Sample records for high velocity absorption

  1. A high-velocity narrow absorption line outflow in the quasar J212329.6-005052.9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamann, F.; Kanekar, N.; Prochaska, J.X.; Murphy, M.T.; Ellison, S.L.; Malec, A.L.; Milutinovic, N.; Ubachs, W.M.G.


    We report on the discovery of a high-velocity narrow absorption line outflow in the redshift 2.3 quasar J212329.46 - 005052.9. Five distinct outflow systems are detected with velocity shifts from -9710 to -14 050 km s

  2. High-Velocity Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Woerden, Hugo; Schwarz, Ulrich J; Boer, Klaas S


    This book contains 17 chapters reviewing our knowledge of the high-velocity clouds (HVCs) as of 2004, bringing this together in one place for the first time. Each of the many different aspects of HVC research is addressed by one of the experts in that subfield. These include a historical overview of HVC research and analyses of the structure and kinematics of HVCs. Separate chapters address the intermediate-velocity clouds, the Magellanic Stream, and neutral hydrogen HVCs discovered in external galaxies. Reviews are presented of the Ha emission and of optical and UV absorption-line studies, followed by discussions of the hot Galactic Halo and of the interactions between HVCs and their surroundings. Four chapters summarize the ideas about the origin of the high-velocity gas, with detailed discussions of connections between HVCs and the Galactic Fountain, tidally-stripped material, and remnants of the Milky Way's formation. A chapter outlining what we do not know completes the book. The book comes at a time whe...

  3. High-Velocity Clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, Bart P.; Woerden, Hugo van; Oswalt, Terry D.; Gilmore, Gerard


    The high-velocity clouds (HVCs) are gaseous objects that do not partake in differential galactic rotation, but instead have anomalous velocities. They trace energetic processes on the interface between the interstellar material in the Galactic disk and intergalactic space. Three different processes

  4. An HST/COS legacy survey of high-velocity ultraviolet absorption in the Milky Way's circumgalactic medium and the Local Group (United States)

    Richter, P.; Nuza, S. E.; Fox, A. J.; Wakker, B. P.; Lehner, N.; Ben Bekhti, N.; Fechner, C.; Wendt, M.; Howk, J. C.; Muzahid, S.; Ganguly, R.; Charlton, J. C.


    Context. The Milky Way is surrounded by large amounts of diffuse gaseous matter that connects the stellar body of our Galaxy with its large-scale Local Group (LG) environment. Aims: To characterize the absorption properties of this circumgalactic medium (CGM) and its relation to the LG we present the so-far largest survey of metal absorption in Galactic high-velocity clouds (HVCs) using archival ultraviolet (UV) spectra of extragalactic background sources. The UV data are obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and are supplemented by 21 cm radio observations of neutral hydrogen. Methods: Along 270 sightlines we measure metal absorption in the lines of Si II, Si III, C II, and C iv and associated H I 21 cm emission in HVCs in the velocity range | vLSR | = 100-500 km s-1. With this unprecedented large HVC sample we were able to improve the statistics on HVC covering fractions, ionization conditions, small-scale structure, CGM mass, and inflow rate. For the first time, we determine robustly the angular two point correlation function of the high-velocity absorbers, systematically analyze antipodal sightlines on the celestial sphere, and compare the HVC absorption characteristics with that of damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) and constrained cosmological simulations of the LG (CLUES project). Results: The overall sky-covering fraction of high-velocity absorption is 77 ± 6 percent for the most sensitive ion in our survey, Si III, and for column densities log N(Si III)≥ 12.1. This value is 4-5 times higher than the covering fraction of 21 cm neutral hydrogen emission at log N(H I)≥ 18.7 along the same lines of sight, demonstrating that the Milky Way's CGM is multi-phase and predominantly ionized. The measured equivalent-width ratios of Si II, Si III, C II, and C iv are inhomogeneously distributed on large and small angular scales, suggesting a complex spatial distribution of multi-phase gas that surrounds the

  5. High-velocity penetrators (United States)

    Lundgren, Ronald G.

    This paper summarizes the results of studies, coupled with a series of tests, that investigated rigid-body projectiles (penetrators) at high (up to 5500 ft/sec) velocities. Before these studies, it had been hypothesized that a velocity limit would be reached at which increasing the velocity would not commensurately increase depth of penetration into a target. It was further inferred that a given velocity/ penetration depth curve would avalanche into the hydrodynamic regime; that is, increasing the velocity past a certain point would decrease penetration performance. The test series utilized 1/2-in., 3-in., and 5 1/2-in. diameter, ogive-nose steel projectiles and grout and concrete targets. The tests confirmed that penetration depth increased as striking velocity increased to 4000 ft/sec. However, beyond striking velocities of 4000 ft/sec, asymmetric erosion and indentation of the projectile nose from the aggregate caused the projectile trajectories to deviate severely from the target centerline. These trajectory deviations caused the projectile to exit the side of the target, severely bend, break, or exhibit decreased penetration performance, confirming the hypothesis. Clearly, these results were dependent on the specific material and geometric parameters. The projectiles had 3.0 and 4.25 CRH (Caliber-Radius-Head) nose shapes and were heat-treated to R(sub c) 38-40. The grout targets had a maximum aggregate diameter of 3/16 in. and a nominal unconfined compressive strength of 2.5 ksi. The concrete targets had a maximum aggregate diameter of 3/4 in. and unconfined compressive strength of 5.5 ksi.

  6. High-velocity blueshifted Fe II absorption in the dwarf star-forming galaxy PHL 293B: evidence for a wind driven supershell? (United States)

    Terlevich, Roberto; Terlevich, Elena; Bosch, Guillermo; Díaz, Ángeles; Hägele, Guillermo; Cardaci, Mónica; Firpo, Verónica


    X-shooter and WHT-ISIS spectra of the star-forming galaxy PHL 293B also known as A2228-00 and SDSS J223036.79-000636.9 are presented in this paper. We find broad (FWHM = 1000 km s-1) and very broad (FWZI = 4000 km s-1) components in the Balmer lines, narrow absorption components in the Balmer series blueshifted by 800 km s-1, previously undetected Fe II multiplet (42) absorptions also blueshifted by 800 km s-1, IR Ca II triplet stellar absorptions consistent with [Fe/H] historical records, we found no optical variability at the 5σ level of 0.02 mag between 2005 and 2013 and no optical variability at the level of 0.1 mag for the past 24 yr. The lack of variability rules out transient phenomena like luminous blue variables or Type IIn supernovae as the origin of the blueshifted absorptions of H I and Fe II. The evidence points to either a young and dense expanding supershell or a stationary cooling wind, in both cases driven by the young cluster wind.

  7. High velocity impact experiment (HVIE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toor, A.; Donich, T.; Carter, P.


    The HVIE space project was conceived as a way to measure the absolute EOS for approximately 10 materials at pressures up to {approximately}30 Mb with order-of-magnitude higher accuracy than obtainable in any comparable experiment conducted on earth. The experiment configuration is such that each of the 10 materials interacts with all of the others thereby producing one-hundred independent, simultaneous EOS experiments The materials will be selected to provide critical information to weapons designers, National Ignition Facility target designers and planetary and geophysical scientists. In addition, HVIE will provide important scientific information to other communities, including the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization and the lethality and vulnerability community. The basic HVIE concept is to place two probes in counter rotating, highly elliptical orbits and collide them at high velocity (20 km/s) at 100 km altitude above the earth. The low altitude of the experiment will provide quick debris strip-out of orbit due to atmospheric drag. The preliminary conceptual evaluation of the HVIE has found no show stoppers. The design has been very easy to keep within the lift capabilities of commonly available rides to low earth orbit including the space shuttle. The cost of approximately 69 million dollars for 100 EOS experiment that will yield the much needed high accuracy, absolute measurement data is a bargain!

  8. Instrumented impact testing at high velocities (United States)

    Delfosse, Daniel; Pageau, Gilles; Bennett, Roger; Poursartip, Anoush

    Impact loading of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic CFRP) aircraft parts is a major concern. Birds or hailstones striking an aircraft generally have a low mass and a high velocity, whereas typically instrumented impact experiments are performed with a high mass and a low velocity. Our aim has been to build an instrumented impact facility with a low-mass projectile capable of simulating these impact events, since there is evidence that a low-velocity impact will not always result in the same amount or even type of damage as a high-velocity impact. This paper provides a detailed description of the instrumented low-mass impact facility at The University of British Columbia (UBC). A gas gun is used to accelerate the instrumented projectile to impact velocities as high as 50 m/s, corresponding to an energy level of 350 J. The contact force during the impact event is measured by an incorporated load cell. The necessary mathematical operations to determine the real load-displacement curves are outlined, and the results of some impact events at different velocities are shown.

  9. High velocity missile injuries of the liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exsanguination six hours after surgery. The second patient died of septicaemia on the fifth postoperative clay (Table 111). TABLE Ill Outcome of treatment of patients with high velocity missile injuries of the liver. Discussion. The diagnosis of penetrating abdominal injury is usually straightforward. Injury to the liver m:ly be.

  10. Velocity measurements of the liquid - gas flow using gamma absorption and modified conditional averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanus Robert


    Full Text Available The paper presents idea and an exemplary application of gamma-absorption in the measurement of gas bubbles transportation in a gas-liquid mixture flow through a horizontal pipeline. In the tests on laboratory installation two 241Am radioactive sources and probes with NaI(Tl scintillation crystals have been used. For analysis of electrical signals obtained from detectors the modified conditional averaging of the absolute value of delayed signal (CAAV is proposed. The proposed method is based on the quotient of classical cross-correlation (CCF and CAAV. Results of the time delay estimation and gas-phase velocity measurements are compared with one obtained using CCF. The combined uncertainties of the mean velocity of air bubbles evaluation in the presented experiment did not exceed 2.1% (CCF and 1.7% (CCF/CAAV, which is a satisfactory result in industrial applications.

  11. Velocity-metallicity correlation for high-z DLA galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledoux, C.; Petitjean, P.; Fynbo, J.P.U.


    Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct.......Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct....

  12. Collisional Processing of Comet and Asteroid Surfaces: Velocity Effects on Absorption Spectra (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Jensen, E. A.; Wooden, D. H.; Lindsay, S. S.; Smith, D. C.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Cintala, M. J.; Zolensky, M. E.


    A new paradigm has emerged where 3.9 Gyr ago, a violent reshuffling reshaped the placement of small bodies in the solar system (the Nice model). Surface properties of these objects may have been affected by collisions caused by this event, and by collisions with other small bodies since their emplacement. These impacts affect the spectrographic observations of these bodies today. Shock effects (e.g., planar dislocations) manifest in minerals allowing astronomers to better understand geophysical impact processing that has occurred on small bodies. At the Experimental Impact Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center, we have impacted forsterite and enstatite across a range of velocities. We find that the amount of spectral variation, absorption wavelength, and full width half maximum of the absorbance peaks vary non-linearly with the velocity of the impact. We also find that the spectral variation increases with decreasing crystal size (single solid rock versus granular). Future analyses include quantification of the spectral changes with different impactor densities, temperature, and additional impact velocities. Results on diopside, fayalite, and magnesite can be found in Lederer et al., this meeting.

  13. Ultrasonic velocity and absorption study of binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitrile by interferometric method at different frequencies (United States)

    Pawar, N. R.; Chimankar, O. P.; Bhandakkar, V. D.; Padole, N. N.


    The ultrasonic velocity (u), absorption (α), density (ρ), and viscosity (η) has been measured at different frequencies (1MHz to 10MHz) in the binary mixtures of cyclohexane with acrylonitriile over the entire range of composition at temperature 303K. Vander Waal's constant (b), adiabatic compressibility (βa), acoustic impedance (Z), molar volume (V), free length (Lf), free volume, internal pressure, intermolecular radius and relative association have been also calculated. A special application for acrylonitrile is in the manufacture of carbon fibers. These are produced by paralysis of oriented poly acrylonitrile fibers and are used to reinforce composites for high-performance applications in the aircraft, defense and aerospace industries. Other applications of acrylonitrile are in the production of fatty amines, ion exchange resins and fatty amine amides used in cosmetics, adhesives, corrosion inhibitors and water-treatment resins. Cyclohexane derivatives can be used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, herbicides, plant growth regulator, plasticizers, rubber chemicals, nylon, cyclamens and other organic compounds. In the view of these extensive applications of acrylonitrile and cyclohexane in the engineering process, textile and pharmaceutical industries present study provides qualitative information regarding the nature and strength of interaction in the liquid mixtures through derive parameters from ultrasonic velocity and absorption measurement.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    High resolution IUE spectra of sdB and HBB stars in the direction of the concentration of neutral hydrogen gas at high-velocity named Complex C have been obtained. The interstellar absorption line profiles are compared with Effelsberg H I 21-cm emission profiles. Since the distances to the stars are

  15. High-Velocity Paint Gun Injuries. (United States)

    Wohltmann, Wendi E; Wisell, Joshua A; Lafrades, Celina M C; Cramer, Daniel M; Ragsdale, Bruce D


    Cutaneous injuries due to industrial high-pressure paint guns are well-documented in the literature; however, the histologic characteristics are uncommonly described, and facial involvement has not been previously reported. Histopathologic features of paint gun injuries vary depending on the time since injection and type of material. Early lesions display an acute neutrophilic infiltrate, edema, and thrombosis, with varying degrees of skin, fat, and muscle necrosis. More developed lesions (120-192 hours after injury) have prominent histiocytes and fibrosis around necrotic foci, possibly with the pitfall of muscle regenerative giant cells that could be mistaken for sarcoma. Continuing inflammation, swelling, and resultant vascular compression could explain ongoing necrosis months after the accident. The histopathologic differential diagnosis in the absence of clinical history includes paint in an abrasion, foreign body reaction to tattoo, giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and various neoplasms. If available, radiologic studies can substitute for clinical photographs to indicate the extent of injury. The radiologic differential, uninformed by history, may include calcific periarthritis, gouty tophus, and tumoral calcinosis. Seven cases of injury due to high-velocity paint guns are presented with 4 additional cases mimicking paint gun injury and with review of the literature.

  16. Auditory velocity discrimination in the horizontal plane at very high velocities. (United States)

    Frissen, Ilja; Féron, François-Xavier; Guastavino, Catherine


    We determined velocity discrimination thresholds and Weber fractions for sounds revolving around the listener at very high velocities. Sounds used were a broadband white noise and two harmonic sounds with fundamental frequencies of 330 Hz and 1760 Hz. Experiment 1 used velocities ranging between 288°/s and 720°/s in an acoustically treated room and Experiment 2 used velocities between 288°/s and 576°/s in a highly reverberant hall. A third experiment addressed potential confounds in the first two experiments. The results show that people can reliably discriminate velocity at very high velocities and that both thresholds and Weber fractions decrease as velocity increases. These results violate Weber's law but are consistent with the empirical trend observed in the literature. While thresholds for the noise and 330 Hz harmonic stimulus were similar, those for the 1760 Hz harmonic stimulus were substantially higher. There were no reliable differences in velocity discrimination between the two acoustical environments, suggesting that auditory motion perception at high velocities is robust against the effects of reverberation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Simple Motor Control Concept Results High Efficiency at High Velocities (United States)

    Starin, Scott; Engel, Chris


    The need for high velocity motors in space applications for reaction wheels and detectors has stressed the limits of Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors (BPMM). Due to inherent hysteresis core losses, conventional BPMMs try to balance the need for torque verses hysteresis losses. Cong-less motors have significantly less hysteresis losses but suffer from lower efficiencies. Additionally, the inherent low inductance in cog-less motors result in high ripple currents or high switching frequencies, which lowers overall efficiency and increases performance demands on the control electronics.However, using a somewhat forgotten but fully qualified technology of Isotropic Magnet Motors (IMM), extremely high velocities may be achieved at low power input using conventional drive electronics. This paper will discuss the trade study efforts and empirical test data on a 34,000 RPM IMM.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The results of Westerbork * observations of small-scale structure in high-velocity clouds (HVCs) at 1' angular and 1 km s-1 velocity resolution are presented in the form of a table of observational parameters, maps of hydrogen column density, velocity-right ascension cuts, and histograms of the

  19. Absorption lines of High Redshift GRB 130606A observed by Subaru FOCAS (United States)

    Kurita, Shin; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Aoki, Kentaro; Kosugi, George; Hattori, Takashi; Totani, Tomonori

    We observed the optical afterglow of a Swift GRB 130606A using Subaru FOCAS. GRB 130606A has a redshift 5.91, the 5th highest redshift among the GRBs observed so far. The observation started 10.3 hours after the burst for 13.3 hours. We obtained the optical spectrum with a high S/N and detected ~40 absorption lines. Especially, absorption lines which have large equivalent widths shows their velocity. In some lines with high statistics, we study their velocity structures.

  20. Conventional Point-Velocity Records and Surface Velocity Observations for Estimating High Flow Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corato


    Full Text Available Flow velocity measurements using point-velocity meters are normally obtained by sampling one, two or three velocity points per vertical profile. During high floods their use is inhibited due to the difficulty of sampling in lower portions of the flow area. Nevertheless, the application of standard methods allows estimation of a parameter, α, which depends on the energy slope and the Manning roughness coefficient. During high floods, monitoring of velocity can be accomplished by sampling the maximum velocity, umax, only, which can be used to estimate the mean flow velocity, um, by applying the linear entropy relationship depending on the parameter, M, estimated on the basis of historical observed pairs (um, umax. In this context, this work attempts to analyze if a correlation between α and M holds, so that the monitoring for high flows can be addressed by exploiting information from standard methods. A methodology is proposed to estimate M from α, by coupling the “historical” information derived by standard methods, and “new” information from the measurement of umax surmised at later times. Results from four gauged river sites of different hydraulic and geometric characteristics have shown the robust estimation of M based on α.

  1. High-Absorptance Radiative Heat Sink (United States)

    Cafferty, T.


    Absorptance of black-painted open-cell aluminum honeycomb improved by cutting honeycomb at angle or bias rather than straight across. This ensures honeycomb cavities escapes. At each reflection radiation attenuated by absorption. Applications include space-background simulators, space radiators, solar absorbers, and passive coolers for terrestrial use.

  2. Development of tunable high pressure CO2 laser for lidar measurements of pollutants and wind velocities (United States)

    Levine, J. S.; Guerra, M.; Javan, A.


    The problem of laser energy extraction at a tunable monochromatic frequency from an energetic high pressure CO2 pulsed laser plasma, for application to remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants by Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and of wind velocities by Doppler Lidar, was investigated. The energy extraction principle analyzed is based on transient injection locking (TIL) at a tunable frequency. Several critical experiments for high gain power amplification by TIL are presented.

  3. On the origin of high-velocity runaway stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvaramadze, V.V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.


    We explore the hypothesis that some high-velocity runaway stars attain their peculiar velocities in the course of exchange encounters between hard massive binaries and a very massive star (either an ordinary 50-100 M-circle dot star or a more massive one, formed through runaway mergers of ordinary

  4. High velocity impact on textile reinformced composties (CD-rom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko; Ravensberg, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Hojo, M.; Sugimoto, S.; Ogasarawa, T.; Kageyama, K.; Takeda, N.


    Failure behavior of fiber reinforced plastics is a complex issue. Under impact conditions, the behavior depends among other aspects, on the structure formed by the fibers, the impact velocity and the geometry considered. A newly built gas-gun facility for high velocity impact (HSI) at the University

  5. Acceleration of objects to high velocity by electromagnetic forces (United States)

    Post, Richard F


    Two exemplary approaches to the acceleration of projectiles are provided. Both approaches can utilize concepts associated with the Inductrack maglev system. Either of them provides an effective means of accelerating multi-kilogram projectiles to velocities of several kilometers per second, using launchers of order 10 meters in length, thus enabling the acceleration of projectiles to high velocities by electromagnetic forces.

  6. Low-velocity impact behavior of weft-knitted spacer fabrics reinforced composites based on energy absorption (United States)

    Hasanalizadeh, F.; Dabiryan, H.; Sadighi, M.


    Spacer fabrics are prefered to other types of textile fabrics in energy absorption applications due to existence of pile yarns. The particular geometry of spacer fabrics induce to increase resisting out of plane forces such as impact along their thickness. In order to investigate the low-velocity impact behaviour of composites reinforced with spacer fabric, weft-knitted spacer fabrics with different types of pile orientation and pile length were produced using E-glass yarns. Using produced fabrics and epoxy resin, composites samples were provided by hand lay-up method. Low-velocity impact test was carried out on the prepared samples based on a drop-weight method using spherical steel projectile. The indentation at maximum force was extracted as - comparative criteria used to calculate absorbed energy.The results show that the energy absorption of composites increases by increasing the pile density and pile length.

  7. Wireless Transceiver Design for High Velocity Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, T.


    This thesis is dedicated to transceiver designs for high data-rate wireless communication systems with rapidly moving terminals. The challenges are two-fold. On the one hand, more spectral bandwidth of the transmitted signals is required by future wireless systems to obtain higher transmission

  8. Superconducting spoke cavities for high-velocity applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Christopher S. [Old Dominion U.; Delayen, Jean R. [Old Dominion U., JLAB


    To date, superconducting spoke cavities have been designed, developed, and tested for particle velocities up to {beta}{sub 0}~0.6, but there is a growing interest in possible applications of multispoke cavities for high-velocity applications. We have explored the design parameter space for low-frequency, high-velocity, double-spoke superconducting cavities in order to determine how each design parameter affects the electromagnetic properties, in particular the surface electromagnetic fields and the shunt impedance. We present detailed design for cavities operating at 325 and 352 MHz and optimized for {beta}{sub 0}~=0.82 and 1.

  9. Response of polymer composites to high and low velocity impact (United States)

    Hsieh, C. Y.; Mount, A.; Jang, B. Z.; Zee, R. H.


    The present investigation of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites' impact characteristics employed a drop tower for the low-velocity impact case and a novel, projectile instantaneous velocity-measuring sensor for high-velocity impact. Attention was given to the energy loss of projectiles in composites reinforced with polyethylene, kevlar, and graphite. Two distinct energy-loss mechanisms are noted, the first of which is due to the actual fracture process while the other is due to the generation of friction heat. The drop-tower impact-test results furnish the strain-rate dependence of the energy loss.

  10. Deformation of soap films pushed through tubes at high velocity


    Dollet, Benjamin; Cantat, Isabelle


    International audience; The behaviour of soap films pushed through tubes at large velocities, up to several m/s, is investigated. The film shape deviates from its equilibrium configuration perpendicular to the walls and gets curved downstream. A simple model relates the radius of curvature of the film to the friction in the lubrication films touching the wall, and the scaling of Bretherton (1961) holds up to surprisingly high velocities, at which the capillary and Weber numbers are no longer ...

  11. Examination of the Measurement of Absorption Using the Reverberant Room Method for Highly Absorptive Acoustic Foam (United States)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.; Chris Nottoli; Eric Wolfram


    The absorption coefficient for material specimens are needed to quantify the expected acoustic performance of that material in its actual usage and environment. The ASTM C423-09a standard, "Standard Test Method for Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Coefficients by the Reverberant Room Method" is often used to measure the absorption coefficient of material test specimens. This method has its basics in the Sabine formula. Although widely used, the interpretation of these measurements are a topic of interest. For example, in certain cases the measured Sabine absorption coefficients are greater than 1.0 for highly absorptive materials. This is often attributed to the diffraction edge effect phenomenon. An investigative test program to measure the absorption properties of highly absorbent melamine foam has been performed at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratories. This paper will present and discuss the test results relating to the effect of the test materials' surface area, thickness and edge sealing conditions. A follow-on paper is envisioned that will present and discuss the results relating to the spacing between multiple piece specimens, and the mounting condition of the test specimen.

  12. 3D finite element simulations of high velocity projectile impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ožbolt Joško


    Full Text Available An explicit three-dimensional (3D finite element (FE code is developed for the simulation of high velocity impact and fragmentation events. The rate sensitive microplane material model, which accounts for large deformations and rate effects, is used as a constitutive law. In the code large deformation frictional contact is treated by forward incremental Lagrange multiplier method. To handle highly distorted and damaged elements the approach based on the element deletion is employed. The code is then used in 3D FE simulations of high velocity projectile impact. The results of the numerical simulations are evaluated and compared with experimental results. It is shown that it realistically predicts failure mode and exit velocities for different geometries of plain concrete slab. Moreover, the importance of some relevant parameters, such as contact friction, rate sensitivity, bulk viscosity and deletion criteria are addressed.

  13. Pierce Prize Lecture: High Velocity Clouds: Cosmological and Galactic Weather (United States)

    Sembach, K.


    The Milky Way and its surrounding environs contain gas moving at high velocities with respect to the Sun. For the past half century, most of the information available for these high velocity clouds (HVCs) has come from H I 21cm surveys. Improvements in these surveys have recently led to the idea that some of the high velocity H I clouds may be located outside the Milky Way within the Local Group. Such a hypothesis is testable by various means, but the neutral gas content of the clouds tells only half of a much more complex story. In this talk I will present new information about the ionized gas within HVCs, their impact on the gaseous atmosphere of the Galaxy, and their relevance to the cosmic web of hot gas that may contain a significant fraction of the baryonic material in the low-redshift universe.

  14. High sensitivity probe absorption technique for time-of-flight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Absorption imaging using a high sensitivity CCD camera gives the size of the expanding cloud and hence ... (LVIS) [2], the peak signal in a 1 mm thick resonant probe beam corresponds to the absorption by 3 × 105 ... used in our atom optics experiments on the reflection of atoms from magnetic thin films [13]. The sensitivity ...

  15. Carbon film deposition from high velocity rarefied flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebrov, A.K., E-mail:; Emelyanov, A.A.; Yudin, I.B.


    The presented study is based on the idea of the activation of a gas-precursor high velocity flow by hot wire. The wire forms the channel for flow before expansion to substrate. The construction allows change of the specific flow rate, velocity, composition and temperature of a gas mixture by studying the film synthesis in conditions from free molecular to continuum flow at velocities from hundreds to thousands of m/s. At a high pressure, the film has typical and unusual hexagonal incorporations for diamond tetragonal particles. Raman spectrum with the pronounced diamond peak is typical for diamond-like film. X-ray diffraction points in the presence of lonsdaleite. Conditions of deposition were simulated by Monte Carlo method. Collisions with hot surfaces and chemical transformations were taken into consideration as well.

  16. A High-Velocity Collision With Our Galaxy's Disk (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    What caused the newly discovered supershell in the outskirts of our galaxy? A new study finds evidence that a high-velocity cloud may have smashed into the Milky Ways disk millions of years ago.Mysterious Gas ShellsA single velocity-channel map of the supershell GS040.2+00.670, with red contours marking the high-velocity cloud at its center. [Adapted from Park et al. 2016]The neutral hydrogen gas that fills interstellar space is organized into structures like filaments, loops, and shells. Supershells are enormous shells of hydrogen gas that can have radii of a thousand light-years or more; weve spotted about 20 of these in our own galaxy, and more in nearby dwarfs and spiral galaxies.How do these structures form? One theory is that they result from several supernovae explosions occurring in the same area. But the energy needed to create a supershell is more than 3 x 1052 erg, which corresponds to over 30 supernovae quite a lot to have exploding in the same region.Theres an interesting alternative scenario: the supershells might instead be caused by the impacts of high-velocity clouds that fall into the galactic disk.Velocity data for the compact high-velocity cloud CHVC040. The cloud is moving fast enough to create the supershell observed. [Adapted from Park et al. 2016]The Milky Ways Speeding CloudsHigh-velocity clouds are clouds of mostly hydrogen that speed through the Milky Way with radial velocities that are very different from the material in the galactic disk. The origins of these clouds are unknown, but its proposed that they come from outside the galaxy they might be fragments of a nearby, disrupting galaxy, or they might have originated from flows of accreting gas in the space in between galaxies.Though high-velocity clouds have long been on the list of things that might cause supershells, weve yet to find conclusive evidence of this. But that might have just changed, with a recent discovery by a team of scientists led by Geumsook Park (Seoul National

  17. Exploring the origin of high optical absorption in conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Vezie, Michelle S.


    The specific optical absorption of an organic semiconductor is critical to the performance of organic optoelectronic devices. For example, higher light-harvesting efficiency can lead to higher photocurrent in solar cells that are limited by sub-optimal electrical transport. Here, we compare over 40 conjugated polymers, and find that many different chemical structures share an apparent maximum in their extinction coefficients. However, a diketopyrrolopyrrole-thienothiophene copolymer shows remarkably high optical absorption at relatively low photon energies. By investigating its backbone structure and conformation with measurements and quantum chemical calculations, we find that the high optical absorption can be explained by the high persistence length of the polymer. Accordingly, we demonstrate high absorption in other polymers with high theoretical persistence length. Visible light harvesting may be enhanced in other conjugated polymers through judicious design of the structure.

  18. Very High Temperature Sound Absorption Coating Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I demonstrated experimentally a very high temperature acoustically absorbing coating for ducted acoustics applications. High temperature survivability at 3500...

  19. Analyzing the acoustic spectra of sound velocity and absorption in amphiphilic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Mysik


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical approaches to the study of the acoustic spectrum and the speed of sound absorption in the frequency range up to 10 GHz in liquid systems. For example ethoxylated derivatives of normal decyl alcohol EDDn, belonging to nonionic surfactants showed that at room temperature and low degrees of ethoxylation n acoustic spectra can be described in terms of the relaxation theory. It is shown that within the experimental error of the acoustic spectrum of EDDn, in the studied range of frequencies and temperature, are composed of two prime areas of acoustic dispersion. The results of calculations of relaxation and thermodynamic parameters of fast and ultrafast processes of restructuring EDDn can be used in the development of combined technologies of enhanced oil recovery using surfactant solutions and various physical fields and factors.

  20. High-speed velocity measurements on an EFI-system (United States)

    Prinse, W. C.; van't Hof, P. G.; Cheng, L. K.; Scholtes, J. H. G.


    For the development of an Exploding Foil Initiator for Insensitive Munitions applications the following topics are of interest: the electrical circuit, the exploding foil, the velocity of the flyer, the driver explosive, the secondary flyer and the acceptor explosive. Several parameters of the EFI have influences on the velocity of the flyer. To investigate these parameters a Fabry-Perot Velocity Interferometer System (F-PVIS) has been used. The light to and from the flyer is transported by a multimode fibre terminated with a GRIN-lens. By this method the velocity of very tiny objects (0.1 mm), can be measured. The velocity of flyer can be recorded with nanosecond resolution, depending on the Fabry-Perot etalon and the streak camera. With this equipment the influence of the dimensions of the exploding foil and the flyer on the velocity and the acceleration of the flyer are investigated. Also the integrity of the flyer during flight can be analyzed. To characterize the explosive material, to be used as driver explosive in EFI's, the initiation behaviour of the explosive has been investigated by taking pictures of the explosion with a high speed framing and streak camera. From these pictures the initiation distance and the detonation behaviour of the explosive has been analyzed. Normally, the driver explosive initiates the acceptor explosive (booster) by direct contact. This booster explosive is embedded in the main charge of the munitions. The combination of initiator, booster explosive and main charge explosive is called the detonation train. In this research the possibility of initiation of the booster by an intermediate flyer is investigated. This secondary flyer can be made of different materials, like aluminium, steel and polyester with different sizes. With the aid of the F-PVIS the acceleration of the secondary flyer is investigated. This reveals the influence of the thickness and density of the flyer on the acceleration and final velocity. Under certain

  1. Strength calculation for fiber concrete slabs under high velocity impact (United States)

    Artem, Ustinov; Kopanica, Dmitry; Belov, Nikolay; Jugov, Nikolay; Jugov, Alexey; Koshko, Bogdan; Kopanitsa, Georgy


    The paper presents results of the research on strength of concrete slabs reinforced with steel fiber and tested under a high velocity impact. Mathematical models are proposed to describe the behavior of continua with a complex structure with consideration of porosity, non-elastic effects, phase transformations and dynamic destructions of friable and plastic materials under shock wave impact. The models that describe the behavior of structural materials were designed in the RANET-3 CAD software system. This allowed solving the tasks of hit and explosion in the full three-dimensional statement using finite elements method modified for dynamic problems. The research results demonstrate the validity of the proposed mathematical model to calculate stress-strain state and fracture of layered fiber concrete structures under high velocity impact caused by blast wave.

  2. Gouge initiation in high-velocity rocket sled testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachau, R.D.M.; Trucano, T.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yew, C.H. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)


    A model is presented which describes the formation of surface damage ``gouging`` on the rails that guide rocket sleds. An unbalanced sled can randomly cause a very shallow-angle, oblique impact between the sled shoe and the rail. This damage phenomenon has also been observed in high-velocity guns where the projectile is analogous to the moving sled shoe and the gun barrel is analogous to the stationary rail. At sufficiently high velocity, the oblique impact will produce a thin hot layer of soft material on the contact surfaces. Under the action of a normal moving load, the soft layer lends itself to an anti-symmetric deformation and the formation of a ``hump`` in front of the moving load. A gouge is formed when this hump is overrun by the sled shoe. The phenomenon is simulated numerically using the CTH strong shock physics code, and the results are in good agreement with experimental observation.

  3. Velocity bunching of high-brightness electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Anderson


    Full Text Available Velocity bunching has been recently proposed as a tool for compressing electron beam pulses in modern high brightness photoinjector sources. This tool is familiar from earlier schemes implemented for bunching dc electron sources, but presents peculiar challenges when applied to high current, low emittance beams from photoinjectors. The main difficulty foreseen is control of emittance oscillations in the beam in this scheme, which can be naturally considered as an extension of the emittance compensation process at moderate energies. This paper presents two scenarios in which velocity bunching, combined with emittance control, is to play a role in nascent projects. The first is termed ballistic bunching, where the changing of relative particle velocities and positions occur in distinct regions, a short high gradient linac, and a drift length. This scenario is discussed in the context of the proposed ORION photoinjector. Simulations are used to explore the relationship between the degree of bunching, and the emittance compensation process. Experimental measurements performed at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory of the surprisingly robust bunching process, as well as accompanying deleterious transverse effects, are presented. An unanticipated mechanism for emittance growth in bends for highly momentum chirped beam was identified and studied in these experiments. The second scenario may be designated as phase space rotation, and corresponds closely to the recent proposal of Ferrario and Serafini. Its implementation for the compression of the electron beam pulse length in the PLEIADES inverse Compton scattering (ICS experiment at LLNL is discussed. It is shown in simulations that optimum compression may be obtained by manipulation of the phases in low gradient traveling wave accelerator sections. Measurements of the bunching and emittance control achieved in such an implementation at PLEIADES, as well as aspects of the use of velocity-bunched beam directly


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S G; Musumeci, P; Rosenzweig, J B; Brown, W J; England, R J; Ferrario, M; Jacob, J S; Thompson, M C; Travish, G; Tremaine, A M; Yoder, R


    Velocity bunching has been recently proposed as a tool for compressing electron beam pulses in modern high brightness photoinjector sources. This tool is familiar from earlier schemes implemented for bunching dc electron sources, but presents peculiar challenges when applied to high current, low emittance beams from photoinjectors. The main difficulty foreseen is control of emittance oscillations in the beam in this scheme, which can be naturally considered as an extension of the emittance compensation process at moderate energies. This paper presents two scenarios in which velocity bunching, combined with emittance control, is to play a role in nascent projects. The first is termed ballistic bunching, where the changing of relative particle velocities and positions occur in distinct regions, a short high gradient linac, and a drift length. This scenario is discussed in the context of the proposed ORION photoinjector. Simulations are used to explore the relationship between the degree of bunching, and the emittance compensation process. Experimental measurements performed at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory of the surprisingly robust bunching process, as well as accompanying deleterious transverse effects, are presented. An unanticipated mechanism for emittance growth in bends for highly momentum chirped beam was identified and studied in these experiments. The second scenario may be designated as phase space rotation, and corresponds closely to the recent proposal of Ferrario and Serafini. Its implementation for the compression of the electron beam pulse length in the PLEIADES inverse Compton scattering (ICS) experiment at LLNL is discussed. It is shown in simulations that optimum compression may be obtained by manipulation of the phases in low gradient traveling wave accelerator sections. Measurements of the bunching and emittance control achieved in such an implementation at PLEIADES, as well as aspects of the use of velocity-bunched beam directly in ICS experiments

  5. Two high-velocity encounters of elliptical galaxies (United States)

    Balcells, Marc; Borne, Kirk D.; Hoessel, John G.


    This paper describes results obtained on a simulation of two high-velocity encounters of NGC 4782/4783 and NGC 2672/2673 binary elliptical galaxies which differ substantially in mass ratio (about 1 for the first pair, and about 10 for the second). CCD images and velocities obtained from digital spectra were used to constrain simulations of the galaxy collisions. The binary orbital elements, the orientation of the orbit in the sky, the time since pericenter, and the dynamical mass of the pair were derived. Results suggested that the dumb-bell galaxy NGC 4782/4783 is not a supermassive galaxy, as was claimed earlier on the basis of the high relative velocity and high central dispersion, but has a moderate mass to luminosity ratio M/L(B) of about 10. It was concluded that its trajectory changed from hyperbolic to elliptical as a result of energy lost during the collision. It was found that the NGC 2672/2673 also has a moderate M/L(B) of about 7.

  6. Experimental and numerical studies of high-velocity impact fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipp, M.E.; Grady, D.E.; Swegle, J.W.


    Developments are reported in both experimental and numerical capabilities for characterizing the debris spray produced in penetration events. We have performed a series of high-velocity experiments specifically designed to examine the fragmentation of the projectile during impact. High-strength, well-characterized steel spheres (6.35 mm diameter) were launched with a two-stage light-gas gun to velocities in the range of 3 to 5 km/s. Normal impact with PMMA plates, thicknesses of 0.6 to 11 mm, applied impulsive loads of various amplitudes and durations to the steel sphere. Multiple flash radiography diagnostics and recovery techniques were used to assess size, velocity, trajectory and statistics of the impact-induced fragment debris. Damage modes to the primary target plate (plastic) and to a secondary target plate (aluminum) were also evaluated. Dynamic fragmentation theories, based on energy-balance principles, were used to evaluate local material deformation and fracture state information from CTH, a three-dimensional Eulerian solid dynamics shock wave propagation code. The local fragment characterization of the material defines a weighted fragment size distribution, and the sum of these distributions provides a composite particle size distribution for the steel sphere. The calculated axial and radial velocity changes agree well with experimental data, and the calculated fragment sizes are in qualitative agreement with the radiographic data. A secondary effort involved the experimental and computational analyses of normal and oblique copper ball impacts on steel target plates. High-resolution radiography and witness plate diagnostics provided impact motion and statistical fragment size data. CTH simulations were performed to test computational models and numerical methods.

  7. Acoustic Emission Analysis During High Velocity Accelerated Wear Test (United States)

    Peck, P. R.; Kono, R. N.; Jhon, M. S.; Karis, T. E.

    The phenomena taking place at the slider-disk interface are a topic of long term fundamental interest as well as practical significance. A novel accelerated wear tester for studying the slider in close proximity to the disk at high velocity is described. This incorporates a pneumatic loading cylinder on the suspension to increase the load while the slider is flying. Slider-disk interaction is detected by accelerometers mounted on the suspension arm. As the flying height is lowered, the resonant vibration of the arm is recorded to characterize the interface. Preliminary results showing the effect of disk velocity and roughness on the vibration-flying height curve are presented along with qualitative interpretation.

  8. Low and high velocity impact response of thick hybrid composites (United States)

    Hiel, Clement; Ishai, Ori


    The effects of low and high velocity impact on thick hybrid composites (THC's) were experimentally compared. Test Beams consisted of CFRP skins which were bonded onto an interleaved syntactic foam core and cured at 177 C (350 F). The impactor tip for both cases was a 16 mm (0.625 inch) steel hemisphere. In spite of the order of magnitude difference in velocity ranges and impactor weights, similar relationships between impact energy, damage size, and residual strength were found. The dependence of the skin compressive strength on damage size agree well with analytical open hole models for composite laminates and may enable the prediction of ultimate performance for the damaged composite, based on visual inspection.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eitan, Assaf; Behar, Ehud, E-mail:, E-mail: [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)


    The soft X-ray photoelectric absorption of high-z quasars has been known for two decades, but has no unambiguous astrophysical context. We construct the largest sample to date of 58 high-redshift quasars (z > 0.45) selected from the XMM-Newton archive based on a high photon count criterion (>1800). We measure the optical depth {tau} at 0.5 keV and find that 43% of the quasars show significant absorption. We aim to find which physical parameters of the quasars, e.g., redshift, radio luminosity, radio loudness, or X-ray luminosity, drive their observed absorption. We compare the absorption behavior with redshift with the pattern expected if the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) is responsible for the observed absorption. We also compare the absorption with a comparison sample of gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows. Although the z > 2 quasar opacity is consistent with diffuse IGM absorption, many intermediate-z (0.45 < z < 2) quasars are not sufficiently absorbed for this scenario, and are appreciably less absorbed than GRBs. Only 10/37 quasars at z < 2 are absorbed, and only 5/30 radio-quiet quasars are absorbed. We find a weak correlation between {tau} and z, and an even weaker correlation between {tau} and radio luminosity. These findings lead to the conclusion that although a diffuse IGM origin for the quasar absorption is unlikely, the optical depth does seem to increase with redshift, roughly as (1 + z){sup 2.2{+-}0.6}, tending to {tau} Almost-Equal-To 0.4 at high redshifts, similar to the high-z GRBs. This result can be explained by an ionized and clumpy IGM at z < 2, and a cold, diffuse IGM at higher redshift. If, conversely, the absorption occurs at the quasar, and owing to the steep L{sub x} {proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 7.1{+-}0.5} correlation in the present sample, the host column density scales as N{sub H}{proportional_to}L{sub x}{sup 0.7{+-}0.1}.

