conducted in deep water

  9. Eating disorders, energy intake, training volume, and menstrual function in high-level modern rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgot-Borgen, J

    1996-06-01

    This study examined clinical and subclinical eating disorders (EDs) in young Norwegian modern rhythmic gymnasts. Subjects were 12 members of the national team, age 13-20 years, and individually matched nonathletic controls. All subjects participated in a structured clinical interview for EDs, medical examination, and dietary analysis. Two of the gymnasts met the DSM-III-R criteria for anorexia nervosa, and 2 met the criteria for anorexia athletica (a subclinical ED). All the gymnasts were dieting in spite of the fact that they were all extremely lean. The avoidance of maturity, menstrual irregularities, energy deficit, high training volume, and high frequency of injuries were common features among the gymnasts. Ther is a need to learn more about risk factors and the etiology of EDs in different sports. Coaches, parents, and athletes need more information about principles of proper nutrition and methods to achieve ideal body composition for optional health and athletic performance.

  10. Middleware Proxy: A Request-Driven Messaging Broker For High Volume Data Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Sliwinski, W; Dworak, A

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, all major infrastructures and data centres (commercial and scientific) make an extensive use of the publish-subscribe messaging paradigm, which helps to decouple the message sender (publisher) from the message receiver (consumer). This paradigm is also heavily used in the CERN Accelerator Control system, in Proxy broker - critical part of the Controls Middleware (CMW) project. Proxy provides the aforementioned publish-subscribe facility and also supports execution of synchronous read and write operations. Moreover, it enables service scalability and dramatically reduces the network resources and overhead (CPU and memory) on publisher machine, required to serve all subscriptions. Proxy was developed in modern C++, using state of the art programming techniques (e.g. Boost) and following recommended software patterns for achieving low-latency and high concurrency. The outstanding performance of the Proxy infrastructure was confirmed during the last 3 years by delivering the high volume of LHC equipment...

  11. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 2: Radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de; Berhendt, V.; Ensminger, D.; Flebus, C.; Hutchinson, B.; Kane, P.; Karpf, A.; Klett, R.; Mobbs, S.; Poulin, M.; Stanner, D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report presents the results of the radiological assessment which consists in estimating the detriment to man and to the environment which could result from the disposal of high level nuclear waste within seabed sediments in the deep oceans

  12. Using electrochemical separation to reduce the volume of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.A.; Gay, E.C.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed an electrochemical separation technique called electrorefining that will treat a variety of metallic spent nuclear fuel and reduce the volume of high-level nuclear waste that requires disposal. As part of that effort, ANL has developed a high throughput electrorefiner (HTER) that has a transport rate approximately three times faster than electrorefiners previously developed at ANL. This higher rate is due to the higher electrode surface area, a shorter transport path, and more efficient mixing, which leads to smaller boundary layers about the electrodes. This higher throughput makes electrorefining an attractive option in treating Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels. Experiments have been done to characterize the HTER, and a simulant metallic fuel has been successfully treated. The HTER design and experimental results is discussed

  13. Flexural Behavior of High-Volume Steel Fiber Cementitious Composite Externally Reinforced with Basalt FRP Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungwon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCCs are characterized by unique tensile strain hardening and multiple microcracking behaviors. The HPFRCC, which demonstrates remarkable properties such as strength, ductility, toughness, durability, stiffness, and thermal resistance, is a class of fiber cement composite with fine aggregates. It can withstand tensile stresses by forming distributed microcracks owing to the embedded fibers in the concrete, which improve the energy absorption capacity and apparent ductility. This high energy absorbing capacity can be enhanced further by an external stiff fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP. Basalt fabric is externally bonded as a sheet on concrete materials to enhance the durability and resistance to fire and other environmental attacks. This study investigates the flexural performance of an HPFRCC that is externally reinforced with multiple layers of basalt FRP. The HPFRCC considered in the study contains steel fibers at a volume fraction of 8%.

  14. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  15. The Flying University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  16. High-voltage electrode optimization towards uniform surface treatment by a pulsed volume discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A V; Pedos, M S; Scherbinin, S V; Mamontov, Y I; Ponomarev, S V

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the shape and material of the high-voltage electrode of an atmospheric pressure plasma generation system were optimised. The research was performed with the goal of achieving maximum uniformity of plasma treatment of the surface of the low-voltage electrode with a diameter of 100 mm. In order to generate low-temperature plasma with the volume of roughly 1 cubic decimetre, a pulsed volume discharge was used initiated with a corona discharge. The uniformity of the plasma in the region of the low-voltage electrode was assessed using a system for measuring the distribution of discharge current density. The system's low-voltage electrode - collector - was a disc of 100 mm in diameter, the conducting surface of which was divided into 64 radially located segments of equal surface area. The current at each segment was registered by a high-speed measuring system controlled by an ARM™-based 32-bit microcontroller. To facilitate the interpretation of results obtained, a computer program was developed to visualise the results. The program provides a 3D image of the current density distribution on the surface of the low-voltage electrode. Based on the results obtained an optimum shape for a high-voltage electrode was determined. Uniformity of the distribution of discharge current density in relation to distance between electrodes was studied. It was proven that the level of non-uniformity of current density distribution depends on the size of the gap between electrodes. Experiments indicated that it is advantageous to use graphite felt VGN-6 (Russian abbreviation) as the material of the high-voltage electrode's emitting surface. (paper)

  17. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  18. Investigation of tDCS volume conduction effects in a highly realistic head model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S.; Rampersad, S. M.; Aydin, Ü.; Vorwerk, J.; Oostendorp, T. F.; Neuling, T.; Herrmann, C. S.; Stegeman, D. F.; Wolters, C. H.

    2014-02-01

    Objective. We investigate volume conduction effects in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and present a guideline for efficient and yet accurate volume conductor modeling in tDCS using our newly-developed finite element (FE) approach. Approach. We developed a new, accurate and fast isoparametric FE approach for high-resolution geometry-adapted hexahedral meshes and tissue anisotropy. To attain a deeper insight into tDCS, we performed computer simulations, starting with a homogenized three-compartment head model and extending this step by step to a six-compartment anisotropic model. Main results. We are able to demonstrate important tDCS effects. First, we find channeling effects of the skin, the skull spongiosa and the cerebrospinal fluid compartments. Second, current vectors tend to be oriented towards the closest higher conducting region. Third, anisotropic WM conductivity causes current flow in directions more parallel to the WM fiber tracts. Fourth, the highest cortical current magnitudes are not only found close to the stimulation sites. Fifth, the median brain current density decreases with increasing distance from the electrodes. Significance. Our results allow us to formulate a guideline for volume conductor modeling in tDCS. We recommend to accurately model the major tissues between the stimulating electrodes and the target areas, while for efficient yet accurate modeling, an exact representation of other tissues is less important. Because for the low-frequency regime in electrophysiology the quasi-static approach is justified, our results should also be valid for at least low-frequency (e.g., below 100 Hz) transcranial alternating current stimulation.

  19. Potential use of fly ash to soil treatment in the Morava region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulíková, Lucia; Kresta, František; Rochovanský, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Soil treatment by binders is a standard technology and leads to optimal utilization of excavated soils in road constructions. Soil treatment is controlled in the Czech Republic by EN 14227-15 and Technical Requirement TP 94. Soil treatment using fly ash has not been performed in the Czech Republic, although there is a sufficient normative base. Fly ash produced by burning of hard coal in the Moravian region was tested as a potential binder. Fly ash samples were mixed with loess loams (CI). Tested siliceous fly ash of class F (ASTM C618) did not showed hydraulic properties but it showed positive effect on reducing maximum dry density of mixtures, increasing the IBI value (Immediate bearing index) and decreasing tendency to volume changes when the amount of fly ash was increased. The results of laboratory tests demonstrate the possibility of using fly ashes as a binder for soil treatment.

  20. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-01

    The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the U.S. for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in each of the volumes.

  1. Mixing subattolitre volumes in a quantitative and highly parallel manner with soft matter nanofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sune M.; Bolinger, Pierre-Yves; Hatzakis, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    Handling and mixing ultrasmall volumes of reactants in parallel can increase the throughput and complexity of screening assays while simultaneously reducing reagent consumption. Microfabricated silicon and plastic can provide reliable fluidic devices, but cannot typically handle total volumes sma...

  2. High-resolution GPS tracking reveals habitat selection and the potential for long-distance seed dispersal by Madagascan flying foxes Pteropus rufus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Oleksy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance seed dispersal can be important for the regeneration of forested habitats, especially in regions where deforestation has been severe. Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae have considerable potential for long-distance seed dispersal. We studied the movement patterns and feeding behaviour of the endemic Madagascan flying fox Pteropus rufus, in Berenty Reserve, southeast Madagascar. Between July and September 2012 (the dry season nine males and six females were tagged with customised GPS loggers which recorded fixes every 2.5 min between 18.00 and 06.00 h. The combined home range of all of the tagged bats during 86 nights exceeded 58,000 ha. Females had larger home ranges and core foraging areas and foraged over longer distances (average 28.1 km; median 26.7 km than males (average 15.4 km; median 9.5 km. Because the study was conducted during the gestation period, the increased energy requirements of females may explain their greater mean foraging area. Compositional analysis revealed that bats show strong preferences for overgrown sisal (Agave sisalana plantations (a mix of shrub, trees and sisal plants and remnant riverside forest patches. Sisal nectar and pollen were abundant food sources during the tracking period and this probably contributed to the selective use of overgrown sisal plantations. The bats also ate large quantities of figs (Ficus grevei during the study, and dispersed seeds of this important pioneer species. The bats flew at an average speed of 9.13 m/s, perhaps to optimise gliding performance. The study confirms that P. rufus has the potential to be a long-distance seed disperser, and is able to fly over a large area, often crossing cleared parts of its habitat. It potentially plays an important role in the regeneration of threatened forest habitats in this biodiversity hotspot.

  3. High concentration tritium gas measurement with small volume ionization chambers for fusion fuel gas monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Okuno, Kenji; Matsuda, Yuji; Naruse, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    To apply ionization chambers to fusion fuel gas processing systems, high concentration tritium gas was experimentally measured with small volume 0.16 and 21.6 cm 3 ionization chambers. From plateau curves, the optimum electric field strength was obtained as 100∼200 V/cm. Detection efficiency was confirmed as dependent on the ionization ability of the filled gas, and moreover on its stopping power, because when the range of the β-rays was shortened, the probability of energy loss by collisions with the electrode and chamber wall increased. Loss of ions by recombination was prevented by using a small volume ionization chamber. For example the 0.16 cm 3 ionization chamber gave measurement with linearity to above 40% tritium gas. After the tritium gas measurements, the concentration levels inside the chamber were estimated from their memory currents. Although more than 1/4,000 of the maximum, current was observed as a memory effect, the smaller ionization chamber gave a smaller memory effect. (author)

  4. Cranial Tumor Surgical Outcomes at a High-Volume Academic Referral Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Desmond A; Himes, Benjamin T; Major, Brittny T; Mundell, Benjamin F; Kumar, Ravi; Kall, Bruce; Meyer, Fredric B; Link, Michael J; Pollock, Bruce E; Atkinson, John D; Van Gompel, Jamie J; Marsh, W Richard; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Bydon, Mohamad; Parney, Ian F

    2018-01-01

    To determine adverse event rates for adult cranial neuro-oncologic surgeries performed at a high-volume quaternary academic center and assess the impact of resident participation on perioperative complication rates. All adult patients undergoing neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial neoplastic lesion between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013, were included. Cases were categorized as biopsy, extra-axial/skull base, intra-axial, or transsphenoidal. Complications were categorized as neurologic, medical, wound, mortality, or none and compared for patients managed by a chief resident vs a consultant neurosurgeon. A total of 6277 neurosurgical procedures for intracranial neoplasms were performed. After excluding radiosurgical procedures and pediatric patients, 4151 adult patients who underwent 4423 procedures were available for analysis. Complications were infrequent, with overall rates of 9.8% (435 of 4423 procedures), 1.7% (73 of 4423), and 1.4% (63 of 4423) for neurologic, medical, and wound complications, respectively. The rate of perioperative mortality was 0.3% (14 of 4423 procedures). Case performance and management by a chief resident did not negatively impact outcome. In our large-volume brain tumor practice, rates of complications were low, and management of cases by chief residents in a semiautonomous manner did not negatively impact surgical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-equilibrium Inertial Separation Array for High-throughput, Large-volume Blood Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Baris R; Smith, Kyle C; Edd, Jon F; Nadar, Priyanka; Dlamini, Mcolisi; Kapur, Ravi; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-08-30

    Microfluidic blood processing is used in a range of applications from cancer therapeutics to infectious disease diagnostics. As these applications are being translated to clinical use, processing larger volumes of blood in shorter timescales with high-reliability and robustness is becoming a pressing need. In this work, we report a scaled, label-free cell separation mechanism called non-equilibrium inertial separation array (NISA). The NISA mechanism consists of an array of islands that exert a passive inertial lift force on proximate cells, thus enabling gentler manipulation of the cells without the need of physical contact. As the cells follow their size-based, deterministic path to their equilibrium positions, a preset fraction of the flow is siphoned to separate the smaller cells from the main flow. The NISA device was used to fractionate 400 mL of whole blood in less than 3 hours, and produce an ultrapure buffy coat (96.6% white blood cell yield, 0.0059% red blood cell carryover) by processing whole blood at 3 mL/min, or ∼300 million cells/second. This device presents a feasible alternative for fractionating blood for transfusion, cellular therapy and blood-based diagnostics, and could significantly improve the sensitivity of rare cell isolation devices by increasing the processed whole blood volume.

  6. Study on plasma melting treatment of crucibles, ceramic filter elements, asbestos, and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Akiko; Nakasio, Nobuyuki; Nakajima, Mikio

    2004-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) decided to adopt an advanced volume reduction program for low-level radioactive wastes. In this program, inorganic wastes are converted to stable glassy products suitable for disposal by a plasma melting system in the Waste Volume Reduction Facilities (WVRF). High melting point wastes such as refractories are excluded from the plasma melting treatment in the WVRF, and wastes difficult to handle such as asbestos are also excluded. However, it is describable to apply the plasma melting treatment to these wastes for stabilization and volume reduction from the viewpoint of disposal. In this paper, plasma melting test of crucibles, ceramic filter elements, asbestos, and simulated fly ashes were carried out as a part of technical support for WVRF. The plasma melting treatment was applicable for crucibles and asbestos because homogeneous and glassy products were obtained by controlling of waste and loading condition. It was found that SiC in ceramic filter elements was volatile with a plasma torch with inert gas, and adding reducer was ineffective against stabilizing volatile metals such as Zn, Pb in a solidified product in the melting test of simulated fly ash. (author)

  7. New challenges during fly ash marketing. Coupled product as a sustainable building material; Neue Herausforderungen bei der Flugaschevermarktung. Koppelprodukt als nachhaltiger Baustoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugot, Andreas [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig./GL)

  8. Plant growth on 'fly ash'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, R; Hodgson, D R; Townsend, W N; Wood, J W

    1958-04-12

    Plants were grown in plot and pot experiments to assess the toxicity of the fly ash. It was found that plants grouped into three classes: tolerant, moderately tolerant, and sensitive. Boron was found to be a major compoent of the toxic principle of fly ash.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of high volume fraction Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite powders by high-energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, B.; Suryanarayana, C.; An, L.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Al-Al 2 O 3 metal matrix composite (MMC) powders with volume fractions of 20, 30, and 50% Al 2 O 3 were synthesized by high-energy milling of the blended component powders. The particle sizes of Al 2 O 3 studied were 50 nm, 150 nm, and 5 μm. A uniform distribution of the Al 2 O 3 reinforcement in the Al matrix was successfully obtained after milling the powders for a period of 20 h at a ball-to-powder ratio of 10:1 in a SPEX mill. The uniform distribution of Al 2 O 3 in the Al matrix was confirmed by characterizing these nanocomposite powders by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray mapping, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques

  10. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  11. High production volume chemical Amine Oxide [C8-C20] category environmental risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Greggs, William

    2009-01-01

    and personal care products. Given the lack of persistence or bioaccumulation, and the low likelihood of these chemicals partitioning to soil, the focus of the environmental assessment is on the aquatic environment. In the United States, the E-FAST model is used to estimate effluent concentrations in the United......An environmental assessment of amine oxides has been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Amine Oxides Consortium. Amine oxides are primarily used in conjunction with surfactants in cleaning...... States from manufacturing facilities and from municipal facilities resulting from consumer product uses. Reasonable worst-case ratios of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) range from 0.04 to 0.003, demonstrating that these chemicals are a low risk...

