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Sample records for high voltage operations

  1. Prototype high voltage bushing: Configuration to its operational demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Sejal, E-mail: sshah@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sharma, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Parmar, D.; Tyagi, H.; Joshi, K.; Shishangiya, H.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Chakraborty, A. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2016-12-15

    High Voltage Bushing (HVB) is the key component of Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) system of ITER as it provides access to high voltage electrical, hydraulic, gas and diagnostic feedlines to the beam source with isolation from grounded vessel. HVB also provides primary vacuum confinement for the DNB system. Being Safety Important Class (SIC) component of ITER, it involves several configurational, technological and operational challenges. To ensure its operational performance & reliability, particularly electrostatic behavior, half scale down Prototype High Voltage Bushing (PHVB) is designed considering same design criteria of DNB HVB. Design optimization has been carried out followed by finite element (FE) analysis to obtain DNB HVB equivalent electric stress on different parts of PHVB, taking into account all design, manufacturing & space constraints. PHVB was tested up to 60 kV without breakdown, which validates its design for the envisaged operation of 50 kV DC. This paper presents the design of PHVB, FEA validation, manufacturing constraints, experimental layout with interfacing auxiliary systems and operational results related to functional performance.

  2. Design and development of high voltage high power operational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Applications of power operational amplifiers (opamps) are increasing day by day in the industry as they are used in audio amplifiers, Piezo transducer systems and the electron deflection systems. Power operational amplifiers have all the features of a general purpose opamp except the additional power handling capability.

  3. 30 CFR 56.12071 - Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voltage power lines. 56.12071 Section 56.12071 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12071 Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage power lines. When equipment must be moved or operated near energized high-voltage powerlines (other than trolley...

  4. 30 CFR 57.12071 - Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage powerlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Movement or operation of equipment near high-voltage powerlines. 57.12071 Section 57.12071 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...-voltage powerlines. When equipment must be moved or operated near energized high-voltage powerlines (other...

  5. Design and development of high voltage high power operational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    address this challenge, a) Designing a discrete power opamp with high .... the use of high-impedance feedback networks, thus minimizing their output loading ... Spice simulation is done for the circuit and results are given in figures 4a–c.

  6. High voltage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Industrial processes usually require electrical power. This power is used to drive motors, to heat materials, or in electrochemical processes. Often the power requirements of a plant require the electric power to be delivered at high voltage. In this paper high voltage is considered any voltage over 600 V. This voltage could be as high as 138,000 V for some very large facilities. The characteristics of this voltage and the enormous amounts of power being transmitted necessitate special safety considerations. Safety must be considered during the four activities associated with a high voltage electrical system. These activities are: Design; Installation; Operation; and Maintenance

  7. Optimal Operation and Dispatch of Voltage Regulation Devices Considering High Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, Barry A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cho, Gyu-Jung [Sungkyunkwan University; Oh, Yun-Sik [Sungkyunkwan University; Kim, Min-Sung [Sungkyunkwan University; Kim, Ji-Soo [Sungkyunkwan University; Kim, Chul-Hwan [Sungkyunkwan University

    2017-06-29

    Voltage regulation devices have been traditionally installed and utilized to support distribution voltages. Installations of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution systems are rapidly increasing, and many of these generation resources have variable and uncertain power output. These generators can significantly change the voltage profile for a feeder; therefore, in the distribution system planning stage of the optimal operation and dispatch of voltage regulation devices, possible high penetrations of DERs should be considered. In this paper, we model the IEEE 34-bus test feeder, including all essential equipment. An optimization method is adopted to determine the optimal siting and operation of the voltage regulation devices in the presence of distributed solar power generation. Finally, we verify the optimal configuration of the entire system through the optimization and simulation results.

  8. Study on the construction and its operating characteristics of Marx high voltage pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, W.K.; Yook, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    This study is to investigate the operating characteristics of a Marx high voltage pulse generator, which is designed and fabricated for the purpose of constructing a linear theta-pinch plasma generating facility. The Marx generator consists of a 2 kJ capacitor bank of maximum output voltage of 200kV, a set of main spark switch, a triggring system, and high voltage charging power supply. The experimental results show that the operating characteristics of the generator can be controlled through varying nitrogen pressure as a filling gas. The output pulse of the generator is achieved close to the estimated voltage with the rise time of 3*m seconds. The stability of the generator is also very satisfactory within operating range of main spark switch. (Author)

  9. High Voltage Gain Dual Active Bridge Converter with an Extended Operation Range for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Tomas Manez, Kevin; Yudi, Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Bridge (P2DAB) converter, i.e. low-voltage (LV) side parallel and high-voltage (HV) side series, is proposed to achieve high voltage gain and low current stress over switching devices and transformer windings. Given the unmodified P2DAB power stage, by regulating the phase-shift angle between......Developing bidirectional dc-dc converters has become a critical research topic and gains more and more attention in recent years due to the extensive applications of smart grids with energy storages, hybrid and electrical vehicles and dc microgrids. In this paper, a Partial Parallel Dual Active...... the paralleled active bridges, the power equations and voltage gain are then modified, and therefore the operation range can be extended effectively. The operating principles of the proposed converter and its power characteristics under various operation modes are studied, and the design constraints...

  10. Operation Manual of the high voltage generator of the Pelletron electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, V.; Lopez V, H.; Alba P, U.

    1988-04-01

    The first version of a manual to operate the generator of high voltage generator of the Pelletron electron accelerator built in the ININ is presented. Since this generator has several components and/or elements, the one manual present has the purpose that the armed one or maintenance of anyone on its parts, is carried out in an orderly and efficient way. (Author)

  11. ELABORATION OF HIGH-VOLTAGE PULSE INSTALLATIONS AND PROVIDING THEIR OPERATION PROTECTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Hashimov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents design engineering methods for the high-voltage pulse installations of technological purpose for disinfection of drinking water, sewage, and edible liquids by high field micro- and nanosecond pulsing exposure. Designing potentialities are considered of the principal elements of the high-voltage part and the discharge circuit of the installations towards assuring the best efficient on-load utilization of the source energy and safe operation of the high-voltage equipment. The study shows that for disinfection of drinking water and sewage it is expedient to apply microsecond pulse actions causing the electrohydraulic effect in aqueous media with associated complex of physical processes (ultraviolet emission, generation of ozone and atomic oxygen, mechanical compression waves, etc. having detrimental effect on life activity of the microorganisms. In case of disinfecting edible liquids it is recommended to use the nanosecond pulses capable of straight permeating the biological cell nucleus, inactivating it. Meanwhile, the nutritive and biological values of the foodstuffs are saved and their organoleptic properties are improved. It is noted that in elaboration process of high-frequency pulse installations special consideration should be given to issues of the operating personnel safety discipline and securing conditions for the entire installation uninterrupted performance. With this objective in view the necessary requirements should be fulfilled on shielding the high- and low-voltage installation parts against high-frequency electromagnetic emissions registered by special differential sensors. Simultaneously, the abatement measures should be applied on the high-voltage equipment operational noise level. The authors offer a technique for noise abatement to admissible levels (lower than 80 dB A by means of coating the inside surface with shielded enclosure of densely-packed abutting sheets of porous electro-acoustic insulating

  12. Suppression of the high-frequency disturbances in low-voltage circuits caused by disconnector operation in high-voltage open-air substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, M.S.

    1986-07-01

    The switching off and on of small capacitive currents charging busbar capacitances, connection conductors and open circuit breakers with disconnectors causes high-frequency transients in high-voltage networks. In low voltage circuits, these transient processes induce dangerous overvoltages for the electronic equipment in the substation. A modified construction of the disconnector with a damping resistor was investigated. Digital simulation of the transient process in a high-voltage network during the arcing period between the disconnector contacts with and without damping resistor were performed. A significant decrease of the arcing duration and the decrease of the electromagnetic field magnitude in the vicinity of the operating disconnector were noticed. In the low voltage circuit protected with the surge arrester, the overvoltage magnitude was not affected by the damping resistor due to the arrester protection effect.

  13. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these

  14. Decision Optimization for Power Grid Operating Conditions with High- and Low-Voltage Parallel Loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of higher-voltage power grids, the high- and low-voltage parallel loops are emerging, which lead to energy losses and even threaten the security and stability of power systems. The multi-infeed high-voltage direct current (HVDC configurations widely appearing in AC/DC interconnected power systems make this situation even worse. Aimed at energy saving and system security, a decision optimization method for power grid operating conditions with high- and low-voltage parallel loops is proposed in this paper. Firstly, considering hub substation distribution and power grid structure, parallel loop opening schemes are generated with GN (Girvan-Newman algorithms. Then, candidate opening schemes are preliminarily selected from all these generated schemes based on a filtering index. Finally, with the influence on power system security, stability and operation economy in consideration, an evaluation model for candidate opening schemes is founded based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP. And a fuzzy evaluation algorithm is used to find the optimal scheme. Simulation results of a New England 39-bus system and an actual power system validate the effectiveness and superiority of this proposed method.

  15. Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Jin-Ping [Satellite Venture Business Laboratory, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Sato, Hisao; Mizobuchi, Takashi; Morioka, Kenji; Kawano, Shunsuke; Muramoto, Yoshihiko; Sato, Daisuke; Sakai, Shiro [Nitride Semiconductor Co. Ltd., Naruto, Tokushima 771-0360 (Japan); Lee, Young-Bae; Ohno, Yasuo [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2002-12-16

    Design and fabrication of monolithic blue LED series arrays that can be operated under high ac voltage are described. Several LEDs, such as 3, 7, and 20, are connected in series and in parallel to meet ac operation. The chip size of a single device is 150 {mu}m x 120 {mu}m and the total size is 1.1 mm x 1 mm for a 40(20+20) LED array. Deep dry etching was performed as device isolation. Two-layer interconnection and air bridge are utilized to connect the devices in an array. The monolithic series array exhibit the expected operation function under dc and ac bias. The output power and forward voltage are almost proportional to LED numbers connected in series. On-wafer measurement shows that the output power is 40 mW for 40(20+20) LED array under ac 72 V. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. High Operating Voltage Supercapacitor Using PPy/AC Composite Electrode Based on Simple Dipping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungho Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As various wearable devices are emerging, self-generated power sources, such as piezoelectric generators, triboelectric generators, and thermoelectric generators, are of interest. To adapt self-generated power sources for application devices, a supercapacitor is necessary because of the short generation times (1–10 ms and low generated power (1–100 μW of self-generated power sources. However, to date, supercapacitors are too large to be adapted for wearable devices. There have been many efforts to reduce the size of supercapacitors by using polypyrrole (PPy for high energy supercapacitor electrodes. However, these supercapacitors have several disadvantages, such as a low operating voltage due to the use of an aqueous electrolyte, and complex manufacturing methods, such as the hydrogel and aerosol methods. In particular, the low operating voltage (~1.0 V is a significant issue because most electronic components operate above 3.0 V. In this study, we successfully demonstrated the high operating voltage (3.0 V of a supercapacitor using a PPy/activated carbon (AC composite electrode based on the chemical polymerization of the PPy by simple dipping. In addition, a twofold enhancement of its energy density was achieved compared with conventional supercapacitors using AC electrodes.

  17. Substrate effects in high gain, low operating voltage SnSe2 photoconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Murali; Kallatt, Sangeeth; Majumdar, Kausik

    2018-01-01

    High gain photoconductive devices find wide spread applications in low intensity light detection. Ultra-thin layered materials have recently drawn a lot of attention from researchers in this regard. However, in general, a large operating voltage is required to obtain large responsivity in these devices. In addition, the characteristics are often confounded by substrate induced trap effects. Here we report multi-layer SnSe2 based photoconductive devices using two different structures: (1) SiO2 substrate supported inter-digitated electrode (IDE), and (2) suspended channel. The IDE device exhibits a responsivity of ≈ {10}3 A W-1 and ≈ 8.66× {10}4 A W-1 at operating voltages of 1 mV and 100 mV, respectively—a superior low voltage performance over existing literature on planar 2D structures. However, the responsivity reduces by more than two orders of magnitude, while the transient response improves for the suspended device—providing insights into the critical role played by the channel-substrate interface in the gain mechanism. The results, on one hand, are promising for highly sensitive photoconductive applications consuming ultra-low power, and on the other hand, show a generic methodology that could be applied to other layered material based photoconductive devices as well for extracting the intrinsic behavior.

  18. A plasma switch synchronous closing operations in high-voltage networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourente, P.

    1984-01-01

    Overvoltages and overcurrent arising in energizing or in fast reclosing operations are a concerning problem in high-voltage networks. Reduction of overvoltages and overcurrents is possible using the synchronous closing technique. Some attempts have been done to perform the synchronous closing with conventional circuit-breakers. But since the requirements to synchronous closing and to current interruption are very contradictory this technique is not yet a common practice. Three simple cases may be used as examples to show the benefits of synchronous closing; energizaton of grounded star capacitor bank; back-to-back switching of large capacitor banks; and fast reclosing on transmission lines

  19. High-voltage picoamperemeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugl, Andrea; Ball, Markus; Boehmer, Michael; Doerheim, Sverre; Hoenle, Andreas; Konorov, Igor [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ketzer, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Current measurements in the nano- and picoampere region on high voltage are an important tool to understand charge transfer processes in micropattern gas detectors like the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). They are currently used to e.g. optimize the field configuration in a multi-GEM stack to be used in the ALICE TPC after the upgrade of the experiment during the 2nd long shutdown of the LHC. Devices which allow measurements down to 1pA at high voltage up to 6 kV have been developed at TU Muenchen. They are based on analog current measurements via the voltage drop over a switchable shunt. A microcontroller collects 128 digital ADC values and calculates their mean and standard deviation. This information is sent with a wireless transmitting unit to a computer and stored in a root file. A nearly unlimited number of devices can be operated simultaneously and read out by a single receiver. The results can also be displayed on a LCD directly at the device. Battery operation and the wireless readout are important to protect the user from any contact to high voltage. The principle of the device is explained, and systematic studies of their properties are shown.

  20. Hardware and software system for monitoring oil pump operation in power high-voltage transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михайло Дмитрович Дяченко

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the basic prerequisites for the creation of an automated monitoring system for oil pumps of high-voltage transformers. This is due to the fact that the long operation of oil pumps results in deterioration and destruction of bearings, rubbing of the rotor, breakage and damage to the impeller, leakage, etc., which inevitably causes a significant decrease in the insulating properties of the transformer oil and leads to expenditures for its further recovery. False triggerings of gas protection sometimes occur. Continuous operation of the electric motor also requires additional equipment to protect the motor itself from various emergency situations, such as a short in the stator winding, a housing breakdown, an incomplete phase mode, etc. The use of stationary systems provides: diagnosing defects at an early stage of their development, increasing the reliability and longevity of the equipment components, increasing the overhaul period, decreasing the number of emergency stops, and adjusting the schedule of preventative maintenance. The basic principles of identification of the damaged part of the oil pump are given, the hardware and algorithmic solutions are considered in the work. The full-scale tests of the model sample on the power transformer of the high-voltage substation confirmed the assumption of the possibility of detecting the damaged unit separating it from the rest connected in one mechanical structure. A detailed analysis of the operation of each of the units is carried out by means of the general substation switchboard and displayed as graphs, diagrams and text messages. When the limit values of vibration are reached, faults in the operation of the unit are detected, the overlimit current values, a warning alarm is activated, and the command to disconnect the damaged unit is issued. The optimal solution for the organization of the information collection system using the principle of sensor networks, but combined

  1. Monitoring operating temperature and supply voltage in achieving high system dependability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    System dependability being a set of number of attributes, of which the important reliability, heavily depends on operating temperature and supply voltage. Any change beyond the designed specifications may change the system performance and could result in system reliability and hence dependability

  2. Reliability of high-voltage pulse capacitors operating in large energy storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchinskij, G.S.; Fedorova, V.S.; Shilin, O.V.

    1982-01-01

    To improve the reliability of pulse capacitors operating in capacitive energy storages, processes, resulting in break-down of capacitor insulation were investigated. A statistic model of failures was constructed and reliability of real capacitors, functioning at operating electric intensity Usub(oper) equal 70 kV/mm and at elevated intensity 90 kV/mm was calculated. Results of testing the IK50-ZU4 capacitor are given. The form of the capacitor service life distribution function was specified. To provide and confirm the assigned capacitor reliability, it is necessary to speed up tests at a higher voltage (1.3-1.5) Usub(oper). To improve the capacitor reliability, it is advisable to conduct acceptance tests, which include hold at increased constant voltage (1.3-1.5) Usub(oper) during 1-3 min and the effect of pulses of increased voltage (1.2-1.3) Usub(oper) with the pulse shape corresponding to operating conditions

  3. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  4. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered. (author)

  5. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  6. High voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Farouk AM

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a new revival of worldwide interest in extra-high-voltage (EHV) and ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission, High Voltage Engineering merges the latest research with the extensive experience of the best in the field to deliver a comprehensive treatment of electrical insulation systems for the next generation of utility engineers and electric power professionals. The book offers extensive coverage of the physical basis of high-voltage engineering, from insulation stress and strength to lightning attachment and protection and beyond. Presenting information critical to the design, selec

  7. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  8. High voltage, high power operation of the plasma erosion opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, J.M.; Boller, J.R.; Ottinger, P.F.; Weber, B.V.; Young, F.C.

    1987-01-01

    A Plasma Erosion Opening Switch (PEOS) is used as the opening switch for a vacuum inductive storage system driven by a 1.8-MV, 1.6-TW pulsed power generator. A 135-nH vacuum inductor is current charged to ∼750 kA in 50 ns through the closed PEOS which then opens in <10 ns into an inverse ion diode load. Electrical diagnostics and nuclear activations from ions accelerated in the diode yield a peak load voltage (4.25 MV) and peak load power (2.8 TW) that are 2.4 and 1.8 times greater than ideal matched load values for the same generator pulse

  9. The high voltage grid interface in present and future JET operational requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selin, K.I.; Ciscato, D.; Marchese, V.; Ashmole, P.; Jervis, B.

    1987-01-01

    A number of limitations surround the JET pulse load and its impact upon the high voltage network in order not to decrease quality and reliability of the electrical supply to other consumers. According to the present agreement with the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) the active and reactive power swing at the 400kV point of supply should not exceed 575MW and 375MVAr. The voltage drop should be less than 1.5% and the rise and decay of JET load should not exceed 200MW/s. There are also limitations in load power steps the purpose being to protect components of the CEGB power system. The paper presents two simulated JET scenarios in which the plasma current is Ip = 5MA and the additional heating power to the plasma is 25MW. The pulse termination is either normal or abnormal (plasma disruption). In the first case a reactive power compensation of 130MVAr is needed in order to comply with the limits on voltage drop. In case of plasma disruption an active power compensation of 150MW is needed in addition in order that the combined JET load may remain within the present limits of active power step, reactive power swing and voltage drop

  10. Comparison of high-voltage ac and pulsed operation of a surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, James M.; Trump, Darryl D.; Bletzinger, Peter; Ganguly, Biswa N.

    2006-10-01

    A surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric pressure air was excited either by low frequency (0.3-2 kHz) high-voltage ac or by short, high-voltage pulses at repetition rates from 50 to 600 pulses s-1. The short-pulse excited discharge was more diffuse and did not have the pronounced bright multiple cathode spots observed in the ac excited discharge. The discharge voltage, current and average power deposited into the discharge were calculated for both types of excitation. As a measure of plasma-chemical efficiency, the ozone number density was measured by UV absorption as a function of average deposited power. The density of ozone produced by ac excitation did not increase so rapidly as that produced by short-pulse excitation as a function of average power, with a maximum measured density of ~3 × 1015 cm-3 at 25 W. The maximum ozone production achieved by short-pulse excitation was ~8.5 × 1015 cm-3 at 20 W, which was four times greater than that achieved by ac excitation at the same power level.

  11. Comparison of high-voltage ac and pulsed operation of a surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, James M [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., 2766 Indian Ripple Road, Dayton, Ohio 45440-3638 (United States); Trump, Darryl D [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., 2766 Indian Ripple Road, Dayton, Ohio 45440-3638 (United States); Bletzinger, Peter [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., 2766 Indian Ripple Road, Dayton, Ohio 45440-3638 (United States); Ganguly, Biswa N [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7919 (United States)

    2006-10-21

    A surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric pressure air was excited either by low frequency (0.3-2 kHz) high-voltage ac or by short, high-voltage pulses at repetition rates from 50 to 600 pulses s{sup -1}. The short-pulse excited discharge was more diffuse and did not have the pronounced bright multiple cathode spots observed in the ac excited discharge. The discharge voltage, current and average power deposited into the discharge were calculated for both types of excitation. As a measure of plasma-chemical efficiency, the ozone number density was measured by UV absorption as a function of average deposited power. The density of ozone produced by ac excitation did not increase so rapidly as that produced by short-pulse excitation as a function of average power, with a maximum measured density of {approx}3 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} at 25 W. The maximum ozone production achieved by short-pulse excitation was {approx}8.5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} at 20 W, which was four times greater than that achieved by ac excitation at the same power level.

  12. Comparison of high-voltage ac and pulsed operation of a surface dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, James M; Trump, Darryl D; Bletzinger, Peter; Ganguly, Biswa N

    2006-01-01

    A surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric pressure air was excited either by low frequency (0.3-2 kHz) high-voltage ac or by short, high-voltage pulses at repetition rates from 50 to 600 pulses s -1 . The short-pulse excited discharge was more diffuse and did not have the pronounced bright multiple cathode spots observed in the ac excited discharge. The discharge voltage, current and average power deposited into the discharge were calculated for both types of excitation. As a measure of plasma-chemical efficiency, the ozone number density was measured by UV absorption as a function of average deposited power. The density of ozone produced by ac excitation did not increase so rapidly as that produced by short-pulse excitation as a function of average power, with a maximum measured density of ∼3 x 10 15 cm -3 at 25 W. The maximum ozone production achieved by short-pulse excitation was ∼8.5 x 10 15 cm -3 at 20 W, which was four times greater than that achieved by ac excitation at the same power level

  13. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  14. Suppressing voltage transients in high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lickel, K.F.; Stonebank, R.

    1979-01-01

    A high voltage power supply for an X-ray tubes includes voltage adjusting means, a high voltage transformer, switch means connected to make and interrupt the primary current of the transformer, and over-voltage suppression means to suppress the voltage transient produced when the current is switched on. In order to reduce the power losses in the suppression means, an impedance is connected in the transformer primary circuit on operation of the switch means and is subsequently short-circuited by a switch controlled by a timer after a period which is automatically adjusted to the duration of the transient overvoltage. (U.K.)

  15. Operational characteristics of a high voltage plasma focus device working with deuterium and heavy gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoita, V.; Presura, R.; Gherendi, F.; Dumitrescu-Zoita, C.; Aliaga, R.

    1992-01-01

    The addition of a few neon percents to the deuterium gas filling of a medium energy plasma focus device (PFD) changes dramatically the radiation characteristics of the discharge as well as the pinch configuration. One exceptional result is the generation of high aspect ratio pinches shown clearly and reproducibly on X-ray pinhole camera images and on schlieren pictures. Another remarkable result is that these pinches which show no macroscopic instabilities copiously produce neutrons and hard X-rays. This confirms an experimental fact previously identified on a lower voltage PFD: the macroscopic instabilities do not play the decisive role in the neutronic performance of medium energy PFD's. (Author)

  16. High-efficient and brightness white organic light-emitting diodes operated at low bias voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Junsheng; Yuan, Kai; Jian, Yadong

    2010-10-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) used for display application and lighting need to possess high efficiency, high brightness, and low driving voltage. In this work, white OLEDs consisted of ambipolar 9,10-bis 2-naphthyl anthracene (ADN) as a host of blue light-emitting layer (EML) doped with tetrabutyleperlene (TBPe) and a thin codoped layer consisted of N, N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) as a host of yellow light-emitting layer doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) were investigated. With appropriate tuning in the film thickness, position, and dopant concentration of the co-doped layer, a white OLED with a luminance yield of 10.02 cd/A with the CIE coordinates of (0.29, 0.33) has been achieved at a bias voltage of 9 V and a luminance level of over 10,000 cd/m2. By introducing the PIN structure with both HIL and bis(10- hydroxybenzo-quinolinato)-beryllium (BeBq2) ETL, the power efficiency of white OLED was improved.

  17. Wearable Solid-State Supercapacitors Operating at High Working Voltage with a Flexible Nanocomposite Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yaping; Ge, Fengyan; Komarneni, Sridhar; Cai, Zaisheng

    2016-10-05

    The proposed approach for fabricating ultralight self-sustained electrodes facilitates the structural integration of highly flexible carbon nanofibers, amino-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (AM-MWNT), and MnO 2 nanoflakes for potential use in wearable supercapacitors. Because of the higher orientation of AM-MWNT and the sublimation of terephthalic acid (PTA) in the carbonization process, freestanding electrodes could be realized with high porosity and flexibility and could possess remarkable electrochemical properties without using polymer substrates. Wearable symmetric solid-state supercapacitors were further assembled using a LiCl/PVA gel electrolyte, which exhibit a maximum energy density of 44.57 Wh/kg (at a power density of 337.1 W/kg) and a power density of 13330 W/kg (at an energy density of 19.64 Wh/kg) with a working voltage as high as 1.8 V. Due to the combination of several favorable traits such as flexibility, high energy density, and excellent electrochemical cyclability, the presently developed wearable supercapacitors with wide potential windows are expected to be useful for new kinds of portable electric devices.

  18. The high voltage homopolar generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. H.; Gully, J. H.; Driga, M. D.

    1986-11-01

    System and component design features of proposed high voltage homopolar generator (HVHPG) are described. The system is to have an open circuit voltage of 500 V, a peak output current of 500 kA, 3.25 MJ of stored inertial energy and possess an average magnetic-flux density of 5 T. Stator assembly components are discussed, including the stator, mount structure, hydrostatic bearings, main and motoring brushgears and rotor. Planned operational procedures such as monitoring the rotor to full speed and operation with a superconducting field coil are delineated.

  19. Temporary over voltages in the high voltage networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelja, Petar; Naumov, Radomir; Mrvic, Jovan; Minovski, Risto

    2001-01-01

    The paper treats the temporary over voltages that may arise in the high voltage networks as a result of: ground faults, loss of load, loss of one or two phases and switching operation. Based on the analysis, the measures for their limitation are proposed. (Original)

  20. Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murawski, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.murawski@iapp.de; Fuchs, Cornelius; Hofmann, Simone; Leo, Karl [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Gather, Malte C. [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Str. 1, 01062 Dresden (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the properties of N,N′-[(Diphenyl-N,N′-bis)9,9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl]-benzidine (BF-DPB) as hole transport material (HTL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and compare BF-DPB to the commonly used HTLs N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p-methylphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB), and N,N′-di(naphtalene-1-yl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). The influence of 2,2′-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile (F6-TCNNQ p-dopant) concentration in BF-DPB on the operation voltage and efficiency of red and green phosphorescent OLEDs is studied; best results are achieved at 4 wt. % doping. Without any light extraction structure, BF-DPB based red (green) OLEDs achieve a luminous efficacy of 35 .1 lm/W (74 .0 lm/W) at 1000 cd/m{sup 2} and reach a very high brightness of 10 000 cd/m{sup 2} at a very low voltage of 3.2 V (3.1 V). We attribute this exceptionally low driving voltage to the high ionization potential of BF-DPB which enables more efficient hole injection from BF-DPB to the adjacent electron blocking layer. The high efficiency and low driving voltage lead to a significantly lower luminous efficacy roll-off compared to the other compounds and render BF-DPB an excellent HTL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  1. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.; Abdelghany, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Mohannad Yomn; Elshurafa, Amro M; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  2. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  3. Fabrication and voltage divider operation of a T flip-flop using high-Tc interface-engineered Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, JunHo; Kim, Sang Hyeob; Sung, Gun Yong

    2002-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a rapid-single-flux-quantum T flip-flop (TFF) with high-T c interface-engineered Josephson junctions. Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-d and Sr 2 AlTaO 6 were deposited for the superconducting layer and the insulating layer, respectively. The Josephson junction was formed through an interface treatment process using Ar ion milling and vacuum annealing. We simulated a TFF circuit and designed a physical layout using WRspice and Xic. The fabricated TFF has a minimum junction width of 3 μ m. Through the measurement of the voltage divider operation, the maximum operation frequency was estimated to be 53 GHz at 22 K and 106 GHz at 12 K. (author)

  4. High frequency relay protection channels on super high voltage lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikutskii, G V

    1964-08-01

    General aspects of high voltage transmission line design are discussed. The relationships between line voltage and length and line dimensions and power losses are explained. Electrical interference in the line is classified under three headings: interference under normal operating conditions, interference due to insulation faults, and interference due to variations in operating conditions of the high-voltage network.

  5. High voltage isolation transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  6. Investigation of Technological Operations Affecting the Determination of Concentration of Ionol Additive in Insulating Oil in High-Voltage Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov S.M.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionol oxidation inhibitor level control is included into normative indicators list for diagnostics of internal insulation condition of any oil-filled high voltage device. Concentration of oxidation inhibitor in dielectric liquid should be from 0,08 % to 0,40 % mass. Power supply network chemistry laboratories use such methods as spectroscopy, spectrometry, chromatography and many others. Russian insulation service specialists use the method of ionol concentration measurement in oils based on gas-liquid chromatography. In the first place it is related to the fact that gas chromatographs are installed for several tasks, including definition of inhibitor’s mass concentration. However, as practice shows, the use of this method for additive analysis, especially in old acidified mineral oils is linked to some difficulties. The aim of this work is identify technologic faults that may occur during definition of ionol inhibitive additive in dielectric liquid with gas-liquid chromatography method, and, as a consequence, may lead to incorrect calculation of ionol additional concentration to oil, necessary for its antioxygenic properties maintenance and high insulation quality provision during high voltage device functioning. The object of the research is insulating oil with more than 35 years’ operating cycle, presenting a complex multiplex matrix of hydrocarbons and oxygenates preventing reliable determination of ionol additive with gas-liquid chromatography method. Executed researches show that the main input into “correct” final result obtention during calculation of additional additive concentration was made by such technological operations as water content in extractant and technology of sample introduction into chromatograph’s evaporation tank

  7. Powerful electrostatic FEL: Regime of operation, recovery of the spent electron beam and high voltage generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, I. [Univ. and INFN, Milan (Italy); Gong, J. [Southwest Jiaotong Univ., Chengdu (China)

    1995-02-01

    FEL, driven by a Cockcroft-Walton electrostatic accelerator with the recovery of the spent electron beam, is proposed as powerful radiation source for plasma heating. The low gain and high gain regimes are compared in view of the recovery problem and the high gain regime is shown to be much more favourable. A new design of the onion Cockcroft-Walton is presented.

  8. High voltage AC/AC electrochemical capacitor operating at low temperature in salt aqueous electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qamar; Béguin, François

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate that an activated carbon (AC)-based electrochemical capacitor implementing aqueous lithium sulfate electrolyte in 7:3 vol:vol water/methanol mixture can operate down to -40 °C with good electrochemical performance. Three-electrode cell investigations show that the faradaic contributions related with hydrogen chemisorption in the negative AC electrode are thermodynamically unfavored at -40 °C, enabling the system to work as a typical electrical double-layer (EDL) capacitor. After prolonged floating of the AC/AC capacitor at 1.6 V and -40°C, the capacitance, equivalent series resistance and efficiency remain constant, demonstrating the absence of ageing related with side redox reactions at this temperature. Interestingly, when temperature is increased back to 24 °C, the redox behavior due to hydrogen storage reappears and the system behaves as a freshly prepared one.

  9. Low voltage operation of electro-absorption modulator promising for high-definition 3D imaging application using a three step asymmetric coupled quantum well structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Byung Hoon; Ju, Gun Wu; Cho, Yong Chul; Lee, Yong Tak; Choi, Hee Ju; Jeon, Jin Myeong; Lee, Soo Kyung; Park, Yong Hwa; Park, Chang Young

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a transmission type electro-absorption modulator (EAM) operating at 850 nm having low operating voltage and high absorption change with low insertion loss using a novel three step asymmetric coupled quantum well (3 ACQW) structure which can be used as an optical image shutter for high-definition (HD) three dimensional (3D) imaging. Theoretical calculations show that the exciton red shift of 3 ACQW structure is more than two times larger than that of rectangular quantum well (RQW) structure while maintaining high absorption change. The EAM having coupled cavities with 3 ACQW structure shows a wide spectral bandwidth and high amplitude modulation at a bias voltage of only -8V, which is 41% lower in operating voltage than that of RQW, making the proposed EAM highly attractive as an optical image shutter for HD 3D imaging applications

  10. High frequency breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Thanh Duy.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information about the effect of frequency on the breakdown voltage of an air gap at standard pressure and temperature, 76 mm Hg and O degrees C, respectively. The frequencies of interest are 47 MHz and 60 MHz. Additionally, the breakdown in vacuum is briefly considered. The breakdown mechanism is explained on the basis of collision and ionization. The presence of the positive ions produced by ionization enhances the field in the gap, and thus determines the breakdown. When a low-frequency voltage is applied across the gap, the breakdown mechanism is the same as that caused by the DC or static voltage. However, when the frequency exceeds the first critical value f c , the positive ions are trapped in the gap, increasing the field considerably. This makes the breakdown occur earlier; in other words, the breakdown voltage is lowered. As the frequency increases two decades or more, the second critical frequency, f ce , is reached. This time the electrons start being trapped in the gap. Those electrons that travel multiple times across the gap before reaching the positive electrode result in an enormous number of electrons and positive ions being present in the gap. The result is a further decrease of the breakdown voltage. However, increasing the frequency does not decrease the breakdown voltage correspondingly. In fact, the associated breakdown field intensity is almost constant (about 29 kV/cm).The reason is that the recombination rate increases and counterbalances the production rate, thus reducing the effect of the positive ions' concentration in the gap. The theory of collision and ionization does not apply to the breakdown in vacuum. It seems that the breakdown in vacuum is primarily determined by the irregularities on the surfaces of the electrodes. Therefore, the effect of frequency on the breakdown, if any, is of secondary importance

  11. New Insights into the Operating Voltage of Aqueous Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minghao; Lu, Yongzhuang; Zheng, Haibing; Lu, Xihong

    2018-03-12

    The main limitation of aqueous supercapacitors (SCs) lies in their narrow operating voltages, especially when compared with organic SCs. Fundamental understanding of factors relevant to the operating voltage helps providing guidance for the assembly of high-voltage aqueous SCs. In this regard, this concept analyzes the deciding factors for the operating voltage of aqueous SCs. Strategies applied to expand the operating voltage are summarized and discussed from the aspects of electrolyte, electrode, and asymmetric structure. Dynamic factors associated with water electrolysis and maximally using the available potential ranges of electrodes are particularly emphasized. Finally, other promising approaches that have not been explored and their challenges are also elaborated, hoping to provide more insights for the design of high-voltage aqueous SCs. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Analysis of Operating Performance and Three Dimensional Magnetic Field of High Voltage Induction Motors with Stator Chute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Qing-shan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the difficulties on technology of rotor chute in high voltage induction motor,the desig method adopted stator chute structure is put forward. The mathematical model of three dimensional nonlinear transient field for solving stator chute in high voltage induction motor is set up. Through the three dimensional entity model of motor,three dimensional finite element method based on T,ψ - ψ electromagnetic potential is adopted for the analysis and calculation of stator chute in high voltage induction motor under rated condition. The distributions long axial of fundamental wave magnetic field and tooth harmonic wave magnetic field are analyzed after stator chute,and the weakening effects on main tooth harmonic magnetic field are researched. Further more,the comparison analysis of main performance parameters of chute and straight slot is carried out under rated condition. The results show that the electrical performance of stator chute is better than that of straight slot in high voltage induction motor,and the tooth harmonic has been sharply decreased

  13. Pulsed Operation of a Compact Fusion Neutron Source Using a High-Voltage Pulse Generator Developed for Landmine Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Kunihito; Watanabe, Masato; Okino, Akitoshi; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Hotta, Eiki; Yuura, Morimasa

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary experimental results of pulsed neutron source based on a discharge-type beam fusion called Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) for landmine detection are presented. In Japan, a research and development project for constructing an advanced anti-personnel landmine detection system by using IECF, which is effective not only for metal landmines but also for plastic ones, is now in progress. This project consists of some R and D topics, and one of them is R and D of a high-voltage pulse generator system specialized for landmine detection, which can be used in the severe environment such as that in the field in Afghanistan. Thus a prototype of the system for landmine detection was designed and fabricated in consideration of compactness, lightness, cooling performance, dustproof and robustness. By using this prototype pulse generator system, a conventional IECF device was operated as a preliminary experiment. As a result, it was confirmed that the suggested pulse generator system is suitable for landmine detection system, and the results follow the empirical law obtained by the previous experiments. The maximum neutron production rate of 2.0x10 8 n/s was obtained at a pulsed discharge of -51 kV, 7.3 A

  14. Wide Operating Voltage Range Fuel Cell Battery Charger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Sen, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    DC-DC converters for fuel cell applications require wide voltage range operation due to the unique fuel cell characteristic curve. Primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC) is a boost derived topology for low voltage high current applications reaching an efficiency figure up to 98...... by two the converter input-to-output voltage gain. This allows covering the conditions when the fuel cell stack operates in the activation region (maximum output voltage) and increases the degrees of freedom for converter optimization. The transition between operating modes is studied because represents...

  15. Computer controlled high voltage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunov, B; Georgiev, G; Dimitrov, L [and others

    1996-12-31

    A multichannel computer controlled high-voltage power supply system is developed. The basic technical parameters of the system are: output voltage -100-3000 V, output current - 0-3 mA, maximum number of channels in one crate - 78. 3 refs.

  16. Operation Manual of the high voltage generator of the Pelletron electron accelerator; Manual de operacion del generador de alto voltaje del acelerador de electrones Pelletron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, V; Lopez V, H; Alba P, U

    1988-04-15

    The first version of a manual to operate the generator of high voltage generator of the Pelletron electron accelerator built in the ININ is presented. Since this generator has several components and/or elements, the one manual present has the purpose that the armed one or maintenance of anyone on its parts, is carried out in an orderly and efficient way. (Author)

  17. High voltage distributions in RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Muranishi, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, E.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.

    1996-01-01

    High voltage distributions on the inner surfaces of RPCs electrodes were calculated by using a two-dimensional resistor network model. The calculated result shows that the surface resistivity of the electrodes should be high, compared to their volume resistivity, to get a uniform high voltage over the surface. Our model predicts that the rate capabilities of RPCs should be inversely proportional to the thickness of the electrodes if the ratio of surface-to-volume resistivity is low. (orig.)

  18. 18/20 T high magnetic field scanning tunneling microscope with fully low voltage operability, high current resolution, and large scale searching ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanfeng; Wang, Qi; Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2012-04-01

    We present a home-built 18/20 T high magnetic field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) featuring fully low voltage (lower than ±15 V) operability in low temperatures, large scale searching ability, and 20 fA high current resolution (measured by using a 100 GOhm dummy resistor to replace the tip-sample junction) with a bandwidth of 3.03 kHz. To accomplish low voltage operation which is important in achieving high precision, low noise, and low interference with the strong magnetic field, the coarse approach is implemented with an inertial slider driven by the lateral bending of a piezoelectric scanner tube (PST) whose inner electrode is axially split into two for enhanced bending per volt. The PST can also drive the same sliding piece to inertial slide in the other bending direction (along the sample surface) of the PST, which realizes the large area searching ability. The STM head is housed in a three segment tubular chamber, which is detachable near the STM head for the convenience of sample and tip changes. Atomic resolution images of a graphite sample taken under 17.6 T and 18.0001 T are presented to show its performance. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  19. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  20. High voltage investigations for ITER coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, S.; Fietz, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting ITER magnets will be excited with high voltage during operation and fast discharge. Because the coils are complex systems the internal voltage distribution can differ to a large extent from the ideal linear voltage distribution. In case of fast excitations internal voltages between conductor and radial plate of a TF coil can be even higher than the terminal voltage of 3.5 kV to ground which appears during a fast discharge without a fault. Hence the determination of the transient voltage distribution is important for a proper insulation co-ordination and will provide a necessary basis for the verification of the individual insulation design and the choice of test voltages and waveforms. Especially the extent of internal overvoltages in case of failures, e. g. malfunction of discharge units and / or arcing is of special interest. Transient calculations for the ITER TF coil system have been performed for fast discharge and fault scenarios to define test voltages for ITER TF. The conductor and radial plate insulation of the ITER TF Model Coil were exposed at room temperature to test voltages derived from the results from these calculations. Breakdown appeared during the highest AC voltage step. A fault scenario for the TF fast discharge system is presented where one fault triggers a second fault, leading to considerable voltage stress. In addition a FEM model of Poloidal Field Coil 3 for the determination of the parameters of a detailed network model is presented in order to prepare detailed investigations of the transient voltage behaviour of the PF coils. (author)

  1. Experimental validation of prototype high voltage bushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sejal; Tyagi, H.; Sharma, D.; Parmar, D.; M. N., Vishnudev; Joshi, K.; Patel, K.; Yadav, A.; Patel, R.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    Prototype High voltage bushing (PHVB) is a scaled down configuration of DNB High Voltage Bushing (HVB) of ITER. It is designed for operation at 50 kV DC to ensure operational performance and thereby confirming the design configuration of DNB HVB. Two concentric insulators viz. Ceramic and Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) rings are used as double layered vacuum boundary for 50 kV isolation between grounded and high voltage flanges. Stress shields are designed for smooth electric field distribution. During ceramic to Kovar brazing, spilling cannot be controlled which may lead to high localized electrostatic stress. To understand spilling phenomenon and precise stress calculation, quantitative analysis was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of brazed sample and similar configuration modeled while performing the Finite Element (FE) analysis. FE analysis of PHVB is performed to find out electrical stresses on different areas of PHVB and are maintained similar to DNB HV Bushing. With this configuration, the experiment is performed considering ITER like vacuum and electrical parameters. Initial HV test is performed by temporary vacuum sealing arrangements using gaskets/O-rings at both ends in order to achieve desired vacuum and keep the system maintainable. During validation test, 50 kV voltage withstand is performed for one hour. Voltage withstand test for 60 kV DC (20% higher rated voltage) have also been performed without any breakdown. Successful operation of PHVB confirms the design of DNB HV Bushing. In this paper, configuration of PHVB with experimental validation data is presented.

  2. Test setup for accelerated test of high power IGBT modules with online monitoring of Vce and Vf voltage during converter operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup

    2014-01-01

    Several accelerated test methods exist in order to study the failures mechanisms of the high power IGBT modules like temperature cycling test or power cycles based on DC current pulses. The main drawback is that the test conditions do not represent the real performance and stress conditions...... of the device in real application. The hypothesis is that ageing of power modules closer to real environment including cooling system, full dc-link voltage and continuous PWM operation could lead to more accurate study of failure mechanism. A new type of test setup is proposed, which can create different real...... load conditions like in the field. Furthermore, collector-emitter voltage (Vce) has been used as indicator of the wear-out of the high power IGBT module. The innovative monitoring system implemented in the test setup is capable of measure the Vce and forward voltage of the antiparallel diode (Vf...

  3. A High-Voltage Level Tolerant Transistor Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Geelen, Godefridus Johannes Gertrudis Maria

    2001-01-01

    A high-voltage level tolerant transistor circuit, comprising a plurality of cascoded transistors, including a first transistor (T1) operatively connected to a high-voltage level node (3) and a second transistor (T2) operatively connected to a low-voltage level node (2). The first transistor (T1)

  4. A PC-PCL-based control system for the high-voltage pulsed-power operation of the Intense Diagnostic Neutral Beam (IDNB) Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribble, R.

    1993-06-01

    A stand-alone, semiautomated control system for the high-voltage pulsed-power energy sources on the Intense Diagnostic Neutral Beam Experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory using personal computer (PC) and programmable logic controller (PLC) technology has been developed and implemented. The control system, consisting of a PC with the graphic operator interface, the network connecting the PC to the PLC, the PLC, the PLC I/O modules, fiber-optic interfaces and software, is described

  5. High voltage power network construction

    CERN Document Server

    Harker, Keith

    2018-01-01

    This book examines the key requirements, considerations, complexities and constraints relevant to the task of high voltage power network construction, from design, finance, contracts and project management to installation and commissioning, with the aim of providing an overview of the holistic end to end construction task in a single volume.

  6. Transient voltage sharing in series-coupled high voltage switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available For switching voltages in excess of the maximum blocking voltage of a switching element (for example, thyristor, MOSFET or bipolar transistor such elements are often coupled in series - and additional circuitry has to be provided to ensure equal voltage sharing. Between each such series element and system ground there is a certain parasitic capacitance that may draw a significant current during high-speed voltage transients. The "open" switch is modelled as a ladder network. Analy­sis reveals an exponential progression in the distribution of the applied voltage across the elements. Overstressing thus oc­curs in some of the elements at levels of the total voltage that are significantly below the design value. This difficulty is overcome by grading the voltage sharing circuitry, coupled in parallel with each element, in a prescribed manner, as set out here.

  7. Autonomous Operation of Low Voltage Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Wasiak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the possibilities of LV microgrids operation in the island mode. Control strategies of energy sources connected to the grid by means of invertors are discussed, either for a microgrid connected to the supplying network or during the island mode operation. The presented results of research were conducted at the Laboratory of Distributed Generation at Lodz University of Technology. The study was performed for two variants of reference voltage source: the battery storage and microturbine respectively.

  8. Parallel operation of voltage-source converters: issues and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, F.C.B.; Silva, D.S. [Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil)], Emails: felipe.brum@engenharia.ufjf.br, salomaoime@yahoo.com.br; Ribeiro, P.F. [Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil)], E-mail: pfribeiro@ieee.org

    2009-07-01

    Technological advancements in power electronics have prompted the development of advanced AC/DC conversion systems with high efficiency and flexible performance. Among these devices, the Voltage-Source Converter (VSC) has become an essential building block. This paper considers the parallel operation of VSCs under different system conditions and how they can assist the operation of highly complex power networks. A multi-terminal VSC-based High Voltage Direct Current (M-VSC-HVDC) system is chosen to be modeled, simulated and then analyzed as an example of VSCs operating in parallel. (author)

  9. High-voltage CMOS detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrler, F.; Blanco, R.; Leys, R.; Perić, I.

    2016-01-01

    High-voltage CMOS (HVCMOS) pixel sensors are depleted active pixel sensors implemented in standard commercial CMOS processes. The sensor element is the n-well/p-substrate diode. The sensor electronics are entirely placed inside the n-well which is at the same time used as the charge collection electrode. High voltage is used to deplete the part of the substrate around the n-well. HVCMOS sensors allow implementation of complex in-pixel electronics. This, together with fast signal collection, allows a good time resolution, which is required for particle tracking in high energy physics. HVCMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI and are considered as an option for both ATLAS and CLIC (CERN). Radiation tolerance and time walk compensation have been tested and results are presented. - Highlights: • High-voltage CMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI (Switzerland). • HVCMOS sensors are considered as an option for ATLAS (LHC/CERN) and CLIC (CERN). • Efficiency of more than 95% (99%) has been measured with (un-)irradiated chips. • The time resolution measured in the beam tests is nearly 100 ns. • We plan to improve time resolution and efficiency by using high-resistive substrate.