  10. Supernova 2010ev: A reddened high velocity gradient type Ia supernova (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Folatelli, Gastón; Pignata, Giuliano; Anderson, Joseph P.; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taubenberger, Stefan; Bufano, Filomena; Olivares E., Felipe; Haislip, Joshua B.; Reichart, Daniel E.


    Aims: We present and study the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2010ev. Methods: We obtain and analyze multiband optical light curves and optical/near-infrared spectroscopy at low and medium resolution spanning -7 days to +300 days from the B-band maximum. Results: A photometric analysis shows that SN 2010ev is a SN Ia of normal brightness with a light-curve shape of Δm15(B) = 1.12 ± 0.02 and a stretch s = 0.94 ± 0.01 suffering significant reddening. From photometric and spectroscopic analysis, we deduce a color excess of E(B - V) = 0.25 ± 0.05 and a reddening law of Rv = 1.54 ± 0.65. Spectroscopically, SN 2010ev belongs to the broad-line SN Ia group, showing stronger than average Si IIλ6355 absorption features. We also find that SN 2010ev is a high velocity gradient SN with v˙Si = 164 ± 7 km s-1 d-1. The photometric and spectral comparison with other supernovae shows that SN 2010ev has similar colors and velocities to SN 2002bo and SN 2002dj. The analysis of the nebular spectra indicates that the [Fe II]λ7155 and [Ni II]λ7378 lines are redshifted, as expected for a high velocity gradient supernova. All these common intrinsic and extrinsic properties of the high velocity gradient (HVG) group are different from the low velocity gradient (LVG) normal SN Ia population and suggest significant variety in SN Ia explosions. This paper includes data gathered with the Du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program GS-2010A-Q-14). Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programme 085.D-0577).

  11. Decision making in high-velocity environments: implications for healthcare. (United States)

    Stepanovich, P L; Uhrig, J D


    Healthcare can be considered a high-velocity environment and, as such, can benefit from research conducted in other industries regarding strategic decision making. Strategic planning is not only relevant to firms in high-velocity environments, but is also important for high performance and survival. Specifically, decision-making speed seems to be instrumental in differentiating between high and low performers; fast decision makers outperform slow decision makers. This article outlines the differences between fast and slow decision makers, identifies five paralyses that can slow decision making in healthcare, and outlines the role of a planning department in circumventing these paralyses. Executives can use the proposed planning structure to improve both the speed and quality of strategic decisions. The structure uses planning facilitators to avoid the following five paralyses: 1. Analysis. Decision makers can no longer afford the luxury of lengthy, detailed analysis but must develop real-time systems that provide appropriate, timely information. 2. Alternatives. Many alternatives (beyond the traditional two or three) need to be considered and the alternatives must be evaluated simultaneously. 3. Group Think. Decision makers must avoid limited mind-sets and autocratic leadership styles by seeking out independent, knowledgeable counselors. 4. Process. Decision makers need to resolve conflicts through "consensus with qualification," as opposed to waiting for everyone to come on board. 5. Separation. Successful implementation requires a structured process that cuts across disciplines and levels.

  12. High sensitivity probe absorption technique for time-of-flight ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report on a phase-sensitive probe absorption technique with high sensitivity, capable of detecting a few hundred ultra-cold atoms in flight in an observation time of a few milliseconds. The large signal-to-noise ratio achieved is sufficient for reliable measurements on low intensity beams of cold atoms. We demonstrate the ...

  13. Influences of the Air in Metal Powder High Velocity Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun


    Full Text Available During the process of metal powder high velocity impact compaction, the air is compressed sharply and portion remains in the compacts. In order to study the Influences, a discrete density volleyball accumulation model for aluminium powder was established with the use of ABAQUS. Study found that the powder porosity air obstruct the pressing process because remaining air reduced strength and density of the compacts in the current high-speed pressing (V≤100m/s. When speed further increased (V≥100m/s, the temperature of the air increased sharply, and was even much higher than the melting point of the material. When aluminium powder was compressed at a speed of 200m/s, temperatures of air could reach 2033 K, far higher than the melting point of 877 K. Increased density of powders was a result of local softening and even melt adhesive while air between particles with high temperature and pressure flowed past.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, G. H.; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig; Silverman, Jeffrey M. [University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Brown, Peter J. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, 4242 AMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Garnavich, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Landsman, Wayne B. [Adnet Systems, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Parrent, Jerod T. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Pritchard, Tyler A.; Roming, Peter W. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing 1,00084 (China)


    We report measurements and analysis of high-velocity (HVF) (>20,000 km s{sup –1}) and photospheric absorption features in a series of spectra of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2009ig obtained between –14 days and +13 days with respect to the time of maximum B-band luminosity (B-max). We identify lines of Si II, Si III, S II, Ca II, and Fe II that produce both HVF and photospheric-velocity (PVF) absorption features. SN 2009ig is unusual for the large number of lines with detectable HVF in the spectra, but the light-curve parameters correspond to a slightly overluminous but unexceptional SN Ia (M{sub B} = –19.46 mag and Δm{sub 15}(B) = 0.90 mag). Similarly, the Si II λ6355 velocity at the time of B-max is greater than 'normal' for an SN Ia, but it is not extreme (v{sub Si} = 13,400 km s{sup –1}). The –14 days and –13 days spectra clearly resolve HVF from Si II λ6355 as separate absorptions from a detached line forming region. At these very early phases, detached HVF are prevalent in all lines. From –12 days to –6 days, HVF and PVF are detected simultaneously, and the two line forming regions maintain a constant separation of about 8000 km s{sup –1}. After –6 days all absorption features are PVF. The observations of SN 2009ig provide a complete picture of the transition from HVF to PVF. Most SNe Ia show evidence for HVF from multiple lines in spectra obtained before –10 days, and we compare the spectra of SN 2009ig to observations of other SNe. We show that each of the unusual line profiles for Si II λ6355 found in early-time spectra of SNe Ia correlate to a specific phase in a common development sequence from HVF to PVF.

  15. Heterogeneous fragmentation of metallic liquid microsheet with high velocity gradient (United States)

    An-Min, He; Pei, Wang; Jian-Li, Shao


    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the fragmentation of metallic liquid sheets with high velocity gradient. Dynamic fragmentation of the system involves the formation of a network of fragments due to the growth and coalescence of holes, decomposition of the network into filaments, and further breakup of the filaments into spherical clusters. The final size distribution of the fragmented clusters in the large volume limit is found to obey a bilinear exponential form, which is resulted from the heterogeneous breakup of quasi-cylindrical filaments. The main factors contributing to fragmentation heterogeneity are introduced, including strain rate inhomogeneity and matter distribution nonuniformity of fragments produced during decomposition of the network structure. Project supported by the Science and Technology Development Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant Nos. 2013A0201010 and 2015B0201039) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11402032).

  16. Deployable Emergency Shutoff Device Blocks High-Velocity Fluid Flows (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.


    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a device and method for blocking the flow of fluid from an open pipe. Motivated by the sea-bed oil-drilling catastrophe in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, NASA innovators designed the device to plug, control, and meter the flow of gases and liquids. Anchored with friction fittings, spikes, or explosively activated fasteners, the device is well-suited for harsh environments and high fluid velocities and pressures. With the addition of instrumentation, it can also be used as a variable area flow metering valve that can be set based upon flow conditions. With robotic additions, this patent-pending innovation can be configured to crawl into a pipe then anchor and activate itself to block or control fluid flow.

  17. Sequencing of endurance and high-velocity strength training. (United States)

    Bell, G J; Petersen, S R; Quinney, H A; Wenger, H A


    To compare two sequences of endurance (E) and high-velocity resistance (HVR) training, sixteen male oarsmen were separated into Group ES which trained endurance prior to strength and Group SE which trained strength prior to endurance. The endurance program consisted of up to 60 min a session, five days a week for five weeks. HVR exercise was conducted on 12 stations of variable resistance hydraulic equipment, four sessions per week for five weeks. Endurance training significantly improved VO2max and submaximal heart rate and blood lactate responses in both groups regardless of the sequence followed. HVR training improved VO2max in group SE only and had no effect on submaximal response to exercise. Peak torque increases for knee extension and flexion with HVR training were greater in group SE than group ES. These results show that organizing strength and endurance training into sequential programs can influence the physiological adaptation to training.

  18. Probability density distribution of velocity differences at high Reynolds numbers (United States)

    Praskovsky, Alexander A.


    Recent understanding of fine-scale turbulence structure in high Reynolds number flows is mostly based on Kolmogorov's original and revised models. The main finding of these models is that intrinsic characteristics of fine-scale fluctuations are universal ones at high Reynolds numbers, i.e., the functional behavior of any small-scale parameter is the same in all flows if the Reynolds number is high enough. The only large-scale quantity that directly affects small-scale fluctuations is the energy flux through a cascade. In dynamical equilibrium between large- and small-scale motions, this flux is equal to the mean rate of energy dissipation epsilon. The pdd of velocity difference is a very important characteristic for both the basic understanding of fully developed turbulence and engineering problems. Hence, it is important to test the findings: (1) the functional behavior of the tails of the probability density distribution (pdd) represented by P(delta(u)) is proportional to exp(-b(r) absolute value of delta(u)/sigma(sub delta(u))) and (2) the logarithmic decrement b(r) scales as b(r) is proportional to r(sup 0.15) when separation r lies in the inertial subrange in high Reynolds number laboratory shear flows.

  19. Laboratory investigations involving high-velocity oxygen atoms (United States)

    Leger, Lubert J.; Koontz, Steven L.; Visentine, James T.; Cross, Jon B.


    Facilities for measuring material reactive characteristics have been under development for several years and span the atom energy range from thermal to 5 eV, the orbital collision energy. One of the high-atom energy facilities (The High Intensity/Energy Atomic Oxygen Source) capable of simulating the reactive part of LEO is described, along with results of beam characterization and preliminary material studies. The oxygen atom beam source was a continuous wave plasma produced by focusing a high-power CO2 laser through a lens system into a rare gas/molecular oxygen mixture chamber at elevated temperature. Material samples were exposed to the high velocity beam through an external feedthrough. The facility showed good stability in continued operation for more than 100 hours, producing fluences of 10 to the 21st to 10 to the 22nd atoms/sq cm. Reaction efficiencies and surface morphology have been measured for several materials at energies of 1.5 and 2.8 eV, matching with data generated from previous space flights. Activation energies for carbon and Kapton as measured in this facility were 800 cal/mole.

  20. Fault gouge rheology under confined, high-velocity conditions (United States)

    Reches, Z.; Madden, A. S.; Chen, X.


    We recently developed the experimental capability to investigate the shear properties of fine-grain gouge under confined conditions and high-velocity. The experimental system includes a rotary apparatus that can apply large displacements of tens of meters, slip velocity of 0.001- 2.0 m/s, and normal stress of 35 MPa (Reches and Lockner, 2010). The key new component is a Confined ROtary Cell (CROC) that can shear a gouge layer either dry or under pore-pressure. The pore pressure is controlled by two syringe pumps. CROC includes a ring-shape gouge chamber of 62.5 mm inner diameter, 81.25 mm outer diameter, and up to 3 mm thick gouge sample. The lower, rotating part of CROC contains the sample chamber, and the upper, stationary part includes the loading, hollow cylinder and setting for temperature, and dilation measurements, and pore-pressure control. Each side of the gouge chamber has two pairs of industrial, spring-energized, self-lubricating, teflon-graphite seals, built for particle media and can work at temperature up to 250 ded C. The space between each of the two sets of seals is pressurized by nitrogen. This design generates 'zero-differential pressure' on the inner seal (which is in contact with the gouge powder), and prevents gouge leaks. For the preliminary dry experiments, we used ~2.0 mm thick layers of room-dry kaolinite powder. Total displacements were on the order of meters and normal stress up to 4 MPa. The initial shear was accommodated by multiple internal slip surfaces within the kaolinite layer accommodated as oriented Riedel shear structures. Later, the shear was localized within a thin, plate-parallel Y-surface. The kaolinite layer was compacted at a quasi-asymptotic rate, and displayed a steady-state friction coefficient of ~ 0.5 with no clear dependence on slip velocity up to 0.15 m/s. Further experiments with loose quartz sand (grain size ~ 125 micron) included both dry runs and pore-pressure (distilled water) controlled runs. The sand was

  1. A High Galactic Latitude HI 21 cm-line Absorption Survey using the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... HI column densities of these fast clouds decrease with their increasing random velocities. These fast clouds can be identified with a population of clouds detected so far only in optical absorption and in HI emission lines with a similar velocity dispersion. This population of fast clouds is likely to be in the lower Galactic Halo.

  2. High doses of vitamin A impair iron absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel FR


    Full Text Available Fabíola Rainato Gabriel, Vivian MM Suen, Julio Sergio Marchini, José Eduardo Dutra de OliveiraDivision of Clinical Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine, São Paulo University, São Paulo, BrazilObjective: The present study aimed to determine the influence of vitamin A on iron absorption when vitamin A and iron are administered together orally compared with the administration of iron alone.Methods: This was a randomized double-blind clinical trial conducted on healthy men with normal red blood cell indices. Five experiments were performed, with iron (10 mg; iron (10 mg plus vitamin A (450, 900 and 1800 µg, and placebo. After an 8-hour fast, basal (T0 blood samples were collected: basal (T0, 2 hours (T1, and 4 hours (T2 after the ingestion of the compounds to be studied. Iron was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum ferritin was determined by an immunometric method, ie, by chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Plasma retinol was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Serum curves and the sum of the area under the curve adjusted to the mixed effects linear model were determined (P < 0.05.Results: Vitamin A at the doses of 450 and 900 µg had a stimulating effect, which, however, did not differ significantly from that of experiment 1 in which iron was used alone. At the dose of 1800 µg, vitamin A had a negative effect on iron absorption.Conclusion: High doses of vitamin A may cause lower serum iron levels, whereas a low dose favors iron absorption.Keywords: iron absorption, serum iron, vitamin A, oral iron, oral supplement

  3. Unsupervised Learning Through Randomized Algorithms for High-Volume High-Velocity Data (ULTRA-HV).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, Ali [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kolda, Tamara G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, MA (United States); Ballard, Grey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mahoney, Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Through long-term investments in computing, algorithms, facilities, and instrumentation, DOE is an established leader in massive-scale, high-fidelity simulations, as well as science-leading experimentation. In both cases, DOE is generating more data than it can analyze and the problem is intensifying quickly. The need for advanced algorithms that can automatically convert the abundance of data into a wealth of useful information by discovering hidden structures is well recognized. Such efforts however, are hindered by the massive volume of the data and its high velocity. Here, the challenge is developing unsupervised learning methods to discover hidden structure in high-volume, high-velocity data.

  4. High sensitivity chemically amplified EUV resists through enhanced EUV absorption (United States)

    Ongayi, Owendi; Christianson, Matthew; Meyer, Matthew; Coley, Suzanne; Valeri, David; Kwok, Amy; Wagner, Mike; Cameron, Jim; Thackeray, Jim


    Resolution, line edge roughness, sensitivity and low outgassing are the key focus points for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resist materials. Sensitivity has become increasingly important so as to address throughput concerns in device manufacturing and compensate for the low power of EUV sources. Recent studies have shown that increasing the polymer linear absorption absorption coefficient in EUV resists translates to higher acid generation efficiency and good pattern formation. In this study, novel high absorbing polymer platforms are evaluated. The contributing effect of the novel absorbing chromophore to the resultant chemically amplified photoresist is evaluated and compared with a standard methacrylate PAG Bound Polymer (PBP) platform. We report that by increasing EUV absorption, we cleanly resolved 17 nm 1:1 line space can be achieved at a sensitivity of 14.5 mJ/cm2, which is consistent with dose requirements dictated by the ITRS roadmap. We also probe the effect of fluorinated small molecule additives on acid yield generation (Dil C) at EUV of a PBP platform.

  5. Robustness of waves with a high phase velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, T., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States); Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA 92688 (United States); Necas, A., E-mail: [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA 92688 (United States)


    Norman Rostoker pioneered research of (1) plasma-driven accelerators and (2) beam-driven fusion reactors. The collective acceleration, coined by Veksler, advocates to drive above-ionization plasma waves by an electron beam to accelerate ions. The research on this, among others, by the Rostoker group incubated the idea that eventually led to the birth of the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA), by which a large and robust accelerating collective fields may be generated in plasma in which plasma remains robust and undisrupted. Besides the emergence of LWFA, the Rostoker research spawned our lessons learned on the importance of adiabatic acceleration of ions in collective accelerators, including the recent rebirth in laser-driven ion acceleration efforts in a smooth adiabatic fashion by a variety of ingenious methods. Following Rostoker’s research in (2), the beam-driven Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) has accomplished breakthroughs in recent years. The beam-driven kinetic plasma instabilities have been found to drive the reactivity of deuteron-deuteron fusion beyond the thermonuclear yield in C-2U plasma that Rostoker started. This remarkable result in FRCs as well as the above mentioned LWFA may be understood with the aid of the newly introduced idea of the “robustness hypothesis of waves with a high phase velocity”. It posits that when the wave driven by a particle beam (or laser pulse) has a high phase velocity, its amplitude is high without disrupting the supporting bulk plasma. This hypothesis may guide us into more robust and efficient fusion reactors and more compact accelerators.

  6. High-speed non-intrusive measurements of fuel velocity fields at high-pressure injectors (United States)

    Gürtler, Johannes; Schlüßler, Raimund; Fischer, Andreas; Czarske, Jürgen


    Using a single high-speed camera and a frequency modulated laser, a novel approach is presented for fast velocity field measurements in unsteady spray flows. The velocity range is from zero up to several 100 m/s, which requires a high measurement rate and a large dynamic. Typically, flow measurements require to seed tracer particles to the fluid. A paradigm shift to seeding-free measurements is presented. The light scattered at the phase boundaries of the fluid droplets is evaluated. In order to validate the high-speed measurement system, a detailed uncertainty analysis is performed by means of measurements as well as simulations. Thereby, variations of the scattered light intensity, which are based on the high temporal velocity gradients, are found to be the main contribution to the uncertainty. The eventually measurement results, obtained at a measurement rate of 500 kHz, exhibit spray velocities ranging from 0 m/s up to 400 m/s in less than 1 ms, and the detection of unsteady and irregular flow phenomena with a characteristic time of several μs is achieved. This demonstrates the high measurement rate, the high temporal resolution and the large measurement range of the proposed high-speed measurement system.

  7. High-Resolution Seismic Velocity and Attenuation Models of Eastern Tibet and Adjacent Regions (Post Print) (United States)


    closely beneath the Moho discontinuity, and thus its velocity model mainly represents the velocity structure of the uppermost mantle. We have applied the...have high Pn velocities. An abrupt Moho depth change is suggested by the observed significant difference of station delays along Kunlun, the northern

  8. A technique for establishing oblique detonations at high velocities (United States)

    Dabora, E. K.; Wagner, H. Gg.; Desbordes, D.

    A technique for establishing oblique detonations at hypersonic velocities is described. The technique is used to produce oblique detonations in C 2H2-air at an equivalence ratio of 0.75 (normal CJ velocity = 1770 m/s) at a velocity of 3300 m/s. On décrit une méthode d'obtention des détonations obliques à vitesse hypersonique. La méthode est utilisée pour produire des détonations obliques dans un mélange de C2H2-air à richesse de 0,75 (vitesse CJ normale = 1770 m/s) avec une célérité de 3300 m/s.

  9. Low velocity impact behaviour of ultra high strength concrete panels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ong et al (1999) investigated fibre concrete slabs subjected to low velocity projectile impact to assess impact resistance. The main variables of the study were type of fibre and volume fraction of fibres. The types of fibres chosen were polyolefin, polyvinyl alcohol and steel. The volume fraction of fibres examined were 0%, 1% ...

  10. High speed velocity measurements on an EFI-system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinse, W.C.; Hof, P.G. van 't; Cheng, L.K.; Scholtes, J.H.G.


    For the development of an Exploding Foil Initiator for Insensitive Munitions applications the following topics are of interest: the electrical circuit, the exploding foil, the velocity of the flyer, the driver explosive, the secondary flyer and the acceptor explosive. Several parameters of the EFI

  11. Ultrathin metasurface with high absorptance for waterborne sound

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jun


    We present a design for an acoustic metasurface which can efficiently absorb low-frequency sound energy in water. The metasurface has a simple structure and consists of only two common materials: i.e., water and silicone rubber. The optimized material and geometrical parameters of the designed metasurface are determined by an analytic formula in conjunction with an iterative process based on the retrieval method. Although the metasurface is as thin as 0.15 of the wavelength, it can absorb 99.7% of the normally incident sound wave energy. Furthermore, the metasurface maintains a substantially high absorptance over a relatively broad bandwidth, and also works well for oblique incidence with an incident angle of up to 50°. Potential applications in the field of underwater sound isolation are expected.

  12. Analysis of the flux and polarization spectra of the type Ia supernova SN 2001el: Exploring the geometry of the high-velocity Ejecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasen, Daniel; Nugent, Peter; Wang, Lifan; Howell, D.A.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Hoeflich, Peter; Baade, Dietrich; Baron, E.; Hauschildt, P.H.


    SN 2001el is the first normal Type Ia supernova to show a strong, intrinsic polarization signal. In addition, during the epochs prior to maximum light, the CaII IR triplet absorption is seen distinctly and separately at both normal photospheric velocities and at very high velocities. The unusual, high-velocity triplet absorption is highly polarized, with a different polarization angle than the rest of the spectrum. The unique observation allows us to construct a relatively detailed picture of the layered geometrical structure of the supernova ejecta: in our interpretation, the ejecta layers near the photosphere (v approximately 10,000 km/s) obey a near axial symmetry, while a detached, high-velocity structure (v approximately 18,000-25,000 $ km/s) of CaII line opacity deviates from the photospheric axisymmetry. By partially obscuring the underlying photosphere, the high-velocity structure causes a more incomplete cancellation of the polarization of the photospheric light, and so gives rise to the polarization peak of the high-velocity IR triplet feature. In an effort to constrain the ejecta geometry, we develop a technique for calculating 3-D synthetic polarization spectra and use it to generate polarization profiles for several parameterized configurations. In particular, we examine the case where the inner ejecta layers are ellipsoidal and the outer, high-velocity structure is one of four possibilities: a spherical shell, an ellipsoidal shell, a clumped shell, or a toroid. The synthetic spectra rule out the clearly discriminated if observations are obtained from several different lines of sight. Thus, assuming the high velocity structure observed for SN 2001el is a consistent feature of at least known subset of type Ia supernovae, future observations and analyses such as these may allow one to put strong constraints on the ejecta geometry and hence on supernova progenitors and explosion mechanisms.

  13. Velocity potential formulations of highly accurate Boussinesq-type models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingham, Harry B.; Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.


    processes on the weather side of reflective structures. Coast. Eng. 53, 929-945). An exact infinite series solution for the potential is obtained via a Taylor expansion about an arbitrary vertical position z=(z) over cap. For practical implementation however, the solution is expanded based on a slow...... variation of (z) over cap and terms are retained to first-order. With shoaling enhancement, the new models obtain a comparable accuracy in linear shoaling to the original velocity formulation. General consistency relations are also derived which are convenient for verifying that the differential operators...

  14. High durability solar absorptive coating and methods for making same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Aaron C.; Adams, David P.


    The present invention relates to solar absorptive coatings including a ceramic material. In particular, the coatings of the invention are laser-treated to further enhance the solar absorptivity of the material. Methods of making and using such materials are also described.

  15. Turbulence velocity profiling for high sensitivity and vertical-resolution atmospheric characterization with Stereo-SCIDAR (United States)

    Osborn, J.; Butterley, T.; Townson, M. J.; Reeves, A. P.; Morris, T. J.; Wilson, R. W.


    As telescopes become larger, into the era of ˜40 m Extremely Large Telescopes, the high-resolution vertical profile of the optical turbulence strength is critical for the validation, optimization and operation of optical systems. The velocity of atmospheric optical turbulence is an important parameter for several applications including astronomical adaptive optics systems. Here, we compare the vertical profile of the velocity of the atmospheric wind above La Palma by means of a comparison of Stereo-SCIntillation Detection And Ranging (Stereo-SCIDAR) with the Global Forecast System models and nearby balloon-borne radiosondes. We use these data to validate the automated optical turbulence velocity identification from the Stereo-SCIDAR instrument mounted on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, La Palma. By comparing these data we infer that the turbulence velocity and the wind velocity are consistent and that the automated turbulence velocity identification of the Stereo-SCIDAR is precise. The turbulence velocities can be used to increase the sensitivity of the turbulence strength profiles, as weaker turbulence that may be misinterpreted as noise can be detected with a velocity vector. The turbulence velocities can also be used to increase the altitude resolution of a detected layer, as the altitude of the velocity vectors can be identified to a greater precision than the native resolution of the system. We also show examples of complex velocity structure within a turbulent layer caused by wind shear at the interface of atmospheric zones.

  16. Velocity estimation of high-speed target for step frequency radar (United States)

    Tian, Ruiqi; Lin, Caiyong; Bao, Qinglong; Chen, Zengping


    Aiming to precisely estimate the velocity of high-speed targets for step frequency (SF) radar, a positive-positive-negative SF waveform consisting of two continuous positive SF pulse trains and a negative one is designed, and a velocity estimation method is proposed based on two-dimensional time-domain cross correlation (2-D TDCC). Making full use of the characteristics of the designed waveform, the coarse velocity estimation is achieved by 2-D TDCC of positive-positive SF pulse trains and then the Radon transform is applied to solve velocity ambiguity for high-speed targets. After velocity compensation for positive-negative SF pulse trains, the velocity residual is estimated precisely by 2-D TDCC. Simulation results show that the proposed method exhibits good performance for estimation accuracy, stability performance, computational complexity, and data rate by comparisons.

  17. Simulation and Design of High-Speed Hydraulic Velocity Generator in Shock Test Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hyeong; Shul, Chang Won; Kim, Yoon Jae; Yang, Myung Seog [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyu Sub [RMS Technology Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Mechanical and electrical devices in various forms are used in many different fields. These can be exposed to external environmental factors such as shock. Therefore, a shock test machine is commonly used to test these devices and evaluate their shock resistance. In this test, the break-down or permanent deformation and malfunction of inner parts due to a high stress or acceleration can be evaluated. As part of a shock test machine, a velocity generator is needed to create shocks between objects. In this study, a hydraulic velocity generator was conceptually designed and an AMESim model was developed to simulate the velocity under different conditions. Simulation results using this model were compared with the test results from a reduced-size velocity generator, and we designed a velocity generator that fits the target payload and velocity using the simulation results.

  18. Friction properties and deformation mechanisms of halite(-mica) gouges from low to high sliding velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, L.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Han, R.; Shimamoto, T.; Spiers, C.J.


    The evolution of friction as a function of slip rate is important in understanding earthquake nucleation and propagation. Many laboratory experiments investigating friction of fault rocks are either conducted in the low velocity regime (10−8–10−4 ms−1) or in the high velocity regime (0.01–1 m s−1).

  19. Hohlraum Designs for High Velocity Implosions on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meezan, N B; Hicks, D G; Callahan, D A; Olson, R E; Schneider, M S; Thomas, C A; Robey, H F; Celliers, P M; Kline, J K; Dixit, S N; Michel, P A; Jones, O S; Clark, D S; Ralph, J E; Doeppner, T; MacKinnon, A J; Haan, S W; Landen, O L; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J; Edwards, M J; Macgowan, B J; Lindl, J D; Atherton, L J


    In this paper, we compare experimental shock and capsule trajectories to design calculations using the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA. The measured trajectories from surrogate ignition targets are consistent with reducing the x-ray flux on the capsule by about 85%. A new method of extracting the radiation temperature as seen by the capsule from x-ray intensity and image data shows that about half of the apparent 15% flux deficit in the data with respect to the simulations can be explained by HYDRA overestimating the x-ray flux on the capsule. The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) point-design target is designed to reach a peak fuel-layer velocity of 370 km/s by ablating 90% of its plastic (CH) ablator. The 192-beam National Ignition Facility laser drives a gold hohlraum to a radiation temperature (T{sub RAD}) of 300 eV with a 20 ns-long, 420 TW, 1.3 MJ laser pulse. The hohlraum x-rays couple to the CH ablator in order to apply the required pressure to the outside of the capsule. In this paper, we compare experimental measurements of the hohlraum T{sub RAD} and the implosion trajectory with design calculations using the code hydra. The measured radial positions of the leading shock wave and the unablated shell are consistent with simulations in which the x-ray flux on the capsule is artificially reduced by 85%. We describe a new method of inferring the T{sub RAD} seen by the capsule from time-dependent x-ray intensity data and static x-ray images. This analysis shows that hydra overestimates the x-ray flux incident on the capsule by {approx}8%.

  20. Acoustic and streaming velocity components in a resonant waveguide at high acoustic levels. (United States)

    Daru, Virginie; Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Weisman, Catherine; Baltean-Carlès, Diana


    Rayleigh streaming is a steady flow generated by the interaction between an acoustic wave and a solid wall, generally assumed to be second order in a Mach number expansion. Acoustic streaming is well known in the case of a stationary plane wave at low amplitude: it has a half-wavelength spatial periodicity and the maximum axial streaming velocity is a quadratic function of the acoustic velocity amplitude at antinode. For higher acoustic levels, additional streaming cells have been observed. Results of laser Doppler velocimetry measurements are here compared to direct numerical simulations. The evolution of axial and radial velocity components for both acoustic and streaming velocities is studied from low to high acoustic amplitudes. Two streaming flow regimes are pointed out, the axial streaming dependency on acoustics going from quadratic to linear. The evolution of streaming flow is different for outer cells and for inner cells. Also, the hypothesis of radial streaming velocity being of second order in a Mach number expansion, is not valid at high amplitudes. The change of regime occurs when the radial streaming velocity amplitude becomes larger than the radial acoustic velocity amplitude, high levels being therefore characterized by nonlinear interaction of the different velocity components.

  1. Magnetic and solar effects on ionospheric absorption at high latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pietrella


    Full Text Available Some periods of intense solar events and of strong magnetic storms have been selected and their effects on the ionospheric D region have been investigated on the basis of ionospheric absorption data derived from riometer measurements made at the Italian Antarctic Base of Terra Nova Bay (geographic coordinates: 74.69 S, 164.12 E; geomagnetic coordinates: 77.34 S, 279.41 E. It was found that sharp increases in ionospheric absorption are mainly due to solar protons emission with an energy greater than 10 MeV. Moreover, the day to night ratios of the ionospheric absorption are greater than 2 in the case of strong events of energetic protons emitted by the Sun, while during magnetic storms, these ratios range between 1 and 2.

  2. Synthesis and Characteristics of Highly Oil-absorptive Expanded Polyurethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.H. [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea); Kim, W. [Dong Ah Chem. Co. Ltd., Kyungnam (Korea); Kim, W.H. [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea)


    Oil-absorptive expanded polyurethane (EPU) was prepared with a lypophilic polyol, polypropyleneglycol (PPG) as the soft segment, and toluenediisocyanate (TDI) and H{sub 2}O as the hard segment. PPGs having various average molecular weights (M{sub n} : 1000, 2000, 3000) were employed to investigate that the soft segment content was consequent on the oil-absorptivity and the mechanical properties of the EPUs. As M{sub n} of PPG was decreased from 3000 to 1000, the oil-absorptivity and the tensile strength of the EPUs increased from 1460 to 3010% and from 0.26 to 0.55 kg{sub f}/cm{sup 2} respectively. As the hard segment content ratio, {gamma}([NCO]/[OH]) was increased from 1.0 to 1.2, the tensile strength of the EPUs increased from 0.56 to 0.95 kg{sub f}/cm{sup 2}, due to the formation of allophanate and/or biuret bondings. However, as the surfactant (S-A) content was increased from 1.0 to 2.5 pbw, the oil-absorptivity was decreased from 3634 to 3312%, due to the formation of closed cell structures. (author). 18 refs., 4 tabs., 14 figs.

  3. Dynamic imaging and hydrodynamics study of high velocity, laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The main aim of the study of thin target foil–laser interaction experiments is to under- stand the physics of hydrodynamics of the foil acceleration, which is highly relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This paper discusses a simple, inexpensive multiframe optical shadow- graphy diagnostics developed for ...

  4. Search for auroral belt E-parallel fields with high-velocity barium ion injections (United States)

    Heppner, J. P.; Ledley, B. G.; Miller, M. L.; Marionni, P. A.; Pongratz, M. B.


    In April 1984, four high-velocity shaped-charge Ba(+) injections were conducted from two sounding rockets at 770-975 km over northern Alaska under conditions of active auroral and magnetic disturbance. Spatial ionization (brightness) profiles of high-velocity Ba(+) clouds from photometric scans following each release were found to be consistent with the 28-sec theoretical time constant for Ba photoionization determined by Carlsten (1975). These observations therefore revealed no evidence of anomalous fast ionization predicted by the Alfven critical velocity hypothesis.

  5. Temperature Dependence of Sound Velocity in High-Strength Fiber-Reinforced Plastics (United States)

    Nomura, Ryuji; Yoneyama, Keiichi; Ogasawara, Futoshi; Ueno, Masashi; Okuda, Yuichi; Yamanaka, Atsuhiko


    Longitudinal sound velocity in unidirectional hybrid composites or high-strength fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs) was measured along the fiber axis over a wide temperature range (from 77 K to 420 K). We investigated two kinds of high-strength crystalline polymer fibers, polyethylene (Dyneema) and polybenzobisoxazole (Zylon), which are known to have negative thermal expansion coefficients and high thermal conductivities along the fiber axis. Both FRPs had very high sound velocities of about 9000 m/s at low temperatures and their temperature dependences were very strong. Sound velocity monotonically decreased with increasing temperature. The temperature dependence of sound velocity was much stronger in Dyneema-FRP than in Zylon-FRP.

  6. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de


    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  7. Study on flow parameters of fractal porous media in the high-velocity fluid flow regime (United States)

    Qi, Mei; Xu, Hui; Yang, Chao; Qu, Tailai; Kong, lingxiao; Wu, Shucheng; Zeng, Baoquan; Xu, Haixia


    High-velocity fluid flow, which will result in the region of the wellbore or fracture, is generally in the turbulent flow regime and has drawn tremendous attention in petroleum engineering field. Turbulent factor is the key parameter, which is widely used to describe high-velocity flow in porous media. In this work, a theoretical model for turbulent factor in fractal porous media in the high-velocity fluid flow regime is developed. Moreover, a novel analytical expression for the permeability in porous media based on Wu's resistance model is also derived. Then, the analytical Kozeny-Carman constant with no empirical constant is obtained. The predictions of permeability-porosity relation by the current mathematical models have been validated by comparing with available experimental data. Furthermore, the effects of structural parameters of porous media on the curve of velocity and pressure drop are discussed in detail.

  8. Theoretical Research Progress in High-Velocity/Hypervelocity Impact on Semi-Infinite Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhou Sun


    Full Text Available With the hypervelocity kinetic weapon and hypersonic cruise missiles research projects being carried out, the damage mechanism for high-velocity/hypervelocity projectile impact on semi-infinite targets has become the research keystone in impact dynamics. Theoretical research progress in high-velocity/hypervelocity impact on semi-infinite targets was reviewed in this paper. The evaluation methods for critical velocity of high-velocity and hypervelocity impact were summarized. The crater shape, crater scaling laws and empirical formulae, and simplified analysis models of crater parameters for spherical projectiles impact on semi-infinite targets were reviewed, so were the long rod penetration state differentiation, penetration depth calculation models for the semifluid, and deformed long rod projectiles. Finally, some research proposals were given for further study.

  9. High speed coding for velocity by archerfish retinal ganglion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretschmer Viola


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Archerfish show very short behavioural latencies in response to falling prey. This raises the question, which response parameters of retinal ganglion cells to moving stimuli are best suited for fast coding of stimulus speed and direction. Results We compared stimulus reconstruction quality based on the ganglion cell response parameters latency, first interspike interval, and rate. For stimulus reconstruction of moving stimuli using latency was superior to using the other stimulus parameters. This was true for absolute latency, with respect to stimulus onset, as well as for relative latency, with respect to population response onset. Iteratively increasing the number of cells used for reconstruction decreased the calculated error close to zero. Conclusions Latency is the fastest response parameter available to the brain. Therefore, latency coding is best suited for high speed coding of moving objects. The quantitative data of this study are in good accordance with previously published behavioural response latencies.

  10. High-Resolution Structural Monitoring of Ionospheric Absorption Events (United States)


    the Van Allen radiation belts , because artificial enhancements of the radiation belts could have catastrophic impacts on space systems, as well as on...precipitation of beta particles from the radiation belts to lower altitudes; these precipitation events are driven by the dynamics of wave -particle...Array (LWA) to provide a significant riometric capability, in order to search for anomalous absorption events that are associated with radiation belt

  11. Airflow energy harvesting with high wind velocities for industrial applications (United States)

    Chew, Z. J.; Tuddenham, S. B.; Zhu, M.


    An airflow energy harvester capable of harvesting energy from vortices at high speed is presented in this paper. The airflow energy harvester is implemented using a modified helical Savonius turbine and an electromagnetic generator. A power management module with maximum power point finding capability is used to manage the harvested energy and convert the low voltage magnitude from the generator to a usable level for wireless sensors. The airflow energy harvester is characterized using vortex generated by air hitting a plate in a wind tunnel. By using an aircraft environment with wind speed of 17 m/s as case study, the output power of the airflow energy harvester is measured to be 126 mW. The overall efficiency of the power management module is 45.76 to 61.2%, with maximum power point tracking efficiency of 94.21 to 99.72% for wind speed of 10 to 18 m/s, and has a quiescent current of 790 nA for the maximum power point tracking circuit.

  12. On the dipole, velocity and acceleration forms in high-order harmonic generation from a single atom or molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Jan Conrad; Madsen, Lars Bojer


    On the dipole, velocity and acceleration forms in high-order harmonic generation from a single atom or molecule......On the dipole, velocity and acceleration forms in high-order harmonic generation from a single atom or molecule...

  13. High Velocity Impact Interaction of Metal Particles with Porous Heterogeneous Materials with an Inorganic Matrix (United States)

    Glazunov, A. A.; Ishchenko, A. N.; Afanasyeva, S. A.; Belov, N. N.; Burkin, V. V.; Rogaev, K. S.; Tabachenko, A. N.; Khabibulin, M. V.; Yugov, N. T.


    A computational-experimental investigation of stress-strain state and fracture of a porous heterogeneous material with an inorganic matrix, used as a thermal barrier coating of flying vehicles, under conditions of a high-velocity impact by a spherical steel projectile imitating a meteorite particle is discussed. Ballistic tests are performed at the velocities about 2.5 km/s. Numerical modeling of the high-velocity impact is described within the framework of a porous elastoplastic model including fracture and different phase states of the materials. The calculations are performed using the Euler and Lagrange numerical techniques for the velocities up to 10 km/s in a complete-space problem statement.