  12. [Efficiency of high-volume hemofiltration in patients with severe sepsis and intracranial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaeva, T S; Berdnikov, A P; Goncharenko, S I; Denisova, E A

    2014-01-01

    We performed a retrospective study in 68 patients (144 procedures) with severe sepsis and intracranial hypertension measured by the pressure in the central retinal vein. The patients underwent high-volume hemofiltration (HV-HF) for extrarenal indications. Increased pressure in the central retinal vein was accompanied by critical points of cerebral perfusion pressure and the growth of neurological deficit with inhibition level of consciousness to coma 1. In this case, IHV-HF may be associated with the formation of the critical points of cerebral perfihsion and severe disorders of microcirculation and the lack of resolution of tissue hypoperfusion. In case of intracranial hypertension IHV-HF is not effective in the category of patients where there is a combination ΔpCO2 > 5.9 mm Hg level and GCS <10 points.

  13. Challenges and solutions for high-volume testing of silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polster, Robert; Dai, Liang Yuan; Oikonomou, Michail; Cheng, Qixiang; Rumley, Sebastien; Bergman, Keren

    2018-02-01

    The first generation of silicon photonic products is now commercially available. While silicon photonics possesses key economic advantages over classical photonic platforms, it has yet to become a commercial success because these advantages can be fully realized only when high-volume testing of silicon photonic devices is made possible. We discuss the costs, challenges, and solutions of photonic chip testing as reported in the recent research literature. We define and propose three underlying paradigms that should be considered when creating photonic test structures: Design for Fast Coupling, Design for Minimal Taps, and Design for Parallel Testing. We underline that a coherent test methodology must be established prior to the design of test structures, and demonstrate how an optimized methodology dramatically reduces the burden when designing for test, by reducing the needed complexity of test structures.

  14. High volume hydraulic fracturing operations: potential impacts on surface water and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdjen, Igor; Lee, Jiyoung

    2016-08-01

    High volume, hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) processes, used to extract natural gas and oil from underground shale deposits, pose many potential hazards to the environment and human health. HVHF can negatively affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air matrices with potential pollutants. Due to the relatively novel nature of the process, hazards to surface waters and human health are not well known. The purpose of this article is to link the impacts of HVHF operations on surface water integrity, with human health consequences. Surface water contamination risks include: increased structural failure rates of unconventional wells, issues with wastewater treatment, and accidental discharge of contaminated fluids. Human health risks associated with exposure to surface water contaminated with HVHF chemicals include increased cancer risk and turbidity of water, leading to increased pathogen survival time. Future research should focus on modeling contamination spread throughout the environment, and minimizing occupational exposure to harmful chemicals.

  15. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Larsson, Tanja Hultengren; Jørgensen, Majke

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT c...... (3.8±0.7 vs. 3.8±0.7 l O2×min-1; n = 11) group. Oxygen uptake determined at fixed submaximal speed was not significantly affected in either group by the intervention. Body fat % tended to increase (P = 0.09) in the HIT group (15.4±1.6% vs. 16.3±1.6%; P = 0.09; n = 16) and increased (P...

  16. Reduction on high level radioactive waste volume and geological repository footprint with high burn-up and high thermal efficiency of HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukaya, Yuji, E-mail: fukaya.yuji@jaea.go.jp; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate the number of canisters and its footprint for HTGR. • We proposed new waste loading method for direct disposal of HTGR. • HTGR can significantly reduce HLW volume compared with LWR. - Abstract: Reduction on volume of High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) and footprint in a geological repository due to high burn-up and high thermal efficiency of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) has been investigated. A helium-cooled and graphite-moderated commercial HTGR was designed as a Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300), and that has particular features such as significantly high burn-up of approximately 120 GWd/t, high thermal efficiency around 50%, and pin-in-block type fuel. The pin-in-block type fuel was employed to reduce processed graphite volume in reprocessing. By applying the feature, effective waste loading method for direct disposal is proposed in this study. By taking into account these feature, the number of HLW canister generations and its repository footprint are evaluated by burn-up fuel composition, thermal calculation and criticality calculation in repository. As a result, it is found that the number of canisters and its repository footprint per electricity generation can be reduced by 60% compared with Light Water Reactor (LWR) representative case for direct disposal because of the higher burn-up, higher thermal efficiency, less TRU generation, and effective waste loading proposed in this study for HTGR. But, the reduced ratios change to 20% and 50% if the long term durability of LWR canister is guaranteed. For disposal with reprocessing, the number of canisters and its repository footprint per electricity generation can be reduced by 30% compared with LWR because of the 30% higher thermal efficiency of HTGR.

  17. Fast and effective determination of strontium-90 in high volumes water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basarabova, B.; Dulanska, S.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast method was developed for determination of 90 Sr in high volumes of water samples from vicinity of nuclear power facilities. Samples were taken from the environment near Nuclear Power Plants in Jaslovske Bohunice and Mochovce in Slovakia. For determination of 90 Sr was used solid phase extraction using commercial sorbent Analig R Sr-01 from company IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc.. Determination of 90 Sr was performed with dilute solution of HNO 3 (1.5-2 M) and also tested in base medium with NaOH. For elution of 90 Sr was used eluent EDTA with pH in range 8-9. To achieve fast determination, automation was applied, which brings significant reduction of separation time. Concentration of water samples with evaporation was not necessary. Separation was performed immediately after filtration of analyzed samples. The aim of this study was development of less expensive, time unlimited and energy saving method for determination of 90 Sr in comparison with conventional methods. Separation time for fast-flow with volume of 10 dm 3 of water samples was 3.5 hours (flow-rate approximately 3.2 dm 3 / 1 hour). Radiochemical strontium yield was traced by using radionuclide 85 Sr. Samples were measured with HPGe detector (High-purity Germanium detector) at energy E φ = 514 keV. By using Analig R Sr-01 yields in range 72 - 96 % were achieved. Separation based on solid phase extraction using Analig R Sr-01 employing utilization of automation offers new, fast and effective method for determination of 90 Sr in water matrix. After ingrowth of yttrium samples were measured by Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer Packard Tricarb 2900 TR with software Quanta Smart. (authors)

  18. BRICKS WITH TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF CLAY BY FLY ASH MIXED WITH DIFFERENT MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    J.N Akhtar; J.Alam; M.N Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash is a powdery substance obtained from the dust collectors in the Thermal power plants that use coal as fuel. From the cement point of view the mineralogy of Fly ash is important as it contains 80% - 90% of glass. The impurities in coal-mostly clays, shale’s, limestone & dolomite; they cannot be burned so they turn up as ash. The Fly ash of class C category was used as a raw material to total replacement of clay for making Fly ash bricks. In present study the effect of Fly ash with high...

  19. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Michael S.; Murtha, Marlyn J.

    1983-05-31

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  20. Measuring the volume of cingulate cortex in Chinese normal adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chao; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhou Xin; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    correlated with age (r=-0.330, -0.324, -0.169, -0.243, P<0.05), though the correlation coefficient is not high. Conclusions: Cingulate cortex volume could be accurately measured on the high-resolution MRI with 3D volume analysis software, which can provide morphological data for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. The results may provide normal range for the diagnosis of the volumetric deficits of cingulate cortex. (authors)

  1. Application of advanced diffraction based optical metrology overlay capabilities for high-volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Hsiung; Huang, Guo-Tsai; Hsieh, Hung-Chih; Ni, Wei-Feng; Chuang, S. M.; Chuang, T. K.; Ke, Chih-Ming; Huang, Jacky; Rao, Shiuan-An; Cumurcu Gysen, Aysegul; d'Alfonso, Maxime; Yueh, Jenny; Izikson, Pavel; Soco, Aileen; Wu, Jon; Nooitgedagt, Tjitte; Ottens, Jeroen; Kim, Yong Ho; Ebert, Martin

    2017-03-01

    On-product overlay requirements are becoming more challenging with every next technology node due to the continued decrease of the device dimensions and process tolerances. Therefore, current and future technology nodes require demanding metrology capabilities such as target designs that are robust towards process variations and high overlay measurement density (e.g. for higher order process corrections) to enable advanced process control solutions. The impact of advanced control solutions based on YieldStar overlay data is being presented in this paper. Multi patterning techniques are applied for critical layers and leading to additional overlay measurement demands. The use of 1D process steps results in the need of overlay measurements relative to more than one layer. Dealing with the increased number of overlay measurements while keeping the high measurement density and metrology accuracy at the same time presents a challenge for high volume manufacturing (HVM). These challenges are addressed by the capability to measure multi-layer targets with the recently introduced YieldStar metrology tool, YS350. On-product overlay results of such multi-layers and standard targets are presented including measurement stability performance.

  2. Moderate Recovery Unnecessary to Sustain High Stroke Volume during Interval Training. A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Stanley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the time spent at a high stroke volume (SV is important for improving maximal cardiac function. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of recovery intensity on cardiovascular parameters during a typical high-intensity interval training (HIIT session in fourteen well-trained cyclists. Oxygen consumption (VO2, heart rate (HR, SV, cardiac output (Qc, and oxygenation of vastus lateralis (TSI were measured during a HIIT (3×3-min work period, 2 min of recovery session on two occasions. VO2, HR and Qc were largely higher during moderate-intensity (60% compared with low-intensity (30% (VO2, effect size; ES = +2.6; HR, ES = +2.8; Qc, ES = +2.2 and passive (HR, ES = +2.2; Qc, ES = +1.7 recovery. By contrast, there was no clear difference in SV between the three recovery conditions, with the SV during the two active recovery periods not being substantially different than during exercise (60%, ES = −0.1; 30%, ES = −0.2. To conclude, moderate-intensity recovery may not be required to maintain a high SV during HIIT.

  3. High-Dimensional Function Approximation With Neural Networks for Large Volumes of Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andras, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Approximation of high-dimensional functions is a challenge for neural networks due to the curse of dimensionality. Often the data for which the approximated function is defined resides on a low-dimensional manifold and in principle the approximation of the function over this manifold should improve the approximation performance. It has been show that projecting the data manifold into a lower dimensional space, followed by the neural network approximation of the function over this space, provides a more precise approximation of the function than the approximation of the function with neural networks in the original data space. However, if the data volume is very large, the projection into the low-dimensional space has to be based on a limited sample of the data. Here, we investigate the nature of the approximation error of neural networks trained over the projection space. We show that such neural networks should have better approximation performance than neural networks trained on high-dimensional data even if the projection is based on a relatively sparse sample of the data manifold. We also find that it is preferable to use a uniformly distributed sparse sample of the data for the purpose of the generation of the low-dimensional projection. We illustrate these results considering the practical neural network approximation of a set of functions defined on high-dimensional data including real world data as well.

  4. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Hung, Shih-Kai; Huang, Tze-Ta; Lee, Moon-Sing; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chou, Pesus; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lin, Hon-Yi; Chien, Sou-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p < 0.001). Using a Cox proportional hazard model, patients with NPC treated by high-volume physicians (caseload ≥ 35) had better survival rates (p = 0.001) after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p < 0.001). Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate

  5. A high-throughput platform for low-volume high-temperature/pressure sealed vessel solvent extractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, Markus; Kappe, C. Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Parallel low-volume coffee extractions in sealed-vessel HPLC/GC vials. ► Extractions are performed at high temperatures and pressures (200 °C/20 bar). ► Rapid caffeine determination from the liquid phase. ► Headspace analysis of volatiles using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). - Abstract: A high-throughput platform for performing parallel solvent extractions in sealed HPLC/GC vials inside a microwave reactor is described. The system consist of a strongly microwave-absorbing silicon carbide plate with 20 cylindrical wells of appropriate dimensions to be fitted with standard HPLC/GC autosampler vials serving as extraction vessels. Due to the possibility of heating up to four heating platforms simultaneously (80 vials), efficient parallel analytical-scale solvent extractions can be performed using volumes of 0.5–1.5 mL at a maximum temperature/pressure limit of 200 °C/20 bar. Since the extraction and subsequent analysis by either gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC–MS or LC–MS) is performed directly from the autosampler vial, errors caused by sample transfer can be minimized. The platform was evaluated for the extraction and quantification of caffeine from commercial coffee powders assessing different solvent types, extraction temperatures and times. For example, 141 ± 11 μg caffeine (5 mg coffee powder) were extracted during a single extraction cycle using methanol as extraction solvent, whereas only 90 ± 11 were obtained performing the extraction in methylene chloride, applying the same reaction conditions (90 °C, 10 min). In multiple extraction experiments a total of ∼150 μg caffeine was extracted from 5 mg commercial coffee powder. In addition to the quantitative caffeine determination, a comparative qualitative analysis of the liquid phase coffee extracts and the headspace volatiles was performed, placing special emphasis on headspace analysis using solid-phase microextraction (SPME

  6. A high-throughput platform for low-volume high-temperature/pressure sealed vessel solvent extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damm, Markus [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Kappe, C. Oliver, E-mail: oliver.kappe@uni-graz.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parallel low-volume coffee extractions in sealed-vessel HPLC/GC vials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extractions are performed at high temperatures and pressures (200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid caffeine determination from the liquid phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Headspace analysis of volatiles using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). - Abstract: A high-throughput platform for performing parallel solvent extractions in sealed HPLC/GC vials inside a microwave reactor is described. The system consist of a strongly microwave-absorbing silicon carbide plate with 20 cylindrical wells of appropriate dimensions to be fitted with standard HPLC/GC autosampler vials serving as extraction vessels. Due to the possibility of heating up to four heating platforms simultaneously (80 vials), efficient parallel analytical-scale solvent extractions can be performed using volumes of 0.5-1.5 mL at a maximum temperature/pressure limit of 200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar. Since the extraction and subsequent analysis by either gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC-MS or LC-MS) is performed directly from the autosampler vial, errors caused by sample transfer can be minimized. The platform was evaluated for the extraction and quantification of caffeine from commercial coffee powders assessing different solvent types, extraction temperatures and times. For example, 141 {+-} 11 {mu}g caffeine (5 mg coffee powder) were extracted during a single extraction cycle using methanol as extraction solvent, whereas only 90 {+-} 11 were obtained performing the extraction in methylene chloride, applying the same reaction conditions (90 Degree-Sign C, 10 min). In multiple extraction experiments a total of {approx}150 {mu}g caffeine was extracted from 5 mg commercial coffee powder. In addition to the quantitative caffeine determination, a comparative qualitative analysis of the liquid phase coffee

  7. High- versus low-volume polyethylene glycol plus laxative versus sennosides for colonoscopy preparation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkus, Jaroslaw; Horvath, Andrea; Szychta, Monika; Woynarowski, Marek; Wegner, Agnieszka; Wiernicka, Anna; Dadalski, Maciej; Teisseyre, Mikolaj; Dziechciarz, Piotr

    2013-08-01

    Many protocols of bowel preparation are available for use in children; however, none of them is commonly accepted. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of high-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) versus low-volume PEG combined with bisacodyl (BPEG) versus sennosides for colonoscopy preparation in children. Participants ages 10 to 18 years were randomly assigned to receive either PEG 60 or PEG 30 mL kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ plus oral bisacodyl 10 to 15 mg/day or sennosides 2 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for 2 days. A blinded assessment of bowel cleansing was made by the endoscopist according to the Aronchick and Ottawa scales. Patient acceptability was evaluated with the visual-analog scale. Analysis was done on an available case analysis basis. Of 240 patients enrolled in the study 234 patients were available for analysis of the efficacy of colon cleansing. There were no significant differences found among the 3 groups for the proportions of participants with excellent/good (PEG: 35/79, BPEG: 26/79, sennosides 25/76) and poor/inadequate (PEG: 20/79, BPEG: 28/79, sennosides 28/76) bowel preparation evaluated with the Aronchick scale and for the mean Ottawa total score (PEG: 5.47 ± 3.63, BPEG: 6.22 ± 3.3, sennosides: 6.18 ± 3.53). Acceptability of bowel cleansing protocol was similar in all of the groups (P = 0.8). All 3 cleansing methods showed similar efficacy and tolerability; however, none of them was satisfactory.