  10. High-voltage CMOS detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrler, F., E-mail: felix.ehrler@student.kit.edu; Blanco, R.; Leys, R.; Perić, I.

    2016-07-11

    High-voltage CMOS (HVCMOS) pixel sensors are depleted active pixel sensors implemented in standard commercial CMOS processes. The sensor element is the n-well/p-substrate diode. The sensor electronics are entirely placed inside the n-well which is at the same time used as the charge collection electrode. High voltage is used to deplete the part of the substrate around the n-well. HVCMOS sensors allow implementation of complex in-pixel electronics. This, together with fast signal collection, allows a good time resolution, which is required for particle tracking in high energy physics. HVCMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI and are considered as an option for both ATLAS and CLIC (CERN). Radiation tolerance and time walk compensation have been tested and results are presented. - Highlights: • High-voltage CMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI (Switzerland). • HVCMOS sensors are considered as an option for ATLAS (LHC/CERN) and CLIC (CERN). • Efficiency of more than 95% (99%) has been measured with (un-)irradiated chips. • The time resolution measured in the beam tests is nearly 100 ns. • We plan to improve time resolution and efficiency by using high-resistive substrate.

  11. Advances in high voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, A

    2005-01-01

    This book addresses the very latest research and development issues in high voltage technology and is intended as a reference source for researchers and students in the field, specifically covering developments throughout the past decade. This unique blend of expert authors and comprehensive subject coverage means that this book is ideally suited as a reference source for engineers and academics in the field for years to come.

  12. High mobility and low operating voltage ZnGaO and ZnGaLiO transistors with spin-coated Al2O3 as gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, D X; Xu, J B

    2010-01-01

    Spin-coated alumina serving as a gate dielectric in thin film transistors shows interesting dielectric properties for low-voltage applications, despite a moderate capacitance. With Ga singly doped and Ga, Li co-doped ZnO as the active channel layers, typical mobilities of 4.7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and 2.1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 are achieved, respectively. At a given gate bias, the operation current is much smaller than the previously reported values in low-voltage thin film transistors, primarily relying on the giant-capacitive dielectric. The reported devices combine advantages of high mobility, low power consumption, low cost and ease of fabrication. In addition to the transparent nature of both the dielectric and semiconducting active channels, the superior electrical properties of the devices may provide a new avenue for future transparent electronics. (fast track communication)

  13. Transmission of power at high voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, F J

    1963-01-01

    High voltage transmission is considered to be concerned with circuits and systems operating at or above 132 kV. While the general examination is concerned with ac transmission, dc systems are also included. The choice of voltage for a system will usually involve hazardous assessments of the future requirements of industry, commerce and a changing population. Experience suggests that, if the estimated economic difference between two voltages is not significant, there is good reason to choose the higher voltage, as this will make the better provision for unexpected future expansion. Two principal functions served by transmission circuits in a supply system are: (a) the transportation of energy in bulk from the generator to the reception point in the distribution system; and (b) the interconnection and integration of the generating plant and associated loads. These functions are considered and various types of system are discussed in terms of practicability, viability, quality and continuity of supply. Future developments requiring transmission voltages up to 750 kV will raise many problems which are in the main empirical. Examples are given of the type of problem envisaged and it is suggested that these can only be partially solved by theory and model operation.

  14. Voltage generators of high voltage high power accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svinin, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    High voltage electron accelerators are widely used in modern radiation installations for industrial purposes. In the near future further increasing of their power may be effected, which enables to raise the efficiency of the radiation processes known and to master new power-consuming production in industry. Improvement of HV generators by increasing their power and efficiency is one of many scientific and engineering aspects the successful solution of which provides further development of these accelerators and their technical parameters. The subject is discussed in detail. (author)

  15. Investigation of the Effects of Cathode Flow Fraction and Position on the Performance and Operation of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In- Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. Tests were performed within NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 at background pressure levels that were six times lower than what has previously been attained in other vacuum facilities. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the cathode-to-anode flow fraction and cathode position on the performance and operational characteristics of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster. In addition, the impact of injecting additional xenon propellant in the vicinity of the cathode was also assessed. Cathode-to-anode flow fraction sensitivity tests were performed for power levels between 1.0 and 3.9 kW. It was found that varying the cathode flow fraction from 5 to approximately 10% of the anode flow resulted in the cathode-to-ground voltage becoming more positive. For an operating condition of 3.8 kW and 500 V, varying the cathode position from a distance of closest approach to 600 mm away did not result in any substantial variation in thrust but resulted in the cathode-to-ground changing from -17 to -4 V. The change in the cathode-to-ground voltage along with visual observations indicated a change in how the cathode plume was coupling to the thruster discharge. Finally, the injection of secondary xenon flow in the vicinity of the cathode had an impact similar to increasing the cathode-to-anode flow fraction, where the cathode-to-ground voltage became more positive and discharge current and thrust increased slightly. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned with a centrally mounted cathode in order to further assess the impact of cathode position on thruster performance.

  16. Advances in high voltage power switching with GTOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podlesak, T.F.

    1990-01-01

    The control of high voltage at high power, particularly opening switches, has been difficult in the past. Using gate turnoff thyristors (GTOs) arranged in series enables large currents to be switched at high voltage. The authors report a high voltage opening switch has been successfully demonstrated. This switch uses GTOs in series and successfully operates at voltages higher than the rated voltage of the individual devices. It is believed that this is the first time this has been successfully demonstrated, in that GTOs have been operated in series before, but always in a manner as to not exceed the voltage capability of the individual devices. In short, the devices have not worked together, sharing the voltage, but one device has been operated using several backup devices. Of particular interest is how well the individual devices share the voltage applied to them. Equal voltage sharing between devices is absolutely essential, in order to not exceed the voltage rating of any of the devices in the series chain. This is accomplished at high (microsecond) switching speeds. Thus, the system is useful for high frequency applications as well as high power, making for a flexible circuit system element. This demonstration system is rated at 5 KV and uses 1 KV devices. A larger 24 KV system is under design and will use 4.5 KV devices. In order to design the 24 KV switch, the safe operating area of the large devices must be known thoroughly

  17. PLATEAUING COSMIC RAY DETECTORS TO ACHIEVE OPTIMUM OPERATING VOLTAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoff, E.N.; Peterson, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Through QuarkNet, students across the country have access to cosmic ray detectors in their high school classrooms. These detectors operate using a scintillator material and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). A data acquisition (DAQ) board counts cosmic ray hits from the counters. Through an online e-Lab, students can analyze and share their data. In order to collect viable data, the PMTs should operate at their plateau voltages. In these plateau ranges, the number of counts per minute remains relatively constant with small changes in PMT voltage. We sought to plateau the counters in the test array and to clarify the plateauing procedure itself. In order to most effectively plateau the counters, the counters should be stacked and programmed to record the number of coincident hits as well as their singles rates. We also changed the threshold value that a signal must exceed in order to record a hit and replateaued the counters. For counter 1, counter 2, and counter 3, we found plateau voltages around 1V. The singles rate plateau was very small, while the coincidence plateau was very long. The plateau voltages corresponded to a singles rate of 700–850 counts per minute. We found very little effect of changing the threshold voltages. Our chosen plateau voltages produced good performance studies on the e-Lab. Keeping in mind the nature of the experiments conducted by the high school students, we recommend a streamlined plateauing process. Because changing the threshold did not drastically affect the plateau voltage or the performance study, students should choose a threshold value, construct plateau graphs, and analyze their data using a performance study. Even if the counters operate slightly off their plateau voltage, they should deliver good performance studies and return reliable results.

  18. Primary Paralleled Isolated Boost Converter with Extended Operating Voltage Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Sen, Gökhan; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Applications requiring wide input and output voltage range cannot often be satisfied by using buck or boost derived topologies. Primary paralleled isolated boost converter (PPIBC) [1]-[2] is a high efficiency boost derived topology. This paper proposes a new operation mode for extending the input...

  19. CALCULATION OF OPERATING PARAMETERS OF HIGH-VOLTAGE POWER TAKE-OFF SYSTEM FOR THE PHOTOVOLTAIC FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Zaitsev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To ensure maximum production of electric power by photovoltaic vacilities, in addition to using highly efficient photovoltaic modules equipped with solar radiation concentrators must use a highly effective power take-off system. This paper is inscribed to solving the problem of a highly efficient and economic power take-off system development. Methodology. To solving the problem, we implemented three stages. On the first stage examines the dependence of electrical power from the intensity of the incident solar radiation. Based on this, the second stage is calculated the DC-DC converter resonant circuit and its working parameters, and developed circuit diagram of DC-DC converter. On the third stage, we carry out an analysis of power take-off system with step up DC-DC converter working. Results. In this paper, we carry out the analysis of working efficiency for photovoltaic facility power take-off system with step-up boost converter. The result of such analysis show that the efficiency of such system in a wide range of photovoltaic energy module illumination power is at 0.92, whereas the efficiency of classic power take-off systems does not exceed 0.70. Achieved results allow designing a circuit scheme of a controlled bridge resonant step-up converter with digital control. Proposed scheme will ensure reliable operation, fast and accurate location point of maximum power and conversion efficiency up to 0.96. Originality. Novelty of proposed power take-off system solution constitute in implementation of circuit with DC-DC converters, which as it shown by results of carrying out modeling is the most effective. Practical value. Practical implementation of proposed power take-off system design will allow reducing losses in connective wires and increasing the efficiency of such a system up to 92.5% in wide range of photovoltaic energy modules illumination.

  20. Beyond voltage-gated ion channels: Voltage-operated membrane proteins and cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Chen, Xingjuan; Xue, Yucong; Gamper, Nikita; Zhang, Xuan

    2018-04-18

    Voltage-gated ion channels were believed to be the only voltage-sensitive proteins in excitable (and some non-excitable) cells for a long time. Emerging evidence indicates that the voltage-operated model is shared by some other transmembrane proteins expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about voltage-operated proteins, which are not classic voltage-gated ion channels as well as the voltage-dependent processes in cells for which single voltage-sensitive proteins have yet to be identified. Particularly, we will focus on the following. (1) Voltage-sensitive phosphoinositide phosphatases (VSP) with four transmembrane segments homologous to the voltage sensor domain (VSD) of voltage-gated ion channels; VSPs are the first family of proteins, other than the voltage-gated ion channels, for which there is sufficient evidence for the existence of the VSD domain; (2) Voltage-gated proton channels comprising of a single voltage-sensing domain and lacking an identified pore domain; (3) G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the depolarization-evoked potentiation of Ca 2+ mobilization; (4) Plasma membrane (PM) depolarization-induced but Ca 2+ -independent exocytosis in neurons. (5) Voltage-dependent metabolism of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns[4,5]P 2 , PIP 2 ) in the PM. These recent discoveries expand our understanding of voltage-operated processes within cellular membranes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. High voltage load resistor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Monty Ray [Smithfield, VA

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  2. Measurements of Photocathode Operational Lifetime at Beam Currents up to 10 mA using an Improved DC High Voltage GaAs Photogun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grames, J.; Poelker, M.; Adderley, P.; Brittian, J.; Clark, J.; Hansknecht, J.; Machie, D.; Stutzman, M. L.; Surles-Law, K.

    2007-01-01

    This work extends past research at Jefferson Lab aimed at better appreciating the mechanisms that limit photocathode operational lifetime at high current (> 1 mA). Specifically, the performance of an improved 100 kV DC high voltage load locked photogun will be described. Although difficult to measure directly, we believe the new gun has better vacuum conditions compared to the original gun, as indicated by enhanced photocathode lifetimes exceeding 2000 C using a 1.55 mm diameter drive laser spot at the photocathode. In addition, the dependence of the lifetime on the laser spot size at the photocathode was measured and a charge density lifetime exceeding 106 C/cm2 was measured with a 0.32 mm laser spot diameter

  3. Measurements of photocathode operational lifetime at beam currents up to 10-mA using an improved DC high voltage GaAs photogun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Grames; M. Poelker; P. Adderley; J. Brittian; J. Clark; J. Hansknecht; D. Machie; M.L. Stutzman; K. Surles-Law

    2007-01-01

    This work extends past research at Jefferson Lab aimed at better appreciating the mechanisms that limit photocathode operational lifetime at high current (> 1 mA). Specifically, the performance of an improved 100 kV DC high voltage load locked photogun will be described. Although difficult to measure directly, we believe the new gun has better vacuum conditions compared to the original gun, as indicated by enhanced photocathode lifetimes exceeding 2000 C using a 1.55 mm diameter drive laser spot at the photocathode. In addition, the dependence of the lifetime on the laser spot size at the photocathode was measured and a charge density lifetime exceeding 10 6 C/cm 2 was measured with a 0.32 mm laser spot diameter

  4. Environmental impact of high voltage substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geambasu, C.; Popadiuc, S.; Drobota, C.; Marza, F.

    2004-01-01

    The first Romanian methodology for simultaneous environmental and human risk evaluation in case of HV installations within substations pertaining to nuclear power stations, based on EU regulation is now applicable in Cernavoda substation. High voltage substations are zones where the environmental impact is focused on electromagnetic field that's causes particular effects in living tissues (human being included). That is the reason why is necessary to identify the potential risk sources, the asses including the way to correct them and to dissimulate the results to the staff and the operational personal.(author)

  5. Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Baliga, B Jayant

    2012-01-01

    Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts describes devices utilized in power transmission and distribution equipment, and for very high power motor control in electric trains and steel-mills. Since these devices must be capable of supporting more than 5000-volts in the blocking mode, this books covers operation of devices rated at 5,000-V, 10,000-V and 20,000-V. Advanced concepts (the MCT, the BRT, and the EST) that enable MOS-gated control of power thyristor structures are described and analyzed in detail. In addition, detailed analyses of the silicon IGBT, as well as the silicon carbide MOSFET and IGBT, are provided for comparison purposes. Throughout the book, analytical models are generated to give a better understanding of the physics of operation for all the structures. This book provides readers with: The first comprehensive treatment of high voltage (over 5000-volts) power devices suitable for the power distribution, traction, and motor-control markets;  Analytical formulations for all the device ...

  6. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  7. Experiment and operation of a LHCD-35 kV/2.8 MW/1000 s high-voltage power supply on HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yiyun

    2002-01-01

    A-35 kV/2.8 MW/1000s high-voltage power supply (HVPS) for HT-7 superconducting tokamak has been built successfully. The HVPS is scheduled to run on a 2.45 GHz/1 MW lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system of HT-7 superconducting tokamak before the set-up of HT-7 superconducting tokamak in 2003. The HVPS has a series of advantages such as good steady and dynamic response, logical computer program controlling the HVPS without any fault, operational panel and experimental board for data acquisition, which both are grounded distinctively in a normative way to protect the main body of HVPS along with its attached equipment from dangers. Electric power cables and other control cables are disposed reasonably, to prevent signals from magnetic interference and ensure the precision of signal transfer. The author introduced the experiment and operation of a 35 kV/2.8 MW/1000 s HVPS for 2.45 GHz/1 MW LHCD system. The reliability and feasibility of the HVPS has been demonstrated in comparison with experimental results of original design and simulation data

  8. High-voltage engineering and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Hugh M

    2013-01-01

    This 3rd edition of High Voltage Engineering Testing describes strategic developments in the field and reflects on how they can best be managed. All the key components of high voltage and distribution systems are covered including electric power networks, UHV and HV. Distribution systems including HVDC and power electronic systems are also considered.

  9. High voltage high brightness electron accelerators with MITL voltage adder coupled to foilless diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Frost, C.A.; Shope, S.L.; Halbleib, J.A.; Turman, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    During the last ten years the authors have extensively studied the physics and operation of magnetically-immersed electron foilless diodes. Most of these sources were utilized as injectors to high current, high energy linear induction accelerators such as those of the RADLAC family. Recently they have experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that foilless diodes can be successfully coupled to self-magnetically insulated transmission line voltage adders to produce very small high brightness, high definition (no halo) electron beams. The RADLAC/SMILE experience opened the path to a new approach in high brightness, high energy induction accelerators. There is no beam drifting through the device. The voltage addition occurs in a center conductor, and the beam is created at the high voltage end in an applied magnetic field diode. This work was motivated by the remarkable success of the HERMES-III accelerator and the need to produce small radius, high energy, high current electron beams for air propagation studies and flash x-ray radiography. In this paper they present experimental results compared with analytical and numerical simulations in addition to design examples of devices that can produce multikiloamp electron beams of as high as 100 MV energies and radii as small as 1 mm

  10. High voltage performance of BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surendran, P.; Ansari, Q.N.; Nair, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator at TIFR, Mumbai is operational since its inception in 1988. It was decided to impart enough time for high voltage conditioning to achieve higher operational voltage. Prior to this, comprehensive works such as replacing all the sputter ion pumps and Titanium sublimation pumps across the accelerator tube with new or refurbished ones and replacement of Alumina balls in the SF_6 drier with fresh balls were carried out. High voltage conditioning of each module was done. Further conditioning of two modules at a time in overlapping mode improved the terminal voltage. As a result of this rigorous conditioning Terminal voltage of 12.6 MV was achieved and beam has been delivered to users at 12 MV terminal. Details of this effort will be presented in this paper. (author)

  11. High voltage performance of BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surendran, P.; Ansari, Q.N.; Nair, J.P., E-mail: surendra@tifr.res.in [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); and others

    2014-07-01

    The 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator at TIFR, Mumbai is operational since its inception in 1988. It was decided to impart enough time for high voltage conditioning to achieve higher operational voltage. Prior to this, comprehensive works such as replacing all the sputter ion pumps and Titanium sublimation pumps across the accelerator tube with new or refurbished ones and replacement of Alumina balls in the SF{sub 6} drier with fresh balls were carried out. High voltage conditioning of each module was done. Further conditioning of two modules at a time in overlapping mode improved the terminal voltage. As a result of this rigorous conditioning Terminal voltage of 12.6 MV was achieved and beam has been delivered to users at 12 MV terminal. Details of this effort will be presented in this paper. (author)

  12. Time isolation high-voltage impulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodorow, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    Lewis' high-voltage impulse generator is analyzed in greater detail, demonstrating that voltage between adjacent nodes can be equalized by proper selection of parasitic impedances. This permits improved TEM mode propagation to a matched load, with more faithful source waveform preservation

  13. High voltage electricity installations a planning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Jay, Stephen Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The presence of high voltage power lines has provoked widespread concern for many years. High Voltage Electricity Installations presents an in-depth study of policy surrounding the planning of high voltage installations, discussing the manner in which they are percieved by the public, and the associated environmental issues. An analysis of these concerns, along with the geographical, environmental and political influences that shape their expression, is presented. Investigates local planning policy in an area of the energy sector that is of highly topical environmental and public concern Cover

  14. Low operating voltage InGaZnO thin-film transistors based on Al2O3 high-k dielectrics fabricated using pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, G. Z.; Liu, G. X.; Zhang, Q.; Shan, F. K.; Lee, W. J.; Shin, B. C.; Cho, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Low-voltage-driven amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an Al 2 O 3 dielectric were fabricated on a Si substrate by using pulsed laser deposition. Both Al 2 O 3 and IGZO thin films are amorphous, and the thin films have very smooth surfaces. The Al 2 O 3 gate dielectric exhibits a very low leakage current density of 1.3 x 10 -8 A/cm 2 at 5 V and a high capacitance density of 60.9 nF/cm 2 . The IGZO TFT with a structure of Ni/IGZO/Al 2 O 3 /Si exhibits high performance with a low threshold voltage of 1.18 V, a high field effect mobility of 20.25 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , an ultra small subthreshold swing of 87 mV/decade, and a high on/off current ratio of 3 x 10 7 .

  15. High-frequency high-voltage high-power DC-to-DC converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. G.; Owen, H. A.; Wilson, P. M.

    1982-09-01

    A simple analysis of the current and voltage waveshapes associated with the power transistor and the power diode in an example current-or-voltage step-up (buck-boost) converter is presented. The purpose of the analysis is to provide an overview of the problems and design trade-offs which must be addressed as high-power high-voltage converters are operated at switching frequencies in the range of 100 kHz and beyond. Although the analysis focuses on the current-or-voltage step-up converter as the vehicle for discussion, the basic principles presented are applicable to other converter topologies as well.

  16. Solid-state high voltage modulator and its application to rf source high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooker, J.F.; Huynh, P.; Street, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    A solid-state high voltage modulator is described in which series-connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are switched at a fixed frequency by a pulse width modulation (PWM) regulator, that adjusts the pulse width to control the voltage out of an inductor-capacitor filter network. General Atomics proposed the HV power supply (HVPS) topology of multiple IGBT modulators connected to a common HVdc source for the large number of 1 MW klystrons in the linear accelerator of the Accelerator Production of Tritium project. The switching of 24 IGBTs to obtain 20 kVdc at 20 A for short pulses was successfully demonstrated. This effort was incorporated into the design of a -70 kV, 80 A, IGBT modulator, and in a short-pulse test 12 IGBTs regulated -5 kV at 50 A under PWM control. These two tests confirm the practicality of solid-state IGBT modulators to regulate high voltage at reasonable currents. Tokamaks such as ITER require large rf heating and current drive systems with multiple rf sources. A HVPS topology is presented that readily adapts to the three rf heating systems on ITER. To take advantage of the known economy of scale for power conversion equipment, a single HVdc source feeds multiple rf sources. The large power conversion equipment, which is located outside, converts the incoming utility line voltage directly to the HVdc needed for the class of rf sources connected to it, to further reduce cost. The HVdc feeds a set of IGBT modulators, one for each rf source, to independently control the voltage applied to each source, maximizing operational flexibility. Only the modulators are indoors, close to the rf sources, minimizing the use of costly near-tokamak floor space.

  17. Detecting Faults In High-Voltage Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Raymond K.

    1988-01-01

    Simple fixture quickly shows whether high-voltage transformer has excessive voids in dielectric materials and whether high-voltage lead wires too close to transformer case. Fixture is "go/no-go" indicator; corona appears if transformer contains such faults. Nests in wire mesh supported by cap of clear epoxy. If transformer has defects, blue glow of corona appears in mesh and is seen through cap.

  18. Physicochemical assessment criteria for high-voltage pulse capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darian, L. A., E-mail: LDarian@rambler.ru; Lam, L. Kh. [National Research University, Moscow Power Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    In the paper, the applicability of decomposition products of internal insulation of high-voltage pulse capacitors is considered (aging is the reason for decomposition products of internal insulation). Decomposition products of internal insulation of high-voltage pulse capacitors can be used to evaluate their quality when in operation and in service. There have been three generations of markers of aging of insulation as in the case with power transformers. The area of applicability of markers of aging of insulation for power transformers has been studied and the area can be extended to high-voltage pulse capacitors. The research reveals that there is a correlation between the components and quantities of markers of aging of the first generation (gaseous decomposition products of insulation) dissolved in insulating liquid and the remaining life of high-voltage pulse capacitors. The application of markers of aging to evaluate the remaining service life of high-voltage pulse capacitor is a promising direction of research, because the design of high-voltage pulse capacitors keeps stability of markers of aging of insulation in high-voltage pulse capacitors. It is necessary to continue gathering statistical data concerning development of markers of aging of the first generation. One should also carry out research aimed at estimation of the remaining life of capacitors using markers of the second and the third generation.

  19. Physicochemical assessment criteria for high-voltage pulse capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darian, L. A.; Lam, L. Kh.

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the applicability of decomposition products of internal insulation of high-voltage pulse capacitors is considered (aging is the reason for decomposition products of internal insulation). Decomposition products of internal insulation of high-voltage pulse capacitors can be used to evaluate their quality when in operation and in service. There have been three generations of markers of aging of insulation as in the case with power transformers. The area of applicability of markers of aging of insulation for power transformers has been studied and the area can be extended to high-voltage pulse capacitors. The research reveals that there is a correlation between the components and quantities of markers of aging of the first generation (gaseous decomposition products of insulation) dissolved in insulating liquid and the remaining life of high-voltage pulse capacitors. The application of markers of aging to evaluate the remaining service life of high-voltage pulse capacitor is a promising direction of research, because the design of high-voltage pulse capacitors keeps stability of markers of aging of insulation in high-voltage pulse capacitors. It is necessary to continue gathering statistical data concerning development of markers of aging of the first generation. One should also carry out research aimed at estimation of the remaining life of capacitors using markers of the second and the third generation.

  20. Dual voltage source inverter topology extending machine operating range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, T.; Wijnands, C.G.E.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Duarte, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Field weakening operation of an electrical machine is a conventional method to extend the angular velocity range of a system above the peak output voltage of the inverter. A downside, however, is that an increased reactive current is required that creates losses but no output torque. A dual voltage

  1. A High Voltage Swing 1.9 GHz PA in Standard CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, W.A.J.; Annema, Anne J.; Nauta, Bram

    2002-01-01

    A circuit technique for RF power amplifiers that reliably handle voltage peaks well above the nominal supply voltage is presented. To achieve this high-voltage tolerance the circuit implements switched-cascode transistors that yield reliable operation for voltages up to 7V at RF frequencies in a

  2. Nested high voltage generator/particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a modular high voltage particle accelerator having an emission axis and an emission end, the accelerator. It comprises: a plurality of high voltage generators in nested adjacency to form a nested stack, each the generator comprising a cup-like housing having a base and a tubular sleeve extending from the base, a primary transformer winding encircling the nested stack; a secondary transformer winding between each adjacent pair of housings, magnetically linked to the primary transformer winding through the gaps; a power supply respective to each of the secondary windings converting alternating voltage from its respective secondary winding to d.c. voltage, the housings at the emission end forming a hollow throat for particle acceleration, a vacuum seal at the emission end of the throat which enables the throat to be evacuated; a particle source in the thrond power means to energize the primary transformer winding

  3. Planning aspects of ac extra high voltage lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, H

    1964-01-01

    The technical points arising in any project for application of higher voltages on power grids in Europe are discussed. The cost aspects of two alternative ways of extending the voltage level of existing systems are discussed in detail. The short-circuit current in a high-power system with isolated or grounded neutral point and its relation to the mode of grounding is examined. For a transmission distance of 200 kVm, operating cost for each kWh transmitted are shown on curves for voltages of 220, 380 and 700 kV against transmitted energy. This shows that for any rated voltage there is a range of energy values which can be transmitted economically. Factors to be considered in maintaining, selecting or rejecting transformers and switchgear of other systems for higher voltage purposes are mentioned.

  4. Low cost photomultiplier high-voltage readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Kunz, P.F.

    1976-10-01

    The Large Aperture Solenoid Spectrometer (LASS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires monitoring over 300 voltages. This data is recorded on magnetic tapes along with the event data. It must also be displayed so that operators can easily monitor and adjust the voltages. A low-cost high-voltage readout system has been implemented to offer stand-alone digital readout capability as well as fast data transfer to a host computer. The system is flexible enough to permit use of a DVM or ADC and commercially available analogue multiplexers

  5. Determination of the cathode fall voltage in fluorescent lamps by measurement of the operating voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilscher, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new method for the determination of the cathode fall voltage of fluorescent lamps is shown. The cathode fall voltage can be determined by measurement of the lamp operating voltage at constant lamp wall temperature, constant discharge current and variation of the electrode heating current. Commercial lamps, which do not need to be specially prepared, can be used for the measurement. The results show good correlation to other measurements of the cathode fall voltage at various discharge currents by means of capacitive coupling. The measured values of the cathode fall voltage are used for determining the minimum, target and maximum setting of the sum of the squares of the pin currents of one electrode (the so-called SOS value) as a function of the discharge current in fluorescent lamp dimming. (author)

  6. Design and realization of high voltage disconnector condition monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinrui; Xu, Tianyang; Yang, Shuixian; Li, Buoyang

    2017-08-01

    The operation status of the high voltage disconnector directly affects the safe and stable operation of the power system. This article uses the wireless frequency hopping communication technology of the communication module to achieve the temperature acquisition of the switch contacts and high voltage bus, to introduce the current value of the loop in ECS, and judge the operation status of the disconnector by considering the ambient temperature, calculating the temperature rise; And through the acquisition of the current of drive motor in the process of switch closing and opening, and fault diagnosis of the disconnector by analyzing the change rule of the drive motor current, the condition monitoring of the high voltage disconnector is realized.

  7. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources: a nominal 300 Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28 Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt (kW) discharge power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300 to 500 Volts (V) to the thruster. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall effect thruster. The performance of the unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97%. The unit was also tested with a 12.5kW Hall effect thruster to verify compatibility and output filter specifications. With space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power devices, this would provide a design solution to address the need for high power electric propulsion systems.

  8. Compact Digital High Voltage Charger

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ge

    2005-01-01

    The operation of classical resonant circuit developed for the pulse energizing is investigated. The HV pulse or generator is very compact by a soft switching circuit made up of IGBT working at over 30 kHZ. The frequencies of macro pulses andμpulses can be arbitrarily tuned below resonant frequency to digitalize the HV pulse power. Theμpulses can also be connected by filter circuit to get the HVDC power. The circuit topology is given and its novel control logic is analyzed by flowchart. The circuit is part of a system consisting of a AC or DC LV power supply, a pulse transformer, the pulse generator implemented by LV capacitor and leakage inductance of the transformer, a HV DC or pulse power supply and the charged HV capacitor of the modulators.

  9. High-Voltage Isolation Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    Arcing and field-included surface erosion reduced by electrostatic shields around windings and ferromagnetic core of 80-kilovolt isolation transformer. Fabricated from high-resistivity polyurethane-based material brushed on critical surfaces, shields maintained at approximately half potential difference of windings.

  10. 76 FR 70721 - Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Staff Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD12-5-000] Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Staff Workshop Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Workshop on Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids on Thursday, December 1, 2011...

  11. High-voltage test and measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hauschild, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    It is the intent of this book to combine high-voltage (HV) engineering with HV testing technique and HV measuring technique. Based on long-term experience gained by the authors as lecturer and researcher as well as member in international organizations, such as IEC and CIGRE, the book will reflect the state of the art as well as the future trends in testing and diagnostics of HV equipment to ensure a reliable generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy. The book is intended not only for experts but also for students in electrical engineering and high-voltage engineering.

  12. A compact, all solid-state LC high voltage generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2013-06-01

    LC generator is widely applied in the field of high voltage generation technology. A compact and all solid-state LC high voltage generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. First, working principle of the generator is presented. Theoretical analysis and circuit simulation are used to verify the design of the generator. Experimental studies of the proposed LC generator with two-stage main energy storage capacitors are carried out. And the results show that the proposed LC generator operates as expected. When the isolation inductance is 27 μH, the output voltage is 1.9 times larger than the charging voltage on single capacitor. The multiplication of voltages is achieved. On the condition that the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to 857 V, the output voltage of the generator can reach to 59.5 kV. The step-up ratio is nearly 69. When self breakdown gas gap switch is used as main switch, the rise time of the voltage pulse on load resistor is 8.7 ns. It means that the series-wound inductance in the discharging circuit is very small in this system. This generator can be employed in two different applications.

  13. 30 CFR 77.807-3 - Movement of equipment; minimum distance from high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... high-voltage lines. 77.807-3 Section 77.807-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-3 Movement of equipment; minimum distance from high-voltage lines. When any part of any equipment operated on the surface of any...

  14. High Bandwidth Zero Voltage Injection Method for Sensorless Control of PMSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Xie; Lu, Kaiyuan; Kumar, Dwivedi Sanjeet

    2014-01-01

    High frequency signal injection is widely used in PMSM sensorless control system for low speed operations. The conventional voltage injection method often needs filters to obtain particular harmonic component in order to estimate the rotor position; or it requires several voltage pulses to be inj......High frequency signal injection is widely used in PMSM sensorless control system for low speed operations. The conventional voltage injection method often needs filters to obtain particular harmonic component in order to estimate the rotor position; or it requires several voltage pulses...... in a fast current regulation performance. Injection of zero voltage also minimizes the inverter voltage error effects caused by the dead-time....

  15. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA; Yee, Daniel D [Dublin, CA

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  16. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based...

  17. Microparticles in high-voltage accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, G.L.; Eastham, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Microparticles with radii greater than 2 μm have been observed in a high voltage vacuum accelerator tube. The charge acquired by most of the particles is similar to the contact charging of a conducting sphere on a plane. (author)

  18. An Inexpensive Source of High Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    As a physics teacher I like recycling old apparatus and using them for demonstrations in my classes. In physics laboratories in schools, sources of high voltage include induction coils or electronic systems that can be bought from companies that sell lab equipment. But these sources can be very expensive. In this article, I will explain how you…

  19. Experimental investigation of an optimum configuration for a high-voltage photoemission gun for operation at ≥500  kV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Nishimori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated the generation of a 500-keV electron beam from a high dc voltage photoemission gun for an energy recovery linac light source [N. Nishimori et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 234103 (2013]. This demonstration was achieved by addressing two discharge problems that lead to vacuum breakdown in the dc gun. One is field emission generated from a central stem electrode. We employed a segmented insulator to protect the ceramic insulator surface from the field emission. The other is microdischarge at an anode electrode or a vacuum chamber, which is triggered by microparticle transfer or field emission from a cathode electrode. An experimental investigation revealed that a larger acceleration gap, optimized mainly to reduce the surface electric field of the anode electrode, suppresses the microdischarge events that accompany gas desorption. It was also found that nonevaporable getter pumps placed around the acceleration gap greatly help to suppress those microdischarge events. The applied voltage as a function of the total gas desorption is shown to be a good measure for finding the optimum dc gun configuration.

  20. Reliability of supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage in substations extra high voltage to high voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Dragoslav M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Switchgear for auxiliary low voltage in substations (SS of extra high voltages (EHV to high voltage (HV - SS EHV/HV kV/kV is of special interest for the functioning of these important SS, as it provides a supply for system of protection and other vital functions of SS. The article addresses several characteristic examples involving MV lines with varying degrees of independence of their supply, and the possible application of direct transformation EHV/LV through special voltage transformers. Auxiliary sources such as inverters and diesel generators, which have limited power and expensive energy, are also used for the supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage. Corresponding reliability indices are calculated for all examples including mean expected annual engagement of diesel generators. The applicability of certain solutions of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage SS EHV/HV, taking into account their reliability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness is analyzed too. In particular, the analysis of applications of direct transformation EHV/LV for supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage, for both new and existing SS EHV/HV.

  1. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section...

  2. 30 CFR 75.813 - High-voltage longwalls; scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage longwalls; scope. 75.813 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.813 High-voltage longwalls; scope. Sections 75.814 through 75.822 of this...

  3. High-voltage pulsed generator for dynamic fragmentation of rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Vizir, V A; Kumpyak, V V; Zorin, V B; Kiselev, V N

    2010-10-01

    A portable high-voltage (HV) pulsed generator has been designed for rock fragmentation experiments. The generator can be used also for other technological applications. The installation consists of low voltage block, HV block, coaxial transmission line, fragmentation chamber, and control system block. Low voltage block of the generator, consisting of a primary capacitor bank (300 μF) and a thyristor switch, stores pulse energy and transfers it to the HV block. The primary capacitor bank stores energy of 600 J at the maximum charging voltage of 2 kV. HV block includes HV pulsed step up transformer, HV capacitive storage, and two electrode gas switch. The following technical parameters of the generator were achieved: output voltage up to 300 kV, voltage rise time of ∼50 ns, current amplitude of ∼6 kA with the 40 Ω active load, and ∼20 kA in a rock fragmentation regime (with discharge in a rock-water mixture). Typical operation regime is a burst of 1000 pulses with a frequency of 10 Hz. The operation process can be controlled within a wide range of parameters. The entire installation (generator, transmission line, treatment chamber, and measuring probes) is designed like a continuous Faraday's cage (complete shielding) to exclude external electromagnetic perturbations.

  4. High-voltage pulsed generator for dynamic fragmentation of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Vizir, V. A.; Kumpyak, V. V.; Zorin, V. B.; Kiselev, V. N.

    2010-10-01

    A portable high-voltage (HV) pulsed generator has been designed for rock fragmentation experiments. The generator can be used also for other technological applications. The installation consists of low voltage block, HV block, coaxial transmission line, fragmentation chamber, and control system block. Low voltage block of the generator, consisting of a primary capacitor bank (300 μF) and a thyristor switch, stores pulse energy and transfers it to the HV block. The primary capacitor bank stores energy of 600 J at the maximum charging voltage of 2 kV. HV block includes HV pulsed step up transformer, HV capacitive storage, and two electrode gas switch. The following technical parameters of the generator were achieved: output voltage up to 300 kV, voltage rise time of ˜50 ns, current amplitude of ˜6 kA with the 40 Ω active load, and ˜20 kA in a rock fragmentation regime (with discharge in a rock-water mixture). Typical operation regime is a burst of 1000 pulses with a frequency of 10 Hz. The operation process can be controlled within a wide range of parameters. The entire installation (generator, transmission line, treatment chamber, and measuring probes) is designed like a continuous Faraday's cage (complete shielding) to exclude external electromagnetic perturbations.

  5. Analysis for the Effects of Grid Voltage Degradation on APR1400 Operation, Case Study for Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Mostafa Ahmed Fouad; Koo, Chang Choong

    2015-01-01

    Egypt is one of the countries planning to introduce a NPP into its electrical power system. Although the Egyptian power system has sufficient capacity to integrate any commercially available nuclear unit as the total installed capacity of the power system is more than 32GWe, which is more than 10 times capacity of any nuclear unit in the range of 1000 to 1700MWe, the system is vulnerable to extreme voltage variations, especially voltage degradation during peak load conditions. These conditions can lead to voltage collapse if a counter measure, usually load shedding, is not taken in a proper time. Hence, it is necessary to analyze the effect of such conditions on the safe and economic operation of the NPP. In this paper we analyzed the effects of grid voltage degradation on the safe and economic operation of the Advanced Power Reactor (APR1400) to determine any adverse effects on the plant auxiliary loads while operating in the Egyptian power system. In this paper the effects of grid voltage degradation on the safe and economic operation of APR1400 were investigated taking into account, generator operating limits, plant safety requirements, operation modes and loading categories in order to determine any adverse effect on the plant auxiliary loads while operating in the Egyptian power system. The results of the load flow and motor starting analysis demonstrated that during normal operation the automatic voltage regulator and transformers OLTCs can mitigate the effect of grid voltage degradation without any detrimental effect on the plant auxiliary loads. During the highly unlikely LOCA condition if the grid voltage degraded below 95%, the degraded voltage relays at Class 1E 4.16 kV buses will trip the supply and load breakers and reconnect the required safety loads to the EDG after 4 minutes time delay. During this period the safety loads required for LOCA can be started and accelerated to their rated speed safely even in the worst case of expected degraded voltage

  6. 30 CFR 77.807-2 - Booms and masts; minimum distance from high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voltage lines. 77.807-2 Section 77.807-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-2 Booms and masts; minimum distance from high-voltage lines. The booms and masts of equipment operated on the surface of any...

  7. High voltage pulse generator. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G.E.

    1975-06-12

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator is described which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of the first rectifier connected between the first and second capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. The output voltage can be readily increased by adding additional charging networks. The circuit allows the peak level of the output to be easily varied over a wide range by using a variable autotransformer in the charging circuit.

  8. A wiggler magnet for FEL low voltage operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shamma`a, A.; Stuart, R.A.; Lucas, J.

    1995-12-31

    In low voltage FELs (ie, 200kV), operation is necessarily in the microwave frequency range for wiggler periods of the order of cms., so that a waveguide system is mandatory. Also, because of the relatively low velocity of the electron beam, the wiggle amplitude of the electron beam can be much larger than is normal for highly relativistic FELs. Both these factors mean that the electron trajectory must be carefully controlled to avoid beam collision with the waveguide walls. A wiggler system with half poles at entrance and exit is not an acceptable solution because of the offset is gives rise to the electron trajectory. Consequently, we have designed and constructed a wiggler magnet with exponential entrance and exit tapers for a minimal deflection and displacement of the electron beam. Simulations and experimental measurements showed that an on axis trajectory is easily obtainable.

  9. Computer applications: Automatic control system for high-voltage accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryukhanov, A.N.; Komissarov, P.Yu.; Lapin, V.V.; Latushkin, S.T.. Fomenko, D.E.; Yudin, L.I.

    1992-01-01

    An automatic control system for a high-voltage electrostatic accelerator with an accelerating potential of up to 500 kV is described. The electronic apparatus on the high-voltage platform is controlled and monitored by means of a fiber-optic data-exchange system. The system is based on CAMAC modules that are controlled by a microprocessor crate controller. Data on accelerator operation are represented and control instructions are issued by means of an alphanumeric terminal. 8 refs., 6 figs

  10. Choice of operating voltage for a transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egerton, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    An accelerating voltage of 100–300 kV remains a good choice for the majority of TEM or STEM specimens, avoiding the expense of high-voltage microscopy but providing the possibility of atomic resolution even in the absence of lens-aberration correction. For specimens thicker than a few tens of nm, the image intensity and scattering contrast are likely to be higher than at lower voltage, as is the visibility of ionization edges below 1000 eV (as required for EELS elemental analysis). In thick (>100 nm) specimens, higher voltage ensures less beam broadening and better spatial resolution for STEM imaging and EDX spectroscopy. Low-voltage (e.g. 30 kV) TEM or STEM is attractive for a very thin (e.g. 10 nm) specimen, as it provides higher scattering contrast and fewer problems for valence-excitation EELS. Specimens that are immune to radiolysis suffer knock-on damage at high current densities, and this form of radiation damage can be reduced or avoided by choosing a low accelerating voltage. Low-voltage STEM with an aberration-corrected objective lens (together with a high-angle dark-field detector and/or EELS) offers atomic resolution and elemental identification from very thin specimens. Conventional TEM can provide atomic resolution in low-voltage phase-contrast images but requires correction of chromatic aberration and preferably an electron-beam monochromator. Many non-conducting (e.g. organic) specimens damage easily by radiolysis and radiation damage then determines the TEM image resolution. For bright-field scattering contrast, low kV can provide slightly better dose-limited resolution if the specimen is very thin (a few nm) but considerably better resolution is possible from a thicker specimen, for which higher kV is required. Use of a phase plate in a conventional TEM offers the most dose-efficient way of achieving atomic resolution from beam-sensitive specimens. - Highlights: • 100–300 kV accelerating voltage is suitable for TEM specimens of typical

  11. Statistical characteristics of transient enclosure voltage in ultra-high-voltage gas-insulated switchgear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuanji; Guan, Yonggang; Liu, Weidong

    2017-06-01

    Transient enclosure voltage (TEV), which is a phenomenon induced by the inner dielectric breakdown of SF6 during disconnector operations in a gas-insulated switchgear (GIS), may cause issues relating to shock hazard and electromagnetic interference to secondary equipment. This is a critical factor regarding the electromagnetic compatibility of ultra-high-voltage (UHV) substations. In this paper, the statistical characteristics of TEV at UHV level are collected from field experiments, and are analyzed and compared to those from a repeated strike process. The TEV waveforms during disconnector operations are recorded by a self-developed measurement system first. Then, statistical characteristics, such as the pulse number, duration of pulses, frequency components, magnitude and single pulse duration, are extracted. The transmission line theory is introduced to analyze the TEV and is validated by the experimental results. Finally, the relationship between the TEV and the repeated strike process is analyzed. This proves that the pulse voltage of the TEV is proportional to the corresponding breakdown voltage. The results contribute to the definition of the standard testing waveform of the TEV, and can aid the protection of electronic devices in substations by minimizing the threat of this phenomenon.

  12. Discussion - a high voltage DC generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, P.V.; Singh, Jagir; Hattangadi, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    One of the requirements for a high power ion source is a high voltage, high current DC generator. The high voltage, high current generator, DISCATRON, presently under development in our laboratory is a rotating disc type electrostatic generator similar in design to the one reported by A. Isoya et al. (1985). It is compact and rugged electrostatic DC generator based on the principle of induction charging by pellet chains used in the pelletron accelerator. It is, basically, a constant-current device with little stored energy, so that, in case of a breakdown, damage to the equipment connected to the output terminals is minimal. Since the present generator is only a proto-type, meant for a study of the practical difficulties that would be encountered in its manufacture, the output voltage and current specified has been kept quite modest viz., 300 kV at 500 μA, maximum. Some results of the preliminary tests carried out with this generator are described. (author). 4 figs

  13. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based......, and remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. A review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning and cost are often...

  14. Common planning of operations of and extensions to a nuclear park and a high-voltage network of a service area with the aid of a modified optimization method of dynamic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieselt, R.

    1974-01-01

    While making extensive use of the possibilities dynamic programming as an optimization method has to offer, a planning method for the common operation and the extension of a nuclear park and a high-voltage network for a service area of a large size is worked out in a system-analytical manner in this thesis. With the aid of the computer programmes developed, those decisions concerning construction and operation of power plant and network are looked for which result within appr. 10 years of planning in a minimum of overall generating and transmission costs. (orig./LN) [de

  15. High-voltage nanosecond pulse shaper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapishnikov, N.K.; Muratov, V.M.; Shatanov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A high-voltage pulse shaper with an output of up to 250 kV, a base duration of ∼ 10 nsec, and a repetition frequency of 50 pulses/sec is described. The described high-voltage nanosecond pulse shaper is designed for one-orbit extraction of an electron beam from a betatron. A diagram of the pulse shaper, which employs a single-stage generator is shown. The shaping element is a low-inductance capacitor bank of series-parallel KVI-3 (2200 pF at 10 kV) or K15-10 (4700 pF at 31.5 kV) disk ceramic capacitors. Four capacitors are connected in parallel and up to 25 are connected in series

  16. High-voltage polymeric insulated cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, A

    1987-01-01

    Reviews developments in high-voltage (here defined as 25 kV, 66 kV and 132 kV) polymeric insulated cables in the UK over the period 1979-1986, with particular reference to the experience of the Eastern Electricity Board. Outlines the background to the adoption of XPLE-insulated solid cable, and the design, testing, terminations, jointing and costs of 25 kV, 66 kV and 132 kV cables.

  17. High voltage diagnostics on electrical insulation of supersonducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irmisch, M.

    1995-12-01

    The high voltage (HV) performance of superconducting magnets of large dimensions, e.g. as needed in fusion reactors, is a challange in the field of high voltage technology, i.e. especially in the field of cryogenic high voltage components and with respect to questions of HV insulation diagnostics at low temperature. By using the development of POLO - a superconducting prototype coil of a tokamak poloidal field coil - as an example, this work deals with special problems of how to get use of conventional HV test techniques for diagnostics under special cryogenic boundary conditions. As a first approach to gain experience in the field of phase resolved partial discharge (PRPD) measurements during operation of a superconductive coil, the POLO coil was subject to several high voltage tests. Compared with DC insulation resistance measurements and capacitive impulse voltage discharges to the coil, the AC PD measurements have been the only way to observe special characteristics of the electrical insulation with respect to the cooling down of the coil from 300 K to 4.2 K. The PRPD measurement technique thereby has proofed as a suitable diagnostic tool. This work can serve as basic data to be comparable within further projects of electrical insulation diagnostics at cryogenic temperatures. (orig.)