  14. Planar near-nozzle velocity measurements during a single high-pressure fuel injection (United States)

    Schlüßler, Raimund; Gürtler, Johannes; Czarske, Jürgen; Fischer, Andreas


    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of modern Diesel engines, the high-pressure fuel injections have to be optimized. This requires continuous, time-resolved measurements of the fuel velocity distribution during multiple complete injection cycles, which can provide a deeper understanding of the injection process. However, fuel velocity measurements at high-pressure injection nozzles are a challenging task due to the high velocities of up to 300 m/s, the short injection durations in the range and the high fuel droplet density especially near the nozzle exit. In order to solve these challenges, a fast imaging Doppler global velocimeter with laser frequency modulation (2D-FM-DGV) incorporating a high-speed camera is presented. As a result, continuous planar velocity field measurements are performed with a measurement rate of 200 kHz in the near-nozzle region of a high-pressure Diesel injection. The injection system is operated under atmospheric surrounding conditions with injection pressures up to 1400 bar thereby reaching fuel velocities up to 380 m/s. The measurements over multiple entire injection cycles resolved the spatio-temporal fluctuations of the fuel velocity, which occur especially for low injection pressures. Furthermore, a sudden setback of the velocity at the beginning of the injection is identified for various injection pressures. In conclusion, the fast measurement system enables the investigation of the complete temporal behavior of single injection cycles or a series of it. Since this eliminates the necessity of phase-locked measurements, the proposed measurement approach provides new insights for the analysis of high-pressure injections regarding unsteady phenomena.

  15. High Precision UTDR Measurements by Sonic Velocity Compensation with Reference Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Stade


    Full Text Available An ultrasonic sensor design with sonic velocity compensation is developed to improve the accuracy of distance measurement in membrane modules. High accuracy real-time distance measurements are needed in membrane fouling and compaction studies. The benefits of the sonic velocity compensation with a reference transducer are compared to the sonic velocity calculated with the measured temperature and pressure using the model by Belogol’skii, Sekoyan et al. In the experiments the temperature was changed from 25 to 60 °C at pressures of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 MPa. The set measurement distance was 17.8 mm. Distance measurements with sonic velocity compensation were over ten times more accurate than the ones calculated based on the model. Using the reference transducer measured sonic velocity, the standard deviations for the distance measurements varied from 0.6 to 2.0 µm, while using the calculated sonic velocity the standard deviations were 21–39 µm. In industrial liquors, not only the temperature and the pressure, which were studied in this paper, but also the properties of the filtered solution, such as solute concentration, density, viscosity, etc., may vary greatly, leading to inaccuracy in the use of the Belogol’skii, Sekoyan et al. model. Therefore, calibration of the sonic velocity with reference transducers is needed for accurate distance measurements.

  16. Absorption spectra of a chromophore in highly scattering media (United States)

    Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria-Angela; Fishkin, Joshua B.; Mantulin, William W.; Gratton, Enrico


    Frequency domain spectroscopy provides a quantitative measure of the optical properties, namely (mu) a and (mu) s' coefficient spectra, of multiply scattering, macroscopically homogeneous media or tissue. The diffusion model for photon transport provides the theoretical framework for the analytical expressions of the optical properties. Experimentally, we intensity modulated (60 MHz) a light emitting diode, which emits between 620 - 700 nm. From data sets of relative phase shifts and average intensity at different source- detector separations, we calculated on the basis of the analytical expressions a wavelength resolved absorption (mu) a ((lambda) ) and scattering (mu) s' ((lambda) ) coefficient spectrum. The test material was methylene blue, whose absorption spectrum (maximum 656 nm) closely matches the wavelength profile of the diode source. The multiply scattering, macroscopically homogeneous medium for dissolving the methylene blue was provided by a diluted fat emulsion, Liposyn III. The concentrations of both the absorbing and scattering materials were adjusted to correspond to ranges typical of (mu) a and (mu) s' in tissues. We obtained quantitative agreement between the measured (mu) a ((lambda) ) in the scattering medium and a control solution measured in a spectrophotometer under non-scattering conditions.

  17. High-velocity lid of East Antarctica: Evidence of a depleted continental lithosphere (United States)

    Kuge, Keiko; Fukao, Yoshio


    In broadband seismograms from shallow earthquakes occurring south of New Zealand recorded at the South Pole, we found significant arrivals 40-70 s after the first SH arrivals at distances of 29°-35° and 20-50 s after the first P arrivals at distances of 28°-35°. These waves traversing beneath East Antarctica can be modeled by slightly modifying one-dimensional P and S wave velocity structures of the Canadian shield. In the obtained velocity models, a velocity reduction below the lithosphere forms a deep low-velocity zone. S waves turning below the low-velocity zone explain the SH waveforms observed at 29°-55°. The observed P waveforms, however, suggest that a corresponding reduction in P velocity is smaller. These P and S wave velocity variations are likely to be a manifestation of a depleted continental lithosphere (high concentrations of olivine and magnesium number (Mg # = 100Mg/(Mg + Fe)). For a lithospheric composition more depleted than that of the underlying mantle, the temperature profile estimated from our velocity models is smooth from the lithosphere to the underlying mantle. Lithospheric depletion can also explain that the velocity anomaly in the lithosphere is larger for S than for P waves. Were the composition to be assumed uniform throughout the upper mantle, a large temperature gradient would be required at the bottom of the lithosphere, implying a heat sink which is unlikely to be sustainable. Thus a difference in composition between the lithosphere and underlying mantle leads to a reasonable estimate of temperature profile that is consistent with the observed seismic waveforms.

  18. Broadband, high-resolution investigation of advanced absorption line shapes at high temperature (United States)

    Schroeder, Paul J.; Cich, Matthew J.; Yang, Jinyu; Swann, William C.; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.; Drouin, Brian J.; Rieker, Gregory B.


    Spectroscopic studies of planetary atmospheres and high-temperature processes (e.g., combustion) require absorption line-shape models that are accurate over extended temperature ranges. To date, advanced line shapes, like the speed-dependent Voigt and Rautian profiles, have not been tested above room temperature with broadband spectrometers. We investigate pure water vapor spectra from 296 to 1305 K acquired with a dual-frequency comb spectrometer spanning from 6800 to 7200 c m-1 at a point spacing of 0.0033 c m-1 and absolute frequency accuracy of fall within theoretical predictions, suggesting that this mechanism captures the dominant narrowing physics for these high-temperature conditions.

  19. Kinematics of Local, High-Velocity K dwarfs in the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Catalog (United States)

    Kim, Bokyoung; Lepine, Sebastien


    We present a study of the kinematics of 345,480 K stars within 2 kpc of the Sun, based on data from the SUPERBLINK catalog of stars with high proper motions (> 40 mas/yr), combined with data from the 2MASS survey and from the first GAIA release, which together yields proper motions accurate to ~2 mas/yr. All K dwarfs were selected based on their G-K colors, and photometric distances were estimated from a re-calibrated color-magnitude relationship for K dwarfs. We plot transverse velocities VT in various directions on the sky, to examine the local distribution of K dwarfs in velocity space. We have also obtained radial velocity information for a subsample of 10,128 stars, from RAVE and SDSS DR12, which we use to construct spatial velocity (U, V, W) plots. About a third (123,350) of the stars are high-velocity K dwarfs, with motions consistent with the local Galactic halo population. Our kinematic analysis suggests that their velocity-space distribution is very uniform, and we find no evidence of substructure that might arise, e.g., from local streams or moving groups.

  20. High-definition velocity-space tomography of fast-ion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A.S.


    Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function in a fusion plasma is usually a photon-starved tomography method due to limited optical access and signal-to-noise ratio of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy as well as the strive for high-resolution images. In high-definition tomography...... information to reconstruct where in velocity space the measurements and the simulation disagree. This alternative approach is demonstrated for four-view as well as for two-view FIDA measurements. The high-definition tomography tools allow us to study fast ions in sawtoothing plasmas and the formation of NBI...

  1. Towards high velocity deformation characterisation of metals and composites using Digital Image Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Normann Wilken; Berggreen, Christian; Boyd, S.W


    Characterisation of materials subject to high velocity deformation is necessary as many materials behave differently under such conditions. It is particularly important for accurate numerical simulation of high strain rate events. High velocity servo-hydraulic test machines have enabled material...... nominal strain rates ranging from quasi static to 200 ε/s. In all cases DIC was able to analyse data collected up to fracture and in some cases post fracture. The use of highspeed DIC made it possible to capture phenomena such as multiple necking in the aluminium specimens and post compression failure...

  2. Sound velocity of high-strength polymer with negative thermal expansion coefficient (United States)

    Nomura, R.; Ueno, M.; Okuda, Y.; Burmistrov, S.; Yamanaka, A.


    Sound velocities of fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) were measured along the fiber axis at temperatures between 360 and 77 K. We used two kinds of the high-strength crystalline polymer fibers, polyethylene (Dyneema) and polybenzobisoxazole (Zylon), which have negative thermal expansion coefficients. They also have high thermal conductivities and high resistances for flash over voltage, and are expected as new materials for coil bobbins or spacers at cryogenic temperatures. They have very large sound velocities of about 9000 (m/s) at 77 K, which are 4.5 times larger than that of the ordinary polyethylene fiber.

  3. Moisture absorption analysis of high performance polyimide adhesive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akram, M.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Bhowmik, S.; Ernst, L.J.


    The high temperature resistant polymers and metal composites are used widely in aviation, space, automotive and electronics industry. The high temperature resistant polymers and metals are joined together using high temperature adhesives. Polyimide and epoxy adhesives that can withstand high

  4. Effect of microplastic deformation on the electron ultrasonic absorption in high-purity molybdenum monocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal' -Val' , P.P.; Kaufmann, Kh.J.


    The low temperature (100-6 K) linear absorption of ultrasound (88 kHz) by high purity molybdenum single crystals have been studied. Both unstrained samples and samples sub ected to microplastic deformation (epsilon<=0.45%) were used. Unstrained samples displayed at T<30 K a rapid increase in the absorption with lowering temperature which is interpreted as an indication of electron viscosity due to electron-phonon collisions. After deformation this part of absorption disappeared. This seems to suggest that microplastic deformation brings about in the crystal a sufficiently large number of defects that can compete with phonons in restricting the electron mean free path. A low temperature dynamic annealing has been revealed in strained samples, that is almost complete recovery of the absorption nature under irradiation with high amplitude sound, epsilon/sub 0/ approximately 10/sup -4/, during 10 min, at 6 K. A new relaxation peak of absorption at 10 K has been found in strained samples.

  5. Microwave energy attenuators on the basis of aluminum nitride with high level of microwave energy absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chasnyk V. I.


    Full Text Available Results of experimental studies of aluminum nitride based composites with addition of silicon carbide and molybdenum having high microwave absorption are presented. The interconnection between high level of absorption and volume electrical resistance was observed: maximum absorption of 6.5±1,0 dB/mm corresponds to the electrical resistance of (4—5·105 Ohm·m. Level of absorption of 3.5±0,5 dB/mm is revealed for the dielectric material with electrical conductivity of 1012 Ohm·m. The patterns detected during the study allow to predict the minimum and maximum levels of absorption of microwave energy in the two-phase composites based on aluminum nitride with molybdenum or silicon carbide, based on the measured volume of electrical resistance.

  6. On the Origin of High Shear Wave Velocities in the Deep Roots of Cratons (United States)

    Zeng, L.; Duncan, M. S.; Garber, J. M.; Hernandez, J. A.; Maurya, S.; Zhang, H.; Faul, U.; McCammon, C. A.; Montagner, J. P.; Moresi, L. N.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Rudnick, R. L.; Stixrude, L. P.


    Some seismic models derived from tomographic studies indicate very high shear wave velocities around 150 km depth, which cannot be explained by standard cratonic peridotite compositions derived from kimberlites, even under the assumption of very cold geotherms (i.e. 28mW/m3 surface heat flux). We present the results of a multi-disciplinary study conducted at the CIDER Summer 2016 program in Santa Barbara (CA), in which we have reviewed various geophysical and petrological constraints on the nature of cratonic roots (seismic velocities, electrical conductivity, gravity, lithologies) and explored a range of possible solutions. We find that matching the high shear wave velocities requires a large proportion of eclogite that is not matched by observed eclogite proportions in kimberlite samples. The high shear velocity of diamond makes it a viable candidate to account for such high velocities, in a proportion that is compatible with the global carbon budget. Our most recent results will be presented as well as suggestions for possible mechanisms for diamond formation and emplacement.

  7. Critical velocities for deflagration and detonation triggered by voids in a REBO high explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Stuart Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jensen, Niels G [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The effects of circular voids on the shock sensitivity of a two-dimensional model high explosive crystal are considered. We simulate a piston impact using molecular dynamics simulations with a Reactive Empirical Bond Order (REBO) model potential for a sub-micron, sub-ns exothermic reaction in a diatomic molecular solid. The probability of initiating chemical reactions is found to rise more suddenly with increasing piston velocity for larger voids that collapse more deterministically. A void with radius as small as 10 nm reduces the minimum initiating velocity by a factor of 4. The transition at larger velocities to detonation is studied in a micron-long sample with a single void (and its periodic images). The reaction yield during the shock traversal increases rapidly with velocity, then becomes a prompt, reliable detonation. A void of radius 2.5 nm reduces the critical velocity by 10% from the perfect crystal. A Pop plot of the time-to-detonation at higher velocities shows a characteristic pressure dependence.

  8. Frictional strength of wet- and dry- talc gouge in high-velocity shear experiments (United States)

    Chen, X.; Reches, Z.; Elwood Madden, A. S.


    The strength of the creeping segment of the San Andres fault may be controlled by the distinct weakness and stability of talc (Moore & Rymer, 2007). We analyze talc frictional strength at high slip-velocity of 0.002 - 0.66 m/s, long slip-distances of 0.01 m to 33 m, and normal stresses up to 4.1 MPa. This analysis bridges the gap between nucleation stage of low velocity/distance, and the frictional behavior during large earthquakes. We tested wet and dry samples of pure talc gouge in a confined rotary cell, and continuously monitored the slip-velocity, stresses, dilation and temperature. We run 29 experiments of single and stepped velocities to obtain 243 values of quasi-static frictional coefficients. Dry talc gouge showed distinct slip-strengthening: friction coefficient of µ ~0.4 at short slip-distances of D 1 m, the frictional strength saturated at µ= 0.8 - 1 level. Wet talc gouge (16-20% water) displayed low frictional strength of µ= 0.1-0.3, in agreement with published triaxial tests. The stepped-velocity runs revealed a consistent velocity-strengthening trend. For a velocity jump from V1 to V2, we used VD = (µ2 -µ1)/ln (V2/V1), and found that on average VD = 0.06 and 0.03 for dry and wet talc, respectively, and for slip distances shorter than 1 m. Microstructural analysis of post-shearing wet talc gouge revealed extreme slip localization to a principal-slip-zone of a few microns, and significant shear compaction of 10-30%. In contrast, dry talc gouge exhibited distributed shear in a wide zone and systematic shear dilation (10-50%). We propose slip along weak interlayer talc plates and thermal-pressurization as the possible weakening mechanisms for wet talc. The development of distributed secondary fault network along with substantial grain crushing is responsible for slip-strengthening in dry condition. Fig. 1. Friction maps of talc gouge as function of slip-distance (left) and slip-velocity (right). Resuslts of both stepped-velocity and constant-velocity

  9. Exploring High-Velocity NH_3(6,6) Emission at the Center of our Galaxy


    Donovan, Jennifer L.; Herrnstein, Robeson M.; Ho, Paul T. P.


    Using the NH\\3 (6,6) transition, which samples dense ($\\sim 10^{5}$) molecular gas with an energy above ground of 412 K, we find hot gas at high velocities (--142 to --210 km s$^{-1}$) associated with the central 2 pc of the Galactic center. This material may be either infalling gas due to shocks or tidal stripping, or possibly gas swept from the nuclear region. We identify two high-velocity features, which we call the Southern Runner and the Cap, and correlate these features with others dete...

  10. Damage Assessment in Glass Fiber-Epoxy Matrix Composite under High Velocity Impact of Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoofeh Dolati


    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of nanoclay on the impact damage resistance of glass fiber-epoxy composites under high velocity ice impact loading. Addition of 0.5 wt. % nanoclay into epoxy was shown to improve damage resistance compared to composite plates having no nanoclay platelet. The glass fiber-epoxy composites containing nanoclay brought about substantial improvement in ice impact damage resistance and damage tolerance in the form of smaller damage area. Delamination followed by high velocity ice impact constituted major damage mode in the specimens tested.

  11. Experimental verification of corrosive vapor deposition rate theory in high velocity burner rigs (United States)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Santoro, G. J.


    The ability to predict deposition rates is required to facilitate modelling of high temperature corrosion by fused salt condensates in turbine engines. A corrosive salt vapor deposition theory based on multicomponent chemically frozen boundary layers (CFBL) has been successfully verified by high velocity burner rig experiments. The experiments involved internally air-impingement cooled, both rotating full and stationary segmented cylindrical collectors located in the crossflow of sodium-seeded combustion gases. Excellent agreement is found between the CFBL theory an the experimental measurements for both the absolute amounts of Na2SO4 deposition rates and the behavior of deposition rate with respect to collector temperature, mass flowrate (velocity) and Na concentration.

  12. Isolated epididymal injury after blunt scrotal trauma from high velocity paintball round. (United States)

    Dale, Robert; Hoag, Nathan A


    Isolated epididymal injury without associated underlying scrotal or testicular injury in the setting of blunt trauma is exceedingly rare. We present a case of an isolated epididymal injury incurred after scrotal trauma from a high velocity paintball round. Ultrasound demonstrated an enlarged, hypoechoic left epididymis with no evidence of underlying testicular injury. This case highlights the importance of obtaining imaging to evaluate for signs of testicular rupture, potentially obviating the need for surgery. It also reinforces the need for appropriate protective gear when participating in activities with potential for high velocity scrotal trauma.

  13. High-frequency monitoring of quasars with absorption lines (United States)

    Cegłowski, Maciej; Hayashi, Takayuki J.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Katarzyński, Krzysztof


    An investigation of the origin of the broad absorption lines observed in some quasars was performed. We selected a sample of the most luminous objects and observed them with the VERA interferometer at 22 GHz. We also used a single 32-meter antenna, located near Toruń in Poland, to monitor variability of these quasars at 30 GHz. We succeed in detecting 16 out of 19 initially selected objects. The main aim of our observations was to determine the spacial orientation of the observed sources and their evolutionary status. We investigated their radio maps, performed the variability studies, and examined their radio spectra as well as the emission in the broadband frequency range. Most of the quasars from our sample seem to evolve in a similar way to young radio objects. However, radio structures of two sources may suggest that these objects are restarted active galactic nuclei. This may indicate a diversity of evolutionary stages in our sample. Six of the investigated sources were classified as candidates for the variable objects.

  14. Use of normal-density high-absorption limestone aggregate as internal curing agent in concrete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moreno, Eric I; Solís-Carcaño, Rómel; Terán-Marín, Laura V


    .... Results showed similar values of compressive strength and porosity among the concrete cured under wet and dry treatments for the high-absorption limestone aggregate but not for the river rock aggregate...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, R. J.; Bernath, P. F.; Dulick, M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, 4541 Hampton Boulevard, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Bailey, J., E-mail: [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)


    Hot methane is found in many “cool” sub-stellar astronomical sources including brown dwarfs and exoplanets, as well as in combustion environments on Earth. We report on the first high-resolution laboratory absorption spectra of hot methane at temperatures up to 1200 K. Our observations are compared to the latest theoretical spectral predictions and recent brown dwarf spectra. The expectation that millions of weak absorption lines combine to form a continuum, not seen at room temperature, is confirmed. Our high-resolution transmittance spectra account for both the emission and absorption of methane at elevated temperatures. From these spectra, we obtain an empirical line list and continuum that is able to account for the absorption of methane in high temperature environments at both high and low resolution. Great advances have recently been made in the theoretical prediction of hot methane, and our experimental measurements highlight the progress made and the problems that still remain.

  16. Development of high velocity gas gun with a new trigger system-numerical analysis (United States)

    Husin, Z.; Homma, H.


    In development of high performance armor vests, we need to carry out well controlled experiments using bullet speed of more than 900 m/sec. After reviewing trigger systems used for high velocity gas guns, this research intends to develop a new trigger system, which can realize precise and reproducible impact tests at impact velocity of more than 900 m/sec. A new trigger system developed here is called a projectile trap. A projectile trap is placed between a reservoir and a barrel. A projectile trap has two functions of a sealing disk and triggering. Polyamidimide is selected for the trap material and dimensions of the projectile trap are determined by numerical analysis for several levels of launching pressure to change the projectile velocity. Numerical analysis results show that projectile trap designed here can operate reasonably and stresses caused during launching operation are less than material strength. It means a projectile trap can be reused for the next shooting.

  17. [Relation between shoulder impingement syndrome and club head velocity in high-performance amateur golfers]. (United States)

    Ostreicher, M; Schwarz, M


    Joint structure damages due to overstrain often occur even in commonly not injury-prone golfing. Triggered by the golf swing's repetitive movement pattern and technique deficits of the player these structural damages are most likely to affect the lumbar spine as well as shoulder and elbow joint. As a synonym for shoulder impingement symptoms in golfers the term golf shoulder has been established in medical terminology. Despite this fact, currently there exist no studies addressing the relation between shoulder impingement syndrome and club head velocity. The aim of this study was to highlight the relation between club head velocity deficits of high-performance amateur golfers and persisting shoulder impingement syndrome. All of the 31 high-performance amateur golfers included in this study were male, active tournament players and right hander. Each golfer was examined for shoulder impingement syndrome using the Neer test, the Hawkins-Kennedy test, the painful arc and the functional test of the M. infraspinatus. Based on the test results the participants were allocated to an impingement group or a non-impingement group. Additionally, each golfer's club head velocity was determined. Between the two groups a significant difference concerning the club head velocity has been reported. A persisting shoulder impingement syndrome can have a negative effect on club head velocity. In many shoulder studies predominantly the influence of pathological muscular balance alterations (myofascial dysfunction) is not taken into consideration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Research on the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials at high sound pressure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Wang


    Full Text Available Porous metal materials are widely used in noise control with high sound pressure applications such as aircraft engine liners and combustion chambers for rocket engines due to their excellent performance of sound absorption characteristics and distinguished advantages in heat resistance, lightness, and stiffness. Understanding the effect of sound pressure on the acoustic properties of these materials is crucial when attempting to predict silencer performance. In this article, we experimentally investigate the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials at high sound pressure level. The effects of material parameters on the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials under high sound pressure level are further explored experimentally. Measurements are carried out by using a standard impedance tube that has been modified to accommodate sound pressure level of up to 150 dB. The experimental results show that with the increase in sound pressure level, the effect of sound pressure level on the sound absorption characteristics yields different variation regularities in different frequencies. The sound absorption performance of porous metal materials increases with the increase in sound pressure level in low frequency, which is reasonably consistent with the theoretical results. Under high sound pressure level, the sound absorption characteristics are significantly dependent upon the material parameters such as the metal fiber diameter, the material porosity, and the material thickness. It could provide a reliable experimental validation for the applications of porous metal materials in the area of vibration and noise control at high sound pressure levels.

  19. Galactic hail: the origin of the high-velocity cloud complex C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraternali, F.; Marasco, A.; Armillotta, L.; Marinacci, F.

    High-velocity clouds consist of cold gas that appears to be raining down from the halo to the disc of the Milky Way. Over the past 50 years, two competing scenarios have attributed their origin either to gas accretion from outside the Galaxy or to circulation of gas from the Galactic disc powered by

  20. Friction properties and deformation mechanisms of halite(-mica) gouges from low to high sliding velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, Loes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411880306; Niemeijer, André R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370832132; Han, Raehee; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Spiers, Christopher J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829323


    The evolution of friction as a function of slip rate is important in understanding earthquake nucleation and propagation. Many laboratory experiments investigating friction of fault rocks are either conducted in the low velocity regime (10−810−8–View the MathML source10−4 ms−1) or in the high

  1. Flow pattern formation in high-velocity gas-fluidised beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Grace, J.R.; Zhu, J.; De Hugo, L.


    The occurrence of heterogeneous flow structures in gas-particle flows seriously affects the gas-solid contacting and transport processes in high-velocity fluidized beds. A computational study, using a discrete particle method based on Molecular Dynamics techniques, has been carried out to explore


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We present the first complete catalogue of high-velocity clouds (HVCs), followed by a classification of these clouds into complexes and populations. The catalogue will form the basis for comparisons with theoretical models. The study described here yields the following conclusions: (1) Differential

  3. High velocity missile injuries of the liver | Ogwang | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study of 15 consecutive patients admitted with high velocity missile liver injuries of the liver was done at Lacor hospital between November 1996 and May 1997. Operative findings, treatment offered and factors influencing morbidity and mortality were noted. All patients were followed up for two months ...

  4. High-velocity resistance exercise protocols in older women: effects on cardiovascular response. (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo P; Novaes, Jefferson; Oliveira, Ricardo J; Gentil, Paulo; Wagner, Dale; Bottaro, Martim


    Acute cardiovascular responses to different high-velocity resistance exercise protocols were compared in untrained older women. Twelve apparently healthy volunteers (62.6 ± 2.9 y) performed three different protocols in the bench press (BP). All protocols involved three sets of 10 repetitions performed with a 10RM load and 2 minutes of rest between sets. The continuous protocol (CP) involved ten repetitions with no pause between repetitions. The discontinuous protocols were performed with a pause of five (DP5) or 15 (DP15) seconds between the fifth and sixth repetitions. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), rate pressure product (RPP), Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), and blood lactate (BLa) were assessed at baseline and at the end of all exercise sets. Factorial ANOVA was used to compare the cardiovascular response among different protocols. Compared to baseline, HR and RPP were significantly (p exercise. Compared to baseline, RPE increased significantly (p exercise has a lower cardiovascular demand than continuous resistance exercise in older women. Key pointsThe assessment of cardiovascular responses to high-velocity resistance exercise in older individuals is very important for exercise prescription and rehabilitation in elderly population.Discontinuous protocol decrease myocardial oxygen consumption (HR x SBP) during the performance of dynamic high-velocity resistance exercise in older women.The decrease in RPP (~ 8.5%) during the discontinuous protocol has clinical implications when developing high-velocity resistance exercise strategies for elderly individuals.

  5. Microwave absorption properties of carbon nanocoils coated with highly controlled magnetic materials by atomic layer deposition. (United States)

    Wang, Guizhen; Gao, Zhe; Tang, Shiwei; Chen, Chaoqiu; Duan, Feifei; Zhao, Shichao; Lin, Shiwei; Feng, Yuhong; Zhou, Lei; Qin, Yong


    In this work, atomic layer deposition is applied to coat carbon nanocoils with magnetic Fe(3)O(4) or Ni. The coatings have a uniform and highly controlled thickness. The coated nanocoils with coaxial multilayer nanostructures exhibit remarkably improved microwave absorption properties compared to the pristine carbon nanocoils. The enhanced absorption ability arises from the efficient complementarity between complex permittivity and permeability, chiral morphology, and multilayer structure of the products. This method can be extended to exploit other composite materials benefiting from its convenient control of the impedance matching and combination of dielectric-magnetic multiple loss mechanisms for microwave absorption applications.

  6. Group velocity locked vector dissipative solitons in a high repetition rate fiber laser

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yiyang; Li, Lei; Sun, Qizhen; Wu, Zhichao; Xu, Zhilin; Fu, Songnian; Zhao, Luming


    Vectorial nature of dissipative solitons (DSs) with high repetition rates is studied for the first time in a normal-dispersion fiber laser. Despite the fact that the formed DSs are strongly chirped and the repetition rate is greater than 100 MHz, polarization locked and polarization rotating group velocity locked vector DSs can be formed under 129.3 MHz fundamental mode-locking and 258.6 MHz harmonic mode-locking of the fiber laser, respectively. The two orthogonally polarized components of these vector DSs possess distinctly different central wavelengths and travel together at the same group velocity in the laser cavity, resulting in a gradual spectral edge and small steps on the optical spectra, which can be considered as an auxiliary indicator of the group velocity locked vector DSs.

  7. Comparison between length and velocity gauges in quantum simulations of high-order harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yong-Chang; Madsen, Lars Bojer


    We solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for atomic hydrogen in an intense field using spherical coordinates with a radial grid and a spherical harmonic basis for the angular part. We present the high-order harmonic spectra based on three different forms, the dipole, dipole velocity......, and acceleration forms, and two gauges, the length and velocity gauges. The relationships among the harmonic phases obtained from the Fourier transform of the three forms are discussed in detail. Although quantum mechanics is gauge invariant and the length and velocity gauges should give identical results, the two...... gauges present different computation efficiencies, which reflects the different behavior in terms of characteristics of the physical couplings acting in the two gauges. In order to obtain convergence, more angular momentum states are required in the length gauge, while more grid points are required...

  8. Portable conduction velocity experiments using earthworms for the college and high school neuroscience teaching laboratory. (United States)

    Shannon, Kyle M; Gage, Gregory J; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Wilson, W Jeffrey; Marzullo, Timothy C


    The earthworm is ideal for studying action potential conduction velocity in a classroom setting, as its simple linear anatomy allows easy axon length measurements and the worm's sparse coding allows single action potentials to be easily identified. The earthworm has two giant fiber systems (lateral and medial) with different conduction velocities that can be easily measured by manipulating electrode placement and the tactile stimulus. Here, we present a portable and robust experimental setup that allows students to perform conduction velocity measurements within a 30-min to 1-h laboratory session. Our improvement over this well-known preparation is the combination of behaviorally relevant tactile stimuli (avoiding electrical stimulation) with the invention of minimal, low-cost, and portable equipment. We tested these experiments during workshops in both a high school and college classroom environment and found positive learning outcomes when we compared pre- and posttests taken by the students.

  9. High Shear Deformation to Produce High Strength and Energy Absorption in Mg Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Vineet V.; Jana, Saumyadeep; Li, Dongsheng; Garmestani, Hamid; Nyberg, Eric A.; Lavender, Curt A.


    Magnesium alloys have the potential to reduce the mass of transportation systems however to fully realize the benefits it must be usable in more applications including those that require higher strength and ductility. It has been known that fine grain size in Mg alloys leads to high strength and ductility. However, the challenge is how to achieve this optimal microstructure in a cost effective way. This work has shown that by using optimized high shear deformation and second phase particles of Mg2Si and MgxZnZry the energy absorption of the extrusions can exceed that of AA6061. The extrusion process under development described in this presentation appears to be scalable and cost effective. In addition to process development a novel modeling approach to understand the roles of strain and state-of-strain on particle fracture and grain size control has been developed

  10. High-resolution absorption measurements of NH3 at high temperatures: 2100-5500 cm-1 (United States)

    Barton, Emma J.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander


    High-resolution absorption spectra of NH3 in the region 2100-5500 cm-1 at 1027 °C and approximately atmospheric pressure (1045±3 mbar) are measured. An NH3 concentration of 10% in volume fraction is used in the measurements. Spectra are recorded in a high-temperature gas-flow cell using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at a nominal resolution of 0.09 cm-1. The spectra are analysed by comparison to a variational line list, BYTe, and experimental energy levels determined using the MARVEL procedure. 2308 lines have been assigned to 45 different bands, of which 1755 and 15 have been assigned or observed for the first time in this work.

  11. High-Velocity Resistance Exercise Protocols in Older Women: Effects on Cardiovascular Response (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo P.; Novaes, Jefferson; Oliveira, Ricardo J.; Gentil, Paulo; Wagner, Dale; Bottaro, Martim


    Acute cardiovascular responses to different high-velocity resistance exercise protocols were compared in untrained older women. Twelve apparently healthy volunteers (62.6 ± 2.9 y) performed three different protocols in the bench press (BP). All protocols involved three sets of 10 repetitions performed with a 10RM load and 2 minutes of rest between sets. The continuous protocol (CP) involved ten repetitions with no pause between repetitions. The discontinuous protocols were performed with a pause of five (DP5) or 15 (DP15) seconds between the fifth and sixth repetitions. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), rate pressure product (RPP), Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), and blood lactate (BLa) were assessed at baseline and at the end of all exercise sets. Factorial ANOVA was used to compare the cardiovascular response among different protocols. Compared to baseline, HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05) higher after the third set in all protocols. HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in DP5 and DP15 compared with CP for the BP exercise. Compared to baseline, RPE increased significantly (p < 0.05) with each subsequent set in all protocols. Blood lactate concentration during DP5 and DP15 was significantly lower than CP. It appears that discontinuous high-velocity resistance exercise has a lower cardiovascular demand than continuous resistance exercise in older women. Key pointsThe assessment of cardiovascular responses to high-velocity resistance exercise in older individuals is very important for exercise prescription and rehabilitation in elderly population.Discontinuous protocol decrease myocardial oxygen consumption (HR x SBP) during the performance of dynamic high-velocity resistance exercise in older women.The decrease in RPP (~ 8.5%) during the discontinuous protocol has clinical implications when developing high-velocity resistance exercise strategies for elderly individuals. PMID:24149492

  12. High Temperature Sound Absorption Coating - Soundown HT Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MPAC and UMR are proposing development of an Acoustic Control System for high temperature gas flow in ducts. This control system is based on a passive inorganic...

  13. High temperature high velocity direct power extraction using an open-cycle oxy-combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Norman [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)


    The implementation of oxy-fuel technology in fossil-fuel power plants may contribute to increased system efficiencies and a reduction of pollutant emissions. One technology that has potential to utilize the temperature of undiluted oxy-combustion flames is open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generators. These systems can be configured as a topping cycle and provide high enthalpy, electrically conductive flows for direct conversion of electricity. This report presents the design and modeling strategies of a MHD combustor operating at temperatures exceeding 3000 K. Throughout the study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were extensively used as a design and optimization tool. A lab-scale 60 kWth model was designed, manufactured and tested as part of this project. A fully-coupled numerical method was developed in ANSYS FLUENT to characterize the heat transfer in the system. This study revealed that nozzle heat transfer may be predicted through a 40% reduction of the semi-empirical Bartz correlation. Experimental results showed good agreement with the numerical evaluation, with the combustor exhibiting a favorable performance when tested during extended time periods. A transient numerical method was employed to analyze fuel injector geometries for the 60-kW combustor. The ANSYS FLUENT study revealed that counter-swirl inlets achieve a uniform pressure and velocity ratio when the ports of the injector length to diameter ratio (L/D) is 4. An angle of 115 degrees was found to increase distribution efficiency. The findings show that this oxy-combustion concept is capable of providing a high-enthalpy environment for seeding, in order to render the flow to be conductive. Based on previous findings, temperatures in the range of 2800-3000 K may enable magnetohydrodynamic power extraction. The heat loss fraction in this oxy-combustion system, based on CFD and analytical calculations, at optimal operating conditions, was estimated to be less than 10 percent

  14. Introducing a novel gravitation-based high-velocity compaction analysis method for pharmaceutical powders. (United States)

    Tanner, Timo; Antikainen, Osmo; Ehlers, Henrik; Yliruusi, Jouko


    With modern tableting machines large amounts of tablets are produced with high output. Consequently, methods to examine powder compression in a high-velocity setting are in demand. In the present study, a novel gravitation-based method was developed to examine powder compression. A steel bar is dropped on a punch to compress microcrystalline cellulose and starch samples inside the die. The distance of the bar is being read by a high-accuracy laser displacement sensor which provides a reliable distance-time plot for the bar movement. In-die height and density of the compact can be seen directly from this data, which can be examined further to obtain information on velocity, acceleration and energy distribution during compression. The energy consumed in compact formation could also be seen. Despite the high vertical compression speed, the method was proven to be cost-efficient, accurate and reproducible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Friction properties and deformation mechanisms of halite(-mica) gouges from low to high sliding velocities (United States)

    Buijze, Loes; Niemeijer, André R.; Han, Raehee; Shimamoto, Toshihiko; Spiers, Christopher J.


    The evolution of friction as a function of slip rate is important in understanding earthquake nucleation and propagation. Many laboratory experiments investigating friction of fault rocks are either conducted in the low velocity regime (10-8-10-4 ms-1) or in the high velocity regime (0.01-1 m s-1). Here, we report on the evolution of friction and corresponding operating deformation mechanisms in analog gouges deformed from low to high slip rates, bridging the gap between these low and high velocity regimes. We used halite and halite-muscovite gouges to simulate processes, governing friction, active in upper crustal quartzitic fault rocks, at conditions accessible in the laboratory. The gouges were deformed over a 7 orders of magnitude range of slip rate (10-7-1 m s-1) using a low-to-high velocity rotary shear apparatus, using a normal stress of 5 MPa and room-dry humidity. Microstructural analysis was conducted to study the deformation mechanisms. Four frictional regimes as a function of slip rate could be recognized from the mechanical data, showing a transitional regime and stable sliding (10-7-10-6 m s-1), unstable sliding and weakening (10-6-10-3 m s-1), hardening (10-2-10-1 m s-1) and strong weakening (10-1-1 m s-1). Each of the four regimes can be associated with a distinct microstructure, reflecting a transition from mainly brittle deformation accompanied by pressure solution healing to temperature activated deformation mechanisms. Additionally, the frictional response of a sliding gouge to a sudden acceleration of slip rate to seismic velocities was investigated. These showed an initial strengthening, the amount of which depended on the friction level at which the step was made, followed by strong slip weakening.

  16. Exploring High-Velocity NH3(6,6) Emission at the Center of Our Galaxy (United States)

    Donovan, Jennifer L.; Herrnstein, Robeson M.; Ho, Paul T. P.


    Using the NH3 (6,6) transition, which samples dense (~105) molecular gas with an energy above ground of 412 K, we find hot gas at high velocities (-142 to -210 km s-1) associated with the central 2 pc of the Galactic center. This material may be either infalling gas due to shocks or tidal stripping, or possibly gas swept from the nuclear region. We identify two high-velocity features, which we call the Southern Runner and the Cap, and correlate these features with others detected in various molecular observations of the Galactic center. The characteristic line widths of the Southern Runner and Cap, 10-15 km s-1, are similar to those of other hot Galactic center clouds. The estimated H2 masses of these clouds are 4×103 and 2×103 Msolar, consistent with the masses of the western streamer and northern ridge, NH3 (6,6) emission features detected within the central 10 pc at lower velocities. Three possible explanations for this emission are discussed, assuming that they lie at the Galactic center, including sweeping by the supernova remnant Sgr A East, infall and/or shock from the circumnuclear disk (CND), and stripping from the central rotating low-velocity NH 3 (6,6) cloud.

  17. Measurement of the Radial Velocity of Vega and SAO 104807 by high resolution spectrometry (United States)

    Rosas, F.; Ordoñez, J.; Suarez, W.; Quijano, A.


    The radial velocity is the component of the velocity with which a celestial object approaches (blueshift) or go away (redshift) of the observer. The precise measurement of the redshift allowed to Humason and Hubble discover the expansion of the Universe. In 1998 two research teams simultaneously discovered that this expansion is accelerated, for that reason the hypothesis of the dark energy has been raised to explain the existing repulsion. The present work shows the measurement of the radial velocity of Vega and SAO104807 by high resolution spectrometry. Using the instruments of the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Nariño, located in the south of Colombia, was measured the displacement that the spectral lines of both celestial objects suffer due to the Doppler effect. The results obtained were quite close to those recorded in databases such as SIMBAD, according to the used equipment. The instruments used were: Celestron CGE Pro 1400 Telescope, Shelyak LHIRES III High Resolution Spectrometer and SBIG ST-8300 CCD Camera. The characteristics of the spectrometer are: Diffraction grating: 2400 lines/mm, Spectral dispersion (H alpha): 0:012 nm/pixel, Radial velocity resolution: 5 km/s.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R; Gok, R; Sandvol, E


    The southwest edge of Eurasia is a tectonically and structurally complex region that includes the Caspian and Black Sea basins, the Caucasus Mountains, and the high plateaus south of the Caucasus. Crustal and upper mantle velocities show great heterogeneity in this region and regional phases display variations in both amplitudes and travel time. Furthermore, due to a lack of quality data, the region has largely been unexplored in terms of the detailed lithospheric seismic structure. A unified high-resolution 3D velocity and attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle will be developed and calibrated. This model will use new data from 23 new broadband stations in the region analyzed with a comprehensive set of techniques. Velocity models of the crust and upper mantle will be developed using a joint inversion of receiver functions and surface waves. The surface wave modeling will use both event-based methods and ambient noise tomography. Regional phase (Pg, Pn, Sn, and Lg) Q model(s) will be constructed using the new data in combination with existing data sets. The results of the analysis (both attenuation and velocity modeling) will be validated using modeling of regional phases, calibration with selected events, and comparison with previous work. Preliminary analyses of receiver functions show considerable variability across the region. All results will be integrated into the KnowledgeBase.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, M. J.; Scalzo, R. A.; Sim, S. A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Schmidt, B. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Cenko, S. B.; Filippenko, A. V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Silverman, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Contreras, C.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Jha, S. W.; McCully, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Anderson, J. P.; De Jaeger, T.; Forster, F. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Benetti, S. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bufano, F., E-mail: [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); and others


    We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia SN 2012fr, 33 of which were obtained before maximum light. At early times, SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si II {lambda}6355 line that can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity ''photospheric'' component. This Si II {lambda}6355 HVF fades by phase -5; subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of {approx}12,000 km s{sup -1} until at least five weeks after maximum brightness. The Ca II infrared triplet exhibits similar evidence for both a photospheric component at v Almost-Equal-To 12,000 km s{sup -1} with narrow line width and long velocity plateau, as well as an HVF beginning at v Almost-Equal-To 31,000 km s{sup -1} two weeks before maximum. SN 2012fr resides on the border between the ''shallow silicon'' and ''core-normal'' subclasses in the Branch et al. classification scheme, and on the border between normal and high-velocity Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Wang et al. system. Though it is a clear member of the ''low velocity gradient'' group of SNe Ia and exhibits a very slow light-curve decline, it shows key dissimilarities with the overluminous SN 1991T or SN 1999aa subclasses of SNe Ia. SN 2012fr represents a well-observed SN Ia at the luminous end of the normal SN Ia distribution and a key transitional event between nominal spectroscopic subclasses of SNe Ia.