  8. Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity or high volume training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eStöggl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletes integrate four conditioning concepts in their training programs: high-volume training (HVT, ‘threshold-training’ (THR, high-intensity interval training (HIIT and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL. The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 62.6±7.1 mL∙min-1∙kg-1 were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over nine weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. Results: POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml∙min∙kg-1 or 11.7%, P0.05. Conclusion: POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables.

  9. Africa and the tsetse fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  10. Africa and the tsetse fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  11. Evaluation of surveillance methods for monitoring house fly abundance and activity on large commercial dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, Alec C; Higginbotham, G E; Periera, L N; Lam, A; Shelton, C R

    2011-06-01

    Relative house fly, Musca domestica L., activity at three large dairies in central California was monitored during the peak fly activity period from June to August 2005 by using spot cards, fly tapes, bait traps, and Alsynite traps. Counts for all monitoring methods were significantly related at two of three dairies; with spot card counts significantly related to fly tape counts recorded the same week, and both spot card counts and fly tape counts significantly related to bait trap counts 1-2 wk later. Mean fly counts differed significantly between dairies, but a significant interaction between dairies sampled and monitoring methods used demonstrates that between-dairy comparisons are unwise. Estimate precision was determined by the coefficient of variability (CV) (or SE/mean). Using a CV = 0.15 as a desired level of estimate precision and assuming an integrate pest management (IPM) action threshold near the peak house fly activity measured by each monitoring method, house fly monitoring at a large dairy would require 12 spot cards placed in midafternoon shaded fly resting sites near cattle or seven bait traps placed in open areas near cattle. Software (FlySpotter; http://ucanr.org/ sites/FlySpotter/download/) using computer vision technology was developed to count fly spots on a scanned image of a spot card to dramatically reduce time invested in monitoring house flies. Counts provided by the FlySpotter software were highly correlated to visual counts. The use of spot cards for monitoring house flies is recommended for dairy IPM programs.

  12. The influence of sex and fly species on the development of trypanosomes in tsetse flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Peacock

    Full Text Available Unlike other dipteran disease vectors, tsetse flies of both sexes feed on blood and transmit pathogenic African trypanosomes. During transmission, Trypanosoma brucei undergoes a complex cycle of proliferation and development inside the tsetse vector, culminating in production of infective forms in the saliva. The insect manifests robust immune defences throughout the alimentary tract, which eliminate many trypanosome infections. Previous work has shown that fly sex influences susceptibility to trypanosome infection as males show higher rates of salivary gland (SG infection with T. brucei than females. To investigate sex-linked differences in the progression of infection, we compared midgut (MG, proventriculus, foregut and SG infections in male and female Glossina morsitans morsitans. Initially, infections developed in the same way in both sexes: no difference was observed in numbers of MG or proventriculus infections, or in the number and type of developmental forms produced. Female flies tended to produce foregut migratory forms later than males, but this had no detectable impact on the number of SG infections. The sex difference was not apparent until the final stage of SG invasion and colonisation, showing that the SG environment differs between male and female flies. Comparison of G. m. morsitans with G. pallidipes showed a similar, though less pronounced, sex difference in susceptibility, but additionally revealed very different levels of trypanosome resistance in the MG and SG. While G. pallidipes was more refractory to MG infection, a very high proportion of MG infections led to SG infection in both sexes. It appears that the two fly species use different strategies to block trypanosome infection: G. pallidipes heavily defends against initial establishment in the MG, while G. m. morsitans has additional measures to prevent trypanosomes colonising the SG, particularly in female flies. We conclude that the tsetse-trypanosome interface works

  13. Ultra-high resolution flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, design architecture, and system characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Brady, Tom; Grasruck, Michael; Suess, Christoph; Schmidt, Bernhard; Stierstorfer, Karl; Popescu, Stefan; Flohr, Thomas; Bartling, Soenke H.

    2006-01-01

    Digital flat-panel-based volume CT (VCT) represents a unique design capable of ultra-high spatial resolution, direct volumetric imaging, and dynamic CT scanning. This innovation, when fully developed, has the promise of opening a unique window on human anatomy and physiology. For example, the volumetric coverage offered by this technology enables us to observe the perfusion of an entire organ, such as the brain, liver, or kidney, tomographically (e.g., after a transplant or ischemic event). By virtue of its higher resolution, one can directly visualize the trabecular structure of bone. This paper describes the basic design architecture of VCT. Three key technical challenges, viz., scatter correction, dynamic range extension, and temporal resolution improvement, must be addressed for successful implementation of a VCT scanner. How these issues are solved in a VCT prototype and the modifications necessary to enable ultra-high resolution volumetric scanning are described. The fundamental principles of scatter correction and dose reduction are illustrated with the help of an actual prototype. The image quality metrics of this prototype are characterized and compared with a multi-detector CT (MDCT). (orig.)

  14. Ultra-high resolution flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, design architecture, and system characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Brady, Tom [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Founders House, FND-2-216, Boston, MA (United States); Grasruck, Michael; Suess, Christoph; Schmidt, Bernhard; Stierstorfer, Karl; Popescu, Stefan; Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Bartling, Soenke H. [Hannover Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Digital flat-panel-based volume CT (VCT) represents a unique design capable of ultra-high spatial resolution, direct volumetric imaging, and dynamic CT scanning. This innovation, when fully developed, has the promise of opening a unique window on human anatomy and physiology. For example, the volumetric coverage offered by this technology enables us to observe the perfusion of an entire organ, such as the brain, liver, or kidney, tomographically (e.g., after a transplant or ischemic event). By virtue of its higher resolution, one can directly visualize the trabecular structure of bone. This paper describes the basic design architecture of VCT. Three key technical challenges, viz., scatter correction, dynamic range extension, and temporal resolution improvement, must be addressed for successful implementation of a VCT scanner. How these issues are solved in a VCT prototype and the modifications necessary to enable ultra-high resolution volumetric scanning are described. The fundamental principles of scatter correction and dose reduction are illustrated with the help of an actual prototype. The image quality metrics of this prototype are characterized and compared with a multi-detector CT (MDCT). (orig.)

  15. Image guided, adaptive, accelerated, high dose brachytherapy as model for advanced small volume radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haie-Meder, Christine; Siebert, Frank-Andre; Poetter, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Brachytherapy has consistently provided a very conformal radiation therapy modality. Over the last two decades this has been associated with significant improvements in imaging for brachytherapy applications (prostate, gynecology), resulting in many positive advances in treatment planning, application techniques and clinical outcome. This is emphasized by the increased use of brachytherapy in Europe with gynecology as continuous basis and prostate and breast as more recently growing fields. Image guidance enables exact knowledge of the applicator together with improved visualization of tumor and target volumes as well as of organs at risk providing the basis for very individualized 3D and 4D treatment planning. In this commentary the most important recent developments in prostate, gynecological and breast brachytherapy are reviewed, with a focus on European recent and current research aiming at the definition of areas for important future research. Moreover the positive impact of GEC-ESTRO recommendations and the highlights of brachytherapy physics are discussed what altogether presents a full overview of modern image guided brachytherapy. An overview is finally provided on past and current international brachytherapy publications focusing on 'Radiotherapy and Oncology'. These data show tremendous increase in almost all research areas over the last three decades strongly influenced recently by translational research in regard to imaging and technology. In order to provide high level clinical evidence for future brachytherapy practice the strong need for comprehensive prospective clinical research addressing brachytherapy issues is high-lighted.

  16. [Effect of different volumes of fluid resuscitation on hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema at high altitude in the unacclimated rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-ming; Hu, De-yao; Liu, Jian-cang; Li, Ping; Liu, Hou-dong; Xiao, Nan; Zhou, Xue-wu; Tian, Kun-lun; Huo, Xiao-ping; Shi, Quan-gui; He, Yan-mei; Yin, Zuo-ming

    2003-05-01

    To study the effects of different volumes of fluid resuscitation on hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema at high altitude in the unacclimated rat. One hundred and twenty-six SD rats transported to Lasa, Tibet, 3 760 meters above the sea level, were anesthetized one week later with sodium pentobarbital (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema model was induced by hemorrhage (50 mm Hg for 1 hour, 1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) plus intravenous injection of oleic acid (50 microl/kg). Experiments were then conducted in two parts. Sixty-three rats in part I were equally divided into nine groups (n=7): normal control, hemorrhagic shock control, hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema (HSPE) without fluid infusion, HSPE plus infusing lactated Ringer's solution (LR) with 0.5-, 1-, 1.5-, 2- or 3- fold volume shed blood, and 1 volume of LR plus mannitol (10 ml/kg). Hemodynamic parameters including mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), left intraventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and the maximal change rate of intraventricular pressure rise or decline (+/- dp/dt max) were observed at 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after infusion, blood gases were measured at 30 and 120 minutes after infusion and the water content of lung and brain was determined at 120 minutes after infusion. In part II, additional 63 rats were used to observe the effect of different volumes of fluid resuscitation on survival time of HSPE rats. 0.5 volume of LR infusion significantly improved MAP, LVSP and +/- dp/dt max, prolonged the survival time of HSPE animals (all P<0.01), while it did not increase the water content of lung and brain and had no marked influence on blood gases. One volume of LR infusion slightly improved hemodynamic parameters, prolonged the survival time and increased the water content of lung. More than 1 volume of LR infusion including 1.5-, 2- and 3- fold volume LR deteriorated the hemodynamic parameters and decreased the survival time of shocked animal, meanwhile they

  17. High failure rates after (131)I therapy in Graves hyperthyroidism patients with large thyroid volumes, high iodine uptake, and high iodine turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jeroen A F; Verkooijen, Helena M; Valk, Gerlof D; Zelissen, Pierre M J; de Keizer, Bart

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify patient characteristics positively and independently associated with I-iodide treatment failure in a large cohort of patients with Graves hyperthyroidism treated with either a calculated "standard" activity of 3.7 MBq/mL (0.1 mCi) or 7.4 MBq/mL (0.2 mCi) of thyroid volume. Data on 385 consecutive patients were prospectively collected. Clinical treatment outcome up to 1 year in relation to thyroid volume, 5- and 24-hour I uptake, 5/24-hour I uptake ratio, and the administered activity of radioiodine were analyzed. Overall treatment results were hypothyroidism in 46%, euthyroidism in 29%, and recurrent hyperthyroidism in 26% of patients. Thyroid volume (P = 0.000), 5/24-hour uptake ratio (P = 0.000), and 5- and 24-hour uptake alone (respectively, P = 0.000 and P = 0.002) were significantly associated with therapy outcome. Patients with a combination of a thyroid volume greater than 50 mL and a 5/24-hour uptake ratio 0.8 or greater showed treatment failure in 70% and 42% (respectively, 3.7 MBq/mL, n = 20; and 7.4 MBq/mL, n = 41).Thyroid volume and 5/24-hour uptake ratio were positively and independently associated with recurrent hyperthyroidism (respectively, odds ratio [OR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.39-11.76; and OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.59-5.59). Higher activities of 7.4 MBq/mL I were associated with a lower risk of treatment failure (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.62). Large thyroid volumes and high 5/24-hour uptake ratios are positively and independently associated with recurrent hyperthyroidism following I therapy in Graves hyperthyroidism. Higher success rates can be achieved when account is taken of these poor prognostic factors. In consequence, these patients should be treated with activities greater than 7.4 MBq/mL.

  18. Plasma uric acid and tumor volume are highly predictive of outcome in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hui; Lin, Huan-Xin; Ge, Nan; Wang, Hong-Zhi; Sun, Rui; Hu, Wei-Han

    2013-01-01

    The combined predictive value of plasma uric acid and primary tumor volume in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has not yet been determined. In this retrospective study, plasma uric acid level was measured after treatment in 130 histologically-proven NPC patients treated with IMRT. Tumor volume was calculated from treatment planning CT scans. Overall (OS), progression-free (PFS) and distant metastasis-free (DMFS) survival were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log rank test, and Cox multivariate and univariate regression models were created. Patients with a small tumor volume (<27 mL) had a significantly better DMFS, PFS and OS than patients with a large tumor volume. Patients with a high post-treatment plasma uric acid level (>301 μmol/L) had a better DMFS, PFS and OS than patients with a low post-treatment plasma uric acid level. Patients with a small tumor volume and high post-treatment plasma uric acid level had a favorable prognosis compared to patients with a large tumor volume and low post-treatment plasma uric acid level (7-year overall OS, 100% vs. 48.7%, P <0.001 and PFS, 100% vs. 69.5%, P <0.001). Post-treatment plasma uric acid level and pre-treatment tumor volume have predictive value for outcome in NPC patients receiving IMRT. NPC patients with a large tumor volume and low post-treatment plasma uric acid level may benefit from additional aggressive treatment after IMRT

  19. Implementation of machine learning for high-volume manufacturing metrology challenges (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, Padraig; Kagalwala, Taher; Reis, Edward; Lazkani, Houssam; Hurley, Jonathan; Liu, Haibo; Kang, Charles; Isbester, Paul; Yellai, Naren; Shifrin, Michael; Etzioni, Yoav

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, the combination of device scaling, complex 3D device architecture and tightening process tolerances have strained the capabilities of optical metrology tools to meet process needs. Two main categories of approaches have been taken to address the evolving process needs. In the first category, new hardware configurations are developed to provide more spectral sensitivity. Most of this category of work will enable next generation optical metrology tools to try to maintain pace with next generation process needs. In the second category, new innovative algorithms have been pursued to increase the value of the existing measurement signal. These algorithms aim to boost sensitivity to the measurement parameter of interest, while reducing the impact of other factors that contribute to signal variability but are not influenced by the process of interest. This paper will evaluate the suitability of machine learning to address high volume manufacturing metrology requirements in both front end of line (FEOL) and back end of line (BEOL) sectors from advanced technology nodes. In the FEOL sector, initial feasibility has been demonstrated to predict the fin CD values from an inline measurement using machine learning. In this study, OCD spectra were acquired after an etch process that occurs earlier in the process flow than where the inline CD is measured. The fin hard mask etch process is known to impact the downstream inline CD value. Figure 1 shows the correlation of predicted CD vs downstream inline CD measurement obtained after the training of the machine learning algorithm. For BEOL, machine learning is shown to provide an additional source of information in prediction of electrical resistance from structures that are not compatible for direct copper height measurement. Figure 2 compares the trench height correlation to electrical resistance (Rs) and the correlation of predicted Rs to the e-test Rs value for a far back end of line (FBEOL) metallization level

  20. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  1. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    definition of ageing?), and that the word ageing (or senescence) has a fairly precise .... Populations that evolved increased longevity and egg production late in life, as a .... life-span exceeding 120 days whereas flies from control populations ...