  18. Contribution to high voltage matrix switches reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausenaz, Yvan

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, power electronic equipment requirements are important, concerning performances, quality and reliability. On the other hand, costs have to be reduced in order to satisfy the market rules. To provide cheap, reliability and performances, many standard components with mass production are developed. But the construction of specific products must be considered following these two different points: in one band you can produce specific components, with delay, over-cost problems and eventuality quality and reliability problems, in the other and you can use standard components in a adapted topologies. The CEA of Pierrelatte has adopted this last technique of power electronic conception for the development of these high voltage pulsed power converters. The technique consists in using standard components and to associate them in series and in parallel. The matrix constitutes high voltage macro-switch where electrical parameters are distributed between the synchronized components. This study deals with the reliability of these structures. It brings up the high reliability aspect of MOSFETs matrix associations. Thanks to several homemade test facilities, we obtained lots of data concerning the components we use. The understanding of defects propagation mechanisms in matrix structures has allowed us to put forwards the necessity of robust drive system, adapted clamping voltage protection, and careful geometrical construction. All these reliability considerations in matrix associations have notably allowed the construction of a new matrix structure regrouping all solutions insuring reliability. Reliable and robust, this product has already reaches the industrial stage. (author) [fr

  19. Digitally Programmable High-Q Voltage Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new low-voltage low-power CMOS current feedback amplifier (CFA is presented in this paper. This is used to realize a novel digitally programmable CFA (DPCFA using transistor arrays and MOS switches. The proposed realizations nearly allow rail-to-rail swing capability at all the ports. Class-AB output stage ensures low power dissipation and high current drive capability. The proposed CFA/ DPCFA operates at supply voltage of ±0.75 V and exhibits bandwidth better than 95 MHz. An application of the DPCFA to realize a novel voltage mode high-Q digitally programmable universal filter (UF is given. Performances of all the proposed circuits are verified by PSPICE simulation using TSMC 0.25μm technology parameters.

  20. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  1. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360 degree/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs

  2. Energy harvesting in high voltage measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Żyłka, Pawel; Doliński, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses selected problems related to application of energy harvesting (that is, generating electricity from surplus energy present in the environment) to supply autonomous ultra-low-power measurement systems applicable in high voltage engineering. As a practical example of such implementation a laboratory model of a remote temperature sensor is presented, which is self-powered by heat generated in a current-carrying busbar in HV- switchgear. Presented system exploits a thermoelectric harvester based on a passively cooled Peltier module supplying micro-power low-voltage dc-dc converter driving energy-efficient temperature sensor, microcontroller and a fibre-optic transmitter. Performance of the model in laboratory simulated conditions are presented and discussed. (paper)

  3. Optimal operation control of low-voltage grids with a high share of distributed power generation[Dissertation 17063]; Optimierte Betriebsfuehrung von Niederspannungsnetzen mit einem hohen Anteil an dezentraler Erzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malte, C. T.

    2007-07-01

    The importance of renewable energy sources and combined heat and power generation for electricity production will further increase in the next years, not only in Germany but all over Europe. Beside the conventional more or less centrally organised generation and distribution structure, more and more distributed generation (DG) units of different technologies will come to the forefront. Today's centrally organised electricity supply structure is comparatively stable, relatively simple to control and guarantees a high degree of supply quality. But it requests large investments with a long commitment, is less flexible and can barely use efficiency potentials. Distribution grids (low and medium voltage) are essentially passive; this means that the network management is carried out at the higher voltage levels. As more and more DG units feed in the grid, the distribution grids have to become more 'active'. With a high share of wind power, combined heat and power as well as photovoltaic generation, more duties of grid management have to be carried out at the point of common coupling of DG units. This requests for more communication und new control strategies in the distribution grids. At the same time grids with DG have in the mid-term the potential to reduce the susceptibility for large scale black-outs, because, on one hand, with a high number of smaller and individually controlled DG units the breakdown of one unit does not have a major impact and, on the other hand, with a specific grid management the option exists to build up islanded grids during interruptions on the higher voltage levels and to continue to supply the connected customers. In the European research project 'DISPOWER' 38 institutions from all over Europe dealt these topics. In this context a new kind of energy management system for low voltage grids was developed: 'PoMS'. PoMS is the acronym for 'Power Flow and Power Quality Management System'. Major

  4. Optimal operation control of low-voltage grids with a high share of distributed power generation[Dissertation 17063]; Optimierte Betriebsfuehrung von Niederspannungsnetzen mit einem hohen Anteil an dezentraler Erzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malte, C T

    2007-07-01

    The importance of renewable energy sources and combined heat and power generation for electricity production will further increase in the next years, not only in Germany but all over Europe. Beside the conventional more or less centrally organised generation and distribution structure, more and more distributed generation (DG) units of different technologies will come to the forefront. Today's centrally organised electricity supply structure is comparatively stable, relatively simple to control and guarantees a high degree of supply quality. But it requests large investments with a long commitment, is less flexible and can barely use efficiency potentials. Distribution grids (low and medium voltage) are essentially passive; this means that the network management is carried out at the higher voltage levels. As more and more DG units feed in the grid, the distribution grids have to become more 'active'. With a high share of wind power, combined heat and power as well as photovoltaic generation, more duties of grid management have to be carried out at the point of common coupling of DG units. This requests for more communication und new control strategies in the distribution grids. At the same time grids with DG have in the mid-term the potential to reduce the susceptibility for large scale black-outs, because, on one hand, with a high number of smaller and individually controlled DG units the breakdown of one unit does not have a major impact and, on the other hand, with a specific grid management the option exists to build up islanded grids during interruptions on the higher voltage levels and to continue to supply the connected customers. In the European research project 'DISPOWER' 38 institutions from all over Europe dealt these topics. In this context a new kind of energy management system for low voltage grids was developed: 'PoMS'. PoMS is the acronym for 'Power Flow and Power Quality Management System'. Major targets during development were that the system is

  5. On-site voltage measurement with capacitive sensors on high voltage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Steennis, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    In Extra/High-Voltage (EHV/HV) power systems, over-voltages occur e.g. due to transients or resonances. At places where no conventional voltage measurement devices can be installed, on-site measurement of these occurrences requires preferably non intrusive sensors, which can be installed with little

  6. 76 FR 72203 - Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Reliability Workshop Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD12-5-000] Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Reliability Workshop Agenda As announced in the Notice of Staff..., from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. to explore the interaction between voltage control, reliability, and economic...

  7. High voltage fast switches for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Lausenaz, Y.; Villard, J.F.; Lafore, D.

    1999-01-01

    SILVA process consists in a selective ionization of the 235 uranium isotope, using laser beams generated by dye lasers pumped by copper vapour laser (C.V.L.). SILVA involves power electronic for 3 power supplies: - copper vapour laser power supply, - extraction power supply to generate the electric field in the vapour, and - electron beam power supply for vapour generation. This article reviews the main switches that are proposed on the market or are on development and that could be used in SILVA power supplies. The SILVA technical requirements are: high power, high voltage and very short pulses (200 ns width). (A.C.)

  8. High voltage superconducting switch for power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawardi, O.; Ferendeci, A.; Gattozzi, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a novel interrupter which meets the requirements of a high voltage direct current (HVDC) power switch and at the same time doubles as a current limiter. The basic concept of the interrupter makes use of a fast superconducting, high capacity (SHIC) switch that carries the full load current while in the superconducting state and reverts to the normal resistive state when triggered. Typical design parameters are examined for the case of a HVDC transmission line handling 2.5KA at 150KVDC. The result is a power switch with superior performance and smaller size than the ones reported to date

  9. PC-based control of a high-voltage injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, F.

    1998-01-01

    The stability of high voltage injectors is one of the major problems in any accelerator system. Most of the troubles encountered in the normal operation of an accelerator are connected with the ion source and associated high voltage platforms, regardless of the source or high voltage generator type. The quality of the ion beam injected in the accelerator strongly depends on the power supplies used in the injector and on the ability to control the non-electrical parameters (gas-flow, temperature, etc.). A wide used method in controlling is based on optical links between high-voltage platform and computer, the adjustments being more or less automated. Although the method mentioned above can be still useful in injector control, a different approach is presented in this work, i.e., the computer itself is placed inside the high-voltage terminal. Only one optical link is still necessary to connect this computer with an user-friendly host at ground potential. Requirements: - varying and monitoring the filament current; - gas flow control in the ion source; - reading the vacuum values; - current and voltage control for the anodic, magnet, extraction, suppression and lens' sources. Even in the high voltage terminal there are compartments with different voltages regardless the floating ground. In our injector the extraction voltage is applied on the top of the ion source including the filament and the anodic voltage. The extraction voltage is of maximum 30 kV. In this situation a second optical link is required to transfer the control for the anodic and magnet source power supply assuming the dedicated computer on the floating ground. One PC is placed inside the high voltage terminal and one PC outside the injector. The optical link (more precisely two optical wires) connects the serial ports. The inside computer is equipped with two multipurpose ADC/DAC and digital I/O card. They permit to read or output DC levels ranging between 0 to 10 volts or TTL signals. The filament

  10. High-voltage test and training of plastic streamer tubes for the DELPHI hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.D.; Cellar, S.; Khomenko, B.A.; Korytov, A.V.; Kulinich, P.A.; Micelmacher, G.V.; Sedykh, Yu.V.; Toledo, R.

    1987-01-01

    The results of high-voltage test and training of plastic streamer tubes of the DELPHI hadron calorimeter are presented. The testing technique is considered in detail. The equipment for high-voltage training consists of a mini-computer, CAMAC-electronics, a controllable high-voltage supply and a digital ampermeter. The experimental results shows that high-voltage training of streamer tubes improves their characteristics. The value of dark current decreased up to 1 μA. The operational voltage range increased by a value more than 300 V

  11. Analysis of operating conditions of the voltage transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fastiy G. P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In electrical networks, constant monitoring of the electrical equipment operation is necessary. To accomplish this task, current transformers and voltage transformers (VT are used, on which the accuracy of electrical measurements, electricity metering, and the reliability of the emergency control system depend. The results of the analysis of the conditions for forming the magnetization of a voltage transformer in the mode with unilateral connection of overhead transmission lines, as well as variants of violations in the 110 kV network that may exist for a relatively long time have been presented. It should be noted that the considered network has its own peculiarities: the overhead transmission lines connected in series have a significant length and a low level of load, which may be a condition for the appearance of a transmission lines capacitive effect (the Ferranti effect, the latter can cause overvoltage. Overvoltage occurs when the operating modes are temporary in terms of operation, adverse combinations of network parameters take place, and can continue until the circuit and network modes change. Most often they appear in asymmetric modes, with short circuits to ground, etc. Asymmetric modes caused by incomplete-phase commutations and wire breaks on the overhead line, as well as wire breaks with subsequent disconnection of power transformers that can affect the voltage level on the VT have been considered. The possibility of VT magnetizing with a prolonged voltage rise in symmetric modes, namely, the manifestation of the Ferranti effect with various loads at substations up to complete switching-off and power transformers switching off has been investigated. The analysis of the measuring voltage transformer operating conditions has been based on materials provided by the "Kolenergo" services.

  12. Development of an intelligent high-voltage direct-current power supply for nuclear detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiuliang

    1997-01-01

    The operation and performances of a new type direct-current high-voltage power supply are described. The power supply with intelligent feature is controlled by a single-chip microcomputer (8031), and various kinds of output voltage can be preset. The output-voltage is monitored and regulated by the single-chip microcomputer and displayed by LED. The output voltage is stable when the load current is within the allowable limits

  13. High Voltage in Noble Liquids for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebel, B. [Fermilab; Bernard, E. [Yale U.; Faham, C. H. [LBL, Berkeley; Ito, T. M. [Los Alamos; Lundberg, B. [Maryland U.; Messina, M. [Columbia U.; Monrabal, F. [Valencia U., IFIC; Pereverzev, S. P. [LLNL, Livermore; Resnati, F. [Zurich, ETH; Rowson, P. C. [SLAC; Soderberg, M. [Fermilab; Strauss, T. [Bern U.; Tomas, A. [Imperial Coll., London; Va' vra, J. [SLAC; Wang, H. [UCLA

    2014-08-22

    A workshop was held at Fermilab November 8-9, 2013 to discuss the challenges of using high voltage in noble liquids. The participants spanned the fields of neutrino, dark matter, and electric dipole moment physics. All presentations at the workshop were made in plenary sessions. This document summarizes the experiences and lessons learned from experiments in these fields at developing high voltage systems in noble liquids.

  14. Topologically protected loop flows in high voltage AC power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coletta, T; Delabays, R; Jacquod, Ph; Adagideli, I

    2016-01-01

    Geographical features such as mountain ranges or big lakes and inland seas often result in large closed loops in high voltage AC power grids. Sizable circulating power flows have been recorded around such loops, which take up transmission line capacity and dissipate but do not deliver electric power. Power flows in high voltage AC transmission grids are dominantly governed by voltage angle differences between connected buses, much in the same way as Josephson currents depend on phase differences between tunnel-coupled superconductors. From this previously overlooked similarity we argue here that circulating power flows in AC power grids are analogous to supercurrents flowing in superconducting rings and in rings of Josephson junctions. We investigate how circulating power flows can be created and how they behave in the presence of ohmic dissipation. We show how changing operating conditions may generate them, how significantly more power is ohmically dissipated in their presence and how they are topologically protected, even in the presence of dissipation, so that they persist when operating conditions are returned to their original values. We identify three mechanisms for creating circulating power flows, (i) by loss of stability of the equilibrium state carrying no circulating loop flow, (ii) by tripping of a line traversing a large loop in the network and (iii) by reclosing a loop that tripped or was open earlier. Because voltages are uniquely defined, circulating power flows can take on only discrete values, much in the same way as circulation around vortices is quantized in superfluids. (paper)

  15. Maintenance Optimization of High Voltage Substation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Bris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The real system from practice is selected for optimization purpose in this paper. We describe the real scheme of a high voltage (HV substation in different work states. Model scheme of the HV substation 22 kV is demonstrated within the paper. The scheme serves as input model scheme for the maintenance optimization. The input reliability and cost parameters of all components are given: the preventive and corrective maintenance costs, the actual maintenance period (being optimized, the failure rate and mean time to repair - MTTR.

  16. High voltage processing of the SLC polarized electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, P.; Clendenin, J.; Garden, C.; Hoyt, E.; Klaisner, L.; Prescott, C.; Schultz, D.; Tang, H.

    1993-04-01

    The SLC polarized electron gun operates at 120 kV with very low dark current to maintain the ultra high vacuum (UHV). This strict requirement protects the extremely sensitive photocathode from contaminants caused by high voltage (HV) activity. Thorough HV processing is thus required x-ray sensitive photographic film, a nanoammeter in series with gun power supply, a radiation meter, a sensitive residual gas analyzer and surface x-ray spectrometry were used to study areas in the gun where HV activity occurred. By reducing the electric field gradients, carefully preparing the HV surfaces and adhering to very strict clean assembly procedures, we found it possible to process the gun so as to reduce both the dark current at operating voltage and the probability of HV discharge. These HV preparation and processing techniques are described

  17. Low-voltage CMOS operational amplifiers theory, design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Satoshi

    1995-01-01

    Low-Voltage CMOS Operational Amplifiers: Theory, Design and Implementation discusses both single and two-stage architectures. Opamps with constant-gm input stage are designed and their excellent performance over the rail-to-rail input common mode range is demonstrated. The first set of CMOS constant-gm input stages was introduced by a group from Technische Universiteit, Delft and Universiteit Twente, the Netherlands. These earlier versions of circuits are discussed, along with new circuits developed at the Ohio State University. The design, fabrication (MOSIS Tiny Chips), and characterization of the new circuits are now complete. Basic analog integrated circuit design concepts should be understood in order to fully appreciate the work presented. However, the topics are presented in a logical order and the circuits are explained in great detail, so that Low-Voltage CMOS Operational Amplifiers can be read and enjoyed by those without much experience in analog circuit design. It is an invaluable reference boo...

  18. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  19. High voltage designing of 300.000 Volt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutapea, Sumihar.

    1978-01-01

    Some methods of designing a.c and d.c high voltage supplies are discussed. A high voltage supply for the Gama Research Centre accelerator is designed using transistor pulse generators. High voltage transformers being made using radio transistor ferrits as a core are also discussed. (author)

  20. Accelerator System Development at High Voltage Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M. G.; Gottdang, A.; Haitsma, R. G.; Mous, D. J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the years, HVE has continuously extended the capabilities of its accelerator systems to meet the rising demands from a diverse field of applications, among which are deep level ion implantation, micro-machining, neutron production for biomedical research, isotope production or accelerator mass spectrometry. Characteristic for HVE accelerators is the coaxial construction of the all solid state power supply around the acceleration tubes. With the use of solid state technology, the accelerators feature high stability and very low ripple. Terminal voltages range from 1 to 6 MV for HVE Singletrons and Tandetrons. The high-current versions of these accelerators can provide ion beams with powers of several kW. In the last years, several systems have been built with terminal voltages of 1.25 MV, 2 MV and 5 MV. Recently, the first system based on a 6 MV Tandetron has passed the factory tests. In this paper we describe the characteristics of the HVE accelerator systems and present as example recent systems.

  1. [High voltage accidents, characteristics and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsbergen-Krüger, S; Pitzler, D; Partecke, B D

    1995-04-01

    High-voltage injuries cause localised entrance and exit burns, extensive arc, flame and flash burns and, even more dangerous, necrosis of the underlying muscles on the pathway of the current through the body. Therefore it should be recognized that the ensuing disease is more like a crush injury than a thermal burn. The extent of injury cannot be judged by the percentage and depth of the skin burn. Diagnostic fasciotomies, radical debridement, and in many cases early amputation are necessary to prevent life-threatening complications. Over a period of 10 years, 43 patients with high-voltage injuries have been treated at the Hamburg Burn Center, 36 of them in primary care. Common causes of injury were accidents in railway areas (28%), using portable aluminium ladders near overhead power lines (9.3%), and working on electrical equipment (30.2%). Six of the primary care patients died (16.6%), and 34.9% had an amputation of one or more extremities. Nearly all patients underwent several debridement and split-skin graft procedures. In 30% of cases additional free and pedicled flaps were needed to cover soft tissue defects. Ten patients (23.3%) sustained fractures and other injuries from falls, seven (16.3%) of them severe polytrauma. Initial cardiac arrhythmics were diagnosed in 16.6% of the primarily treated patients. Thirty per cent of our patients had neurological complications such as peripheral paresis, tetraplegia and paraplegia, 20.7% of these caused solely by the electric current.

  2. Complete low power controller for high voltage power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, R.; Blanar, G.

    1997-01-01

    The MHV100 is a custom CMOS integrated circuit, developed for the AMS experiment. It provides complete control for a single channel high voltage (HV) generator and integrates all the required digital communications, D to A and A to D converters, the analog feedback loop and output drivers. This chip has been designed for use in both distributed high voltage systems or for low cost single channel high voltage systems. The output voltage and current range is determined by the external components

  3. Design and development of high voltage and high frequency center tapped transformer for HVDC test generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaker, Urmil; Saurabh Kumar; Amal, S.; Baruah, U.K.; Bhatt, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    A High Voltage center tapped transformer for high frequency application had been designed, fabricated, and tested. It was designed as a part of 200 kV HVDC Test Generator. The High Frequency operation of transformer increases power density. Therefore it is possible to reduce power supply volume. The step up ratio in High Voltage transformer is limited due to stray capacitance and leakage inductance. The limit was overcome by winding multi secondary outputs. Switching frequency of transformer was 15.8 kHz. Input and output voltages of transformer were 270V and 16.5kV-0V-16.5kV respectively. Power rating of transformer is 7kVA. High Voltage transformer with various winding and core arrangement was fabricated to check variation in electrical characteristics. The transformer used a ferrite core (E Type) and nylon insulated primary and secondary bobbins. Two set of E-E geometry cores had been stacked in order to achieve the estimated core volume. Compared with traditional high voltage transformer, this transformer had good thermal behavior, good line insulation properties and a high power density. In this poster, design procedures, development stages and test results of high voltage and high frequency transformer are presented. Results of various parameters such as transformer loss, temperature rise, insulation properties, impedance of primary and secondary winding, and voltage regulation are discussed. (author)

  4. Streamer model for high voltage water switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazama, F.J.; Kenyon, V.L. III

    1979-01-01

    An electrical switch model for high voltage water switches has been developed which predicts streamer-switching effects that correlate well with water-switch data from Casino over the past four years and with switch data from recent Aurora/AMP experiments. Preclosure rounding and postclosure resistive damping of pulseforming line voltage waveforms are explained in terms of spatially-extensive, capacitive-coupling of the conducting streamers as they propagate across the gap and in terms of time-dependent streamer resistance and inductance. The arc resistance of the Casino water switch and of a gas switch under test on Casino was determined by computer fit to be 0.5 +- 0.1 ohms and 0.3 +- 0.06 ohms respectively, during the time of peak current in the power pulse. Energy lost in the water switch during the first pulse is 18% of that stored in the pulseforming line while similar energy lost in the gas switch is 11%. The model is described, computer transient analyses are compared with observed water and gas switch data and the results - switch resistance, inductance and energy loss during the primary power pulse - are presented

  5. High Voltage GaN Schottky Rectifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAO,X.A.; CHO,H.; CHU,S.N.G.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHYI,J.-I.; DANG,G.T.; HAN,JUNG; LEE,C.-M.; PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; WILSON,R.G.; ZHANG,A.P.

    1999-10-25

    Mesa and planar GaN Schottky diode rectifiers with reverse breakdown voltages (V{sub RB}) up to 550V and >2000V, respectively, have been fabricated. The on-state resistance, R{sub ON}, was 6m{Omega}{center_dot} cm{sup 2} and 0.8{Omega}cm{sup 2}, respectively, producing figure-of-merit values for (V{sub RB}){sup 2}/R{sub ON} in the range 5-48 MW{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. At low biases the reverse leakage current was proportional to the size of the rectifying contact perimeter, while at high biases the current was proportional to the area of this contact. These results suggest that at low reverse biases, the leakage is dominated by the surface component, while at higher biases the bulk component dominates. On-state voltages were 3.5V for the 550V diodes and {ge}15 for the 2kV diodes. Reverse recovery times were <0.2{micro}sec for devices switched from a forward current density of {approx}500A{center_dot}cm{sup -2} to a reverse bias of 100V.

  6. High Voltage Power Transmission for Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young il

    The high wind speeds and wide available area at sea have recently increased the interests on offshore wind farms in the U.S.A. As offshore wind farms become larger and are placed further from the shore, the power transmission to the onshore grid becomes a key feature. Power transmission of the offshore wind farm, in which good wind conditions and a larger installation area than an onshore site are available, requires the use of submarine cable systems. Therefore, an underground power cable system requires unique design and installation challenges not found in the overhead power cable environment. This paper presents analysis about the benefit and drawbacks of three different transmission solutions: HVAC, LCC/VSC HVDC in the grid connecting offshore wind farms and also analyzed the electrical characteristics of underground cables. In particular, loss of HV (High Voltage) subsea power of the transmission cables was evaluated by the Brakelmann's theory, taking into account the distributions of current and temperature.

  7. High voltage power supplies for INDUS-2 RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badapanda, M.K.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    The RF system of Indus-2 employs klystron amplifiers operating at 505.812 MHz. A precession controlled high voltage DC supply of appropriate rating is needed for each klystron amplifier, as its bias supply. Since internal flashover and arcing are common with the operation of these klystrons and stored energies beyond particular limit inside its bias power supply is detrimental to this device, a properly designed crowbar is incorporated between each klystron and its power supply. This crowbar bypass these stored energies and helps protecting klystron under any of these unfavorable conditions. In either case, power supply sees a near short circuit across its load. So, its power circuit is designed to reduce the fault current level and its various components are also designed to withstand these fault currents, as and when it appears. Finally, operation of these high voltage power supplies (HVPS) generates lot of harmonics on the source side, which distort the input waveform substantially and reduces the input power factor also. Source multiplication between two power supplies are planned to improve upon above parameters and suitable detuned line filters are incorporated to keep the input voltage total harmonics distortion (THD) below 5 % and input power factor (IFF) near unity. (author)

  8. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Marzocchi, Badder

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter is made of scintillating lead tungstate crystals, using avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. The high voltage system, consisting of 1224 channels, biases groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  9. Prediction of breakdown voltages in novel gases for high voltage insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.

    2015-07-01

    This thesis submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich examines the use of sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and similar gases as important insulation media for high voltage equipment. Due to its superior insulation properties, SF{sub 6} is widely used in gas-insulated switchgear. However, the gas also has a very high global warming potential and the content of SF{sub 6} in the atmosphere is constantly increasing. The search for new insulation gases using classical breakdown experiments is discussed. A model for SF{sub 6} based on the stepped leader model is described. This calculates the breakdown voltages in arbitrary electrode configurations and under standard voltage waveforms. Thus, the thesis provides a method for the prediction of breakdown voltages of arbitrary field configurations under standard voltage waveforms for gases with electron-attaching properties. With this, further gases can be characterized for usage as high voltage insulation media.

  10. Prediction of breakdown voltages in novel gases for high voltage insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich examines the use of sulphur hexafluoride (SF_6) and similar gases as important insulation media for high voltage equipment. Due to its superior insulation properties, SF_6 is widely used in gas-insulated switchgear. However, the gas also has a very high global warming potential and the content of SF_6 in the atmosphere is constantly increasing. The search for new insulation gases using classical breakdown experiments is discussed. A model for SF_6 based on the stepped leader model is described. This calculates the breakdown voltages in arbitrary electrode configurations and under standard voltage waveforms. Thus, the thesis provides a method for the prediction of breakdown voltages of arbitrary field configurations under standard voltage waveforms for gases with electron-attaching properties. With this, further gases can be characterized for usage as high voltage insulation media

  11. Electronic Current Transducer (ECT) for high voltage dc lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, J. M.; Peters, P. H., Jr.; Summerayes, H. R., Jr.; Carlson, G. J.; Itani, A. M.

    1980-02-01

    The development of a bipolar electronic current transducer (ECT) for measuring the current in a high voltage dc (HVDC) power line at line potential is discussed. The design and construction of a free standing ECT for use on a 400 kV line having a nominal line current of 2000 A is described. Line current is measured by a 0.0001 ohm shunt whose voltage output is sampled by a 14 bit digital data link. The high voltage interface between line and ground is traversed by optical fibers which carry digital light signals as far as 300 m to a control room where the digital signal is converted back to an analog representation of the shunt voltage. Two redundant electronic and optical data links are used in the prototype. Power to operate digital and optical electronics and temperature controlling heaters at the line is supplied by a resistively and capacitively graded 10 stage cascade of ferrite core transformers located inside the hollow, SF6 filled, porcelain support insulator. The cascade is driven by a silicon controlled rectifier inverter which supplies about 100 W of power at 30 kHz.

  12. High-Capacity, High-Voltage Composite Oxide Cathode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagh, Nader M.

    2015-01-01

    This SBIR project integrates theoretical and experimental work to enable a new generation of high-capacity, high-voltage cathode materials that will lead to high-performance, robust energy storage systems. At low operating temperatures, commercially available electrode materials for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries do not meet energy and power requirements for NASA's planned exploration activities. NEI Corporation, in partnership with the University of California, San Diego, has developed layered composite cathode materials that increase power and energy densities at temperatures as low as 0 degC and considerably reduce the overall volume and weight of battery packs. In Phase I of the project, through innovations in the structure and morphology of composite electrode particles, the partners successfully demonstrated an energy density exceeding 1,000 Wh/kg at 4 V at room temperature. In Phase II, the team enhanced the kinetics of Li-ion transport and electronic conductivity at 0 degC. An important feature of the composite cathode is that it has at least two components that are structurally integrated. The layered material is electrochemically inactive; however, upon structural integration with a spinel material, the layered material can be electrochemically activated and deliver a large amount of energy with stable cycling.

  13. RICH High Voltages & PDF Analysis @ LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Fanchini, E

    2009-01-01

    In the LHCb experiment an important issue is the identification of the hadrons of the final states of the B mesons decays. Two RICH subdetectors are devoted to this task, and the Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs) are the photodetectors used to detect Cherenkov light. In this poster there is a description of how the very high voltage (-18 KV) supply stability used to power the HPDs is monitored. It is also presented the basics of a study which can be done with the first collision data: the analysis of the dimuons from the Drell-Yan process. This process is well known and the acceptance of the LHCb detector in terms of pseudorapidity will be very useful to improve the knowledge of the proton structure functions or, alternatively, try to estimate the luminosity from it.

  14. High-voltage test stand at Livermore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the present design and future capability of the high-voltage test stand for neutral-beam sources at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The stand's immediate use will be for testing the full-scale sources (120 kV, 65 A) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. It will then be used to test parts of the sustaining source system (80 kV, 85 A) being designed for the Magnetic Fusion Test Facility. Following that will be an intensive effort to develop beams of up to 200 kV at 20 A by accelerating negative ions. The design of the test stand features a 5-MVA power supply feeding a vacuum tetrode that is used as a switch and regulator. The 500-kW arc supply and the 100-kW filament supply for the neutral-beam source are battery powered, thus eliminating one or two costly isolation transformers

  15. High-voltage pixel sensors for ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perić, I., E-mail: ivan.peric@ziti.uni-heidelberg.de [Heidelberg University, Institute of Computer Engineering, Mannheim (Germany); Kreidl, C.; Fischer, P. [Heidelberg University, Institute of Computer Engineering, Mannheim (Germany); Bompard, F.; Breugnon, P.; Clemens, J.-C.; Fougeron, D.; Liu, J.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.; Barbero, M. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Feigl, S.; Capeans, M.; Ferrere, D.; Pernegger, H.; Ristic, B. [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Muenstermann, D.; Gonzalez Sevilla, S.; La Rosa, A.; Miucci, A. [University of Geneve (Switzerland); and others

    2014-11-21

    The high-voltage (HV-) CMOS pixel sensors offer several good properties: a fast charge collection by drift, the possibility to implement relatively complex CMOS in-pixel electronics and the compatibility with commercial processes. The sensor element is a deep n-well diode in a p-type substrate. The n-well contains CMOS pixel electronics. The main charge collection mechanism is drift in a shallow, high field region, which leads to a fast charge collection and a high radiation tolerance. We are currently evaluating the use of the high-voltage detectors implemented in 180 nm HV-CMOS technology for the high-luminosity ATLAS upgrade. Our approach is replacing the existing pixel and strip sensors with the CMOS sensors while keeping the presently used readout ASICs. By intelligence we mean the ability of the sensor to recognize a particle hit and generate the address information. In this way we could benefit from the advantages of the HV sensor technology such as lower cost, lower mass, lower operating voltage, smaller pitch, smaller clusters at high incidence angles. Additionally we expect to achieve a radiation hardness necessary for ATLAS upgrade. In order to test the concept, we have designed two HV-CMOS prototypes that can be readout in two ways: using pixel and strip readout chips. In the case of the pixel readout, the connection between HV-CMOS sensor and the readout ASIC can be established capacitively.

  16. Cavallo's multiplier for in situ generation of high voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, S. M.; Ito, T. M.; Ramsey, J. C.; Wei, W.; Blatnik, M. A.; Filippone, B. W.; Seidel, G. M.

    2018-05-01

    A classic electrostatic induction machine, Cavallo's multiplier, is suggested for in situ production of very high voltage in cryogenic environments. The device is suitable for generating a large electrostatic field under conditions of very small load current. Operation of the Cavallo multiplier is analyzed, with quantitative description in terms of mutual capacitances between electrodes in the system. A demonstration apparatus was constructed, and measured voltages are compared to predictions based on measured capacitances in the system. The simplicity of the Cavallo multiplier makes it amenable to electrostatic analysis using finite element software, and electrode shapes can be optimized to take advantage of a high dielectric strength medium such as liquid helium. A design study is presented for a Cavallo multiplier in a large-scale, cryogenic experiment to measure the neutron electric dipole moment.

  17. High-voltage direct-current circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Y.; Hirasawa, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in 1954 the first high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission system was put into operation between Gotland and the mainland of Sweden. Its system voltage and capacity were 100 kV and 20 MW, respectively. Since then many HVDC transmission systems have been planned, constructed, or commissioned in more than 30 places worldwide, and their total capacity is close to 40 GW. Most systems commissioned to date are two-terminal schemes, and HVDC breakers are not yet used in the high-potential main circuit of those systems, because the system is expected to perform well using only converter/inverter control even at a fault stage of the transmission line. However, even in a two-terminal scheme there are not a few merits in using an HVDC breaker when the system has two parallel transmission lines, that is, when it is a double-circuit system

  18. A high-voltage triggered pseudospark discharge experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaswamy, K.; Destler, W.W.; Rodgers, J.

    1996-01-01

    The design and execution of a pulsed high-voltage (350 endash 400 keV) triggered pseudospark discharge experiment is reported. Experimental studies were carried out to obtain an optimal design for stable and reliable pseudospark operation in a high-voltage regime (approx-gt 350 kV). Experiments were performed to determine the most suitable fill gas for electron-beam formation. The pseudospark discharge is initiated by a trigger mechanism involving a flashover between the trigger electrode and hollow cathode housing. Experimental results characterizing the electron-beam energy using the range-energy method are reported. Source size imaging was carried out using an x-ray pinhole camera and a novel technique using Mylar as a witness plate. It was experimentally determined that strong pinching occurred later in time and was associated with the lower-energy electrons. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. AC transmission, with very high voltages and the 750 kV line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocker, H

    1964-01-01

    The economic case for adoption of extra-high voltages for transmitting electric power over distances of the order of 1000 km is discussed. Some special technical developments for solving the problems attached to such high voltages are briefly discussed, particularly in the fields of switching and transients suppression. The first 750-kV projects in Canada and Russia are mentioned. Equipment, e.g., bushings, transformers, etc., operating at such voltages are illustrated.

  20. Twenty-channel high-voltage pulse generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'in, P.S.; Kashirin, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A 20-channel high-voltage pulse generator operating with a mismatched load is described. The generator contains shaping lines 20 m long made of coaxial cable, a trigatron-type discharged, and isolating plates. The channel characteristic impedance is 50 Ohm. The maximum pulse amplitude is up to 15 kV on a high-resistance load and 7.5 kV on a matched one. The pulse duration is 100 ns at a pulse rise time of 12 ns, the delay introduced by the generator is 200 +-2.5 ns. Provision is made in the control circuit for compensation of the shaped pulse and separation of a pulse reflected from the load. The reflected pulse shape and amplitude characterize load parameters. Generator tests proved its high operational reliability (after 10 5 operations no significant changes in generator performances have been observed). The generator is intended for filmless data output from spark chambers

  1. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  2. Bottlenecks reduction using superconductors in high voltage transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daloub Labib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy flow bottlenecks in high voltage transmission lines known as congestions are one of the challenges facing power utilities in fast developing countries. Bottlenecks occur in selected power lines when transmission systems are operated at or beyond their transfer limits. In these cases, congestions result in preventing new power supply contracts, infeasibility in existing contracts, price spike and market power abuse. The “Superconductor Technology” in electric power transmission cables has been used as a solution to solve the problem of bottlenecks in energy transmission at high voltage underground cables and overhead lines. The increase in demand on power generation and transmission happening due to fast development and linked to the intensive usage of transmission network in certain points, which in turn, lead to often frequent congestion in getting the required power across to where it is needed. In this paper, a bottleneck in high voltage double overhead transmission line with Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced was modeled using conductor parameters and replaced by Gap-Type Superconductor to assess the benefit of upgrading to higher temperature superconductor and obtain higher current carrying capacity. This proved to reduce the high loading of traditional aluminum conductors and allow more power transfer over the line using superconductor within the same existing right-of-way, steel towers, insulators and fittings, thus reducing the upgrade cost of building new lines.

  3. Efficient Low-Voltage Operation of a CW Gyrotron Oscillator at 233 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Melissa K; Bajaj, Vikram S; Griffin, Robert G; Temkin, Richard J

    2007-02-01

    The gyrotron oscillator is a source of high average power millimeter-wave through terahertz radiation. In this paper, we report low beam power and high-efficiency operation of a tunable gyrotron oscillator at 233 GHz. The low-voltage operating mode provides a path to further miniaturization of the gyrotron through reduction in the size of the electron gun, power supply, collector, and cooling system, which will benefit industrial and scientific applications requiring portability. Detailed studies of low-voltage operation in the TE(2) (,) (3) (,) (1) mode reveal that the mode can be excited with less than 7 W of beam power at 3.5 kV. During CW operation with 3.5-kV beam voltage and 50-mA beam current, the gyrotron generates 12 W of RF power at 233.2 GHz. The EGUN electron optics code describes the low-voltage operation of the electron gun. Using gun-operating parameters derived from EGUN simulations, we show that a linear theory adequately predicts the low experimental starting currents.

  4. High-voltage, high-power architecture considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Three basic EPS architectures, direct energy transfer, peak-power tracking, and a potential EPS architecture for a nuclear reactor are described and compared. Considerations for the power source and energy storage are discussed. Factors to be considered in selecting the operating voltage are pointed out. Other EPS architecture considerations are autonomy, solar array degrees of freedom, and EPS modularity. It was concluded that selection of the power source and energy storage has major impacts on the spacecraft architecture and mass

  5. Determining the mode of high voltage breakdowns in vacuum devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.; Furno, E.J.; Sturtz, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    High voltage breakdowns (HVBs) occur in many vacuum devices. It frequently is of great practical interest to know the type (or mode) of such HVB's, since this can indicate weak points in the device. Post-mortems can sometimes be helpful, but it would be quite desirable to have a technique which would allow the HVB mode to be determined in an operating device. Photography can be quite helpful, but unfortunately many devices do not permit optical access to the region of interest. However, the idea of using photography in conjunction with other diagnostic techniques to establish the validity of these techniques seemed promising, since these techniques could then be used to determine the mode of HVBs in opaque devices. A literature search indicates that promising techniques are to measure the voltage applied to the device (or the current through the device) and also to look for x-rays generated by the device during an HVB

  6. Analysis of transistor and snubber turn-off dynamics in high-frequency high-voltage high-power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P. M.; Wilson, T. G.; Owen, H. A., Jr.

    Dc to dc converters which operate reliably and efficiently at switching frequencies high enough to effect substantial reductions in the size and weight of converter energy storage elements are studied. A two winding current or voltage stepup (buck boost) dc-to-dc converter power stage submodule designed to operate in the 2.5-kW range, with an input voltage range of 110 to 180 V dc, and an output voltage of 250 V dc is emphasized. In order to assess the limitations of present day component and circuit technologies, a design goal switching frequency of 10 kHz was maintained. The converter design requirements represent a unique combination of high frequency, high voltage, and high power operation. The turn off dynamics of the primary circuit power switching transistor and its associated turn off snubber circuitry are investigated.

  7. A Four-Phase High Voltage Conversion Ratio Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Kun Xue

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a four-phase interleaved high voltage conversion ratio bidirectional DC-DC converter circuit based on coupled inductors and switched capacitors, which can eliminate the defects of conventional high voltage conversion ratio bidirectional DC-DC converters in terms of high-voltage/current stress, less efficiency and low-power limitation. Parallel channels are used to reduce current stress at the low-voltage side and series connected switched capacitors are used to enlarge voltage conversion ratio, reduce voltage stress and achieve auto current sharing. This paper proposes the operation principle, feature analysis and optimization design considerations. On this basis the objectives of high voltage conversion ratio, low voltage/current stress, high power density, high efficiency and high-power applications can be achieved. Some experimental results based on a 500 W prototype converter (24 V to 48 V at low-voltage side, 400 V at high-voltage side are given to verify the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the proposed converter.

  8. Constant potential high-voltage generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnick, T.A.; Dupuis, W.A.; Palermo, T.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray tube voltage generator with automatic stabilization circuitry is disclosed. The generator includes a source of pulsating direct current voltage such as from a rectified 3 phase transformer. This pulsating voltage is supplied to the cathode and anode of an X-ray tube and forms an accelerating potential for electrons within that tube. The accelerating potential is stabilized with a feedback signal which is provided by a feedback network. The network includes an error signal generator which compares an instantaneous accelerating potential with a preferred reference accelerating potential and generates an error function. This error function is transmitted to a control tube grid which in turn causes the voltage difference between X-ray tube cathode and anode to stabilize and thereby reduce the error function. In this way stabilized accelerating potentials are realized and uniform X-ray energy distributions produced. (Auth.)

  9. LED-Based High-Voltage Lines Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar MUSA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LED-based system, running with the current of high-voltage lines and converting the current flowing through the line into the light by using a toroid transformer, has been developed. The transformer’s primary winding is constituted by the high voltage power line. Toroidal core consists of two equal parts and the secondary windings are evenly placed on these two parts. The system is mounted on the high-voltage lines as a clamp. The secondary winding ends are connected in series by the connector on the clamp. LEDs are supplied by the voltage at the ends of secondary. Current flowing through highvoltage transmission lines is converted to voltage by the toroidal transformer and the light emitting LEDs are supplied with this voltage. The theory of the conversion of the current flowing through the line into the light is given. The system, running with the current of the line and converting the current into the light, has been developed. System has many application areas such as warning high voltage lines (warning winches to not hinder the high-voltage lines when working under the lines, warning planes to not touch the high-voltage lines, remote measurement of high-voltage line currents, and local illumination of the line area

  10. Operating Experiences of a Loss of Voltage Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Chan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Loss of voltage (LOV) events continue to occur due to inadequate work management and random human errors. On February 26, 2015, regulators analyzed the root causes of LOV events and presented the results for the nuclear industry. Currently, KHNP uses a risk monitoring program, which is named 'LOV Monitor', for LOV prevention during pilot plant outages. This review introduces the operation experiences of LOV Monitor based on the evaluation results of a real event. The operation experiences of LOV Monitor in the pilot plants confirmed that this program could detect and reduce LOV possibilities from scheduling errors such as the simultaneous maintenance of energized trains and de-energized trains considering the physical conditions of the power circuit breakers. However, a maintenance culture that heeds the risk monitoring result must be strengthened in order to obtain substantial effects through applying LOV Monitor to the outage.

  11. Ionization smoke detectors - the high-voltage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Production of high-voltage ionization smoke detectors ceased in 1978 following the development of lower voltage models which used much smaller amounts of radioactive material. Despite this fact, thousands of high-voltage detectors are still in use today in many large UK companies. The major users argue that there is no reason to stop using their detectors if they are still fit for their purpose - many could last for another 15 to 20 years if properly maintained. But pressure has been mounting on businesses to replace all their high-voltage detectors with new low-voltage models within the next couple of years. This could place a huge financial burden on the companies concerned, with costs possibly running into millions of pounds. Traditionally, the major detector installers offered cleaning and maintenance services for high-voltage detectors to their customers but these have now been withdrawn. The installers give no clear reasons for this decision except that the detectors are outmoded and should be disposed of as soon as possible. Most users would agree that conversion to low-voltage types is inevitable but their main worry is the financial strain of replacing all their detectors - and associated equipment - in one go. They would prefer to phase out their high-voltage detectors in stages over a number of years to spread the costs of conversion. The problems of maintenance is discussed. A dual voltage fire alarm panel which allows the high-voltage detectors to be phased out is mentioned. (Author)

  12. Vivitron 1995, transient voltage simulation, high voltage insulator tests, electric field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, G.; Osswald, F.; Heusch, B.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary investigations showed clearly that, because of the discrete electrode structure of the Vivitron, important overvoltage leading to insulator damage can appear in case of a spark. The first high voltage tests showed damage connected with such events. This fact leads to a severe voltage limitation. This work describes, at first, studies made to understand the effects of transients and the associated over-voltage appearing in the Vivitron. Then we present the high voltage tests made with full size Vivitron components using the CN 6 MV machine as a pilot machine. Extensive field calculations were made. These involve simulations of static stresses and transient overvoltages, on insulating boards and electrodes. This work gave us the solutions for arrangements and modifications in the machine. After application, the Vivitron runs now without any sparks and damage at 20 MV. In the same manner, we tested column insulators of a new design and so we will find out how to get to higher voltages. Electric field calculation around the tie bars connecting the discrete electrodes together showed field enhancements when the voltages applied on the discrete electrodes are not equally distributed. This fact is one of the sources of discharges and voltage limitations. A scenario of a spark event is described and indications are given how to proceed towards higher voltages, in the 30 MV range. (orig.)

  13. A 600kV 15mA Cockcroft-Walton high-voltage power supply with high stability and low-ripple voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Tongling; Zhang Yimin; Chen Shangwen; Liu Yantong; Lv Huiyi; Liu Jiangtao

    2006-01-01

    A Cockcroft-Walton high-voltage power supply with high stability and low-ripple voltage has been developed. This power supply has been operated in a ns pulse neutron generator. The maximum non-load voltage is 600kV while the working voltage and load current are 550kV and 15mA, respectively. The tested results indicate that when the power supply is operated at 300kV, 6.7mA and the input voltage varies +/-10%, the long-term stability of the output voltage is S=(0.300-1.006)x10 -3 . The ripple voltage is δU P-P =6.2V at 300kV, 6.8-8.3mA and the ratio of δU P-P to the output voltage V H is δU P-P /V H =2.1x10 -5

  14. Construction of control and instrumentation devices of high voltage power supply of double chamber plasma nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminto; Eko Priyono; Sugeng Riyanto

    2013-01-01

    A control and instrumentation devices of high voltage power supply of double chamber plasma nitrogen have been made. This device consists of the software and hardware component. Hardware component consists of SCR phase angle controller LPC-50HDA type, T100MD1616+ PLC, high voltage transformer and voltage rectifier system. Software component used a LADDER program and TBasic serves to control of the high voltage output. The components in these devices have been tested in the double chamber plasma nitrogen. Its performance meet with the design criteria that can supply of plasma nitrogen operation voltage in the range 290 Vdc to 851 Vdc with glow discharge current 0.4 A to 1.4 A. In general it can be said that the control and instrumentation devices of high voltage power supply is ready for use at the double chamber plasma nitrogen device. (author)

  15. Compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for converter type modulator applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghu, T; Mandloi, V; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-04-01

    The design and development of a compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for a converter type modulator of klystron amplifiers is presented. The transformer has been designed to operate at a frequency of 20 kHz and at a flux swing of ±0.6 T. Iron (Fe) based nanocrystalline material has been selected as a core for the construction of the transformer. The transformer employs a specially designed solid Teflon bobbin having 120 kV insulation for winding the high voltage secondary windings. The flux swing of the core has been experimentally found by plotting the hysteresis loop at actual operating conditions. Based on the design, a prototype transformer has been built which is per se a unique combination of high voltage, high frequency, and peak power specifications. The transformer was able to provide 58 kV (pk-pk) at the secondary with a peak power handling capability of 700 kVA. The transformation ratio was 1:17. The performance of the transformer is also presented and discussed.