  20. Flash x-ray observations of cavitation in cadaver thighs caused by high-velocity bullets. (United States)

    Boyer, C N; Holland, G E; Seely, J F


    The purpose of this study was to record flash x-ray images of cavitation in human cadaver thighs caused by the passage of high-velocity bullets. The images are an initial step for understanding the cavitation process in human tissue and for implementing a better definition of extensive tissue injury. Bullets were fired through the mid-thighs of 13 cadaver legs. The bullets were of two calibers, 7.62-mm full metal jacket boat tail with strike velocities in the range of 794 m/s to 880 m/s (10 thighs) and 5.70 mm full metal jacket with velocities in the range of 973 m/s to 992 m/s (3 thighs). Short duration (35 ns) x-ray images were recorded at various selected times after the bullets passed near the femurs. This study was carried out at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology under approved human subject protocols. The cavity sizes and shapes were observed for the two types of bullets and at a number of times during the expansion and collapse of the cavities. As the bullets passed through the thighs, narrow cavities behind the bullets were observed. At later times, large expanded cavities were observed that encompassed the entire mid-thigh region. The observed cavities are at variance with those which were reported previously in gelatin tissue simulants. Flash x-ray radiography is an effective technique for the observation of internal cavitation in cadaver thighs caused by high-velocity bullets. These observations suggest that gelatin is not a proven simulant for human cadaver tissue in the study of cavitation subsequent to high-velocity missile impact.

  1. Thin shell, high velocity inertial confinement fusion implosions on the national ignition facility. (United States)

    Ma, T; Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Barrios, M A; Casey, D T; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Haan, S W; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Le Pape, S; MacPhee, A G; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Salmonson, J D; Springer, P T; Tommasini, R; Benedetti, L R; Bionta, R; Bond, E; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J; Celliers, P; Cerjan, C J; Church, J A; Dixit, S; Dylla-Spears, R; Edgell, D; Edwards, M J; Field, J; Fittinghoff, D N; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Grim, G; Guler, N; Hatarik, R; Herrmann, H W; Hsing, W W; Izumi, N; Jones, O S; Khan, S F; Kilkenny, J D; Knauer, J; Kohut, T; Kozioziemski, B; Kritcher, A; Kyrala, G; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Mackinnon, A J; Meezan, N B; Merrill, F E; Moody, J D; Nagel, S R; Nikroo, A; Parham, T; Ralph, J E; Rosen, M D; Rygg, J R; Sater, J; Sayre, D; Schneider, M B; Shaughnessy, D; Spears, B K; Town, R P J; Volegov, P L; Wan, A; Widmann, K; Wilde, C H; Yeamans, C


    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165  μm in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Early results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1/2 the neutron yield coming from α-particle self-heating.

  2. Thin Shell, High Velocity Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hurricane, O. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Callahan, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barrios, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Casey, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dewald, E. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dittrich, T. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Doppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haan, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hinkel, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Berzak Hopkins, L. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Le Pape, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacPhee, A. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pak, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, H. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Robey, H. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salmonson, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Springer, P. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tommasini, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benedetti, L. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bionta, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bond, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Caggiano, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Celliers, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cerjan, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Church, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dixit, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dylla-Spears, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edgell, D. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Edwards, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Field, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fittinghoff, D. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu Johnson, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Grim, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Guler, N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hatarik, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Herrmann, H. W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hsing, W. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Izumi, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jones, O. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Khan, S. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kilkenny, J. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Knauer, J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Kohut, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kozioziemski, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kritcher, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kyrala, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacGowan, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mackinnon, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meezan, N. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Merrill, F. E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moody, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nagel, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Parham, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ralph, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rosen, M. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rygg, J. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sater, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sayre, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schneider, M. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shaughnessy, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Spears, B. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Town, R.P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Volegov, P. L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wan, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Widmann, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yeamans, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165 μm in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Earlier results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1/2 the neutron yield coming from α-particle self-heating.

  3. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask. (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal


    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science.

  4. Scaling invariance of spherical projectile fragmentation upon high-velocity impact on a thin continuous shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myagkov, N. N., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Mechanics (Russian Federation)


    The problem of aluminum projectile fragmentation upon high-velocity impact on a thin aluminum shield is considered. A distinctive feature of this description is that the fragmentation has been numerically simulated using the complete system of equations of deformed solid mechanics by a method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics in three-dimensional setting. The transition from damage to fragmentation is analyzed and scaling relations are derived in terms of the impact velocity (V), ratio of shield thickness to projectile diameter (h/D), and ultimate strength (σ{sub p}) in the criterion of projectile and shield fracture. Analysis shows that the critical impact velocity V{sub c} (separating the damage and fragmentation regions) is a power function of σ{sub p} and h/D. In the supercritical region (V > V{sub c}), the weight-average fragment mass asymptotically tends to a power function of the impact velocity with exponent independent of h/D and σ{sub p}. Mean cumulative fragment mass distributions at the critical point are scale-invariant with respect to parameters h/D and σ{sub p}. Average masses of the largest fragments are also scale-invariant at V > V{sub c}, but only with respect to variable parameter σ{sub p}.

  5. Unrecognized ligamentous instability due to high-energy, low-velocity mechanism of injury. (United States)

    Dusseldorp, J R; Ow-Yang, M; Mobbs, R J


    We report a unique mechanism of injury and illustrate the difficulties of diagnosing purely ligamentous injuries to the cervical spine. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of this type of high-energy, low-velocity mechanism of injury. The pattern of injury is also unusual, consisting of anterolisthesis of L4 on L5 with bilateral perched facet joints, atlantoaxial instability and bilateral lower limb fractures. We present a 49-year-old man who experienced a high-energy, low-velocity crush injury that led to extreme hyperflexion of his spine. Standard trauma protocols were carried out, yet atlantoaxial instability was not diagnosed until 3 days post-operatively, when the patient went into respiratory failure due to high spinal cord compression. We fused the C1/2 vertebral bodies using Harm's technique; the patient exhibited no long-term spinal cord dysfunction. Although uncommon, if left undiagnosed or not considered, purely ligamentous injuries to the cervical spine can result in catastrophic complications. Such injuries are an important subgroup to be considered at the time of initial assessment. Furthermore, when managing the multi-trauma patient, clinicians must remember not to overlook the atlantoaxial joint, as high-energy, low-velocity injury to the cervical spine may lead to silent, life-threatening instability that may not be apparent on routine imaging. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. St 2-22 - Another Symbiotic Star with High-Velocity Bipolar Jets (United States)

    Tomov, T.; Zamanov, R.; Gałan, C.; Pietrukowicz, P.


    We report the detection of high-velocity components in the wings of Hα emission line in spectra of symbiotic binary star St 2-22 obtained in 2005. This finding encouraged us to start the present investigation in order to show that this poorly-studied object is a jet-producing system. We have used high-resolution optical and low-resolution near-infrared spectra, as well as available optical and infrared photometry, to evaluate some physical parameters of the St 2-22 components and characteristics of the jets. We confirm that St 2-22 is a S-type symbiotic star. Our results demonstrate that an unnoticed outburst, similar to those in classical symbiotic systems, occurred in the first half of 2005. During the outburst, collimated bipolar jets were ejected by the hot component of St 2-22 with an average velocity of about 1700 km/s.

  7. High Power test of a low group velocity X-band Accelerator Structure for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Döbert, S; Riddone, G; Taborelli, M; Wuensch, W; Zennaro, R; Fukuda, S; Higashi, Y; Higo, T; Matsumoto, S; Ueno, K; Yokoyama, K; Adolphsen, C; Dolgashev, V; Laurent, L; Lewandowski, J; Tantawi, S; Wang, F; Wang, JW


    In recent years evidence has been found that the maximum sustainable gradient in an accelerating structure depends on the rf power flow through the structure. The CLIC study group has consequently designed a new prototype structure for CLIC with a very low group velocity, input power and average aperture ( = 0.13). The 18 cell structure has a group velocity of 2.6 % at the entrance and 1 % at the last cell. Several of these structures have been made in a collaboration between KEK, SLAC and CERN. A total of five brazed-disk structures and two quadrant structures have been made. The high power results of the first KEK/SLAC built structure is presented which reached an unloaded gradient in excess of 100 MV/m at a pulse length of 230 ns with a breakdown rate below 10-6 per meter active length. The high-power testing was done using the NLCTA facility at SLAC.

  8. [Determination of sulfur in plant using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer]. (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jia-xi


    A method for the analysis of sulfur (S) in plant by molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide (CS) using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (CS AAS) with a fuel-rich air/acetylene flame has been devised. The strong CS absorption band was found around 258 nm. The half-widths of some absorption bands were of the order of picometers, the same as the common atomic absorption lines. The experimental procedure in this study provided optimized instrumental conditions (the ratio of acetylene to air, the burner height) and parameters, and researched the spectral interferences and chemical interferences. The influence of the organic solvents on the CS absorption signals and the different digestion procedures for the determination of sulfur were also investigated. The limit of detection achieved for sulfur was 14 mg x L(-1), using the CS wavelength of 257. 961 nm and a measurement time of 3 s. The accuracy and precision were verified by analysis of two plant standard reference materials. The major applications of this method have been used for the determination of sulfur in plant materials, such as leaves. Compared to the others, this method for the analysis of sulfur is rapid, easy and simple for sulfur determination in plant.

  9. Nonlocal Modeling in High-Velocity Impact Failure of 6061-T6 Aluminum


    Ahad, F. R.; Enakoutsa, K.; Solanki, K. N.; Bammann, D. J.


    In this paper, we present numerical simulations with local and nonlocal models under dynamic loading conditions. We show that for finite element (FE) computations of high-velocity, impact problems with softening material models will result in spurious post-bifurcation mesh dependency solutions. To alleviate numerical instability associated within the post-bifurcation regime, a characteristic length scale was added to the constitutive relations based on calibration of the series of different n...

  10. The Effects of High Velocity Variable Mass Projectiles on the Maxillofacial Complex, (United States)


    injuring missile, but it may be only one of many contributors to the morphology of the wound. High velocity projectiles, striking bone and/or teeth ...This is especially true of hits shattering the hard enamel of teeth . These findings tend to re-emphasize the work of Mcleod who stated that...through controlled studies to determine the morphology of wounds caused by such projectiles and to establish and disseminate treatment data which

  11. Absorption of irrigation fluid occurs frequently during high power 532 nm laser vaporization of the prostate. (United States)

    Hermanns, Thomas; Grossmann, Nico C; Wettstein, Marian S; Fankhauser, Christian D; Capol, Janine C; Poyet, Cédric; Hefermehl, Lukas J; Zimmermann, Matthias; Sulser, Tullio; Müller, Alexander


    Absorption of irrigation fluid was not detected during GreenLight™ laser vaporization of the prostate using the first generation 80 W laser. However, data are lacking on intraoperative irrigation fluid absorption using the second generation 120 W high power laser. We assessed whether fluid absorption occurs during high power laser vaporization of the prostate. We performed this prospective investigation at a tertiary referral center in patients undergoing 120 W laser vaporization for prostatic bladder outlet obstruction. Normal saline containing 1% ethanol was used for intraoperative irrigation. The expired breath ethanol concentration was measured periodically during the operation using an alcometer. The volume of saline absorption was calculated from these concentrations. Intraoperative changes in hematological and biochemical blood parameters were also recorded. Of 50 investigated patients 22 (44%) had a positive breath ethanol test. Median absorption volume in the absorber group was 725 ml (range 138 to 3,452). Ten patients absorbed more than 1,000 ml. Absorbers had a smaller prostate, more capsular perforation, higher bleeding intensity and more laser energy applied during the operation. Three patients (13%) had symptoms potentially related to fluid absorption. Hemoglobin, hematocrit and serum chloride were the only blood parameters that changed significantly in the absorber group. The changes were significantly different than those in nonabsorbers. Fluid absorption occurs frequently during high power laser vaporization of the prostate. This should be considered in patients who present with cardiopulmonary or neurological symptoms during or after the procedure. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A comprehensive statistical investigation of schlieren image velocimetry (SIV) using high-velocity helium jet (United States)

    Biswas, Sayan; Qiao, Li


    A detailed statistical assessment of seedless velocity measurement using Schlieren Image Velocimetry (SIV) was explored using open source Robust Phase Correlation (RPC) algorithm. A well-known flow field, an axisymmetric turbulent helium jet, was analyzed near and intermediate region (0≤ x/d≤ 20) for two different Reynolds numbers, Re d = 11,000 and Re d = 22,000 using schlieren with horizontal knife-edge, schlieren with vertical knife-edge and shadowgraph technique, and the resulted velocity fields from SIV techniques were compared to traditional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. A novel, inexpensive, easy to setup two-camera SIV technique had been demonstrated to measure high-velocity turbulent jet, with jet exit velocities 304 m/s (Mach = 0.3) and 611 m/s (Mach = 0.6), respectively. Several image restoration and enhancement techniques were tested to improve signal to noise ratio (SNR) in schlieren and shadowgraph images. Processing and post-processing parameters for SIV techniques were examined in detail. A quantitative comparison between self-seeded SIV techniques and traditional PIV had been made using correlation statistics. While the resulted flow field from schlieren with horizontal knife-edge and shadowgraph showed excellent agreement with PIV measurements, schlieren with vertical knife-edge performed poorly. The performance of spatial cross-correlations at different jet locations using SIV techniques and PIV was evaluated. Turbulence quantities like turbulence intensity, mean velocity fields, Reynolds shear stress influenced spatial correlations and correlation plane SNR heavily. Several performance metrics such as primary peak ratio (PPR), peak to correlation energy (PCE), the probability distribution of signal and noise were used to compare capability and potential of different SIV techniques.

  13. CUTLASS HF radar observations of high-velocity E-region echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Uspensky


    Full Text Available A short event of high-velocity E-region echo observations by the Pykkvibaer HF radar is analysed to study echo parameters and the echo relation to the Farley-Buneman plasma instability. The echoes were detected in several beams aligned closely to the magnetic L-shell direction. Two echo groups were identified: one group corresponded to the classical type 1 echoes with velocities close to the nominal ion-acoustic speed of 400 ms–1 , while the other group had significantly larger velocities, of the order of 700 ms–1 . The mutual relationship between the echo power, Doppler velocity, spectral width and elevation angles for these two groups was studied. Plotting of echo parameters versus slant range showed that all ~700 ms–1 echoes originated from larger heights and distances of 500–700 km, while all ~400 ms–1 echoes came from lower heights and from farther distances; 700–1000 km. We argue that both observed groups of echoes occurred due to the Farley-Buneman plasma instability excited by strong ( ~70 mVm–1 and uniformly distributed electric fields. We show that the echo velocities for the two groups were different because the echoes were received from different heights. Such a separation of echo heights occurred due to the differing amounts of ionospheric refraction at short and large ranges. Thus, the ionospheric refraction and related altitude modulation of ionospheric parameters are the most important factors to consider, when various characteristics of E-region decametre irregularities are derived from HF radar measurements.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities; polar ionosphere

  14. Photothermal self-phase-modulation technique for absorption measurements on high-reflective coatings. (United States)

    Steinlechner, Jessica; Jensen, Lars; Krüger, Christoph; Lastzka, Nico; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Schnabel, Roman


    We propose and demonstrate a new measurement technique for the optical absorption of high-reflection coatings. Our technique is based on photothermal self-phase modulation and exploits the deformation of cavity Airy peaks that occurs due to coating absorption of intracavity light. The mirror whose coating is under investigation needs to be the input mirror of a high-finesse cavity. Our example measurements were performed on a high-reflection SiO2-Ta2O5 coating in a three-mirror ring-cavity setup at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The optical absorption of the coating was determined to be α=(23.9±2.0)·10(-6) per coating. Our result is in excellent agreement with an independently performed laser calorimetry measurement that gave a value of α=(24.4±3.2)·10(-6) per coating. Since the self-phase modulation in our coating-absorption measurement affects mainly the propagation through the cavity input mirror, our measurement result is practically uninfluenced by the optical absorption of the other cavity mirrors.

  15. Energy absorption at high strain rate of glass fiber reinforced mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenu Luigi


    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of cement mortars reinforced with glass fibers was studied. The influence of the addition of glass fibers on energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate was investigated. Static tests in compression, in tension and in bending were first performed. Dynamic tests by means of a Modified Hopkinson Bar were then carried out in order to investigate how glass fibers affected energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate of the fiber reinforced mortar. The Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF was finally evaluated.

  16. Episodic High-velocity Outflows from V899 Mon: A Constraint On The Outflow Mechanisms (United States)

    Ninan, J. P.; Ojha, D. K.; Philip, N. S.


    We report the detection of large variations in the outflow wind velocity from a young eruptive star, V899 Mon, during its ongoing high accretion outburst phase. Such large variations in the outflow velocity (from -722 to -425 km s-1) have never been reported previously in this family of objects. Our continuous monitoring of this source shows that the multi-component, clumpy, and episodic high velocity outflows are stable in the timescale of a few days, and vary over the timescale of a few weeks to months. We detect significant decoupling in the instantaneous outflow strength to accretion rate. From the comparison of various possible outflow mechanisms in magnetospheric accretion of young stellar objects, we conclude magnetically driven polar winds to be the most consistent mechanism for the outflows seen in V899 Mon. The large scale fluctuations in outflow over the short period makes V899 Mon the most ideal source to constrain various magnetohydrodynamics simulations of magnetospheric accretion. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  17. Prescribed Velocity Gradients for Highly Viscous SPH Fluids with Vorticity Diffusion. (United States)

    Peer, Andreas; Teschner, Matthias


    Working with prescribed velocity gradients is a promising approach to efficiently and robustly simulate highly viscous SPH fluids. Such approaches allow to explicitly and independently process shear rate, spin, and expansion rate. This can be used to, e.g., avoid interferences between pressure and viscosity solvers. Another interesting aspect is the possibility to explicitly process the vorticity, e.g., to preserve the vorticity. In this context, this paper proposes a novel variant of the prescribed-gradient idea that handles vorticity in a physically motivated way. In contrast to a less appropriate vorticity preservation that has been used in a previous approach, vorticity is diffused. The paper illustrates the utility of the vorticity diffusion. Therefore, comparisons of the proposed vorticity diffusion with vorticity preservation and additionally with vorticity damping are presented. The paper further discusses the relation between prescribed velocity gradients and prescribed velocity Laplacians which improves the intuition behind the prescribed-gradient method for highly viscous SPH fluids. Finally, the paper discusses the relation of the proposed method to a physically correct implicit viscosity formulation.

  18. The influence of high-velocity circuit resistance training on VO2max and cardiac output. (United States)

    Petersen, S R; Haennel, R G; Kappagoda, C T; Belcastro, A N; Reid, D C; Wenger, H A; Quinney, H A


    In order to investigate the influence of high-velocity circuit resistance training on maximal aerobic power, maximal stroke volume and cardiac output, and blood lactate removal during recovery, 16 habitually active males were blocked on initial VO2max into either training or control groups. The training group completed two (weeks 1 and 2) or three (weeks 3-6) circuits of 10 variable-resistance hydraulic exercise stations at an exercise: relief ratio of 1:2 on alternate days over six weeks. Angular velocities of movement were maintained at approximately 3.1 rad.s-1. Following training, the VO2max was increased (p less than .01) from 4.32 to 4.68 1.min-1. Maximal stroke volume was increased (p less than .05) from 120 to 129 mL and heart rate response to an absolute submaximal exercise load was decreased (p less than .05) from 153 to 146 beats.min-1. As well, enhanced (p less than .01) removal of lactate from the blood was observed during recovery from exhausting exercise. No changes were observed for control subjects. These results indicate that positive alterations in aerobic and cardiovascular function may be achieved consequent to high-velocity circuit resistance training.

  19. Rebound mechanics of micrometre-scale, spherical particles in high-velocity impacts (United States)

    Yildirim, Baran; Yang, Hankang; Gouldstone, Andrew; Müftü, Sinan


    The impact mechanics of micrometre-scale metal particles with flat metal surfaces is investigated for high-velocity impacts ranging from 50 m s-1 to more than 1 km s-1, where impact causes predominantly plastic deformation. A material model that includes high strain rate and temperature effects on the yield stress, heat generation due to plasticity, material damage due to excessive plastic strain and heat transfer is used in the numerical analysis. The coefficient of restitution e is predicted by the classical work using elastic-plastic deformation analysis with quasi-static impact mechanics to be proportional to Vi-1 / 4 and Vi-1 / 2 for the low and moderate impact velocities that span the ranges of 0-10 and 10-100 m s-1, respectively. In the elastic-plastic and fully plastic deformation regimes the particle rebound is attributed to the elastic spring-back that initiates at the particle-substrate interface. At higher impact velocities (0.1-1 km s-1) e is shown to be proportional to approximately Vi-1. In this deeply plastic deformation regime various deformation modes that depend on plastic flow of the material including the time lag between the rebound instances of the top and bottom points of particle and the lateral spreading of the particle are identified. In this deformation regime, the elastic spring-back initiates subsurface, in the substrate.

  20. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of the High-Velocity Interaction of Solid Bodies in Water (United States)

    Ishchenko, A. N.; Afanas'eva, S. A.; Burkin, V. V.; D'yachkovskii, A. S.; Zykov, E. N.; Korol'kov, L. V.; Monakhov, R. Yu.; Rodionov, A. A.; Khabibullin, M. V.; Chupashev, A. V.


    Methods of estimating the penetrating ability of a metal striker into an aquatic medium and its interaction with obstacles in it have been developed. The penetration of a needle-shaped metal body into a water with a high velocity and its interaction with a metal obstacle found in it was investigated and calculated within the framework of continuum mechanics with the use of an elastoplastic model for definition of the solid body with account for its destruction and a hydrodynamic model for the water. It has been established that in the case where the indicated striker enters into the water with a velocity of 1.0-2.5 km/s, the developed-cavitation regime is realized, the head of the striker is subjected to the plastic deformation, and, in some cases, it is destroyed.

  1. Zero-velocity solitons in high-index photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper


    for the deceleration rate that compares favorably with the numerical results is derived. Collisions of successive solitons due to the Raman deceleration are studied numerically, and it is found that the soliton interaction is mostly repulsive, as expected from the established theory of fiber solitons.......Nonlinear propagation in slow-light states of high-index photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is studied numerically. To avoid divergencies in dispersion and nonlinear parameters around the zero-velocity mode, a time-propagating generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is formulated. Calculated slow......-light modes in a solid core chalcogenide PCF are used to parameterize the model, which is shown to support standing and moving spatial solitons. Inclusion of Raman scattering slows down moving solitons exponentially, so that the zero-velocity soliton becomes an attractor state. An analytical expression...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren ÖZŞAHİN


    Full Text Available Ballistic response of single or multi-layered metal armor systems subjected to kinetic energy pro-jectiles was investigated in many experimental, theoretical and numerical studies.In this study, 6061 T651 aluminum plates impacted by 9 mm bullets were investigated. Microstructural investigations have been carried out using optical microscopy. Microhardness values were used to determine the strength behavior of the plates. Influence of the plate thickness and impact velocity on the microstructure has been evaluated. It was concluded from the study that thinner plates are more prone to deformation hardening with high penetration depth values even at low impact velocities while thick plates are more susceptible to thermal softening with less penetration depths. Maximum hardness values were obtained just below the impact zone in both plate thicknesses.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M. E.; Stairs, I. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Ferdman, R. D.; Lyne, A. G. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Freire, P. C. C.; Kramer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Nice, D. J. [Physics Department, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States); Demorest, P. B.; Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hobbs, G.; Manchester, R. N., E-mail: gonzalez@phas.ubc.ca1 [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)


    We present high-precision timing of five millisecond pulsars (MSPs) carried out for more than seven years; four pulsars are in binary systems and one is isolated. We are able to measure the pulsars' proper motions and derive an estimate for their space velocities. The measured two-dimensional velocities are in the range 70-210 km s{sup -1}, consistent with those measured for other MSPs. We also use all the available proper motion information for isolated and binary MSPs to update the known velocity distribution for these populations. As found by earlier works, we find that the velocity distribution of binary and isolated MSPs are indistinguishable with the current data. Four of the pulsars in our observing program are highly recycled with low-mass white dwarf companions and we are able to derive accurate binary parameters for these systems. For three of these binary systems, we are able to place initial constraints on the pulsar masses with best-fit values in the range 1.0-1.6 M{sub Sun }. The implications of the results presented here to our understanding of binary pulsar evolution are discussed. The updated parameters for the binary systems studied here, together with recently discovered similar systems, allowed us to update previous limits on the violation of the strong equivalence principle through the parameter |{Delta}| to 4.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} (95% confidence) and the violation of Lorentz invariance/momentum conservation through the parameter |{alpha}-hat3| to 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -20} (95% confidence).

  4. Streptococcus mutans biofilm transient viscoelastic fluid behaviour during high-velocity microsprays. (United States)

    Fabbri, S; Johnston, D A; Rmaile, A; Gottenbos, B; De Jager, M; Aspiras, M; Starke, E M; Ward, M T; Stoodley, P


    Using high-speed imaging we assessed Streptococcus mutans biofilm-fluid interactions during exposure to a 60-ms microspray burst with a maximum exit velocity of 51m/s. S. mutans UA159 biofilms were grown for 72h on 10mm-length glass slides pre-conditioned with porcine gastric mucin. Biofilm stiffness was measured by performing uniaxial-compression tests. We developed an in-vitro interproximal model which allowed the parallel insertion of two biofilm-colonized slides separated by a distance of 1mm and enabled high-speed imaging of the removal process at the surface. S. mutans biofilms were exposed to either a water microspray or an air-only microburst. High-speed videos provided further insight into the mechanical behaviour of biofilms as complex liquids and into high-shear fluid-biofilm interaction. We documented biofilms extremely transient fluid behaviour when exposed to the high-velocity microsprays. The presence of time-dependent recoil and residual deformation confirmed the pivotal role of viscoelasticity in biofilm removal. The air-only microburst was effective enough to remove some of the biofilm but created a smaller clearance zone underlying the importance of water and the air-water interface of drops moving over the solid surface in the removal process. Confocal and COMSTAT analysis showed the high-velocity water microspray caused up to a 99.9% reduction in biofilm thickness, biomass and area coverage, within the impact area. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced high-frequency microwave absorption of Fe3O4 architectures based on porous nanoflake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Yanguo; Han, Hongyan


    Hierarchical Fe3O4 architectures assembled with porous nanoplates (p-Fe3O4) were synthesized. Due to the strong shape anisotropy of the nanoplates, the p-Fe3O4 exhibits increased microwave resonance towards high frequency range. The improved microwave absorption properties of the p-Fe3O4, including...

  6. On the development of high temperature ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, Lars


    Ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps (HACHP) are a promising technology for development of ecient high temperature industrial heat pumps. Using 28 bar components HACHPs up to 100 °C are commercially available. Components developed for 50 bar and 140 bar show that these pressure...

  7. Ultralight electrospun cellulose sponge with super-high capacity on absorption of organic compounds. (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Wang, Zhao; Ding, Yichun; Xu, Wenhui; Wu, Weidong; Zhu, Zhengtao; Fong, Hao


    Three-dimensional, cost-effective, and renewable/recyclable absorbent materials with high capacities on absorption of organic compounds are urgently in demand. Herein, a facile while innovative approach is reported to develop ultralight electrospun cellulose sponge (UECS). The prepared UECS exhibits super-high absorption capacity (up to 232 times of its own weight) towards absorption of organic compounds due to high porosity (99.57%), low density (6.45mg/cm3), and hydrophobic surface feature (with water contact angle of 141.2°). Furthermore, the UECS is mechanically robust thus can be readily cut into different shapes; and it also possesses excellent stability against various organic compounds. Intriguingly, upon absorption of an organic compound, the shape-stable UECS organic gel can be formed. Hence, the developed UECS would be promising as environmental friendly absorbent on high-performance separation of organic compounds from aqueous systems; while the UECS organic gel could be utilized for the applications such as drug delivery and sensor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High Pressure X-ray Absorption Studies on Correlated-Electron Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, Andrew L. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    This project used high pressure to alter the electron-electron and electron-lattice interactions in rare earth and actinide compounds. Knowledge of these properties is the starting points for a first-principles understanding of electronic and electronically related macroscopic properties. The research focused on a systematic study of x-ray absorption measurements on rare earth and actinide compounds.

  9. Water absorption and biodegradation kinetics of highly filled EOC-FS biocomposites (United States)

    Zykova, A. K.; Pantyukhov, P. V.; Platov, Yu. T.; Bobojonova, G. A.; Ramos, C. Chaverri; Popov, A. A.


    The paper analyzes the water absorption and biodegradation kinetics in highly filled biocomposites based on ethylene-octene copolymer (EOC) and oil flax straw (FS). It is shown that adding the filler to EOC increases the water absorption from 0 to 22%. The tendency can be explained both by the low interfacial adhesion of EOC to FS and by the hydrophilic nature of the filler. According to biodegradation tests (10 months), the mass of pure EOC remains unchanged, suggesting that it fails to biodegrade in the environment. Increasing the filler content increases the weight loss of the composites and the degree of microbiological contamination (fungi filaments, bacteria) as evidenced by optical microscopy.

  10. A Compact Circumstellar Shell as the Source of High-velocity Features in SN 2011fe (United States)

    Mulligan, Brian W.; Wheeler, J. Craig


    High-velocity features (HVF), especially of Ca II, are frequently seen in Type Ia supernova observed prior to B-band maximum (Bmax). These HVF evolve in velocity from more than 25, 000 km sec-1, in the days after first light, to about 18, 000 km sec-1 near Bmax. To recreate the evolution of the Ca II near-infrared triplet (CaNIR) HVF in SN 2011fe, we consider the interaction between a model Type Ia supernova and compact circumstellar shells with masses between 0.003 M⊙ and 0.012 M⊙. We fit the observed CaNIR feature using synthetic spectra generated from the models using SYN++. The CaNIR feature is better explained by the supernova model interacting with a shell than the model without a shell, with a shell of mass 0.005 M⊙ tending to be better fitting than the other shells. The evolution of the optical depth of CaNIR suggests that the ionization state of calcium within the ejecta and shell is not constant. We discuss the method used to measure the observed velocity of CaNIR and other features and conclude that HVF or other components can be falsely identified. We briefly discuss the possible origin of the shells and the implications for the progenitor system of the supernova.

  11. A high stellar velocity dispersion for a compact massive galaxy at redshift z = 2.186 (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Kriek, Mariska; Franx, Marijn


    Recent studies have found that the oldest and most luminous galaxies in the early Universe are surprisingly compact, having stellar masses similar to present-day elliptical galaxies but much smaller sizes. This finding has attracted considerable attention, as it suggests that massive galaxies have grown in size by a factor of about five over the past ten billion years (10Gyr). A key test of these results is a determination of the stellar kinematics of one of the compact galaxies: if the sizes of these objects are as extreme as has been claimed, their stars are expected to have much higher velocities than those in present-day galaxies of the same mass. Here we report a measurement of the stellar velocity dispersion of a massive compact galaxy at redshift z = 2.186, corresponding to a look-back time of 10.7Gyr. The velocity dispersion is very high at kms-1, consistent with the mass and compactness of the galaxy inferred from photometric data. This would indicate significant recent structural and dynamical evolution of massive galaxies over the past 10Gyr. The uncertainty in the dispersion was determined from simulations that include the effects of noise and template mismatch. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that some subtle systematic effect may have influenced the analysis, given the low signal-to-noise ratio of our spectrum.

  12. Zero-group-velocity acoustic waveguides for high-frequency resonators (United States)

    Caliendo, C.; Hamidullah, M.


    The propagation of the Lamb-like modes along a silicon-on-insulator (SOI)/AlN thin supported structure was simulated in order to exploit the intrinsic zero group velocity (ZGV) features to design electroacoustic resonators that do not require metal strip gratings or suspended edges to confine the acoustic energy. The ZGV resonant conditions in the SOI/AlN composite plate, i.e. the frequencies where the mode group velocity vanishes while the phase velocity remains finite, were investigated in the frequency range from few hundreds of MHz up to 1900 MHz. Some ZGV points were found that show up mostly in low-order modes. The thermal behaviour of these points was studied in the  ‑30 to 220 °C temperature range and the temperature coefficients of the ZGV resonant frequencies (TCF) were estimated. The behaviour of the ZGV resonators operating as gas sensors was studied under the hypothesis that the surface of the device is covered with a thin polyisobutylene (PIB) film able to selectively adsorb dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), trichloromethane (CHCl3), carbontetrachloride (CCl4), tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4), and trichloroethylene (C2HCl3), at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The sensor sensitivity to gas concentration in air was simulated for the first four ZGV points of the inhomogeneous plate. The feasibility of high-frequency, low TCF electroacoustic micro-resonator based on SOI and piezoelectric thin film technology was demonstrated by the present simulation study.

  13. Broadband Two-Photon Absorption Characteristics of Highly Photostable Fluorenyl-Dicyanoethylenylated [60]Fullerene Dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seaho Jeon


    Full Text Available We synthesized four C60-(light-harvesting antenna dyads C60 (>CPAF-Cn (n = 4, 9, 12, or 18 1-Cn for the investigation of their broadband nonlinear absorption effect. Since we have previously demonstrated their high function as two-photon absorption (2PA materials at 1000 nm, a different 2PA wavelength of 780 nm was applied in the study. The combined data taken at two different wavelength ranges substantiated the broadband characteristics of 1-Cn. We proposed that the observed broadband absorptions may be attributed by a partial π-conjugation between the C60 > cage and CPAF-Cn moieties, via endinitrile tautomeric resonance, giving a resonance state with enhanced molecular conjugation. This transient state could increase its 2PA and excited-state absorption at 800 nm. In addition, a trend of concentration-dependent 2PA cross-section (σ2 and excited-state absorption magnitude was detected showing a higher σ value at a lower concentration that was correlated to increasing molecular separation with less aggregation for dyads C60(>CPAF-C18 and C60(>CPAF-C9, as better 2PA and excited-state absorbers.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R; Gok, R; Pasyanos, M; Skobeltsyn, G; Teoman, U; Godoladze, T; Sandvol, E


    The southwest edge of Eurasia is a tectonically and structurally complex region that includes the Caspian and Black Sea basins, the Caucasus Mountains, and the high plateaus south of the Caucasus. Using data from 25 broadband stations located in the region, new estimates of crustal and upper mantle thickness, velocity structure, and attenuation are being developed. Receiver functions have been determined for all stations. Depth to Moho is estimated using slant stacking of the receiver functions, forward modeling, and inversion. Moho depths along the Caspian and in the Kura Depression are in general poorly constrained using only receiver functions due to thick sedimentary basin sediments. The best fitting models suggest a low velocity upper crust with Moho depths ranging from 30 to 40 km. Crustal thicknesses increase in the Greater Caucasus with Moho depths of 40 to 50 km. Pronounced variations with azimuth of source are observed indicating 3D structural complexity and upper crustal velocities are higher than in the Kura Depression to the south. In the Lesser Caucasus, south and west of the Kura Depression, the crust is thicker (40 to 50 km) and upper crustal velocities are higher. Work is underway to refine these models with the event based surface wave dispersion and ambient noise correlation measurements from continuous data. Regional phase (Lg and Pg) attenuation models as well as blockage maps for Pn and Sn are being developed. Two methods are used to estimate Q: the two-station method to estimate inter-station Q and the reversed, two-station, two event method. The results are then inverted to create Lg and Pg Q maps. Initial results suggest substantial variations in both Pg and Lg Q in the region. A zone of higher Pg Q extends west from the Caspian between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus and a narrow area of higher Lg Q is observed.

  15. High-pressure x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of tin tungstates (United States)

    Kuzmin, A.; Anspoks, A.; Kalinko, A.; Timoshenko, J.; Kalendarev, R.; Nataf, L.; Baudelet, F.; Irifune, T.


    Room-temperature pressure-dependent (0-25 GPa) x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the W {L}{1,3}-edges of α-SnWO4 and β-SnWO4 was performed using a dispersive setup and a high-pressure nanodiamond anvil cell. The detailed analysis of experimental x-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended x-ray absorption fine structure data suggests that upon increasing pressure, a displacement of tungsten atoms by about 0.2 Å toward the center of the WO6 octahedra occurs in α-SnWO4, whereas the coordination of tungsten atoms changes from tetrahedral to distorted octahedral in β-SnWO4.

  16. Effect of water absorption by the aggregate on properties of high-strength lightweight concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punkki, J.


    Recently, high-strength lightweight concrete has become an interesting building material for the offshore oil industry. This doctoral thesis presents an experimental investigation of the effect of water absorption by three different types of lightweight aggregates. One type did not show any water absorption ability at all and so represented no problem to the concrete production. For the two other high-strength aggregates, which were of more conventional types, the water absorption depended not only on the properties of the aggregates, but also on the concrete mixing procedure and the properties of the fresh cement paste. When water absorbing lightweight aggregate was used in a dry condition, the workability of the concrete was significantly reduced by the water absorption of the aggregate. This effect was not present when prewetted aggregate was used. The water absorption by the lightweight aggregate also affected the early compressive strength of concrete. After one day, dry aggregate gave on the average 10 MPa higher compressive strength than did prewetted aggregate. The strength-density ratio was affected by the moisture condition of the aggregate. Dry lightweight aggregate gave 9 MPa higher compressive strength at a density of 2000 kg/m{sup 3} compared to that of prewetted aggregate. The water absorption by the lightweight also affected the microstructure of the hardened concrete. Dry lightweight aggregate gave a slightly better microstructure than normal weight aggregate. The results indicate that the use of prewetted aggregate adversely affected the transition zone between the aggregate and the cement paste. 69 refs., 58 figs., 42 tabs.

  17. Towards high velocity deformation characterisation of metals and composites using Digital Image Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulieu-Barton J.M.


    Full Text Available Characterisation of materials subject to high velocity deformation is necessary as many materials behave differently under such conditions. It is particularly important for accurate numerical simulation of high strain rate events. High velocity servo-hydraulic test machines have enabled material testing in the strain rate regime from 1 – 500 ε/s. The range is much lower than that experienced under ballistic, shock or impact loads, nevertheless it is a useful starting point for the application of optical techniques. The present study examines the possibility of using high speed cameras to capture images and then extracting deformation data using Digital Image Correlation (DIC from tensile testing in the intermediate strain rate regime available with the test machines. Three different materials, aluminium alloy 1050, S235 steel and glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP were tested at different nominal strain rates ranging from quasi static to 200 ε/s. In all cases DIC was able to analyse data collected up to fracture and in some cases post fracture. The use of highspeed DIC made it possible to capture phenomena such as multiple necking in the aluminium specimens and post compression failure in GFRP specimens.

  18. Simulation of High-Speed Droplet Impact Against Dry Substrates with Partial Velocity Slip (United States)

    Kondo, Tomoki; Ando, Keita


    High-speed droplet impact can be used to clean substrates such as silicon wafers. Radially spreading shear flow after the impact may allow for mechanically removing contaminant particles at substrate surfaces. Since it is a big challenge to experimentally explore such complicated flow that exhibits contact line motion and water hammer, its flow feature is not well understood. Here, we aim to numerically evaluate shear flow caused by the impact of a spherical water droplet (of submillimeter sizes) at high speed (up to 50 m/s) against a dry rigid wall. We model the flow based on compressible Navier-Stokes equations with Stokes' hypothesis and solve them by a high-order-accurate finite volume method equipped with shock and interface capturing. To treat the motion of a contact line between the three phases (the droplet, the rigid wall, and the ambient air) in a robust manner, we permit velocity slip at the wall with Navier's model, for wall slip is known to come into play under steep velocity gradients that can arise from high-speed droplet impact. In our presentation, we will examine radially spreading flow after the droplet impact and the resulting wall shear stress generation from the simulation. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17J02211.