  2. Low-volume high-intensity swim training is superior to high-volume low-intensity training in relation to insulin sensitivity and glucose control in inactive middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Luke J; Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Nyberg, Michael; Weihe, Pál; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that low-volume high-intensity swimming has a larger impact on insulin sensitivity and glucose control than high-volume low-intensity swimming in inactive premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Sixty-two untrained premenopausal women were randomised to an inactive control (n = 20; CON), a high-intensity low-volume (n = 21; HIT) or a low-intensity high-volume (n = 21; LIT) training group. During the 15-week intervention period, HIT performed 3 weekly 6-10 × 30-s all-out swimming intervals (average heart rate (HR) = 86 ± 3 % HRmax) interspersed by 2-min recovery periods and LIT swam continuously for 1 h at low intensity (average HR = 73 ± 3 % HRmax). Fasting blood samples were taken and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted pre- and post-intervention. After HIT, resting plasma [insulin] was lowered (17 ± 34 %; P high-intensity intermittent swimming is an effective and time-efficient training strategy for improving insulin sensitivity, glucose control and biomarkers of vascular function in inactive, middle-aged mildly hypertensive women.

  3. Characteristics of hot spots of melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sterile fly release areas on Okinawa island [Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, H.; Shiga, M.; Kinjo, K.

    1993-01-01

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of populations of the melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae COQUILLETT, in the southern part of Okinawa Island where an eradication program using sterile flies has been conducted, were analyzed in relation to the seasonal succession and abundance of wild and cultivated host fruits. The study areas were classified into four major zones according to the seasonal abundance of flies caught by cue-lure traps and the availability of host fruits including Diplocyclos palmatus, Melothria liukiuensis and Momordica charantia var. pevel. Zone-I is characterized by the continuous presence of host fruits and a relatively-high population density of the melon fly indicated by the cue-lure trap catch of more than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day throughout the year. Zone-II has a characteristic decline in both number of host fruits and fly density during the fall-winter period with an annual average of less than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day. Zone-III includes areas where host fruits and flies (about 1 fly/trap/day) were relatively abundant only during the winter-spring period. Zone-IV is characterized by constantly low availability of host fruits and low fly density throughout the year. Hot spots, which are defined as areas where the ratio of sterile to wild flies hardly increases despite frequent and intensive release of sterile flies, were found in the Zone-I areas. Therefore, the continuous presence and abundance of host fruits appears to hot spots. For effective control of this species, it is essential to locate such areas and release sterile flies

  4. Measuring the volume of caudate nucleus in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Mingfei; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Wu Jianlin; Li Kuncheng; Zhou Xin; Zhou Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the normal range of the caudate nucleus' volume in Chinese adults of the Han nationality and provide morphological data for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This was a clinical multi-center study. One thousand Chinese healthy volunteers (age range =18 to 70) recruited from 16 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i.e, Group A (age range = 18 to 30), B (age range =31 to 40), C (age range =41 to 50), D (age range =51 to 60), and E (age range =61 to 70). Each group contained 100 males and 100 females. All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T 1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. The volume of caudate was measured manually using 3D volume analysis software. The difference of volumes of the caudate between male and female were analyzed by independent sample t-test, and among age groups by ANOVA. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to characterize the relationship between volumes and age. The differences of measurements between left and right caudate nucleus were analyzed by paired t test. Results: (1) The mean volume of bilateral caudate nucleus in healthy Chinese adults was (10.973± 1.647) cm 3 . The mean volume of the the male's left and right caudate nucleus were (5.656±0.860) and (5.671±0.855) cm 3 respectively,no significant differences were found between the volume of left and right caudate nucleus (t=1.230, P>0.05). The mean volume of the the female's left and right caudate nucleus were (5.287±0.774) and (5.331±0.766) cm 3 respectively, and the right's was larger than the left's with significant differences (t=3.999, P<0.01); (2) Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between the nucleus volume and age (male and female's, left and right) (r=-0.561, -0.568, -0.548, -0.552, P<0.05). Conclusion: With high-resolution MRI and 3D volumetric analytic software (Midob), the volume of the caudate nucleus can be

  5. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  6. Chromium behavior during thermal treatment of MSW fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Donald W; Chan, Chris C Y; Marsh, Hilary

    2002-02-14

    Energy-from-waste incineration has been promoted as an environmentally responsible method for handling non-recyclable waste from households. Despite the benefits of energy production, elimination of organic residues and reduction of volume of waste to be landfilled, there is concern about fly ash disposal. Fly ash from an incinerator contains toxic species such as Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr which may leach into soil and ground water if landfilled. Thermal treatment of the fly ash from municipal solid waste has been tested and proposed as a treatment option for removal of metal species such as Pb, Cd and Zn, via thermal re-volatilization. However, Cr is an element that remains in the residue of the heat treated fly ash and appears to become more soluble. This Cr solubilization is of concern if it exceeds the regulatory limit for hazardous waste. Hence, this unexpected behavior of Cr was investigated. The initial work involved microscopic characterization of Cr in untreated and thermally-treated MSW fly ash. This was followed by determining leaching characteristics using standard protocol leaching tests and characterization leaching methods (sequential extraction). Finally, a mechanism explaining the increased solubilization was proposed and tested by reactions of synthetic chemicals.

  7. Just-in-Time Training for High-Risk Low-Volume Therapies: An Approach to Ensure Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Stephanie; Lisanti, Amy Jo; Adams, Ann; Field, Cynthia; Davis, Katherine Finn

    2016-01-01

    High-risk low-volume therapies are those therapies that are practiced infrequently and yet carry an increased risk to patients because of their complexity. Staff nurses are required to competently manage these therapies to treat patients' unique needs and optimize outcomes; however, maintaining competence is challenging. This article describes implementation of Just-in-Time Training, which requires validation of minimum competency of bedside nurses managing high-risk low-volume therapies through direct observation of a return-demonstration competency checklist.

  8. Plant nutrition on fly-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, W J; Sidrak, G H

    1956-12-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the plant nutritional potential of fly ash. Chemical analysis indicates that it contains all the essential nutrients. It is deficient in nitrogen and only manganese and aluminum appear to be available in quantities toxic to plants. Barley and spinach grown on fly ash accumulate excessive quantities of Al and Mn in their leaves and exhibit symptoms of toxicities of these metals. Atriplex hastata grows vigorously on the ash, has a high Al and Mn leaf content, but does not show toxicity symptoms. Atriplex, barley and spinach grown at reduced N levels gave lower yields than the normal controls, but symptoms of N deficiency which were evident in barley and spinach were not observed in Atriplex. 17 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  9. Utah Fly's Eye detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrusaitis, R.M.; Cady, R.; Cassiday, G.L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J.W.; Gerhardy, P.R.; Ko, S.; Loh, E.C.; Salamon, M.; Steck, D.; Sokolsky, P.

    1985-10-15

    We report the details of the design, operation and performance of the University of Utah Fly's Eye detector which was built to record the passage of ultra-high energy cosmic rays through the atmosphere via atmospheric fluorescence. Emphasized in the presentation are (1) light production by charged particles in the atmosphere, (2) kinematics of an EAS as seen by the Fly's Eye, (3) signal to noise considerations and its impact on detector design, (4) details of detector hardware and software, (5) detector calibration, (6) techniques employed in measurement of shower longitudinal development profiles and primary particle energy, and (7) assessment of detector performance by a comparison of Monte Carlo and real data distributions. (orig.).

  10. Investigation on high efficiency volume Bragg gratings performances for spectrometry in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loicq, Jérôme; Stockman, Y.; Georges, Marc; Gaspar Venancio, Luis M.

    2017-11-01

    The special properties of Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) make them good candidates for spectrometry applications where high spectral resolution, low level of straylight and low polarisation sensitivity are required. Therefore it is of interest to assess the maturity and suitability of VBGs as enabling technology for future ESA missions with demanding requirements for spectrometry. The VBGs suitability for space application is being investigated in the frame of a project led by CSL and funded by the European Space Agency. The goal of this work is twofold: first the theoretical advantages and drawbacks of VBGs with respect to other technologies with identical functionalities are assessed, and second the performances of VBG samples in a representative space environment are experimentally evaluated. The performances of samples of two VBGs technologies, the Photo-Thermo-Refractive (PTR) glass and the DiChromated Gelatine (DCG), are assessed and compared in the Hα, O2-B and NIR bands. The tests are performed under vacuum condition combined with temperature cycling in the range of 200 K to 300K. A dedicated test bench experiment is designed to evaluate the impact of temperature on the spectral efficiency and to determine the optical wavefront error of the diffracted beam. Furthermore the diffraction efficiency degradation under gamma irradiation is assessed. Finally the straylight, the diffraction efficiency under conical incidence and the polarisation sensitivity is evaluated.

  11. A rapid method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using high volume centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ranjeet; Rao, D D; Dubla, Rupali; Yadav, J R

    2017-07-01

    The conventional radio-analytical technique used for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples involves anion exchange/TEVA column separation followed by alpha spectrometry. This sequence of analysis consumes nearly 3-4 days for completion. Many a times excreta analysis results are required urgently, particularly under repeat and incidental/emergency situations. Therefore, there is need to reduce the analysis time for the estimation of Pu-isotopes in bioassay samples. This paper gives the details of standardization of a rapid method for estimation of Pu-isotopes in urine samples using multi-purpose centrifuge, TEVA resin followed by alpha spectrometry. The rapid method involves oxidation of urine samples, co-precipitation of plutonium along with calcium phosphate followed by sample preparation using high volume centrifuge and separation of Pu using TEVA resin. Pu-fraction was electrodeposited and activity estimated using 236 Pu tracer recovery by alpha spectrometry. Ten routine urine samples of radiation workers were analyzed and consistent radiochemical tracer recovery was obtained in the range 47-88% with a mean and standard deviation of 64.4% and 11.3% respectively. With this newly standardized technique, the whole analytical procedure is completed within 9h (one working day hour). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Very Low Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise Is More Effective in Young Than Old Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raulas Krusnauskas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the acute neuromuscular and stress responses to three different high-intensity interval training sessions in young (age 19.5±1.3 years and older (age 65.7±2.8 years women. Cycling exercise comprised either 6 × 5 s or 3 × 30 s all-out, or 3 × 60 s submaximal, efforts each performed 5 weeks apart in randomized order. Peak and average power was higher in young than in older women and was largest during the 6 × 5 s strategy in both groups (p<0.05. The decrease in the ratio of torques evoked by 20 and 100 Hz electrical stimulation, representing low-frequency fatigue, was more evident after the 3 × 30 and 3 × 60 s than the 6 × 5 s bout in both groups and was larger in young than in older women (p<0.05. Both groups preferred 6 × 5 s cycling for further training. In conclusion, in young women, very low volume (6 × 5 s all-out exercise induces significant physiological stress and seems to be an effective means of training. For older women, longer exercise sessions (3 × 60 s are more stressful than shorter ones but are still tolerable psychologically.

  13. Replicable Interprofessional Competency Outcomes from High-Volume, Inter-Institutional, Interprofessional Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bambini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are significant limitations among the few prior studies that have examined the development and implementation of interprofessional education (IPE experiences to accommodate a high volume of students from several disciplines and from different institutions. The present study addressed these gaps by seeking to determine the extent to which a single, large, inter-institutional, and IPE simulation event improves student perceptions of the importance and relevance of IPE and simulation as a learning modality, whether there is a difference in students’ perceptions among disciplines, and whether the results are reproducible. A total of 290 medical, nursing, pharmacy, and physical therapy students participated in one of two large, inter-institutional, IPE simulation events. Measurements included student perceptions about their simulation experience using the Attitude Towards Teamwork in Training Undergoing Designed Educational Simulation (ATTITUDES Questionnaire and open-ended questions related to teamwork and communication. Results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement across all ATTITUDES subscales, while time management, role confusion, collaboration, and mutual support emerged as significant themes. Results of the present study indicate that a single IPE simulation event can reproducibly result in significant and educationally meaningful improvements in student perceptions towards teamwork, IPE, and simulation as a learning modality.

  14. Replicable Interprofessional Competency Outcomes from High-Volume, Inter-Institutional, Interprofessional Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambini, Deborah; Emery, Matthew; de Voest, Margaret; Meny, Lisa; Shoemaker, Michael J

    2016-10-25

    There are significant limitations among the few prior studies that have examined the development and implementation of interprofessional education (IPE) experiences to accommodate a high volume of students from several disciplines and from different institutions. The present study addressed these gaps by seeking to determine the extent to which a single, large, inter-institutional, and IPE simulation event improves student perceptions of the importance and relevance of IPE and simulation as a learning modality, whether there is a difference in students' perceptions among disciplines, and whether the results are reproducible. A total of 290 medical, nursing, pharmacy, and physical therapy students participated in one of two large, inter-institutional, IPE simulation events. Measurements included student perceptions about their simulation experience using the Attitude Towards Teamwork in Training Undergoing Designed Educational Simulation (ATTITUDES) Questionnaire and open-ended questions related to teamwork and communication. Results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement across all ATTITUDES subscales, while time management, role confusion, collaboration, and mutual support emerged as significant themes. Results of the present study indicate that a single IPE simulation event can reproducibly result in significant and educationally meaningful improvements in student perceptions towards teamwork, IPE, and simulation as a learning modality.

  15. Mechanical properties of concrete containing a high volume of tire-rubber particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaloo, Ali R; Dehestani, M; Rahmatabadi, P

    2008-12-01

    Due to the increasingly serious environmental problems presented by waste tires, the feasibility of using elastic and flexible tire-rubber particles as aggregate in concrete is investigated in this study. Tire-rubber particles composed of tire chips, crumb rubber, and a combination of tire chips and crumb rubber, were used to replace mineral aggregates in concrete. These particles were used to replace 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% of the total mineral aggregate's volume in concrete. Cylindrical shape concrete specimens 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height were fabricated and cured. The fresh rubberized concrete exhibited lower unit weight and acceptable workability compared to plain concrete. The results of a uniaxial compressive strain control test conducted on hardened concrete specimens indicate large reductions in the strength and tangential modulus of elasticity. A significant decrease in the brittle behavior of concrete with increasing rubber content is also demonstrated using nonlinearity indices. The maximum toughness index, indicating the post failure strength of concrete, occurs in concretes with 25% rubber content. Unlike plain concrete, the failure state in rubberized concrete occurs gently and uniformly, and does not cause any separation in the specimen. Crack width and its propagation velocity in rubberized concrete are lower than those of plain concrete. Ultrasonic analysis reveals large reductions in the ultrasonic modulus and high sound absorption for tire-rubber concrete.

  16. Automated high-volume aerosol sampling station for environmental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.; Ilander, T.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Poellaenen, R.; Ylaetalo, S.