  16. Method and system for a gas tube switch-based voltage source high voltage direct current transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xu; Chokhawala, Rahul Shantilal; Zhou, Rui; Zhang, Di; Sommerer, Timothy John; Bray, James William

    2016-12-13

    A voltage source converter based high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission system includes a voltage source converter (VSC)-based power converter channel. The VSC-based power converter channel includes an AC-DC converter and a DC-AC inverter electrically coupled to the AC-DC converter. The AC-DC converter and a DC-AC inverter include at least one gas tube switching device coupled in electrical anti-parallel with a respective gas tube diode. The VSC-based power converter channel includes a commutating circuit communicatively coupled to one or more of the at least one gas tube switching devices. The commutating circuit is configured to "switch on" a respective one of the one or more gas tube switching devices during a first portion of an operational cycle and "switch off" the respective one of the one or more gas tube switching devices during a second portion of the operational cycle.

  17. Ultra Fast, High Rep Rate, High Voltage Spark Gap Pulser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-01

    current rise time. The spark gap was designed to have a coaxial geometry reducing its inductance. Provisions were made to pass flowing gas between the...ULTRA FAST, HIGH REP RATE, HIGH VOLTAGE SPARK GAP PULSER Robert A. Pastore Jr., Lawrence E. Kingsley, Kevin Fonda, Erik Lenzing Electrophysics and...Modeling Branch AMSRL-PS-EA Tel.: (908)-532-0271 FAX: (908)-542-3348 U.S. Army Research Laboratory Physical Sciences Directorate Ft. Monmouth

  18. High-Voltage Power Supply System for Laser Isotope Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketaily, E.C.; Buckner, R.P.; Uhrik, R.L.

    1979-06-26

    This report presents several concepts for Laser High-Voltage Power Supply (HVPS) Systems for a Laser Isotope Separation facility. Selection of equipments and their arrangement into operational systems is based on proven designs and on application concepts now being developed. This report has identified a number of alternative system arrangements and has provided preliminary cost estimates for each. The report includes a recommendation for follow-on studies that will further define the optimum Laser HVPS Systems. Brief descriptions are given of Modulator/Regulator circuit trade-offs, system control interfaces, and their impact on costs.

  19. High-Voltage Power Supply System for Laser Isotope Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketaily, E.C.; Buckner, R.P.; Uhrik, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents several concepts for Laser High-Voltage Power Supply (HVPS) Systems for a Laser Isotope Separation facility. Selection of equipments and their arrangement into operational systems is based on proven designs and on application concepts now being developed. This report has identified a number of alternative system arrangements and has provided preliminary cost estimates for each. The report includes a recommendation for follow-on studies that will further define the optimum Laser HVPS Systems. Brief descriptions are given of Modulator/Regulator circuit trade-offs, system control interfaces, and their impact on costs

  20. Electron beam generation in high voltage glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, J.J.; Szapiro, B.; Murray, C.

    1989-01-01

    The generation of intense CW and pulsed electron beams in glow discharges in reviewed. Glow discharge electron guns operate at a pressure of the order of 1 Torr and often have an advantage in applications that require a broad area electron beam in a gaseous atmosphere, such as laser excitation and some aspects of materials processing. Aspects of electron gun design are covered. Diagnostics of the high voltage glow discharges including the electric field distribution mapped by Doppler free laser spectroscopy, and plasma density and electron temperature measurements of the electron yield of different cathode materials under glow discharge conditions are presented

  1. High voltage disconnect switch position monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crampton, S W

    1983-08-01

    Unreliable position indication on high-voltage (HV) disconnect switches can result in equipment damage worth many times the cost of a disconnect switch. The benefits and limitations of a number of possible methods of reliably monitoring HV disconnect switches are assessed. Several methods of powering active devices at HV are noted. It is concluded that the most reliable way of monitoring switch position at reasonable cost would use a passive hermetically-sealed blade-position sensor located at HV, with a fibre-optic link between HV and ground. Separate sensors would be used for open and closed position indication. For maximum reliability the fibre-optic link would continue into the relay building. A passive magnetically actuated fibre-optic sensor has been built which demonstrates the feasibility of the concept. The sensor monitors blade position relative to the jaws in three dimensions with high resolution. A design for an improved passive magneto-optic sensor has significantly lower optical losses, allowing a single fibre-optic loop and 3 sensors to monitor closure of all phases of a disconnect switch. A similar loop would monitor switch opening. The improved sensor has a solid copper housing to provide greater immunity to fault currents, and to protect it from the environment and from physical damage. Two methods of providing a protected path for fibre-optics passing from HV to ground are proposed, one using a hollow porcelain switch-support insulator and the other using an additional small-diameter polymer insulator with optical fibres imbedded in its fibreglass core. A number of improvements are recommended which can be made to existing switches to increase their reliability. 16 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Multi-cell DC-DC converter with high step-down voltage ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibola, G.; Duarte, J.L.; Blinov, A.

    2015-01-01

    The use of high voltage allows a power processing system to operate with low currents, improving efficiency. Nevertheless, final applications usually require low voltage inlet, which can be provided using modular multilevel converters submodules, for instance. However, every submodule's gate-unit

  3. A plasma aerodynamic actuator supplied by a multilevel generator operating with different voltage waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghi, Carlo A; Cristofolini, Andrea; Grandi, Gabriele; Neretti, Gabriele; Seri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    In this work a high voltage—high frequency generator for the power supply of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator for the aerodynamic control obtained by the electro-hydro-dynamic (EHD) interaction is described and tested. The generator can produce different voltage waveforms. The operating frequency is independent of the load characteristics and does not require impedance matching. The peak-to-peak voltage is 30 kV at a frequency up to 20 kHz and time variation rates up to 60 kV μs −1 . The performance of the actuator when supplied by several voltage waveforms is investigated. The tests have been performed in still air at atmospheric pressure. Voltage and current time behaviors have been measured. The evaluation of the energy delivered to the actuator allowed the estimation of the periods in which the plasma was ignited. Vibrational and rotational temperatures of the plasma have been estimated through spectroscopic acquisitions. The flow field induced in the region above the surface of the DBD actuator has been studied and the EHD conversion efficiency has been evaluated for the voltage waveforms investigated. The nearly sinusoidal multilevel voltage of the proposed generator and the sinusoidal voltage waveform of a conventional ac generator obtain comparable plasma features, EHD effects, and efficiencies. Inverse saw tooth waveform presents the highest effects and efficiency. The rectangular waveform generates suitable EHD effects but with the lowest efficiency. The voltage waveforms that induce plasmas with higher rotational temperatures are less efficient for the conversion of the electric into kinetic energy. (paper)

  4. Piezoelectric self sensing actuators for high voltage excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, E; Totaro, N; Janocha, H; Naso, D

    2013-01-01

    Self sensing techniques allow the use of a piezoelectric transducer simultaneously as an actuator and as a sensor. Such techniques are based on knowledge of the transducer behaviour and on measurements of electrical quantities, in particular voltage and charge. Past research work has mainly considered the linear behaviour of piezoelectric transducers, consequently restricting the operating driving voltages to low values. In this work a new self sensing technique is proposed which is able to perform self sensing reconstruction both at low and at high driving voltages. This technique, in fact, makes use of a hysteretic model to describe the nonlinear piezoelectric capacitance necessary for self sensing reconstruction. The capacitance can be measured and identified at the antiresonances of a vibrating structure with a good approximation. After providing a mathematical background to deal with the main aspects of self sensing, this technique is compared theoretically and experimentally to a typical linear one by using an aluminum plate with one bonded self sensing transducer and a positive position feedback (PPF) controller to verify the performance in self sensing based vibration control. (paper)

  5. A high-voltage equipment (high voltage supply, high voltage pulse generators, resonant charging inductance, synchro-instruments for gyrotron frequency measurements) for plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spassov, Velin

    1996-01-01

    This document reports my activities as visitor-professor at the Gyrotron Project - INPE Plasma Laboratory. The main objective of my activities was designing, construction and testing a suitable high-voltage pulse generator for plasma applications, and efforts were concentrated on the following points: Design of high-voltage resonant power supply with tunable output (0 - 50 kV) for line-type high voltage pulse generator; design of line-type pulse generator (4 microseconds pulse duration, 0 - 25 kV tunable voltage) for non linear loads such as a gyrotron and P III reactor; design of resonant charging inductance for resonant line-type pulse generator, and design of high resolution synchro instrument for gyrotron frequency measurement. (author)

  6. A fast high-voltage current-peak detection system for the ALICE transition radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verclas, Robert [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    During LHC operation in run 1, the gaseous detectors of ALICE occasionally experienced simultaneous trips in their high voltage which affected the majority of the high voltage channels. These trips are caused by large anode currents in the detector and are potentially related to LHC machine operations. We developed and installed a fast current-peak detection system for the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector. This system is based on FPGA technology and monitors 144 out 522 high voltage channels minimally invasively at a maximum readout rate of 2 MHz. It is an integral part of the LHC beam monitoring system. We report on the latest status.

  7. DIII-D ICRF high voltage power supply regulator upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, W.P.; Burley, B.L.; Grosnickle, W.H.

    1997-11-01

    For reliable operation and component protection, of the 2 MW 30--120 MHz ICRF Amplifier System on DIII-D, it is desirable for the amplifier to respond to high VSWR conditions as rapidly as possible. This requires a rapid change in power which also means a rapid change in the high voltage power supply current demands. An analysis of the power supply's regulator dynamics was needed to verify its expected operation during such conditions. Based on this information it was found that a new regulator with a larger dynamic range and some anticipation capability would be required. This paper will discuss the system requirements, the as-delivered regulator performance, and the improved performance after installation of the new regulator system. It will also be shown how this improvement has made the amplifier perform at higher power levels more reliably

  8. Simulation of 1.5-mm-thick and 15-cm-diameter gated silicon drift X-ray detector operated with a single high-voltage source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hideharu

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution silicon X-ray detectors with a large active area are required for effectively detecting traces of hazardous elements in food and soil through the measurement of the energies and counts of X-ray fluorescence photons radially emitted from these elements. The thicknesses and areas of commercial silicon drift detectors (SDDs) are up to 0.5 mm and 1.5 cm2, respectively. We describe 1.5-mm-thick gated SDDs (GSDDs) that can detect photons with energies up to 50 keV. We simulated the electric potential distributions in GSDDs with a Si thickness of 1.5 mm and areas from 0.18 to 168 cm2 at a single high reverse bias. The area of a GSDD could be enlarged simply by increasing all the gate widths by the same multiple, and the capacitance of the GSDD remained small and its X-ray count rate remained high.

  9. Guest Editorial: Flexible Operation and Control for Medium Voltage Direct-Current (MVDC) Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yong; Guerrero, Josep M.; Siano, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    We appreciate very much the support from the IET Power Electronics editorial board for this Special Issue on ‘Flexible Operation and Control for Medium Voltage Direct-Current (MVDC) Grid’. In this final version for publication, 15 papers have been selected for this Special Issue. Three papers...... relate to the topology of MVDC converter, four papers relate to the control of MVDC converter, four papers relate to the introduction of application fields of MVDC grid, and four papers relate to the semiconductor power device and drives towards the application in the medium- and high-voltage DC grid....

  10. High-voltage pulse generator for electron gun power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Enchevich, I.B.; Mikhov, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    High-voltage pulse generator with combined capacitive and inductive energy storages for electron gun power supply is described. Hydrogen thyratron set in a short magnetic lense is a current breaker. Times of current interruption in thyratrons are in the range from 100 to 300 ns. With 1 kV charging voltage of capacitive energy storage 25 kV voltage pulse is obtained in the load. The given high-voltage pulse generator was used for supply of an electron gun generating 10-30 keV low-energy electron beam

  11. High voltage high brightness electron accelerator with MITL voltage adder coupled to foilless diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poulkey, J.W.; Rovang, D.

    1995-01-01

    The design and analysis of a high brightness electron beam experiment under construction at Sandia National Laboratory is presented. The beam energy is 12 MeV, the current 35-40 kA, the rms radius 0.5 mm, and the pulse duration FWHM 40 ns. The accelerator is SABRE a pulsed inductive voltage adder, and the electron source is a magnetically immersed foilless diode. This experiment has as its goal to stretch the technology to the edge and produce the highest possible electron current in a submillimeter radius beam

  12. High voltage switches having one or more floating conductor layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werne, Roger W.; Sampayan, Stephen; Harris, John Richardson

    2015-11-24

    This patent document discloses high voltage switches that include one or more electrically floating conductor layers that are isolated from one another in the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes. The presence of the one or more electrically floating conductor layers between the top and bottom switch electrodes allow the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes to exhibit a higher breakdown voltage than the breakdown voltage when the one or more electrically floating conductor layers are not present between the top and bottom switch electrodes. This increased breakdown voltage in the presence of one or more electrically floating conductor layers in a dielectric medium enables the switch to supply a higher voltage for various high voltage circuits and electric systems.

  13. Two types of photomultiplier voltage dividers for high and changing count rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, W.L.; Stengl, G.

    1980-01-01

    We report on the design of two types of voltage distribution circuits for high stability photomultiplier operation. 'Type A' voltage divider is an ohmic voltage divider with high bleeder current (up to 10 mA) and the resistor chain split at one of the last dynodes, usually the dynode where the analog signal is derived from. This simple constructive measure improves the stability of the dynode voltage by a factor of 5 compared with an unsplit conventional resistor chain. 'Type B' is a novel active voltage divider using cold cathode tubes ar regulating elements. This voltage divider exhibits excellent temperature stability (about 10 -4 / 0 C). With 'type B' an equal stability compared with conventional ohmic dividers can be achieved at a bleeder current smaller by one order of magnitude. Of course both concepts, 'type A' and 'type B', can be combined. (orig.)

  14. Technical and economic considerations of extra high voltage power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahnt, R

    1966-09-01

    The reasons for the employment of higher transmission voltages are listed and the points decisive for the selection of three phase ac or dc systems are reviewed. This is followed by treatment of the technical and economic problems arising in three phase-extra high voltage transmission. These include selection of voltage, economical design of power lines, insulation problems, power supply dependability, equipment rating, and reactive power and stability problems.

  15. Technical and economic considerations of extra high voltage power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahnt, R

    1966-09-01

    The reasons for the employment of higher transmission voltages are listed and the points decisive for the selection of three phase ac or dc systems are reviewed. The technical and economic problems arising in three phase extra high voltage transmission are discussed. These include selection of voltage, economical design of power lines, insulation problems, power supply dependability, equipment rating and reactive power and stability problems.

  16. High voltage capacitor design and the determination of solid dielectric voltage breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutapea, S.

    1976-01-01

    The value of the external field intensity serves as an electrical insulating material and is a physical characteristic of the substance. Capacitor discharge in the dielectric medium are experimentally investigated. The high voltage power supply and other instrument needed are briefly discussed. Capacitors with working voltage of 30.000 volt and the plastic being used for dielectrics in the capacitors are also discussed. (author)

  17. Multiple High Voltage Pulse Stressing of Polymer Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busi Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study high voltage interactions in polymer thick film resistors, namely, polyvinyl chloride- (PVC- graphite thick film resistors, and their applications in universal trimming of these resistors. High voltages in the form of impulses for various pulse durations and with different amplitudes have been applied to polymer thick film resistors and we observed the variation of resistance of these resistors with high voltages. It has been found that the resistance of polymer thick film resistors decreases in the case of higher resistivity materials and the resistance of polymer thick film resistor increases in the case of lower resistivity materials when high voltage impulses are applied to them. It has been also found that multiple high voltage pulse (MHVP stressing can be used to trim the polymer thick film resistors either upwards or downwards.

  18. PV source based high voltage gain current fed converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soumya; Poddar, Sahityika; Chimonyo, Kudzai B.; Arunkumar, G.; Elangovan, D.

    2017-11-01

    This work involves designing and simulation of a PV source based high voltage gain, current fed converter. It deals with an isolated DC-DC converter which utilizes boost converter topology. The proposed converter is capable of high voltage gain and above all have very high efficiency levels as proved by the simulation results. The project intends to produce an output of 800 V dc from a 48 V dc input. The simulation results obtained from PSIM application interface were used to analyze the performance of the proposed converter. Transformer used in the circuit steps up the voltage as well as to provide electrical isolation between the low voltage and high voltage side. Since the converter involves high switching frequency of 100 kHz, ultrafast recovery diodes are employed in the circuitry. The major application of the project is for future modeling of solar powered electric hybrid cars.

  19. Voltage Balancing Method on Expert System for 51-Level MMC in High Voltage Direct Current Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC have been a spotlight for the high voltage and high power transmission systems. In the VSC-HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current based on Voltage Source Converter transmission system, the energy of DC link is stored in the distributed capacitors, and the difference of capacitors in parameters and charge rates causes capacitor voltage balance which affects the safety and stability of HVDC system. A method of MMC based on the expert system for reducing the frequency of the submodules (SMs of the IGBT switching frequency is proposed. Firstly, MMC with 51 levels for HVDC is designed. Secondly, the nearest level control (NLC for 51-level MMC is introduced. Thirdly, a modified capacitor voltage balancing method based on expert system for MMC-based HVDC transmission system is proposed. Finally, a simulation platform for 51-level Modular Multilevel Converter is constructed by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results indicate that the strategy proposed reduces the switching frequency on the premise of keeping submodule voltage basically identical, which greatly reduces the power losses for MMC-HVDC system.

  20. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  1. Organic dielectrics in high voltage cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeer, J

    1962-03-01

    It appears that the limit has been reached in the applicability of oil-impregnated paper as the dielectric for ehv cables, as with rising voltages the prevention of conductor losses becomes increasingly difficult, while the dielectric losses of the insulation, increasing as the square of the voltage, contribute to a greater extent to the temperature rise of the conductor. The power transmitting capacity of ehv cables reaches a maximum at 500 to 600 kV for these reasons. Apart from artificial cooling, a substantial improvement can be obtained only with the use of insulating materials with much lower dielectric losses; these can moreover be applied with a smaller wall thickness, but this means higher field strengths. Synthetic polymer materials meet these requirements but can be used successfully only in the form of lapped film tapes impregnated with suitable liquids. The electrical properties of these heterogeneous dielectrics, in particular, their impulse breakdown strengths are studied in detail.

  2. CMOS-compatible high-voltage integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parpia, Z

    1988-01-01

    Considerable savings in cost and development time can be achieved if high-voltage ICs (HVICs) are fabricated in an existing low-voltage process. In this thesis, the feasibility of fabricating HVICs in a standard CMOS process is investigated. The high-voltage capabilities of an existing 5-{mu}m CMOS process are first studied. High-voltage n- and p-channel transistors with breakdown voltages of 50 and 190 V, respectively, were fabricated without any modifications to the process under consideration. SPICE models for these transistors are developed, and their accuracy verified by comparison with experimental results. In addition, the effect of the interconnect metallization on the high-voltage performance of these devices is also examined. Polysilicon field plates are found to be effective in preventing premature interconnect induced breakdown in these devices. A novel high-voltage transistor structure, the insulated base transistor (IBT), based on a merged MOS-bipolar concept, is proposed and implemented. In order to enhance the high-voltage device capabilities, an improved CMOS-compatible HVIC process using junction isolation is developed.

  3. Recycling potential for low voltage and high voltage high rupturing capacity fuse links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psomopoulos, Constantinos S; Barkas, Dimitrios A; Kaminaris, Stavros D; Ioannidis, George C; Karagiannopoulos, Panagiotis

    2017-12-01

    Low voltage and high voltage high-rupturing-capacity fuse links are used in LV and HV installations respectively, protecting mainly the LV and HV electricity distribution and transportation networks. The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (2002/96/EC) for "Waste of electrical and electronic equipment" is the main related legislation and as it concerns electrical and electronic equipment, it includes electric fuses. Although, the fuse links consist of recyclable materials, only small scale actions have been implemented for their recycling around Europe. This work presents the possibilities for material recovery from this specialized industrial waste for which there are only limited volume data. Furthermore, in order to present the huge possibilities and environmental benefits, it presents the potential for recycling of HRC fuses used by the Public Power Corporation of Greece, which is the major consumer for the country, but one of the smallest ones in Europe and globally, emphasizing in this way in the issue. According to the obtained results, fuse recycling could contribute to the effort for minimize the impacts on the environment through materials recovery and reduction of the wastes' volume disposed of in landfills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High Voltage Homemade Capacitor Charger for Plasma Focus System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Halim Baijan; Azaman Ahmad; Rokiah Mohd Sabri; Siti Aiasah Hashim; Mohd Rizal Md Chulan; Wah, L.K.; Azhar Ahmad; Rosli Che Ros; Mohd Faiz Mohd Zin

    2015-01-01

    A high voltage capacitor charger has been designed and built to replace a high voltage charger type General Atomics CCDs Power Supply which was damaged. The fabrication design was using materials which were easily available in the local market. Among the main components of the high-voltage charger is a transformer for neon lights, variable transformer rated 0 - 240 V 1 KVA, and 240 V transformer isolator. The results of experiments that have been conducted shows that a homemade capacitor charger was able to charge high voltage capacitors up to the required voltage of which was 12 kV. However the time taken for charging is quite long, up to more than 6 minutes. (author)

  5. False Operation of Static Random Access Memory Cells under Alternating Current Power Supply Voltage Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Takuya; Takata, Hidehiro; Nii, Koji; Nagata, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    Static random access memory (SRAM) cores exhibit susceptibility against power supply voltage variation. False operation is investigated among SRAM cells under sinusoidal voltage variation on power lines introduced by direct RF power injection. A standard SRAM core of 16 kbyte in a 90 nm 1.5 V technology is diagnosed with built-in self test and on-die noise monitor techniques. The sensitivity of bit error rate is shown to be high against the frequency of injected voltage variation, while it is not greatly influenced by the difference in frequency and phase against SRAM clocking. It is also observed that the distribution of false bits is substantially random in a cell array.

  6. Integration Test of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a 4 kilowatt-class Hall propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. NASA science mission performance analysis was completed using the latest high voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAc) and Aerojet-Rocketdyne's state-of-the-art BPT-4000 Hall thruster performance curves. Mission analysis results indicated that the HiVHAc thruster out performs the BPT-4000 thruster for all but one of the missions studied. Tests of the HiVHAc system major components were performed. Performance evaluation of the HiVHAc thruster at NASA Glenn's vacuum facility 5 indicated that thruster performance was lower than performance levels attained during tests in vacuum facility 12 due to the lower background pressures attained during vacuum facility 5 tests when compared to vacuum facility 12. Voltage-Current characterization of the HiVHAc thruster in vacuum facility 5 showed that the HiVHAc thruster can operate stably for a wide range of anode flow rates for discharge voltages between 250 and 600 volts. A Colorado Power Electronics enhanced brassboard power processing unit was tested in vacuum for 1,500 hours and the unit demonstrated discharge module efficiency of 96.3% at 3.9 kilowatts and 650 volts. Stand-alone open and closed loop tests of a VACCO TRL 6 xenon flow control module were also performed. An integrated test of the HiVHAc thruster, brassboard power processing unit, and xenon flow control module was performed and confirmed that integrated operation of the HiVHAc system major components. Future plans include continuing the maturation of the HiVHAc system major components and the performance of a single-string integration test.

  7. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Andexler, George; Silberkleit, Lee I.

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  8. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Silberkleit, Lee I. (Mountlake Terrace, WA)

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  9. A high-voltage pulse generator for corona plasma generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, K.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Huijbrechts, P.A.H.J.; Gompel, van F.M.; Leuken, van H.E.M.; Matyas, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a high-voltage pulse generator for producing corona plasma. The generator consists of three resonant charging circuits, a transmission line transformer, and a triggered spark-gap switch. Voltage pulses in the order of 30-100 kV with a rise time of 10-20 ns, a pulse duration of

  10. High voltage short plus generation based on avalanche circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuanfeng; Yu Xiaoqi

    2006-01-01

    Simulate the avalanche circuit in series with PSPICE module, design the high voltage short plus generation circuit by avalanche transistor in series for the sweep deflection circuit of streak camera. The output voltage ranges 1.2 KV into 50 ohm load. The rise time of the circuit is less than 3 ns. (authors)

  11. Precision High-Voltage DC Dividers and Their Calibration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dragounová, Naděžda

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2005), s. 1911-1915 ISSN 0018-9456 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1048102; GA ČR GA202/03/0889 Keywords : calibration * dc voltage * high voltage (HV) Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.665, year: 2005

  12. Compact, Lightweight, High Voltage Propellant Isolators, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TA&T, Inc. proposes an enabling fabrication process for high voltage isolators required in high power solar electric and nuclear electric propulsion (SEP and...

  13. Design and Implementation of a High Efficiency, Low Component Voltage Stress, Single-Switch High Step-Up Voltage Converter for Vehicular Green Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-En Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel, non-isolated, cascade-type, single-switch, high step-up DC/DC converter was developed for green energy systems. An integrated coupled inductor and voltage lift circuit were applied to simplify the converter structure and satisfy the requirements of high efficiency and high voltage gain ratios. In addition, the proposed structure is controllable with a single switch, which effectively reduces the circuit cost and simplifies the control circuit. With the leakage inductor energy recovery function and active voltage clamp characteristics being present, the circuit yields optimizable conversion efficiency and low component voltage stress. After the operating principles of the proposed structure and characteristics of a steady-state circuit were analyzed, a converter prototype with 450 W, 40 V of input voltage, 400 V of output voltage, and 95% operating efficiency was fabricated. The Renesas MCU RX62T was employed to control the circuits. Experimental results were analyzed to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system.

  14. High-Voltage Multiplexing for ATLAS ITk

    CERN Document Server

    Hommels, Bart; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade to the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) requires a replacement of the present ATLAS inner tracker with an all-silicon inner tracker (ITk). The outer radii of the ITk will consist of groups of silicon strip sensors mounted on common support structures. Lack of space for additional cabling will require groups of sensors to share a common HV bus (-500 V). This creates a need to remotely disable a failing sensor from the common HV bus to permit continued operation of the other sensors. We have developed circuitry consisting of a Gallium Nitride Field-Effect transistor (GaNFET) and a HV Multiplier circuit to disable a failed sensor. The devices have been shown to survive radiation doses as high as 1 x 1016 neutrons/cm2 and ionizing doses over 200 Mrad. We will present the HV Mux circuitry and show irradiation results on individual components with an emphasis on the GaNFET results with neutrons, protons, pions, and gammas. We will present a dual-stage variation of the HV Mux that will perm...

  15. Improvement the Capacity of Cockcroft-Walton High Voltage Source from 300 kV/20 mA to 500 kV/20 mA for Accelerating Voltage of Electron Beam Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprapto; Djasiman

    2002-01-01

    The improvement capacity of Cockcroft-Walton high voltage source from 300 kV/20 mA to 500 kV/mA has been carrying out. To improve the capacity of high voltage source was done by means of increasing the stage number of voltage multiplier from 11 to 18 and its output voltage measuring resistance. Each stage of voltage multiplier consists of 2 capacitors and 2 circuits of high voltage diode. This voltage multiplier is constructed using main components of high voltage capacitor and high voltage diode each of 0.22 μF/50 kV and UF 5408 respectively. To avoid stray discharge and corona it was provided with high voltage electrode and corona ring. The test result indicated that the output voltage obtained from 16 stages was 350 kV according to operating condition of 25 MΩ resistive load and first stage voltage of 28.5 kV with oscillator frequency of 24 Hz. That condition requires anode voltage and current of 5.5 kV and 2.5 A respectively. The no load test for 16 stages indicates 400 kV of output voltage and 28.5 kV first stage voltage. Efficiency of high voltage source was 48 % at 6.75 kW of output power. The expected test of 500 kV with 18 stages of voltage multiplier can not be carried out because of some restrictive of loading system. From the test result can be predicted that the output voltage of 500 kV with 18 stages of voltage multiplier requires 31.2 kV of first stage voltage. Then the expected high voltage source of Cockcroft-Walton is capable as accelerating voltage source for Electron Beam Machine with energy of 500 kV. (author)

  16. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fasanella, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillating lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  17. High precision, low disturbance calibration of the High Voltage system of the CMS Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Fasanella, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter utilizes scintillating lead tungstate crystals, with avalanche photodiodes (APD) as photo-detectors in the barrel part. 1224 HV channels bias groups of 50 APD pairs, each at a voltage of about 380 V. The APD gain dependence on the voltage is 3pct/V. A stability of better than 60 mV is needed to have negligible impact on the calorimeter energy resolution. Until 2015 manual calibrations were performed yearly. A new calibration system was deployed recently, which satisfies the requirement of low disturbance and high precision. The system is discussed in detail and first operational experience is presented.

  18. On the mechanism of high-voltage discharge initiation in high-voltage accelerator accelerating tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznikov, F.G.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental investigation into physical natupe of discharge processes in high-voltage accelerator accelerating tubes in the absence of the accelerated particle beam are conducted. The installation for the study of the mechanism of initiating vacuum isolation conductivity is used in the experiments. The vacuum chamber of the installation is made of steel and sealed with rubber packings. Electrodes 300-360 mm in diameter are made of stainless steel. Two variants of cleaning technology were used before electrode assembling: 1) degreasing by organic solvents; 2) cleaning by fine grinding cloth with successive washing by rectificated alcohol. Analysis of the obtained data shows that forma. tion of background flux of charged particles in interelectrode gap is caused by external photoelectric effect, excited by X radiation, which initiates the formation of intensive internal field in microfilms of non-conducting impurities on the electrode surfaces. The secondary electron emission plays the minor role at that

  19. Low-profile high-voltage compact gas switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerz, D.A.; Wilson, M.J.; Speer, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and testing of a low-profile, high-voltage, spark-gap switch designed to be closely coupled with other components into an integrated high-energy pulsed-power source. The switch is designed to operate at 100 kV using SF6 gas pressurized to less than 0.7 MPa. The volume of the switch cavity region is less than 1.5 cm3, and the field stress along the gas-dielectric interface is as high as 130 kV/cm. The dielectric switch body has a low profile that is only I -cm tall at its greatest extent and nominally 2-mm thick over most of its area. This design achieves a very low inductance of less than 5 nH, but results in field stresses exceeding 500 kV/cm in the dielectric material. Field modeling was done to determine the appropriate shape for the highly stressed insulator and electrodes, and special manufacturing techniques were employed to mitigate the usual mechanisms that induce breakdown and failure in solid dielectrics. Static breakdown tests verified that the switch operates satisfactorily at 100 kV levels. The unit has been characterized with different shaped electrodes having nominal gap spacings of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm. The relationship between self-break voltage and operating pressure agrees well with published data on gas properties, accounting for the field enhancements of the electrode shapes being used. Capacitor discharge tests in a low inductance test fixture exhibited peak currents up to 25 kA with characteristic frequencies of the ringdown circuit ranging from 10 to 20 MHz. The ringdown waveforms and scaling of measured parameters agree well with circuit modeling of the switch and test fixture. Repetitive operation has been demonstrated at moderate rep-rates up to 15 Hz, limited by the power supply being used. Preliminary tests to evaluate lifetime of the compact switch assembly have been encouraging. In one case, after more than 7,000 high-current ringdown tests with approximately 30 C of total charge transferred, the

  20. Experimental Study of Arcing on High-voltage Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris; Galofaro, Joel; Ferguson, Dale

    2005-01-01

    The main obstacle to the implementation of a high-voltage solar array in space is arcing on the conductor-dielectric junctions exposed to the surrounding plasma. One obvious solution to this problem would be the installation of fully encapsulated solar arrays which were not having exposed conductors at all. However, there are many technological difficulties that must be overcome before the employment of fully encapsulated arrays will turn into reality. An alternative solution to raise arc threshold by modifications of conventionally designed solar arrays looks more appealing, at least in the nearest future. A comprehensive study of arc inception mechanism [1-4] suggests that such modifications can be done in the following directions: i) to insulate conductor-dielectric junction from a plasma environment (wrapthrough interconnects); ii) to change a coverglass geometry (overhang); iii) to increase a coverglass thickness; iiii) to outgas areas of conductor-dielectric junctions. The operation of high-voltage array in LEO produces also the parasitic current power drain on the electrical system. Moreover, the current collected from space plasma by solar arrays determines the spacecraft floating potential that is very important for the design of spacecraft and its scientific apparatus. In order to verify the validity of suggested modifications and to measure current collection five different solar array samples have been tested in large vacuum chamber. Each sample (36 silicon based cells) consists of three strings containing 12 cells connected in series. Thus, arc rate and current collection can be measured on every string independently, or on a whole sample when strings are connected in parallel. The heater installed in the chamber provides the possibility to test samples under temperature as high as 80 C that simulates the LEO operational temperature. The experimental setup is described below.

  1. Control of Grid Interactive PV Inverters for High Penetration in Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Demirok, Erhan

    2012-01-01

    Regarding of high density deployment of PV installations in electricity grids, new technical challenges such as voltage rise, thermal loading of network components, voltage unbalance, harmonic interaction and fault current contributions are being added to tasks list of distribution system operators (DSOs) in order to maintain at least the same power quality as before PVs were not revealed. Potential problems caused by high amount of PV installations can be avoided with technical study of both...

  2. Determining the mode of high voltage breakdowns in vacuum devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.; Furno, E.J.; Sturtz, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Devices were constructed which were essentially vacuum diodes equipped with windows allowing observation of high voltage breakdowns. The waveform of the applied voltage was photographed, and the x-ray output was monitored to investigate electrical breakdown in these vacuum diodes. Results indicate that breakdowns may be divided into two types: (1) vacuum (interelectrode) breakdown - characterized by a diffuse moderately bright discharge, a relative slow and smooth voltage collapse, and a large burst of x-rays, and (2) surface (insulator) flashover - characterized by a bright discharge with a very bright filamentary core, a relatively fast and noisy voltage collapse and no x-ray burst. Useful information concerning the type of breakdown in a vacuum device can be obtained by monitoring the voltage (current) waveform and the x-ray output

  3. AC Voltage Control of DC/DC Converters Based on Modular Multilevel Converters in Multi-Terminal High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The AC voltage control of a DC/DC converter based on the modular multilevel converter (MMC is considered under normal operation and during a local DC fault. By actively setting the AC voltage according to the two DC voltages of the DC/DC converter, the modulation index can be near unity, and the DC voltage is effectively utilized to output higher AC voltage. This significantly decreases submodule (SM capacitance and conduction losses of the DC/DC converter, yielding reduced capital cost, volume, and higher efficiency. Additionally, the AC voltage is limited in the controllable range of both the MMCs in the DC/DC converter; thus, over-modulation and uncontrolled currents are actively avoided. The AC voltage control of the DC/DC converter during local DC faults, i.e., standby operation, is also proposed, where only the MMC connected on the faulty cable is blocked, while the other MMC remains operational with zero AC voltage output. Thus, the capacitor voltages can be regulated at the rated value and the decrease of the SM capacitor voltages after the blocking of the DC/DC converter is avoided. Moreover, the fault can still be isolated as quickly as the conventional approach, where both MMCs are blocked and the DC/DC converter is not exposed to the risk of overcurrent. The proposed AC voltage control strategy is assessed in a three-terminal high-voltage direct current (HVDC system incorporating a DC/DC converter, and the simulation results confirm its feasibility.

  4. Integrated differential high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Farch, Kjartan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an integrated differential high-voltage transmitting circuit for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in portable ultrasound scanners is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage process. Measurements are performed on the integrated circuit in order...... to assess its performance. The circuit generates pulses at differential voltage levels of 60V, 80V and 100 V, a frequency up to 5MHz and a measured driving strength of 1.75 V/ns with the CMUT connected. The total on-chip area occupied by the transmitting circuit is 0.18 mm2 and the power consumption...

  5. Commissioning experiences on high voltage generator of 750 KeV DC accelerator at RRCAT, Indore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banwari, R.; Kasliwal, A.; Pandit, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Design approach of high voltage generator for 750 keV DC accelerator, developed at RRCAT Indore, inculcates a unique feature of high frequency operation of symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton voltage generator. Apart from design simplicity and feasibility of modular construction, the high frequency use of symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton circuit gives added advantages of less ripple, better regulation, faster response and low stored energy in the system. Additionally the scheme allows us the use of low voltage, light weight components thus improving the overall economy of the system. The accelerator has been commissioned and made operational at its rated energy of 750 keV in the recent past. With brief introduction on design aspects of high voltage generator and filament power supply of this accelerator, the paper presented here describes the developmental steps of various components with focus on challenges encountered and solutions implemented. Development of high frequency inverter, high voltage ferrite core transformer, compensating inductors, interface bushings, voltage multiplier stack, and filament transformer along with floating power supply for electron emitter of the accelerator has been dealt in detail. The failures encountered during commissioning stages of the accelerator have been reported with measures taken for improvement of the specific components. Intricacies of the reflected capacitance of the multiplier stack and arc-current ground return are also described with their effects on system operation and reliability. (author)

  6. The electric strength of high-voltage transformers insulation at effect of partial dischargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshravan, E.; Zeraatparvar, A.; Gashimov, A.M.; Mehdizadeh, R.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text : In paper the change of electric strength of high-voltage transformers insulation at the effect of partial discharges with space charge accumulation was investigated. It is revealed that the effect of partial discharges of insulation materials results the reduction of their pulsing electric strength which can restore the own initial value at releasing of saved charge the volume of a material under condition of absence the ineversible structural changes in it. Researches of high-voltage transformers insulation's non-failure operation conditions show, that at increasing of insulation work time in a strong electrical field the reduction of average breakdown voltages with simultaneous increasing of spread in discharge voltage values takes place. It authentically testifies to reduction of short-time discharge voltage of insulation materials during their electrical aging. As the basic reason of insulation electrical aging the partial discharges occurring in gas cavities inside insulation were considered. It is known that the space charges will be formed in insulation elements of high-voltage devices which effects in dielectrical property of these elements including the electric strength and the space charge formation can occur also at partial discharges in an alternating voltage while the service of high-voltage transformers. In the given work the experiments in revealing separate influence partial discharges in pulsing electric strength of insulation materials at presence and at absence inside them the space charge were spent

  7. Copper wire theft and high voltage electrical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Eamon C; Shelley, Odhran P

    2014-01-01

    High voltage electrical burns are uncommon. However in the midst of our economic recession we are noticing an increasing number of these injuries. Copper wire is a valuable commodity with physical properties as an excellent conductor of electricity making it both ubiquitous in society and prized on the black market. We present two consecutive cases referred to the National Burns Unit who sustained life threatening injuries from the alleged theft of high voltage copper wire and its omnipresence on an international scale.

  8. Copper wire theft and high voltage electrical burns

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Eamon C; Shelley, Odhran P

    2014-01-01

    High voltage electrical burns are uncommon. However in the midst of our economic recession we are noticing an increasing number of these injuries. Copper wire is a valuable commodity with physical properties as an excellent conductor of electricity making it both ubiquitous in society and prized on the black market. We present two consecutive cases referred to the National Burns Unit who sustained life threatening injuries from the alleged theft of high voltage copper wire and its omnipresenc...

  9. Optical control system for high-voltage terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicek, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    An optical control system for the control of devices in the terminal of an electrostatic accelerator includes a laser that is modulated by a series of preselected codes produced by an encoder. A photodiode receiver is placed in the laser beam at the high-voltage terminal of an electrostatic accelerator. A decoder connected to the photodiode decodes the signals to provide control impulses for a plurality of devices at the high voltage of the terminal

  10. Reduction of Voltage Harmonics for Parallel-operated Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Qing-Chang; Blaabjerg, Frede; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    The inherent limitations of the conventional droop control scheme have recently been revealed and a robust droop controller to achieve exact proportional load sharing has been proposed. This paper continues the work with a strategy to improve the voltage quality so that the total harmonic...... distortion of the output voltage can be maintained small even when nonlinear loads are connected. Experimental results are provided to verify the analysis and design....

  11. Energy Storage Options for Voltage Support in Low-Voltage Grids with High Penetration of Photovoltaic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Tarek Fawzy, Y.; Bülo, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    to be established. In the long term, these solutions should also aim to allow further more PV installed capacity, while meeting the power quality requirements. In this paper, different concepts of energy storage are proposed to ensure the voltage quality requirements in a LV grid with high PV penetration...

  12. A compact 100 kV high voltage glycol capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Langning; Liu, Jinliang; Feng, Jiahuai

    2015-01-01

    A high voltage capacitor is described in this paper. The capacitor uses glycerol as energy storage medium, has a large capacitance close to 1 nF, can hold off voltages of up to 100 kV for μs charging time. Allowing for low inductance, the capacitor electrode is designed as coaxial structure, which is different from the common structure of the ceramic capacitor. With a steady capacitance at different frequencies and a high hold-off voltage of up to 100 kV, the glycol capacitor design provides a potential substitute for the ceramic capacitors in pulse-forming network modulator to generate high voltage pulses with a width longer than 100 ns.

  13. An Integrated Chip High-Voltage Power Receiver for Wireless Biomedical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijith Vijayakumaran Nair

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In near-field wireless-powered biomedical implants, the receiver voltage largely overrides the compliance of low-voltage power receiver systems. To limit the induced voltage, generally, low-voltage topologies utilize limiter circuits, voltage clippers or shunt regulators, which are power-inefficient methods. In order to overcome the voltage limitation and improve power efficiency, we propose an integrated chip high-voltage power receiver based on the step down approach. The topology accommodates voltages as high as 30 V and comprises a high-voltage semi-active rectifier, a voltage reference generator and a series regulator. Further, a battery management circuit that enables safe and reliable implant battery charging based on analog control is proposed and realized. The power receiver is fabricated in 0.35-μm high-voltage Bipolar-CMOS-DMOStechnology based on the LOCOS0.35-μm CMOS process. Measurement results indicate 83.5% power conversion efficiency for a rectifier at 2.1 mA load current. The low drop-out regulator based on the current buffer compensation and buffer impedance attenuation scheme operates with low quiescent current, reduces the power consumption and provides good stability. The topology also provides good power supply rejection, which is adequate for the design application. Measurement results indicate regulator output of 4 ± 0.03 V for input from 5 to 30 V and 10 ± 0.05 V output for input from 11 to 30 V with load current 0.01–100 mA. The charger circuit manages the charging of the Li-ion battery through all if the typical stages of the Li-ion battery charging profile.

  14. Fast response double series resonant high-voltage DC-DC converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S S; Iqbal, S; Kamarol, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel double series resonant high-voltage dc-dc converter with dual-mode pulse frequency modulation (PFM) control scheme is proposed. The proposed topology consists of two series resonant tanks and hence two resonant currents flow in each switching period. Moreover, it consists of two high-voltage transformer with the leakage inductances are absorbed as resonant inductor in the series resonant tanks. The secondary output of both transformers are rectified and mixed before supplying to load. In the resonant mode operation, the series resonant tanks are energized alternately by controlling two Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switches with pulse frequency modulation (PFM). This topology operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) with all IGBT switches operating in zero current switching (ZCS) condition and hence no switching loss occurs. To achieve fast rise in output voltage, a dual-mode PFM control during start-up of the converter is proposed. In this operation, the inverter is started at a high switching frequency and as the output voltage reaches 90% of the target value, the switching frequency is reduced to a value which corresponds to the target output voltage. This can effectively reduce the rise time of the output voltage and prevent overshoot. Experimental results collected from a 100-W laboratory prototype are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  15. A low knee voltage and high breakdown voltage of 4H-SiC TSBS employing poly-Si/Ni Schottky scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Young; Seok, Ogyun; Park, Himchan; Bahng, Wook; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Park, Ki Cheol

    2018-02-01

    We report a low knee voltage and high breakdown voltage 4H-SiC TSBS employing poly-Si/Ni dual Schottky contacts. A knee voltage was significantly improved from 0.75 to 0.48 V by utilizing an alternative low work-function material of poly-Si as an anode electrode. Also, reverse breakdown voltage was successfully improved from 901 to 1154 V due to a shrunk low-work-function Schottky region by a proposed self-align etching process between poly-Si and SiC. SiC TSBS with poly-Si/Ni dual Schottky scheme is a suitable structure for high-efficiency rectification and high-voltage blocking operation.

  16. Performance of a 2-megawatt high voltage test load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, D.; Kustom, R.; Ferguson, M.

    1995-01-01

    A high-power, water-cooled resistive load which simulates the electrical load characteristics of a high-power klystron, capable of 2 megawatts dissipation at 95 kV DC, was built and installed at the Advanced Photon Source for use in load-testing high voltage power supplies. During this testing, the test load has logged approximately 35 hours of operation at power levels in excess of one mezawatt. Slight variations in the resistance of the load during operation indicate that leakage currents in the cooling water may be a significant factor affecting the performance of the load. Sufficient performance data have been collected to indicate that leakage current through the deionized (DI) water coolant shunts roughly 15 percent of the full-load current around the load resistor elements. The leakage current could cause deterioration of internal components of the load. The load pressure vessel was disassembled and inspected internally for any signs of significant wear and distress. Results of this inspection and possible modifications for improved performance will be discussed

  17. Design & Fabrication of a High-Voltage Photovoltaic Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, Jennifer; /North Carolina State U. /SLAC

    2012-09-05

    Silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are alternative energy sources that are important in sustainable power generation. Currently, applications of PV cells are limited by the low output voltage and somewhat low efficiency of such devices. In light of this fact, this project investigates the possibility of fabricating high-voltage PV cells on float-zone silicon wafers having output voltages ranging from 50 V to 2000 V. Three designs with different geometries of diffusion layers were simulated and compared in terms of metal coverage, recombination, built-in potential, and conduction current density. One design was then chosen and optimized to be implemented in the final device design. The results of the simulation serve as a feasibility test for the design concept and provide supportive evidence of the effectiveness of silicon PV cells as high-voltage power supplies.

  18. Absolute Determination of High DC Voltages by Means of Frequency Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peier, Dirk; Schulz, Bernd

    1983-01-01

    A novel absolute measuring procedure is presented for the definition of fixed points of the voltage in the 100 kV range. The method is based on transit time measurements with accelerated electrons. By utilizing the selective interaction of a monoenergetic electron beam with the electromagnetic field of a special cavity resonator, the voltage is referred to fundamental constants and the base unit second. Possible balance voltages are indicated by a current detector. Experimental investigations are carried out with resonators in the normal conducting range. With a copper resonator operating at the temperature of boiling nitrogen (77 K), the relative uncertainty of the voltage points is estimated to be +/- 4 × 10-4. The technically realizable uncertainty can be reduced to +/- 1 × 10-5 by the proposed application of a superconducting niobium resonator. Thus this measuring device becomes suitable as a primary standard for the high-voltage range.