  19. Building America Case Study: Standard- Versus High-Velocity Air Distribution in High-Performance Townhomes, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Poerschke, R. Beach, T. Begg


    IBACOS investigated the performance of a small-diameter high-velocity heat pump system compared to a conventional system in a new construction triplex townhouse. A ductless heat pump system also was installed for comparison, but the homebuyer backed out because of aesthetic concerns about that system. In total, two buildings, having identical solar orientation and comprised of six townhomes, were monitored for comfort and energy performance.

  20. High Frame Rate Vector Velocity Estimation using Plane Waves and Transverse Oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    is obtained by filtering the beamformed RF images in the Fourier domain using a Gaussian filter centered at a desired oscillation frequency. Performance of the method is quantified through measurements with the experimental scanner SARUS and the BK 2L8 linear array transducer. Constant parabolic flow......This paper presents a method for estimating 2-D vector velocities using plane waves and transverse oscillation. The approach uses emission of a low number of steered plane waves, which result in a high frame rate and continuous acquisition of data for the whole image. A transverse oscillating field...

  1. CUTLASS HF radar observations of high-velocity E-region echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Uspensky

    Full Text Available A short event of high-velocity E-region echo observations by the Pykkvibaer HF radar is analysed to study echo parameters and the echo relation to the Farley-Buneman plasma instability. The echoes were detected in several beams aligned closely to the magnetic L-shell direction. Two echo groups were identified: one group corresponded to the classical type 1 echoes with velocities close to the nominal ion-acoustic speed of 400 ms1 , while the other group had significantly larger velocities, of the order of 700 ms1 . The mutual relationship between the echo power, Doppler velocity, spectral width and elevation angles for these two groups was studied. Plotting of echo parameters versus slant range showed that all ~700 ms1 echoes originated from larger heights and distances of 500–700 km, while all ~400 ms1 echoes came from lower heights and from farther distances; 700–1000 km. We argue that both observed groups of echoes occurred due to the Farley-Buneman plasma instability excited by strong ( ~70 mVm1 and uniformly distributed electric fields. We show that the echo velocities for the two groups were different because the echoes were received from different heights. Such a separation of echo heights occurred due to the differing amounts of ionospheric refraction at short and large ranges. Thus, the ionospheric refraction and related altitude modulation of ionospheric parameters are the most important factors to consider, when various characteristics of E-region decametre irregularities are derived from HF radar measurements.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities; polar ionosphere

  2. Superfluorescent squaraine with efficient two-photon absorption and high photostability. (United States)

    Belfield, Kevin D; Bondar, Mykhailo V; Haniff, Hafeez S; Mikhailov, Ivan A; Luchita, Gheorghe; Przhonska, Olga V


    The synthesis, linear photophysical, two-photon absorption (2PA), femtosecond transient absorption, and superfluorescence properties of a new symmetrical squaraine derivative (1) are reported. Steady-state linear spectral and photochemical properties, fluorescence lifetimes, and excitation anisotropy of 1 were investigated in various organic solvents. High fluorescence quantum yields (≈0.7) and very high photostability (photodecomposition quantum yields ≈10(-6)-10(-8)) were observed. An open-aperture Z-scan method was used to obtain 2PA spectra of 1 over a broad spectral range (maximum 2PA cross section ≈1000 GM). Excited-state absorption (ESA) and gain was observed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, in which both reached a maximum at approximately 500 fs. Squaraine 1 exhibits efficient superfluorescence. The quantum chemical study of 1 revealed the simulated vibronic nature of the 1PA and 2PA spectra were in good agreement with experimental data; this may provide the ability to predict potential advanced photonic materials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Sensitivity of MENA Tropical Rainbelt to Dust Shortwave Absorption: A High Resolution AGCM Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu


    Shortwave absorption is one of the most important, but the most uncertain, components of direct radiative effect by mineral dust. It has a broad range of estimates from different observational and modeling studies and there is no consensus on the strength of absorption. To elucidate the sensitivity of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) tropical summer rainbelt to a plausible range of uncertainty in dust shortwave absorption, AMIP-style global high resolution (25 km) simulations are conducted with and without dust, using the High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Simulations with dust comprise three different cases by assuming dust as a very efficient, standard and inefficient absorber. Inter-comparison of these simulations shows that the response of the MENA tropical rainbelt is extremely sensitive to the strength of shortwave absorption. Further analyses reveal that the sensitivity of the rainbelt stems from the sensitivity of the multi-scale circulations that define the rainbelt. The maximum response and sensitivity are predicted over the northern edge of the rainbelt, geographically over Sahel. The sensitivity of the responses over the Sahel, especially that of precipitation, is comparable to the mean state. Locally, the response in precipitation reaches up to 50% of the mean, while dust is assumed to be a very efficient absorber. Taking into account that Sahel has a very high climate variability and is extremely vulnerable to changes in precipitation, the present study suggests the importance of reducing uncertainty in dust shortwave absorption for a better simulation and interpretation of the Sahel climate.

  4. High photovoltage in perovskite solar cells: New physical insights from the ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Dar, M. Ibrahim; Franckevičius, Marius; Arora, Neha; Redeckas, Kipras; Vengris, Mikas; Gulbinas, Vidmantas; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Grätzel, Michael


    To understand the cause of the high open circuit photovoltage (VOC) achieved by todays' state of the art perovskite solar cells (PSCs), we examine formamidinium lead bromide CH(NH2)2PbBr3 films by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS). By using TiO2 and spiro-OMeTAD as charge extraction layers, the devices based on the CH(NH2)2PbBr3 films yield VOC as high as 1.5 V ascertaining their high quality. TAS establish that the presence of charge extraction layers has very little influences on the nature of a negative band at 535 nm corresponding to the bleaching of the absorption band edge and two positive bands in the CH(NH2)2PbBr3 films. Therefore, we contend that the VOC in PSC is predominantly determined by the quasi Fermi level splitting within the perovskite layer.

  5. Low-load high-velocity resistance exercises improve strength and functional capacity in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Celes


    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of low-load high-velocity resistance exercises on neuromuscular and functional outcomes in patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D during the early-phase of resistance training. Thirty participants with T2D performed 18 training sessions (6 weeks – 3x week in one of two groups: low-load high-velocity exercises (LLHV, n=15, 62.1±10.5 years or recreational activities (RA, n=15 56.7 ± 19.4 years. LLHV performed resistance exercises with 3x 8reps as fast as possible with 50-60% 1RM. RA performed light activities. Strength, power, and functional tests were assessed. There was significant increasing in the knee extension peak-torque at 60º/s (7.6% and 180º/s (12.2%, rate of force development in the LLHV group (P<0.05, whereas there were no changes in the RA group. Significant increases in functional test were observed in the LLHV group (P<0.01 with no changes in the RA group. In conclusion, the LLHV induced marked improvements in neuromuscular parameters, as well as in the functional capacity of participants with T2D.

  6. Electrostatic Comb-Drive Actuator with High In-Plane Translational Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomna M. Eltagoury


    Full Text Available This work reports the design and opto-mechanical characterization of high velocity comb-drive actuators producing in-plane motion and fabricated using the technology of deep reactive ion etching (DRIE of silicon-on-insulator (SOI substrate. The actuators drive vertical mirrors acting on optical beams propagating in-plane with respect to the substrate. The actuator-mirror device is a fabrication on an SOI wafer with 80 μm etching depth, surface roughness of about 15 nm peak to valley and etching verticality that is better than 0.1 degree. The travel range of the actuators is extracted using an optical method based on optical cavity response and accounting for the diffraction effect. One design achieves a travel range of approximately 9.1 µm at a resonance frequency of approximately 26.1 kHz, while the second design achieves about 2 µm at 93.5 kHz. The two specific designs reported achieve peak velocities of about 1.48 and 1.18 m/s, respectively, which is the highest product of the travel range and frequency for an in-plane microelectromechanical system (MEMS motion under atmospheric pressure, to the best of the authors’ knowledge. The first design possesses high spring linearity over its travel range with about 350 ppm change in the resonance frequency, while the second design achieves higher resonance frequency on the expense of linearity. The theoretical predications and the experimental results show good agreement.

  7. High-Velocity Features in Type Ia Supernovae from a Compact Circumstellar Shell (United States)

    Mulligan, Brian W.; Wheeler, J. Craig


    High-velocity features (HVF) of Ca prior to B-band maximum light are a ubiquitous property of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), but the origin of this high-velocity material is unknown. It may result from ejection of material during the explosion, detonation of material on the surface prior to the supernova or interaction with a companion or material in the nearby environment. Here, we introduce the methods we use to simulate the interaction of SN Ia ejecta with a shell of material surrounding the progenitor at a distance of less than 1 R⊙. Assuming free expansion, constant ion state and excitation temperature, we generate synthetic spectra from the data showing the effect of equation of state, explosion model, and the width, initial density profile and mass of the shell on the appearance and temporal evolution of the Ca ii near-infrared triplet (CaNIR). The Ca abundance of the shell is taken to be a free parameter. We compare the evolution of the pseudo-equivalent width (pEW) of the CaNIR feature resulting from these models to observational results from Silverman et al. We find that the mass of the shell must be less than 0.012 ± 0.004 M⊙. We discuss potential ambiguities in observational methods of determining the pEW of the HVF.

  8. Experiences of the High-Velocity Firearm Injuries at the Forearm and Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çil


    Full Text Available Objective: Weapon injuries have been increasing due to use of weapons widespread. This study aims to describe our experiences with high-velocity firearm injuries to the forearm and the hand. Material and Methods: Seven patients who had high - velocity firearm injuries to the forearm and the hand were included in this study that was conducted between 2010 and 2015. All patients were male, and their mean age was 25 years (range, 21-33 years. On the average, patients were operated on within the first eight hours (range, 6–12 hours. There were two forearm injuries and five hand injuries. Revascularization could not be performed for two finger injuries, and the digits were amputated. Two forearm and three hand vascular injuries that needed microvascular anastomosis were operated on using interposition vein grafts. Vein grafts were obtained from saphenous veins in two patients and from dorsal foot veins in three patients. Results: No microvascular complications were seen in the early or late follow-up periods. Phalanx fractures were seen in all hand injuries. On the average, patients were operated on three times (range: two-five in the follow-up period. Conclusion: In firearm injuries, microvascular repair should be performed out of injury zones; surgeons should not hesitate to use interpositional vein graft for microvascular repair, and physical rehabilitations of patients should be started in the early follow-up period.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. da Silva


    Full Text Available Acute cardiovascular responses to different high-velocity resistance exercise protocols were compared in untrained older women. Twelve apparently healthy volunteers (62.6 ± 2.9 y performed three different protocols in the bench press (BP. All protocols involved three sets of 10 repetitions performed with a 10RM load and 2 minutes of rest between sets. The continuous protocol (CP involved ten repetitions with no pause between repetitions. The discontinuous protocols were performed with a pause of five (DP5 or 15 (DP15 seconds between the fifth and sixth repetitions. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, rate pressure product (RPP, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE, and blood lactate (BLa were assessed at baseline and at the end of all exercise sets. Factorial ANOVA was used to compare the cardiovascular response among different protocols. Compared to baseline, HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05 higher after the third set in all protocols. HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05 lower in DP5 and DP15 compared with CP for the BP exercise. Compared to baseline, RPE increased significantly (p < 0.05 with each subsequent set in all protocols. Blood lactate concentration during DP5 and DP15 was significantly lower than CP. It appears that discontinuous high-velocity resistance exercise has a lower cardiovascular demand than continuous resistance exercise in older women

  10. Semi-analytical method for calculating aeroelastic effect of profiled rod flying at high velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-jun Ning


    Full Text Available The key technique of a kinetic energy rod (KER warhead is to control the flight attitude of rods. The rods are usually designed to different shapes. A new conceptual KER named profiled rod which has large L/D ratio is described in this paper. The elastic dynamic equations of this profiled rod flying at high velocity after detonation are set up on the basis of Euler-Bernoulli beam, and the aeroelastic deformation of profiled rod is calculated by semi-analytical method for calculating the vibration characteristics of variable cross-section beam. In addition, the aeroelastic deformation of the undeformed profiled rod and the aeroelastic deformation of deformed profiled rod which is caused by the detonation of explosive are simulated by computational fluid dynamic and finite element method (CFD/FEM, respectively. A satisfactory agreement of these two methods is obtained by the comparison of two methods. The results show that the semi-analytical method for calculating the vibration characteristics of variable cross-section beam is applied to analyze the aeroelastic deformation of profiled rod flying at high velocity.

  11. Magnetized High Velocity Clouds in the Galactic Halo: A New Distance Constraint (United States)

    Grønnow, Asger; Tepper-García, Thor; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.


    High velocity gas that does not conform to Galactic rotation is observed throughout the Galaxy’s halo. One component of this gas, H I high velocity clouds (HVCs), have attracted attention since their discovery in the 1960s and remain controversial in terms of their origins, largely due to the lack of reliable distance estimates. The recent discovery of enhanced magnetic fields toward HVCs has encouraged us to explore their connection to cloud evolution, kinematics, and survival as they fall through the magnetized Galactic halo. For a reasonable model of the halo magnetic field, most infalling clouds see transverse rather than radial field lines. We find that significant compression (and thereby amplification) of the ambient magnetic field occurs in front of the cloud and in the tail of material stripped from the cloud. The compressed transverse field attenuates hydrodynamical instabilities. This delays cloud destruction, though not indefinitely. The observed {\\boldsymbol{B}} field compression is related to the cloud’s distance from the Galactic plane. As a result, the observed rotation measure provides useful distance information on a cloud’s location.

  12. Frequency comb vernier spectroscopy for broadband, high-resolution, high-sensitivity absorption and dispersion spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gohle, C.; Stein, B.; Schliesser, A.; Udem, T.; Hansch, T.W.


    A femtosecond frequency comb provides a vast number of equidistantly spaced narrow band laser modes that can be simultaneously tuned and frequency calibrated with 15 digit accuracy. Our Vernier spectrometer utilizes all of theses modes in a massively parallel manner to rapidly record both absorption

  13. A new instrument to measure charged and neutral cometary dust particles at low and high impact velocities (United States)

    Economon, T.; Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.


    A new class of dust particle detector, the PVDF dust detector, was designed for space missions such as the Halley Comet missions where the particle impact velocity is very high. It is demonstrated that this same PVDF detector (operating in a different mode) also has the capability of detecting dust particles having low velocity (approx. 100 m/s). This low velocity detection capability is extremely important in terms of planned missions requiring measurement of low velocity dust particles such as comet rendezvous missions. An additional detecting element (charge induction cylinder) was also developed which, when combined with a PVDF detector, yields a system which will measure the charge (magnitude and sign) carried by a cometary particle as well as the particle velocity and mass for impact velocities in the range 100 to 500 m/s. Since the cylinder-PVDF detector system has a relatively small geometry factors, an array of PVDF detectors was included having a total sensing area of 0.1 sq m for measurements in regions of space where the dust flux is expected to be low. The characteristics of the detectors in this array have been chosen to provide optimum mass sensitivity for both low-velocity cometary dust as well as high-velocity asteroid associated and interplanetary dust.

  14. Chemical Abundances and Ages of the Bulge Stars in APOGEE High-velocity Peaks (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Shen, Juntai; Liu, Chao; Li, Zhao-Yu; Mao, Shude; Kunder, Andrea; Rich, R. Michael; Zasowski, G.; Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Majewski, Steven R.; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Geisler, Doug; Tang, Baitian; Villanova, S.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Schultheis, M.; Nidever, David L.; Meza, Andrés; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, D. V.


    A cold, high-velocity (HV, ˜200 km s-1) peak was first reported in several Galactic bulge fields based on the Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) commissioning observations. Both the existence and the nature of the HV peak are still under debate. Here we revisit this feature with the latest APOGEE DR13 data. We find that most of the low-latitude bulge fields display a skewed Gaussian distribution with an HV shoulder. However, only 3 out of 53 fields show distinct HV peaks around 200 km s-1. The velocity distribution can be well described by Gauss-Hermite polynomials, except for the three fields showing clear HV peaks. We find that the correlation between the skewness parameter (h 3) and the mean velocity (\\bar{v}), instead of a distinctive HV peak, is a strong indicator of the bar. It was recently suggested that the HV peak is composed of preferentially young stars. We choose three fields showing clear HV peaks to test this hypothesis using the metallicity, [α/M], and [C/N] as age proxies. We find that both young and old stars show HV features. The similarity between the chemical abundances of stars in the HV peaks and the main component indicates that they are not systematically different in terms of chemical abundance or age. In contrast, there are clear differences in chemical space between stars in the Sagittarius dwarf and the bulge stars. The strong HV peaks off-plane are still to be explained properly and could be different in nature.

  15. Hybrid local piezoelectric and conductive functions for high performance airborne sound absorption (United States)

    Rahimabady, Mojtaba; Statharas, Eleftherios Christos; Yao, Kui; Sharifzadeh Mirshekarloo, Meysam; Chen, Shuting; Tay, Francis Eng Hock


    A concept of hybrid local piezoelectric and electrical conductive functions for improving airborne sound absorption is proposed and demonstrated in composite foam made of porous polar polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) mixed with conductive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). According to our hybrid material function design, the local piezoelectric effect in the PVDF matrix with the polar structure and the electrical resistive loss of SWCNT enhanced sound energy conversion to electrical energy and subsequently to thermal energy, respectively, in addition to the other known sound absorption mechanisms in a porous material. It is found that the overall energy conversion and hence the sound absorption performance are maximized when the concentration of the SWCNT is around the conductivity percolation threshold. For the optimal composition of PVDF/5 wt. % SWCNT, a sound reduction coefficient of larger than 0.58 has been obtained, with a high sound absorption coefficient higher than 50% at 600 Hz, showing their great values for passive noise mitigation even at a low frequency.

  16. Carbonation Coefficients from Concrete Made with High-Absorption Limestone Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric I. Moreno


    Full Text Available Normal aggregates employed in concrete have absorption levels in the range of 0.2% to 4% for coarse aggregate and 0.2 to 2% for fine aggregate. However, some aggregates have absorption levels above these values. As the porosity of concrete is related to the porosity of both the cement paste and the aggregate and the carbonation rate is a function, among other things, of the porosity of the material, there is concern about the effect of this high porosity material in achieving good quality concrete from the durability point of view. Thus, the objective of this investigation was to study the carbonation rates of concrete specimens made with high-absorption limestone aggregate. Four different water/cement ratios were used, and cylindrical concrete specimens were exposed to accelerated carbonation. High porosity values were obtained for concrete specimens beyond the expected limits for durable concrete. However, carbonation coefficients related to normal quality concrete were obtained for the lowest water/cement ratio employed suggesting that durable concrete may be obtained with this material despite the high porosity.

  17. Numerical simulation for accuracy of velocity analysis in small-scale high-resolution marine multichannel seismic technology (United States)

    Luo, Di; Cai, Feng; Wu, Zhiqiang


    When used with large energy sparkers, marine multichannel small-scale high-resolution seismic detection technology has a high resolution, high-detection precision, a wide applicable range, and is very flexible. Positive results have been achieved in submarine geological research, particularly in the investigation of marine gas hydrates. However, the amount of traveltime difference information is reduced for the velocity analysis under conditions of a shorter spread length, thus leading to poorer focusing of the velocity spectrum energy group and a lower accuracy of the velocity analysis. It is thus currently debatable whether the velocity analysis accuracy of short-arrangement multichannel seismic detection technology is able to meet the requirements of practical application in natural gas hydrate exploration. Therefore, in this study the bottom boundary of gas hydrates (Bottom Simulating Reflector, BSR) is used to conduct numerical simulation to discuss the accuracy of the velocity analysis related to such technology. Results show that a higher dominant frequency and smaller sampling interval are not only able to improve the seismic resolution, but they also compensate for the defects of the short-arrangement, thereby improving the accuracy of the velocity analysis. In conclusion, the accuracy of the velocity analysis in this small-scale, high-resolution, multi-channel seismic detection technology meets the requirements of natural gas hydrate exploration.

  18. The Draco Nebula, a Molecular Cloud Associated with a High Velocity Cloud? (United States)

    Mebold, U.; Kalberla, P. W. M.


    Extended and very faint bright nebulae are found in high galactic latitudes at the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. Such a nebula, located in the constellation Draco and called Draco Nebula or Dracula, was found to be in detailed positional coincidence with a 21 cm emission line feature. Estimates of the minimum visual extinction from star counts ON and OFF Dracula and an estimated visual surface brightness indicate that Dracula fits the relation SBV = 24.2 - 2.5 log AV for dust clouds located above the galactic plane and reflecting the integrated starlight of the galactic disk. Hence Dracula is probably a reflection nebula. Indicators of molecular hydrogen in Dracula, molecules such as CO, were searched for by using a 2.5-m mm-telescope. Molecular hydrogen column densities were estimated. The dynamics of CO clumps was studied. Dracula has a close positional and possibly even astrophysical relationship to the high velocity cloud phenomenon.

  19. Draco Nebula, a molecular cloud associated with a high velocity cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mebold, U.; Kalberla, P.W.M.


    Extended and very faint bright nebulae are found in high galactic latitudes at the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. Such a nebula, located in the constellation Draco and called Draco Nebula or Dracula, was found to be in detailed positional coincidence with a 21 cm emission line feature. Estimates of the minimum visual extinction from star counts ON and OFF Dracula and an estimated visual surface brightness indicate that Dracula fits the relation SBV 24.2 - 2.5 log AV for dust clouds located above the galactic plane and reflecting the integrated starlight of the galactic disk. Hence Dracula is probably a reflection nebula. Indicators of molecular hydrogen in Dracula, molecules such as CO, were searched for by using a 2.5-m mm-telescope. Molecular hydrogen column densities were estimated. The dynamics of CO clumps was studied. Dracula has a close positional and possibly even astrophysical relationship to the high velocity cloud phenomenon.

  20. High resolution wireless body area network with statistically synchronized sensor data for tracking pulse wave velocity. (United States)

    Li, Kejia; Warren, Steve


    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) will take on more diverse forms in terms of their sensor combinations and communication protocols as their presence is extended to a greater number of monitoring scenarios. This paper presents an application layer protocol that solves issues caused by sensor nodes that must compete for high speed, real-time communication with the receiver. Such applications emphasize the delivery of large amounts of raw data from different sensor nodes in a time-synchronized manner, rather than channels that experience intermittent operation. An example of tracking pulse wave velocity (PWV) is introduced in this paper, where high-precision PWVs are estimated with the help of timeline recovery and feature extraction processes in MATLAB.

  1. Bulk damage and absorption in fused silica due to high-power laser applications (United States)

    Nürnberg, F.; Kühn, B.; Langner, A.; Altwein, M.; Schötz, G.; Takke, R.; Thomas, S.; Vydra, J.


    Laser fusion projects are heading for IR optics with high broadband transmission, high shock and temperature resistance, long laser durability, and best purity. For this application, fused silica is an excellent choice. The energy density threshold on IR laser optics is mainly influenced by the purity and homogeneity of the fused silica. The absorption behavior regarding the hydroxyl content was studied for various synthetic fused silica grades. The main absorption influenced by OH vibrational excitation leads to different IR attenuations for OH-rich and low-OH fused silica. Industrial laser systems aim for the maximum energy extraction possible. Heraeus Quarzglas developed an Yb-doped fused silica fiber to support this growing market. But the performance of laser welding and cutting systems is fundamentally limited by beam quality and stability of focus. Since absorption in the optical components of optical systems has a detrimental effect on the laser focus shift, the beam energy loss and the resulting heating has to be minimized both in the bulk materials and at the coated surfaces. In collaboration with a laser research institute, an optical finisher and end users, photo thermal absorption measurements on coated samples of different fused silica grades were performed to investigate the influence of basic material properties on the absorption level. High purity, synthetic fused silica is as well the material of choice for optical components designed for DUV applications (wavelength range 160 nm - 260 nm). For higher light intensities, e.g. provided by Excimer lasers, UV photons may generate defect centers that effect the optical properties during usage, resulting in an aging of the optical components (UV radiation damage). Powerful Excimer lasers require optical materials that can withstand photon energy close to the band gap and the high intensity of the short pulse length. The UV transmission loss is restricted to the DUV wavelength range below 300 nm and

  2. Cellulose/inorganic-composite fibers for producing textile fabrics of high X-ray absorption properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günther, Karoline; Giebing, Christina; Askani, Antonia [FTB, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Science, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany); Leisegang, Tilmann [Saxray GmbH, Maria-Reiche-Str. 1, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Krieg, Marcus [TITK, Thüringisches Institut für Textil- und Kunststoff-Forschung e.V., Breitscheidstraße 97, 07407 Rudolstadt (Germany); Kyosev, Yordan; Weide, Thomas [FTB, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Science, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany); Mahltig, Boris, E-mail: [FTB, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Science, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany)


    Common textile materials as cotton or polyester do not possess reliable X-ray absorption properties. This is due to their morphology and chemical composition in particular. Common fibers are built up from organic polymers containing mainly the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. These “light” elements only have low X-ray absorption coefficients. In contrast, inorganic materials composed of “heavy” elements with high atomic numbers, e.g. barium or bismuth, exhibit X-ray absorption coefficients higher by up to two orders of magnitude. To obtain a flexible yarn with high X-ray absorption properties both these materials, the organic polymer and the inorganic X-ray absorber, are combined to an inorganic/organic composite fiber material. Hence, as the organic component cellulose from modified Lyocell-process is used as carrier fiber and blended with inorganic absorber particles of low toxicity and high absorption coefficients, as bariumsulphate, bariumtitanate or bismuthoxide. A content of inorganic absorber particles equally distributed in the whole fiber of up to 20% is achieved. The composite fibers are produced as staple or filament fibers and processed to multifilament or staple fiber yarns. The staple fiber yarns are rotor-spinned to increase the comfort of the subsequent textile material. Several woven fabrics, considering multilayer structure and different warp/weft density, are developed. The energy dependent X-ray shielding properties are determined in dependence on the different yarn compositions, yarn types and structural parameters of the woven fabrics. As a result, a production process of textile materials with comfortable and dedicated X-ray absorption properties is established. It offers a promising opportunity for manufacturing of specialized textiles, working clothes or uniforms applicable for medicine, air craft and security personal, mining as well as for innovative composite materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of cellulosic

  3. Comparative study on three highly sensitive absorption measurement techniques characterizing lithium niobate over its entire transparent spectral range. (United States)

    Leidinger, M; Fieberg, S; Waasem, N; Kühnemann, F; Buse, K; Breunig, I


    We employ three highly sensitive spectrometers: a photoacoustic spectrometer, a photothermal common-path interferometer and a whispering-gallery-resonator-based absorption spectrometer, for a comparative study of measuring the absorption coefficient of nominally transparent undoped, congruently grown lithium niobate for ordinarily and extraordinarily polarized light in the wavelength range from 390 to 3800 nm. The absorption coefficient ranges from below 10(-4) cm(-1) up to 2 cm(-1). Furthermore, we measure the absorption at the Urbach tail as well as the multiphonon edge of the material by a standard grating spectrometer and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, providing for the first time an absorption spectrum of the whole transparency window of lithium niobate. The absorption coefficients obtained by the three highly sensitive and independent methods show good agreement.

  4. High Velocity Precessing Jet from the Water Fountain IRAS 18286-0959 Revealed by VLBA Observations (United States)

    Yung, Bosco; Nakashima, J.; Imai, H.; Deguchi, S.; Diamond, P. J.; Kwok, S.


    We report the multi-epoch VLBA observations of 22.2GHz water maser emission associated with the "water fountain" star IRAS 18286-0959. The detected maser emission are distributed in the velocity range from -50km/s to 150km/s. The spatial distribution of over 70% of the identified maser features is found to be highly collimated along a spiral jet (namely, jet 1) extended from southeast to northwest direction, and the rest of the features appear to trace another spiral jet (jet 2) with a different orientation. The two jets form a "double-helix" pattern which lies across 200 milliarcseconds (mas). The maser features are reasonably fit by a model consisting of two precessing jets. The velocities of jet 1 and jet 2 are derived to be 138km/s and 99km/s, respectively. The precession period of jet 1 is about 56 years, and for jet 2 it is about 73 years. We propose that the appearance of two jets observed are the result of a single driving source with a significant proper motion. This research was supported by grants from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China, the Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research of the University of Hong Kong, Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists from the Ministry 9 of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for Promotion Science.

  5. Optimization of a dual capture element magnetic separator for the purification of high velocity water flow (United States)

    Belounis, Abdallah; Mehasni, Rabia; Ouili, Mehdi; Feliachi, Mouloud; El-Hadi Latreche, Mohamed


    In this paper a magnetic separator based on the use of a cascade arrangement of two identical capture elements has been optimized and verified. Such a separator is intended for the separation of fine particles of iron from flowing water at high velocity. The optimization has concerned the search for the excitation current and the distance between the capture elements that permit the extraction of the particles from a water flow in a circular channel at an average velocity ufav = 1.05 m/s. For such optimization we have minimized the objective function that is the distance between the capture position of a particle initially situated at a specific position and the central point of the last capture element of the arrangement. To perform the minimization, we have applied the Tabu search method. To validate the obtained results experimental verification based on the control of the evolution of the captured particle buildup and the quantifying of the separated volume of particles was achieved. Contribution to the topical issue "Numelec 2015 - Elected submissions", edited by Adel Razek

  6. Graphene, a material for high temperature devices; intrinsic carrier density, carrier drift velocity, and lattice energy

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Yan; Wang, Li; Jin, Kuijuan; Wang, Wenzhong


    Heat has always been a killing matter for traditional semiconductor machines. The underlining physical reason is that the intrinsic carrier density of a device made from a traditional semiconductor material increases very fast with a rising temperature. Once reaching a temperature, the density surpasses the chemical doping or gating effect, any p-n junction or transistor made from the semiconductor will fail to function. Here, we measure the intrinsic Fermi level (|E_F|=2.93k_B*T) or intrinsic carrier density (n_in=3.87*10^6 cm^-2 K^-2*T^2), carrier drift velocity, and G mode phonon energy of graphene devices and their temperature dependencies up to 2400 K. Our results show intrinsic carrier density of graphene is an order of magnitude less sensitive to temperature than those of Si or Ge, and reveal the great potentials of graphene as a material for high temperature devices. We also observe a linear decline of saturation drift velocity with increasing temperature, and identify the temperature coefficients of ...

  7. High-resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy of iron carbonyl complexes


    Atkins, A.J.; Bauer, M; Jacob, C.R.


    We apply high-energy-resolution fluorescence-detected (HERFD) X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) to study iron carbonyl complexes. Mono-, bi-, and tri-nuclear carbonyl complexes and pure carbonyl complexes as well as carbonyl complexes containing hydrocarbon ligands are considered. The HERFD-XANES spectra reveal multiple pre-edge peaks with individual signatures for each complex, which could not be detected previously with conventional XANES spectroscopy. These peaks are assigned...

  8. Surface Texturing Investigated for a High Solar Absorptance Low Infrared Emittance Solar Collector (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.


    The objective of this work was to design, build, and vacuum test a high solar absorptance, low infrared emittance solar collector for heat engine and thermal switching applications. Mini-satellites proposed by the Applied Physics Laboratory for operation in environments that are subject to radiation threat may utilize a heat engine for power and a thermal bus for thermal control. To achieve this goal, a surface having high solar absorptance and low infrared emittance is needed. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, one concept being pursued to achieve this goal is texturing high thermal conductivity graphite epoxy composites using a directed atomic oxygen beam and then coating the textured surface with a reflective metallic coating. Coupons were successfully textured, coated, and evaluated. A variety of texturing conditions were explored, and textures were documented by scanning electron microscopy. Copper, gold, silver, iridium, and aluminum coatings were applied, and the highest solar absorptance to infrared emittance ratio was found to be 1.3. A full-sized solar collector was manufactured with this ratio, and the amount of heat collected was observed using an Inconel calorimeter installed in a bench-top vacuum chamber equipped with a solar simulator. Results to date indicate good heat flow through the system, with 9 W of heat flow measured by the calorimeter.

  9. Simultaneous Multiphase PIV of Capillary Waves on a High Velocity Liquid Jet (United States)

    Andre, Matthieu; Bardet, Philippe


    Relaxation of a laminar boundary layer below the free surface of a jet is inviscidly unstable and can roll-up which generates millimeter size waves. The latter largely modify important characteristics of jets such as heat and mass transfers between phases and can lead to breakup, or air entrainment. Two dimensional linear stability analysis predicts the initial disturbance wavelength and growth rate for inviscid flows; it does not take into account the effects of viscosity, non-linearity, or actual boundary layer profile. Because of the small temporal and spatial scales associated with this flow, few experimental data are available. Data acquisition is further complicated by the presence of a free surface with steep waves. The current experiment consists in a 20.3 mm × 146.0 mm water slab laminar jet flowing onto a transparent open-channel at a Reynolds number of 2.9 × 104 to 1.4 × 105. Two high speed cameras are employed to obtain velocity fields simultaneously in the liquid and in the gas phase with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Fluorescent dye is added in the liquid in order to improve interface detection. Each phase is recorded at 10 kHz, leading to a temporal resolution of 100 μs and high magnification lenses give a spatial resolution of 200 μm. The results confirm the mechanism of formation of the short surface waves. Generation of surface vorticity is identified in high curvature regions. Knowledge of the velocities in both phases allows studying vorticity flux through the free surface. The latter stage of wave growth can be accompanied by the formation of a vortex pair in the liquid and air entrapment.

  10. Rotational Raman-based temperature measurements in a high-velocity, turbulent jet (United States)

    Locke, Randy J.; Wernet, Mark P.; Anderson, Robert C.


    Spontaneous rotational Raman scattering spectroscopy is used to acquire measurements of the mean and root mean square (rms) temperature fluctuations in turbulent, high-velocity heated jets. Raman spectra in air were obtained across a matrix of radial and axial locations downstream from a 50 mm diameter nozzle operating from subsonic to supersonic conditions over a wide range of temperatures and Mach numbers, in accordance with the Tanna matrix frequently used in jet noise studies. These data were acquired in the hostile, high noise (115 dB) environment of a large scale open air test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Temperature estimates were determined by performing non-linear least squares fitting of the single shot spectra to the theoretical rotational Stokes spectra of N2 and O2. The laser employed in this study was a high energy, long-pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. One thousand single-shot spectra were acquired at each spatial coordinate. Mean temperature and rms temperature variations were calculated at each measurement location. Excellent agreement between the averaged and single-shot temperatures was observed with an accuracy better than 2.5% for temperature, and rms variations in temperature between  ±2.2% at 296 K and  ±4.5% at 850 K. The mean and normalized rms temperatures measured here were then compared to NASA’s Consensus data set of PIV velocity and turbulence measurements in similar jet flows. The results of this and planned follow-on studies will support NASA GRC’s development of physics-based jet noise prediction, turbulence modeling and aeroacoustic source modeling codes.

  11. High-Velocity Microsprays Enhance Antimicrobial Activity in Streptococcus mutans Biofilms. (United States)

    Fabbri, S; Johnston, D A; Rmaile, A; Gottenbos, B; De Jager, M; Aspiras, M; Starke, E M; Ward, M T; Stoodley, P


    Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque biofilms play a role in caries development. The biofilm's complex structure enhances the resistance to antimicrobial agents by limiting the transport of active agents inside the biofilm. The authors assessed the ability of high-velocity water microsprays to enhance delivery of antimicrobials into 3-d-old S. mutans biofilms. Biofilms were exposed to a 90° or 30° impact, first using a 1-µm tracer bead solution (109 beads/mL) and, second, a 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) or 0.085% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) solution. For comparison, a 30-s diffusive transport and simulated mouthwash were also performed. Confocal microscopy was used to determine number and relative bead penetration depth into the biofilm. Assessment of antimicrobial penetration was determined by calculating the killing depth detected by live/dead viability staining. The authors first demonstrated that the microspray was able to deliver significantly more microbeads deeper in the biofilm compared with diffusion and mouthwashing exposures. Next, these experiments revealed that the microspray yielded better antimicrobial penetration evidenced by deeper killing inside the biofilm and a wider killing zone around the zone of clearance than diffusion alone. Interestingly the 30° impact in the distal position delivered approximately 16 times more microbeads and yielded approximately 20% more bacteria killing (for both CHX and CPC) than the 90° impact. These data suggest that high-velocity water microsprays can be used as an effective mechanism to deliver microparticles and antimicrobials inside S. mutans biofilms. High shear stresses generated at the biofilm-burst interface might have enhanced bead and antimicrobial delivery inside the remaining biofilm by combining forced advection into the biofilm matrix and physical restructuring of the biofilm itself. Further, the impact angle has potential to be optimized both for biofilm removal and active agents' delivery inside

  12. Development of tunable high pressure CO2 laser for lidar measurements of pollutants and wind velocities, January 1976 to December 1977 (United States)

    Javan, A.


    A tunable multiatmospheric pulsed CO2 laser with emphasis on experimental features and supporting theoretical analyses important to differential absorption lidar and Doppler lidar measurement of pollutants and wind velocities is reported. The energy deposition and the means to produce the uniform high density plasma in the multiatmospheric medium, through UV preionization of an organic seed gas is discussed. Design features of the pulsed CO2 laser are presented. The radiative processes which are operative and prevent the laser from breaking into oscillations in a large number of modes over its broad amplification bandwidth are described. The mode competition for the transient pulsed laser oscillation in a standing wave and traveling wave ring laser configuration is discussed and contrasted with the approach to steady state oscillations. The latter findings are important to transient injection locking for production of a highly stable pulsed CO2 laser output.

  13. Simulation of High Velocity Impact on Composite Structures - Model Implementation and Validation (United States)

    Schueler, Dominik; Toso-Pentecôte, Nathalie; Voggenreiter, Heinz


    High velocity impact on composite aircraft structures leads to the formation of flexural waves that can cause severe damage to the structure. Damage and failure can occur within the plies and/or in the resin rich interface layers between adjacent plies. In the present paper a modelling methodology is documented that captures intra- and inter-laminar damage and their interrelations by use of shell element layers representing sub-laminates that are connected with cohesive interface layers to simulate delamination. This approach allows the simulation of large structures while still capturing the governing damage mechanisms and their interactions. The paper describes numerical algorithms for the implementation of a Ladevèze continuum damage model for the ply and methods to derive input parameters for the cohesive zone model. By comparison with experimental results from gas gun impact tests the potential and limitations of the modelling approach are discussed.

  14. Microstructure Characterization of WCCo-Mo Based Coatings Produced Using High Velocity Oxygen Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Islak


    Full Text Available The present study has been carried out in order to investigate the microstructural properties of WCCo-Mo composite coatings deposited onto a SAE 4140 steel substrate by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF thermal spray. For this purpose, the Mo quantity added to the WCCo was changed as 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt. % percents. The coatings are compared in terms of their phase composition, microstructure and hardness. Phase compound and microstructure of coating layers were examined using X-ray diffractometer (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. XRD results showed that WCCo-Mo composite coatings were mainly composed of WC, W2C, Co3W3C, Mo2C, MoO2, Mo and Co phases. The average hardness of the coatings increased with increasing Mo content.

  15. High-Velocity Impact Behaviour of Prestressed Composite Plates under Bird Strike Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heimbs


    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis of the response of laminated composite plates under high-velocity impact loads of soft body gelatine projectiles (artificial birds is presented. The plates are exposed to tensile and compressive preloads before impact in order to cover realistic loading conditions of representative aeronautic structures under foreign object impact. The modelling methodology for the composite material, delamination interfaces, impact projectile, and preload using the commercial finite element code Abaqus are presented in detail. Finally, the influence of prestress and of different delamination modelling approaches on the impact response is discussed and a comparison to experimental test data is given. Tensile and compressive preloading was found to have an influence on the damage pattern. Although this general behaviour could be predicted well by the simulations, further numerical challenges for improved bird strike simulation accuracy are highlighted.

  16. Experimental investigation of fibre reinforced plastics with hybrid layups under high-velocity impact loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Romano


    Full Text Available This paper deals with experimental investigations concerning energy dissipation capacity of different kinds of reinforcement fibres in monolithic and hybrid layups under high-velocity impact loads. The investigated kinds of fibres are carbon, glass and basalt fibres. Therefore test panels, using the same thermoset resin, were built up and cured by autoclave processing. The fibre volume content of the test panels has been determined. Furthermore the influence of a separating layer at selected positions in the hybrid stacked panels was investigated. The results show the influence and the energy dissipation capacity of each single kind of fibre and the enhanced properties for the hybrid layups by hybrid stacking sequences and the use of a separating core material.