    1998-07-01

    An automated high-volume aerosol sampling station, known as CINDERELLA.STUK, for environmental radiation monitoring has been developed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Finland. The sample is collected on a glass fibre filter (attached into a cassette), the airflow through the filter is 800 m 3 /h at maximum. During the sampling, the filter is continuously monitored with Na(I) scintillation detectors. After the sampling, the large filter is automatically cut into 15 pieces that form a small sample and after ageing, the pile of filter pieces is moved onto an HPGe detector. These actions are performed automatically by a robot. The system is operated at a duty cycle of 1 d sampling, 1 d decay and 1 d counting. Minimum detectable concentrations of radionuclides in air are typically 1Ae10 x 10 -6 Bq/m 3 . The station is equipped with various sensors to reveal unauthorized admittance. These sensors can be monitored remotely in real time via Internet or telephone lines. The processes and operation of the station are monitored and partly controlled by computer. The present approach fulfils the requirements of CTBTO for aerosol monitoring. The concept suits well for nuclear material safeguards, too

  17. Identification of risk factors for post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis in a high volume center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit Phillip

    Full Text Available Pancreatitis is the most common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP. Several patients´ or procedure related risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP have been suggested. The aim of this study was to validate the risk factors for PEP in a high-volume center.All patients undergoing first time ERCP at a tertiary referral center between December 2010 and October 2013 were retrospectively included. PEP was defined according to the Atlanta Classification.344 patients were included in the final analysis. The risk to develop PEP was increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis (odds ratio 3.7 and after inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct (odds ratio 2.2, which occurred in 26.5% of the patients. Inadvertent cannulation occurred significantly more frequently in patients with difficult cannulation of the papilla duodeni major (odds ratio 12.7; p<0.001. ERCP on call was associated with an increased risk for difficult cannulation (odds ratio 3.0.Inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct is a procedure related risk factor for PEP. Measurements on preventing inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct should be established and studies on prophylactic measurements should focus particularly on patients with inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct.

  18. Identification of risk factors for post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis in a high volume center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Veit; Schwab, Miriam; Haf, David; Algül, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatitis is the most common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Several patients´ or procedure related risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) have been suggested. The aim of this study was to validate the risk factors for PEP in a high-volume center. All patients undergoing first time ERCP at a tertiary referral center between December 2010 and October 2013 were retrospectively included. PEP was defined according to the Atlanta Classification. 344 patients were included in the final analysis. The risk to develop PEP was increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis (odds ratio 3.7) and after inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct (odds ratio 2.2), which occurred in 26.5% of the patients. Inadvertent cannulation occurred significantly more frequently in patients with difficult cannulation of the papilla duodeni major (odds ratio 12.7; passociated with an increased risk for difficult cannulation (odds ratio 3.0). Inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct is a procedure related risk factor for PEP. Measurements on preventing inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct should be established and studies on prophylactic measurements should focus particularly on patients with inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct.

  19. Finite volume simulation of 2-D steady square lid driven cavity flow at high reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yapici

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, computer simulation results of steady incompressible flow in a 2-D square lid-driven cavity up to Reynolds number (Re 65000 are presented and compared with those of earlier studies. The governing flow equations are solved by using the finite volume approach. Quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics (QUICK is used for the approximation of the convective terms in the flow equations. In the implementation of QUICK, the deferred correction technique is adopted. A non-uniform staggered grid arrangement of 768x768 is employed to discretize the flow geometry. Algebraic forms of the coupled flow equations are then solved through the iterative SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation algorithm. The outlined computational methodology allows one to meet the main objective of this work, which is to address the computational convergence and wiggled flow problems encountered at high Reynolds and Peclet (Pe numbers. Furthermore, after Re > 25000 additional vortexes appear at the bottom left and right corners that have not been observed in earlier studies.

  20. An exponential universal scaling law for the volume pinning force of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampshire, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    The exponential magnetic field dependence of the critical current density (J c (B,T)) found in many high temperature superconductors, given by: J c (B,T) α(T)exp(-B/β(T)) where α(T) and β(T) are functions of temperature alone, necessarily implies a Universal Scaling Law for the volume pinning force (F p ) of the form: F p /F PMAX exp(+1).(B/β(T)).exp(-B/β(T)). If the Upper Critical Field is not explicitly measured but is artificially determined by smooth extrapolation of J c (B,T) to zero on a linear J c (B,T) vs B plot, this exponential scaling law can be closely approximated by the Kramer dependence given by: F p /F PMAX C.b p .(1-b) q where p = 0.5, q = 2, C ∼ 3.5 and b = B/B C2 (T). The implications for flux pinning studies are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Volume Attenuation and High Frequency Loss as Auditory Depth Cues in Stereoscopic 3D Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolas, Christos; Pauletto, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Assisted by the technological advances of the past decades, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) cinema is currently in the process of being established as a mainstream form of entertainment. The main focus of this collaborative effort is placed on the creation of immersive S3D visuals. However, with few exceptions, little attention has been given so far to the potential effect of the soundtrack on such environments. The potential of sound both as a means to enhance the impact of the S3D visual information and to expand the S3D cinematic world beyond the boundaries of the visuals is large. This article reports on our research into the possibilities of using auditory depth cues within the soundtrack as a means of affecting the perception of depth within cinematic S3D scenes. We study two main distance-related auditory cues: high-end frequency loss and overall volume attenuation. A series of experiments explored the effectiveness of these auditory cues. Results, although not conclusive, indicate that the studied auditory cues can influence the audience judgement of depth in cinematic 3D scenes, sometimes in unexpected ways. We conclude that 3D filmmaking can benefit from further studies on the effectiveness of specific sound design techniques to enhance S3D cinema.

  2. Investigation of Self Consolidating Concrete Containing High Volume of Supplementary Cementitious Materials and Recycled Asphalt Pavement Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, Varun chowdary

    The use of sustainable technologies such as supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs), and/or recycled materials is expected to positively affect the performance of concrete mixtures. However, it is important to study and qualify such mixtures and check if the required specifications of their intended application are met before they can be implemented in practice. This study presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Self Consolidating concrete (SCC) containing sustainable technologies. A total of twelve concrete mixtures were prepared with various combinations of fly ash, slag, and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). The mixtures were divided into three groups with constant water to cementitiuous materials ratio of 0.37, and based on the RAP content; 0, 25, and 50% of coarse aggregate replaced by RAP. All mixtures were prepared to achieve a target slump flow equal to or higher than 500 mm (24in). A control mixture for each group was prepared with 100% Portland cement whereas all other mixtures were designed to have up to 70% of portland cement replaced by a combination of supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs) such as class C fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag. The properties of fresh concrete investigated in this study include flowability, deformability; filling capacity, and resistance to segregation. In addition, the compressive strength at 3, 14, and 28 days, the tensile strength, and the unrestrained shrinkage up to 80 days was also investigated. As expected the inclusion of the sustainable technologies affected both fresh and hardened concrete properties. Analysis of the experimental data indicated that inclusion of RAP not only reduces the ultimate strength, but it also affected the compressive strength development rate. Moreover, several mixes satisfied compressive strength requirements for pavements and bridges; those mixes included relatively high percentages of SCMs and RAP. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is not

  3. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M S; Gerry, A C; McGarvey, J A; Armitage, T L; Mitloehner, F M

    2010-03-01

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can affect calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the application of SBS to a mixture of rice hull calf bedding and calf slurry (BED) to reduce house fly (Musca domestica L.) larval density and the abundance of bacteria. In experiment 1, dish pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with SBS at concentrations of 0, 8.9, 17.7, and 26.5g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED (CON, LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively), with each SBS concentration applied to 4 individual pans (16 pans total). Reapplication of the same SBS concentrations in each pan occurred 3 times/wk throughout the 23-d trial. Larval house fly survival was significantly reduced in all pans with SBS relative to CON pans, with lowest survival rates in the MED and HIGH pans (99% and 100% reduction, respectively). The mean pH for each treatment was inversely related to the SBS concentration. In experiment 2, pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with either 0g of SBS (CON), 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED with reapplication of the acidifier 3 times/wk (SB3x), or 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED applied only once at 48h before the end of the 8 d-trial (SB48). Larval house fly survival and bacterial concentrations were reduced (90% larval reduction and 68% bacterial reduction) in the SB3x treatment relative to the CON. Mean pH was also reduced in SB3x pans relative to CON or SB48 pans. Overall, acidification of calf BED using the acidifier SBS resulted in a reduction of bacteria and house fly larval survival. This form of fly control might be expected to reduce adult fly production and, therefore, fly-related stress in calves.

  4. Utilisation of different types of coal fly ash in the production of ceramic tiles

    OpenAIRE

    KocKal, N. U.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of varying proportions of different types of fly ash (used in place of feldspar) and different sintering temperatures on the sintered properties of ceramic tile bodies was evaluated. The results indicated that sintering ceramic tiles with a high fly ash content at a high temperature caused a decrease in the properties because of bloating. The ceramic samples containing a higher amount of fly ash that were sintered at low temperature exhibited lower water absorption, larger shrin...

  5. Fundamental study of low-NOx combustion fly ash utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over fifty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives

  6. Pengaruh Penambahan Limbah Padat Abu Terbang Batubara(fly Ash) Terhadap Kekuatan Tekan Dan Porositas Genteng Tanah Liat Kabupaten Pringsewu

    OpenAIRE

    Febriyansyah, Puji; Tarkono,; Zulhanif,

    2013-01-01

    Fly ash, chemicallyis analumino-silicamineral containing Ca, K, and Na elements, fly ash has amoderate to high bonding capacity characteristic , and has acement-forming properties. In this study the authors use the industrial fly ash coal waste as an alternative mixture of tile manufacture. The tiles manufactured by mixing clay, sand, water and fly ash. Then smoothed with ekstuder machine and forming kuweh then aerate for 3 days, before do the dieing process . Tile dried for 4 days, then do f...

  7. Contrasts in Sediment Delivery and Dispersal from River Mouth to Accumulation Zones in High Sediment Load Systems: Fly River, Papua New Guinea and Waipaoa River, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston, A. S.; Walsh, J. P.; Hale, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    The relationships between sediment-transport processes, short-term sedimentary deposition, subsequent burial, and long-term accumulation are critical to understanding the morphological development of the continental margin. This study focuses on processes involved in formation and evolution of the clinoform in the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea in which much of the riverine sediment accumulates, and comparison to those processes active off the Waipaoa River, New Zealand that form mid-shelf deposits and export sediment to the slope. In tidally dominated deltas, sediment discharged from the river sources must transit through an estuarine region located within the distributary channels, where particle pathways can undergo significant transformations. Within the distributaries of the Fly River tidally dominated delta, near-bed fluid-mud concentrations were observed at the estuarine turbidity maximum and sediment delivery to the nearshore was controlled by the morphology and gradient of the distributary. El Niño results in anonymously low flow and sediment discharge conditions, which limits transport of sediment from the distributaries to the nearshore zone of temporary storage. Because the sediment stored nearshore feeds the prograding clinoform, this perturbation propagates throughout the dispersal system. In wave-dominated regions, transport mechanisms actively move sediment away from the river source, separating the site of deposition and accumulation from the river mouth. River-flood and storm-wave events each create discrete deposits on the Waipaoa River shelf and data has been collected to determine their form, distribution, and relationship to factors such as flood magnitude or wave energy. In this case, transport pathways appear to be influenced by structurally controlled shelf bathymetry. In both cases, the combined fluvial and marine processes can initiate and maintain gravity-driven density flows, and although their triggers and controls differ vastly

  8. Survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved by high caseload volume: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Pesus

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive correlation between caseload and outcome has previously been validated for several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is no information linking caseload and outcome of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treatment. We used nationwide population-based data to examine the association between physician case volume and survival rates of patients with NPC. Methods Between 1998 and 2000, a total of 1225 patients were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score were used to assess the relationship between 10-year survival rates and physician caseloads. Results As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 10-year survival rates increased (p p = 0.001 after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 10-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high-volume physicians and patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (75% vs. 61%; p Conclusions Our data confirm a positive volume-outcome relationship for NPC. After adjusting for differences in the case mix, our analysis found treatment of NPC by high-volume physicians improved 10-year survival rate.

  9. Measuring the volume of insula in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Guangrui; Guo Yulin; Lai Yanbo; Gong Rui; Zhu Kai; Zhao Dan; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    volume (F= -0.361, -0.337, P 3 , the right were (8694 ± 1005), (8136 ± 1100), (8034 ± 910), (7496 ± 990), (6989 ± 932) mm 3 , there were significant differences among 5 groups between left and right insula volume (F= -0.490, -0.512, P<0.01). There was significant negative correlation between the volume and age( before standarizded: r= -0.361, -0.337, after standardized r=-0.490, -0.512, P<0.05). Before and after standardized, there was significant correlation between the volume of right and left insula and cerebral volume (r=0.470,0.459, P<0.05). Before and after standardized, there was significant correlation between the volume of right and left insula and weight(r =0.141,0.092,P<0.05). Conclusions: 1.5 T MR scanner has high resolution, for distinguishing the white matter from the gray matter, and provide morphological data of insula for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. (authors)

  10. High Power Compact Single-Frequency Volume Bragg Er-Doped Fiber Laser, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is based on successful results of Phase I project where it was shown that the use of volume Bragg gratings in PTR glass as selectors of transverse and...

  11. High procedure volume is strongly associated with improved survival after lung cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Riaz, Sharma P; Coupland, Victoria H

    2013-01-01

    Studies have reported an association between hospital volume and survival for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We explored this association in England, accounting for case mix and propensity to resect....

  12. Transient regimes during high-temperature deformation of a bulk metallic glass: A free volume approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bletry, M.; Guyot, P.; Brechet, Y.; Blandin, J.J.; Soubeyroux, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The homogeneous deformation of a zirconium-based bulk metallic glass is investigated in the glass transition range. Compression and stress-relaxation tests have been conducted. The stress-strain curves are modeled in the framework of the free volume theory, including transient phenomena (overshoot and undershoot). This approach allows several physical parameters (activation volume, flow defect creation and relaxation coefficient) to be determined from a mechanical experiment. This model is able to rationalize the dependency of stress overshoot on relaxation time. It is shown that, due to the relationship between flow defect concentration and free volume model, it is impossible to determine the equilibrium flow defect concentration. However, the relative variation of flow defect is always the same, and all the model parameters depend on the equilibrium flow defect concentration. The methodology presented in this paper should, in the future, allow the consistency of the free volume model to be assessed

  13. Substance use and regional gray matter volume in individuals at high risk of psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, James; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Barker, Gareth J; McGuire, Philip K; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with an at risk mental state (ARMS) are at greatly increased risk of developing a psychotic illness. Risk of transition to psychosis is associated with regionally reduced cortical gray matter volume. There has been considerable interest in the interaction between psychosis risk and substance use. In this study we investigate the relationship between alcohol, cannabis and nicotine use with gray matter volume in ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers. Twenty seven ARMS subjects and 27...

  14. Construction of a Liposome Dialyzer for preparation of high-value, small-volume liposome formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Adamala, Katarzyna; Engelhart, Aaron E.; Kamat, Neha P.; Jin, Lin; Szostak, Jack W.