  19. High voltage distribution scheme for large size GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, J.; Kumar, A.; Dubey, A.K.; Negi, V.S.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors will be used for Muon tracking in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the Facility for Anti-proton Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, Germany. The sizes of the detector modules in the Muon chambers are of the order of 1 metre x 0.5 metre. For construction of these chambers, three GEM foils are used per chamber. These foils are made by two layered 50μm thin kapton foil. Each GEM foil has millions of holes on it. In such a large scale manufacturing of the foils, even after stringent quality controls, some of the holes may still have defects or defects might develop over the time with operating conditions. These defects may result in short-circuit of the entire GEM foil. A short even in a single hole will make entire foil un-usable. To reduce such occurrences, high voltage (HV) segmentation within the foils has been introduced. These segments are powered either by individual HV supply per segment or through an active HV distribution to manage such a large number of segments across the foil. Individual supplies apart from being costly, are highly complex to implement. Additionally, CBM will have high intensity of particles bombarding on the detector causing the change of resistive chain current feeding the GEM detector with the variation in the intensity. This leads to voltage fluctuations across the foil resulting in the gain variation with the particle intensity. Hence, a low cost active HV distribution is designed to take care of the above discussed issues

  20. Analog Amplitude Modulation of a High Voltage, Solid State Inductive Adder, Pulse Generator Using MOSFETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gower, E J; Sullivan, J S

    2002-01-01

    High voltage, solid state, inductive adder, pulse generators have found increasing application as fast kicker pulse modulators for charged particle beams. The solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator is similar in operation to the linear induction accelerator. The main difference is that the solid state, adder couples energy by transformer action from multiple primaries to a voltage summing stalk, instead of an electron beam. Ideally, the inductive adder produces a rectangular voltage pulse at the load. In reality, there is usually some voltage variation at the load due to droop on primary circuit storage capacitors, or, temporal variations in the load impedance. Power MOSFET circuits have been developed to provide analog modulation of the output voltage amplitude of a solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator. The modulation is achieved by including MOSFET based, variable subtraction circuits in the multiple primary stack. The subtraction circuits can be used to compensate for voltage droop, or, to tailor the output pulse amplitude to provide a desired effect in the load. Power MOSFET subtraction circuits have been developed to modulate short, temporal (60-400 ns), voltage and current pulses. MOSFET devices have been tested up to 20 amps and 800 Volts with a band pass of 50 MHz. An analog modulation cell has been tested in a five cell high, voltage adder stack

  1. High voltage pulse system for the streamer chamber supply of the GIBS spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksinenko, V.D.; Glagoleva, N.S.; Dement'ev, E.A.; Kaminskij, N.I.; Matyushin, A.T.; Matyushin, V.T.; Rozhnyatovskaya, S.A.; Ryakhovskij, V.N.; Nurgozhin, N.N.; Khusainov, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    Results of development and testing of high voltage pulse system HVPS for the streamer chamber supply of the GIBS spectrometer are presented. HVPS consists of the following basic blocks: nanosecond pulse high voltage generator, high voltage charging supply, trigger generator, chamber parameter control devices, gas-oil vacuuming supply systems, auxiliary and fire-prevention devices. The system blocks are described. Experimental results of HVPC testing are presented. HVPC provides a reliable (10 5 operations) of streamer chamber supply with high voltage pulse parameters: amplitude - 500 kV, amplitude instability (0.5-1.5)%, pulse duration - 12 ns, delay time - 500 ns, delay instability (2.5-5)%, mean frequency of output a signals - 0.1 Hz

  2. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety Tolerance to High Voltage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries, the electrolytes having improved safety and the ability to operate with high capacity anodes and high voltage cathodes. In one embodiment there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion battery comprising an anode and a high voltage cathode. The electrolyte has a mixture of a cyclic carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) or mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) co-solvent, ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte additive that improves compatibility and performance of the lithium-ion battery with a high voltage cathode. The lithium-ion battery is charged to a voltage in a range of from about 2.0 V (Volts) to about 5.0 V (Volts).

  3. A Novel Quasi-SEPIC High-Voltage Boost DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; N. Soltani, Mohsen; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a modified coupled-inductor SEPIC dc-dc converter for low power and high voltage gain applications such as for piezoelectric drive systems. The converter uses the same components as of SEPIC converter with an additional diode. Compared to conventional topologies with similar...... voltage gain expression, the proposed topology uses less components to achieve same or even higher voltage gain. This helps to design a very compact and light weight converter with higher power density at lower cost. Due to brevity, the principle of operation, theoretical analysis and comparison supported...

  4. Pulsed high voltage discharge induce hematologic changes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Sterilization appears to be the best way to ensure a very high level of safety in transfusion of blood and its ... those of individual proteins. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... Schematic diagram of the apparatus for generation of the Pulsed ... different number of pulses (function of exposure time) of high E-.

  5. Market Report : The high-voltage transmission market in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    In order to meet the accession requirements for membership to the European Union, Poland is currently restructuring its energy sector, and the initiative to privatise the electric power industry to full competition by 2005 is on course. This report describes the opportunities for foreign investors and suppliers of electrical equipment and services, particularly at this time when power demand is growing, the power grid infrastructure is ageing and obsolete components must be replaced. The total installed capacity in Poland is about 33,000 megawatts. This includes all installations of power plants and combined heat and power plants. An investment of $23 billion is anticipated by 2010 in order to modernize the electricity power industry and to meet the growing energy demand. Polski Siece Elektroenergetyczne, S.A. (PSE) is the state-owned company which controls Poland's high-voltage transmission grid. It operates a 220 kilovolt and 40 kV grid and holds the monopoly on acquiring and transmitting electricity in the country. Poland maintains grid interconnections with several other European countries and is looking to expand its network. Opportunities for Canadian suppliers lie in the areas of high-voltage power transmission equipment and services. Other opportunities lie in commercial prospects in sales of equipment and services. The report includes a section on international competition, and the Canadian position for both private- and public-sector companies. A section on market logistics describes distribution channels, market-entry considerations, import regulations, and export credit risks. A list of key contacts and support services is included with this report. refs., tabs.

  6. 30 CFR 77.807-1 - High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.807-1 High-voltage powerlines; clearances above ground. High-voltage powerlines located above driveways, haulageways, and railroad tracks...

  7. Increase the threshold voltage of high voltage GaN transistors by low temperature atomic hydrogen treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erofeev, E. V., E-mail: erofeev@micran.ru [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Research Institute of Electrical-Communication Systems (Russian Federation); Fedin, I. V.; Kutkov, I. V. [Research and Production Company “Micran” (Russian Federation); Yuryev, Yu. N. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    High-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on AlGaN/GaN epitaxial heterostructures are a promising element base for the fabrication of high voltage electronic devices of the next generation. This is caused by both the high mobility of charge carriers in the transistor channel and the high electric strength of the material, which makes it possible to attain high breakdown voltages. For use in high-power switches, normally off-mode GaN transistors operating under enhancement conditions are required. To fabricate normally off GaN transistors, one most frequently uses a subgate region based on magnesium-doped p-GaN. However, optimization of the p-GaN epitaxial-layer thickness and the doping level makes it possible to attain a threshold voltage of GaN transistors close to V{sub th} = +2 V. In this study, it is shown that the use of low temperature treatment in an atomic hydrogen flow for the p-GaN-based subgate region before the deposition of gate-metallization layers makes it possible to increase the transistor threshold voltage to V{sub th} = +3.5 V. The effects under observation can be caused by the formation of a dipole layer on the p-GaN surface induced by the effect of atomic hydrogen. The heat treatment of hydrogen-treated GaN transistors in a nitrogen environment at a temperature of T = 250°C for 12 h reveals no degradation of the transistor’s electrical parameters, which can be caused by the formation of a thermally stable dipole layer at the metal/p-GaN interface as a result of hydrogenation.

  8. Increase the threshold voltage of high voltage GaN transistors by low temperature atomic hydrogen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erofeev, E. V.; Fedin, I. V.; Kutkov, I. V.; Yuryev, Yu. N.

    2017-01-01

    High-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on AlGaN/GaN epitaxial heterostructures are a promising element base for the fabrication of high voltage electronic devices of the next generation. This is caused by both the high mobility of charge carriers in the transistor channel and the high electric strength of the material, which makes it possible to attain high breakdown voltages. For use in high-power switches, normally off-mode GaN transistors operating under enhancement conditions are required. To fabricate normally off GaN transistors, one most frequently uses a subgate region based on magnesium-doped p-GaN. However, optimization of the p-GaN epitaxial-layer thickness and the doping level makes it possible to attain a threshold voltage of GaN transistors close to V_t_h = +2 V. In this study, it is shown that the use of low temperature treatment in an atomic hydrogen flow for the p-GaN-based subgate region before the deposition of gate-metallization layers makes it possible to increase the transistor threshold voltage to V_t_h = +3.5 V. The effects under observation can be caused by the formation of a dipole layer on the p-GaN surface induced by the effect of atomic hydrogen. The heat treatment of hydrogen-treated GaN transistors in a nitrogen environment at a temperature of T = 250°C for 12 h reveals no degradation of the transistor’s electrical parameters, which can be caused by the formation of a thermally stable dipole layer at the metal/p-GaN interface as a result of hydrogenation.

  9. High voltage switch triggered by a laser-photocathode subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Lundquist, Martin L.; Yu, David U. L.

    2013-01-08

    A spark gap switch for controlling the output of a high voltage pulse from a high voltage source, for example, a capacitor bank or a pulse forming network, to an external load such as a high gradient electron gun, laser, pulsed power accelerator or wide band radar. The combination of a UV laser and a high vacuum quartz cell, in which a photocathode and an anode are installed, is utilized as triggering devices to switch the spark gap from a non-conducting state to a conducting state with low delay and low jitter.

  10. Temperature Stabilized Characterization of High Voltage Power Supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Krarup, Ole

    2017-01-01

    High precision measurements of the masses of nuclear ions in the ISOLTRAP experiment relies on an MR-ToF. A major source of noise and drift is the instability of the high voltage power supplies employed. Electrical noise and temperature changes can broaden peaks in time-of-flight spectra and shift the position of peaks between runs. In this report we investigate how the noise and drift of high-voltage power supplies can be characterized. Results indicate that analog power supplies generally have better relative stability than digitally controlled ones, and that the high temperature coefficients of all power supplies merit efforts to stabilize them.

  11. High Input Voltage Discharge Supply for High Power Hall Thrusters Using Silicon Carbide Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulsio, Michael V.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2014-01-01

    A power processing unit for a 15 kW Hall thruster is under development at NASA Glenn Research Center. The unit produces up to 400 VDC with two parallel 7.5 kW discharge modules that operate from a 300 VDC nominal input voltage. Silicon carbide MOSFETs and diodes were used in this design because they were the best choice to handle the high voltage stress while delivering high efficiency and low specific mass. Efficiencies in excess of 97 percent were demonstrated during integration testing with the NASA-300M 20 kW Hall thruster. Electromagnet, cathode keeper, and heater supplies were also developed and will be integrated with the discharge supply into a vacuum-rated brassboard power processing unit with full flight functionality. This design could be evolved into a flight unit for future missions that requires high power electric propulsion.

  12. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    cable models, perform highly accurate field measurements for validating the model and identifying possible disadvantages of the cable model. Furthermore the project suggests and implements improvements and validates them against several field measurements. It is shown in this paper how a new method...

  13. Highly efficient integrated rectifier and voltage boosting circuits for energy harvesting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maurath

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents novel circuit concepts for integrated rectifiers and voltage converting interfaces for energy harvesting micro-generators. In the context of energy harvesting, usually only small voltages are supplied by vibration-driven generators. Therefore, rectification with minimum voltage losses and low reverse currents is an important issue. This is realized by novel integrated rectifiers which were fabricated and are presented in this article. Additionally, there is a crucial need for dynamic load adaptation as well as voltage up-conversion. A circuit concept is presented, which is able to obtain both requirements. This generator interface adapts its input impedance for an optimal energy transfer efficiency. Furthermore, this generator interface provides implicit voltage up-conversion, whereas the generator output energy is stored on a buffer, which is connected to the output of the voltage converting interface. As simulations express, this fully integrated converter is able to boost ac-voltages greater than |0.35 V| to an output dc-voltage of 2.0 V–2.5 V. Thereby, high harvesting efficiencies above 80% are possible within the entire operational range.

  14. High Voltage Surface Degradation on Carbon Blacks in Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza

    In order to increase the power density of Li-ion batteries, much research is focused on developing cathode materials that can operate at high voltages above 4.5 V with a high capacity, high cycling stability, and rate capability. However, at high voltages all the components of positive electrodes...... including carbon black (CB) additives have a potential risk of degradation. Though the weight percentage of CB in commercial batteries is generally very small, the volumetric amount and thus the surface area of CB compose a rather large part of a cathode due to its small particle size (≈ 50 nm) and high...

  15. On some aspects of high voltage electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouffrey, B.; Trinquier, J.

    1987-01-01

    The present paper deals with high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). It is an overview on this domain due to the pionneer work of G. Dupouy which has permitted to perform a new kind of electron microscopy. Since this time, HVEM has shown its interest in high resolution, irradiations, chemical analysis, in situ experiments

  16. High-Voltage, Low-Power BNC Feedthrough Terminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a high-voltage, lowpower BNC (Bayonet Neill-Concelman) feedthrough that enables the user to terminate an instrumentation cable properly while connected to a high voltage, without the use of a voltage divider. This feedthrough is low power, which will not load the source, and will properly terminate the instrumentation cable to the instrumentation, even if the cable impedance is not constant. The Space Shuttle Program had a requirement to measure voltage transients on the orbiter bus through the Ground Lightning Measurement System (GLMS). This measurement has a bandwidth requirement of 1 MHz. The GLMS voltage measurement is connected to the orbiter through a DC panel. The DC panel is connected to the bus through a nonuniform cable that is approximately 75 ft (approximately equal to 23 m) long. A 15-ft (approximately equal to 5-m), 50-ohm triaxial cable is connected between the DC panel and the digitizer. Based on calculations and simulations, cable resonances and reflections due to mismatched impedances of the cable connecting the orbiter bus and the digitizer causes the output not to reflect accurately what is on the bus. A voltage divider at the DC panel, and terminating the 50-ohm cable properly, would eliminate this issue. Due to implementation issues, an alternative design was needed to terminate the cable properly without the use of a voltage divider. Analysis shows how the cable resonances and reflections due to the mismatched impedances of the cable connecting the orbiter bus and the digitizer causes the output not to reflect accurately what is on the bus. After simulating a dampening circuit located at the digitizer, simulations were performed to show how the cable resonances were dampened and the accuracy was improved significantly. Test cables built to verify simulations were accurate. Since the dampening circuit is low power, it can be packaged in a BNC feedthrough.

  17. The project of autocontrol for CAEN high voltage systems in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Sen; Wang Zhimin; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Cai Xiao; Wang Yifang; Zhang Jiawen; Yang Changgen

    2008-01-01

    Based on TCP/IP network communication techniques, CAMAC Bus Technology, PCI Bus Technology and RS232 Serial Communication Technique, we developed and established a serial of software in Linux or Win32 system to auto control these high voltage systems made by CAEN Company, which are always used in high energy physics experiments. The operator can use this software to control and monitor the system independently, or encapsulate it into the DAQ system to control the test system and acquire data synchronously and high-efficaciously. (authors)

  18. High-Voltage-Input Level Translator Using Standard CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Vo, Tuan A.; Blalock, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    proposed integrated circuit would translate (1) a pair of input signals having a low differential potential and a possibly high common-mode potential into (2) a pair of output signals having the same low differential potential and a low common-mode potential. As used here, "low" and "high" refer to potentials that are, respectively, below or above the nominal supply potential (3.3 V) at which standard complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits are designed to operate. The input common-mode potential could lie between 0 and 10 V; the output common-mode potential would be 2 V. This translation would make it possible to process the pair of signals by use of standard 3.3-V CMOS analog and/or mixed-signal (analog and digital) circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. A schematic of the circuit is shown in the figure. Standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry cannot withstand input potentials greater than about 4 V. However, there are many applications that involve low-differential-potential, high-common-mode-potential input signal pairs and in which standard 3.3-V CMOS circuitry, which is relatively inexpensive, would be the most appropriate circuitry for performing other functions on the integrated-circuit chip that handles the high-potential input signals. Thus, there is a need to combine high-voltage input circuitry with standard low-voltage CMOS circuitry on the same integrated-circuit chip. The proposed circuit would satisfy this need. In the proposed circuit, the input signals would be coupled into both a level-shifting pair and a common-mode-sensing pair of CMOS transistors. The output of the level-shifting pair would be fed as input to a differential pair of transistors. The resulting differential current output would pass through six standoff transistors to be mirrored into an output branch by four heterojunction bipolar transistors. The mirrored differential current would be converted back to potential by a pair of diode-connected transistors

  19. The research of high voltage switchgear detecting unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tong; Xie, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jinbo

    2017-07-01

    In order to understand the status of the high voltage switch in the whole life circle, you must monitor the mechanical and electrical parameters that affect device health. So this paper gives a new high voltage switchgear detecting unit based on ARM technology. It can measure closing-opening mechanical wave, storage motor current wave and contactor temperature to judge the device’s health status. When something goes wrong, it can be on alert and give some advice. The practice showed that it can meet the requirements of circuit breaker mechanical properties temperature online detection.

  20. High voltage pulsed cable design: a practical example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kewish, R.W. Jr.; Boicourt, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of optimum high voltage pulse cable is difficult because very little emperical data are available on performance in pulsed applications. This paper follows the design and testing of one high voltage pulse cable, 40/100 trigger cable. The design was based on an unproven theory and the impressive outcome lends support to the theory. The theory is outlined and it is shown that there exists an inductance which gives a cable of minimum size for a given maximum stress. Test results on cable manufactured according to the design are presented and compared with the test results on the cable that 40/100 replaces.

  1. High voltage pulsed cable design: a practical example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kewish, R.W. Jr.; Boicourt, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of optimum high voltage pulse cable is difficult because very little emperical data are available on performance in pulsed applications. This paper follows the design and testing of one high voltage pulse cable, 40/100 trigger cable. The design was based on an unproven theory and the impressive outcome lends support to the theory. The theory is outlined and it is shown that there exists an inductance which gives a cable of minimum size for a given maximum stress. Test results on cable manufactured according to the design are presented and compared with the test results on the cable that 40/100 replaces

  2. Copper wire theft and high voltage electrical burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Eamon C; Shelley, Odhran P

    2014-01-01

    High voltage electrical burns are uncommon. However in the midst of our economic recession we are noticing an increasing number of these injuries. Copper wire is a valuable commodity with physical properties as an excellent conductor of electricity making it both ubiquitous in society and prized on the black market. We present two consecutive cases referred to the National Burns Unit who sustained life threatening injuries from the alleged theft of high voltage copper wire and its omnipresence on an international scale. PMID:25356371

  3. High performance Si nanowire field-effect-transistors based on a CMOS inverter with tunable threshold voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Ngoc Huynh; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Sohn, Jung Inn; Cha, Seung Nam; Whang, Dongmok; Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Dae Joon

    2014-05-21

    We successfully fabricated nanowire-based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (NWCMOS) inverter devices by utilizing n- and p-type Si nanowire field-effect-transistors (NWFETs) via a low-temperature fabrication processing technique. We demonstrate that NWCMOS inverter devices can be operated at less than 1 V, a significantly lower voltage than that of typical thin-film based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) inverter devices. This low-voltage operation was accomplished by controlling the threshold voltage of the n-type Si NWFETs through effective management of the nanowire (NW) doping concentration, while realizing high voltage gain (>10) and ultra-low static power dissipation (≤3 pW) for high-performance digital inverter devices. This result offers a viable means of fabricating high-performance, low-operation voltage, and high-density digital logic circuits using a low-temperature fabrication processing technique suitable for next-generation flexible electronics.

  4. MAGY: An innovative high voltage-low current power supply for gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siravo, Ugo; Alex, Juergen; Bader, Michael; Carpita, Mauro; Fasel, Damien; Gavin, Serge; Perez, Albert

    2011-01-01

    From the electrical point of view, the body and the anode of high power gyrotrons behave as capacitive loads. A highly dynamic power supply is, therefore, hard to achieve. The MAGY concept (Modulator for the Anode of a triode type GYrotron) embodies an innovative solution to manage the capacitive current ensuring a very low ripple on the output voltage. It consists of a series of independent, bi-directional and regulated DC sources. Compared to existing topologies, this solution requires a smaller number of power modules. It avoids internal high frequency modulation and simultaneously offers high resolution of the output voltage and a wide range of operating scenarios.

  5. Development of high voltage lead wires using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae Hunjai; Sohn Hosoung; Choi Dongjung

    1995-01-01

    It is known to those skilled to the art that the electric wires used in high voltage operating electric equipments such as TV sets, microwave ovens, duplicators and etc., have such a structure that a conductor is coated with an insulating layer which is encapsulated with a protecting jacket layer. The electric wire specification such as UL and CSA requires superior cut-through property and flame-retardant property of the wire for utilization safety. The cut-through property of insulation material, for example, high density polyethylene, can be increased by crosslinking of the polymer. Also the flame-retardant property of jacket material which protects the flammable inner insulation can be raised by flame-retardant formulating of the material. In the wire and cable industry, crosslinking by electron beam processing is more effective than that by chemical processing in the viewpoint of through-put rate of the products. The jacket layer of the wire plays the role of protecting the insulation material from burning. The protecting ability of the jacket is related to its inherent flammability and formability of swollen carbonated layer when burned. Crosslinking of the material gives a good formability of swollen carbonated layer, and it protects the insulation material from direct flame. In formulating the flame-retardant jacket material, a crosslinking system must be considered with base polymers and other flame-retardant additives. (Author)

  6. Development of high voltage lead wires using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae Hunjai; Sohn Hosoung; Choi Dongjung

    1995-01-01

    It is known to those skilled to the art that the electric wires used in high voltage operating electric equipment such as TV sets, microwave ovens, duplicators etc., have such a structure that a conductor is coated with an insulating layer which is encapsulated with a protecting jacket layer. The electric wire specification such as UL and CSA requires superior cut-through and flame-retardant property of the wire for utilization safety. The cut-through property of insulation material, for example, high density polyethylene, can be increased by crosslinking of the polymer. Also the flame-retardant property of jacket material which protects the flammable inner insulation can be raised by flame-retardant formulating of the material. In the wire and cable industry, crosslinking by electron beam processing is more effective than that by chemical processing in the viewpoint of through-put rate of the products. The jacket layer of the wire plays the role of protecting the insulation material from burning. The protecting ability of the jacket is related to its inherent flammability and formability of swollen carbonated layer when burned. Crosslinking of the material gives a good formability of swollen carbonated layer, and it protects the insulation material from direct flame. In formulating the flame-retardant jacket material, a crosslinking system must be considered with base polymers and other flame-retardant additives. (Author)

  7. Empirical Verification of Fault Models for FPGAs Operating in the Subcritical Voltage Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birklykke, Alex Aaen; Koch, Peter; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    We present a rigorous empirical study of the bit-level error behavior of field programmable gate arrays operating in the subcricital voltage region. This region is of significant interest as voltage-scaling under normal circumstances is halted by the first occurrence of errors. However, accurate...

  8. High-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focia, Ronald Jeffrey

    2017-08-22

    A high-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch uses a field-effect transistor (e.g., a MOSFET) to trigger a high-voltage stack of thyristors. The switch can have a high hold-off voltage, high current carrying capacity, and high time-rate-of-change of current, di/dt. The fast closing switch can be used in pulsed power applications.

  9. Integrated reconfigurable high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a high-voltage transmitting circuit aimed for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in scanners for medical applications is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able...... to drive a wide variety of CMUTs. The transmitting circuit can generate several pulse shapes with voltages up to 100 V, maximum pulse range of 50 V, frequencies up to 5 MHz and different driving slew rates. Measurements are performed on the circuit in order to assess its functionality and power consumption...... performance. The design occupies an on-chip area of 0.938 mm2 and the power consumption of a 128-element transmitting circuit array that would be used in an portable ultrasound scanner is found to be a maximum of 181 mW....

  10. System for high-voltage control detectors with large number photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donskov, S.V.; Kachanov, V.A.; Mikhajlov, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive on-line system for hihg-voltage control which is designed for detectors with a large number of photomultipliers is developed and manufactured. It has been developed for the GAMC type hodoscopic electromagnetic calorimeters, comprising up to 4 thousand photomultipliers. High voltage variation is performed by a high-speed potentiometer which is rotated by a microengine. Block-diagrams of computer control electronics are presented. The high-voltage control system has been used for five years in the IHEP and CERN accelerator experiments. The operation experience has shown that it is quite simple and convenient in operation. In case of about 6 thousand controlled channels in both experiments no potentiometer and microengines failures were observed

  11. Low operating voltage InGaZnO thin-film transistors based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} high-k dielectrics fabricated using pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, G. Z.; Liu, G. X.; Zhang, Q.; Shan, F. K. [Qingdao University, Qingdao (China); DongEui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. J.; Shin, B. C. [DongEui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, C. R. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Low-voltage-driven amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric were fabricated on a Si substrate by using pulsed laser deposition. Both Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and IGZO thin films are amorphous, and the thin films have very smooth surfaces. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric exhibits a very low leakage current density of 1.3 x 10{sup -8} A/cm{sup 2} at 5 V and a high capacitance density of 60.9 nF/cm{sup 2}. The IGZO TFT with a structure of Ni/IGZO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si exhibits high performance with a low threshold voltage of 1.18 V, a high field effect mobility of 20.25 cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1}, an ultra small subthreshold swing of 87 mV/decade, and a high on/off current ratio of 3 x 10{sup 7}.

  12. A high-voltage test for the ATLAS RPC qualification

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Liberti, B; Santonico, R

    2004-01-01

    The RPC production sequence for the ATLAS experiment includes a specific test of current absorption at the operating point, which concerns the RPC "gas volumes", namely the bare detectors not yet assembled with the read-out panels and the mechanical support structures. The test, which is carried out at the production site, consists of two phases. The gas volumes are initially conditioned with pure argon, keeping the voltage constant just above the breakdown value of about 2 kV. The final test, performed after the volumes have undergone inner surface varnishing with linseed oil, is based on the measurement of the current-voltage characteristics with the binary operating gas, C//2H//2F//4/i-C//4H//1//0 = 95/5. The results presented here concern 45% of the total foreseen production.

  13. A high-voltage test for the ATLAS RPC qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Simone, A.; Liberti, B.; Santonico, R.

    2004-01-01

    The RPC production sequence for the ATLAS experiment includes a specific test of current absorption at the operating point, which concerns the RPC 'gas volumes', namely the bare detectors not yet assembled with the read-out panels and the mechanical support structures. The test, which is carried out at the production site, consists of two phases. The gas volumes are initially conditioned with pure argon, keeping the voltage constant just above the breakdown value of about 2 kV. The final test, performed after the volumes have undergone inner surface varnishing with linseed oil, is based on the measurement of the current-voltage characteristics with the binary operating gas, C2H2F4/i-C4H10=95/5. The results presented here concern 45% of the total foreseen production

  14. High voltage wide range marx generator design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A wide range, long pulse, Marx generator has been designed and constructed for the purpose of exciting a thermionic electron gun utilized for quasi-cw gas laser medium ionization. The Marx generator has been specifically designed to operate over a voltage range variable from 100 kV to 200 kV into a resistive load of between 83 kΩ and open circuit. This wide operating range, both in voltage and load impedance, was obtained using interstage coupling capacitors to assure overvoltage and subsequent breakdown of the three element spark gap switches used. This paper will discuss the motivation and specific application for the Marx generator and will present the relevant design procedure with particular emphasis on the interstage coupling and triggering techniques employed. Experimental data regarding the measured Marx generator performance will also be presented

  15. High-voltage short-fall pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolbilov, G.V.; Fateev, A.A.; Petrov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Powerful high-voltage pulses with short fall times and relatively low afterpulse amplitude are required for the deflection systems of accelerators. A generator is described that provides, into a 75-ohm load, a voltage pulse of up to 100 kV with a fall time of less than 1 nsec and a relative afterpulse amplitude of less than or equal to 15%. The generator employs a short-circuited ferrite-filled line in which shock waves are formed. A magnetic section is used to increase power. The switch is a TGI1-2500/50 thyratron. The main causes of afterpulses and methods for reducing their amplitude are examined

  16. Mass impregnation plant speeds high voltage cable production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-05-07

    A mass impregnation and continuous sheath extrusion plant that will eliminate the long period of vacuum treatment usually required for high voltage oil-filled cables is among the latest techniques included in the new factory at Pirelli General's Eastleigh works. The new factory is said to be the first in Europe designed solely for the manufacture of the full range of oil-filled cables. Possible future increases of system voltages to about 750-kV ac or 1000-kV dc have been taken into account in the design of the works, so that only a small amount of modification and new plant will be involved.

  17. Poisson simulation for high voltage terminal of test stand for 1MV electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Yu-Seok

    2014-01-01

    KOMAC provide ion beam to user which energy range need to expand to MeV range and develop 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The specifications of the electrostatic accelerator are 1MV acceleration voltage, 10 mA peak current and variable gas ion. We are developing test stand before set up 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The test stand voltage is 300 kV and operating time is 8 hours. The test stand is consist of 300 kV high voltage terminal, DC-AC-DC inverter, power supply device inside terminal, 200MHz RF power, 5 kV extraction power supply, 300 kV accelerating tube and vacuum system.. The beam measurement system and beam dump will be installed next to accelerating tube. Poisson code simulation results of the high voltage terminal are presented in this paper. Poisson code has been used to calculate the electric field for high voltage terminal. The results of simulation were verified with reasonable results. The poisson code structure could be apply to the high voltage terminal of the test stand

  18. Poisson simulation for high voltage terminal of test stand for 1MV electrostatic accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu-Seok [Dongguk Univ.., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KOMAC provide ion beam to user which energy range need to expand to MeV range and develop 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The specifications of the electrostatic accelerator are 1MV acceleration voltage, 10 mA peak current and variable gas ion. We are developing test stand before set up 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The test stand voltage is 300 kV and operating time is 8 hours. The test stand is consist of 300 kV high voltage terminal, DC-AC-DC inverter, power supply device inside terminal, 200MHz RF power, 5 kV extraction power supply, 300 kV accelerating tube and vacuum system.. The beam measurement system and beam dump will be installed next to accelerating tube. Poisson code simulation results of the high voltage terminal are presented in this paper. Poisson code has been used to calculate the electric field for high voltage terminal. The results of simulation were verified with reasonable results. The poisson code structure could be apply to the high voltage terminal of the test stand.

  19. Digital measurement system for the LHC klystron high voltage modulator.

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkelsen, Anders

    Accelerating voltage in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is created by a means of 16 superconducting standing wave RF cavities, each fed by a 400MHz/300kW continuous wave klystron amplifier. Part of the upgrade program for the LHC long shutdown one is to replace the obsolete analogue current and voltage measurement circuitry located in the high voltage bunkers by a new, digital system, using ADCs and optical fibres. A digital measurement card is implemented and integrated into the current HV modulator oil tank (floating at -58kV) and interfaced to the existing digital VME boards collecting the data for several klystrons at the ground potential. Measured signals are stored for the logging, diagnostics and post-mortem analysis purposes.

  20. Multipacting in a coaxial coupler with bias voltage for SRF operation with a large beam current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.-K.; Wang, Ch.; Chang, F.-Y.; Chang, L.-H.; Chang, M.-H.; Chen, L.-J.; Chung, F.-T.; Lin, M.-C.; Lo, C.-H.; Tsai, C.-L.; Tsai, M.-H.; Yeh, M.-S.; Yu, T.-C.

    2016-09-01

    A superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) module is commonly used for a high-energy accelerator; its purpose is to provide energy to the particle beam. Because of the low power dissipation and smaller impedance of a higher-order mode for this module, it can provide more power to the particle beam with better stability through decreasing the couple bunch instability. A RF coupler is necessary to transfer the high power from a RF generator to the cavity. A coupler of coaxial type is a common choice. With high-power operation, it might suffer from multipacting, which is a resonance phenomenon due to re-emission of secondary electrons. Applying a bias voltage between inner and outer conductors of the coaxial coupler might increase or decrease the strength of the multipacting effect. We studied the effect of a bias voltage on multipacting using numerical simulation to track the motion of the electrons. The simulation results and an application for SRF operation with a large beam current are presented in this paper.

  1. Intense neutron source: high-voltage power supply specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report explains the need for and sets forth the electrical, mechanical and safety specifications for a high-voltage power supply to be used with the intense neutron source. It contains sufficient information for a supplier to bid on such a power supply

  2. A Review of High Voltage Drive Amplifiers for Capacitive Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lina; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the high voltage amplifiers, which are used to drive capacitive actuators. The amplifiers for both piezoelectric and DEAP (dielectric electroactive polymer) actuator are discussed. The suitable topologies for driving capacitive actuators are illustrated in detail...

  3. Switching phenomena in high-voltage circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, K.

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered in this book include: general problems concerning current interruption, the physical arc model, and miscellaneous types of modern switching apparatus, such as gas circuit breakers, gas-insulated switch-gear, vacuum circuit breakers and high-voltage direct-current circuit breakers

  4. High voltage transmission of electrical energy over long distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, S W

    1962-07-01

    Technical aspects of ac transmission lines, additional means of improving stability ac transmisson lines, insulation problems, ac transmission by cables, high voltage dc transmission, advantages of dc over ac transmission, disadvantages of dc transmission, use of underground cables for dc transmission, history of the development of conversion equipment; transmission schemes adopted on Gotland Island, Sweden; and economics of ac and dc transmission are discussed.

  5. High Voltage Electrical Injuries In The University Of Calabar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even when patients present relatively early and are resuscitated and treated, complete prosthetic rehabilitation is difficult because of poverty and lack of social support systems. Case Report: This review presents three cases of high voltage electrical burns resulting from typical 11KVA burns as well as lightning strike.

  6. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on Leyland Cypress (xCupressocyparis leylandii (Dallim. and A.B. Jacks.) Dallim) and Japanese Privet (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.) growth were examined in a private nursery located in Sakarya, Turkey. Five transect were randomly chosen in both ...

  7. Medium and high voltage power cables market in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupiec, M.

    1992-06-01

    This note gives an overview of the European market for medium and high voltage power cables. In this text, emphasis is placed on suppliers and important European clients; there is also a brief review of the different techniques for cable laying and utilization in Europe. This not has mainly been drafted from informations supplied by EUROPACABLE

  8. Isolated data acquisition system for high voltage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waitz, A.; Donaldson, A.

    1985-06-01

    This report describes the design and operation of a microcomputer controlled system for acquisition of both analog and binary data within the high voltage stages of a linac modulator. The system is comprised of a microprocessor Controller which communicates with the remote data Acquisition circuits via an optical bus. The bus, which uses a 1 MHz Manchester II format, is configured as a loop, starting at the Controller, daisy-chaining the remote cards and terminating back at the Controller. Upon receiving a linac timing pulse, the Controller sends addressed commands to the individual remote cards and receives data back. It then passes this data to the linac control system through a Multibus connection. Each remote circuit can return 16 binary sense and 7 (12 bit) analog parameters within 270 us. This speed is possible because of a pipelined design where one word is transmitted while another is being converted. A data conversion cycle is initiated when a remote data acquisition card receives the proper command and address from the controller

  9. Improvement in the Design of Metal-Ceramic High Voltage Feedthroughs for use in High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W

    1999-01-01

    Large high-voltage devices operate in particle accelerators to steer charged particles in the desired direction. Solid and hollow rods of sintered alumina are used as insulating supports and high-voltage feedthroughs to power the electrodes of these electrostatic systems. The performance of the systems is often limited by voltage breakdown along the surface of the ceramic insulator (so-called surface flashover) or discharge between feedthrough and vacuum tank, which can lead to significant disruptions in terms of overall machine efficiency. Available results on the influence of the mechanical preparation, thermal history and particular cleaning techniques on commercially obtainable alumina samples have been studied in order to investigate possibilities for better preparation methodology of the insulating supports. Also the influence of the relative position of the feedthrough inside the vacuum tank on the high-voltage breakdown behaviour has been studied. This paper describes the theoretical and practical bac...

  10. Wideband Electrostatic Vibration Energy Harvester (e-VEH) Having a Low Start-Up Voltage Employing a High-Voltage Integrated Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudka, A; Galayko, D; Basset, P; Cottone, F; Blokhina, E

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an electrostatic Vibration Energy Harvester (e-VEH) system, for which the energy conversion process is initiated with a low bias voltage and is compatible with wideband stochastic external vibrations. The system employs the auto-synchronous conditioning circuit topology with the use of a novel dedicated integrated low-power high-voltage switch that is needed to connect the charge pump and flyback – two main parts of the used conditioning circuit. The proposed switch is designed and implemented in AMS035HV CMOS technology. Thanks to the proposed switch device, which is driven with a low-voltage ground-referenced logic, the e-VEH system may operate within a large voltage range, from a pre-charge low voltage up to several tens volts. With such a high-voltage e-VEH operation, it is possible to obtain a strong mechanical coupling and a high rate of vibration energy conversion. The used transducer/resonator device is fabricated with a batch-processed MEMS technology. When excited with stochastic vibrations having an acceleration level of 0.8 g rms distributed in the band 110–170 Hz, up to 0.75 μW of net electrical power has been harvested with our system. This work presents an important milestone in the challenge of designing a fully integrated smart conditioning interface for the capacitive e-VEHs

  11. Guidelines for Distribution System Operators on Reactive Power Provision by Electric Vehicles in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Marinelli, Mattia; Træholt, Chresten

    2017-01-01

    The increasing success of electric vehicles is bringing new technical challenges to power system operators. This work intends to provide guidelines for distribution system operators in terms of reactive power requirements when evaluating and authorizing electric vehicles supply equipment with fast...... the amount of reactive power that an individual electric vehicle is expected to provide when connected to a low voltage feeder, in order to benefit of the desired voltage rise effect in comparison to the case of unitary power factor....

  12. 30 CFR 77.804 - High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.804 High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design requirements. (a) High-voltage trailing cables used in resistance grounded systems shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design...

  13. Facts and feelings : Framing effects in responses to uncertainties about high-voltage power lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, G.; de Bruijn, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    To ensure power supply security, electricity transmission system operators (TSOs) have to upscale high-voltage overhead power lines. However, upscaling frequently meets opposition. Opposition can be caused by uncertainties about risks and benefits and might lead to costly delays (Linder, 1995;

  14. Alarm radiation dosimeter with improved integrating pulse ionization chamber and high voltage supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Rochelle, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    An alarm dosimeter is described which features an improved integrating pulse ionization chamber of the type containing an hermetically sealed gas diode. Improved operation and miniaturization of the chamber are made possible by a ringing choke converter high voltage supply having a ripple-type output that insures discharge of the gas diode. (author)

  15. The development of long pulse high voltage power supply for MNI-1U neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detai Wang

    1989-01-01

    A high power long pulse high voltage power supply (HVPS) for MNI- 1 U neutral beam injector (NBI) is described. This HVPS is used as a switching regulator with a duty cycle of 1/100, the specifications of circuit are as follows, output pulse voltage 50kv, pulse current 30A, pulse width 50ms, rise-time and fall-time of the voltage are less than 25 μs, stability of the pulse flat is better than 0.5%, regulation response time of the pulse voltage less than 30 μs can be attained. It is also used as a stable DC HVPS, output voltage is 1 to 100kv, current is 1 to 5A. If regulation tube is shunted with high power resistor in parallel, the current can be extended to 10 A, stability of the output voltage or current is better than 0.1%. Now, the HVPS has been put into operation for MNI- 1 U NBI and PIG ion source made in French. 3 refs., 5 figs

  16. The Design of Operational Amplifier for Low Voltage and Low Current Sound Energy Harvesting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liew Hui; Rahim, Rosemizi Bin Abd; Isa, Muzamir; Idris Syed Hassan, Syed; Ismail, Baharuddin Bin

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to design a combination of an operational amplifier (op-amp) with a rectifier used in an alternate current (ac) to direct current (dc) power conversion. The op-amp was designed to specifically work at low voltage and low current for a sound energy harvesting system. The goal of the op-amp design with adjustable gain was to control output voltage based on the objectives of the experiment conducted. The op-amp was designed for minimum power dissipation performance, with the means of increasing the output current when receiving a large amount of load. The harvesting circuits which designed further improved the power output efficiency by shortening the fully charged time needed by a supercapacitor bank. It can fulfil the long-time power demands for low power device. Typically, a small amount of energy sources were converted to electricity and stored in the supercapacitor bank, which was built by 10 pieces of capacitors with 0.22 F each, arranged in parallel connection. The highest capacitance was chosen based on the characteristic that have the longest discharging time to support the applications of a supercapacitor bank. Testing results show that the op-amp can boost the low input ac voltage (∼3.89 V) to high output dc voltage (5.0 V) with output current of 30 mA and stored the electrical energy in a big supercapacitor bank having a total of 2.2 F, effectively. The measured results agree well with the calculated results.

  17. High-voltage pulse generator synchronous with LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, M.; Hiratsuka, Yoshio; Niimura, Nobuo

    1974-01-01

    High-voltage pulse generator (H.V. Flip-Flop) No.2, an improved type of No.1, is described, which is used in the structural analysis of transient phenomena in materials through the neutron TOF with a Linac. The method of producing positive and negative high-voltage pulses synchronous with the Linac is identical with that in No.1. However, No.2 has outstanding features as follows: (1) The rise time of output pulses is reduced to 0.3 msec, due to the improvement of switching circuit and the winding of a step-up transformer; (2) The widths of positive and negative pulses are variable up to maximum 8 and 16 frames, respectively (One frame = 10 msec); (3) The distribution of TOF signals from a BF 3 counter to a time analyzer is possible even in the negative voltage duration. The panel is provided with the switches for choosing pulse width and the frame for analysis, as well as the dials for setting positive/negative pulse voltage values and the respective indicating meters. (Mori, K)

  18. BANSHEE: High-voltage repetitively pulsed electron-beam driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanHaaften, F.

    1992-01-01

    BANSHEE (Beam Accelerator for a New Source of High-Energy Electrons) this is a high-voltage modulator is used to produce a high-current relativistic electron beam for high-power microwave tube development. The goal of the BANSHEE research is first to achieve a voltage pulse of 700--750 kV with a 1-μs pulse width driving a load of ∼100 Ω, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of a few hertz. The ensuing goal is to increase the pulse amplitude to a level approaching 1 MV. We conducted tests using half the modulator with an output load of 200 Ω, up to a level of ∼650 kV at a PRF of 1 Hz and 525 kV at a PRF of 5 Hz. We then conducted additional testing using the complete system driving a load of ∼100 Ω

  19. Application to the system of insulated of diagnosis in high-voltage motors by partial discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to detect electric insulators degradation of high-voltage electric motors at an early stage, measurements of partial discharge of operating high-voltage electric motors (about 150 units) in the nuclear power plants were conducted from 2001 to 2004 by the use of on-line monitoring systems that could measure partial discharge of electric insulators. Influencing factors for measured values were identified from measured data and evaluation criteria of electric insulators integrity were established based on variations of partial discharge values. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Connection for transfer of Liquid Nitrogen from High Voltage to ground potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Hansen, Finn; Willén, Dag

    2001-01-01

    In order to operate a superconducting cable conductor it must be kept at a cryogenic temperature (e.g. using liquid nitrogen). The superconducting cable conductor is at high voltage and the cooling equipment is kept at ground potential. This requires a thermally insulating connection that is also...... properties and withstand towards high-pressure liquid nitrogen. The length per joint is approximately 900 mm, including a Johnstoncoupling. The joints are tested in a closed liquid nitrogen circuit, with a pressure of up to 10 bars. The rated voltage of the cable system is 36 kV (phase-phase)....

  1. A high voltage DC switching power supply of corona discharge for ozone tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketkaew, Siseerot

    2007-08-01

    Full text: This paper presents a study of design and construction of a high voltage DC switching power supply for corona generating of ozone gas generating. This supply uses fly back converter at 3 k Vdc 30 khz and controls its operation using PWM techniques. I C TL494 is controlled of the switching. The testing of supply by putting high voltage to ozone gas tube at one-hour, the oxygen quantity 21 % of air, which ozone tube model enables ozone gas generating capacity of 95.2 mgO3/hr

  2. High-voltage variable-duration pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimova, T.E.; Akkuratov, E.V.; Gromovenko, V.M.; Nikonov, Yu.P.; Malinin, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    A high-voltage generator is described that allows pulse duration tau to be varied within wide limits and has high efficiency (at least 50% for tau = 0.5 tau/sub max/) and an amplitude of up to 5 kV, a repetition frequency of up to 200 Hz,and a variable duration of 0-30 μsec. The generator is used in the controller of an electron accelerator

  3. Square-Wave Voltage Injection Algorithm for PMSM Position Sensorless Control With High Robustness to Voltage Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Ronggang; Xu, Dianguo; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    relationship with the magnetic field distortion. Position estimation errors caused by higher order harmonic inductances and voltage harmonics generated by the SVPWM are also discussed. Both simulations and experiments are carried out based on a commercial PMSM to verify the superiority of the proposed method......Rotor position estimated with high-frequency (HF) voltage injection methods can be distorted by voltage errors due to inverter nonlinearities, motor resistance, and rotational voltage drops, etc. This paper proposes an improved HF square-wave voltage injection algorithm, which is robust to voltage...... errors without any compensations meanwhile has less fluctuation in the position estimation error. The average position estimation error is investigated based on the analysis of phase harmonic inductances, and deduced in the form of the phase shift of the second-order harmonic inductances to derive its...

  4. 30 CFR 75.705-2 - Repairs to energized surface high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repairs to energized surface high-voltage lines... Repairs to energized surface high-voltage lines. An energized high-voltage surface line may be repaired... on power circuits with a phase-to-phase nominal voltage no greater than 15,000 volts; (3) Such...

  5. The Thermal Regime Around Buried Submarine High-Voltage Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeana, C. J.; Dix, J.; Henstock, T.; Gernon, T.; Thompson, C.; Pilgrim, J.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion of offshore renewable energy infrastructure and the desire for "trans-continental shelf" power transmission, all require the use of submarine High Voltage (HV) cables. These cables have maximum operating surface temperatures of up to 70oC and are typically buried at depths of 1-2 m beneath the seabed, within the wide range of substrates found on the continental shelf. However, the thermal properties of near surface shelf sediments are poorly understood and this increases the uncertainty in determining the required cable current ratings, cable reliability and the potential effects on the sedimentary environments. We present temperature measurements from a 2D laboratory experiment, designed to represent a buried, submarine HV cable. We used a large (2.5 m-high) tank, filled with water-saturated ballotini and instrumented with 120 thermocouples, which measured the time-dependent 2D temperature distributions around the heat source. The experiments use a buried heat source to represent a series of realistic cable surface temperatures with the aim for identifying the thermal regimes generated within typical non-cohesive shelf sediments: coarse silt, fine sand and very coarse sand. The steady state heat flow regimes, and normalised and radial temperature distributions were assessed. Our results show that at temperatures up to 60°C above ambient, the thermal regimes are conductive for the coarse silt sediments and convective for the very coarse sand sediments even at 7°C above ambient. However, the heat flow pattern through the fine sand sediment shows a transition from conductive to convective heat flow at a temperature of approximately 20°C above ambient. These findings offer an important new understanding of the thermal regimes associated with submarine HV cables buried in different substrates and has huge impacts on cable ratings as the IEC 60287 standard only considers conductive heat flow as well as other potential near surface impacts.