  17. Minimally-invasive treatment of high velocity intra-articular fractures of the distal tibia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, M


    The pilon fracture is a complex injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of minimally invasive techniques in management of these injuries. This was a prospective study of closed AO type C2 and C3 fractures managed by early (<36 hours) minimally invasive surgical intervention and physiotherapist led rehabilitation. Thirty patients with 32 intra-articular distal tibial fractures were treated by the senior surgeon (GK). Our aim was to record the outcome and all complications with a minimum two year follow-up. There were two superficial wound infections. One patient developed a non-union which required a formal open procedure. Another patient was symptomatic from a palpable plate inferiorly. An excellent AOFAS result was obtained in 83% (20\\/24) of the patients. Early minimally invasive reduction and fixation of complex high velocity pilon fractures gave very satisfactory results at a minimum of two years follow-up.

  18. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Water Absorption of Adzuki Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeaki Ueno


    Full Text Available The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP treatment on dried soybean, adzuki bean, and kintoki kidney bean, which are low-moisture-content cellular biological materials, was investigated from the viewpoint of water absorption. The samples were vacuum-packed with distilled water and pressurized at 200 MPa and 25 °C for 10 min. After the HHP treatment, time courses of the moisture contents of the samples were measured, and the dimensionless moisture contents were estimated. Water absorption in the case of soybean could be fitted well by a simple water diffusion model. High pressures were found to have negligible effects on water absorption into the cotyledon of soybean and kintoki kidney bean. A non-linear least square method based on the Weibull equation was applied for the adzuki beans, and the effective water diffusion coefficient was found to increase significantly from 8.6 × 10−13 to 6.7 × 10−10 m2/s after HHP treatment. Approximately 30% of the testa of the adzuki bean was damaged upon HHP treatment, which was comparable to the surface area of the testa in the partially peeled adzuki bean sample. Thus, HHP was confirmed to promote mass transfer to the cotyledon of legumes with a tight testa.

  19. Subcutaneous absorption kinetics of two highly concentrated preparations of recombinant human growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Susgaard, Søren


    hours. Samples were taken every 30 minutes for 6 hours and then hourly. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bioavailability (F) and absorption dynamics of human GH were measured. The relative absorption fractions estimated from the areas under the individual serum concentration curves from 0 to 24 hours......Abstract OBJECTIVE: The relative bioavailability of two highly concentrated (12 IU/ml) formulations of biosynthetic human growth hormone (GH) administered subcutaneously was compared. DESIGN: A randomized, crossover study. Conventional GH therapy was withdrawn 72 hours before each study period...... of signs of endogenous GH secretion. INTERVENTIONS: At the start of each study period, GH 3 IU/m2 was injected subcutaneously. The two formulations, PenFill and PenSet, differ in the buffers used and in the relative content of mannitol and glycine. Serum profiles of GH were monitored frequently for 24...

  20. High-sensitivity CRDS absorption spectroscopy of acetylene between 5851 and 6341 cm-1 (United States)

    Lyulin, O. M.; Mondelain, D.; Béguier, S.; Kassi, S.; Vander Auwera, J.; Campargue, A.


    The absorption spectrum of acetylene has been recorded at room temperature (297 K) using high-sensitivity cavity ring-down spectroscopy (αmin ∼ 5×10-11 cm-1) in the 5851 and 6341 cm-1 interval corresponding to a region of very weak absorption. A list of about 10,700 absorption features with estimated absolute line intensities was constructed. The smallest intensities are of the order of 5×10-29 cm molecule-1. The line list includes about 2500 absorption lines of ethylene present at the ppm level in the acetylene sample and identified on the basis of a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrum specifically recorded. A total of more than 2700 lines of 12C2H2 were rovibrationally assigned in comparison with accurate predictions provided by a global effective operator model. Overall, the present effort adds about 2260 new assignments to the set of about 500 assigned transitions available in the literature. The new assignments correspond to 45 new bands and 17 already-known bands, for which additional J lines were assigned. Spectroscopic parameters were derived for the upper vibrational levels from a band by band fit of the line positions (typical root mean square deviation values are of the order of 0.001 cm-1). A few of the analysed bands were found to be affected by rovibrational perturbations, which are discussed. The new data will be valuable to refine the parameters of the global effective Hamiltonian and dipole moments of 12C2H2.

  1. VUV-absorption cross section of CO2 at high temperatures and impact on exoplanet atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venot Olivia


    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV absorption cross sections are an essential ingredient of photochemical atmosphere models. Exoplanet searches have unveiled a large population of short-period objects with hot atmospheres, very different from what we find in our solar system. Transiting exoplanets whose atmospheres can now be studied by transit spectroscopy receive extremely strong UV fluxes and have typical temperatures ranging from 400 to 2500 K. At these temperatures, UV photolysis cross section data are severely lacking. Our goal is to provide high-temperature absorption cross sections and their temperature dependency for important atmospheric compounds. This study is dedicated to CO2, which is observed and photodissociated in exoplanet atmospheres. We performed these measurements for the 115 - 200 nm range at 300, 410, 480, and 550 K. In the 195 - 230 nm range, we worked at seven temperatures between 465 and 800 K. We found that the absorption cross section of CO2 is very sensitive to temperature, especially above 160 nm. Within the studied range of temperature, the CO2 cross section can vary by more than two orders of magnitude. This, in particular, makes the absorption of CO2 significant up to wavelengths as high as 230 nm, while it is negligible above 200 nm at 300 K. To investigate the influence of these new data on the photochemistry of exoplanets, we implemented the measured cross section into a 1D photochemical model. The model predicts that accounting for this temperature dependency of CO2 cross section can affect the computed abundances of NH3, CO2, and CO by one order of magnitude in the atmospheres of hot Jupiter and hot Neptune.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW Warm spraying—a novel coating process based on high-velocity impact of solid particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Kuroda et al


    Full Text Available In recent years, coating processes based on the impact of high-velocity solid particles such as cold spraying and aerosol deposition have been developed and attracting much industrial attention. A novel coating process called 'warm spraying' has been developed, in which coatings are formed by the high-velocity impact of solid powder particles heated to appropriate temperatures below the melting point of the powder material. The advantages of such process are as follows: (1 the critical velocity needed to form a coating can be significantly lowered by heating, (2 the degradation of feedstock powder such as oxidation can be significantly controlled compared with conventional thermal spraying where powder is molten, and (3 various coating structures can be realized from porous to dense ones by controlling the temperature and velocity of the particles. The principles and characteristics of this new process are discussed in light of other existing spray processes such as high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying and cold spraying. The gas dynamics of particle heating and acceleration by the spraying apparatus as well as the high-velocity impact phenomena of powder particles are discussed in detail. Several examples of depositing heat sensitive materials such as titanium, metallic glass, WC–Co cermet and polymers are described with potential industrial applications.

  3. High-Pressure Shock Compression of Solids VIII The Science and Technology of High-Velocity Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Chhabildas, Lalit C; Horie, Yasuyuki


    Research in the field of shock physics and ballistic impact has always been intimately tied to progress in development of facilities for accelerating projectiles to high velocity and instrumentation for recording impact phenomena. The chapters of this book, written by leading US and European experts, cover a broad range of topics and address researchers concerned with questions of material behaviour under impulsive loading and the equations of state of matter, as well as the design of suitable instrumentation such as gas guns and high-speed diagnostics. Applications include high-speed impact dynamics, the inner composition of planets, syntheses of new materials and materials processing. Among the more technologically-oriented applications treated is the testing of the flight characteristics of aeroballistic models and the assessment of impacts in the aerospace industry.

  4. High frame-rate blood vector velocity imaging using plane waves: simulations and preliminary experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, J.; Gran, F.; Hansen, K.L.


    Conventional ultrasound methods for acquiring color images of blood velocity are limited by a relatively low frame-rate and are restricted to give velocity estimates along the ultrasound beam direction only. To circumvent these limitations, the method presented in this paper uses 3 techniques: 1...... carotid artery of a healthy male was scanned with a scan sequence that satisfies the limits set by the Food and Drug Administration. Vector velocity images were obtained with a frame-rate of 100 Hz where 40 speckle images are used for each vector velocity image. It was found that the blood flow...

  5. High Frame-Rate Blood Vector Velocity Imaging Using Plane Waves: Simulations and Preliminary Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov


    Conventional ultrasound methods for acquiring color images of blood velocity are limited by a relatively low frame-rate and are restricted to give velocity estimates along the ultrasound beam direction only. To circumvent these limitations, the method presented in this paper uses 3 techniques: 1...... carotid artery of a healthy male was scanned with a scan sequence that satisfies the limits set by the Food and Drug Administration. Vector velocity images were obtained with a frame-rate of 100 Hz where 40 speckle images are used for each vector velocity image. It was found that the blood flow...

  6. Measurement of regional pulse wave velocity using very high frame rate ultrasound. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Hongo, Kazue; Kanai, Hiroshi


    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the propagation velocity of the pressure wave along the artery due to the heartbeat. The PWV becomes faster with progression of arteriosclerosis and, thus, can be used as a diagnostic index of arteriosclerosis. Measurement of PWV is known as a noninvasive approach for diagnosis of arteriosclerosis and is widely used in clinical situations. In the traditional PWV method, the average PWV is calculated between two points, the carotid and femoral arteries, at an interval of several tens of centimeters. However, PWV depends on part of the arterial tree, i.e., PWVs in the distal arteries are faster than those in the proximal arteries. Therefore, measurement of regional PWV is preferable. To evaluate regional PWV in the present study, the minute vibration velocity of the human carotid arterial wall was measured at intervals of 0.2 mm at 72 points in the arterial longitudinal direction by the phased-tracking method at a high temporal resolution of 3472 Hz, and PWV was estimated by applying the Hilbert transform to those waveforms. In the present study, carotid arteries of three healthy subjects were measured in vivo. The PWVs in short segments of 14.4 mm in the arterial longitudinal direction were estimated to be 5.6, 6.4, and 6.7 m/s, which were in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, for one of the subjects, a component was clearly found propagating from the periphery to the direction of the heart, i.e., a well known component reflected by the peripheral arteries. By using the proposed method, the propagation speed of the reflection component was also separately estimated to be -8.4 m/s. The higher magnitude of PWV for the reflection component was considered to be the difference in blood pressure at the arrivals of the forward and reflection components. Such a method would be useful for more sensitive evaluation of the change in elasticity due to progression of arteriosclerosis by measuring the regional PWV

  7. Building America Case Study: High-Velocity Small-Diameter Duct System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Poerschke


    This study tests the performance of a variable airflow small-diameter duct heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a new construction unoccupied low-load test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The duct system was installed entirely in conditioned space and was operated from the winter through summer seasons. Measurements were collected on the in-room temperatures and energy consumed by the air handler and heat pump unit. Operation modes with three different volumes of airflow were compared to determine the ideal airflow scenario that maximizes room-to-room thermal uniformity while minimizing fan energy consumption. Black felt infrared imagery was used as a measure of diffuser throw and in-room air mixing. Measured results indicate the small-diameter, high velocity airflow system can provide comfort under some conditions. Solar heat gains resulted in southern rooms drifting beyond acceptable temperature limits. Insufficient airflow to some bedrooms also resulted in periods of potential discomfort. Homebuilders or HVAC contractors can use these results to assess whether this space conditioning strategy is an attractive alternative to a traditional duct system. The team performed a cost analysis of two duct system configurations: (1) a conventional diameter and velocity duct system, and (2) the small-diameter duct system. This work applies to both new and retrofit homes that have achieved a low heating and cooling density either by energy conservation or by operation in a mild climate with few heating or cooling degree days. Guidance is provided on cost trade-offs between the conventional duct system and the small-diameter duct system.

  8. Defining current facial fracture patterns in a quaternary institution following high-velocity blunt trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senzwesihle C. Magagula


    Full Text Available Background: In the early 20th century, René Le Fort studied facial fractures resulting from blunt trauma and devised a classification system still in common use today. This classification, however, was based on low-velocity trauma. In modern practice, in a quaternary-level referral hospital, patients are often admitted following high-velocity injuries that mostly result from motor vehicle collisions.Objectives: A retrospective study to define facial bone fractures occurring subsequent to highvelocity trauma.Method: A retrospective study comprising the review of CT scans of 52 patients with highvelocity facial fractures was performed between April 2007 and March 2013. Injuries were classified using the Le Fort classification system. Deviations from the true Le Fort types, which are often depicted in the literature as occurring bilaterally and symmetrically, were documented; these included unilaterality, occurrence of several Le Fort fractures on one side of the face, occurrence of several Le Fort fractures on different levels and on different sides of the face, and occurrence of other fractures in addition to Le Fort fractures.Results: Of the 52 cases, 12 (23% had Le Fort injuries, with true Le Fort fractures occurring in only 1, and 11 deviating from the classic description. Nine patients had Le Fort fractures and additional fractures. Mandibular and zygomatic bone fractures were found to be common associations with Le Fort injuries, occurring in 58% and 33% of the cases respectively.Conclusion: Fractures occurring in modern practice often deviate from the traditional Le Fort classification. Precise recognition of these deviations and recognition of additional associated fractures is pivotal in their management, assisting the surgeon in determining the treatment plan, such as the surgical approach and the order in which to fix the various fractured components.

  9. High-resolution Absorption Spectra of Acetylene in 142.8-152.3 nm (United States)

    Hu, Ya-hua; Zhen, Chen; Dai, Jing-hua; Zhou, Xiao-guo; Liu, Shi-lin


    The absorption spectra of acetylene molecules was measured under jet-cooled conditions in the wavelength range of 142.8-152.3 nm, with a tunable and highly resolved vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser generated by two-photon resonant four wave difference frequency mixing processes. Due to the sufficient vibrational and rotational cooling effect of the molecular beam and the higher resolution VUV laser, the observed absorption spectra exhibit more distinct spectral features than the previous works measured at room temperature. The major three vibrational bands are assigned as a C-C symmetry stretching vibrational progress (u2 = 0-2) of the tilde C1 IIu state of acetylene. The observed shoulder peak at 148.2 nm is assigned to the first overtone band of the trans-bending mode u4 of the tilde C1 IIustate of acetylene. Additionally, the two components, 4o2(μ1IIu) and 4o2(κ1 IIuare suggested to exhibit in the present absorption spectra, due to their Renner-Teller effect and transition selection rule. All band origins and bandwidths are obtained subsequently, and it is found that bandwidths are broadened and lifetimes decrease gradually with the excitation of vibration.

  10. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; R. J. Kirkham


    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum "recipe" for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600ºC.

  11. Investigating particle phase velocity in a 3D spouted bed by a novel fiber high speed photography method (United States)

    Qian, Long; Lu, Yong; Zhong, Wenqi; Chen, Xi; Ren, Bing; Jin, Baosheng


    A novel fiber high speed photography method has been developed to measure particle phase velocity in a dense gas-solid flow. The measurement system mainly includes a fiber-optic endoscope, a high speed video camera, a metal halide light source and a powerful computer with large memory. The endoscope which could be inserted into the reactors is used to form motion images of particles within the measurement window illuminated by the metal halide lamp. These images are captured by the high speed video camera and processed through a series of digital image processing algorithms, such as calibration, denoising, enhancement and binarization in order to improve the image quality. Then particles' instantaneous velocity is figured out by tracking each particle in consecutive frames. Particle phase velocity is statistically calculated according to the probability of particle velocity in each frame within a time period. This system has been applied to the investigation of particles fluidization characteristics in a 3D spouted bed. The experimental results indicate that the particle fluidization feature in the region investigated could be roughly classified into three sections by particle phase vertical velocity and the boundary between the first section and the second is the surface where particle phase velocity tends to be 0, which is in good agreement with the results published in other literature.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yu-Nung; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Huei-Ru [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tang, Ya-Wen, E-mail: [Observatoire Aquitain des Sciences de l' Univers, Universite de Bordeaux, BP 89, 33271 Floirac (France)


    We have imaged the extremely high velocity outflowing gas in CO (2-1) and (3-2) associated with the shell-like ultracompact H II region G5.89-0.39 at a resolution of {approx}3'' (corresponding to {approx}4000 AU) with the Submillimeter Array. The integrated high-velocity ({approx}>45 km s{sup -1}) CO emission reveals at least three blueshifted lobes and two redshifted lobes. These lobes belong to two outflows, one oriented N-S, the other NW-SE. The NW-SE outflow is likely identical to the previously detected Br{gamma} outflow. Furthermore, these outflow lobes all clearly show a Hubble-like kinematic structure. For the first time, we estimate the temperature of the outflowing gas as a function of velocity with large velocity gradient calculations. Our results reveal a clear increasing trend of temperature with gas velocity. The observational features of the extremely high velocity gas associated with G5.89-0.39 qualitatively favor the jet-driven bow shock model.

  13. Extremely high velocity gas from the massive young stellar objects in IRAS 17233-3606 (United States)

    Leurini, S.; Codella, C.; Zapata, L. A.; Belloche, A.; Stanke, T.; Wyrowski, F.; Schilke, P.; Menten, K. M.; Güsten, R.


    Context: Molecular outflows from high-mass young stellar objects provide an excellent way to study the star formation process, and investigate if they are scaled-up versions of their low-mass counterparts. Aims: We selected the nearby massive star forming region IRAS 17233-3606 in order to study the kinematics and physics along the molecular outflow(s) originating from this source. Methods: We observed IRAS 17233-3606 in CO, a typical tracer of gas associated with molecular outflow, with the Submillimeter Array in the (2-1) transition, and with the APEX telescope in the higher excitation (6-5) line. Additional infrared H2 observations were performed with the UKIRT telescope. The CO data were analysed using a LVG approach. Results: Our data resolve the previously detected molecular outflow into at least three different components, one of them with a high collimation factor (~4), and characterised by emission at extremely high velocities (|v-vLSR| > 120 km s-1). The estimate of the kinematical outflow parameters are typical of massive YSOs, and in agreement with the measured bolometric luminosity of the source. The kinematic ages of the flows are in the range 10^2-103 yr, and therefore point to young objects that still have not reached the main sequence.

  14. A Fabry-Perot interferometer system for high-speed velocity measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Bruinsma, A.J.A.; Prinse, W.C.; Smorenburg, C.


    The Fabry-Perot Velocity Interferometer System (F-PVIS) is designed and built for measuring the Doppler shift of light by recording positional changes in the interferometric pattern behind the Fabry-Perot interferometer. The velocity of a surface can be deduced from the Doppler shift which is caused

  15. The effects of frequency on the elastic wave velocity in rocks at high temperatures under pressure (United States)

    Matsushima, S.


    P- and S-wave velocities in nepheline basalt, Hamada, as well as diabase, Maryland, were measured experimentally to 1000°C and 2.5 GPa. A remarkable frequency dependence of large velocity-decrease was observed for both P- and S-waves at temperatures above 500°C. Remarkable velocity-characteristics, which cannot be explained by the existing theories, were: (1) Velocities were decreased considerably at 1-3 MHz. Above 3 MHz, samples showed elastic behavior like that of a perfect solid, and below 1 MHz, velocity-decrease decayed gradually. (2) Both P- and S-wave velocities decreased in the same way and almost to the same degree. (3) The higher the temperature, the more remarkably velocities decreased, at least up to the experimental limit temperature. A hypothesis of the relaxation of stress waves by the fluid-flow in the inclusions is proposed. Examples of geophysical applications are given for the attenuation and travel-time anomalies in the volcanic region and the P- and S-wave velocity-decrease in the upper mantle beneath continents.

  16. High order items of turbulent velocity fluctuations in the Kenics static mixer (United States)

    Meng, HuiBo; Yu, YanFang; Wu, JianHua


    The turbulent flow characteristic of flowing velocity field in the Kenics static mixer (KSM) was studied by measuring the time series of pulsant velocity with Laser Doppler Anemometer. The probability density functions of the Cartesian velocity fluctuations were obtained and compared with the corresponding normal distributions. The deviation from the normal distribution described by skewness and flatness factors was analyzed quantitatively. The experimental results indicate that the value of Skewness fluctuates from -2.79 to 3.12 which mean that the distribution of velocity field is not a normal distribution, and the existence of coherent structure is pointed out by the distribution of Flatness of pulsant velocity with a range of 3~9.5.

  17. Combustion Velocity of Benzine-Benzol-Air Mixtures in High-Speed Internal-Combustion Engines (United States)

    Schnauffer, Kurt


    The present paper describes a device whereby rapid flame movement within an internal-combustion engine cylinder may be recorded and determined. By the aid of a simple cylindrical contact and an oscillograph the rate of combustion within the cylinder of an airplane engine during its normal operation may be measured for gas intake velocities of from 30 to 35 m/s and for velocities within the cylinder of from 20 to 25 m/s. With it the influence of mixture ratios, of turbulence, of compression ratio and kind of fuel on combustion velocity may be determined. Besides the determination of the influence of the above factors on combustion velocity, the degree of turbulence may also be determined. As a unit of reference in estimating the degree of turbulence, the intake velocity of the charge is chosen.

  18. The High Velocity Galaxy Challenge to ΛCDM in the Local Group (United States)

    Banik, Indranil


    In the Local Group (LG), Andromeda (M31) is approaching the Milky Way (MW) at ˜110 km/s despite the large scale cosmic expansion. To turn it around locally to this extent, their combined mass must lie in a narrow range of values. This constrains the gravitational field in the LG as there are no other objects of similar masses. We have conducted calculations solving test particle trajectories in this gravitational field using a 2D dynamical model including Cen A and the LMC (MNRAS, 459, 2237). Although few objects have radial velocities (RVs) much below the predictions of the best-fitting model, some have RVs much above them, sometimes by as much as 100 km/s. This situation persists even when we used a 3D model including perturbers and satellites (MNRAS, 467, 2180).The observations may be explained by a past close flyby of the MW and M31, which arises in Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) but not ΛCDM. In this context, a simplified calculation suggests that the recently discovered plane of satellites around the MW and a similar plane around M31 could be explained by a past MW-M31 flyby, but only if they orbit within a particular plane. We used this information in a more detailed MOND simulation of the flyby and its effect on the rest of the LG, treating it as a cloud of ˜3×105 test particles. The high speeds of the MW and M31 at pericentre allow for efficient gravitational slingshots of these particles. Those flung out to the greatest distance tend to lie very close to the MW-M31 orbital plane, probably because the greatest impulses occur for objects flung out almost parallel to the motion of the perturber.I will describe this simulation and recent work (Arxiv: 1701.06559) showing that LG dwarfs with the most anomalously high RVs (relative to our 3D model) indeed lie close to a plane oriented similarly to our expected MW-M31 orbital plane based on considering their satellite systems. This plane of distant LG dwarfs passes within 140 kpc of the MW and M31 and

  19. Force Criterion Prediction of Damage for Carbon/Epoxy Composite Panels Impacted by High Velocity Ice (United States)

    Rhymer, Jennifer D.

    The use of advanced fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites in load-bearing aircraft structures is increasing, as evident by the various composites-intensive transport aircraft presently under development. A major impact source of concern for these structures is hail ice, which affects design and skin-sizing (skin thickness determination) at various locations of the aircraft. Impacts onto composite structures often cause internal damage that is not visually detectable due to the high strength and resiliency of the composite material (unlike impacts onto metallic structures). This internal damage and its effect on the performance of the structure are of great concern to the aircraft industry. The prediction of damage in composite structures due to SHI impact has been accomplished via experimental work, explicit dynamic nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) and the definition of design oriented relationships. Experiments established the critical threshold and corresponding analysis provided contact force results not readily measurable in high velocity SHI impact experiments. The design oriented relationships summarize the FEA results and experimental database into contact force estimation curves that can be easily applied for damage prediction. Failure thresholds were established for the experimental conditions (panel thickness ranging from 1.56 to 4.66 mm and ice diameters from 38.1 to 61.0 mm). Additionally, the observations made by high-speed video during the impact event, and ultrasonic C-scan post-impact, showed how the ice failed during impact and the overall shape and location of the panel damage. Through analysis, the critical force, the force level where damage occurs above but not below, of a SHI impact onto the panel was found to be dependent only on the target structure. However, the peak force generated during impact was dependent on both the projectile and target. Design-oriented curves were generated allowing the prediction of the allowable


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longinotti, A. L. [Catedrática CONACYT—Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Luis E. Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla, C.P. 72840, México (Mexico); Krongold, Y. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70264, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Guainazzi, M.; Santos-Lleo, M.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P. [ESAC, P.O. Box, 78 E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Giroletti, M. [INAF Osservatorio di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Panessa, F. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali di Roma (IAPS), Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Costantini, E. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Winds outflowing from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) may carry significant amounts of mass and energy out to their host galaxies. In this paper we report the detection of a sub-relativistic outflow observed in the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS 17020+4544 as a series of absorption lines corresponding to at least five absorption components with an unprecedented wide range of associated column densities and ionization levels and velocities in the range of 23,000–33,000 km s{sup −1}, detected at X-ray high spectral resolution (E/ΔE ∼ 1000) with the ESA's observatory XMM-Newton. The charge states of the material constituting the wind clearly indicate a range of low to moderate ionization states in the outflowing gas and column densities that are significantly lower than observed in highly ionized ultra-fast outflows. We estimate that at least one of the outflow components may carry sufficient energy to substantially suppress star formation and heat the gas in the host galaxy. IRAS 17020+4544 therefore provides an interesting example of feedback by a moderately luminous AGN that is hosted in a spiral galaxy, a case barely envisaged in most evolution models, which often predict that feedback processes take place in massive elliptical galaxies hosting luminous quasars in a post-merger phase.

  1. Numerical Analysis of Multicomponent Suspension Droplets in High-Velocity Flame Spray Process (United States)

    Gozali, Ebrahim; Mahrukh, Mahrukh; Gu, Sai; Kamnis, Spyros


    The liquid feedstock or suspension as a different mixture of liquid fuel ethanol and water is numerically studied in high-velocity suspension flame spray (HVSFS) process, and the results are compared for homogenous liquid feedstock of ethanol and water. The effects of mixture on droplet aerodynamic breakup, evaporation, combustion, and gas dynamics of HVSFS process are thoroughly investigated. The exact location where the particle heating is initiated (above the carrier liquid boiling point) can be controlled by increasing the water content in the mixture. In this way, the particle inflight time in the high-temperature gas regions can be adjusted avoiding adverse effects from surface chemical transformations. The mixture is modeled as a multicomponent droplet, and a convection/diffusion model, which takes into account the convective flow of evaporating material from droplet surface, is used to simulate the suspension evaporation. The model consists of several sub-models that include premixed combustion of propane-oxygen, non-premixed ethanol-oxygen combustion, modeling of multicomponent droplet breakup and evaporation, as well as heat and mass transfer between liquid droplets and gas phase.

  2. A microscopic description of absorption in high-energy string-brane collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Appollonio, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari and INFNCittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Vecchia, Paolo Di [The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Russo, Rodolfo [Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, E1 4NS London (United Kingdom); Veneziano, Gabriele [Collège de France,11 place M. Berthelot, 75005 Paris (France); Theory Division, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)


    We study the collision of a highly energetic light closed string off a stack of Dp-branes at (sub)string-scale impact parameters and in a regime justifying a perturbative treatment. Unlike at larger impact parameters — where elastic scattering and/or tidal excitations dominate — here absorption of the closed string by the brane system, with the associated excitation of open strings living on it, becomes important. As a first step, we study this phenomenon at the disk level, in which the energetic closed string turns into a single heavy open string at rest whose particularly simple properties are described.

  3. A microscopic description of absorption in high-energy string-brane collisions

    CERN Document Server

    D'Appollonio, Giuseppe; Russo, Rodolfo; Veneziano, Gabriele


    We study the collision of a highly energetic light closed string off a stack of Dp-branes at (sub)string-scale impact parameters and in a regime justifying a perturbative treatment. Unlike at larger impact parameters - where elastic scattering and/or tidal excitations dominate - here absorption of the closed string by the brane system, with the associated excitation of open strings living on it, becomes important. As a first step, we study this phenomenon at the disk level, in which the energetic closed string turns into a single heavy open string at rest whose particularly simple properties are described.

  4. Evidence of In Vivo Absorption of Lactate and Modulation of Short Chain Fatty Acid Absorption from the Reticulorumen of Non-Lactating Cattle Fed High Concentrate Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qumar

    Full Text Available Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs and lactate are endproducts of rumen fermentation and important energy sources for the host ruminant. Because their rapid accumulation results in ruminal acidosis, enhancement of the absorption of SCFA and lactate across reticuloruminal wall is instrumental in increasing energy supply and preventing ruminal acidosis in cattle. This study investigated whether the reticuloruminal absorption of SCFAs and lactate was altered by different strategies of high concentrate feeding. Eight rumen-cannulated, non-lactating Holstein cows were fed a forage-only diet (baseline and then gradually adapted over 6 d to a 60% concentrate level. Thereafter, this concentrate-rich diet was fed for 4 wk either continuously (Con; n = 8 or interruptedly (Int; n = 8. Absorption of SCFAs and lactate was determined in vivo from the experimental buffer introduced into the washed reticulorumen. The buffer contained acetate, propionate, butyrate and lactate at a concentration of 60, 30, 10 and 5 mmol/L, respectively and Cr-EDTA as a marker for correcting ruminal water fluxes. The reticuloruminal absorption after 35 and 65 min of buffer incubation was measured at the baseline, after 1 wk of 60% concentrate feeding in the interrupted model (Int-1 and after 4 wk of concentrate feeding in both feeding models (Int-4 and Con-4. Data showed that the absorption rates of individual and total SCFAs during the first 35 min of incubation of Con-4 were highest (~1.7 times compared to baseline, while Int-1 and Int-4 were similar to respective baseline. Lactate was not absorbed during forage-only baseline and 1-wk concentrate feeding, but after 4-wk feeding of concentrates in both models. In conclusion, SCFAs absorption across the reticulorumen of non-lactating cattle was enhanced by the 4-wk continuous concentrate feeding, which seems to be more advantageous in terms of rumen acidosis prevention compared to the interrupted feeding model. The study provides

  5. Monitoring High Velocity Salt Tracer via 4D Electrical Resistivity Tomography - Possibility for Salt Tracer Tomography (United States)

    Doro, K. O.; Cirpka, O. A.; Patzelt, A.; Leven, C.


    Hydrogeological testing in a tomographic sequence as shown by the use of hydraulic tomography, allows an improvement of the spatial resolution of subsurface parameters. In this regard, recent studies show increasing interest in tracer tomography which involves sequential and spatially separated tracer injections and the measurement of their corresponding tracer breakthrough at different locations and depths. Such concentration measurements however require large experimental efforts and can be simplified by geophysical tracer monitoring techniques such as electrical resistivity. In this study, we present the use of 4-D, cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) for monitoring salt tracer experiments in high velocity flow fields. For our study, we utilized a set up that enables the conduction of salt tracer experiments with complete recovery within 84 hours over a transport distance of 16 m. This allows the repetition of the experiments with different injection depths for a tomographic salt tracer testing. For ERT monitoring, we designed modular borehole electrodes for repeated usage in a flexible manner. We also assess the use of a high speed resistivity data acquisition mode for field scale tracer monitoring ensuring high spatial and temporal resolution without sacrificing data accuracy. We applied our approach at the Lauswiesen test site, Tübingen, Germany. In our 10 m × 10 m tracer monitoring domain with 16 borehole electrodes, we acquired 4650 data points in less than 18 minutes for each monitoring cycle. Inversion results show that the tracer could be successfully imaged using this approach. The results show that repeated salt tracer tests can be efficiently monitored at a high resolution with ERT which gives the possibility for salt tracer tomography at field scale. Our results also provide a data base for extending current hydrogeophysical inversion approaches to field scale data.

  6. Wave propagation and group velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Brillouin, Léon


    Wave Propagation and Group Velocity contains papers on group velocity which were published during the First World War and are missing in many libraries. It introduces three different definitions of velocities: the group velocity of Lord Rayleigh, the signal velocity of Sommerfeld, and the velocity of energy transfer, which yields the rate of energy flow through a continuous wave and is strongly related to the characteristic impedance. These three velocities are identical for nonabsorbing media, but they differ considerably in an absorption band. Some examples are discussed in the last chapter

  7. First storm-time plasma velocity estimates from high-resolution ionospheric data assimilation (United States)

    Datta-Barua, Seebany; Bust, Gary S.; Crowley, Geoff


    This paper uses data assimilation to estimate ionospheric state during storm time at subdegree resolution. We use Ionospheric Data Assimilation Four-Dimensional (IDA4D) to resolve the three-dimensional time-varying electron density gradients of the storm-enhanced density poleward plume. By Estimating Model Parameters from Ionospheric Reverse Engineering (EMPIRE), we infer the three-dimensional plasma velocity from the densities. EMPIRE estimates of ExB drift are made by correcting the Weimer 2000 electric potential model. This is the first time electron densities derived from GPS total electron content (TEC) data are being used to estimate field-aligned and field-perpendicular drifts at such high resolution, without reference to direct drift measurements. The time-varying estimated electron densities are used to construct the ionospheric spatial decorrelation in vertical total electron content (TEC) on horizontal scales of less than 100 km. We compare slant TEC (STEC) estimates to actual STEC GPS observations, including independent unassimilated data. The IDA4D density model of the extreme ionospheric storm on 20 November 2003 shows STEC delays of up to 210 TEC units, comparable to the STEC of the GPS ground stations. Horizontal drifts from EMPIRE are predicted to be northwestward within the storm-enhanced density plume and its boundary, turning northeast at high latitudes. These estimates compare favorably to independent Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics-assimilated high-latitude ExB drift estimates. Estimated and measured Defense Meteorological Satellite Program in situ drifts differ by a factor of 2-3 and in some cases have incorrect direction. This indicates that significant density rates of change and more accurate accounting for production and loss may be needed when other processes are not dominant.

  8. Multi-scale temporal patterns in fish presence in a high-velocity tidal channel. (United States)

    Viehman, Haley A; Zydlewski, Gayle Barbin


    The natural variation of fish presence in high-velocity tidal channels is not well understood. A better understanding of fish use of these areas would aid in predicting fish interactions with marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices, the effects of which are uncertain but of high concern. To characterize the patterns in fish presence at a tidal energy site in Cobscook Bay, Maine, we examined two years of hydroacoustic data continuously collected at the proposed depth of an MHK turbine with a bottom-mounted, side-looking echosounder. The maximum number of fish counted per hour ranged from hundreds in the early spring to over 1,000 in the fall. Counts varied greatly with tidal and diel cycles in a seasonally changing relationship, likely linked to the seasonally changing fish community of the bay. In the winter and spring, higher hourly counts were generally confined to ebb tides and low slack tides near sunrise and sunset. In summer and fall of each year, the highest fish counts shifted to night and occurred during ebb, low slack, and flood tides. Fish counts were not linked to current speed, and did not decrease as current speed increased, contrary to observations at other tidal power sites. As fish counts may be proportional to the encounter rate of fish with an MHK turbine at the same depth, highly variable counts indicate that the risk to fish is similarly variable. The links between fish presence and environmental cycles at this site will likely be present at other locations with similar environmental forcing, making these observations useful in predicting potential fish interactions at tidal energy sites worldwide.

  9. Measuring the Intrinsic Lyman-alpha Profiles of High-Velocity G, K, and M dwarfs (United States)

    Youngblood, Allison


    H I Lyman alpha (LyA; 1216 A) is the brightest emission line in the UV spectrum of F-K dwarfs and is as bright as the rest of the entire 1150-3000 A emission from M dwarfs. Stellar LyA emission plays a critical role in the chemistry of exoplanet atmospheres, energy transport in the stellar chromosphere, and in probing the density structure of the ISM. Thus, accurately characterizing LyA is critically important. However, interstellar H I removes more than 50% of the stellar LyA flux even for the nearest stars, necessitating reconstruction from the observed line profile wings and an assumption concerning the shape of the line core. The Sun (a G2 dwarf) is the only star for which we have high-resolution direct observations of the line core shape, which is self-reversed. Self-reversal in the LyA line core likely depends on spectral type, so incorrect assumptions of the line core shape for stars cooler or more active than the Sun will result in erroneous intrinsic LyA fluxes. We propose to directly measure with high spectral resolution (STIS E140M) the LyA line cores of five high radial velocity stars (G8 V to M4 V). These will be the first measurements of the LyA line with large Doppler shifts and sufficient resolution to probe the LyA line core shape. We will quantify the self-reversal depth, width, and symmetry, and compare amongst the spectral types. STIS E230H spectra will measure the Mg II line core shapes to test whether they are a good proxy for the LyA core shape. This program will create the first publicly available LyA intrinsic profile templates for late-type stars and update widely-used stellar LyA databases like the MUSCLES Treasury Survey.

  10. Effects of gamma-ray and high energy carbon ion irradiation on swimming velocity of Euglena gracilis (United States)

    Sakashita, T.; Doi, M.; Yasuda, H.; Fuma, S.; Häder, D.-P.

    The effects of gamma-ray and high energy carbon ion irradiation on the swimming velocity of the photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis strain Z were studied, focusing on a dose-effect relationship. Cells were exposed to 60Co gamma-rays at 6 doses of 10, 15, 20, 40, 100 and 200 Gy for water, and also to 290 MeV/amu carbon ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at 7 doses (5, 10, 15, 20, 50, 100 and 200 Gy for water). The swimming velocity was measured by a biomonitoring system, called ECOTOX. The swimming velocities of Euglena gracilis cells were significantly decreased by >40 Gy gamma-rays and >5 Gy carbon ions, respectively. The 50% effective doses for inhibition, 34±4 Gy (gamma-rays) and 13±1 Gy (290 MeV/amu carbon ions), were estimated from the best fit to data of the logistic model. The relative biological effectiveness (2.6±0.4) was calculated by the ratio of 50% effective doses. The inhibition of the swimming velocity of the cells irradiated with gamma-rays was still present after 3 days, while recovery of the swimming velocity was shown in the cells exposed to 290 MeV/amu carbon ions. It is suggested that ionizing radiation inhibits ATP production and/or increases frictional drag on beating of the flagellum, thus decreasing swimming velocity.

  11. Instantaneous rate of loading during manual high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulations. (United States)

    Gudavalli, Maruti Ram


    The objective of this study was to determine the instantaneous rate of loading during manual high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulations (HVLA SMs) in the lumbar and thoracic regions and compare to the average rates of loading. Force-time profiles were recorded using a hand force transducer placed between the hand of a doctor of chiropractic and the subject's back during 14 HVLA SM thrusts on asymptomatic volunteers while 3 doctors of chiropractic delivered the spinal manipulations. Doctors also delivered 36 posterior to anterior thoracic manipulations on a mannequin. Data were collected at a sampling rate of 1000 Hz using Motion Monitor software. Force-time profile data were differentiated to obtain instantaneous rates of loading. The data were reduced using a custom-written MathCad program and analyzed descriptively. The instantaneous rates of loading were 1.7 to 1.8 times higher than average rates of loading, and instantaneous rates of unloading were 2.1 to 2.6 times the average rates of unloading during HVLA SMs. Maximum instantaneous rates of loading occurred 102 to 111 milliseconds prior to peak load. Maximum instantaneous rates of unloading occurred 121 to 154 milliseconds after the peak load. These data may be useful for further understanding of HVLA SMs. The instantaneous rates of loading and where they occurred may be useful data for understanding and describing HVLA SMs. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Charge transfer in high velocity C{sub n}{sup +} + He collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabot, M [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Martinet, G [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Mezdari, F [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires, UMR 8625, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Diaz-Tendero, S [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Beroff-Wohrer, K [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires, UMR 8625, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Desesquelles, P [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Della-Negra, S [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Hamrita, H [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); LePadellec, A [IRSAMC, Universite Paul Sabatier et CNRS, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Tuna, T [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Montagnon, L [IRSAMC, Universite Paul Sabatier et CNRS, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Barat, M [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires, UMR 8625, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Simon, M [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matiere et Rayonnement, UMR 7614, Universite Paris 6 et CNRS, 11 rue P et M Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ismail, I [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires, UMR 8625, Universite Paris Sud et CNRS, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)


    Dissociative and non-dissociative charge transfer cross sections in high velocity (v = 2.6 au) collisions between ionic carbon clusters C{sub n}{sup +} (n 2-10) and helium atoms have been measured. The sum of the cross sections has been found to increase significantly with n. Measurements of branching ratios for all fragmentation channels of excited C{sub n} clusters are reported. The summed branching ratios associated with a given number of emitted fragments exhibit odd-even alternations reflecting the higher stability of the species having an odd number of atoms. From an analysis of the summed branching ratios within the statistical microcanonical metropolis Monte Carlo model, and knowing the temperature of the incident clusters, deposited energy distributions due to the charge transfer process are deduced (n = 5-9). These distributions, of similar characteristics whatever n, peak around 4-5 eV and exhibit a large percentage of superexcited states situated above the continuum.