    2015-01-01

    The liposome dialyzer is a small-volume equilibrium dialysis device, built from commercially available materials, that is designed for rapid exchange of small volumes of an extraliposomal reagent pool against a liposome preparation. The dialyzer is prepared by modification of commercially available dialysis cartridges and consists of a reactor with two 300 µL chambers and a 1.56 cm2 dialysis surface area. The dialyzer is prepared in three stages: 1) disassembly of dialysis cartridges to obtai...

  15. Survival of the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) on Truvia and Other Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michael L; Fowler, Fallon E; Denning, Steven S; Watson, David W

    2017-07-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a disease vector of mechanically transmitted pathogens including bacteria, viruses, and protozoans. Opportunities for pathogen transmission can increase as fly longevity increases. Dietary preferences play an important role in insect longevity; therefore, we investigated house fly preferences, sucrose availability, and caloric constraints on house fly longevity. Experimental goals were: 1) to test the effects of calorie restriction on survival of house flies by manipulating concentrations of erythritol (low caloric content) and sucrose (high caloric content), and comparing commercial sweeteners of differing calorie content, 2) to identify house fly preferences for either erythritol or sucrose, and 3) to evaluate the insecticidal activity or toxicity of erythritol on house flies. Our data show that house flies may prefer high calorie options when given a choice and that house fly longevity likely increases as calorie content increases. Additionally, no significant differences in longevity were observed between the water only control (zero calories) and erythritol treatments. This suggests that decreased survival rates and death could be the result of starvation rather than insecticidal activity. This research furthers our understanding of house fly survival and sugar-feeding behavior. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. High-volume infiltration analgesia in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.O.; Husted, H.; Otte, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    with a detailed description of the infiltration technique. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 12 patients undergoing bilateral knee arthroplasty, saline or high-volume (170 ml) ropivacaine (0.2%) with epinephrine was infiltrated around each knee, with repeated doses administered...

  17. Water stress from high-volume hydraulic fracturing potentially threatens aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in Arkansas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrekin, Sally; Trainor, Anne; Saiers, James; Patterson, Lauren; Maloney, Kelly O.; Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Konschnik, Katherine E.; Wiseman, Hannah; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2018-01-01

    Demand for high-volume, short duration water withdrawals could create water stress to aquatic organisms in Fayetteville Shale streams sourced for hydraulic fracturing fluids. We estimated potential water stress using permitted water withdrawal volumes and actual water withdrawals compared to monthly median, low, and high streamflows. Risk for biological stress was considered at 20% of long-term median and 10% of high- and low-flow thresholds. Future well build-out projections estimated potential for continued stress. Most water was permitted from small, free-flowing streams and “frack” ponds (dammed streams). Permitted 12-h pumping volumes exceeded median streamflow at 50% of withdrawal sites in June, when flows were low. Daily water usage, from operator disclosures, compared to median streamflow showed possible water stress in 7–51% of catchments from June–November, respectively. If 100% of produced water was recycled, per-well water use declined by 25%, reducing threshold exceedance by 10%. Future water stress was predicted to occur in fewer catchments important for drinking water and species of conservation concern due to the decline in new well installations and increased use of recycled water. Accessible and precise withdrawal and streamflow data are critical moving forward to assess and mitigate water stress in streams that experience high-volume withdrawals.

  18. Water Stress from High-Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Potentially Threatens Aquatic Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Arkansas, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrekin, Sally; Trainor, Anne; Saiers, James; Patterson, Lauren; Maloney, Kelly; Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joseph; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Konschnik, Katherine; Wiseman, Hannah; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Ryan, Joseph N

    2018-02-20

    Demand for high-volume, short duration water withdrawals could create water stress to aquatic organisms in Fayetteville Shale streams sourced for hydraulic fracturing fluids. We estimated potential water stress using permitted water withdrawal volumes and actual water withdrawals compared to monthly median, low, and high streamflows. Risk for biological stress was considered at 20% of long-term median and 10% of high- and low-flow thresholds. Future well build-out projections estimated potential for continued stress. Most water was permitted from small, free-flowing streams and "frack" ponds (dammed streams). Permitted 12-h pumping volumes exceeded median streamflow at 50% of withdrawal sites in June, when flows were low. Daily water usage, from operator disclosures, compared to median streamflow showed possible water stress in 7-51% of catchments from June-November, respectively. If 100% of produced water was recycled, per-well water use declined by 25%, reducing threshold exceedance by 10%. Future water stress was predicted to occur in fewer catchments important for drinking water and species of conservation concern due to the decline in new well installations and increased use of recycled water. Accessible and precise withdrawal and streamflow data are critical moving forward to assess and mitigate water stress in streams that experience high-volume withdrawals.

  19. 77 FR 28281 - Withdrawal of Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for One High Production Volume...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Withdrawal of Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for One High Production Volume Chemical...]amino]- (CAS No. 1324-76-1), also known as C.I. Pigment Blue 61. EPA received an adverse comment regarding C.I. Pigment Blue 61. This document withdraws the revocation of testing requirements for C.I...

  20. Transient analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers using volume electric field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Ulku, Huseyin Arda; Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    A marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain volume electric field integral equation (TD-VEFIE) solver is proposed for accurate and stable analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on high-contrast scatterers. The stability is achieved using

  1. Quantifying volume loss from ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers using high-resolution terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, Fanny; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Wagnon, Patrick; Steiner, J.F.; Berthier, Etienne; Ragettli, S.; Kraaijenbrink, P.D.A.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    Mass losses originating from supraglacial ice cliffs at the lower tongues of debris-covered glaciers are a potentially large component of the mass balance, but have rarely been quantified. In this study, we develop a method to estimate ice cliff volume losses based on high-resolution topographic

  2. Exploring the relation between process design and efficiency in high-volume cataract pathways from a lean thinking perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Ellen J.; Bredenhoff, E.; Bredenhoff, Eelco; Sermeus, Walter; Kop, Lucas M.; Sol, Johannes C.A.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare process designs of three high-volume cataract pathways in a lean thinking framework and to explore how efficiency in terms of lead times, hospital visits and costs is related to process design. Design: International retrospective comparative benchmark study with a mixed-method

  3. Volume of hospital is important for the prognosis of high-risk patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Jeon, Seong Woo; Kwon, Jung Gu; Lee, Dong Wook; Ha, Chang Yoon; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jang, Byung Ik; Park, Jung Bae; Park, Youn Sun

    2017-08-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a potentially life-threatening hospital emergency requiring hemodynamic stabilization and resuscitation. This study is carried out to determine whether hospital volume can influence outcome in patients with NVUGIB. This is a retrospective study with a prospective cohort database (KCT 0000514. cris.nih.go.kr). Eight teaching hospitals were divided into two different groups: high-volume centers (HVC, ≥60 NVUGIB patients/year, four clinics) and low-volume centers (LVC, bleeding after treatment, re-bleeding, necessity for surgical/other retreatments, and death within 30 days. Similar baseline characters for patients were observed in both groups. There was a significant difference in the incidence of poor outcome between the HVC and LVC groups (9.06 vs. 13.69%, P = 0.014). The incidence rate of poor outcome in high-risk patients (Rockall score ≥8) in HVC was lower than that in high-risk patients in LVC (16.07 vs. 26.92%, P = 0.048); however, there was no significant difference in poor outcome in the lower-risk patients in either group (8.72 vs. 10.42%, P = 0.370). Significant correlation between hospital volume and outcome in NVUGIB patients was observed. Referral to HVC for the management of high-risk NVUGIB patients should be considered in clinical practice.

  4. Relationship between three cotton trash measurements: High Volume Instrumentation (HVI), Shirley Analyzer (SA), and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presence of non-lint materials (trashes) in commercial cotton bales at various amounts degrades the market values and further influences the end-use qualities. In order to ensure a fair trading, the USDA’s AMS has introduced the high volume instrument (HVI) measurement as a universal standard index....

  5. Comparison of Bloodmeal Digestion and the Peritrophic Matrix in Four Sand Fly Species Differing in Susceptibility to Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzinova, Katerina; Sadlova, Jovana; Seblova, Veronika; Homola, Miroslav; Votypka, Jan; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The early stage of Leishmania development in sand flies is closely connected with bloodmeal digestion. Here we compared various parameters of bloodmeal digestion in sand flies that are either susceptible (Phlebotomus argentipes and P. orientalis) or refractory (P. papatasi and Sergentomyia schwetzi) to Leishmania donovani, to study the effects on vector competence. The volume of the bloodmeal ingested, time of defecation of bloodmeal remnants, timing of formation and degradation of the peritrophic matrix (PM) and dynamics of proteolytic activities were compared in four sand fly species. Both proven vectors of L. donovani showed lower trypsin activity and slower PM formation than refractory species. Interestingly, the two natural L. donovani vectors strikingly differed from each other in secretion of the PM and midgut proteases, with P. argentipes possessing fast bloodmeal digestion with a very high peak of chymotrypsin activity and rapid degradation of the PM. Experimental infections of P. argentipes did not reveal any differences in vector competence in comparison with previously studied P. orientalis; even the very low initial dose (2×103 promastigotes/ml) led to fully developed late-stage infections with colonization of the stomodeal valve in about 40% of females. We hypothesise that the period between the breakdown of the PM and defecation of the bloodmeal remnants, i.e. the time frame when Leishmania attach to the midgut in order to prevent defecation, could be one of crucial parameters responsible for the establishment of Leishmania in the sand fly midgut. In both natural L. donovani vectors this period was significantly longer than in S. schwetzi. Both vectors are equally susceptible to L. donovani; as average bloodmeal volumes taken by females of P. argentipes and P. orientalis were 0.63 μl and 0.59 μl, respectively, an infective dose corresponding to 1-2 parasites was enough to initiate mature infections.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A. [US EPA, Narragansett, RI (USA). Office for Research and Development

    2009-01-15

    Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

  7. High-volume plasma exchange in patients with acute liver failure: An open randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Schmidt, Lars Ebbe; Bernsmeier, Christine; Rasmussen, Allan; Isoniemi, Helena; Patel, Vishal C; Triantafyllou, Evangelos; Bernal, William; Auzinger, Georg; Shawcross, Debbie; Eefsen, Martin; Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Clemmesen, Jens Otto; Hockerstedt, Krister; Frederiksen, Hans-Jørgen; Hansen, Bent Adel; Antoniades, Charalambos G; Wendon, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) often results in cardiovascular instability, renal failure, brain oedema and death either due to irreversible shock, cerebral herniation or development of multiple organ failure. High-volume plasma exchange (HVP), defined as exchange of 8-12 or 15% of ideal body weight with fresh frozen plasma in case series improves systemic, cerebral and splanchnic parameters. In this prospective, randomised, controlled, multicentre trial we randomly assigned 182 patients with ALF to receive either standard medical therapy (SMT; 90 patients) or SMT plus HVP for three days (92 patients). The baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. The primary endpoint was liver transplantation-free survival during hospital stay. Secondary-endpoints included survival after liver transplantation with or without HVP with intention-to-treat analysis. A proof-of-principle study evaluating the effect of HVP on the immune cell function was also undertaken. For the entire patient population, overall hospital survival was 58.7% for patients treated with HVP vs. 47.8% for the control group (hazard ratio (HR), with stratification for liver transplantation: 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-0.86; p=0.0083). HVP prior to transplantation did not improve survival compared with patients who received SMT alone (CI 0.37 to 3.98; p=0.75). The incidence of severe adverse events was similar in the two groups. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores fell in the treated group compared to control group, over the study period (pHVP improves outcome in patients with ALF by increasing liver transplant-free survival. This is attributable to attenuation of innate immune activation and amelioration of multi-organ dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A high volume sampling system for isotope determination of volatile halocarbons and hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bahlmann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs can provide valuable information on their sources and fate not deducible from mixing ratios alone. In particular the reported carbon stable isotope ratios of chloromethane and bromomethane from different sources cover a δ13C-range of almost 100‰ making isotope ratios a very promising tool for studying the biogeochemistry of these compounds. So far, the determination of the isotopic composition of C1 and C2 halocarbons others than chloromethane is hampered by their low mixing ratios.

    In order to determine the carbon isotopic composition of C1 and C2 halocarbons with mixing ratios as low as 1 pptv (i a field suitable cryogenic high volume sampling system and (ii a chromatographic set up for processing these samples have been developed and validated. The sampling system was tested at two different sampling sites, an urban and a coastal location in Northern Germany. The average δ13C-values for bromomethane at the urban site were −42.9 ± 1.1‰ and agreed well with previously published results. But at the coastal site bromomethane was substantially enriched in 13C by almost 10‰. Less pronounced differences were observed for chlorodifluoromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and chloromethane. We suggest that these differences are related to the turnover of these compounds in ocean surface waters. Furthermore we report first carbon isotope ratios for iodomethane (−40.4‰ to −79.8‰, bromoform (−13.8‰ to 22.9‰, and other halocarbons.

  9. High-volume image-guided injection for recalcitrant medial collateral ligament injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, O.; Chan, O.; Malliaras, P.; Morrissey, D.; Maffulli, N.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a novel injection technique in the management of recalcitrant medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries of the knee. Materials and methods: The injection, comprising 10 ml local anaesthetic with 25–50 mg hydrocortisone, is directed beneath the periosteal attachment of the MCL. Twenty-eight patients who received the intervention were asked to complete a questionnaire, a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee form to quantify symptoms pre-injection and at follow-up. Data were assessed using descriptive statistics. Further analysis was conducted using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Fisher's exact test. Results: Sixty-eight percent (n = 19) of patients responded. Three patients were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. Of those studied, 37.5% (n = 6) were professional athletes. At follow-up, patients reported a mean improvement on the VAS of 75.5% (SD = 23.6). There was a significant improvement in IKDC scores (mean difference 42%, SD = 14.2) pre- and post-injection (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001). No residual symptoms were reported by 50% (n = 8) of patients, and a further 37.5% (n = 6) of patients had improved. Of those patients who played sport, two-thirds (n = 10) had returned to their previous level of sport at follow-up, including all of the professional athletes. Conclusion: Periosteal high-volume image-guided injection is a useful treatment for recalcitrant MCL injury. Results are encouraging, particularly amongst the professional athletes studied

  10. The role of equilibrium volume and magnetism on the stability of iron phases at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnemrat, S; Hooper, J P; Vasiliev, I; Kiefer, B

    2014-01-29

    The present study provides new insights into the pressure dependence of magnetism by tracking the hybridization between crystal orbitals for pressures up to 600 GPa in the known hcp, bcc and fcc iron. The Birch-Murnaghan equation of state parameters are; bcc: V0 = 11.759 A(3)/atom, K0 = 177.72 GPa; hcp: V0 = 10.525 A(3)/atom, K0 = 295.16 GPa; and fcc: V0 = 10.682 A(3)/atom, K0 = 274.57 GPa. These parameters compare favorably with previous studies. Consistent with previous studies we find that the close-packed hcp and fcc phases are non-magnetic at pressures above 50 GPa and 60 GPa, respectively. The principal features of magnetism in iron are predicted to be invariant, at least up to ∼6% overextension of the equilibrium volume. Our results predict that magnetism for overextended fcc iron disappears via an intermediate spin state. This feature suggests that overextended lattices can be used to stabilize particular magnetic states. The analysis of the orbital hybridization shows that the magnetic bcc structure at high pressures is stabilized by splitting the majority and minority spin bands. The bcc phase is found to be magnetic at least up to 600 GPa; however, magnetism is insufficient to stabilize the bcc phase itself, at least at low temperatures. Finally, the analysis of the orbital contributions to the total energy provides evidence that non-magnetic hcp and fcc phases are likely more stable than bcc at core earth pressures.