  6. High-voltage pulsed life of multistressed polypropylene capacitor dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    High-voltage polypropylene capacitors were aged under singular as well as simultaneous multiple stresses (electrical, thermal, and radiation) at the University of Buffalo's 2 MW thermal nuclear reactor. These stresses were combined neutron-gamma radiation with a total dose of 1.6 x 10 6 rad, electrical stress at 40 V rms /μm, and thermal stress at 90 degrees C. After exposure, the polypropylene dielectric was tested for life (number of pulses to fail) under high-voltage high-repetition-rate (100 pps) pulses. Pulsed life data were also compared with ac life data. Results show that radiation stress causes the most degradation in life, either acting alone or in combination with other stresses. The largest reduction in life occurs when polypropylene is aged under simultaneous multiple stresses (electrical, thermal, and radiation). In this paper, it is shown that pulsed life can be equivalently compared with ac life

  7. Co-ordinated voltage control of DFIG wind turbines in uninterrupted operation during grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Michalke, G.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2007-01-01

    Emphasis in this article is on the design of a co-ordinated voltage control strategy for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbines that enhances their capability to provide grid support during grid faults. In contrast to its very good performance in normal operation, the DFIG wind turbine...... concept is quite sensitive to grid faults and requires special power converter protection. The fault ride-through and grid support capabilities of the DFIG address therefore primarily the design of DFIG wind turbine control with special focus on power converter protection and voltage control issues....... A voltage control strategy is designed and implemented in this article, based on the idea that both converters of the DFIG (i.e. rotor-side converter and grid-side converter) participate in the grid voltage control in a co-ordinated manner. By default the grid voltage is controlled by the rotor...

  8. HVPTF-The high voltage laboratory for the ITER Neutral Beam test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lorenzi, A., E-mail: antonio.delorenzi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Pilan, N.; Lotto, L.; Fincato, M. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Pesavento, G.; Gobbo, R. [DIE, Universita di Padova, Via Gradenigo 6A, I-35100 Padova (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    In the MITICA research program for the construction of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector prototype, a Laboratory for the investigation on high voltage holding in vacuum has been set up. This Laboratory - HVPTF: High Voltage Padova Test Facility - is presently capable of experiments up to 300 kV dc, and planned for the upgrade to 800 kV. The specific mission for this ancillary lab is the support to the electrostatic design and construction of the MITICA accelerator and the development and testing of HV components to be installed inside the MITICA accelerator during its operation. The paper describes the structure of the lab, characterized by a high degree of automation and reports the results of the commissioning at 300 kV and the first results of voltage holding between test electrodes.

  9. HVPTF-The high voltage laboratory for the ITER Neutral Beam test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzi, A.; Pilan, N.; Lotto, L.; Fincato, M.; Pesavento, G.; Gobbo, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the MITICA research program for the construction of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector prototype, a Laboratory for the investigation on high voltage holding in vacuum has been set up. This Laboratory - HVPTF: High Voltage Padova Test Facility - is presently capable of experiments up to 300 kV dc, and planned for the upgrade to 800 kV. The specific mission for this ancillary lab is the support to the electrostatic design and construction of the MITICA accelerator and the development and testing of HV components to be installed inside the MITICA accelerator during its operation. The paper describes the structure of the lab, characterized by a high degree of automation and reports the results of the commissioning at 300 kV and the first results of voltage holding between test electrodes.

  10. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  11. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  12. Assessment of the operating conditions of coordinated Q-V controller within secondary voltage control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnautović Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper, discusses the possibility to use coordinated Q-V controller (CQVC to perform secondary voltage control at the power plant level. The CQVC performs the coordination of the synchronous generators' (SG reactive power outputs in order to maintain the same total reactive power delivered by the steam power plant (SPP, while at the same time maintaining a constant voltage with programmed reactive droop characteristic at the SPP HV busbar. This busbar is the natural pilot node for secondary voltage control at HV level as the node with maximum power production and maximum power consumption. In addition to voltage control, the CQVC maintains the uniform allocation of reactive power reserves at all SGs in the power plant. This is accomplished by setting the reactive power of each SG at given operating point in accordance to the available reactive power of the same SG at that point. Different limitations imposed by unit's and plant equipment are superimposed on original SG operating chart (provided by the manufacturer in order to establish realistic limits of SG operation at given operating point. The CQVC facilitates: i practical implementation of secondary voltage control in power system, as it is capable of ensuring delivery of reactive power as requested by regional/voltage control while maintaining voltage at system pilot node, ii the full deployment of available reactive power of SGs which in turn contributes to system stability, iii assessment of the reactive power impact/contribution of each generator in providing voltage control as ancillary service. Furthermore, it is also possible to use CQVC to pricing reactive power production cost at each SG involved and to design reactive power bidding structure for transmission network devices by using recorded data. Practical exploitation experience acquired during CQVC continuous operation for over two years enabled implementation of the optimal setting of reference voltage and droop on daily

  13. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling third harmonic voltage when operating a multi-space machine in an overmodulation region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Milun; Kinoshita, Michael H; Ranson, Ray M; Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel

    2014-06-03

    Methods, system and apparatus are provided for controlling third harmonic voltages when operating a multi-phase machine in an overmodulation region. The multi-phase machine can be, for example, a five-phase machine in a vector controlled motor drive system that includes a five-phase PWM controlled inverter module that drives the five-phase machine. Techniques for overmodulating a reference voltage vector are provided. For example, when the reference voltage vector is determined to be within the overmodulation region, an angle of the reference voltage vector can be modified to generate a reference voltage overmodulation control angle, and a magnitude of the reference voltage vector can be modified, based on the reference voltage overmodulation control angle, to generate a modified magnitude of the reference voltage vector. By modifying the reference voltage vector, voltage command signals that control a five-phase inverter module can be optimized to increase output voltages generated by the five-phase inverter module.

  14. Atypical Exit Wound in High-Voltage Electrocution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakkattil, Jamshid; Kandasamy, Shanmugam; Das, Siddhartha; Devnath, Gerard Pradeep; Chaudhari, Vinod Ashok; Shaha, Kusa Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Electrocution fatality cases are difficult to investigate. High-voltage electrocution burns resemble burns caused by other sources, especially if the person survives for few days. In that case, circumstantial evidence if correlated with the autopsy findings helps in determining the cause and manner of death. In addition, the crime scene findings also help to explain the pattern of injuries observed at autopsy. A farmer came in contact with a high-voltage transmission wire and sustained superficial to deep burns over his body. A charred and deeply scorched area was seen over the face, which was suggestive of the electric entry wound. The exit wound was present over both feet and lower leg and was atypical in the form of a burnt area of peeled blistered skin, charring, and deep scorching. The injuries were correlated with crime scene findings, and the circumstances that lead to his electrocution are discussed here.

  15. Disintegration of rocks based on magnetically isolated high voltage discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mengbing; Jiang, Jinbo; Huang, Guoliang; Liu, Jun; Li, Chengzu

    2013-02-01

    Recently, a method utilizing pulsed power technology for disintegration of rocks arouses great interest of many researchers. In this paper, an improved method based on magnetic switch and the results shown that the uniform dielectrics like plastic can be broken down in water is presented, and the feasible mechanism explaining the breakdown of solid is proposed and proved experimentally. A high voltage pulse of 120 kV, rise time 0.2 μs was used to ignite the discharging channel in solids. When the plasma channel is formed in the solid, the resistance of the channel is quiet small; even if a relatively low voltage is applied on the channel on this occasion, it will produce high current to heat the plasma channel rapidly, and eventually disintegrate the solids. The feasibility of promising industrial application in the drilling and demolition of natural and artificial solid materials by the method we presented is verified by the experiment result in the paper.

  16. A high open-circuit voltage gallium nitride betavoltaic microbattery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Zaijun; Chen, Xuyuan; San, Haisheng; Feng, Zhihong; Liu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    A high open-circuit voltage betavoltaic microbattery based on a gallium nitride (GaN) p–i–n homojunction is demonstrated. As a beta-absorbing layer, the low electron concentration of the n-type GaN layer is achieved by the process of Fe compensation doping. Under the irradiation of a planar solid 63 Ni source with activity of 0.5 mCi, the open-circuit voltage of the fabricated microbattery with 2 × 2 mm 2 area reaches as much as 1.64 V, which is the record value reported for betavoltaic batteries with 63 Ni source, the short-circuit current was measured as 568 pA and the conversion effective of 0.98% was obtained. The experimental results suggest that GaN is a high-potential candidate for developing the betavoltaic microbattery. (paper)

  17. Design and implementation of the wireless high voltage control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, A.; Pandey, H.K.; Thakur, S.K.; Pandit, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we will describe the implementation of the wireless link for controlling and monitoring the serial data between control PC and the interface card (general DAQ card), by replacing existing RS232 based remote control system for controlling and monitoring High Voltage Power Supply (120kV/50mA). The enhancement in the reliability is achieved by replacing old RS232 based control system with wireless system by isolating ground loop. (author)

  18. Current voltage characteristics of composite superconductors with high contact resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, A.A.; Baev, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study has been made of current-voltage characteristics of composite superconductors with contact resistance between superconducting filaments and normal metal with high electrical conductivity. It is shown that stable resistive states exist in such conductors over a wide range of currents. The presence of resistive states is interpreted in terms of the resistive domain concept. The minimum and maximum currents of resistive states are found to be dependent on the electrical resistance of normal metal and magnetic field. (author)

  19. Adventitious X-radiation from high voltage equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The monograph is concerned with hazards of unwanted x-rays from sources such as television receivers, high voltage equipment, radar transmitters, switchgear and electron beam apparatus for welding, evaporation, analysis and microscopy. Chapters are included on units, production of x radiation, biological effects, protection standards, radiation monitoring, shielding and control of access, medical and dosimetric supervision and types of equipment. A bibliography of 92 references and other cited literature is included. (U.K.)

  20. High-voltage terminal test of a test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Yu-Seok

    2015-10-01

    The Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex has been developing a 300-kV test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator ion source. The ion source and accelerating tube will be installed in a high-pressure vessel. The ion source in the high-pressure vessel is required to have a high reliability. The test stand has been proposed and developed to confirm the stable operating conditions of the ion source. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify the long-time operating conditions. The test stand comprises a 300-kV high-voltage terminal, a battery for the ion-source power, a 60-Hz inverter, 200-MHz radio-frequency power supply, a 5-kV extraction power supply, a 300-kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. The results of the 300-kV high-voltage terminal tests are presented in this paper.

  1. Comparison between voltage by turn measured on different tokamaks operating in hybrid wave current drive regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briffod, G.; Hoang, G.T.

    1987-06-01

    On a tokamak in a current drive operation with a hybrid wave, the R.F. current is estimated from the voltage drop by plasma turn generated by R.F. power application. This estimated current is not proportional to the injected power. There still exists in the plasma an electric field corresponding to the current part produced by induction. The role evaluation of this parameter on the current drive efficiency is important. In this report the relation voltage-R.F. current is studied on Petula and results on the voltage evolution by turn on different machines are compared [fr

  2. Design and Construction of a Test Bench to Characterize Efficiency and Reliability of High Voltage Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Tobias; Thomas, Stephan; Roggendorf, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    system efficiency. High voltage batteries may be advantageous for future medium voltage DC-grids as well. In all cases, high availability and reliability is indispensable. Investigations on the operating behavior of such systems are needed. For this purpose, a test bench for high voltage storage systems...... was built to analyze these processes for different battery technologies. A special safety infrastructure for the test bench was developed due to the high voltage and the storable energy of approximately 120 kWh. This paper presents the layout of the test bench for analyzing high voltage batteries with about...... 4,300 volts including all components, the safety requirements with the resultant safety circuit and the aim of the investigations to be performed with the test bench....

  3. High-voltage therapy of carcinoma of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnorr, D.; Kelly, L.U.; Guddat, H.M.; Schubert, J.; Gorski, J.; Schorcht, J.; Mau, S.; Wehnert, J.; Medizinische Akademie, Dresden

    1983-01-01

    High-voltage therapy is becoming increasingly important as a form of individual differential therapy of carcinoma of the prostate. Around 40% of all patients with a diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate can be treated with high-voltage therapy. The precondition is the absence of bone and soft tissue metastases and of juxtaregional lymph node metastases. Individual carcinoma therapy is based on pre therapeutic tumor classification according to the TNM system. The 5-year survival rates are presented from a retrospective study carried out using primary radiation monotherapy and a combined hormone and radiation therapy; these figures were calculated by the life-table method. The study revealed no significant differences between the two forms of therapy as regards 5-year survival rates. The 5-year survival rates of all patients of the classifications T 0 -T 3 N/sub x/-N 2 M 0 irradiated (n: 198) (72% +- 11% for hormone plus radiation therapy and 74% +- 11% for radiation monotherapy) did not differ greatly from those of a normal male population of the same age (77%). High-voltage therapy of carcinoma of the prostate can thus be classified as a curative method of treatment. (author)

  4. High voltage generator circuit with low power and high efficiency applied in EEPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Zhang Shilin; Zhao Yiqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a low power and high efficiency high voltage generator circuit embedded in electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). The low power is minimized by a capacitance divider circuit and a regulator circuit using the controlling clock switch technique. The high efficiency is dependent on the zero threshold voltage (V th ) MOSFET and the charge transfer switch (CTS) charge pump. The proposed high voltage generator circuit has been implemented in a 0.35 μm EEPROM CMOS process. Measured results show that the proposed high voltage generator circuit has a low power consumption of about 150.48 μW and a higher pumping efficiency (83.3%) than previously reported circuits. This high voltage generator circuit can also be widely used in low-power flash devices due to its high efficiency and low power dissipation. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. 250 kV 6 mA compact Cockcroft-Walton high-voltage power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhan-Wen; Su, Xiao-Dong; Wei, Zhen; Huang, Zhi-Wu; Miao, Tian-You; Su, Tong-Ling [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lu, Xiao-Long; Wang, Jun-Run; Yao, Ze-En, E-mail: zeyao@lzu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Engineering Research Center for Neutron Application, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A compact power supply system for a compact neutron generator has been developed. A 4-stage symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton circuit is adopted to produce 250 kV direct current high-voltage. A 2-stage 280 kV isolation transformer system is used to drive the ion source power supply. For a compact structure, safety, and reliability during the operation, the Cockcroft-Walton circuit and the isolation transformer system are enclosed in an epoxy vessel containing the transformer oil whose size is about ∅350 mm × 766 mm. Test results indicate that the maximum output voltage of the power supply is 282 kV, and the stability of the output voltage is better than 0.63% when the high voltage power supply is operated at 250 kV, 6.9 mA with the input voltage varying ±10%.

  6. Effect of unbalanced voltage on windings temperature, operational life and load carrying capacity of induction machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnacinski, P. [Gdynia Maritime University, Department of Ship Electrical Power Engineering, Morska Street 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

    2008-04-15

    This paper investigates the influence of the CVUF angle on the windings temperature rise and the derating factor of an induction machine supplied with unbalanced voltage. The effect of simultaneous voltage unbalance and harmonics on its operational life is analyzed as well. The results of calculations and experimental investigations are presented for two induction cage machines of rated power 3 and 5.5 kW. (author)

  7. Design and validation of a high-voltage levitation circuit for electrostatic accelerometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G.; Wu, S. C.; Zhou, Z. B.; Bai, Y. Z.; Hu, M.; Luo, J. [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurements, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2013-12-15

    A simple high-voltage circuit with a voltage range of 0 to 900 V and an open-loop bandwidth of 11 kHz is realized by using an operational amplifier and a MOSFET combination. The circuit is used for the levitation of a test mass of 71 g, suspended below the top-electrodes with a gap distance of 57 μm, so that the performance of an electrostatic accelerometer can be tested on the ground. The translation noise of the accelerometer, limited by seismic noise, is about 4 × 10{sup −8} m/s{sup 2}/Hz{sup 1/2} at 0.1 Hz, while the high-voltage coupling noise is one-order of magnitude lower.

  8. Control of Grid Interactive PV Inverters for High Penetration in Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan

    Regarding of high density deployment of PV installations in electricity grids, new technical challenges such as voltage rise, thermal loading of network components, voltage unbalance, harmonic interaction and fault current contributions are being added to tasks list of distribution system operators...... of these inverters may depend on grid connection rules which are forced by DSOs. Minimum requirement expected from PV inverters is to transfer maximum power by taking direct current (DC) form from PV modules and release it into AC grid and also continuously keep the inverters synchronized to the grid even under...... for this problem but PV inverters connected to highly capacitive networks are able to employ extra current and voltage harmonics compensation to avoid triggering network resonances at low order frequencies. The barriers such as harmonics interaction, flicker, fault current contribution and dc current injections...

  9. DC-link voltage oscillations reduction during unbalanced grid faults for high power wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delpino, Hernan Anres Miranda; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    During unbalanced grid voltage faults the Power injected to the grid experiences 100Hz oscillations as a result of interactions between positive and negative sequence components of three-phase voltages and currents. These oscillations can become as high as %50 percent of the rated power....... In this article an improved controller is proposed which present different behavior during normal operation and faults to keep track of non-sinusoidal current reference signals. The reference signals are calculated to obtain zero power oscillations. Reconfigurable resonant controllers are used for this purpose...

  10. Control and protection system for an electron injector installed in a high-voltage terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Radu, A.; Baciu, G.; Grigore, D.

    1979-01-01

    The basic principles of operation of the control and protection system for an electron accelerator gun are described. The electron gun parameters are independently controlled by using four special secondary windings of the high-voltage transformer providing the accelerating voltage. Four groups of thyristor ac regulators employing phase control are connected so as to provide independent adjustment of each parameter of the gun. The power controller of modular construction has a single-phase supply from the 50 Hz 220 V mains. (orig.)

  11. High Voltage, Fast-Switching Module for Active Control of Magnetic Fields and Edge Plasma Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Prager, James; Slobodov, Ilia

    2016-10-01

    Fast, reliable, real-time control of plasma is critical to the success of magnetic fusion science. High voltage and current supplies are needed to mitigate instabilities in all experiments as well as disruption events in large scale tokamaks for steady-state operation. Silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFETs offer many advantages over IGBTs including lower drive energy requirements, lower conduction and switching losses, and higher switching frequency capabilities; however, these devices are limited to 1.2-1.7 kV devices. As fusion enters the long-pulse and burning plasma eras, efficiency of power switching will be important. Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT), Inc. developing a high voltage SiC MOSFET module that operates at 10 kV. This switch module utilizes EHT gate drive technology, which has demonstrated the ability to increase SiC MOSFET switching efficiency. The module will allow more rapid development of high voltage switching power supplies at lower cost necessary for the next generation of fast plasma feedback and control. EHT is partnering with the High Beta Tokamak group at Columbia to develop detailed high voltage module specifications, to ensure that the final product meets the needs of the fusion science community.

  12. Design and Implementation of a High-Voltage Generator with Output Voltage Control for Vehicle ER Shock-Absorber Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-oscillating high-voltage generator is proposed to supply voltage for a suspension system in order to control the damping force of an electrorheological (ER fluid shock absorber. By controlling the output voltage level of the generator, the damping force in the ER fluid shock absorber can be adjusted immediately. The shock absorber is part of the suspension system. The high-voltage generator drives a power transistor based on self-excited oscillation, which converts dc to ac. A high-frequency transformer with high turns ratio is used to increase the voltage. In addition, the system uses the car battery as dc power supply. By regulating the duty cycle of the main switch in the buck converter, the output voltage of the buck converter can be linearly adjusted so as to obtain a specific high voltage for ER. The driving system is self-excited; that is, no additional external driving circuit is required. Thus, it reduces cost and simplifies system structure. A prototype version of the actual product is studied to measure and evaluate the key waveforms. The feasibility of the proposed system is verified based on experimental results.

  13. Rad-Hard, Miniaturized, Scalable, High-Voltage Switching Module for Power Applications Rad-Hard, Miniaturized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, Philippe C.; Mojarradi, Mohammad; DelCastillo, Linda Y.; Vo, Tuan A.

    2011-01-01

    A paper discusses the successful development of a miniaturized radiation hardened high-voltage switching module operating at 2.5 kV suitable for space application. The high-voltage architecture was designed, fabricated, and tested using a commercial process that uses a unique combination of 0.25 micrometer CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) transistors and high-voltage lateral DMOS (diffusion metal oxide semiconductor) device with high breakdown voltage (greater than 650 V). The high-voltage requirements are achieved by stacking a number of DMOS devices within one module, while two modules can be placed in series to achieve higher voltages. Besides the high-voltage requirements, a second generation prototype is currently being developed to provide improved switching capabilities (rise time and fall time for full range of target voltages and currents), the ability to scale the output voltage to a desired value with good accuracy (few percent) up to 10 kV, to cover a wide range of high-voltage applications. In addition, to ensure miniaturization, long life, and high reliability, the assemblies will require intensive high-voltage electrostatic modeling (optimized E-field distribution throughout the module) to complete the proposed packaging approach and test the applicability of using advanced materials in a space-like environment (temperature and pressure) to help prevent potential arcing and corona due to high field regions. Finally, a single-event effect evaluation would have to be performed and single-event mitigation methods implemented at the design and system level or developed to ensure complete radiation hardness of the module.

  14. Uv laser triggering of high-voltage gas switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodworth, J.R.; Frost, C.A.; Green, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two different techniques are discussed for uv laser triggering of high-voltage gas switches using a KrF laser (248 nm) to create an ionized channel through the dielectric gas in a spark gap. One technique uses an uv laser to induce breakdown in SF 6 . For this technique, we present data that demonstrate a 1-sigma jitter of +- 150 ps for a 0.5-MV switch at 80% of its self-breakdown voltage using a low-divergence KrF laser. The other scheme uses additives to the normal dielectric gas, such as tripropylamine, which are selected to undergo resonant two-step ionization in the uv laser field

  15. Dynamic voltage stability of a distribution system with high penetration of grid-connected photovoltaic type solar generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetty Adibah Kamaruzzaman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV generator on dynamic voltage stability of a power distribution system by considering solar intermittency, PV penetration level, and contingencies such as line outage and load increase. The IEEE 13 node test feeder is used as a test system, and a solar PV of 0.48 kV/0.5 MVA is integrated into the test system. Test results show that system voltage is stable at high PV penetration levels. Increase in load causes voltage instability, in which voltage drops below its allowable operating limit. Thus, increase in PV penetration level does not improve system voltage stability because the system experiences voltage collapse during line outage.

  16. Evaluation of the high-voltage high-frequency transformer insulating materials for satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Taketoshi; Hirasawa, Eiichi; Gonai, Toshio; Ohsuga, Hiroyuki.

    1987-01-01

    Environment resistance evaluation was made of the insulating materials of impregnated injection type for high-voltage high-frequency transformers mounted in satellites. (1) The stress occurring in the impregnated injection type resin is small in silicon resin and urethane resin and large in epoxy resin. (2) The dielectric characteristic at high frequency is good in silicone resin. In epoxy resin, when the transformer is operated at high temperature, its thermal runaway may take place. (3) The radiation deterioration at 1 Mrad - 10 Mrad is slight in urethane resin. (4) The degassing is not good in silicone resin. (5) The adhesive power is good in urethane resin. (6) From the above results, in silicone resin there is problem in degassing and adhesive power. In epoxy resin there is problem in stress and dielectric characteristic. (Mori, K.)

  17. Trap Healing for High-Performance Low-Voltage Polymer Transistors and Solution-Based Analog Amplifiers on Foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecunia, Vincenzo; Nikolka, Mark; Sou, Antony; Nasrallah, Iyad; Amin, Atefeh Y; McCulloch, Iain; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2017-06-01

    Solution-processed semiconductors such as conjugated polymers have great potential in large-area electronics. While extremely appealing due to their low-temperature and high-throughput deposition methods, their integration in high-performance circuits has been difficult. An important remaining challenge is the achievement of low-voltage circuit operation. The present study focuses on state-of-the-art polymer thin-film transistors based on poly(indacenodithiophene-benzothiadiazole) and shows that the general paradigm for low-voltage operation via an enhanced gate-to-channel capacitive coupling is unable to deliver high-performance device behavior. The order-of-magnitude longitudinal-field reduction demanded by low-voltage operation plays a fundamental role, enabling bulk trapping and leading to compromised contact properties. A trap-reduction technique based on small molecule additives, however, is capable of overcoming this effect, allowing low-voltage high-mobility operation. This approach is readily applicable to low-voltage circuit integration, as this work exemplifies by demonstrating high-performance analog differential amplifiers operating at a battery-compatible power supply voltage of 5 V with power dissipation of 11 µW, and attaining a voltage gain above 60 dB at a power supply voltage below 8 V. These findings constitute an important milestone in realizing low-voltage polymer transistors for solution-based analog electronics that meets performance and power-dissipation requirements for a range of battery-powered smart-sensing applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Increasing break-down strength of the support colomn of high-voltage accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvykh, K.A.; Romanov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Calculation results of strength of electric field of the EG-2.5 electrostatic accelerator for the support colomn with electrodes of circular and elliptical transverse cross sections are presented. Conducted is the choice of constructing the column under the condition that the dimensions of the tank, high-voltage electrode, step between the sections and internal diameter of the colomn electrodes are not changed. The potential at the high-voltage electrode equals 2.5 MV while the average longitudinal gradient of the colomn field equals 1.25 MV/m. The support insulation colomn of the high-voltage accelerator screened by rings with transverse cross section in the form of orientation oval in some accelerators promotes obtaining higher operating voltage and at the same time increase of operation reliability at the rest unchanged dimensions of the plant because the probability of break-down between the support colomn and the tank wall decreases. The latter is especially significant for most high-energy accelerators as well as for accelerators used in national economy [ru

  19. Low voltage operation of IGZO thin film transistors enabled by ultrathin Al2O3 gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengfei; Du, Lulu; Wang, Yiming; Jiang, Ran; Xin, Qian; Li, Yuxiang; Song, Aimin

    2018-01-01

    An ultrathin, 5 nm, Al2O3 film grown by atomic-layer deposition was used as a gate dielectric for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The Al2O3 layer showed a low surface roughness of 0.15 nm, a low leakage current, and a high breakdown voltage of 6 V. In particular, a very high gate capacitance of 720 nF/cm2 was achieved, making it possible for the a-IGZO TFTs to not only operate at a low voltage of 1 V but also exhibit desirable properties including a low threshold voltage of 0.3 V, a small subthreshold swing of 100 mV/decade, and a high on/off current ratio of 1.2 × 107. Furthermore, even under an ultralow operation voltage of 0.6 V, well-behaved transistor characteristics were still observed with an on/off ratio as high as 3 × 106. The electron transport through the Al2O3 layer has also been analyzed, indicating the Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism.

  20. Harmonic voltage excess problem test and analysis in UHV and EHV grid particular operation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhenhua; Shi, Mingming; Fei, Juntao

    2018-02-01

    The test and analysis of the power quality of some 1000kV UHV transmission lines and 500kV EHV transmission lines is carried out. It is found that there is harmonic voltage excess problems when the power supply of the UHV and EHV voltage line is single-ended or single-loop, the problem basically disappeared after the operation mode change, different operating conditions, the harmonic current has not been greatly affected, indicating that the harmonic voltage changes mainly caused by the system harmonic impedance. With the analysis of MATLAB Simulink system model, it can be seen that there are specific harmonic voltage excess in the system under the specific operating mode, which results in serious distortion of the specific harmonic voltage. Since such phenomena are found in 500kV and 1000kV systems, it is suggested that the test evaluation work should be done under the typical mode of operation in 500kV, 1000kV Planning and construction process to prevent the occurrence of serious distortion and the regional harmonic current monitoring and suppression work should be done.

  1. Enhanced Local Grid Voltage Support Method for High Penetration of Distributed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Grid voltage rise and thermal loading of network components are the most remarkable barriers to allow high number of distributed generator (DG) connections on the medium voltage (MV) and low voltage (LV) electricity networks. The other barriers such as grid power quality (harmonics, voltage...

  2. New perspectives in vacuum high voltage insulation. II. Gas desorption

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, W T

    1998-01-01

    An examination has been made of gas desorption from unbaked electrodes of copper, niobium, aluminum, and titanium subjected to high voltage in vacuum. It has been shown that the gas is composed of water vapor, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, the usual components of vacuum outgassing, plus an increased yield of hydrogen and light hydrocarbons. The gas desorption was driven by anode conditioning as the voltage was increased between the electrodes. The gas is often desorbed as microdischarges-pulses of a few to hundreds of microseconds-and less frequently in a more continuous manner without the obvious pulsed structure characteristic of microdischarge activity. The quantity of gas released was equivalent to many monolayers and consisted mostly of neutral molecules with an ionic component of a few percent. A very significant observation was that the gas desorption was more dependent on the total voltage between the electrodes than on the electric field. It was not triggered by field-emitted electrons but oft...

  3. Temperature and Voltage Offsets in High-ZT Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, George S.

    2017-10-01

    Thermodynamic temperature can take on different meanings. Kinetic temperature is an expectation value and a function of the kinetic energy distribution. Statistical temperature is a parameter of the distribution. Kinetic temperature and statistical temperature, identical in Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, can differ in other statistics such as those of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein when a field is present. Thermal equilibrium corresponds to zero statistical temperature gradient, not zero kinetic temperature gradient. Since heat carriers in thermoelectrics are fermions, the difference between these two temperatures may explain voltage and temperature offsets observed during meticulous Seebeck measurements in which the temperature-voltage curve does not go through the origin. In conventional semiconductors, temperature offsets produced by fermionic electrical carriers are not observable because they are shorted by heat phonons in the lattice. In high-ZT materials, however, these offsets have been detected but attributed to faulty laboratory procedures. Additional supporting evidence for spontaneous voltages and temperature gradients includes data collected in epistatic experiments and in the plasma Q-machine. Device fabrication guidelines for testing the hypothesis are suggested including using unipolar junctions stacked in a superlattice, alternating n/n + and p/p + junctions, selecting appropriate dimensions, doping, and loading.

  4. Temperature and Voltage Offsets in High- ZT Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, George S.

    2018-06-01

    Thermodynamic temperature can take on different meanings. Kinetic temperature is an expectation value and a function of the kinetic energy distribution. Statistical temperature is a parameter of the distribution. Kinetic temperature and statistical temperature, identical in Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, can differ in other statistics such as those of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein when a field is present. Thermal equilibrium corresponds to zero statistical temperature gradient, not zero kinetic temperature gradient. Since heat carriers in thermoelectrics are fermions, the difference between these two temperatures may explain voltage and temperature offsets observed during meticulous Seebeck measurements in which the temperature-voltage curve does not go through the origin. In conventional semiconductors, temperature offsets produced by fermionic electrical carriers are not observable because they are shorted by heat phonons in the lattice. In high- ZT materials, however, these offsets have been detected but attributed to faulty laboratory procedures. Additional supporting evidence for spontaneous voltages and temperature gradients includes data collected in epistatic experiments and in the plasma Q-machine. Device fabrication guidelines for testing the hypothesis are suggested including using unipolar junctions stacked in a superlattice, alternating n/ n + and p/ p + junctions, selecting appropriate dimensions, doping, and loading.

  5. Series asymmetric supercapacitors based on free-standing inner-connection electrodes for high energy density and high output voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiayou; Liu, Nishuang; Rao, Jiangyu; Ding, Longwei; Al Bahrani, Majid Raissan; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua

    2014-11-01

    Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on free-standing membranes with high energy density and high output voltage are reported. MnO2 nanowire/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites and MoO3 nanobelt/CNT composites are selected as the anode and the cathode materials of the devices, respectively. The ASC has a high volumetric capacitance of 50.2 F cm-3 at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 and a high operation voltage window of 2.0 V. Especially, after a middle layer with an inner-connection structure was inserted between the anode and the cathode, the output voltage of the whole device can achieve 4.0 V. The full cell of series ASCs (SASC) with an inner-connection middle layer has a high energy density of 28.6 mW h cm-3 at a power density of 261.4 mW cm-3, and exhibits excellent cycling performance of 99.6% capacitance retention over 10 000 cycles. This strategy of designing the hybridized structure for SASCs provides a promising route for next-generation SCs with high energy density and high output voltage.Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on free-standing membranes with high energy density and high output voltage are reported. MnO2 nanowire/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites and MoO3 nanobelt/CNT composites are selected as the anode and the cathode materials of the devices, respectively. The ASC has a high volumetric capacitance of 50.2 F cm-3 at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 and a high operation voltage window of 2.0 V. Especially, after a middle layer with an inner-connection structure was inserted between the anode and the cathode, the output voltage of the whole device can achieve 4.0 V. The full cell of series ASCs (SASC) with an inner-connection middle layer has a high energy density of 28.6 mW h cm-3 at a power density of 261.4 mW cm-3, and exhibits excellent cycling performance of 99.6% capacitance retention over 10 000 cycles. This strategy of designing the hybridized structure for SASCs provides a promising route for next-generation SCs with high energy density and high

  6. High Efficiency Single Output ZVS-ZCS Voltage Doubled Flyback Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyaperumal, Deepa; Saju, Hridya Merin; Kumar, M. Vijaya

    2016-06-01

    A switch operating at high switching frequency increases the switching losses of the converter resulting in lesser efficiency. Hence this paper proposes a new topology which has resonant switches [zero voltage switching (ZVS)] in the primary circuit to eliminate the above said disadvantages, and voltage doubler zero current switching (ZCS) circuit in the secondary to double the output voltage, and hence the output power, power density and efficiency. The design aspects of the proposed topology for a single output of 5 V at 50 kHz, its simulation and hardware results are discussed in detail. The analysis of the results obtained from a 2.5 W converter reveals the superiority of the proposed converter.

  7. A novel approach for voltage secure operation using Probabilistic Neural Network in transmission network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Behera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a unique approach for improving voltage stability limit using a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN classifier that gives corrective controls available in the system in the scenario of contingencies. The sensitivity of system is analyzed to identify weak buses with ENVCI evaluation approaching zero. The input to the classifier, termed as voltage stability enhancing neural network (VSENN classifier, for training are line flows and bus voltages near the notch point of the P–V curve and the output of the VSENN is a control variable. For various contingencies the control action that improves the voltage profile as well as stability index is identified and trained accordingly. The trained VSENN is finally tested for its robustness to improve load margin and ENVCI as well, apart from trained set of operating condition of the system along with contingencies. The proposed approach is verified in IEEE 39-bus test system.

  8. Locational Pricing to Mitigate Voltage Problems Caused by High PV Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Weckx

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a locational marginal pricing algorithm is proposed to control the voltage in unbalanced distribution grids. The increasing amount of photovoltaic (PV generation installed in the grid may cause the voltage to rise to unacceptable levels during periods of low consumption. With locational prices, the distribution system operator can steer the reactive power consumption and active power curtailment of PV panels to guarantee a safe network operation. Flexible loads also respond to these prices. A distributed gradient algorithm automatically defines the locational prices that avoid voltage problems. Using these locational prices results in a minimum cost for the distribution operator to control the voltage. Locational prices can differ between the three phases in unbalanced grids. This is caused by a higher consumption or production in one of the phases compared to the other phases and provides the opportunity for arbitrage, where power is transferred from a phase with a low price to a phase with a high price. The effect of arbitrage is analyzed. The proposed algorithm is applied to an existing three-phase four-wire radial grid. Several simulations with realistic data are performed.

  9. Highly tunable local gate controlled complementary graphene device performing as inverter and voltage controlled resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjae; Riikonen, Juha; Li, Changfeng; Chen, Ya; Lipsanen, Harri

    2013-10-04

    Using single-layer CVD graphene, a complementary field effect transistor (FET) device is fabricated on the top of separated back-gates. The local back-gate control of the transistors, which operate with low bias at room temperature, enables highly tunable device characteristics due to separate control over electrostatic doping of the channels. Local back-gating allows control of the doping level independently of the supply voltage, which enables device operation with very low VDD. Controllable characteristics also allow the compensation of variation in the unintentional doping typically observed in CVD graphene. Moreover, both p-n and n-p configurations of FETs can be achieved by electrostatic doping using the local back-gate. Therefore, the device operation can also be switched from inverter to voltage controlled resistor, opening new possibilities in using graphene in logic circuitry.

  10. Spatial and temporal instabilities in high voltage power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milady, Saeed

    2010-01-29

    Dynamic avalanche can occur during the turn-off process of high voltage bipolar devices, e.g. IGBTs and p{sup +}n{sup -}n{sup +} power diodes, that may result in spatial instabilities of the homogeneous current density distribution across the device and the formation of current filaments. Filaments may cause the destruction of the device, mainly because of the high local temperatures. The first part of this work is dedicated to the current filament behavior. The positive feedback mechanisms caused by the transient current flow through the gate capacitance of an IGBT operating under short circuit conditions may result in oscillations and temporal instabilities of the IGBT current. The oscillations may cause electromagnetic interference (EMI). Furthermore, the positive feedback mechanism may accelerate the over-heating of the device and result in a thermal run-away. This is the subject of the second part of this work. In the first part of this work using the device simulation results of power diodes the underlying physical mechanisms of the filament dynamic is investigated. Simulation results of diode structures with evenly distributed doping inhomogeneities show that, the filament motion gets smoother as the distance between the inhomogeneities decreases. Hopping to faraway inhomogeneities turns into the hopping to neighboring ones and finally a smooth motion. In homogeneous structures the slow inhibitory effect of the electron-hole plasma extraction and the fast activation, due to hole current flowing along the filament, result in a smooth filament motion. An analytical model for the filament velocity under isothermal conditions is presented that can reproduce the simulation data satisfactorily. The influence of the boundary conditions on the filament behavior is discussed. The positive beveled edge termination prohibits a long stay of the filament at the edge reducing the risk of filament pinning. Self-heating effects may turn the initially electrically triggered

  11. Low operating voltage n-channel organic field effect transistors using lithium fluoride/PMMA bilayer gate dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Dhar, A., E-mail: adhar@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Alternative to chemically crosslinking of PMMA to achieve low leakage in provided. • Effect of LiF in reducing gate leakage through the OFET device is studied. • Effect of gate leakage on transistor performance has been investigated. • Low voltage operable and low temperature processed n-channel OFETs were fabricated. - Abstract: We report low temperature processed, low voltage operable n-channel organic field effect transistors (OFETs) using N,N′-Dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C{sub 8}) organic semiconductor and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)/lithium fluoride (LiF) bilayer gate dielectric. We have studied the role of LiF buffer dielectric in effectively reducing the gate leakage through the device and thus obtaining superior performance in contrast to the single layer PMMA dielectric devices. The bilayer OFET devices had a low threshold voltage (V{sub t}) of the order of 5.3 V. The typical values of saturation electron mobility (μ{sub s}), on/off ratio and inverse sub-threshold slope (S) for the range of devices made were estimated to be 2.8 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V s, 385, and 3.8 V/decade respectively. Our work thus provides a potential substitution for much complicated process of chemically crosslinking PMMA to achieve low leakage, high capacitance, and thus low operating voltage OFETs.

  12. Calibration of the ISOLDE acceleration voltage using a high-precision voltage divider and applying collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, A.; Catherall, R.; Hochschulz, F.; Kramer, J.; Neugart, R.; Rosendahl, S.; Schipper, J.; Siesling, E.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Yordanov, D.T.; Nortershauser, W.

    2011-01-01

    A high-voltage divider with accuracy at the ppm level and collinear laser spectroscopy were used to calibrate the highvoltage installation at the radioactive ion beam facility ISOLDE at CERN. The accurate knowledge of this voltage is particularly important for collinear laser spectroscopy measurements. Beam velocity measurements using frequencycomb based collinear laser spectroscopy agree with the new calibration. Applying this, one obtains consistent results for isotope shifts of stable magnesium isotopes measured using collinear spectroscopy and laser spectroscopy on laser-cooled ions in a trap. The long-term stability and the transient behavior during recovery from a voltage dropout were investigated for the different power supplies currently applied at ISOLDE.

  13. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRON BEAM TECHNOLOGY - HIGH VOLTAGE ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high energy electron beam irradiation technology is a low temperature method for destroying complex mixtures of hazardous organic chemicals in solutions containing solids. The system consists of a computer-automated, portable electron beam accelerator and a delivery system. T...

  14. Properties of Polymer Composites Used in High-Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Pleşa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present review article represents a comprehensive study on polymer micro/nanocomposites that are used in high-voltage applications. Particular focus is on the structure-property relationship of composite materials used in power engineering, by exploiting fundamental theory as well as numerical/analytical models and the influence of material design on electrical, mechanical and thermal properties. In addition to describing the scientific development of micro/nanocomposites electrical features desired in power engineering, the study is mainly focused on the electrical properties of insulating materials, particularly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE and epoxy resins, unfilled and filled with different types of filler. Polymer micro/nanocomposites based on XLPE and epoxy resins are usually used as insulating systems for high-voltage applications, such as: cables, generators, motors, cast resin dry-type transformers, etc. Furthermore, this paper includes ample discussions regarding the advantages and disadvantages resulting in the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties by the addition of micro- and nanofillers into the base polymer. The study goals are to determine the impact of filler size, type and distribution of the particles into the polymer matrix on the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer micro/nanocomposites compared to the neat polymer and traditionally materials used as insulation systems in high-voltage engineering. Properties such as electrical conductivity, relative permittivity, dielectric losses, partial discharges, erosion resistance, space charge behavior, electric breakdown, tracking and electrical tree resistance, thermal conductivity, tensile strength and modulus, elongation at break of micro- and nanocomposites based on epoxy resin and XLPE are analyzed. Finally, it was concluded that the use of polymer micro/nanocomposites in electrical engineering is very promising and further research work

  15. An inverted-geometry, high voltage polarized electron gun with UHV load lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breidenbach, M.; Foss, M.; Hodgson, J.; Kulikov, A.; Odian, A.; Putallaz, G.; Rogers, H.; Schindler, R.; Skarpaas, K.; Zolotorev, M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a high voltage electron source with a GaAs photocathode and a load lock system is described. The inverted high voltage structure of the gun permits a compact and simple design. Test results demonstrate that the load lock system provides a reliable way to achieve high quantum efficiency of the photocathode in a high voltage device. ((orig.))

  16. A novel high voltage start up circuit for an integrated switched mode power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Hao; Chen Xingbi, E-mail: huhao21@uestc.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2010-09-15

    A novel high voltage start up circuit for providing an initial bias voltage to an integrated switched mode power supply (SMPS) is presented. An enhanced mode VDMOS transistor, the gate of which is biased by a floating p-island, is used to provide start up current and sustain high voltage. An NMOS transistor having a high source to ground breakdown voltage is included to extend the bias voltage range to the SMPS. Simulation results indicate that the high voltage start up circuit can start and restart as designed. The proposed structure is believed to be more energy saving and cost-effective compared with other solutions. (semiconductor devices)

  17. High voltage transmission lines - what are the hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repacholi, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    With the increasing use of high voltage alternating current (HVAC) transmission lines there is a growing concern among the public about possible human health effects resulting from exposure to the electric fields associated with these lines. While there is no definitive evidence of such effects, mounting public fear and activism over hypothesized health risks is already causing delays in the licensing and constuction of major power transmission facilities, and is encouraging the formation of regulatory policy. This paper briefly reviews the concerns, biological effects data and standards for HVAC transmission lines

  18. High Voltage Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Capacitive Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    in the converter, including the most dominating parameters of the high voltage transformer viz., self-capacitance and leakage inductance. The specific capacitive load for this converter is a dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, which can be used as an effective replacement for conventional actuators...... in a number of applications. In this paper, the discharging energy efficiency definition is introduced. The proposed converter has been experimentally tested with the film capacitive load and the DEAP actuator, and the experimental results are shown together with the efficiency measurements....

  19. Design of the all solid high-voltage power supply for a gyrotron body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Yihua [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China); Chen, Wenguang, E-mail: 430000485393@usc.edu.cn [School of Electrical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China); Hu, Bo [School of Electrical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China); Rao, Jun; Huang, Mei; Kang, Zihua; Feng, Kun [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Huang, Jiaqi [School of Electrical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Completed design of all solid-state high-voltage power supply for gyrotron body on HL-2M ECRH. • Consist of 58 PSM modules and one BUCK module, controlled by DSP system. • Fabricated full voltage 35 kV, 200 mA BPS and tested in dummy load. • The BPS can operate in three modes: single pulse mode, multi-pulse modulation mode and the six-level preset mode. - Abstract: Gyrotron plays an important role in the research of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) on Tokomak. The high-frequency switched power supply technology and pulse step modulation (PSM) technology are used in the development of the all solid high-voltage body power supply (BPS) for 1 MW/105 GHz Gyrotron on ECRH system. Firstly, the basic structure of the BPS and its control system are introduced. Secondly, the software control algorithm of voltage stabilization and modulate method are developed. Finally, the design is verified by the experiments. The experimental results of the single pulse mode, the multi-pulse modulation mode and the six-level preset mode, are shown. The output voltage of the power supply can reach 35 kV and the current at about 200 mA, which are adjustable in the full range. The maximum modulation frequency can reach 1 kHz and the front edge of the pulse can be adjust from 0 to 3 ms and the accuracy of the output voltage is less than 100 V. The results show that the control method is feasible and can be applied to other high power microwave sources.

  20. Integrated Three-Voltage-Booster DC-DC Converter to Achieve High Voltage Gain with Leakage-Energy Recycling for PV or Fuel-Cell Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated three-voltage-booster DC-DC (direct current to direct current converter is proposed to achieve high voltage gain for renewable-energy generation systems. The proposed converter integrates three voltage-boosters into one power stage, which is composed of an active switch, a coupled-inductor, five diodes, and five capacitors. As compared with conventional high step-up converters, it has a lower component count. In addition, the features of leakage-energy recycling and switching loss reduction can be accomplished for conversion efficiency improvement. While the active switch is turned off, the converter can inherently clamp the voltage across power switch and suppress voltage spikes. Moreover, the reverse-recovery currents of all diodes can be alleviated by leakage inductance. A 200 W prototype operating at 100 kHz switching frequency with 36 V input and 400 V output is implemented to verify the theoretical analysis and to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed high step-up DC-DC converter.

  1. Design philosophy and use of high voltage power systems for multi-megawatt ion beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, G.C.; Broverman, A.Y.; Hill, R.E.; Loring, C.M.; Ponte, N.S.

    1977-01-01

    The requirements for a neutral beam high voltage power system are derived from the characteristics of the ion source. High voltage system component characteristic requirements and choices are described

  2. Calibration of the ISOLDE acceleration voltage using a high-precision voltage divider and applying collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, A., E-mail: kriegea@uni-mainz.d [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Geppert, Ch. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Catherall, R. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Hochschulz, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kraemer, J.; Neugart, R. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Rosendahl, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Schipper, J.; Siesling, E. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Weinheimer, Ch. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Yordanov, D.T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Noertershaeuser, W. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-03-11

    A high-voltage divider with accuracy at the ppm level and collinear laser spectroscopy were used to calibrate the high-voltage installation at the radioactive ion beam facility ISOLDE at CERN. The accurate knowledge of this voltage is particularly important for collinear laser spectroscopy measurements. Beam velocity measurements using frequency-comb based collinear laser spectroscopy agree with the new calibration. Applying this, one obtains consistent results for isotope shifts of stable magnesium isotopes measured using collinear spectroscopy and laser spectroscopy on laser-cooled ions in a trap. The long-term stability and the transient behavior during recovery from a voltage dropout were investigated for the different power supplies currently applied at ISOLDE.