  13. Magnetic Circuit Design and Multiphysics Analysis of a Novel MR Damper for Applications under High Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Zheng


    Full Text Available A novel magnetorheological (MR damper with a multistage piston and independent input currents is designed and analyzed. The equivalent magnetic circuit model is investigated along with the relation between magnetic induction density in the working gap and input currents of the electromagnetic coils. Finite element method (FEM is used to analyze the distribution of magnetic field through the MR fluid region. Considering the real situation, coupling equations are presented to analyze the electromagnetic-thermal-flow coupling problems. Software COMSOL is used to analyze the multiphysics, that is, electromagnetic, thermal dynamic, and fluid mechanic. A measurement index involving total damping force, dynamic range, and induction time needed for magnetic coil is put forward to evaluate the performance of the novel multistage MR damper. The simulation results show that it is promising for applications under high velocity and works better when more electromagnetic coils are applied with input currents separately. Besides, in order to reduce energy consumption, it is recommended to apply more electromagnetic coils with relative low currents based on the analysis of pressure drop along the annular gap.

  14. High velocity penetrators used a potential means for attaining core sample for airless solar system objects (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Truitt, C.; Shibata, R.


    Sample return missions offer a greater science yield when compared to missions that only employ in situ or remote sensing observations. Such missions have high ΔV requirements, and the return yields to date have been typically only of a few grams for robotic missions. Planetary penetrators offer an alternative that significantly reduce a mission's ΔV, increase sample yields, and allow for the collection of subsurface materials. The following details the design, development, and testing of penetrator/sampler technology capable of surviving supersonic impact velocities that would enable the collection of a solid core of geologic materials, without the need for any drilling equipment,,thereby reducing the overall mass and propellant budget. It is shown through both modeling and field testing that penetrators at speeds between 300 and 600 m/s ( Mach 1-2) can penetrate into the ground to depths of 1-2 m with overall structural integrity maintained. The first flight tests demonstrated the potential for survivability at these speeds. The second flight series demonstrated core sample collection with partial ejection of the sample return canister. The 3rd flight series demonstrated self-ejection of the sample return system fully intact and with the core retaining the full stratigraphy of the rock bed. The recovered sample also shows the survivability of macro-organic structures. Possible mechanisms for the recovery of the ejected core sample are also discussed.

  15. Searching for Dark Matter Annihilation in the Smith High-Velocity Cloud (United States)

    Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Gomez-Vargas, German A.; Hewitt, John W.; Linden, Tim; Tibaldo, Luigi


    Recent observations suggest that some high-velocity clouds may be confined by massive dark matter halos. In particular, the proximity and proposed dark matter content of the Smith Cloud make it a tempting target for the indirect detection of dark matter annihilation. We argue that the Smith Cloud may be a better target than some Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies and use gamma-ray observations from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to search for a dark matter annihilation signal. No significant gamma-ray excess is found coincident with the Smith Cloud, and we set strong limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section assuming a spatially extended dark matter profile consistent with dynamical modeling of the Smith Cloud. Notably, these limits exclude the canonical thermal relic cross section (approximately 3 x 10 (sup -26) cubic centimeters per second) for dark matter masses less than or approximately 30 gigaelectronvolts annihilating via the B/B- bar oscillation or tau/antitau channels for certain assumptions of the dark matter density profile; however, uncertainties in the dark matter content of the Smith Cloud may significantly weaken these constraints.

  16. Seismic site-response characterization of high-velocity sites using advanced geophysical techniques: application to the NAGRA-Net (United States)

    Poggi, V.; Burjanek, J.; Michel, C.; Fäh, D.


    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has recently finalised the installation of ten new seismological broadband stations in northern Switzerland. The project was led in cooperation with the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) and Swissnuclear to monitor micro seismicity at potential locations of nuclear-waste repositories. To further improve the quality and usability of the seismic recordings, an extensive characterization of the sites surrounding the installation area was performed following a standardised investigation protocol. State-of-the-art geophysical techniques have been used, including advanced active and passive seismic methods. The results of all analyses converged to the definition of a set of best-representative 1-D velocity profiles for each site, which are the input for the computation of engineering soil proxies (traveltime averaged velocity and quarter-wavelength parameters) and numerical amplification models. Computed site response is then validated through comparison with empirical site amplification, which is currently available for any station connected to the Swiss seismic networks. With the goal of a high-sensitivity network, most of the NAGRA stations have been installed on stiff-soil sites of rather high seismic velocity. Seismic characterization of such sites has always been considered challenging, due to lack of relevant velocity contrast and the large wavelengths required to investigate the frequency range of engineering interest. We describe how ambient vibration techniques can successfully be applied in these particular conditions, providing practical recommendations for best practice in seismic site characterization of high-velocity sites.

  17. High fetal splenic artery peak velocity in fetuses with hemoglobin Bart disease: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Tongsong, Theera; Tongprasert, Fuanglada; Srisupundit, Kasemsri; Luewan, Suchaya


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the splenic artery (SPA) peak systolic velocity (PSV) in identifying fetuses with hemoglobin (Hb) Bart disease among pregnancies at risk for the disease. Pregnancies at risk for fetal Hb Bart disease scheduled for cordocentesis at 18 to 25 weeks' gestation at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital were recruited into the study. The SPA PSV was measured before cordocentesis, and the final fetal diagnosis of Hb Bart disease was based on fetal Hb typing using high-performance liquid chromatography. Seventy-six singleton pregnancies at risk for fetal Hb Bart disease were sonographically evaluated for the SPA PSV and underwent cordocentesis for fetal blood analysis. Among the 76 recruited pregnancies, 17 fetuses with Hb Bart disease were finally diagnosed by fetal blood analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography, and the remainder had no abnormalities or had the alpha-thalassemia 1 trait and were defined as unaffected fetuses. The mean SPA PSVs +/- SD for the unaffected and affected fetuses were significantly different: 21.17 +/- 3.7 cm/s (range, 13.8-29.9 cm/s) and 26.12 +/- 3.6 cm/s (range, 20.4-31.5 cm/s) respectively. The SPA PSV of the affected fetuses was higher than that of the unaffected ones (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P Hb Bart disease. Further studies to evaluate the effectiveness of the SPA PSV in differentiating affected from unaffected fetuses among pregnancies at risk are desirable.

  18. Energy Productivity of the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attalah, Said; Waller, Peter M.; Khawam, George; Ryan, Randy D.; Huesemann, Michael H.


    The original Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID) raceway was an effective method to increase algae culture temperature in open raceways. However, the energy input was high and flow mixing was poor. Thus, the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV) raceway was developed to reduce energy input requirements and improve flow mixing in a serpentine flow path. A prototype ARID-HV system was installed in Tucson, Arizona. Based on algae growth simulation and hydraulic analysis, an optimal ARID-HV raceway was designed, and the electrical energy input requirement (kWh ha-1 d-1) was calculated. An algae growth model was used to compare the productivity of ARIDHV and conventional raceways. The model uses a pond surface energy balance to calculate water temperature as a function of environmental parameters. Algae growth and biomass loss are calculated based on rate constants during day and night, respectively. A 10 year simulation of DOE strain 1412 (Chlorella sorokiniana) showed that the ARID-HV raceway had significantly higher production than a conventional raceway for all months of the year in Tucson, Arizona. It should be noted that this difference is species and climate specific and is not observed in other climates and with other algae species. The algae growth model results and electrical energy input evaluation were used to compare the energy productivity (algae production rate/energy input) of the ARID-HV and conventional raceways for Chlorella sorokiniana in Tucson, Arizona. The energy productivity of the ARID-HV raceway was significantly greater than the energy productivity of a conventional raceway for all months of the year.

  19. A plane of high-velocity galaxies across the Local Group (United States)

    Banik, Indranil; Zhao, Hongsheng


    We recently showed that several Local Group (LG) galaxies have much higher radial velocities (RVs) than predicted by a 3D dynamical model of the standard cosmological paradigm. Here, we show that six of these seven galaxies define a thin plane with root mean square thickness of only 101 kpc despite a widest extent of nearly 3 Mpc, much larger than the conventional virial radius of the Milky Way (MW) or M31. This plane passes within ∼70 kpc of the MW-M31 barycentre and is oriented so the MW-M31 line is inclined by 16° to it. We develop a toy model to constrain the scenario whereby a past MW-M31 flyby in Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) forms tidal dwarf galaxies that settle into the recently discovered planes of satellites around the MW and M31. The scenario is viable only for a particular MW-M31 orbital plane. This roughly coincides with the plane of LG dwarfs with anomalously high RVs. Using a restricted N-body simulation of the LG in MOND, we show how the once fast-moving MW and M31 gravitationally slingshot test particles outwards at high speeds. The most distant such particles preferentially lie within the MW-M31 orbital plane, probably because the particles ending up with the highest RVs are those flung out almost parallel to the motion of the perturber. This suggests a dynamical reason for our finding of a similar trend in the real LG, something not easily explained as a chance alignment of galaxies with an isotropic or mildly flattened distribution (probability = 0.0015).

  20. Calculation and measurement of a neutral air flow velocity impacting a high voltage capacitor with asymmetrical electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malík


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects surrounding phenomenon of a mechanical force generated on a high voltage asymmetrical capacitor (the so called Biefeld-Brown effect. A method to measure this force is described and a formula to calculate its value is also given. Based on this the authors derive a formula characterising the neutral air flow velocity impacting an asymmetrical capacitor connected to high voltage. This air flow under normal circumstances lessens the generated force. In the following part this velocity is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry measuring technique and the results of the theoretically calculated velocity and the experimentally measured value are compared. The authors found a good agreement between the results of both approaches.

  1. Zinc Absorption from Milk Is Affected by Dilution but Not by Thermal Processing, and Milk Enhances Absorption of Zinc from High-Phytate Rice in Young Dutch Women. (United States)

    Talsma, Elise F; Moretti, Diego; Ly, Sou Chheng; Dekkers, Renske; van den Heuvel, Ellen Ghm; Fitri, Aditia; Boelsma, Esther; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Zeder, Christophe; Melse-Boonstra, Alida


    Background: Milk has been suggested to increase zinc absorption. The effect of processing and the ability of milk to enhance zinc absorption from other foods has not been measured directly in humans. Objective: We aimed to assess zinc absorption from 1 ) milk undergoing various processing and preparatory steps and 2 ) from intrinsically labeled high-phytate rice consumed with milk or water. Methods: Two randomized crossover studies were conducted in healthy young women [age:18-25 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 20-25]: 1 ) a milk study ( n = 19) comparing the consumption of 800 mL full-fat ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk [heat-treated milk (HTM)], full-fat UHT milk diluted 1:1 with water [heat-treated milk and water (MW)], water, or unprocessed (raw) milk (UM), each extrinsically labeled with 67 Zn, and 2 ) a rice study ( n = 18) comparing the consumption of 90 g intrinsically 67 Zn-labeled rice with 600 mL of water [rice and water (RW)] or full-fat UHT milk [rice and milk (RM)]. The fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) was measured with the double-isotope tracer ratio method. In vitro, we assessed zinc extraction from rice blended into water, UM, or HTM with or without phytate. Results: FAZ from HTM was 25.5% (95% CI: 21.6%, 29.4%) and was not different from UM (27.8%; 95% CI: 24.2%, 31.4%). FAZ from water was higher (72.3%; 95% CI: 68.7%, 75.9%), whereas FAZ from MW was lower (19.7%; 95% CI: 17.5%, 21.9%) than HTM and UM (both P Milk enhanced human FAZ from high-phytate rice by 62% compared with water. Diluting milk with water decreases its absorption-enhancing proprieties, whereas UHT processing does not. This trial was registered at the Dutch trial registry as NTR4267 ( © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. C4N3H monolayer: A two-dimensional organic Dirac material with high Fermi velocity (United States)

    Pan, Hongzhe; Zhang, Hongyu; Sun, Yuanyuan; Li, Jianfu; Du, Youwei; Tang, Nujiang


    Searching for two-dimensional (2D) organic Dirac materials, which have more adaptable practical applications compared with inorganic ones, is of great significance and has been ongoing. However, only two such materials with low Fermi velocity have been discovered so far. Herein, we report the design of an organic monolayer with C4N3H stoichiometry that possesses fascinating structure and good stability in its free-standing state. More importantly, we demonstrate that this monolayer is a semimetal with anisotropic Dirac cones and very high Fermi velocity. This Fermi velocity is roughly one order of magnitude larger than the largest velocity ever reported in 2D organic Dirac materials, and it is comparable to that in graphene. The Dirac states in this monolayer arise from the extended π -electron conjugation system formed by the overlapping 2 pz orbitals of carbon and nitrogen atoms. Our finding paves the way to a search for more 2D organic Dirac materials with high Fermi velocity.

  3. High resolution absorption coefficients for Freon-12. [by using tunable diode laser spectroscopy (United States)

    Hoell, J. M.; Bair, C. H.; Williams, B.; Harward, C.


    The ultra high resolution absorption coefficients of the Q-branch of Freon-12 obtained with tunable diode laser spectroscopy are presented. Continuous spectra are presented from 1155/cm to 1163/cm, and absolute wavelength calibration was obtained using SO2 spectra as a standard and a 5 cm Ge etalon for relative calibration between SO2 lines. The Freon-12 data obtained at a pressure of 0.05 torr showed a rich and highly structured spectra, but with the exception of three isolated features, collisional broadening reduces the spectra to a structureless continuum for nitrogen pressures greater than 20 torr. The spectra at 1161/cm continue to exhibit structure at atmospheric pressure.

  4. Determination of sulfur in food by high resolution continuum source flame molecular absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambrzycka, Elżbieta; Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz, Beata, E-mail:


    In the present work, a fast, simple and sensitive analytical method for determination of sulfur in food and beverages by high resolution continuum source flame molecular absorption spectrometry was developed. The determination was performed via molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide, CS. Different CS rotational lines (257.959 nm, 258.033 nm, 258.055 nm), number of pixels and types of standard solution of sulfur, namely: sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium sulfite, sodium sulfide, DL-cysteine, and L-cystine, were studied in terms of sensitivity, repeatability of results as well as limit of detection and limit of quantification. The best results were obtained for measurements of absorption of the CS molecule at 258.055 nm at the wavelength range covering 3 pixels and DL-cysteine in 0.2 mol L{sup −1} HNO{sub 3} solution as a calibration standard. Under optimized conditions the limit of detection and the limit of quantification achieved for sulfur were 10.9 mg L{sup −1} and 36.4 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The repeatability of the results expressed as relative standard deviation was typically < 5%. The accuracy of the method was tested by analysis of digested biological certified reference materials (soya bean flour, corn flour and herbs) and recovery experiment for beverage samples with added known amount of sulfur standard. The recovery of analyte from such samples was in the range of 93–105% with the repeatability in the range of 4.1–5.0%. The developed method was applied for the determination of sulfur in milk (194 ± 10 mg kg{sup −1}), egg white (2188 ± 29 mg kg{sup −1}), mineral water (31.0 ± 0.9 mg L{sup −1}), white wine (260 ± 4 mg L{sup −1}) and red wine (82 ± 2 mg L{sup −1}), as well as in sample rich in ions, such as bitter mineral water (6900 ± 100 mg L{sup −1}). - Highlights: • HR-CS FMAS technique was used for sulfur measurement via molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide, CS. • Organic DL

  5. Whole-body and segmental muscle volume are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Y


    Full Text Available Yosuke Yamada,1,2 Daichi Yamashita,2,3 Shinji Yamamoto,2,3 Tomoyuki Matsui,4 Kazuya Seo,4 Yoshikazu Azuma,4 Yoshikazu Kida,5 Toru Morihara,5 Misaka Kimura1 1Laboratory of Sports and Health Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Research Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 3Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Rehabilitation, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto, Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Orthopedics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between pitching ball velocity and segmental (trunk, upper arm, forearm, upper leg, and lower leg and whole-body muscle volume (MV in high school baseball pitchers. Forty-seven male high school pitchers (40 right-handers and seven left-handers; age, 16.2 ± 0.7 years; stature, 173.6 ± 4.9 cm; mass, 65.0 ± 6.8 kg, years of baseball experience, 7.5 ± 1.8 years; maximum pitching ball velocity, 119.0 ± 9.0 km/hour participated in the study. Segmental and whole-body MV were measured using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maximum ball velocity was measured with a sports radar gun. The MV of the dominant arm was significantly larger than the MV of the non-dominant arm (P < 0.001. There was no difference in MV between the dominant and non-dominant legs. Whole-body MV was significantly correlated with ball velocity (r = 0.412, P < 0.01. Trunk MV was not correlated with ball velocity, but the MV for both lower legs, and the dominant upper leg, upper arm, and forearm were significantly correlated with ball velocity (P < 0.05. The results were not affected by age or years of baseball experience. Whole-body and segmental MV are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers. However, the contribution of the muscle mass

  6. Carbon Hollow Microspheres with a Designable Mesoporous Shell for High-Performance Electromagnetic Wave Absorption. (United States)

    Xu, Hailong; Yin, Xiaowei; Zhu, Meng; Han, Meikang; Hou, Zexin; Li, Xinliang; Zhang, Litong; Cheng, Laifei


    In this work, mesoporous carbon hollow microspheres (PCHMs) with designable mesoporous shell and interior void are constructed by a facile in situ stöber templating approach and a pyrolysis-etching process. The PCHMs are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, Raman spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption system. A uniform mesoporous shell (pore size 4.7 nm) with a thickness of 55 nm and a cavity size of 345 nm is realized. The composite of paraffin mixed with 20 wt % PCHMs exhibits a minimum reflection coefficient (RCmin) of -84 dB at 8.2 GHz with a sample thickness of 3.9 mm and an effective absorption bandwidth (EAB) of 4.8 GHz below -10 dB (>90% electromagnetic wave is attenuated). Moreover, the composite of phenolic resin mixed with 20 wt % PCHMs exhibits an ultrawide EAB of 8 GHz below -10 dB with a thinner thickness of 2.15 mm. Such excellent electromagnetic wave absorption properties are ascribed to the large carbon-air interface in the mesoporous shell and interior void, which is favorable for the matching of characteristic impedance as compared with carbon hollow microspheres and carbon solid microspheres. Considering the excellent performance of PCHMs, we believe the as-fabricated PCHMs can be promising candidates as highly effective microwave absorbers, and the design philosophy can be extended to other spherical absorbers.

  7. Reconstruction of the projected electrostatic potential in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy including phenomenological absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentzen, M., E-mail: [Institute of Solid State Research and Ernst Ruska Centre for Microscopy, Research Centre Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)


    The projected electrostatic potential is reconstructed from a high-resolution exit wave function through a maximum-likelihood refinement algorithm. The theory of an already existing algorithm is extended to include the effects of phenomenological absorption. Various tests with a simulated exit wave function of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} in [1 0 0] orientation used as a source show that the reconstruction is successful, regardless of the strongly differing scattering power of atomic columns, even for the case of strong dynamical diffraction. Object thickness, the amount of absorption, and a residual defocus aberration of the wave function-parameters often unknown or difficult to measure in experiments-can be determined accurately with the aid of the refinement algorithm in a self-consistent way. For the next generation of instruments, with information limits of 0.05 nm and better, reconstruction accuracies of better than 2% can be expected, which is sufficient to measure and display the structural and chemical information with the aid of an accurate projected potential map.

  8. S-Wave Velocity Across Central Mexico Using High Resolution Surface Wave Tomography (United States)

    Iglesias, A.; Clayton, R. W.; Pérez-Campos, X.; Singh, S. K.; Pacheco, J. F.; García, D.; Valdés-González, C.


    The shear wave velocity structure across central Mexico is determined by surface wave dispersion from a dense linear seismic experiment "Mesoamerican Subduction Experiment" (MASE). MASE consisted of 100 portable broadband stations deployed along a line crossing Central Mexico from the Pacific Coast to almost the Gulf of Mexico. Regional records were used to obtain Rayleigh-wave group velocity maps for periods from 5 to 50 s and they show a dramatic variation of velocity (~40%), especially for periods larger of 20 s. Local dispersion curves were reconstructed for each station and inverted to find S-wave velocity by using a simulated annealing algorithm. The results, from inversion, show a significant change, particularly in the lower crust, between the backarc, volcanic arc and forearc regions. The crust in the forearc is thicker and faster than the backarc region. Just below the active Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) (300 km from the coast) is presently a low velocity spot (~3.4 km/s) suggesting presence of anomalous material (probably related to a mantle wedge) as deep as 50 km. The results also show a poorly resolved slab and wedge which correspond to the ones in a model reported recently. The results are supported with consistency checks and resolution tests.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunder, Andrea; Storm, J. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Hawkins, K. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Poleski, R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Johnson, C. I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shen, J.; Li, Z.-Y. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Cordero, M. J. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut: Zentrum für Astronomie, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nataf, D. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bono, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Walker, A. R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Koch, A. [Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); De Propris, R. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Soszynski, I.; Pietrzynski, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); and others


    We report on the RR Lyrae variable star, MACHO 176.18833.411, located toward the Galactic bulge and observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay, which has the unusual radial velocity of −372 ± 8 km s{sup −1} and true space velocity of −482 ± 22 km s{sup −1} relative to the Galactic rest frame. Located less than 1 kpc from the Galactic center and toward a field at (l, b) = (3, −2.5), this pulsating star has properties suggesting it belongs to the bulge RR Lyrae star population, yet a velocity indicating it is abnormal, at least with respect to bulge giants and red clump stars. We show that this star is most likely a halo interloper and therefore suggest that halo contamination is not insignificant when studying metal-poor stars found within the bulge area, even for stars within 1 kpc of the Galactic center. We discuss the possibility that MACHO 176.18833.411 is on the extreme edge of the bulge RR Lyrae radial velocity distribution, and also consider a more exotic scenario in which it is a runaway star moving through the Galaxy.

  10. Imaging subducted high velocity slabs beneath the sea of Okhotsk using depth phases (United States)

    Bai, K.; Li, D.; Helmberger, D. V.; Sun, D.; Wei, S.


    A recent study of a shallow Kuril subduction zone event displays significant waveform multi-pathing for paths propagating down the slab towards Europe(Zhan,Zhongwen 2014). Relatively fast structures (5%) are invoked to simulate such observations requiring numerical methods to capture such proportional distortions. Here, we present results from the reverse direction that is the effects on depth phases of deep events propagating up the slab. In particular the Mw6.7 Sea of Okhotsk deep earthquake occurred at a depth of 640 km is believed to be near the bottom of the slab structure and produced an abundance of depth phases. Differential travel time sP-P analysis shows a systematic decrease of up to 5 seconds from Europe to Australia and then to Pacific which is indicative of a dipping high velocity layer above the source region. Multiple simulations using WKM(An upgraded variation of the traditional WKBJ method) and finite difference methods were conducted in an effort to assess the effects of sharp structure on the whole wave-field. Results obtained from analytical methods, by the WKM code become questionable compared against the finite difference method due to its inability to handle the diffraction phases which become crucial in complex structures. In this example, seismicity clustered within a 45 degree dipping benioff zone at shallow depth but became blurred beyond 400 km. Finite difference simulations showed that a slab shapped structure that follows the benioff zone at shallow depth and steepens beyond 400 km produces a model that can account for the sP-P differential travel times of our 5s for oceanic paths.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The High-Velocity Suspension Flame Spraying (HVSFS technique was employed in order to deposit bioactive glass coatings onto titanium substrates. Two different glass compositions were examined: the classical 45S5 Bioglass and a newly-developed SiO2–CaO–K2O–P2O5 glass, labelled as “Bio-K”. Suitable raw materials were melted in a furnace and fritted by casting into water. The frit was dry-milled in a porcelain jar and subsequently attrition-milled in isopropanol. The resulting micronsized powders were dispersed in a water+isopropanol mixture, in order to prepare suitable suspensions for the HVSFS process. The deposition parameters were varied; however, all coatings were obtained by performing three consecutive torch cycles in front of the substrate. The thickness and porosity of the coatings were significantly affected by the chosen set of deposition parameters; however, in all cases, the layer produced during the third torch cycle was thicker and denser than the one produced during the first cycle. As the system temperature increases during the spraying process, the particles sprayed during the last torch cycle remain at T > Tg while they spread, so that interlamellar viscous flow sintering takes place, favouring the formation of such denser microstructure. Both coatings are entirely glassy; however, micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals that, whereas the 45S5 coating is structurally identical to the corresponding bulk glass, the “Bio-K” coating is somewhat different from the bulk one.

  12. Uvby-B Photometry of High Velocity Stars. Photometric Parallaxes and Preliminary Kinematic Results (United States)

    Schuster, W. J.


    RESUMEN. Se han explorado dos metodos para la determinaci6n de paralajes fotometricos usando fotometrfa uv - . Estos metodos dependen de las relaciones estandar de Crawford (1975) y de Olsen (1984) y de colores y magnitudes sinteticas de VandenBerg y Bell (1985). Ambos metodos incluyen una correcci6n evolucionaria de forma f6c0. Se calculan las distancias para las 711 estrellas de alta velocidad y pobres en metales en el catalogo uvby-p de Schuster y Nissen (1988). Se comparan estas con las distancias de Sandage y Fouts (1987) y Laird, Carney y Latham (1988) para las estrellas en comtfin. Tambien son aplicables nuestros metodos a estrellas de paralaje. En general las comparaciones son satisfactorias y las sistematicas son despreciables o pequefias. Las distancias finales de nuestras 711 estrellas se aplican a un numero de problemas cinematicos. Se estudian algunos diagramas interesantes, tales como el diagrama de energia de Toomre y el diagrama V(rot) versus [Fe/H]. ABSTRACT Two methods for the determination of parallaxes using uvbyP photometry are being explored. These methods depend upon the standard relations of Crawford (1975) and of Olsen (1984) and upon synthetic colors and magnitudes of VandenBerg and Bell (1985). Both include an evolutionary correction of the form f6c0. Distances are calculated for the 711 high-velocity and metal-poor stars in the uvby-P catalogue of Schuster and Nissen (1988). These are compared to the distances of Sandage and Fouts (1987) and Laird, Carney, and Lathain (1988) for stars in common. Also our methods are applied to parallax stars. In general the comparisons are good with negligible or small systematic differences. The final distances of our 711 stars are applied to a number of kinematical problems. Several interesting diagrams are studied, sucl as Toomre energy diagram and the plot of V(rot) versus [Fe/H]. Key words: DISTANCES - PHOTOMETRY - STARS-POPULATION II

  13. Sound velocities in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite shocked to 18 GPa: Orientational order dependence and elastic instability (United States)

    Lucas, Marcel; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.


    Previous reports of rapid phase transformation above 18 GPa [Erskine and Nellis, Nature 349, 317 (1991)] and large elastic waves below 18 GPa [Lucas et al., J. Appl. Phys. 114, 093515 (2013)] for shock-compressed ZYB-grade highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), but not for less oriented ZYH-grade HOPG, indicated a link between the orientational order dependence of the HOPG response above and below the phase transformation stress. To gain insight into this link and into the mechanical response of HOPG shocked to peak stresses approaching the phase transformation onset, the compressibility of ZYB- and ZYH-grade HOPG in the shocked state was examined using front surface impact experiments. Particle velocity histories and sound velocities were measured for peak stresses reaching 18 GPa. Although the locus of the measured peak stress-particle velocity states is indistinguishable for the two grades of HOPG, the measured sound velocities in the peak state reveal significant differences between the two grades. Specifically (1) the measured sound velocities are somewhat higher for ZYH-grade HOPG compared with ZYB-grade HOPG; (2) the measured sound velocities for ZYH-grade HOPG increase smoothly with compression, whereas those for ZYB-grade HOPG exhibit a significant reduction in the compression dependence from 12 GPa to 17 GPa and an abrupt increase from 17 GPa to 18 GPa; and (3) the longitudinal moduli, determined from the measured sound velocities, are smaller than the calculated bulk moduli for ZYB-grade HOPG shocked to peak stresses above 15 GPa, indicating the onset of an elastic instability. The present findings demonstrate that the softening of the longitudinal modulus (or elastic instability) presented here is linked to the large elastic waves and the rapid phase transformation reported previously—all observed only for shocked ZYB-grade HOPG. The elastic instability in shocked ZYB-grade HOPG is likely a precursor to the rapid phase transformation observed

  14. Frictional properties of Alpine Fault gouge in high-velocity shear experiments (United States)

    Morgan, C.; Reches, Z.


    The Alpine Fault, New Zealand, is a plate boundary with slip rate of ~ 37 mm/yr, with major historic seismic events. The Deep Fault Drilling Program (DFDP) into the Alpine Fault had two phases in 2011 and 2014, with main objectives of fault-zone sampling and borehole instrumentations. As complementary work to the drilling, we analyze the frictional properties of the Alpine Fault gauge on samples collected at three field exposures (Waikukupa, Cataclasite, and Gaunt) at distances up to 70 km away from DFDP-2. The bulk samples (1-3 kg) were first manually disintegrated without shear, and then sieved to the 250-350 micron fraction. The gouge was sheared in a Confined Rotary Cell (CROC) in the natural, moisture conditions, at slip-velocity range of 0.01 m/s to 0.5 m/s (constant and stepped) with a constant normal stress of 2-3 MPa. Runs included monitoring the CO2 and H2O emission, in addition to the standard mechanical parameters. The preliminary results show an initial friction coefficient ~0.6. Initial slip at low velocities (0.01 m/s) display gentle velocity strengthening, that changed to a drastic weakening (~50%) at velocity of 0.5 m/s. This weakening was associated with intense slip localization along a hard, dark slip surface within the gouge zone. After the establishment of this slip surface, the low friction remains for the following low slip-velocity steps. Future work will include: (1) systematic investigation of the dynamic friction dependence on the slip-velocity and slip-distance; (2) analysis of the relations between friction, mineralogy and the release of CO2/H2O; and (3) application of the experimental results to characterize natural fault behavior.

  15. Negative velocity fluctuations and non-equilibrium fluctuation relation for a driven high critical current vortex state. (United States)

    Bag, Biplab; Shaw, Gorky; Banerjee, S S; Majumdar, Sayantan; Sood, A K; Grover, A K


    Under the influence of a constant drive the moving vortex state in 2H-NbS2 superconductor exhibits a negative differential resistance (NDR) transition from a steady flow to an immobile state. This state possesses a high depinning current threshold ([Formula: see text]) with unconventional depinning characteristics. At currents well above [Formula: see text], the moving vortex state exhibits a multimodal velocity distribution which is characteristic of vortex flow instabilities in the NDR regime. However at lower currents which are just above [Formula: see text], the velocity distribution is non-Gaussian with a tail extending to significant negative velocity values. These unusual negative velocity events correspond to vortices drifting opposite to the driving force direction. We show that this distribution obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen Non-Equilibrium Fluctuation Relation (GC-NEFR). Just above [Formula: see text], we also find a high vortex density fluctuating driven state not obeying the conventional GC-NEFR. The GC-NEFR analysis provides a measure of an effective energy scale (E eff ) associated with the driven vortex state. The E eff corresponds to the average energy dissipated by the fluctuating vortex state above [Formula: see text]. We propose the high E eff value corresponds to the onset of high energy dynamic instabilities in this driven vortex state just above [Formula: see text].

  16. Effects of cervical high-velocity low-amplitude techniques on range of motion, strength performance, and cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galindez-Ibarbengoetxea, Xabier; Setuain, Igor; Andersen, Lars L.


    BACKGROUND: Cervical high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) manipulation technique is among the oldest and most frequently used chiropractic manual therapy, but the physiologic and biomechanics effects were not completely clear. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to describe the effects of cervical HVLA man...... to develop a stronger evidence-based foundation for HVLA manipulation techniques as a treatment for cervical conditions....

  17. MRK 1216 and NGC 1277 - an orbit-based dynamical analysis of compact, high-velocity dispersion galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yıldırım, Akın; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn; Husemann, Bernd; Lyubenova, Mariya; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Gültekin, Kayhan

    We present a dynamical analysis to infer the structural parameters and properties of the two nearby, compact, high-velocity dispersion galaxies MRK 1216 and NGC 1277. Combining deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, wide-field integral field unit stellar kinematics, and complementary long-slit

  18. Hyperfine interactions in soybean and lupin oxy-leghemoglobins studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Alenkina, I. V.; Zakharova, A. P.; Oshtrakh, M. I.; Semionkin, V. A.


    A comparative study of monomeric soybean and lupin leghemoglobins in the oxy-form was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution at 90 K. The 57Fe hyperfine parameters of measured spectra were evaluated and compared with possible structural differences in the heme Fe(II)-O 2 bond.

  19. Coherent lidar modulated with frequency stepped pulse trains for unambiguous high duty cycle range and velocity sensing in the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Mohr, Johan Jacob


    Range unambiguous high duty cycle coherent lidars can be constructed based on frequency stepped pulse train modulation, even continuously emitting systems could be envisioned. Such systems are suitable for velocity sensing of dispersed targets, like the atmosphere, at fast acquisition rates...

  20. Generation of high brightness electron beam by brake-applied velocity bunching with a relatively low energy chirp (United States)

    Huang, Ruixuan; He, Zhigang; Li, Biaobin; Zhang, Shancai; Li, Weiwei; Jia, Qika; Wang, Lin


    Velocity bunching technique is a tool for compressing electron beams in modern high brightness photoinjector sources, which utilizes the velocity difference introduced by a traveling rf wave at a relatively low energy. It presents peculiar challenges when applied to obtain a beam with a very high current and a low transverse emittance in photoinjectors. The main difficulty is to control the emittance oscillations of the beam during high compression, which can be naturally considered as an extension of the emittance compensation process. In this paper, a brake-applied velocity bunching scheme is proposed, in which the electron bunch is injected into the accelerator with a low gradient at a deceleration phase, like ;a brake is applied;, afterward slips to an acceleration phase. During the entire compression process, the energy chirp induced by the rf field is mostly linear, which retains a symmetric electron beam in the temporal distribution. The key point of the new scheme is a smaller energy chirp at a lower beam energy compared with the normal velocity bunching. Besides, the beam energy chirp before compression is dominated by the linear correlation due to a relatively short laser pulse. With a symmetric bunch compression, the transverse emittance could be compensated even if the compression factor is extremely high. As to our simulation results, the peak current of the compressed beam can be above 1.8 kA for the charge of 800 pC with a good emittance compensation.

  1. The space density of primordial gas clouds near galaxies and groups and their relation to galactic high-velocity clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, MA; Briggs, FH


    The Arecibo H I Strip Survey probed the halos of similar to 300 cataloged galaxies and the environments of similar to 14 groups with sensitivity to neutral hydrogen masses greater than or equal to 10(7) M-circle dot. The survey detected no objects with properties resembling the high-velocity clouds

  2. Hyperfine interactions in soybean and lupin oxy-leghemoglobins studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A. [University of Delhi South Campus, Department of Biochemistry (India); Alenkina, I. V. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Zakharova, A. P. [Ural Federal University, Department of Experimental Physics, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail:; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University, Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)


    A comparative study of monomeric soybean and lupin leghemoglobins in the oxy-form was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution at 90 K. The {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters of measured spectra were evaluated and compared with possible structural differences in the heme Fe(II)–O {sub 2} bond.

  3. Electromagnetic Wave Excitation, Propagation, and Absorption in High Current Storage Rings (United States)

    Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.


    We analyze a variety of electromagnetic effects in storage rings with extremely high currents. Specifically, we discuss our experience in the operation of the PEP-II (SLAC B-factory). We present some outstanding and sometimes unpredictable effects of the behavior of electromagnetic waves excited by intense beams inside a vacuum chamber in storage rings. Although the impedance of the rings is usually designed to be small, intense high-current beams can still generate significant microwave power. This power can be enough to damage vacuum beam chamber elements, which may absorb electromagnetic waves. The most sensitive elements are RF seals, vacuum valves, shielded bellows, beam position monitor buttons, and ceramic tiles. Additionally, microwave heating leads to vacuum pressure spikes or even vacuum pressure instabilities that brings high detector background. Resonance excitation of the electromagnetic field may lead to a very high electric component amplitude that can cause breakdowns leading to sparks and discharges. Finally, high-power electromagnetic waves can be responsible for beam instabilities in the ring. Proper absorption of these generated waves may eliminate these effects. We feel our experience will be helpful in the design of new high current synchrotron light sources and storage rings.

  4. Prediction of Fluid Velocity in Highly Heterogeneous Conductivity Fields Using a Genetic Algorithm-Designed Artificial Neural Network (United States)

    Shirley, C.


    A genetic algorithm (GA) is used to select the operational parameters of artificial neural networks (ANN) which are trained to predict fluid velocity. Populations of three-layer, feedforward backpropagation ANN's with varying numbers of hidden nodes, types and slopes of activation functions, alpha and beta learning rates and initial distributions of weights for both the input and hidden layers are created by the GA. The GA- defined ANN's are trained with inputs-output pairs of hydraulic conductivity neighborhoods and resulting fluid velocities at certain points in the simulation domain. The hydraulic conductivity fields are highly heterogeneous with an ensemble log conductivity variance of 1.0. Results of the GA are defined and selected ANN velocity predictions are presented.

  5. High sensitivity ultra-broad-band absorption spectroscopy applied to inductively-coupled plasmas in Cl/O (United States)

    Foucher, Mickaël; Carbone, Emile; Booth, Jean-Paul; Chabert, Pascal; LPP-Plasmas froids Team


    Broad-band absorption spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic for reactive plasmas, allowing measurement of the absolute densities of numerous atoms, molecules and free radicals in ground and various excited states. Previously Xe arc lamps have been used as the continuum light source, but these suffer from spatiotemporal fluctuations which limit the sensitivity to about 10-3 in absorption. More recently UV light-emitting diodes have been used, but these only emit over a very limited spectral range. Our new absorption spectroscopy setup uses a laser-driven plasma light source, achromatic optics and an aberration free spectrograph. This light source has ideal characteristics for absorption spectroscopy (high intensity, stability and a wide spectral range (200--1000 nm)), overcoming previous limitations. Noise levels as low as 10-5 can be achieved in single-pass absorption, covering up to 250 nm in a single spectrum. Measurements were made in a 13.56 MHz inductively-coupled plasma reactor in O, Cl and Cl/O mixtures. We observed absorption by Cl, O and ClxOy molecules, and excited state atoms. Whereas the Clvibrational distribution is close to equilibrium with the gas translational temperature, Omolecules show high vibrational excitation (up to v = 18, Tvib12,000 K). However, high resolution spectra of O indicated rotational temperatures up to only 500 K. Many oxychloride molecules were detected in Cl/O mixtures.

  6. Highly efficient angularly resolving x-ray spectrometer optimized for absorption measurements with collimated sources (United States)

    Šmíd, M.; Gallardo González, I.; Ekerfelt, H.; Björklund Svensson, J.; Hansson, M.; Wood, J. C.; Persson, A.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Lundh, O.; Falk, K.


    Highly collimated betatron radiation from a laser wakefield accelerator is a promising tool for spectroscopic measurements. Therefore, there is a requirement to create spectrometers suited to the unique properties of such a source. We demonstrate a spectrometer which achieves an energy resolution of 1800 ) and is angularly resolving the x-ray emission allowing the reference and spectrum to be recorded at the same time. The single photon analysis is used to significantly reduce the background noise. Theoretical performance of various configurations of the spectrometer is calculated by a ray-tracing algorithm. The properties and performance of the spectrometer including the angular and spectral resolution are demonstrated experimentally on absorption above the K-edge of a Cu foil backlit by a laser-produced betatron radiation x-ray beam.

  7. High-resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy of iron carbonyl complexes. (United States)

    Atkins, Andrew J; Bauer, Matthias; Jacob, Christoph R


    We apply high-energy-resolution fluorescence-detected (HERFD) X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) to study iron carbonyl complexes. Mono-, bi-, and tri-nuclear carbonyl complexes and pure carbonyl complexes as well as carbonyl complexes containing hydrocarbon ligands are considered. The HERFD-XANES spectra reveal multiple pre-edge peaks with individual signatures for each complex, which could not be detected previously with conventional XANES spectroscopy. These peaks are assigned and analysed with the help of TD-DFT calculations. We demonstrate that the pre-edge peaks can be used to distinguish the different types of iron-iron interactions in carbonyl complexes. This opens up new possibilities for applying HERFD-XANES spectroscopy to probe the electronic structure of iron catalysts.