  11. High-resolution surface and volume-based in vivo atlas of the serotonin system in the healthy brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Ganz, Melanie; Svarer, Claus

    ) was performed using the FS PET pipeline [7] with a Multilinear Reference Tissue Model 2 [8] for all tracers, using a high-binding region for estimating k2', with the exception of [18F]Altanserin for which steady-state quantification (BPP) was used. The individual BP maps were then averaged for each tracer...... to create the final maps. Results: Surface and volume-based average BPND and BPP maps were created for all tracers (Figures 1-4). The availability of structural MRI enabled us to perform accurate normalization in both surface and volume, a quality previously absent from similar work [9]. These maps...

  12. Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting: Volume 1, plenary session, high burnup fuel behavior, thermal hydraulic research. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 1, present topics on High Burnup Fuel Behavior, Thermal Hydraulic Research, and Plenary Session topics. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  13. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 1: Overview of research and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This volume provides an overview of the research and a summary of the results

  14. Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting: Volume 1, plenary session, high burnup fuel behavior, thermal hydraulic research. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1996-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 1, present topics on High Burnup Fuel Behavior, Thermal Hydraulic Research, and Plenary Session topics. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  15. KINETICS OF FLY ASH BENEFICIATION BY CARBON BURNOUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph N.D. Dodoo; Dr. Joseph M. Okoh

    2000-11-01

    Surface area analyses performed on fly ash samples reveal that the surface area is controlled by carbon content. The higher surface areas found in large particles are due to the presence of highly porous carbonaceous particles. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and t-plots of fly ash samples indicate that fly ash is porous. BJH Adsorption/Desorption pore size analysis reveal that pore diameters are independent of sieve size. They appear to be dependent only on the nature of the material which confers porosity. Based on the results of Brown and Dykstra (41) it is reasonable to assume that calculations of reaction rates at temperatures above 550 C were confounded by weight losses from processes other than carbon oxidation and, therefore, are not useful in determination of the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. The results of the present study indicate that temperatures below 550 C should be used for future studies in order to satisfactorily assess the temperature dependence of carbon oxidation in fly ash. Furthermore, it is also advisable that percent carbon determinations be performed on fly ash samples after the oxidation reactions to determine whether all carbon present in fly ash is oxidized. This will ensure that reaction rates are representative of the complete oxidation of carbon. An inverse relationship was determined between reaction rates and oxygen concentration for this study. As discussed, this may be due to volatilization of volatiles from fly ash and ease of transport of products away from the reaction sites by the action of the vacuum applied to the samples. A more accurate determination of oxygen dependence of carbon oxidation can be accomplished by the use of specialty gases containing different concentrations of oxygen which could eliminate the need to apply vacuum to the samples.

  16. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (IV) The Volume Dependence of the Light Hadron Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S R; Detmold, W; Lin, H W; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M J; Torok, A; Walker-Loud, A

    2011-07-01

    The volume dependence of the octet baryon masses and relations among them are explored with Lattice QCD. Calculations are performed with nf = 2 + 1 clover fermion discretization in four lattice volumes, with spatial extent L ? 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 fm, with an anisotropic lattice spacing of b_s ? 0.123 fm in the spatial direction, and b_t = b_s/3.5 in the time direction, and at a pion mass of m_\\pi ? 390 MeV. The typical precision of the ground-state baryon mass determination is volume dependence of the masses, the Gell-Mann Okubo mass-relation, and of other mass combinations. A comparison with the predictions of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is performed in both the SU(2)L ? SU(2)R and SU(3)L ? SU(3)R expansions. Predictions of the three-flavor expansion for the hadron masses are found to describe the observed volume dependences reasonably well. Further, the ?N? axial coupling constant is extracted from the volume dependence of the nucleon mass in the two-flavor expansion, with only small modifications in the three-flavor expansion from the inclusion of kaons and eta's. At a given value of m?L, the finite-volume contributions to the nucleon mass are predicted to be significantly smaller at m_\\pi ? 140 MeV than at m_\\pi ? 390 MeV due to a coefficient that scales as ? m_\\pi^3. This is relevant for the design of future ensembles of lattice gauge-field configurations. Finally, the volume dependence of the pion and kaon masses are analyzed with two-flavor and three-flavor chiral perturbation theory.

  17. [Study on mercury re-emissions during fly ash utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Wang, Shu-Xiao

    2012-09-01

    The amount of fly ash produced during coal combustion is around 400 million tons per year in China. About 65%-68% of fly ash is used in building material production, road construction, architecture and agriculture. Some of these utilization processes include high temperature procedures, which may lead to mercury re-emissions. In this study, experiments were designed to simulate the key process in cement production and steam-cured brick production. A temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method was used to study the mercury transformation in the major utilization processes. Mercury re-emission during the fly ash utilization in China was estimated based on the experimental results. It was found that mercury existed as HgCl2 (Hg2 Cl2), HgS and HgO in the fly ash. During the cement production process, more than 98% of the mercury in fly ash was re-emitted. In the steam-curing brick manufacturing process, the average mercury re-emission percentage was about 28%, which was dominated by the percentage of HgCl2 (Hg2 Cl2). It is estimated that the mercury re-emission during the fly ash utilization have increased from 4.07 t in 2002 to 9.18 t in 2008, of which cement industry contributes about 96.6%.

  18. Increased cartilage volume after injection of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis knee patients who underwent high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareancholvanich, Keerati; Pornrattanamaneewong, Chaturong; Narkbunnam, Rapeepat

    2014-06-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a surgical procedure used to correct abnormal mechanical loading of the knee joint; additionally, intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections have been shown to restore the viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid and balance abnormal biochemical processes. It was hypothesized that combining HTO with intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections would have benefit to improve the cartilage volume of knee joints. Forty patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) were randomly placed into 1 of 2 groups. The study group (n = 20) received 2 cycles (at 6-month intervals) of 5 weekly intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections after HTO operation. The control group (n = 20) did not receive any intra-articular injections after HTO surgery. Cartilage volume (primary outcome) was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pre-operatively and 1 year post-operatively. Treatment efficacy (secondary outcomes) was evaluated with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA Index (WOMAC) and by the comparison of the total rescue medication (paracetamol/diclofenac) used (weeks 6, 12, 24, 48). MRI studies showed a significant increase in total cartilage volume (p = 0.033), lateral femoral cartilage volume (p = 0.044) and lateral tibial cartilage volume (p = 0.027) in the study group. Cartilage volume loss was detected at the lateral tibial plateau in the control group. There were significant improvements after surgery in both groups for all subscales of WOMAC scores (p hyaluronic acid injections may be beneficial for increasing total cartilage volume and preventing the loss of lateral tibiofemoral joint cartilage after HTO. Therapeutic study, Level I.

  19. Design and construction of a remote piloted flying wing. B.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alfred J.; Koopman, Fritz; Soboleski, Craig; Trieu, Thai-Ba; Duquette, Jaime; Krause, Scott; Susko, David; Trieu, Thuyba

    1994-01-01

    Currently, there is a need for a high-speed, high-lift civilian transport. Although unconventional, a flying wing could fly at speeds in excess of Mach 2 and still retain the capacity of a 747. The design of the flying wing is inherently unstable since it lacks a fuselage and a horizontal tail. The project goal was to design, construct, fly, and test a remote-piloted scale model flying wing. The project was completed as part of the NASA/USRA Advanced Aeronautics Design Program. These unique restrictions required us to implement several fundamental design changes from last year's Elang configuration including wing sweepback and wingtip endplates. Unique features such as a single ducted fan engine, composite structural materials, and an electrostatic stability system were incorporated. The result is the Banshee '94. Our efforts will aid future projects in design and construction techniques so that a viable flying wing can become an integral part of the aviation industry.

  20. Incorporation of treated straw and wood fly ash into clay building brick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wan; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    High Cd content in straw and wood fly ash, generated from biomass-fired power plants, prohibits its recycling as fertilizer spreading on the landfilled. To improve and alter the current mainstream of fly ash treatment by landfilling, different approaches were tried for treatment of straw and wood...... fly ash, such as washing with water to quickly recover the highly soluble salts (mainly K and Cl), and treatment of the washed fly ash with elevated heavy metal content resulted from washing by electrodialytic remediation (EDR). The finding that SiO2 (quartz) accounted for a significant portion...

  1. Use of the SONET Score to Evaluate High Volume Emergency Department Overcrowding: A Prospective Derivation and Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The accuracy and utility of current Emergency Department (ED crowding estimation tools remain uncertain in EDs with high annual volumes. We aimed at deriving a more accurate tool to evaluate overcrowding in a high volume ED setting and determine the association between ED overcrowding and patient care outcomes. Methods. A novel scoring tool (SONET: Severely overcrowded-Overcrowded-Not overcrowded Estimation Tool was developed and validated in two EDs with both annual volumes exceeding 100,000. Patient care outcomes including the number of left without being seen (LWBS patients, average length of ED stay, ED 72-hour returns, and mortality were compared under the different crowding statuses. Results. The total number of ED patients, the number of mechanically ventilated patients, and patient acuity levels were independent risk factors affecting ED overcrowding. SONET was derived and found to better differentiate severely overcrowded, overcrowded, and not overcrowded statuses with similar results validated externally. In addition, SONET scores correlated with increased length of ED stay, number of LWBS patients, and ED 72-hour returns. Conclusions. SONET might be a better fit to determine high volume ED overcrowding. ED overcrowding negatively impacts patient care operations and often produces poor patient perceptions of standardized care delivery.

  2. Combining high-resolution satellite images and altimetry to estimate the volume of small lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baup, F.; Frappart, F.; Maubant, J.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents an approach to determining the volume of water in small lakes (manager of the lake. Three independent approaches are developed to estimate the lake volume and its temporal variability. The first two approaches (HRBV and ABV) are empirical and use synchronous ground measurements of the water volume and the satellite data. The results demonstrate that altimetry and imagery can be effectively and accurately used to monitor the temporal variations of the lake (R2ABV = 0.98, RMSEABV = 5%, R2HRBV = 0.90, and RMSEABV = 7.4%), assuming a time-varying triangular shape for the shore slope of the lake (this form is well adapted since it implies a difference inferior to 2% between the theoretical volume of the lake and the one estimated from bathymetry). The third method (AHRBVC) combines altimetry (to measure the lake level) and satellite images (of the lake surface) to estimate the volume changes of the lake and produces the best results (R2AHRBVC = 0.98) of the three methods, demonstrating the potential of future Sentinel and SWOT missions to monitor small lakes and reservoirs for agricultural and irrigation applications.

  3. High order spectral volume and spectral difference methods on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Ravishekar

    The spectral volume (SV) and the spectral difference (SD) methods were developed by Wang and Liu and their collaborators for conservation laws on unstructured grids. They were introduced to achieve high-order accuracy in an efficient manner. Recently, these methods were extended to three-dimensional systems and to the Navier Stokes equations. The simplicity and robustness of these methods have made them competitive against other higher order methods such as the discontinuous Galerkin and residual distribution methods. Although explicit TVD Runge-Kutta schemes for the temporal advancement are easy to implement, they suffer from small time step limited by the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition. When the polynomial order is high or when the grid is stretched due to complex geometries or boundary layers, the convergence rate of explicit schemes slows down rapidly. Solution strategies to remedy this problem include implicit methods and multigrid methods. A novel implicit lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LU-SGS) relaxation method is employed as an iterative smoother. It is compared to the explicit TVD Runge-Kutta smoothers. For some p-multigrid calculations, combining implicit and explicit smoothers for different p-levels is also studied. The multigrid method considered is nonlinear and uses Full Approximation Scheme (FAS). An overall speed-up factor of up to 150 is obtained using a three-level p-multigrid LU-SGS approach in comparison with the single level explicit method for the Euler equations for the 3rd order SD method. A study of viscous flux formulations was carried out for the SV method. Three formulations were used to discretize the viscous fluxes: local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG), a penalty method and the 2nd method of Bassi and Rebay. Fourier analysis revealed some interesting advantages for the penalty method. These were implemented in the Navier Stokes solver. An implicit and p-multigrid method was also implemented for the above. An overall speed

  4. High-volume image quality assessment systems: tuning performance with an interactive data visualization tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Patricia A.; Pukinskis, Madeleine; Wiggins, Michael

    1999-03-01

    Image quality assessment systems differ greatly with respect to the number and types of mags they need to evaluate, and their overall architectures. Managers of these systems, however, all need to be able to tune and evaluate system performance, requirements often overlooked or under-designed during project planning. Performance tuning tools allow users to define acceptable quality standards for image features and attributes by adjusting parameter settings. Performance analysis tools allow users to evaluate and/or predict how well a system performs in a given parameter state. While image assessment algorithms are becoming quite sophisticated, duplicating or surpassing the human decision making process in their speed and reliability, they often require a greater investment in 'training' or fine tuning of parameters in order to achieve optimum performance. This process may involve the analysis of hundreds or thousands of images, generating a large database of files and statistics that can be difficult to sort through and interpret. Compounding the difficulty is the fact that personnel charged with tuning and maintaining the production system may not have the statistical or analytical background required for the task. Meanwhile, hardware innovations have greatly increased the volume of images that can be handled in a given time frame, magnifying the consequences of running a production site with an inadequately tuned system. In this paper, some general requirements for a performance evaluation and tuning data visualization system are discussed. A custom engineered solution to the tuning and evaluation problem is then presented, developed within the context of a high volume image quality assessment, data entry, OCR, and image archival system. A key factor influencing the design of the system was the context-dependent definition of image quality, as perceived by a human interpreter. This led to the development of a five-level, hierarchical approach to image quality

  5. Are flying-foxes coming to town? Urbanisation of the spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Tait

    Full Text Available Urbanisation of wildlife populations is a process with significant conservation and management implications. While urban areas can provide habitat for wildlife, some urbanised species eventually come into conflict with humans. Understanding the process and drivers of wildlife urbanisation is fundamental to developing effective management responses to this phenomenon. In Australia, flying-foxes (Pteropodidae are a common feature of urban environments, sometimes roosting in groups of tens of thousands of individuals. Flying-foxes appear to be becoming increasingly urbanised and are coming into increased contact and conflict with humans. Flying-fox management is now a highly contentious issue. In this study we used monitoring data collected over a 15 year period (1998-2012 to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of association of spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus roost sites (camps with urban areas. We asked whether spectacled flying-foxes are becoming more urbanised and test the hypothesis that such changes are associated with anthropogenic changes to landscape structure. Our results indicate that spectacled flying-foxes were more likely to roost near humans than might be expected by chance, that over the period of the study the proportion of the flying-foxes in urban-associated camps increased, as did the number of urban camps. Increased urbanisation of spectacled flying-foxes was not related to changes in landscape structure or to the encroachment of urban areas on camps. Overall, camps tended to be found in areas that were more fragmented, closer to human habitation and with more urban land cover than the surrounding landscape. This suggests that urbanisation is a behavioural response rather than driven by habitat loss.