  3. A novel ZVS high voltage power supply for micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Chengquan [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Tian, Jinshou [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Liu, Zhen [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Qin, Hong [School of Computer Science and Technology, Xi' an University of Science and Technology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Wu, Shengli, E-mail: slwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2017-04-11

    A novel resonant high voltage power supply (HVPS) with zero voltage switching (ZVS), to reduce the voltage stress on switching devices and improve conversion efficiency, is proposed. The proposed HVPS includes a drive circuit, a transformer, several voltage multiplying circuits, and a regulator circuit. The HVPS contains several secondary windings that can be precisely regulated. The proposed HVPS performed better than the traditional resistor voltage divider, which requires replacing matching resistors resulting in resistor dispersibility in the Micro-Channel Plate (MCP). The equivalent circuit of the proposed HVPS was established and the operational principle analyzed. The entire switching element can achieve ZVS, which was validated by a simulation and experiments. The properties of this HVPS were tested including minimum power loss (240 mW), maximum power loss (1 W) and conversion efficiency (85%). The results of this research are that the proposed HVPS was suitable for driving the micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT). It was therefore adopted to test the MCP-PMT, which will be used in Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment II in China.

  4. A novel ZVS high voltage power supply for micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Zhen; Qin, Hong; Wu, Shengli

    2017-01-01

    A novel resonant high voltage power supply (HVPS) with zero voltage switching (ZVS), to reduce the voltage stress on switching devices and improve conversion efficiency, is proposed. The proposed HVPS includes a drive circuit, a transformer, several voltage multiplying circuits, and a regulator circuit. The HVPS contains several secondary windings that can be precisely regulated. The proposed HVPS performed better than the traditional resistor voltage divider, which requires replacing matching resistors resulting in resistor dispersibility in the Micro-Channel Plate (MCP). The equivalent circuit of the proposed HVPS was established and the operational principle analyzed. The entire switching element can achieve ZVS, which was validated by a simulation and experiments. The properties of this HVPS were tested including minimum power loss (240 mW), maximum power loss (1 W) and conversion efficiency (85%). The results of this research are that the proposed HVPS was suitable for driving the micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube (MCP-PMT). It was therefore adopted to test the MCP-PMT, which will be used in Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment II in China.

  5. Charging system of ECRH high-voltage power supply and its control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Guofu; Ding Tonghai; Liu Baohua; Jiang Shufang

    2003-01-01

    High-voltage power supply (HVPS) of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) for HT-7 and HT-7U is presently being constructed. The high voltage (100 kV) energy of HVPS is stored in the capacitor banks, and they can power one or two gyrotrons. All the operation of the charging system will be done by the control system, where the field signals are interfaced to programmable logic controller (PLC). The use of PLC not only simplifies the control system, but also enhances the reliability. The software written by using configuration software installed in the master computer allows for remote and multiple operator control, and the status and data information is also remotely available

  6. Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology – High Voltage Electrolyte - REVISED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunstrom, Joseph [Daikin America, Inc., Orangeburg, NY (United States); Hendershot, Ron E. [Daikin America, Inc., Orangeburg, NY (United States)

    2017-03-06

    An evaluation of high voltage electrolytes which contain fluorochemicals as solvents/additive has been completed with the objective of formulating a safe, stable electrolyte capable of operation to 4.6 V. Stable cycle performance has been demonstrated in LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC111)/graphite cells to 4.5 V. The ability to operate at high voltage results in significant energy density gain (>30%) which would manifest as longer battery life resulting in higher range for electric vehicles. Alternatively, a higher energy density battery can be made smaller without sacrificing existing energy. In addition, the fluorinated electrolytes examined showed better safety performance when tested in abuse conditions. The results are promising for future advanced battery development for vehicles as well as other applications.

  7. An approach for high voltage power supply system for HCAL of LHCb experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpean, A.; Dumitru, D.; Kluger, A.; Magureanu, C.; Tarta, D.; Coca, C.; Orlandea, M.; Popescu, S.

    2003-01-01

    distributor (10 mA/channel). The box can independently supply 4 groups of 40 PMTs each. The voltage setting can be made manually, through keyboard and LCD display located on the front panel using a μC board which also contains a CAN interpreter, SJA 1000, that makes the serial CAN-bus link remotely. The connection is bidirectional allowing both the setting of output voltages and the reading of the output voltage and current values. The power supply has good output features, shortcut protection and special voltages. The output voltages for a group are given. The box dimensions are: 480 x 128 x 525 mm. The voltages are transmitted trough HV coaxial cables with SHV connectors. The PMTs of FEU-115m10 type were used. In the following HV system will be adapted to be used to supply PMTs of Hamamatsu type R7899 20 which have been largely investigated by LHCb collaboration. HV Power Supply is going to be integrated in CAN network. This HVPS with parallel power groups of fast PMTs has the following advantages: a) outside PMTs supply (power dissipation is not inside HCAL modules); b) very good stability for all HV supplies (photocathode and dynodes); c) low ripple because of distributor supplementary stabilization with series transistors; d) great reserve of current (it allows high counting rates); f) being operated remotely it needs not to be radiation-proof; g) easy service. The system can be used in any experiments with many fast PMTs. (authors)

  8. 30 CFR 77.704-1 - Work on high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work on high-voltage lines. 77.704-1 Section 77... MINES Grounding § 77.704-1 Work on high-voltage lines. (a) No high-voltage line shall be regarded as... provided in § 77.103) that such high-voltage line has been deenergized and grounded. Such qualified person...

  9. System for Relay Protection Command Transmission by High-Voltage Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Yenkov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a system for relay protection command transmission by high-voltage lines is shown in the paper. The paper describes an architecture of the system, main principles of its operation, engineering aspects of the development that is accomplishment of technical requirements, solution of trades-off. Justification of the selected design and an algorithm of the reliable detection of relay protection signals are given in the paper.

  10. Fiber Optic Telemetry System for LLL High-Voltage Test Stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the Fiber Optic Telemetry System designed to operate in the hostile particle and electromagnetic radiation environment of the High Voltage Test Stand. It discusses system criteria, components, packaging, and performance. In all tests to date, the system exceeds its design goals with very comfortable margins. It is well advanced into the fabrication stages with all crucial components tested and only straightforward TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic) circuitry to be completed

  11. Design of a prototype of a van de Graaf high voltage generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indarto.

    1976-01-01

    Prototype of a Generator van de Graaf which operates at atmospheric pressure is constructed. The electrode is made of copper with the diameter of 70 cm and with the height of 75 cm. Colomns are made of pralon and rubber belt and work with a rotary motor 1/3 HP, 1400 cycles per sec. A high voltage power supply of 6000 V is regulated with a transformator 110 V which is amplified by 4 stages Cockroft Walton system. (author)

  12. Flexible low-voltage organic transistors with high thermal stability at 250 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Tokuhara, Takeyoshi; Zschieschang, Ute; Klauk, Hagen; Takimiya, Kazuo; Sadamitsu, Yuji; Hamada, Masahiro; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2013-07-19

    Low-operating-voltage flexible organic thin-film transistors with high thermal stability using DPh-DNTT and SAM gate dielectrics are reported. The mobility of the transistors are decreased by 23% after heating to 250 °C for 30 min. Furthermore, flexible organic pseudo-CMOS inverter circuits, which are functional after heating to 200 °C, are demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Facts and feelings: Framing effects in responses to uncertainties about high-voltage power lines

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, G.; de Bruijn, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    To ensure power supply security, electricity transmission system operators (TSOs) have to upscale high-voltage overhead power lines. However, upscaling frequently meets opposition. Opposition can be caused by uncertainties about risks and benefits and might lead to costly delays (Linder, 1995; Wiedemann, Boerner,& Claus, 2016). To minimize opposition, TSOs and related public services need to respond to these uncertainties in a credible and convincing (effective) way. Effective risk commun...

  14. ENEL high and medium voltage electrical substations for power supply to urban centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargigia, A.; Boatto, C.; Di Mario, A.; Fava, N.; Sciarra, S.; Speziali, R.

    1991-12-01

    Modular high and medium voltage gas insulated electrical substations are being used by ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) to meet the specific needs of urban centers with special design and sizing constraints of a historical/architectural nature. This paper illustrates the key design, construction operation and performance characteristics of these standardized units. The descriptions include brief notes on equipment-transformer interconnection, interchangeability and environmental compatibility. Performance test procedures and results of actual reliability and certification tests on some substations are reported

  15. Theoretical calculation of sawtooth wave buncher with high voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Liepeng; Xu Zhe; Shi Aimin; Feng Yong; Jin Peng; Lan Tao; Gao Yihai; Zhao Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    The method which builds a buncher with non-resonant cavity through the direct production of sawtooth wave has already been applied commonly to accelerator technologies all over the world. Recently, with the rapid development of electronic and mechanical manufacture technology during the last few decades, it leads to develop a sawtooth buncher easily, furthermore, it can improve match efficiency and operation stability in HIRFL at IMP. It has been concluded that the design can be applied to more sophisticated specification according to this method and the measurement of building higher voltage buncher is feasible. At last, we complement critical points involved implementation of this project and makes it work efficiently because of the highest demand and more rigorous installation limitation of this new buncher throughout the world. (authors)

  16. Gas tube-switched high voltage DC power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xu; Bray, James William; Sommerer, Timothy John; Chokhawala, Rahul

    2018-05-15

    A direct current (DC)-DC converter includes a transformer and a gas tube-switched inverter circuit. The transformer includes a primary winding and a secondary winding. The gas tube-switched inverter circuit includes first and second inverter load terminals and first and second inverter input terminals. The first and second inverter load terminals are coupled to the primary winding. The first and second inverter input terminals are couplable to a DC node. The gas tube-switched inverter circuit further includes a plurality of gas tube switches respectively coupled between the first and second inverter load terminals and the first and second inverter input terminals. The plurality of gas tube switches is configured to operate to generate an alternating current (AC) voltage at the primary winding.

  17. Novel Interleaved Converter with Extra-High Voltage Gain to Process Low-Voltage Renewable-Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel interleaved converter (NIC with extra-high voltage gain to process the power of low-voltage renewable-energy generators such as photovoltaic (PV panel, wind turbine, and fuel cells. The NIC can boost a low input voltage to a much higher voltage level to inject renewable energy to DC bus for grid applications. Since the NIC has two circuit branches in parallel at frond end to share input current, it is suitable for high power applications. In addition, the NIC is controlled in an interleaving pattern, which has the advantages that the NIC has lower input current ripple, and the frequency of the ripple is twice the switching frequency. Two coupled inductors and two switched capacitors are incorporated to achieve a much higher voltage gain than conventional high step-up converters. The proposed NIC has intrinsic features such as leakage energy totally recycling and low voltage stress on power semiconductor. Thorough theoretical analysis and key parameter design are presented in this paper. A prototype is built for practical measurements to validate the proposed NIC.

  18. A low-ripple chargepump circuit for high voltage applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, M.; Berkhout, M.; van Steenwijk, G.; van Steenwijk, Gijs; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a fully integrated chargepump circuit with a very low output voltage ripple. At a supply voltage of 30V the chargepump can source 1mA at an output voltage of 40V. Two simple modifications to the classical chargepump circuit give a substantial reduction of the output

  19. A high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved DC-DC converter for fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Long-Yi; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chang, Tsang-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved boost DC-DC converter, which can be used to reduce the output voltage ripple. This converter transfers the low DC voltage of fuel cell to high DC voltage in DC link. The structure of the converter is parallel with two voltage-doubler boost converters by interleaving their output voltages to reduce the voltage ripple ratio. Besides, it can lower the current stress for the switches and inductors in the system. First, the PSIM software was used to establish a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a converter circuit model. The simulated and measured results of the fuel cell output characteristic curve are made to verify the correctness of the established simulation model. In addition, some experimental results are made to validate the effectiveness in improving output voltage ripple of the proposed high voltage ratio interleaved boost DC-DC converters.

  20. 30 CFR 75.812-2 - High-voltage power centers and transformers; record of examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage power centers and transformers; record of examination. 75.812-2 Section 75.812-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... High-Voltage Distribution § 75.812-2 High-voltage power centers and transformers; record of examination...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1700 - Diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator. 892.1700... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1700 Diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator. (a) Identification. A diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator is a device that is intended to...

  2. 30 CFR 75.705-1 - Work on high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work on high-voltage lines. 75.705-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.705-1 Work on high-voltage lines. (a) Section 75.705 specifically prohibits work on energized high-voltage lines underground; (b...

  3. Real time diagnostic for operation at a CW low voltage FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balfour, C.; Shaw, A.; Mayhew, S.E. [and others

    1995-12-31

    At Liverpool University, a system for single user control of an FEL has been designed to satisfy the low voltage FEL (ie 200kV) operational requirements. This system incorporates many aspects of computer automation for beam diagnostics, radiation detection and vacuum system management. In this paper the results of the development of safety critical control systems critical control systems are reported.

  4. Operation of grid-connected DFIG under unbalanced grid voltage condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Bauer, P.; Ferreira, J.A.; Pierik, J.

    2009-01-01

    Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) still shares a large part in today's wind power market. It provides the benefits of variable speed operation cost-effectively, and can control its active and reactive power independently. Crowbar protection is often adopted to protect the rotor-side voltage

  5. Total dose induced increase in input offset voltage in JFET input operational amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, R.L.; Krieg, J.; Gehlhausen, M.; Black, J.

    1999-01-01

    Four different types of commercial JFET input operational amplifiers were irradiated with ionizing radiation under a variety of test conditions. All experienced significant increases in input offset voltage (Vos). Microprobe measurement of the electrical characteristics of the de-coupled input JFETs demonstrates that the increase in Vos is a result of the mismatch of the degraded JFETs. (authors)

  6. Voltage Harmonic Compensation of a Microgrid Operating in Islanded and Grid-Connected Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savaghebi, Mehdi; Jalilian, Alireza; Vasquez, Juan C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a method for voltage harmonic compensation in a microgrid operating in islanded and gridconnected modes is presented. Harmonic compensation is done through proper control of distributed generators (DGs) interface converters. In order to achieve proper sharing of the compensation...

  7. 30 CFR 77.704-2 - Repairs to energized high-voltage lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repairs to energized high-voltage lines. 77.704... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.704-2 Repairs to energized high-voltage lines. An energized high-voltage... repairs will be performed on power circuits with a phase-to-phase nominal voltage no greater than 15,000...

  8. High-voltage high-current triggering vacuum switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alferov, D.F.; Bunin, R.A.; Evsin, D.V.; Sidorov, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental investigations of switching and breaking capacities of the new high current triggered vacuum switch (TVS) are carried out at various parameters of discharge current. It has been shown that the high current triggered vacuum switch TVS can switch repeatedly a current from units up to ten kiloampers with duration up to ten millisecond [ru

  9. High Voltage Dielectrophoretic and Magnetophoretic Hybrid Integrated Circuit / Microfluidic Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A.; Hunt, Thomas P.; Westervelt, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid integrated circuit (IC) / microfluidic chip is presented that independently and simultaneously traps and moves microscopic objects suspended in fluid using both electric and magnetic fields. This hybrid chip controls the location of dielectric objects, such as living cells and drops of fluid, on a 60 × 61 array of pixels that are 30 × 38 μm2 in size, each of which can be individually addressed with a 50 V peak-to-peak, DC to 10 MHz radio frequency voltage. These high voltage pixels produce electric fields above the chip’s surface with a magnitude , resulting in strong dielectrophoresis (DEP) forces . Underneath the array of DEP pixels there is a magnetic matrix that consists of two perpendicular sets of 60 metal wires running across the chip. Each wire can be sourced with 120 mA to trap and move magnetically susceptible objects using magnetophoresis (MP). The DEP pixel array and magnetic matrix can be used simultaneously to apply forces to microscopic objects, such as living cells or lipid vesicles, that are tagged with magnetic nanoparticles. The capabilities of the hybrid IC / microfluidic chip demonstrated in this paper provide important building blocks for a platform for biological and chemical applications. PMID:20625468

  10. The Effect of Current-Limiting Reactors on the Tripping of Short Circuits in High-Voltage Electrical Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M. S.; Gusev, Yu. P.; Monakov, Yu. V.; Cho, Gvan Chun

    2016-01-01

    The insertion of current-limiting reactors into electrical equipment operating at a voltage of 110 and 220 kV produces a change in the parameters of the transient recovery voltages at the contacts of the circuit breakers for disconnecting short circuits, which could be the reason for the increase in the duration of the short circuit, damage to the electrical equipment and losses in the power system. The results of mathematical modeling of the transients, caused by tripping of the short circuit in a reactive electric power transmission line are presented, and data are given on the negative effect of a current-limiting resistor on the rate of increase and peak value of the transient recovery voltages. Methods of ensuring the standard requirements imposed on the parameters of the transient recovery voltages when using current-limiting reactors in the high-voltage electrical equipment of power plants and substations are proposed and analyzed

  11. High-voltage atmospheric breakdown across intervening rutile dielectrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Simpson, Sean; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Pasik, Michael Francis

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 on electrical discharge experiments performed to develop predictive computational models of the fundamental processes of surface breakdown in the vicinity of high-permittivity material interfaces. Further, experiments were conducted to determine if free carrier electrons could be excited into the conduction band thus lowering the effective breakdown voltage when UV photons (4.66 eV) from a high energy pulsed laser were incident on the rutile sample. This report documents the numerical approach, the experimental setup, and summarizes the data and simulations. Lastly, it describes the path forward and challenges that must be overcome in order to improve future experiments for characterizing the breakdown behavior for rutile.

  12. High-voltage scanning ion microscope: Beam optics and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magilin, D., E-mail: dmitrymagilin@gmail.com; Ponomarev, A.; Rebrov, V.; Ponomarov, A.

    2015-05-01

    This article is devoted to the conceptual design of a compact high-voltage scanning ion microscope (HVSIM). In an HVSIM design, the ion optical system is based on a high-brightness ion source. Specifically, the ion optical system is divided into two components: an ion injector and a probe-forming system (PFS) that consists of an accelerating tube and a multiplet of quadrupole lenses. The crossover is formed and controlled by the injector, which acts as an object collimator, and is focused on the image plane by the PFS. The ion microprobe has a size of 0.1 μm and an energy of 2 MeV. When the influence of the chromatic and third-order aberrations is theoretically taken into account, the HVSIM forms an ion microprobe.

  13. Evaluation of the contact switch materials in high voltage power supply for generate of underwater shockwave by electrical discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Higa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed the high voltage power-supply unit by Cockcroft-Walton circuit for ingenerate high pressure due to underwater shockwave by electrical discharge. This high voltage power supply has the problem of the metal contact switch operation that contact switch stop by melting and bonding due to electrical spark. We have studied the evaluation of materials of contact switch for the reducing electrical energy loss and the problem of contact switch operation. In this research, measurement of discharge voltage and high pressure due to underwater shockwave was carried out using the contact switch made of different materials as brass plate, brass-carbon plate-brass and carbon block. The contact switch made of carbon is effective to reduce energy loss and problem of contactor switch operation.

  14. A quasi-3-dimensional simulation method for a high-voltage level-shifting circuit structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jizhi; Chen Xingbi

    2009-01-01

    A new quasi-three-dimensional (quasi-3D) numeric simulation method for a high-voltage level-shifting circuit structure is proposed. The performances of the 3D structure are analyzed by combining some 2D device structures; the 2D devices are in two planes perpendicular to each other and to the surface of the semiconductor. In comparison with Davinci, the full 3D device simulation tool, the quasi-3D simulation method can give results for the potential and current distribution of the 3D high-voltage level-shifting circuit structure with appropriate accuracy and the total CPU time for simulation is significantly reduced. The quasi-3D simulation technique can be used in many cases with advantages such as saving computing time, making no demands on the high-end computer terminals, and being easy to operate. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. A quasi-3-dimensional simulation method for a high-voltage level-shifting circuit structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jizhi; Chen Xingbi, E-mail: jzhliu@uestc.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A new quasi-three-dimensional (quasi-3D) numeric simulation method for a high-voltage level-shifting circuit structure is proposed. The performances of the 3D structure are analyzed by combining some 2D device structures; the 2D devices are in two planes perpendicular to each other and to the surface of the semiconductor. In comparison with Davinci, the full 3D device simulation tool, the quasi-3D simulation method can give results for the potential and current distribution of the 3D high-voltage level-shifting circuit structure with appropriate accuracy and the total CPU time for simulation is significantly reduced. The quasi-3D simulation technique can be used in many cases with advantages such as saving computing time, making no demands on the high-end computer terminals, and being easy to operate. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. A consistent approach to estimate the breakdown voltage of high voltage electrodes under positive switching impulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, L.; Wu, D.; Jacobson, B.

    2013-08-01

    The main propose of this paper is to present a physical model of long air gap electrical discharges under positive switching impulses. The development and progression of discharges in long air gaps are attributable to two intertwined physical phenomena, namely, the leader channel and the streamer zone. Experimental studies have been used to develop empirical and physical models capable to represent the streamer zone and the leader channel. The empirical ones have led to improvements in the electrical design of high voltage apparatus and insulation distances, but they cannot take into account factors associated with fundamental physics and/or the behavior of materials. The physical models have been used to describe and understand the discharge phenomena of laboratory and lightning discharges. However, because of the complex simulations necessary to reproduce real cases, they are not in widespread use in the engineering of practical applications. Hence, the aim of the work presented here is to develop a model based on physics of the discharge capable to validate and complement the existing engineering models. The model presented here proposes a new geometrical approximation for the representation of the streamer and the calculation of the accumulated electrical charge. The model considers a variable streamer region that changes with the temporal and spatial variations of the electric field. The leader channel is modeled using the non local thermo-equilibrium equations. Furthermore, statistical delays before the inception of the first corona, and random distributions to represent the tortuous nature of the path taken by the leader channel were included based on the behavior observed in experimental tests, with the intention of ensuring the discharge behaved in a realistic manner. For comparison purposes, two different gap configurations were simulated. A reasonable agreement was found between the physical model and the experimental test results.

  17. Optimal planning of series resistor to control time constant of test circuit for high-voltage AC circuit-breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Ho Kim; Jung-Hyeon Ryu; Jin-Hwan Kim; Kern-Joong Kim

    2016-01-01

    The equivalent test circuit that can deliver both short-circuit current and recovery voltage is used to verify the performance of high-voltage circuit breakers. Most of the parameters in this circuit can be obtained by using a simple calculation or a simulation program. The ratings of the circuit breaker include rated short-circuit breaking current, rated short-circuit making current, rated operating sequence of the circuit breaker and rated short-time current. Among these ratings, the short-...

  18. The development of high-voltage repetitive low-jitter corona stabilized triggered switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jiuyuan; Yang, Jianhua; Cheng, Xinbing; Yang, Xiao; Chen, Rong

    2018-04-01

    The high-power switch plays an important part in a pulse power system. With the trend of pulse power technology toward modularization, miniaturization, and accuracy control, higher requirements on electrical trigger and jitter of the switch have been put forward. A high-power low-jitter corona-stabilized triggered switch (CSTS) is designed in this paper. This kind of CSTS is based on corona stabilized mechanism, and it can be used as a main switch of an intense electron-beam accelerator (IEBA). Its main feature was the use of an annular trigger electrode instead of a traditional needle-like trigger electrode, taking main and side trigger rings to fix the discharging channels and using SF6/N2 gas mixture as its operation gas. In this paper, the strength of the local field enhancement was changed by a trigger electrode protrusion length Dp. The differences of self-breakdown voltage and its stability, delay time jitter, trigger requirements, and operation range of the switch were compared. Then the effect of different SF6/N2 mixture ratio on switch performance was explored. The experimental results show that when the SF6 is 15% with the pressure of 0.2 MPa, the hold-off voltage of the switch is 551 kV, the operating range is 46.4%-93.5% of the self-breakdown voltage, the jitter is 0.57 ns, and the minimum trigger voltage requirement is 55.8% of the peak. At present, the CSTS has been successfully applied to an IEBA for long time operation.

  19. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Voltage Distribution § 75.802 Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground. (a) Except as... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of high-voltage circuits extending... which shall be grounded through a suitable resistor at the source transformers, and a grounding circuit...

  20. High voltage traction power supply; Ein- und Mehrspannungssysteme in der Bahnenergieversorgung mit hohen Spannungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borchard, Ludwig O. [Transnet freight rail, (Technology Management), Braamfontein (South Africa); Lehmann, Michael [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur Elektrische Bahnen

    2009-04-15

    Raising the nominal voltage of electric railway systems implies many advantages, therefore several concepts can be presented and compared. Detailed studies on two systems with high contact line voltages were performed for the upgrade of the 1 AC 50 kV railway line in South Africa. Finally requirements for high voltage locomotives are derived and illustrated by examples. (orig.)

  1. On-load Tap Changer Diagnosis on High-Voltage Power Transformers using Dynamic Resistance Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erbrink, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    High-voltage transformers have tap changers to regulate the voltage in the high-voltage network when the load changes. Those tap changers are subject to different degradation mechanisms and need regular maintenance. Various defects, like contact degradation, often remain undetected and the

  2. 30 CFR 75.811 - High-voltage underground equipment; grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voltage equipment supplying power to such equipment receiving power from resistance grounded systems shall... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage underground equipment; grounding... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage...

  3. Optimal Constant DC Link Voltage Operation of aWave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Leijon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a simple and reliable damping strategy for wave powerfarm operation of small-scale point-absorber converters. The strategy is based on passiverectification onto a constant DC-link, making it very suitable for grid integration of the farm.A complete model of the system has been developed in Matlab Simulink, and uses real sitedata as input. The optimal constant DC-voltage is evaluated as a function of the significantwave height and energy period of the waves. The total energy output of the WEC is derivedfor one year of experimental site data. The energy output is compared for two cases, onewhere the optimal DC-voltage is determined and held constant at half-hour basis throughoutthe year, and one where a selected value of the DC-voltage is kept constant throughout theyear regardless of sea state.

  4. The Design of Nanosecond Fast-switch Pulsed High Voltage Power Supply Based on Solid-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenguang; Chen Wei; Rao Yihua

    2009-01-01

    The high voltage pulsed power supply is applied in the experiment of the nuclear science widely. It main consist of DC high-voltage power supply (HVPS) and pulse modulator. The high-frequency series-resonant inverter technology and IGBT series technology are used to design the HVPS and the modulator, respectively. The main circuit, control circuit, high voltage transformer and solid-state switch are illuminated in the paper. The apparatus can operate at a maximum output voltage of 6 kilovolt, which can be modulated single pulse and also be modulated by series pulse. A prototype is fabricated and tested, experimental results show that the pulsed power supply is well-designed and rising edge time to meet the nsclass; it can achieve the requirement of rapid modulation. (authors)

  5. A 32 kb 9T near-threshold SRAM with enhanced read ability at ultra-low voltage operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony Tae-Hyoung; Lee, Zhao Chuan; Do, Anh Tuan

    2018-01-01

    Ultra-low voltage SRAMs are highly sought-after in energy-limited systems such as battery-powered and self-harvested SoCs. However, ultra-low voltage operation diminishes SRAM read bitline (RBL) sensing margin significantly. This paper tackles this issue by presenting a novel 9T cell with data-independent RBL leakage in combination with an RBL boosting technique for enhancing the sensing margin. The proposed technique automatically tracks process, temperature and voltage (PVT) variations for robust sensing margin enhancement. A test chip fabricated in 65 nm CMOS technology shows that the proposed scheme significantly enlarges the sensing margin compared to the conventional bitline sensing scheme. It also achieves the minimum operating voltage of 0.18 V and the minimum energy consumption of 0.92 J/access at 0.4 V. He received 2016 International Low Power Design Contest Award from ISLPED, a best paper award at 2014 and 2011 ISOCC, 2008 AMD/CICC Student Scholarship Award, 2008 Departmental Research Fellowship from Univ. of Minnesota, 2008 DAC/ISSCC Student Design Contest Award, 2008, 2001, and 1999 Samsung Humantec Thesis Award and, 2005 ETRI Journal Paper of the Year Award. He is an author/co-author of +100 journal and conference papers and has 17 US and Korean patents registered. His current research interests include low power and high performance digital, mixed- mode, and memory circuit design, ultra-low voltage circuits and systems design, variation and aging tolerant circuits and systems, and circuit techniques for 3D ICs. He serves as an associate editor of IEEE Transactions on VLSI Systems. He is an IEEE senior member and the Chair of IEEE Solid-State Circuits Society Singapore Chapter. He has served numerous conferences as a committee member.

  6. Design and power management of an offshore medium voltage DC microgrid realized through high voltage power electronics technologies and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Brandon Michael

    The growth in the electric power industry's portfolio of Direct Current (DC) based generation and loads have captured the attention of many leading research institutions. Opportunities for using DC based systems have been explored in electric ship design and have been a proven, reliable solution for transmitting bulk power onshore and offshore. To integrate many of the renewable resources into our existing AC grid, a number of power conversions through power electronics are required to condition the equipment for direct connection. Within the power conversion stages, there is always a requirement to convert to or from DC. The AC microgrid is a conceptual solution proposed for integrating various types of renewable generation resources. The fundamental microgrid requirements include the capability of operating in islanding mode and/or grid connected modes. The technical challenges associated with microgrids include (1) operation modes and transitions that comply with IEEE1547 without extensive custom engineering and (2) control architecture and communication. The Medium Voltage DC (MVDC) architecture, explored by the University of Pittsburgh, can be visualized as a special type of DC microgrid. This dissertation is multi-faceted, focused on many design aspects of an offshore DC microgrid. The focal points of the discussion are focused on optimized high power, high frequency magnetic material performance in electric machines, transformers, and DC/DC power converters---all components found within offshore, power system architectures. A new controller design based upon model reference control is proposed and shown to stabilize the electric motor drives (modeled as constant power loads), which serve as the largest power consuming entities in the microgrid. The design and simulation of a state-of-the-art multilevel converter for High Voltage DC (HVDC) is discussed and a component sensitivity analysis on fault current peaks is explored. A power management routine is

  7. Cable Insulation Breakdowns in the Modulator with a Switch Mode High Voltage Power Supply

    CERN Document Server

    Cours, A

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source modulators are PFN-type pulsers with 40 kV switch mode charging power supplies (PSs). The PS and the PFN are connected to each other by 18 feet of high-voltage (HV) cable. Another HV cable connects two separate parts of the PFN. The cables are standard 75 kV x-ray cables. All four cable connectors were designed by the PS manufacturer. Both cables were operating at the same voltage level (about 35 kV). The PS’s output connector has never failed during five years of operation. One of the other three connectors failed approximately five times more often than the others. In order to resolve the failure problem, a transient analysis was performed for all connectors. It was found that transient voltage in the connector that failed most often was subjected to more high-frequency, high-amplitude AC components than the other three connectors. It was thought that these components caused partial discharge in the connector insulation and led to the insulation breakdown. Modification o...

  8. Communication Characteristics of Faulted Overhead High Voltage Power Lines at Low Radio Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Suljanović

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives a model of high-voltage overhead power line under fault conditions at low radio frequencies. The derived model is essential for design of communication systems to reliably transfer information over high voltage power lines. In addition, the model can also benefit advanced systems for power-line fault detection and classification exploiting the phenomenon of changed conditions on faulted power line, resulting in change of low radio frequency signal propagation. The methodology used in the paper is based on the multiconductor system analysis and propagation of electromagnetic waves over the power lines. The model for the high voltage power line under normal operation is validated using actual measurements obtained on 400 kV power line. The proposed model of faulted power lines extends the validated power-line model under normal operation. Simulation results are provided for typical power line faults and typical fault locations. Results clearly indicate sensitivity of power-line frequency response on different fault types.

  9. Voltage spike detection in high field superconducting accelerator magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orris, D.F.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Makulski, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    A measurement system for the detection of small magnetic flux changes in superconducting magnets, which are due to either mechanical motion of the conductor or flux jump, has been developed at Fermilab. These flux changes are detected as small amplitude, short duration voltage spikes, which are {approx}15mV in magnitude and lasts for {approx}30 {micro}sec. The detection system combines an analog circuit for the signal conditioning of two coil segments and a fast data acquisition system for digitizing the results, performing threshold detection, and storing the resultant data. The design of the spike detection system along with the modeling results and noise analysis will be presented. Data from tests of high field Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets at currents up to {approx}20KA will also be shown.

  10. Voltage spike detection in high field superconducting accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orris, D.F.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Makulski, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.

    2004-01-01

    A measurement system for the detection of small magnetic flux changes in superconducting magnets, which are due to either mechanical motion of the conductor or flux jump, has been developed at Fermilab. These flux changes are detected as small amplitude, short duration voltage spikes, which are ∼15mV in magnitude and lasts for ∼30(micro)sec. The detection system combines an analog circuit for the signal conditioning of two coil segments and a fast data acquisition system for digitizing the results, performing threshold detection, and storing the resultant data. The design of the spike detection system along with the modeling results and noise analysis will be presented. Data from tests of high field Nb3Sn magnets at currents up to ∼20KA will also be shown

  11. Local high voltage radiotherapy with curative intent for prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, G.H.; Kurth, K.H.; Hohenfellner, R.

    1979-01-01

    In a 10-year interval 179 patients with prostatic carcinoma were treated by cobalt-60 teletherapy (7600 R). A selected group of 47 patients with localized disease and irradiated with curative intent had serial prostatic biopsies and were analized after a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Biopsies of half of the patients rendered definitively negative, on an average 14 months after radiotherapy. 8 patients with initial negative biopsy changed to positive secondarily. In one third of the patients histological conversion was missed, considered as radiation persister. Persistent carcinoma were of predominant low grade. 5 patients developed distant metastases 30 months after irradiation on an average. These patients had persistent positive tissue studies. Over all cumulative 5-years survival was 89%. In patients with prostatic carcinoma and local high voltage radiotherapy with curative intent (stage A through C) serial prostatic biopsies to document therapy effect seen mandatory. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 BRE [de

  12. High Voltage Installation of PS Linac 1 Preinjector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The high-voltage installation of the linac 1 preinjector in its house-sized Faraday cage. Originally driven by a 520 kV Cockcroft-Walton generator, at the time of this picture the HV came from a 520 kV SAMES generator. The column in the front carries a capacitor. The cubicle in the right background is the electronics platform (see 7403120). The round structure at left houses the ion source, from where the protons (and sometimes other ions), electrostatically accelerated to 520 keV, enter the Alvarez structure of linac 1, to be accelerated to 50 MeV. Jean-Luc Vallet is busy with servicing the installation. See also 7403064X, 7403066X.

  13. A complementary organic inverter of porphyrazine thin films: low-voltage operation using ionic liquid gate dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takuya; Miyoshi, Yasuhito; Matsushita, Michio M; Awaga, Kunio

    2011-05-28

    We studied a complementary organic inverter consisting of a p-type semiconductor, metal-free phthalocyanine (H(2)Pc), and an n-type semiconductor, tetrakis(thiadiazole)porphyrazine (H(2)TTDPz), operated through the ionic-liquid gate dielectrics of N,N-diethyl-N-methyl(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (DEME-TFSI). This organic inverter exhibits high performance with a very low operation voltage below 1.0 V and a dynamic response up to 20 Hz. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  14. Repetitive plasma opening switch for powerful high-voltage pulse generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, G.I.; Zakatov, L.P.; Nitishinskii, M.S.; Ushakov, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Results are presented of experimental studies of plasma opening switches that serve to sharpen the pulses of inductive microsecond high-voltage pulse generators. It is demonstrated that repetitive plasma opening switches can be used to create super-powerful generators operating in a quasi-continuous regime. An erosion switching mechanism and the problem of magnetic insulation in repetitive switches are considered. Achieving super-high peak power in plasma switches makes it possible to develop new types of high-power generators of electron beams and X radiation. Possible implementations and the efficiency of these generators are discussed

  15. The Architecture Design of Detection and Calibration System for High-voltage Electrical Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Lin, Y.; Yang, Y.; Gu, Ch; Yang, F.; Zou, L. D.

    2018-01-01

    With the construction of Material Quality Inspection Center of Shandong electric power company, Electric Power Research Institute takes on more jobs on quality analysis and laboratory calibration for high-voltage electrical equipment, and informationization construction becomes urgent. In the paper we design a consolidated system, which implements the electronic management and online automation process for material sampling, test apparatus detection and field test. In the three jobs we use QR code scanning, online Word editing and electronic signature. These techniques simplify the complex process of warehouse management and testing report transferring, and largely reduce the manual procedure. The construction of the standardized detection information platform realizes the integrated management of high-voltage electrical equipment from their networking, running to periodic detection. According to system operation evaluation, the speed of transferring report is doubled, and querying data is also easier and faster.

  16. High voltage power supplies for ITER RF heating and current drive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, T.; Arambhadiya, B.; Beaumont, B.; Baruah, U.K.; Bonicelli, T.; Darbos, C.; Purohit, D.; Decamps, H.; Albajar, F.; Gandini, F.; Henderson, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lamalle, P.U.; Omori, T.; Parmar, D.; Patel, A.; Rathi, D.; Singh, N.P.

    2011-01-01

    The RF heating and current drive (H and CD) systems to be installed for the ITER fusion machine are the electron cyclotron (EC), ion cyclotron (IC) and, although not in the first phase of the project, lower hybrid (LH). These systems require high voltage, high current power supplies (HVPS) in CW operation. These HVPS should deliver around 50 MW electrical power to each of the RF H and CD systems with stringent requirements in terms of accuracy, voltage ripple, response time, turn off time and fault energy. The PSM (Pulse Step Modulation) technology has demonstrated over the past 20 years its ability to fulfill these requirements in many industrial facilities and other fusion reactors and has therefore been chosen as reference design for the IC and EC HVPS systems. This paper describes the technical specifications, including interfaces, the resulting constraints on the design, the conceptual design proposed for ITER EC and IC HVPS systems and the current status.

  17. High Voltage Performance of the Beam Screen of the LHC Injection Kicker Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, MJ; Bregliozzi, G; Calatroni, S; Costa Pinto, P; Day, H; Ducimetière, L; Kramer, T; Namora, V; Mertens, V; Taborelli, M

    2014-01-01

    The LHC injection kicker magnets include beam screens to shield the ferrite yokes against wakefields resulting from the high intensity beam. The screening is provided by conductors lodged in the inner wall of a ceramic support tube. The design of the beam screen has been upgraded to overcome limitations and permit LHC operation with increasingly higher bunch intensity and short bunch lengths: the new design also significantly reduces the electric field associated with the screen conductors, decreasing the probability of electrical breakdown. The high voltage conditioning process for the upgraded kicker magnets is presented and discussed. In addition a test setup has been utilized to study flashover, on the inner wall of the ceramic tube, as a function of both applied voltage and vacuum pressure: results from the test setup are presented.

  18. Potentially damaging failure modes of high- and medium-voltage electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoy, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    The high- and medium-voltage electrical equipment failures of both nuclear and nonnuclear electric utilities have been reviewed for possible disruptive failure modes that would be of special concern in a nuclear power plant. The resulting emphasis was on the electrical faults of transformers, switchgear (circuit breakers), lightning (surge) arrestors, high-voltage cabling and buswork, control boards, and other electrical equipment that, through failure, can be the initiating event that may expand the original fault to nearby or associated equipment. Many failures of such equipment were found and documented, although the failure rate of electrical equipment in utilities is historically quite low. Nuclear plants record too few failures to be statistically valid, but failures that have been recorded show that good design usually restricts the failure to a single piece of equipment. Conclusions and recommendations pertaining to the design, maintenance, and operation of the affected electrical equipment are presented

  19. Threshold-voltage modulated phase change heterojunction for application of high density memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Baihan; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Miao, Xiangshui

    2015-01-01

    Phase change random access memory is one of the most important candidates for the next generation non-volatile memory technology. However, the ability to reduce its memory size is compromised by the fundamental limitations inherent in the CMOS technology. While 0T1R configuration without any additional access transistor shows great advantages in improving the storage density, the leakage current and small operation window limit its application in large-scale arrays. In this work, phase change heterojunction based on GeTe and n-Si is fabricated to address those problems. The relationship between threshold voltage and doping concentration is investigated, and energy band diagrams and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are provided to explain the results. The threshold voltage is modulated to provide a large operational window based on this relationship. The switching performance of the heterojunction is also tested, showing a good reverse characteristic, which could effectively decrease the leakage current. Furthermore, a reliable read-write-erase function is achieved during the tests. Phase change heterojunction is proposed for high-density memory, showing some notable advantages, such as modulated threshold voltage, large operational window, and low leakage current

  20. Threshold-voltage modulated phase change heterojunction for application of high density memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baihan; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Miao, Xiangshui

    2015-09-01

    Phase change random access memory is one of the most important candidates for the next generation non-volatile memory technology. However, the ability to reduce its memory size is compromised by the fundamental limitations inherent in the CMOS technology. While 0T1R configuration without any additional access transistor shows great advantages in improving the storage density, the leakage current and small operation window limit its application in large-scale arrays. In this work, phase change heterojunction based on GeTe and n-Si is fabricated to address those problems. The relationship between threshold voltage and doping concentration is investigated, and energy band diagrams and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are provided to explain the results. The threshold voltage is modulated to provide a large operational window based on this relationship. The switching performance of the heterojunction is also tested, showing a good reverse characteristic, which could effectively decrease the leakage current. Furthermore, a reliable read-write-erase function is achieved during the tests. Phase change heterojunction is proposed for high-density memory, showing some notable advantages, such as modulated threshold voltage, large operational window, and low leakage current.

  1. Concept design of the high voltage transmission system for the collider tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, L.S.

    1992-03-01

    In order to provide electrical service to the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) 54-mile-circumference collider of 125 MVA at 69 kV or 155 MVA at 138 kV of distributed power, it must be demonstrated that the concept design for a high-voltage transmission system can meet the distribution requirements of the collider electrical system with its cryogenic system's large motor loads and its pulsed power technical systems. It is a practical design, safe for operating personnel and cost-effective. The normal high-voltage transmission techniques of overhead and underground around the 54-mile collider tunnel could not be applied because of technical and physical constraints, or was environmentally unacceptable. The approach taken to solve these problems is the installation of 69-kV or 138-kV exposed solid dielectric transmission cable inside the collider tunnel with the superconducting magnets, cryogenic piping, electrical medium, and low-voltage distribution systems, and electronic/instrumentation wiring systems. This mixed-use approach has never been attempted in a collider tunnel. Research into all aspects of the engineering and installation problems and consultation with transmission cable manufacturers, electrical utilities, and European entities with similar installations -- such as the Channel Tunnel -- demonstrate that the concept design is feasible and practical. This paper presents a history of the evolution of the concept design. Design studies are underway to determine the system configuration and voltages. Included in this report are tunnel transmission cable system considerations and evaluation of solid dielectric high-voltage cable design

  2. Concept design of the high-voltage transmission system for the collider tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide electrical service to the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) 54-mile-circumference collider of 125 MVA at 69 kV or 155 MVA at 138 kV of distributed power, it must be demonstrated that the concept design for a high-voltage transmission system can meet the distribution requirements of the collider electrical system with its cryogenic system's large motor loads and its pulsed power technical systems. It is a practical design, safe for operating personnel and cost-effective. The normal high-voltage transmission techniques of overhead and underground around the 54-mile collider tunnel could not be applied because of technical and physical constraints, or was environmentally unacceptable. The approach taken to solve these problems is the installation of 69-kV or 138-kV exposed solid dielectric transmission cable inside the collider tunnel with the superconducting magnets, cryogenic piping, electrical medium, and low-voltage distribution systems, and electronic/instrumentation wiring systems. This mixed-use approach has never been attempted in a collider tunnel. Research into all aspects of the engineering and installation problems and consultation with transmission cable manufacturers, electrical utilities, and European entities with similar installations-such as the Channel Tunnel-demonstrate that the concept design is feasible and practical. This paper presents a history of the evolution of the concept design. Design studies are underway to determine the system configuration and voltages. Included in this report are tunnel transmission cable system considerations and evaluation of solid dielectric high-voltage cable design

  3. Aqueous based asymmetrical-bipolar electrochemical capacitor with a 2.4 V operating voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoran; Lian, Keryn

    2018-02-01

    A novel asymmetrical-bipolar electrochemical capacitor system leveraging the contributions of a Zn-CNT asymmetrical electrode and a KOH-H2SO4 dual-pH electrolyte was developed. The positive and negative electrodes operated in electrolytes with different pH, exploiting the maximum potential of both electrodes, which led to a cell voltage of 2.4 V. The potential tracking of both electrodes revealed that the Zn negative electrode could maintain a potential at -1.2 V, while the CNT positive electrode can be charged to +1.2 V without significant irreversible reactions. A bipolar ion exchange membrane has effectively separated the acid and alkaline from neutralization, which resulted in stable performance of the device with capacitance retention of 94% and coulombic efficiency of 99% over 10,000 cycles. This asymmetrical-bipolar design overcomes the thermodynamic limit of water decomposition, opening a new avenue towards high energy and high power density aqueous-based ECs.

  4. Characterization of a pulsed mode high voltage power supply for nuclear detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazali, A B; Ahmad, T S; Abdullah, N A

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the characterization of a pulsed mode high voltage power supply (HVPS) using LT1073 chip. The pulsed modulated signal generated from this chip is amplified using a step-up ferrite core transformer of 1:20 turn ratio and then further multiplied and converted into DC high voltage output using a diode-capacitor arrangement. The circuit is powered by a 9V alkaline battery but regulated at 5V supply. It was found that the output for this setup is 520V, 87 μA with 10% load regulation. This output is suitable to operate a pancake-type GM detector, typically model LND 7317 where the plateau is from 475V to 675V. It was also found that when a β-source with intensity of 120 cps is used, the power consumption of the circuit is 5 V, 10.1 mA only. When the battery was left 'on' for 40 hours continuously, the battery's voltage has dropped to 6.9V, meaning that the 5V supply as well as 520V output is still maintained. It is noted that the minimum output voltage of 475V has reached when the regulated supply has reduced to 4.6V and consequently the 9V battery dropped to 6.5V, and this had happened after approximately 3 days of continuous operation. The power efficiency for this circuitry was found to be 89.5%. This result has far better in performance since the commercial portable equipment of this type has normally specified that not less than 8 hours continuous operation only. On the circuit design for this power supply, it was found that the enveloped frequency is 133 Hz with approximately 50% duty cycle. The modulated frequency during 'on' state was found to be 256 KHz in which the majority of power consumption is required.

  5. Distributed Low Voltage Ride-Through Operation of Power Converters in Grid-Connected Microgrids under Voltage Sags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    it can make the MG a contributor in smooth ride through the faults. In this paper, a reactive power support strategy using droop controlled converters is proposed to aid MG riding through three phase symmetrical voltage sags. In such a case, the MGs should inject reactive power to the grid to boost...... the voltage in all phases at AC common bus. However, since the line admittances from each converter to point of common coupling (PCC) are not identical, the injected reactive power may not be equally shared. In order to achieve low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability along with a good power sharing...