  6. Noninvasive analysis of microbiome dynamics in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Christine; Staubach, Fabian; Kuenzel, Sven; Baines, John F; Roeder, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The diversity and structure of the intestinal microbial community has a strong influence on life history. To understand how hosts and microbes interact, model organisms with comparatively simple microbial communities, such as the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), offer key advantages. However, studies of the Drosophila microbiome are limited to a single point in time, because flies are typically sacrificed for DNA extraction. In order to test whether noninvasive approaches, such as sampling of fly feces, could be a means to assess fly-associated communities over time on the same cohort of flies, we compared the microbial communities of fly feces, dissected fly intestines, and whole flies across three different Drosophila strains. Bacterial species identified in either whole flies or isolated intestines were reproducibly found in feces samples. Although the bacterial communities of feces and intestinal samples were not identical, they shared similarities and obviously the same origin. In contrast to material from whole flies and intestines, feces samples were not compromised by Wolbachia spp. infections, which are widespread in laboratory and wild strains. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we showed that simple nutritional interventions, such as a high-fat diet or short-term starvation, had drastic and long-lasting effects on the micobiome. Thus, the analysis of feces can supplement the toolbox for microbiome studies in Drosophila, unleashing the full potential of such studies in time course experiments where multiple samples from single populations are obtained during aging, development, or experimental manipulations.

  7. Free volume model: High-temperature deformation of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bletry, M.; Guyot, P.; Blandin, J.J.; Soubeyroux, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The homogeneous deformation of a zirconium-based bulk metallic glass is investigated in the glass transition region. Compression tests at different temperatures and strain rates have been conducted. The mechanical behavior is analyzed in the framework of the free volume model, taking into account the dependence of the flow defect concentration on deformation. The activation volume is evaluated and allows one to gather the viscosity data (for the different strain rates and temperatures) on a unique master curve. It is also shown that, due to the relation between flow defect concentration and free volume, it is not possible to deduce the equilibrium flow defect concentration directly from mechanical measurements. However, if this parameter is arbitrarily chosen, mechanical measurements give access to the other parameters of the model, these parameters for the alloy under investigation being of the same order of magnitude as those for other metallic glasses

  8. Effect of High-Temperature Curing Methods on the Compressive Strength Development of Concrete Containing High Volumes of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonsuk Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the high-temperature curing methods on the compressive strength of concrete containing high volumes of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS. GGBS was used to replace Portland cement at a replacement ratio of 60% by binder mass. The high-temperature curing parameters used in this study were the delay period, temperature rise, peak temperature (PT, peak period, and temperature down. Test results demonstrate that the compressive strength of the samples with PTs of 65°C and 75°C was about 88% higher than that of the samples with a PT of 55°C after 1 day. According to this investigation, there might be optimum high-temperature curing conditions for preparing a concrete containing high volumes of GGBS, and incorporating GGBS into precast concrete mixes can be a very effective tool in increasing the applicability of this by-product.

  9. Preliminary study on removing Cs⁺/Sr²⁺ by activated porous calcium silicate-A by-product from high-alumina fly ash recycling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yingying; Wang, Rong; Chen, Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    ¹³⁷Cs⁺/⁹⁰Sr²⁺-containing radioactive wastewater is one of the most important problems that the world has been facing with. A by-product, activated porous calcium silicate, is generated at high levels by the pre-desiliconizing and soda-lime-sintering processes for producing Al₂O₃from high-alumina fly ash. In order to examine if this by-product could be used as an absorbent for removal of ¹³⁷Cs⁺/⁹⁰Sr²⁺ from radioactive wastewater, various parameters, such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and initial concentration, were discussed. Results indicated that the equilibrium reached in about 2 hr. Activated porous calcium silicate was highly pH sensitive and able to remove Cs(+)/Sr²⁺ in a near-neutral environment. The adsorption equilibrium was best described by Freundlich isotherm equations, and the adsorption of Cs⁺/Sr²⁺ was a physical process. The adsorption kinetic data could be better fitted by the pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption was controlled by multidiffusion. Current study showed that activated porous calcium silicate has a good adsorption of Cs⁺/Sr²⁺ for their removal. However, other characteristics, such as selectivity because of coexisting cations, elution and regeneration, thermal stability, and acid resistance, should be discussed carefully before using it in an actual field.

  10. Substance use and regional gray matter volume in individuals at high risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James M; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Barker, Gareth J; McGuire, Philip K

    2012-02-01

    Individuals with an at risk mental state (ARMS) are at greatly increased risk of developing a psychotic illness. Risk of transition to psychosis is associated with regionally reduced cortical gray matter volume. There has been considerable interest in the interaction between psychosis risk and substance use. In this study we investigate the relationship between alcohol, cannabis and nicotine use with gray matter volume in ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers. Twenty seven ARMS subjects and 27 healthy volunteers took part in the study. All subjects underwent volumetric MRI imaging. The relationship between regional gray matter volume and cannabis use, smoking, and alcohol use in controls and ARMS subjects was analysed using voxel-based morphometry. In any region where a significant relationship with drug was present, data were analysed to determine if there was any group difference in this relationship. Alcohol intake was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in cerebellum, cannabis intake was use was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in prefrontal cortex and tobacco intake was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in left temporal cortex. There were no significant interactions by group in any region. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis of increased susceptibility to harmful effects of drugs and alcohol on regional gray matter in ARMS subjects. However, alcohol, tobacco and cannabis at low to moderate intake may be associated with lower gray matter in both ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers-possibly representing low-level cortical damage or change in neural plasticity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental investigation in separating the heavy metal elements of refuse incineration fly ashes by using molten iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China)]|[CPI-Yuanda Environmental-protection Engineering Co. Ltd., Chongqing (China); Liu, Q.; Dong, L. [Chongqing Univ., Chongqing (China); Du, Y. [CPI-Yuanda Environmental-protection Engineering Co. Ltd., Chongqing (China)

    2008-07-01

    One of the main waste treatment methods in the world for municipal solid waste (MSW) is incineration. It is effective in toxic substance destruction, waste volume reduction, and energy recovery. Some chemical substances are accumulated during incineration, most notably lead, zinc, chromium and cadmium, as well as other heavy metals. Untreated fly ash disposed in landfills can pollute the soil, surface water and groundwater because of the high levels of hazardous heavy metals and high salt concentration that can be leached out. This paper presented an experiment that melt-separated the heavy metal elements from fly ash generated during refuse incineration. Molted iron, was used as resolvent to dissolve the heavy metal elements in it. The paper described the materials and methods as well as the results of the study. It was concluded that using molted iron to separate the heavy metal elements from MSW incineration fly ash was feasible. The removal ratio of the main heavy metal elements was above 80 per cent, and some of it was above 99 per cent. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig.

  12. Tsetse flies and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D J; Hendrickx, G; Slingenbergh, J H

    1994-12-01

    The authors use a quantitative modelling framework to describe and explore the features of the biology of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) which are important in determining the rate of transmission of the African trypanosomiases between hosts. Examples are presented of the contribution of previous research on tsetse to quantified epidemiological and epizootiological understanding, and areas of current ignorance are identified for future study. Spatial and temporal variations in risk are important (but rarely-studied) determinants of the impact of trypanosomiasis on humans, domestic animals and agricultural activities. Recent grid-based sampling surveys to Togo provide valuable data sets on tsetse, cattle and trypanosomiasis throughout the country. A combination of ground-based meterological and remotely-sensed satellite data, within linear discriminant analytical models, enables description of the observed distributions of the five species of tsetse occurring in Togo, with accuracies of between 72% (Glossina palpalis and G. tachinoides) and 98% (G. fusca). Abundance classes of the two most widespread species, G. palpalis and G. tachinoides, are described with accuracies of between 47% and 83%. This is especially remarkable given the relatively small differences between the average values of the predictor variables in areas of differing fly abundance. Similar analyses could be used to predict the occurrence and abundance of flies in other areas, which have not been surveyed to date, in order to plan tsetse control campaigns or explore development options. Finally, some recent tsetse control campaigns are briefly reviewed. The shift of emphasis from fly eradication to fly control is associated with a devolution of responsibility for control activities from central government to local areas, communities or even individuals. The future role of central governments will remain crucial, however, in determining the areas in which different control options are practised, in

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum–fly ash nano composites made by ultrasonic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimha Murthy, I.; Venkata Rao, D.; Babu Rao, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nano structured fly ash has been produced by 30 h milling time. ► Al–fly ash nano composites were produced by ultrasonic cavitation route. ► A homogeneous distribution of nano fly ash particles was observed in the matrix. ► No additional contamination in the nano composites from the atmosphere. ► Presence of nano fly ash leads to improvement in the strength of the composites. -- Abstract: In this paper an attempt has been made to modify the micro sized fly ash into nano structured fly ash using high energy ball mill. Ball milling was carried out for the total duration of 30 h. The sample was taken out after every 5 h of milling for characterizing. The nano structured fly ash was characterized for its crystallite size and lattice strain by using X-ray diffractometer. It was found that a steady decrease in the crystallite size and increased lattice strain was observed with milling time; the crystallite size at 30 h milling time was found to be 23 nm. The fresh fly ash particles are mostly spherical in shape; whereas the shape of the 30 h milled fly ash particles is irregular and the surface morphology is rough. Al–fly ash nano composites were produced by ultrasonic cavitation route successfully. Scanning electron microscopy images of nano composites reveal a homogeneous distribution of the nano fly ash particles in the AA 2024 matrix. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis of nano composites reveals that the fabricated nano composite did not contain any additional contamination from the atmosphere. As the amount of nano fly ash is increasing the hardness of the composite also increasing. The nano fly ash addition leads to improvement in the compression strength of the composites.

  14. Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks, due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand. The samples with less intense curing regime experienced lower expansion and became stable faster, and vice versa. Under thermal condition (at 70°C, the samples with less intense curing regime underwent higher expansion, and vice versa. They were also highly reversible. Their volume stability was found unique under water exposure. The expansion on first vacuum saturation cycle was irreversible, then largely reversible on the following cycles.

  15. European Registry of Carotid Artery Stenting: results from a prospective registry of eight high volume EUROPEAN institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Eugenio; Garg, Pallav; Cremonesi, Alberto; Bosiers, Marc; Reimers, Bernhard; Setacci, Carlo; Cao, Piergiorgio; Schmidt, Andrej; Sievert, Horst; Peeters, Patrick; Nikas, Dimitry; Werner, Martin; de Donato, Gianmarco; Parlani, Giambattista; Castriota, Fausto; Hornung, Marius; Mauri, Laura; Rubino, Paolo

    2012-08-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the standard revascularization therapy to prevent stroke in patients with carotid artery disease. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) could be considered a potential alternative in patients at high surgical risk. Recent clinical trials have challenged this concept due a relatively high incidence of post-CAS adverse events, which occurred in low volume centers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes associated with neuroprotected CAS in selected high volume centers. From January 2007 to December 2007, 1,611 patients underwent neuroprotected CAS in eight European Centers. For each patients, clinical, procedural, and one month follow-up data from all patients have been collected. An independent clinical events committee adjudicated the events. Overall in hospital death was 0.06% (one patient), whereas in-hospital stroke was 0.49% (eight patients). Between hospital discharge and 30 days three additional patients died (0.18%) and 10 patients experienced a stroke (0.67%). Overall 30 days mortality was 0.24% (four patients) and stroke incidence 1.12% (18 patients). The 30 day stroke/death rate was 1.36%. CAS is a reasonable alternative to CEA to treat carotid artery atherosclerosis in well-experienced high volume centers. These data suggest that future prospective trials comparing CAS and CEA outcomes should include only centers highly experienced in both treatment modalities. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement for High-Order Finite-Volume Schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Alan Michael

    For computational fluid dynamics, the governing equations are solved on a discretized domain of nodes, faces, and cells. The quality of the grid or mesh can be a driving source for error in the results. While refinement studies can help guide the creation of a mesh, grid quality is largely determined by user expertise and understanding of the flow physics. Adaptive mesh refinement is a technique for enriching the mesh during a simulation based on metrics for error, impact on important parameters, or location of important flow features. This can offload from the user some of the difficult and ambiguous decisions necessary when discretizing the domain. This work explores the implementation of adaptive mesh refinement in an implicit, unstructured, finite-volume solver. Consideration is made for applying modern computational techniques in the presence of hanging nodes and refined cells. The approach is developed to be independent of the flow solver in order to provide a path for augmenting existing codes. It is designed to be applicable for unsteady simulations and refinement and coarsening of the grid does not impact the conservatism of the underlying numerics. The effect on high-order numerical fluxes of fourth- and sixth-order are explored. Provided the criteria for refinement is appropriately selected, solutions obtained using adapted meshes have no additional error when compared to results obtained on traditional, unadapted meshes. In order to leverage large-scale computational resources common today, the methods are parallelized using MPI. Parallel performance is considered for several test problems in order to assess scalability of both adapted and unadapted grids. Dynamic repartitioning of the mesh during refinement is crucial for load balancing an evolving grid. Development of the methods outlined here depend on a dual-memory approach that is described in detail. Validation of the solver developed here against a number of motivating problems shows favorable

  17. Mi Carrera. Volume IV: Effective Career Planning with Hispanic High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Denise, Ed.

    This curriculum guide, the fourth of a four-volume set that is intended to improve career and vocational guidance services to Spanish-speaking students in grades 9 through 12, is actually a collection of three different resources. The first section, "Group Activities: Intercambios," by Maria Garcia, is a model culturally based group counseling…

  18. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royden, A.; Wedley, A.; Merga, J. Y.

    2016-01-01

    ·22% [2/902, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0–0·53] were positive by culture for Campylobacter spp. Additionally, 1293 flies were grouped by family and cultured in 127 batches: 4/127 (3·15%, 95% CI 0·11-6·19) from three broiler farms were positive for Campylobacter. Multilocus sequence typing of isolates...... flies are proven carriers of Campylobacter and their ingress into broiler houses may contribute to its transmission to broiler chickens. However, this has not been investigated in the UK. Campylobacter was cultured from 2195 flies collected from four UK broiler farms. Of flies cultured individually, 0......, despite the low prevalence of Campylobacter cultured from flies, the risk of transmission by this route may be high, particularly during summer when fly populations are greatest....

  19. Flying Training Capacity Model: Initial Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Susan

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) Determine the flying training capacity for 6 bases: * Sheppard AFB * Randolph AFB * Moody AFB * Columbus AFB * Laughlin AFB * Vance AFB * (2) Develop versatile flying training capacity simulation model for AETC...

  20. Ommatidia of blow fly, house fly, and flesh fly: implication of their vision efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Piangjai, Somsak; Upakut, Sorawit; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kom

    2008-06-01

    This work aims to elucidate the number of ommatidia or facets (the outwardly visible units of each ommatidium) for compound eyes in blow flies [Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann)], house flies (Musca domestica L.), and flesh flies (Liosarcophaga dux Thomson) by manual counts of the corneal spreads. The head of the fly in each species was soaked in 20% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 7 days, and the clear compound eye was dissected into six small parts, each of which was placed onto a slide and flattened using a coverslip. Images of each part were obtained using a microscope connected to a computer. The printed images of each part were magnified, and the total number of ommatidia per eye was manually counted. For males, the mean number of ommatidia was statistically different among all flies examined: L. dux (6,032) > C. rufifacies (5,356) > C. nigripes (4,798) > C. megacephala (4,376) > L. cuprina (3,665) > M. domestica (3,484). Likewise, the mean number of facets in females was statistically different: L. dux (6,086) > C. megacephala (5,641) > C. rufifacies (5,208) > C. nigripes (4,774) > L. cuprina (3,608) > M. domestica (3433). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of adult flies revealed the sexual dimorphism in the compound eye. Male C. megacephala had large ommatidia in the upper two thirds part and small ommatidia in the lower one third part, whereas only small ommatidia were detected in females. Dense postulate appearance was detected in the external surface of the corneal lens of the ommatidia of C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, and C. nigripes, while a mix of dense postulate appearance and variable groove array length was detected in L. cuprina and M. domestica. The probable functions of ommatidia are discussed with reference to other literature.