  6. ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSIENT PROCESSES DURING SUPPLY VOLTAGE CHANGING IN THE SYSTEM OF POLYMER INSULATION COVERING OF THE CURRENT-CARRYING CORE OF ULTRA HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Zolotaryov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article is devoted to the analysis of the electromechanical transient processes in a system of three frequency-controlled electric drives based on asynchronous motors that control current-carrying core motion, as well as to the study of the effect of such processes on the modes applying three-layer polymer insulation to the current-carrying core. Technique. The study was conducted based on the concepts of electromechanics, electromagnetic field theory, mathematical physics, mathematical modeling. Results. A mathematical model has been developed to analyze transients in an electromechanical system consisting of three frequency-controlled electric drives providing current-carrying core motion of ultra-high voltage cables in an inclined extrusion line. The coordination of the electromechanical parameters of the system drives has been carried out and the permissible changes in the supply voltage at the limiting mass while moving current-carrying core of ultra-high voltage cables with applied polymer insulation have been estimated. Scientific novelty. For the first time it is determined that with the limiting mass of the current-carrying core, the electromechanical system allows to stabilize the current-carrying core speed with the required accuracy at short-term decreases in the supply voltage by no more than 27 % of its amplitude value. It is also shown that this system is resistant to short-term increases in voltage by 32 % for 0.2 s. Practical significance. Using the developed model, it is possible to calculate the change in the configuration and speed of the slack current-carrying core when applying polymer insulation, depending on the specific mass of the current-carrying core per unit length, its tension at the bottom, the torque of the traction motor and the supply voltage to achieve stable operation of the system and accurate working of the set parameters.

  7. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  8. First high-voltage measurements using Ca{sup +} ions at the ALIVE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    König, K., E-mail: kkoenig@ikp.tu-darmstadt.de [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Kernphysik (Germany); Geppert, Ch. [Universität Mainz, Institut für Kernchemie (Germany); Krämer, J.; Maaß, B. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Kernphysik (Germany); Otten, E. W. [Universität Mainz, Institut für Physik (Germany); Ratajczyk, T.; Nörtershäuser, W. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Kernphysik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Many physics experiments depend on accurate high-voltage measurements to determine for example the exact retardation potential of an electron spectrometer as in the KATRIN experiment or the acceleration voltage of the ions at ISOL facilities. Until now only precision high-voltage dividers can be used to measure voltages up to 65 kV with an accuracy of 1 ppm. However, these dividers need frequent calibration and cross-checking and the direct traceability is not given. In this article we will describe the status of an experiment which aims to measure high voltages using collinear laser spectroscopy and which has the potential to provide a high-voltage standard and hence, a calibration source for precision high-voltage dividers on the 1 ppm level.

  9. Development of high voltage PEEK wire with radiation-resistance and cryogenic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Hirata, T.; Araki, S.; Ohara, H.; Nishimura, H.

    1989-01-01

    High voltage electric wires insulated with highly-refined polyetheretherketone (PEEK) have been developed for the wiring in fusion reactors, where the wire is required to withstand high voltage under high vacuum up to 10 -5 Torr. The PEEK wires having the advantages of PEEK resin including superior radiation resistance and cryogenic characteristics are usable over a wide range of temperature and in radiation fields. The results of withstand voltage tests proved that the PEEK wires exceeding 0.8 mm in insulation thickness withstand such specified high voltage conditions as 24 kV for 1 minutes by 10 times and 6.6 kV for 110 hours. The results also revealed that the withstand voltage is improved by providing a jacket layer over the insulation and decreased by periodical voltage charge, by bending of the specimen and by water in the conductor. This paper deal with the withstand voltage test results under varied conditions of the PEEK wires. (author)

  10. Adaptive Supply Voltage Management for Low Power Logic Circuitry Operating at Subthreshold

    OpenAIRE

    Rehan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    With the rise in demand of portable hand held devices and with the rise in application of wireless sensor networks and RFID reduction of total power consumption has become a necessity. To save power we operate the logic circuitry of our devices at sub-threshold. In sub-threshold the drain current is exponentially dependent on the threshold voltage hence the threshold variation causes profound variation of ION and IOFF the ratio of which affect the speed of a circuit drastically. S...

  11. Advances in high voltage insulation and arc interruption in SF6 and vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Maller, V N

    1982-01-01

    Advances in High Voltage Insulation and Arc Interruption in SF6 and Vacuum deals with high voltage breakdown and arc extinction in sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and high vacuum, with special emphasis on the application of these insulating media in high voltage power apparatus and devices. The design and developmental aspects of various high voltage power apparatus using SF6 and high vacuum are highlighted. This book is comprised of eight chapters and opens with a discussion on electrical discharges in SF6 and high vacuum, along with the properties and handling of SF6 gas. The following chapters fo

  12. High voltage series resonant inverter ion engine screen supply. [SCR series resonant inverter for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Shank, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A high-voltage, high-power LC series resonant inverter using SCRs has been developed for an Ion Engine Power Processor. The inverter operates within 200-400Vdc with a maximum output power of 2.5kW. The inverter control logic, the screen supply electrical and mechanical characteristics, the efficiency and losses in power components, regulation on the dual feedback principle, the SCR waveforms and the component weight are analyzed. Efficiency of 90.5% and weight density of 4.1kg/kW are obtained.

  13. A low-voltage sense amplifier with two-stage operational amplifier clamping for flash memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiarong

    2017-04-01

    A low-voltage sense amplifier with reference current generator utilizing two-stage operational amplifier clamp structure for flash memory is presented in this paper, capable of operating with minimum supply voltage at 1 V. A new reference current generation circuit composed of a reference cell and a two-stage operational amplifier clamping the drain pole of the reference cell is used to generate the reference current, which avoids the threshold limitation caused by current mirror transistor in the traditional sense amplifier. A novel reference voltage generation circuit using dummy bit-line structure without pull-down current is also adopted, which not only improves the sense window enhancing read precision but also saves power consumption. The sense amplifier was implemented in a flash realized in 90 nm flash technology. Experimental results show the access time is 14.7 ns with power supply of 1.2 V and slow corner at 125 °C. Project supported by the National Natural Science Fundation of China (No. 61376028).

  14. High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soer, Wouter [Lumileds LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    LED luminaires have seen dramatic changes in cost breakdown over the past few years. The LED component cost, which until recently was the dominant portion of luminaire cost, has fallen to a level of the same order as the other luminaire components, such as the driver, housing, optics etc. With the current state of the technology, further luminaire performance improvement and cost reduction is realized most effectively by optimization of the whole system, rather than a single component. This project focuses on improving the integration between LEDs and drivers. Lumileds has developed a light engine platform based on low-cost high-power LEDs and driver topologies optimized for integration with these LEDs on a single substrate. The integration of driver and LEDs enables an estimated luminaire cost reduction of about 25% for targeted applications, mostly due to significant reductions in driver and housing cost. The high-power LEDs are based on Lumileds’ patterned sapphire substrate flip-chip (PSS-FC) technology, affording reduced die fabrication and packaging cost compared to existing technology. Two general versions of PSS-FC die were developed in order to create the desired voltage and flux increments for driver integration: (i) small single-junction die (0.5 mm2), optimal for distributed lighting applications, and (ii) larger multi-junction die (2 mm2 and 4 mm2) for high-power directional applications. Two driver topologies were developed: a tapped linear driver topology and a single-stage switch-mode topology, taking advantage of the flexible voltage configurations of the new PSS-FC die and the simplification opportunities enabled by integration of LEDs and driver on the same board. A prototype light engine was developed for an outdoor “core module” application based on the multi-junction PSS-FC die and the single-stage switch-mode driver. The light engine meets the project efficacy target of 128 lm/W at a luminous flux

  15. Operational Modelling of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick Lovera; Franck Blein; Julien Vulliet

    2006-01-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) work on two opposite processes. The basic equations (Nernst equation, corrected by a term of over-voltage) are thus very similar, only a few signs are different. An operational model, based on measurable quantities, was finalized for HTE process, and adapted to SOFCs. The model is analytical, which requires some complementary assumptions (proportionality of over-tensions to the current density, linearization of the logarithmic term in Nernst equation). It allows determining hydrogen production by HTE using a limited number of parameters. At a given temperature, only one macroscopic parameter, related to over-voltages, is needed for adjusting the model to the experimental results (SOFC), in a wide range of hydrogen flow-rates. For a given cell, this parameter follows an Arrhenius law with a satisfactory precision. The prevision in HTE process is compared to the available experimental results. (authors)

  16. The Investigation of Field Plate Design in 500 V High Voltage NLDMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a 500 V high voltage NLDMOS with breakdown voltage (VBD improved by field plate technology. Effect of metal field plate (MFP and polysilicon field plate (PFP on breakdown voltage improvement of high voltage NLDMOS is studied. The coeffect of MFP and PFP on drain side has also been investigated. A 500 V NLDMOS is demonstrated with a 37 μm drift length and optimized MFP and PFP design. Finally the breakdown voltage 590 V and excellent on-resistance performance (Rsp = 7.88 ohm * mm2 are achieved.

  17. A high-DC-voltage GaAs photoemission gun: Transverse emittance and momentum spread measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engwall, D.; Bohn, C.; Cardman, L.

    1997-01-01

    We have built a high-DC-voltage photoemission gun and a diagnostic beamline permitting us to measure rms transverse emittance (ε x ) and rms momentum spread (δ) of short-duration electron pulses produced by illuminating the cathode with light from a mode-locked, frequency-doubled Nd:YLF laser. The electron gun is a GaAs photocathode source designed to operate at 500kV. We have measured ε x and δ for conditions ranging from emittance-dominated to space-charge-dominated. We report these measurements as functions of microbunch charge for different beam radii, pulse lengths, and voltages/field gradients at the cathode, and compare them with PARMELA calculations

  18. Operation voltage behavior of organic light emitting diodes with polymeric buffer layers doped by weak electron acceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hyeon Soo; Cho, Sang Hee [Department of Information Display and Advanced Display Research Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jaewon; Park, Yongsup [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Min Chul, E-mail: mcsuh@khu.ac.kr [Department of Information Display and Advanced Display Research Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    We present polymeric buffer materials based on poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-co-(1,4-phenylene -((4-sec-butylphenyl)imino)-1,4-phenylene)] (TFB) for highly efficient solution processed organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Doped TFB with 9,10-dicyanoanthracene, a weak electron acceptor results in significant improvement of current flow and driving voltage. Maximum current- and power-efficiency value of 12.6 cd/A and 18.1 lm/W are demonstrated from phosphorescent red OLEDs with this doped polymeric anode buffer system. - Highlights: • Polymeric buffer materials for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). • Method to control hole conductivity of polymeric buffer layer in OLED device. • Enhanced current density of buffer layers upon 9,10-dicyanoanthracene (DCA) doping. • Comparison of OLED devices having polymeric buffer layer with or without DCA. • Effect on operating voltage by doping DCA in the buffer layer.

  19. High Voltage Hybrid Electric Propulsion - Multilayered Functional Insulation System (MFIS) NASA-GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizcano, M.

    2017-01-01

    High power transmission cables pose a key challenge in future Hybrid Electric Propulsion Aircraft. The challenge arises in developing safe transmission lines that can withstand the unique environment found in aircraft while providing megawatts of power. High voltage AC, variable frequency cables do not currently exist and present particular electrical insulation challenges since electrical arcing and high heating are more prevalent at higher voltages and frequencies. Identifying and developing materials that maintain their dielectric properties at high voltage and frequencies is crucial.

  20. Characteristics and Breakdown Behaviors of Polysilicon Resistors for High Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yu Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the power integrated circuit technology, polysilicon resistors have been widely used not only in traditional CMOS circuits, but also in the high voltage applications. However, there have been few detailed reports about the polysilicon resistors’ characteristics, like voltage and temperature coefficients and breakdown behaviors which are critical parameters of high voltage applications. In this study, we experimentally find that the resistance of the polysilicon resistor with a relatively low doping concentration shows negative voltage and temperature coefficients, while that of the polysilicon resistor with a high doping concentration has positive voltage and temperature coefficients. Moreover, from the experimental results of breakdown voltages of the polysilicon resistors, it could be deduced that the breakdown of polysilicon resistors is thermally rather than electrically induced. We also proposed to add an N-type well underneath the oxide to increase the breakdown voltage in the vertical direction when the substrate is P-type doped.

  1. Integration Testing of a Modular Discharge Supply for NASA's High Voltage Hall Accelerator Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Kamhawi, hani; Drummond, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    NASA s In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is developing a high performance Hall thruster that can fulfill the needs of future Discovery-class missions. The result of this effort is the High Voltage Hall Accelerator thruster that can operate over a power range from 0.3 to 3.5 kW and a specific impulse from 1,000 to 2,800 sec, and process 300 kg of xenon propellant. Simultaneously, a 4.0 kW discharge power supply comprised of two parallel modules was developed. These power modules use an innovative three-phase resonant topology that can efficiently supply full power to the thruster at an output voltage range of 200 to 700 V at an input voltage range of 80 to 160 V. Efficiencies as high as 95.9 percent were measured during an integration test with the NASA103M.XL thruster. The accuracy of the master/slave current sharing circuit and various thruster ignition techniques were evaluated.

  2. Digital Control of a High Voltage (2.5 kV) Bidirectional Flyback DC-DC Converter for Driving a Capacitive Incremental Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Maksimovic, Dragan; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a digital control technique to achieve valley switching in a bidirectional flyback converter used to drive a dielectric electro-active polymer based capacitive incremental actuator. The paper also provides the design of a low input voltage (24 V) and variable high output voltage...... on the output high-voltage (HV) side. Experimental results verifying the bidirectional operation of a high voltage flyback converter are presented, using a 3 kV polypropylene film capacitor as the load. The energy loss distributions of the converter when 4 kV and 4.5 kV HV MOSFETs are used on HV side...

  3. Investigation of the Effects of Facility Background Pressure on the Performance and Voltage-Current Characteristics of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Spektor, Rostislav

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In-Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the facility background pressure on the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster performance and voltage-current characteristics. This present study evaluated the HiVHAc thruster performance in the lowest attainable background pressure condition at NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 to best simulate space-like conditions. Additional tests were performed at selected thruster operating conditions to investigate and elucidate the underlying physics that change during thruster operation at elevated facility background pressure. Tests were performed at background pressure conditions that are three and ten times higher than the lowest realized background pressure. Results indicated that the thruster discharge specific impulse and efficiency increased with elevated facility background pressure. The voltage-current profiles indicated a narrower stable operating region with increased background pressure. Experimental observations of the thruster operation indicated that increasing the facility background pressure shifted the ionization and acceleration zones upstream towards the thruster's anode. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned at background pressure conditions that are expected to be two to three times lower than what was achieved during this test campaign. These tests will not only assess the impact of reduced facility background pressure on thruster performance, voltage-current characteristics, and plume properties; but will also attempt to quantify the magnitude of the ionization and acceleration zones upstream shifting as a function of increased background pressure.

  4. Application of high voltage electric field (HVEF) drying technology in potato chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yaxiang; Shi, Hua; Yang, Yaxin

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the drying efficiency and qualities of vegetable by high voltage electric field (HVEF), potato chips as a representative of vegetable was dried using a high voltage electric drying systems at 20°C. The shrinkage rate, water absorption and rehydration ratio of dried potato chips were measured. The results indicated that the drying rate of potato chips was significantly improved in the high voltage electric drying systems. The shrinkage rate of potato chips dried by high voltage electric field was 1.1% lower than that by oven drying method. And the rehydration rate of high voltage electric field was 24.6% higher than that by oven drying method. High voltage electric field drying is very advantageous and can be used as a substitute for traditional drying method.

  5. BEHAVIOUR OF BACKFILL MATERIALS FOR ELECTRICAL GROUNDING SYSTEMS UNDER HIGH VOLTAGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. LIM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Backfill materials like Bentonite and cement are effective in lowering grounding resistance of electrodes for a considerable period. During lightning, switching impulses and earth fault occurrences in medium and high voltage networks, the grounding system needs to handle extremely high currents either for a short duration or prolonged period respectively. This paper investigates the behaviour of bentonite, cement and sand under impulse and alternating high voltage (50Hz conditions. Fulguritic-formation was observed in all materials under alternating high voltage. The findings reveal that performance of grounding systems under high voltage conditions may significantly change from the outcomes anticipated at design stage.

  6. High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepler, Keith [Farasis Energy Inc; Slater, Michael [Farasis Energy Inc

    2018-03-14

    This Li-ion cell technology development project had three objectives: to develop advanced electrode materials and cell components to enable stable high-voltage operation; to design and demonstrate a Li-ion cell using these materials that meets the PHEV40 performance targets; and to design and demonstrate a Li-ion cell using these materials that meets the EV performance targets. The major challenge to creating stable high energy cells with long cycle life is system integration. Although materials that can give high energy cells are known, stabilizing them towards long-term cycling in the presence of other novel cell components is a major challenge. The major technical barriers addressed by this work include low cathode specific energy, poor electrolyte stability during high voltage operation, and insufficient capacity retention during deep discharge for Si-containing anodes. Through the course of this project, Farasis was able to improve capacity retention of NCM materials for 4.4+ V operation, through both surface treatment and bulk-doping approaches. Other material advances include increased rate capability and of HE-NCM materials through novel synthesis approach, doubling the relative capacity at 1C over materials synthesized using standard methods. Silicon active materials proved challenging throughout the project and ultimately were the limiting factor in the energy density vs. cycle life trade off. By avoiding silicon anodes for the lower energy PHEV design, we manufactured cells with intermediate energy density and long cycle life under high voltage operation for PHEV applications. Cells with high energy density for EV applications were manufactured targeting a 300 Wh/kg design and were able to achieve > 200 cycles.

  7. Experimental and theoretical studies of a high temperature cesium-barium tacitron, with application to low voltage-high current inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.S.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1994-02-01

    A low voltage/high current switch refer-red as ''Cs-Ba tacitron'' is studied for use as a dc to ac inverter in high temperature and/or ionizing radiation environments. The operational characteristics of the Cs-Ba tacitron as a switch were investigated experimentally in three modes: (a) breakdown mode, (b) I-V mode, and (c) current modulation mode. Operation parameters measured include switching frequencies up to 20 kHz, hold-off voltages up to 200 V, current densities in excess of 15 A/CM 2 , switch power density of 1 kW/cm 2 , and a switching efficiency in excess of 90 % at collector voltages greater than 30 V. Also, if the discharge current is circuit limited to a value below the maximum thermal emission current density, the voltage drop is constant and below 3 V

  8. High-Voltage, Multiphasic, Nanosecond Pulses to Modulate Cellular Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Hollie A; Hirakawa, Shinji; Yang, Enbo; Zhou, Chunrong; Xiao, Shu

    2018-04-01

    Nanosecond electric pulses are an effective power source in plasma medicine and biological stimulation, in which biophysical responses are governed by peak power and not energy. While uniphasic nanosecond pulse generators are widely available, the recent discovery that biological effects can be uniquely modulated by reversing the polarity of nanosecond duration pulses calls for the development of a multimodal pulse generator. This paper describes a method to generate nanosecond multiphasic pulses for biomedical use, and specifically demonstrates its ability to cancel or enhance cell swelling and blebbing. The generator consists of a series of the fundamental module, which includes a capacitor and a MOSFET switch. A positive or a negative phase pulse module can be produced based on how the switch is connected. Stacking the modules in series can increase the voltage up to 5 kV. Multiple stacks in parallel can create multiphase outputs. As each stack is independently controlled and charged, multiphasic pulses can be created to produce flexible and versatile pulse waveforms. The circuit topology can be used for high-frequency uniphasic or biphasic nanosecond burst pulse production, creating numerous opportunities for the generator in electroporation applications, tissue ablation, wound healing, and nonthermal plasma generation.

  9. Design, conditioning, and performance of a high voltage, high brightness dc photoelectron gun with variable gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxson, Jared; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Dobbins, John; Liu, Xianghong; Smolenski, Karl [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    A new high voltage photoemission gun has been constructed at Cornell University which features a segmented insulator and a movable anode, allowing the cathode-anode gap to be adjusted. In this work, we describe the gun's overall mechanical and high voltage design, the surface preparation of components, as well as the clean construction methods. We present high voltage conditioning data using a 50 mm cathode-anode gap, in which the conditioning voltage exceeds 500 kV, as well as at smaller gaps. Finally, we present simulated emittance results obtained from a genetic optimization scheme using voltage values based on the conditioning data. These results indicate that for charges up to 100 pC, a 30 mm gap at 400 kV has equal or smaller 100% emittance than a 50 mm gap at 450 kV, and also a smaller core emittance, when placed as the source for the Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector with bunch length constrained to be <3 ps rms. For 100 pC up to 0.5 nC charges, the 50 mm gap has larger core emittance than the 30 mm gap, but conversely smaller 100% emittance.

  10. Inductive energy storage using high voltage vacuum circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, R.B.; Woodson, H.H.; Mukutmoni, T.

    1976-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion experiments currently being planned require large amounts of pulsed energy. Inductive energy storage systems (IES) appear to be attractive for at least two applications in the fusion research program: high beta devices and those employing turbulent heating. The well-known roadblock to successful implementation of IES is the development of a reliable and cost-effective off-switch capable of handling high currents and withstanding high recovery voltages. The University of Texas at Austin has a program to explore the application of conventional vacuum circuit breakers designed for use in AC systems, in conjunction with appropriate counter pulse circuits, as off-switches in inductive energy storage systems. The present paper describes the IES employing vacuum circuit breakers as off-switches. Since the deionization property of these circuit breakers is of great importance to the design and the cost of the counter-pulse circuit, a synthetic test installation to test these breakers has been conceived, designed and is being installed in the Fusion Research Center, University of Texas at Austin. Some design aspects of the facility will be discussed here. Finally, the results of the study on a mathematical model developed and optimized to determine the least cost system which meets both the requirements of an off-switch for IES Systems and the ratings of circuit breakers used in power systems has been discussed. This analysis indicates that the most important factor with respect to the system cost is the derating of the circuit breakers to obtain satisfactory lifetimes

  11. High voltage tests of an electrostatic accelerator for different mixtures of gases at various pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellborg, R.

    1996-01-01

    An account is given of high voltage tests of an electrostatic accelerator. High voltage conditioning is measured and is reported for the same accelerator tube after different periods of usage. Tests of different mixtures of sulphur hexafluoride and nitrogen have been performed. A considerable amount of data was obtained for various parameters connected with the high voltage system for different proportions of nitrogen in sulphur hexafluoride at various gas pressures. (orig.)

  12. A 70 kV solid-state high voltage pulse generator based on saturable pulse transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2014-02-01

    High voltage pulse generators are widely applied in many fields. In recent years, solid-state and operating at repetitive mode are the most important developing trends of high voltage pulse generators. A solid-state high voltage pulse generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. The proposed generator is consisted of three parts. They are charging system, triggering system, and the major loop. Saturable pulse transformer is the key component of the whole generator, which acts as a step-up transformer and main switch during working process of this generator. The circuit and working principles of the proposed pulse generator are introduced first in this paper, and the saturable pulse transformer used in this generator is introduced in detail. Circuit of the major loop is simulated to verify the design of the system. Demonstration experiments are carried out, and the results show that when the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to a high voltage, such as 2.5 kV, a voltage with amplitude of 86 kV can be achieved on the secondary winding. The magnetic core of saturable pulse transformer is saturated deeply and the saturable inductance of the secondary windings is very small. The switch function of the saturable pulse transformer can be realized ideally. Therefore, a 71 kV output voltage pulse is formed on the load. Moreover, the magnetic core of the saturable pulse transformer can be reset automatically.

  13. A HIGH CURRENT, HIGH VOLTAGE SOLID-STATE PULSE GENERATOR FOR THE NIF PLASMA ELECTRODE POCKELS CELL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, P A; Barbosa, F; Cook, E G; Hickman, B C; Akana, G L; Brooksby, C A

    2007-01-01

    A high current, high voltage, all solid-state pulse modulator has been developed for use in the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell (PEPC) subsystem in the National Ignition Facility. The MOSFET-switched pulse generator, designed to be a more capable plug-in replacement for the thyratron-switched units currently deployed in NIF, offers unprecedented capabilities including burst-mode operation, pulse width agility and a steady-state pulse repetition frequency exceeding 1 Hz. Capable of delivering requisite fast risetime, 17 kV flattop pulses into a 6 (Omega) load, the pulser employs a modular architecture characteristic of the inductive adder technology, pioneered at LLNL for use in acceleration applications, which keeps primary voltages low (and well within the capabilities of existing FET technology), reduces fabrication costs and is amenable to rapid assembly and quick field repairs

  14. On-Site Measurements for Voltage Unbalance Studies Associated with the AC Railway Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatopoulos, Athanasios; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    unbalance with regards to traction loads has been augmented since the decision to expand the electric railway. Towards this direction, and on the occasion of a newly built electrified line, voltage unbalance measurements were carried out and are presented in this paper. The information from the extracted......On-site measurements in Electrical Power Systems can provide valuable information about the performance of the network and also, can be of great assistance to the validation and assessment of simulation models developed for power system studies. Lately, the noticeable increase of non......-conventional types of loads, such as the AC railway, has raised concerns regarding the secure operation of power transmission networks. This renders the monitoring and reporting of various aspects of system’s power quality even more necessary. For the Danish transmission grid, in particular, the relevance of voltage...

  15. Protection relay of phase-shifting device with thyristor switch for high voltage power transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachugin, V. F.; Panfilov, D. I.; Akhmetov, I. M.; Astashev, M. G.; Shevelev, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Problems of functioning of differential current protection systems of phase shifting devices (PSD) with mechanically changed coefficient of transformation of shunt transformer are analyzed. Requirements for devices of protection of PSD with thyristor switch are formulated. Based on use of nonlinear models of series-wound and shunt transformers of PSD modes of operation of major protection during PSD, switching to zero load operation and to operation under load and during short circuit operation were studied for testing PSD with failures. Use of the principle of duplicating by devices of differential current protection (with realization of functions of breaking) of failures of separate pares of PSD with thyristor switch was substantiated. To ensure protection sensitivity to the shunt transformer winding short circuit, in particular, to a short circuit that is not implemented in the current differential protection for PSD with mechanical switch, the differential current protection reacting to the amount of primary ampere-turns of high-voltage and low-voltage winding of this transformer was designed. Studies have shown that the use of differential current cutoff instead of overcurrent protection for the shunt transformer wndings allows one to provide the sensitivity during thyristor failure with the formation of a short circuit. The results of simulation mode for the PSD with switch thyristor designed to be installed as switching point of Voskhod-Tatarskaya-Barabinsk 220 kV transmission line point out the efficiency of the developed solutions that ensure reliable functioning of the PSD.

  16. High voltage holding in the negative ion sources with cesium deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Abdrashitov, G.; Ivanov, A.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High voltage holding of the large surface-plasma negative ion source with cesium deposition was studied. It was found that heating of ion-optical system electrodes to temperature >100 °C facilitates the source conditioning by high voltage pulses in vacuum and by beam shots. The procedure of electrode conditioning and the data on high-voltage holding in the negative ion source with small cesium seed are described. The mechanism of high voltage holding improvement by depletion of cesium coverage is discussed.

  17. First test of a high voltage feedthrough for liquid Argon TPCs connected to a 300 kV power supply

    CERN Document Server

    Cantini, C; Bueno, L Molina; Murphy, S; Radics, B; Regenfus, C; Rigaut, Y-A; Rubbia, A; Sergiampietri, F; Viant, T; Wu, S

    2016-01-01

    Voltages above a hundred kilo-volt will be required to generate the drift field of future very large liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers. The most delicate component is the feedthrough whose role is to safely deliver the very high voltage to the cathode through the thick insulating walls of the cryostat without compromising the purity of the argon inside. This requires a feedthrough that is typically meters long and carefully designed to be vacuum tight and have small heat input. Furthermore, all materials should be carefully chosen to allow operation in cryogenic conditions. In addition, electric fields in liquid argon should be kept below a threshold to reduce risks of discharges. The combination of all above requirements represents significant challenges from the design and manufacturing perspective. In this paper, we report on the successful operation of a feedthrough satisfying all the above requirements. The details of the feedthrough design and its manufacturing steps are provided. Very high voltages...

  18. Efficiency Optimization by Considering the High Voltage Flyback Transformer Parasitics using an Automatic Winding Layout Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    .The energy efficiency is optimized using a proposed new automatic winding layout (AWL) technique and a comprehensive loss model.The AWL technique generates a large number of transformer winding layouts.The transformer parasitics such as dc resistance, leakage inductance and self-capacitance are calculated...... for each winding layout.An optimization technique is formulated to minimize the sum of energy losses during charge and discharge operations.The efficiency and energy loss distribution results from the optimization routine provide a deep insight into the high voltage transformer designand its impact...

  19. High voltage power supplies for the neutral beam injectors of the stellarator TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Liniers, M.; Martinez Laso, L.; Jauregi, E.; Lucia, C.; Valcarcel, F.

    2001-01-01

    Neutral beam injection will be available for the second experimental phase of TJ-II. Two injectors, set in co-counter configuration, will inject into the plasma two 40 keV H 0 beams, each of up to 1 MW. The two high voltage power supplies to feed the acceleration grids of the injectors, described in this paper, are of the transformer-rectifier type, taking their primary energy from a pulsed flywheel generator, and are coupled to the acceleration grids through a switching device. This environment effectively sets the main operation limits and protection requirements of the power supplies

  20. Some problems relating to the transmission of electrical power at very high voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, A

    1965-01-01

    Some of the technical and economic factors which influence the choice of a transmission system, particularly a very high voltage one, are discussed. The stability of transmission overvoltages at mains frequency and their control by means of compensating reactances is described. Overvoltages due to circuit-breaker operation and those of atmospheric origin, and appropriate protective devices, the behaviour of equipment at 750 kV, and problems of testing are included. Finally, the 735 kV network now being installed to carry 5300 MW of hydroelectric power 650 km from the Manicouagan River to Quebec and Montreal is described.

  1. 30 CFR 75.803 - Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... High-Voltage Distribution § 75.803 Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage resistance grounded systems. [Statutory Provisions] On and after September 30, 1970, high-voltage, resistance grounded systems... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe ground check circuits on high-voltage...

  2. A Dual Active Bridge Converter with an Extended High-Efficiency Range by DC Blocking Capacitor Voltage Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Shen, Yanfeng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2018-01-01

    of hard switching and high circulating power. Thus, a new modulation scheme has been proposed, whose main idea is to introduce a voltage offset across the dc blocking capacitor connected in series with the transformer. Operational principle of the proposed modulation has been introduced, before analyzing...

  3. Design of auto-control high-voltage control system of pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Juntao

    2008-01-01

    It is difficult to produce multiple anode controlling time sequences under different logging mode for the high-voltage control system of the conventional pulsed neutron generator. It is also difficult realize sequential control among anode high-voltage, filament power supply and target voltage to make neutron yield stable. To these problems, an auto-control high-voltage system of neutron pulsed generator was designed. It not only can achieve anode high-voltage double blast time sequences, which can measure multiple neutron blast time sequences such as Σ, activated spectrum, etc. under inelastic scattering mode, but also can realize neutron generator real-time measurement of multi-state parameters and auto-control such as target voltage pulse width modulation (PWM), filament current, anode current, etc., there by it can produce stable neutron yield and realize stable and accurate measurement of the pulsed neutron full spectral loging tool. (authors)

  4. IBM-PC based high voltage controller [Paper No.: L7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, N.K.; Kalmani, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    A simple IBM-PC/XT based high voltage controller is designed for C.A.E.N. high voltage supply unit, which is being used for testing the prototype detector for future accelerator experiment. The high voltage output of the supply unit can be remotely programmed. The V-set Lemo connectors at the rear panel provides the remote control facility. Similarly V-mon and I-mon can be used for remotely monitoring the voltage set and the current drawn from the supply unit. The controller described here sets the high voltage through V-set and monitors the voltage set, through V-mon at a pre-determined time interval. The monitoring is a background job and is done as an interrupt service routine of IRQ3. A simple menu driven software package used is written in Q-Basic and MASM. (author). 1 fig

  5. Monitoring of high voltage supply using the Controller Area Network protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Igo Amauri dos S.; Farias, Paulo Cesar M.A.; Guedes, Germano P. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, experimental physics has made great progress in the investigation of the phenomenology of neutrinos, with significant contribution from experiments using nuclear reactors as source of particles. In this context, The Neutrinos Angra Project proposes the use of an anti-neutrinos detector with ability to monitor parameters related to the activity of nuclear reactors. One of the tasks defined in the project is the development of a system to control and to monitor the high voltage supply units used by the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) of the detector. The solution proposed in this work is based on the use of microcontrollers, from Microchip PIC family to adjust the operating point of the high voltage supply units and to acquire the current and output voltage data. Analysis of these data allows the effective control of the gain of the PMTs and to identify anomalous operational conditions. In this work is proposed the study of the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol and the implementation of a laboratory network to reproduce the typical operations of data acquisition and information transfer between the nodes. The development of this network is divided in two stages. The first part consisted of the setup of a CAN network, using the PIC18F2680 microcontroller, which has the CAN protocol internally implemented. This network serves as a reduced model of the final system, allowing simulation of typical situations of data acquisition and transmission between the nodes and a computer. In the second part of the work, the PIC18F4550 microcontroller was associated with the external CAN controller MCP2515 to develop a CAN/USB converter. This converter provides a new communication channel between network nodes and the computer, in addition to the RS232 interface. (author)

  6. 30 CFR 18.54 - High-voltage continuous mining machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage continuous mining machines. 18.54... and Design Requirements § 18.54 High-voltage continuous mining machines. (a) Separation of high... ground. (e) Onboard ungrounded, three-phase power circuit. A continuous mining machine designed with an...

  7. Automated system with LabVIEW for the obtention of voltage plateau, graphic of sensitivity and operation voltage in an ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz E, P.

    2001-01-01

    The work developed for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Central allows to obtain the voltage plateau, graphic of sensitivity and operation voltage of three types of ionization chambers which are used in their monitoring systems of process radiation. The automated system is based in a personal computer (Pc) for controlling and acquiring data from the different instruments used, its programming was realized with virtual instruments (LabVIEW, National Instruments software). The system also realizes a diagnosis of the ionization chamber and determine whether the parameters obtained are inside of the manufacturer specifications, that is to say, it determines when the ionization chamber must be replaced. (Author)

  8. Preparation of Power Distribution System for High Penetration of Renewable Energy Part I. Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Regulation Pat II. Distribution Circuit Modeling and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshkbar Sadigh, Arash

    other analyses. In this study, ETAP, OpenDSS, and GridLab-D are considered, and PSCMD transfer applications written in MATLAB have been developed for each of these to read the circuit model data provided in the UP spreadsheet. In order to test the developed PSCMD transfer applications, circuit model data of a test circuit and a power distribution circuit from Southern California Edison (SCE) - a utility company - both built in CYME, were exported into the spreadsheet file according to the UP format. Thereafter, circuit model data were imported successfully from the spreadsheet files into above mentioned software using the PSCMD transfer applications developed for each software. After the SCE studied circuit is transferred into OpenDSS software using the proposed UP scheme and developed application, it has been studied to investigate the impacts of large-scale solar energy penetration. The main challenge of solar energy integration into power grid is its intermittency (i.e., discontinuity of output power) nature due to cloud shading of photovoltaic panels which depends on weather conditions. In order to conduct this study, OpenDSS time-series simulation feature, which is required due to intermittency of solar energy, is utilized. In this study, the impacts of intermittency of solar energy penetration, especially high-variability points, on voltage fluctuation and operation of capacitor bank and voltage regulator is provided. In addition, the necessity to interpolate and resample unequally spaced time-series measurement data and convert them to equally spaced time-series data as well as the effect of resampling time-interval on the amount of error is discussed. Two applications are developed in Matlab to do interpolation and resampling as well as to calculate the amount of error for different resampling time-intervals to figure out the suitable resampling time-interval. Furthermore, an approach based on cumulative distribution, regarding the length for lines/cables types

  9. Mathematical modeling of agricultural fires beneath high voltage transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zohri, Emad H.; Shafey, Hamdy M.; Abdel-Salam, M.; Ahmed, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for agricultural fires based on a multi-phase formulation. The model includes dehydration and pyrolysis of agricultural fuel and pyrolysis products. The model considers a homogeneous distribution of the agricultural solid fuel particles, interacting with the gas flow via source terms. These terms include: drag forces, production of water vapour and pyrolysis products, radiative and convective heat exchange. A multi-phase radiative transfer equation for absorbing-emitting medium is considered to account for the radiative heat exchange between the gas and solid phases of the fire. The main outputs of the present model are most important to study the influence of agricultural fire occurring beneath high voltage transmission lines. The agricultural fire causes a flashover due to the ambient temperature rise and soot accumulation on the insulator of these transmission lines. Numerical results of the present model are obtained for flat grassland fires to study the effects of wind velocity, solid fuel moisture content and ignition length on some selected fire outputs. These outputs include the temperature, velocity, soot volume fraction fields of the gas phase, together with fire propagation rate and flame geometry. The numerical results are compared to the available experimental work in the literature. -- Research highlights: → The model is sensitive to the initial condition of the ignition length affecting the fire propagation rate and width. → The model predicts the effects of both the wind velocity and the fuel moisture content on fire propagation rate, in agreement with the available experimental work in the literature. → The model shows that both the wind velocity and the fuel moisture content are important factors affecting the fire plume thickness, location, and inclination. → The model is able to visualize the flame geometry through tracing radiative heat rates exceeding a threshold value for flame visibility (60 k

  10. Analysis of bi-directional piezoelectric-based converters for zero-voltage switching operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a thorough analysis of zerovoltage switching especially for bi-directional, inductorless, piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies with a half-bridge topology. Practically, obtaining zero-voltage switching for all of the switches in a bi-directional piezoel......This paper deals with a thorough analysis of zerovoltage switching especially for bi-directional, inductorless, piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies with a half-bridge topology. Practically, obtaining zero-voltage switching for all of the switches in a bi......-directional piezoelectric power converter is a difficult task. However, the analysis in this work will be convenient for overcoming this challenge. The analysis defines the zero-voltage region indicating the operating points whether or not soft switching can be met over the switching frequency and load range. For the first...... time, a comprehensive analysis is provided, which can be used as a design guideline for applying control techniques in order to drive switches in piezoelectric transformer-based converters. This study further conveys the proposed method to the region where all the switches can obtain soft switching...

  11. Performance and Environmental Test Results of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Mathers, Alex

    2012-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorate's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.5 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the high voltage Hall accelerator engineering development unit have been performed. Performance test results indicated that at 3.9 kW the thruster achieved a total thrust efficiency and specific impulse of 58%, and 2,700 sec, respectively. Thermal characterization tests indicated that the thruster component temperatures were within the prescribed material maximum operating temperature limits during full power thruster operation. Finally, thruster vibration tests indicated that the thruster survived the 3-axes qualification full-level random vibration test series. Pre and post-vibration test performance mappings indicated almost identical thruster performance. Finally, an update on the development progress of a power processing unit and a xenon feed system is provided.

  12. High-voltage Pulse-triggered SR Latch Level-Shifter Design Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dennis Øland; Llimos Muntal, Pere; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2014-01-01

    translating a signal from 0- 3 : 3 V to 87 : 5 - 100 V. The operation of this level-shifter is verified with measurements on a fabricated chip. The shortcomings of the implemented level-shifter in terms of power dissipation, transition delay, area, and startup behavior are then considered and an improved......This paper compares pulse-triggered level shifters with a traditional level-triggered topology for high-voltage ap- plications with supply voltages in the 50 V to 100 V range. It is found that the pulse-triggered SR (Set/Reset) latch level- shifter has a superior power consumption of 1800 W = MHz...... circuit is suggested which has been designed in three variants being able to translate the low-voltage 0- 3 : 3 V signal to 45 - 50 V, 85 - 90 V, and 95 - 100 V respectively. The improved 95 - 100 V level shifter achieves a considerably lower power consumption of 438 W = MHz along with a significantly...

  13. A High-Efficiency Voltage Equalization Scheme for Supercapacitor Energy Storage System in Renewable Generation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its fast charge and discharge rate, a supercapacitor-based energy storage system is especially suitable for power smoothing in renewable energy generation applications. Voltage equalization is essential for series-connected supercapacitors in an energy storage system, because it supports the system’s sustainability and maximizes the available cell energy. In this paper, we present a high-efficiency voltage equalization scheme for supercapacitor energy storage systems in renewable generation applications. We propose an improved isolated converter topology that uses a multi-winding transformer. An improved push-pull forward circuit is applied on the primary side of the transformer. A coupling inductor is added on the primary side to allow the switches to operate under the zero-voltage switching (ZVS condition, which reduces switching losses. The diodes in the rectifier are replaced with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs to reduce the power dissipation of the secondary side. In order to simplify the control, we designed a controllable rectifying circuit to achieve synchronous rectifying on the secondary side of the transformer. The experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed design.

  14. Design of High-Voltage Switch-Mode Power Amplifier Based on Digital-Controlled Hybrid Multilevel Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional Class-A, Class-B, and Class-AB amplifiers, Class-D amplifier, also known as switching amplifier, employs pulse width modulation (PWM technology and solid-state switching devices, capable of achieving much higher efficiency. However, PWM-based switching amplifier is usually designed for low-voltage application, offering a maximum output voltage of several hundred Volts. Therefore, a step-up transformer is indispensably adopted in PWM-based Class-D amplifier to produce high-voltage output. In this paper, a switching amplifier without step-up transformer is developed based on digital pulse step modulation (PSM and hybrid multilevel converter. Under the control of input signal, cascaded power converters with separate DC sources operate in PSM switch mode to directly generate high-voltage and high-power output. The relevant topological structure, operating principle, and design scheme are introduced. Finally, a prototype system is built, which can provide power up to 1400 Watts and peak voltage up to ±1700 Volts. And the performance, including efficiency, linearity, and distortion, is evaluated by experimental tests.

  15. Investigating Enhancement Mode Gallium Nitride Power FETs in High Voltage, High Frequency Soft Switching Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Yasser; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2016-01-01

    An increased attention has been detected to develop smaller and lighter high voltage power converters in the range of 50V to 400V domain. The main applications for these converters are mainly focused for Power over Ethernet (PoE), LED lighting and AC adapters. This work will discuss a study...

  16. Analysis and design of a high-efficiency zero-voltage-switching step ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to soft-switching operation of the power switches and output diodes, the ... However, the complexity and the overall cost are raised and the system ... the proposed converter has a voltage doubler structure which consists of two secondary wind-.

  17. In-situ, In-Memory Stateful Vector Logic Operations based on Voltage Controlled Magnetic Anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Akhilesh; Agrawal, Amogh; Roy, Kaushik

    2018-04-10

    Recently, the exponential increase in compute requirements demanded by emerging applications like artificial intelligence, Internet of things, etc. have rendered the state-of-art von-Neumann machines inefficient in terms of energy and throughput owing to the well-known von-Neumann bottleneck. A promising approach to mitigate the bottleneck is to do computations as close to the memory units as possible. One extreme possibility is to do in-situ Boolean logic computations by using stateful devices. Stateful devices are those that can act both as a compute engine and storage device, simultaneously. We propose such stateful, vector, in-memory operations using voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ). Our proposal is based on the well known manufacturable 1-transistor - 1-MTJ bit-cell and does not require any modifications in the bit-cell circuit or the magnetic device. Instead, we leverage the very physics of the VCMA effect to enable stateful computations. Specifically, we exploit the voltage asymmetry of the VCMA effect to construct stateful IMP (implication) gate and use the precessional switching dynamics of the VCMA devices to propose a massively parallel NOT operation. Further, we show that other gates like AND, OR, NAND, NOR, NIMP (complement of implication) can be implemented using multi-cycle operations.

  18. Performance and scalability of isolated DC-DC converter topologies in low voltage, high current applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaisanen, V.

    2012-07-01

    Fuel cells are a promising alternative for clean and efficient energy production. A fuel cell is probably the most demanding of all distributed generation power sources. It resembles a solar cell in many ways, but sets strict limits to current ripple, common mode voltages and load variations. The typically low output voltage from the fuel cell stack needs to be boosted to a higher voltage level for grid interfacing. Due to the high electrical efficiency of the fuel cell, there is a need for high efficiency power converters, and in the case of low voltage, high current and galvanic isolation, the implementation of such converters is not a trivial task. This thesis presents galvanically isolated DC-DC converter topologies that have favorable characteristics for fuel cell usage and reviews the topologies from the viewpoint of electrical efficiency and cost efficiency. The focus is on evaluating the design issues when considering a single converter module having large current stresses. The dominating loss mechanism in low voltage, high current applications is conduction losses. In the case of MOSFETs, the conduction losses can be efficiently reduced by paralleling, but in the case of diodes, the effectiveness of paralleling depends strongly on the semiconductor material, diode parameters and output configuration. The transformer winding losses can be a major source of losses if the windings are not optimized according to the topology and the operating conditions. Transformer prototyping can be expensive and time consuming, and thus it is preferable to utilize various calculation methods during the design process in order to evaluate the performance of the transformer. This thesis reviews calculation methods for solid wire, litz wire and copper foil winding losses, and in order to evaluate the applicability of the methods, the calculations are compared against measurements and FEM simulations. By selecting a proper calculation method for each winding type, the winding

  19. Study of protection devices against the effects of electric discharges inside a very high voltage generator: the Vivitron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolot, E.

    1996-01-01

    The Vivitron tandem is a large electrostatic accelerator comprising a Van de Graaff generator designed to reach terminal voltages of around 30 MV. The machine is limited at rather lower nominal voltages (about 20 MV) due to the sensitivity of the insulating column structure to transient overvoltages. These are induced by electrical discharges in compressed SF 6 . This thesis first aims at analysing the fundamental reasons of electrical discharges in order to limit the probability of their occurrence. Then we simulate the transient overvoltages induced and present some improvements which may lead to a stable behaviour of the Vivitron at nominal voltages higher than 20 MV. Initially we deduce discharge onset voltages and actual breakdown field limitations in the different gap geometries from analysis of possible breakdown mechanisms in compressed SF 6 . In a second part, some electrical characteristics of the insulating column structure are measured at high voltage. Fast rising oscillating waves induced by sparking in the Vivitron, along with the associated energies,are determined in the third part. The last part deals with new surge protections of the insulating column structure. Spark gaps with precise onset voltage and optimized shielding electrodes are discussed. ZnO-based varistors designed for operation at very high fields have also been developed in order to reduce transient overvoltage values. (author)

  20. Integrated Reconfigurable High-Voltage Transmitting Circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2014-01-01

    -out and measurements are performed on the integrated circuit. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able to drive a wide variety of CMUTs. The transmitting circuit can generate several pulse shapes, pulse voltages up to 100 V, maximum pulse range of 50 V and frequencies up to 5 MHz. The area...