  8. Core density fluctuations observed on Tore Supra by Doppler back-scattering: perpendicular velocity modification in high power ICRH experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennequin, P.; Honore, C.; Truc, T.; Quemeneur, A. [Ecole Polytechnique de Palaiseau, Lab. de Physique et Technologie des Plasmas, CNRS (UMR 7648), 91 - Palaiseau (France); Fenzi-Bonizec, C.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.; Hoang, G.T. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, Centre de Cadarache, 13 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)


    Backscattering of a microwave beam close to the cut-off allows for measurement of density fluctuations n(k(perpendicular)) at a specified wave-number, selected by the scattering geometry k(perpendicular) = -2*k{sub i}, where k{sub i} is the beam wave-number at the reflection layer. On the system installed on Tore Supra, both the scattering wave-number k(perpendicular) and the scattering localisation r/a can be changed during the shot for probing 0.5 < r/a < 0.95 and 2 < k < 15 cm{sup -1}, owing to the adjustable probing frequency and the motorized antenna. The perpendicular fluctuation velocity in the laboratory frame is obtained from the Doppler shift of the frequency spectrum {delta}{omega} = k(perpendicular)*v(perpendicular). It is dominated by the plasma E{sub r} x B velocity. In the core, the latter is mainly due to the projection of the toroidal velocity, as this is shown by comparison with measurements by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. In the set of analysed Tore Supra ohmic and ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating) plasmas, the observed rotation is consistent with a poloidal velocity in the electron diamagnetic direction and/or a toroidal velocity in the counter current direction. Strong modification of velocity profiles and turbulence level are observed together with improved confinement in experiments with ICRH heating at high power and high concentration of minority ions. Preliminary results on associated wave number spectra will also be shown. (authors)

  9. Cluster excitation and ionization in high velocity collisions:the atomic approach


    Mezdari, Férid; Wohrer-Béroff, Karine; Chabot, Marin


    NIM; The independent atom and electron model [1] is introduced in a quantum context and associated approximations tentatively estimated. Confrontation of the model to measured ionization and excitation cross sections of small ionic carbon clusters Cn+ in collisions with helium at an impact velocity of 2.6 a.u is presented.

  10. Photographic measurement of the detonation velocity of explosives by high-speed camera and its comparison with other methods (United States)

    Ogata, Yuji; Wada, Yuji; Katsuyama, Kunihisa; Ma, Gui-Chen


    It is important to measure the detonation velocity of the explosives for considering the detonation performance of explosives. In this paper the Dautriche test method and the resistance wire method were carried out to measure the detonation velocity of explosives and observed these measuring method by high-speed camera at the same time. The results by two measuring methods were compared with each other. In the Dautriche test method the propagation and the collision of detonation of detonating fuse on the lead plate can be observed with high-speed camera. In the resistance wire method the detonation velocity of explosives was measured continuously. But there was delay time caused by the short circuit between the resistance wire and the stainless tube. The delay time was compared with the observation results of high-speed camera. It took a few microsecond(s) to generate the short circuit between the stainless tube and the resistance wire. The sample explosives which were measures with three kinds of methods was same kind of emulsion slurry explosives. The detonation velocity indicated same value on all kinds of methods.

  11. Building America Case Study: Standard- Versus High-Velocity Air Distribution in High-Performance Townhomes, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    IBACOS investigated the performance of a small-diameter high velocity heat pump system compared to a conventional system in a new construction triplex townhouse. A ductless heat pump system also was installed for comparison, but the homebuyer backed out because of aesthetic concerns about that system. In total, two buildings, having identical solar orientation and comprised of six townhomes, were monitored for comfort and energy performance. Results show that the small-diameter system provides more uniform temperatures from floor to floor in the three-story townhome. No clear energy consumption benefit was observed from either system. The builder is continuing to explore the small-diameter system as its new standard system to provide better comfort and indoor air quality. The homebuilder also explored the possibility of shifting its townhome product to meet the U.S. Department of Energy Challenge Home National Program Requirements. Ultimately, the builder decided that adoption of these practices would be too disruptive midstream in the construction cycle. However, the townhomes met the ENERGY STAR Version 3.0 program requirements.

  12. Intensity dependent absorption bleaching of high subband excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, S H; Lee, E H; Chae, K M; Park, S H; Kim, U


    We have investigated the influence of carrier generation on the absorption bleaching of the n=2 and n=3 excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs). With the excitation near the resonance of the n=1 exciton absorption, the long range coulomb screening and collision broadening had significant effects on the exciton bleaching. At low excitation intensity, the absorption bleaching of the n=2 exciton in 75 A-thick MQWs and that of the n=3 exciton in 150 A-thick MQWs were due to linewidth broadening by the collision broadening effect only. At high excitation intensity, however, the reduction of oscillator strength due to the long range coulomb screening contributed dominantly to absorption bleaching.

  13. Application and evaluation of LS-PIV technique for the monitoring of river surface velocities in high flow conditions


    Jodeau, M.; Hauet, A.; Paquier, A.; Le Coz, J.; Dramais, G.


    Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LS-PIV) is used to measure the surface flow velocities in a mountain stream during high flow conditions due to a reservoir release. A complete installation including video acquisition from a mobile elevated viewpoint and artificial flow seeding has been developed and implemented. The LS-PIV method was adapted in order to take into account the specific constraints of these high flow conditions. Using a usual LS-PIV data processing, significant variations...

  14. A Study on the Kinetic Energy and Dispersion Behavior of High-velocity Impact-induced Debris Using SPH Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakong, Jae; Woo, Sung-Choong; Kim, Tae-Won [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, we investigate the dispersion behavior of debris and debris cloud generated by high-velocity impacts using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique. The projectile and target plate were made of aluminum, and we confirm the validity of the SPH technique by comparing the measured major and minor axis lengths of the debris cloud in the reference with the predicted values obtained through the SPH analysis. We perform high-velocity impact and fracture analysis based on the verified SPH technique within the velocity ranges of 1.5~4 km/s, and we evaluate the dispersion behavior of debris induced by the impact in terms of its kinetic energy. The maximum dispersion radius of the debris on the witness plates located behind the target plate was increased with increasing impact velocity. We derive an empirical equation that is capable of predicting the dispersion radius, and we found that 95% of the total kinetic energy of the debris was concentrated within 50% of the maximum dispersion radius.

  15. Indoor seismology by probing the Earth's interior by using sound velocity measurements at high pressures and temperatures. (United States)

    Li, Baosheng; Liebermann, Robert C


    The adiabatic bulk (K(S)) and shear (G) moduli of mantle materials at high pressure and temperature can be obtained directly by measuring compressional and shear wave velocities in the laboratory with experimental techniques based on physical acoustics. We present the application of the current state-of-the-art experimental techniques by using ultrasonic interferometry in conjunction with synchrotron x radiation to study the elasticity of olivine and pyroxenes and their high-pressure phases. By using these updated thermoelasticity data for these phases, velocity and density profiles for a pyrolite model are constructed and compared with radial seismic models. We conclude that pyrolite provides an adequate explanation of the major seismic discontinuities at 410- and 660-km depths, the gradient in the transition zone, as well as the velocities in the lower mantle, if the uncertainties in the modeling and the variations in different seismic models are considered. The characteristics of the seismic scaling factors in response to thermal anomalies suggest that anticorrelations between bulk sound and shear wave velocities, as well as the large positive density anomalies observed in the lower mantle, cannot be explained fully without invoking chemical variations.

  16. Flame Quenching Dynamics of High Velocity Flames in Rectangular Cross-section Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Mahuthannan, Ariff Magdoom


    Understanding flame quenching for different conditions is necessary to develop safety devices like flame arrestors. In practical applications, the speed of a deflagration in the lab-fixed reference frame will be a strong function of the geometry through which the deflagration propagates. This study reports on the effect of the flame speed, at the entrance of a quenching section, on the quenching distance. A 2D rectangular channel joining two main spherical vessels is considered for studying this effect. Two different velocity regimes are investigated and referred to as configurations A, and B. For configuration A, the velocity of the flame is 20 m/s, while it is about 100 m/s for configuration B. Methane-air stoichiometric mixtures at 1 bar and 298 K are used. Simultaneous dynamic pressure measurements along with schlieren imaging are used to analyze the quenching of the flame. Risk assessment of re-ignition is also reported and analyzed.

  17. High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods (United States)

    Zaromb, Solomon


    A portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler [PHTLAAS] has an asymmetric air inlet through which air is drawn upward by a small and light-weight centrifugal fan driven by a direct current motor that can be powered by a battery. The air inlet is so configured as to impart both rotational and downward components of motion to the sampled air near said inlet. The PHTLAAS comprises a glass tube of relatively small size through which air passes at a high rate in a swirling, highly turbulent motion, which facilitates rapid transfer of vapors and particulates to a liquid film covering the inner walls of the tube. The pressure drop through the glass tube is water, usually water. The sampler's collection efficiency is usually >20% for vapors or airborne particulates in the range and >50% for particles larger than In conjunction with various analyzers, the PHTLAAS can serve to monitor a variety of hazardous or illicit airborne substances, such as lead-containing particulates, tritiated water vapor, biological aerosols, or traces of concealed drugs or explosives.

  18. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic Studies of High-Spin Nonheme (Alkylperoxo)iron(III) Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan,X.; Rohde, J.; Koehntop, K.; Zhou, Y.; Bukowski, M.; Costas, M.; Fujisawa, K.; Que, Jr., L.


    The reactions of iron(II) complexes [Fe(Tpt-Bu,i-Pr)(OH)] (1a, Tpt-Bu,i-Pr = hydrotris(3-tert-butyl-5-isopropyl-1-pyrazolyl)borate), [Fe(6-Me2BPMCN)(OTf)2] (1b, 6-Me2BPMCN = N,N'-bis((2-methylpyridin-6-yl)methyl)-N,N'-dimethyl-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane), and [Fe(L8Py2)(OTf)](OTf) (1c, L8Py2 = 1,5-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,5-diazacyclooctane) with tert-BuOOH give rise to high-spin FeIII-OOR complexes. X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of these high-spin species show characteristic features, distinct from those of low-spin Fe-OOR complexes. These include (1) an intense 1s {yields} 3d preedge feature, with an area around 20 units, (2) an edge energy, ranging from 7122 to 7126 eV, that is affected by the coordination environment, and (3) a 1.86-1.96 Angstroms Fe-OOR bond, compared to the 1.78 Angstroms Fe-OOR bond in low-spin complexes. These unique features likely arise from a flexible first coordination sphere in those complexes. The difference in Fe-OOR bond length may rationalize differences in reactivity between low-spin and high-spin FeIII-OOR species.

  19. Avoiding high return temperatures with absorption coolers in district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebremedhin, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, (Sweden); Zinko, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University (Sweden)


    In many countries, much attention is turned to achieve as high temperature difference as possible between supply and return temperature and especially low return temperatures under varying operational conditions. The reason is that some types of production plants can be operated more efficiently with low return temperatures, such as biomass boilers with stack gas coolers, co-generation plants or heat-pumps, to mention some. On the other hand, the big difference between summer and winter load of district heating plants and the increasing demand for chill supply increases also the interest for the use of absorption chillers (ABC) in district heating systems. However, in the normal case of using single effect ABC relatively high return temperatures are delivered to the DH system. In systems with a high amount of ABC load, this can significantly impair the efficiency of the production plants and the overall operational efficiency of the network. In this study, we are investigating the role of two different types of ABC as well as the possibility of matching chiller operation with the existing heat loads in order to achieve suitable low return temperatures. Especially, we also investigate which DH return temperatures will be delivered from DH networks using ABCs in different configurations. (orig.)

  20. Zinc absorption from milk is affected by dilution but not by thermal processing, and milk enhances absorption of Zinc from high-phytate rice in young dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, Elise F.; Moretti, Diego; Ly, Sou Chheng; Dekkers, Renske; Heuvel, van den Ellen G.H.M.; Fitri, Aditia; Boelsma, Esther; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Zeder, Christophe; Melse-Boonstra, Alida


    Background: Milk has been suggested to increase zinc absorption. The effect of processing and the ability of milk to enhance zinc absorption from other foods has not been measured directly in humans. Objective: We aimed to assess zinc absorption from 1) milk undergoing various processing and

  1. A High Galactic Latitude HI 21 cm-line Absorption Survey using the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The intercloud medium is usually detected in emission, since the HI absorption in the warm gas is very weak. We summarize the results from some of the important surveys below. Radhakrishnan et al. (1972a, b) used the Parkes Interferometer to study the HI absorption towards 35 extragalactic radio sources, in the Galactic ...

  2. Atmospheric absorption of high frequency noise and application to fractional-octave bands (United States)

    Shields, F. D.; Bass, H. E.


    Pure tone sound absorption coefficients were measured at 1/12 octave intervals from 4 to 100 KHz at 5.5K temperature intervals between 255.4 and 310.9 K and at 10 percent relative humidity increments between 0 percent and saturation in a large cylindrical tube (i.d., 25.4 cm; length, 4.8 m). Special solid-dielectric capacitance transducers, one to generate bursts of sound waves and one to terminate the sound path and detect the tone bursts, were constructed to fit inside the tube. The absorption was measured by varying the transmitter receiver separation from 1 to 4 m and observing the decay of multiple reflections or change in amplitude of the first received burst. The resulting absorption was compared with that from a proposed procedure for computing sound absorption in still air. Absorption of bands of noise was numerically computed by using the pure tone results. The results depended on spectrum shape, on filter type, and nonlinearly on propagation distance. For some of the cases considered, comparison with the extrapolation of ARP-866A showed a difference as large as a factor of 2. However, for many cases, the absorption for a finite band was nearly equal to the pure tone absorption at the center frequency of the band. A recommended prediction procedure is described for 1/3 octave band absorption coefficients.

  3. Evaluation of a Candidate Trace Contaminant Control Subsystem Architecture: The High Velocity, Low Aspect Ratio (HVLA) Adsorption Process (United States)

    Kayatin, Matthew J.; Perry, Jay L.


    Traditional gas-phase trace contaminant control adsorption process flow is constrained as required to maintain high contaminant single-pass adsorption efficiency. Specifically, the bed superficial velocity is controlled to limit the adsorption mass-transfer zone length relative to the physical adsorption bed; this is aided by traditional high-aspect ratio bed design. Through operation in this manner, most contaminants, including those with relatively high potential energy are readily adsorbed. A consequence of this operational approach, however, is a limited available operational flow margin. By considering a paradigm shift in adsorption architecture design and operations, in which flows of high superficial velocity are treated by low-aspect ratio sorbent beds, the range of well-adsorbed contaminants becomes limited, but the process flow is increased such that contaminant leaks or emerging contaminants of interest may be effectively controlled. To this end, the high velocity, low aspect ratio (HVLA) adsorption process architecture was demonstrated against a trace contaminant load representative of the International Space Station atmosphere. Two HVLA concept packaging designs (linear flow and radial flow) were tested. The performance of each design was evaluated and compared against computer simulation. Utilizing the HVLA process, long and sustained control of heavy organic contaminants was demonstrated.

  4. High-temperature measurements of methane and acetylene using quantum cascade laser absorption near 8μm

    KAUST Repository

    Sajid, M.B.


    The mid-infrared wavelength region near 8 mu m contains absorption bands of several molecules such as water vapor, hydrogen peroxide, nitrous oxide, methane and acetylene. A new laser absorption sensor based on the v(4) band of methane and the v(4)+v(5) band of acetylene is reported for interference-free, time-resolved measurements under combustion-relevant conditions. A detailed line-selection procedure was used to identify optimum transitions. Methane and acetylene were measured at the line centers of Q12 (1303.5 cm(-1)) and P23 (1275.5 cm(-1)) transitions, respectively. High-temperature absorption cross sections of methane and acetylene were measured at peaks (on-line) and valleys (off-line) of the selected absorption transitions. The differential absorption strategy was employed to eliminate interference absorption from large hydrocarbons. Experiments were performed behind reflected shock waves over a temperature range of 1200-2200 K, between pressures of 1-4 atm. The diagnostics were then applied to measure the respective species time-history profiles during the shock-heated pyrolysis of n-pentane. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved modeling of midlatitude D-region ionospheric absorption of high frequency radio signals during solar X-ray flares (United States)

    Schumer, Evelyn A.

    High frequency (HF) radio communication is widely used for real-time, medium to long range communications due to its low cost of operation and maintenance. However, HF communication is strongly dependent on the state of the ionosphere, which is sensitive to solar X-ray flares. The lowest region of the ionosphere, the D-region, is the region in which the majority of the absorption of HF radio wave energy occurs. D-region HF absorption depends on the local electron density, which is enhanced during a solar X-ray flare. HF propagation data obtained during the HF Investigation of D-region Ionospheric Variation Experiment (HIDIVE) and obtained at the Canadian Space Agency NORSTAR riometer in Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada and X-ray flux data, as reported by GOES satellites, are analyzed here for the purpose of validating and improving the performance of two HF absorption models, the operational Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) D-region Absorption model and the physical AbbyNormal model. The SWPC D-region absorption model is an empirical model providing real-time global predictions of D-region absorption, and the physical Absorption by the D and E Region of HF Signals with Normal Incidence (AbbyNormal) model is based on simple D-region chemistry and provides near real-time predictions of midlatitude D-region HF absorption. Analysis of the HIDIVE data revealed an absorption dependence on signal frequency of f-1.24 where f is signal frequency, and a Cos 0.9(chi) dependence on solar zenith angle, chi. These relations differ from what is used in the SWPC model, and from these relations, a new empirical model, the Empirical HIDIVE Absorption (EHA) model, is developed. The EHA model can be used to improve the SWPC model performance. NO density data obtained with the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) and during the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) are used to improve the method by which the AbbyNormal model defines the nitric oxide (NO) profile within the atmosphere

  6. Determination of Chlorine in Milk via Molecular Absorption of SrCl Using High-Resolution Continuum Source Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman


    Total chlorine in milk was determined via the molecular absorption of diatomic strontium monochloride at 635.862 nm using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The effects of coating the graphite furnace, using different modifiers, amount of molecule-forming element, and different calibrants were investigated and optimized. Chlorine concentrations in milk samples were determined in a Zr-coated graphite furnace using 25 μg of Sr as the molecule-forming reagent and applying a pyrolysis temperature of 600 °C and a molecule-forming temperature of 2300 °C. Linearity was maintained up to 500 μg mL(-1) of Cl. The method was tested by analyzing a certified reference wastewater. The results were in the uncertainty limits of the certified value. The limit of detection of the method was 1.76 μg mL(-1). The chlorine concentrations in various cow milk samples taken from the market were found in the range of 588-1472 mg L(-1).

  7. Hybrid solar receiver as a source of high-temperature medium for an absorption chiller supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przenzak Estera


    Full Text Available This article discusses the problems related with the cold production, i.e. energy efficiency of the process. The idea of solar cooling systems has been presented as the solution of the problem of big electricity demand. The paper discusses the principle of the operation of absorption chillers. Disadvantages and advantages of the solar cooling systems were discussed. The installation for manufacturing high-temperature heat based on solar collectors and concentrator of solar radiation constructed in AGH in Cracow has been presented. This installation is a first stage of projected, complete solar cooling system. The special attention is paid to the dedicated solar high-temperature heat receiver as a most important element of the system. The achieved values of temperature, power and efficiency depending on the working medium flow has been presented and discussed. The intensity of solar radiation during the measurements has been taken into account. Two versions of heat receiver were investigated: non-insulated and insulated with mineral wool. The obtained efficiency of the heat receiver (less than 30% is not satisfactory but possibility of improvements exist.

  8. The high-resolution absorption spectroscopy branch on the VUV beamline DESIRS at SOLEIL. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Nelson; Joyeux, Denis; Roudjane, Mourad; Gil, Jean François; Pilette, Bertrand; Archer, Lucy; Ito, Kenji; Nahon, Laurent


    A VUV absorption spectroscopy facility designed for ultra-high spectral resolution is in operation as a dedicated branch on the DESIRS beamline at Synchrotron SOLEIL. This branch includes a unique VUV Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a dedicated versatile gas sample chamber. The FTS instrument can cover a large UV-VUV spectral range from 4 to 30 eV, with an ultimate line width of 0.08 cm(-1) on a large spectral window, ΔE/E = 7%, over which all spectral features can be acquired in a multiplex way. The performance can be considered to be a middle ground between broadband moderate-resolution spectrometers based on gratings and ultra-high-spectral-resolution VUV tunable-laser-based techniques over very narrow spectral windows. The various available gaseous-sample-handling setups, which function over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, and the acquisition methodology are described. A selection of experimental results illustrates the performance and limitations of the FTS-based facility.

  9. Older Adults Have Delayed Amino Acid Absorption after a High Protein Mixed Breakfast Meal. (United States)

    Milan, A M; D'Souza, R F; Pundir, S; Pileggi, C A; Thorstensen, E B; Barnett, M P G; Markworth, J F; Cameron-Smith, D; Mitchell, C J


    To measure the postprandial plasma amino acid appearance in younger and older adults following a high protein mixed meal. Cross-sectional study. Clinical research setting. Healthy men and women aged 60-75 (n=15) years, and young controls aged 20-25 years (n=15) matched for body mass index and insulin sensitivity based on the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. High protein mixed meal of complete food products. Circulating amino acid concentrations were determined hourly before and for 5 hours after meal ingestion. There was no difference between cohorts in postprandial appearance of non-essential amino acids, or area under the curve of any individual amino acid or amino acid class. However, older adults had higher baseline concentrations of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, ornithine, threonine and tyrosine and lower baseline concentrations of hydroxyproline, isoleucine, leucine, methionine and valine compared to younger adults. Younger adults showed peak essential (EAA) and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations at 1 hour post meal while older adults' peak EAA and BCAA concentration was at 3 hours. Similarly, peak total amino acid concentrations were at 3 hours in older adults. Older adults digested and absorbed the protein within a mixed meal more slowly than younger adults. Delayed absorption of AA following a mixed meal of complete food products may suppress or delay protein synthesis in senescent muscle.

  10. Nanofibrous membrane-based absorption refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isfahani, RN; Sampath, K; Moghaddam, S


    This paper presents a study on the efficacy of highly porous nanofibrous membranes for application in membrane-based absorbers and desorbers. Permeability studies showed that membranes with a pore size greater than about one micron have a sufficient permeability for application in the absorber heat exchanger. Membranes with smaller pores were found to be adequate for the desorber heat exchanger. The membranes were implemented in experimental membrane-based absorber and desorber modules and successfully tested. Parametric studies were conducted on both absorber and desorber processes. Studies on the absorption process were focused on the effects of water vapor pressure, cooling water temperature, and the solution velocity on the absorption rate. Desorption studies were conducted on the effects of wall temperature, vapor and solution pressures, and the solution velocity on the desorption rate. Significantly higher absorption and desorption rates than in the falling film absorbers and desorbers were achieved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. [Experimental determination of radiation scattering and absorption coefficients in a homogeneous layer of highly-dispersive biological medium]. (United States)

    Danilov, A A; Masloboev, Iu P; Selishchev, S V; Tereshchenko, S A


    A method for experimental determination of optical characteristics of a highly-dispersive medium (radiation scattering and absorption coefficients) is described. The method is based on two mathematical models of ultrashort laser pulse propagation through a highly-dispersive medium (HDM), an axial model and a diffusion model. Milk dissolved in water was used as HDM. Dependences of optical characteristics of HDM on the concentration of milk in water are obtained. The limits of applicability of the axial and diffusion models to media with different scattering and absorption characteristics are determined.

  12. High purity polyimide analysis by solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (United States)

    Santos, Rafael F.; Carvalho, Gabriel S.; Duarte, Fabio A.; Bolzan, Rodrigo C.; Flores, Erico M. M.


    In this work, Cr, Cu, Mn, Na and Ni were determined in high purity polyimides (99.5%) by solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-GFAAS) using Zeeman effect background correction system with variable magnetic field, making possible the simultaneous measurement at high or low sensitivity. The following analytical parameters were evaluated: pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, feasibility of calibration with aqueous solution, linear calibration range, sample mass range and the use of chemical modifier. Calibration with aqueous standard solutions was feasible for all analytes. No under or overestimated results were observed and up to 10 mg sample could be introduced on the platform for the determination of Cr, Cu, Mn, Na and Ni. The relative standard deviation ranged from 3 to 20%. The limits of detection (LODs) achieved using the high sensitivity mode were as low as 7.0, 2.5, 1.7, 17 and 0.12 ng g- 1 for Cr, Cu, Mn, Na and Ni, respectively. No addition of chemical modifier was necessary, except for Mn determination where Pd was required. The accuracy was evaluated by analyte spike and by comparison of the results with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted digestion in a single reaction chamber system and also by neutron activation analysis. No difference among the results obtained by SS-GFAAS and those obtained by alternative analytical methods using independent techniques. SS-GFAAS method showed some advantages, such as the determination of metallic contaminants in high purity polyimides with practically no sample preparation, very low LODs, calibration with aqueous standards and determination in a wide range of concentration.

  13. Geometry Effects on Multipole Components and Beam Optics in High-Velocity Multi-Spoke Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Christopher S. [ODU, JLAB; Deitrick, Kirsten E. [ODU, JLAB; Delayen, Jean R. [ODU, JLAB


    Velocity-of-light, multi-spoke cavities are being proposed to accelerate electrons in a compact light-source. There are strict requirements on the beam quality which require that the linac have only small non-uniformities in the accelerating field. Beam dynamics simulations have uncovered varying levels of focusing and defocusing in the proposed cavities, which is dependent on the geometry of the spoke in the vicinity of the beam path. Here we present results for the influence different spoke geometries have on the multipole components of the accelerating field and how these components, in turn, impact the simulated beam properties.

  14. Production of Babbitt Coatings by High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) Spraying (United States)

    Nascimento, A. R. C.; Ettouil, F. B.; Moreau, C.; Savoie, S.; Schulz, R.


    This work presents HVOF as an alternative means to produce dense Babbitt coatings by thermal spray. A radial injection setup and low fuel flow rates were used to minimize heat transfer to the low melting point alloy. In-flight particle diagnostic systems were used to correlate spray parameters with the changes in particle velocity and thermal radiation intensity. The use of particles with larger diameters resulted in higher deposition efficiencies. It was shown that HVOF Babbitt coatings combine a dense structure and a fine distribution of intermetallic phases when compared to more traditional babbitting techniques.

  15. Numerical Simulations of the High-Velocity Impact of a Single Polymer Particle During Cold-Spray Deposition (United States)

    Shah, Sagar; Lee, Jonghyun; Rothstein, Jonathan P.


    In this paper, deposition of polymer powders was studied numerically for the cold-spray deposition technique. In cold spray, a solid particle is impacted on a substrate at high velocity. The deformation and heating upon impact have been shown to be enough to result in particle deposition and adhesion even without melting the particle. Here, a systematic analysis of a single high-density polyethylene particle impacting a semi-infinite high-density polyethylene substrate was carried out for initial velocities ranging between 150 and 250 m/s using the finite element analysis software ABAQUS Explicit. A series of numerical simulations were performed to study the effect of a number of key parameters on the particle impact dynamics. These key parameters include particle impact velocity, particle temperature, particle diameter, composition of the polyethylene particle, surface composition and the thickness of a polyethylene film on a hard metal substrate. The effect of these parameter variations on the particle impact dynamics were quantified by tracking the particle temperature, deformation, plastic strain and rebound kinetic energy. The trends observed through variation of these parameters provided physical insight into the experimentally observed window of deposition where cold-sprayed particles are mostly likely to adhere to a substrate.

  16. Deformation of Lawsonite at High Pressure and High Temperature - Implications for Low Velocity Layers in Subduction Zones (United States)

    Amiguet, E.; Hilairet, N.; Wang, Y.; Gillet, P.


    During subduction, the hydrated oceanic crust undergoes a series of metamorphic reactions and transform gradually to blueschists and eclogite at depths of 20-50 km. Detailed seismic observations of subduction zones suggest a complex layered structure with the presence of a Low Velocity Layer (LVL) related to the oceanic crust [1] persisting to considerable depths (100- 250 km).While the transformation from blueschist to eclogite [2] and the presence of glaucophane up to 90-100 km [3] could explain some of these observations, the presence of LVL at greater depths could be related to the presence of the hydrous mineral lawsonite (CaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 H2O). Its stability field extends to 8.5 GPa and 1100K corresponding to depths up to 250 km in cold hydrous part of subducting slabs [4]. Because these regions undergo large and heterogeneous deformation, lawsonite plasticity and crystal preferred orientation (CPOs) may strongly influence the dynamic of subduction zones and the seismic properties. We present a deformation study at high presssure and high temperature on lawsonite. Six samples were deformed at 4-10 GPa and 600K to 1000K using a D-DIA apparatus [5] at 13-BMD at GSECARS beamline, APS, in axial compression up to 30% deformation with strain rates of 3.10-4s-1 to 6.10-6s-1. We measured in-situ lattice strains (a proxy for macroscopic stress), texture and strain using synchrotron radiations and calculated the macroscopic stress using lawsonite elastic properties [6]. Results from lattice strain analysis show a dependence of flow stress with temperature and strain rate. Texture analysis coupled with transmission electron microscopy showed that dislocation creep is the dominant deformation mechanism under our deformation conditions. [1] Abers, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 176, 323-330, 2000 [2] Helffrich et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 94, 753-763, 1989 [3] Bezacier et al., Tectonophysics, 494, 201-210, 2010 [4] Schmidt & Poli, Earth and Planetary

  17. Water, partial melting and the origin of the seismic low velocity and high attenuation zone in the upper mantle (United States)

    Karato, Shun-ichiro; Jung, Haemyeong


    The common belief that the seismic low velocity and high attenuation zone (the asthenosphere) is caused by the presence of a small amount of melt is not supported by recent mineral physics and seismological observations. A review of recent mineral physics observations suggests that water significantly reduces seismic wave velocities through anelastic relaxation and hence, at a small melt fraction expected in most of the Earth's upper mantle, partial melting will increase seismic wave velocities through the removal of water from minerals such as olivine. Therefore the asthenosphere, in this model, is a layer where no significant partial melting occurs and hence a high water content is retained. We apply this model to calculate seismic wave velocities and attenuation in the upper mantle with a range of water contents. The seismic structures calculated from this model depend on geotherm, the mode of partial melting (batch or fractional melting) and the geometry of upwelling flow (passive flow or dynamic upwelling). The sharp velocity change around 60-80 km (the Gutenberg discontinuity) can be attributed to a sharp change in water content due to partial melting, if the temperature there is relatively high as implied by the plate model and if melting occurs as fractional melting but not by batch melting. However, the significant increase in seismic wave velocity with age in young oceanic upper mantle suggests rapid cooling as predicted by a cooling half-space model. Thus, the present model suggests fast cooling in the early stage but slow cooling in the later stage of evolution of the oceanic upper mantle, the latter being caused presumably by some additional heat in the old oceanic upper mantle. The seismic structures of typical oceanic upper mantle with a fast spreading rate (e.g., the Pacific) is consistent with passive spreading, whereas the greater depth of the G-discontinuity and the weaker seismic anisotropy in back-arc regions (e.g., the Philippine Sea) suggest

  18. Deposition of diamond-like films from a high-velocity flow of a rarefied gas mixture (United States)

    Rebrov, A. K.; Emel'yanov, A. A.; Yudin, I. B.


    In contrast to the widespread deposition method of carbon films with the activation of gas mixtures on a hot wire, activation (dissociation of hydrogen and methane) is performed in a high-temperature channel formed by a tungsten coil in this study. From this channel, the gas is expanded to the substrate where deposition occurs. A film containing diamond crystals and hexagonal crystals having characteristic features of lonsdaleite is deposited at the channel temperature of 2100°C and the surrounding pressure of 20 mmHg. The diamond-like film is deposited from a high-velocity high-temperature un-ionized flow for the first time.

  19. Coefficient of Friction Measurements for Thermoplastics and Fibre Composites Under Low Sliding Velocity and High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Svendsen, Gustav Winther; Hiller, Jochen


    Friction materials for typical brake applications are normally designed considering thermal stability as the major performance criterion. There are, however, brake applications with very limited sliding velocities, where the generated heat is insignificant. In such cases it is possible that frict......Friction materials for typical brake applications are normally designed considering thermal stability as the major performance criterion. There are, however, brake applications with very limited sliding velocities, where the generated heat is insignificant. In such cases it is possible...... that friction materials which are untypical for brake applications, like thermoplastics and fibre composites, can offer superior performance in terms of braking torque, wear resistance and cost than typical brake linings. In this paper coefficient of friction measurements for various thermoplastic and fibre...... composite materials running against a steel surface are presented. All tests were carried out on a pinon-disc test-rig in reciprocating operation at a fixed sliding speed and various pressure levels for both dry and grease lubricated conditions. Moreover, a generic theoretical framework is introduced...

  20. Ballistic resistance of honeycomb sandwich panels under in-plane high-velocity impact. (United States)

    Qi, Chang; Yang, Shu; Wang, Dong; Yang, Li-Jun


    The dynamic responses of honeycomb sandwich panels (HSPs) subjected to in-plane projectile impact were studied by means of explicit nonlinear finite element simulations using LS-DYNA. The HSPs consisted of two identical aluminum alloy face-sheets and an aluminum honeycomb core featuring three types of unit cell configurations (regular, rectangular-shaped, and reentrant hexagons). The ballistic resistances of HSPs with the three core configurations were first analyzed. It was found that the HSP with the reentrant auxetic honeycomb core has the best ballistic resistance, due to the negative Poisson's ratio effect of the core. Parametric studies were then carried out to clarify the influences of both macroscopic (face-sheet and core thicknesses, core relative density) and mesoscopic (unit cell angle and size) parameters on the ballistic responses of the auxetic HSPs. Numerical results show that the perforation resistant capabilities of the auxetic HSPs increase as the values of the macroscopic parameters increase. However, the mesoscopic parameters show nonmonotonic effects on the panels' ballistic capacities. The empirical equations for projectile residual velocities were formulated in terms of impact velocity and the structural parameters. It was also found that the blunter projectiles result in higher ballistic limits of the auxetic HSPs.

  1. A multi-plate velocity-map imaging design for high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy (United States)

    Kregel, Steven J.; Thurston, Glen K.; Zhou, Jia; Garand, Etienne


    A velocity map imaging (VMI) setup consisting of multiple electrodes with three adjustable voltage parameters, designed for slow electron velocity map imaging applications, is presented. The motivations for this design are discussed in terms of parameters that influence the VMI resolution and functionality. Particularly, this VMI has two tunable potentials used to adjust for optimal focus, yielding good VMI focus across a relatively large energy range. It also allows for larger interaction volumes without significant sacrifice to the resolution via a smaller electric gradient at the interaction region. All the electrodes in this VMI have the same dimensions for practicality and flexibility, allowing for relatively easy modifications to suit different experimental needs. We have coupled this VMI to a cryogenic ion trap mass spectrometer that has a flexible source design. The performance is demonstrated with the photoelectron spectra of S- and CS2 -. The latter has a long vibrational progression in the ground state, and the temperature dependence of the vibronic features is probed by changing the temperature of the ion trap.

  2. Single-band high absorption and coupling between localized surface plasmons modes in a metamaterials absorber (United States)

    Zhong, Min; Liu, Shui Jie; Xu, Bang Li; Wang, Jie; Huang, Hua Qing


    In this paper, we design and simulate a metamaterials absorbers based on the resonance of the local surface plasmon (LSP) mode. The damping constant of gold layer is optimized in simulations to eliminate the effect of the inappropriate material parameters on the electromagnetic properties of the proposed metamaterial absorber. The horizontal distance between two metal particles is optimized in simulations and a perfect absorption resonance peak is achieved due to the strong coupling of LSP modes. A new absorption peak is obtained when the horizontal distance is 0 nm. The vertical distance between the new metal particles and the bottom metal layer is reduced, which leads to the absorption peak reduce based on the reduction of the intensity of LSP modes. A new absorption peak is obtained when the new metallic particle and the bottom gold layer form a whole structure.

  3. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Studies of High-Spin Nonheme (Alkylperoxo)Iron(III) Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, X.; Rohde, J.-U.; Koehntop, K.D.; Zhou, Y.; Bukowski, M.R.; Costas, M.; Fujisawa, K.; Que, L.; Jr.


    The reactions of iron(II) complexes [Fe(Tp{sup t-Bu,i-Pr})(OH)] (1a, Tp{sup t-Bu,i-Pr} = hydrotris(3-tert-butyl-5-isopropyl-1-pyrazolyl)borate), [Fe(6-Me{sub 2}BPMCN)(OTf){sub 2}] (1b, 6-Me{sub 2}BPMCN = N,N'-bis((2-methylpyridin-6-yl)methyl)-N,N'-dimethyl-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane), and [Fe(L{sup 8}Py{sub 2})(OTf)](OTf) (1c, L{sup 8}Py{sub 2} = 1,5-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,5-diazacyclooctane) with tert-BuOOH give rise to high-spin Fe{sup III}-OOR complexes. X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of these high-spin species show characteristic features, distinct from those of low-spin Fe-OOR complexes (Rohde, J.-U.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 16750--16761). These include (1) an intense 1s {yields} 3d preedge feature, with an area around 20 units, (2) an edge energy, ranging from 7122 to 7126 eV, that is affected by the coordination environment, and (3) a 1.86--1.96 {angstrom} Fe-OOR bond, compared to the 1.78 {angstrom} Fe-OOR bond in low-spin complexes. These unique features likely arise from a flexible first coordination sphere in those complexes. The difference in Fe-OOR bond length may rationalize differences in reactivity between low-spin and high-spin Fe{sup III}-OOR species.

  4. Hafnium nitride films for thermoreflectance transducers at high temperatures: Potential based on heating from laser absorption (United States)

    Rost, Christina M.; Braun, Jeffrey; Ferri, Kevin; Backman, Lavina; Giri, Ashutosh; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Maria, Jon-Paul; Hopkins, Patrick E.


    Time domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) and frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) are common pump-probe techniques that are used to measure the thermal properties of materials. At elevated temperatures, transducers used in these techniques can become limited by melting or other phase transitions. In this work, time domain thermoreflectance is used to determine the viability of HfN thin film transducers grown on SiO2 through measurements of the SiO2 thermal conductivity up to approximately 1000 K. Further, the reliability of HfN as a transducer is determined by measuring the thermal conductivities of MgO, Al2O3, and diamond at room temperature. The thermoreflectance coefficient of HfN was found to be 1.4 × 10-4 K-1 at 800 nm, one of the highest thermoreflectance coefficients measured at this standard TDTR probe wavelength. Additionally, the high absorption of HfN at 400 nm is shown to enable reliable laser heating to elevate the sample temperature during a measurement, relative to other transducers.

  5. Optoelectronic properties of Mg{sub 2}Si semiconducting layers with high absorption coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takashi; Sago, Yuichiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki [Center of Innovative Photovoltaic Systems (CIPS), Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan)


    In an attempt to develop a low-cost material for solar cell devices, polycrystalline magnesium silicide (poly-Mg{sub 2}Si) semiconducting layers have been prepared by applying rf magnetron sputtering using a Mg{sub 2}Si target. The optimum substrate temperature for the poly-Mg{sub 2}Si growth was found to be T{sub s} = 200 deg. C; the film deposition at higher temperatures leads to desorption of Mg atoms from the growing surface, while the amorphous phase formation occurs at room temperature. The poly-Mg{sub 2}Si layer deposited at T{sub s} = 200 deg. C shows the (111) preferential orientation with a uniform grain size of {approx}50 nm. The dielectric function of the poly-Mg{sub 2}Si layer has been determined accurately by spectroscopic ellipsometry. From the analysis, quite high absorption coefficients and an indirect gap of 0.77 eV in the poly-Mg{sub 2}Si layer have been confirmed. The above poly-Mg{sub 2}Si layer shows clear photoconductivity and can be applied as a narrow-gap bottom layer in multi-junction solar cell devices.

  6. A new all-sky map of Galactic high-velocity clouds from the 21-cm HI4PI survey (United States)

    Westmeier, Tobias


    High-velocity clouds (HVCs) are neutral or ionized gas clouds in the vicinity of the Milky Way that are characterized by high radial velocities inconsistent with participation in the regular rotation of the Galactic disc. Previous attempts to create a homogeneous all-sky H I map of HVCs have been hampered by a combination of poor angular resolution, limited surface brightness sensitivity and suboptimal sampling. Here, a new and improved H I map of Galactic HVCs based on the all-sky HI4PI survey is presented. The new map is fully sampled and provides significantly better angular resolution (16.2 versus 36 arcmin) and column density sensitivity (2.3 versus 3.7 × 1018 cm-2 at the native resolution) than the previously available LAB survey. The new HVC map resolves many of the major HVC complexes in the sky into an intricate network of narrow H I filaments and clumps that were not previously resolved by the LAB survey. The resulting sky coverage fraction of high-velocity H I emission above a column density level of 2 × 1018 cm-2 is approximately 15 per cent, which reduces to about 13 per cent when the Magellanic Clouds and other non-HVC emission are removed. The differential sky coverage fraction as a function of column density obeys a truncated power law with an exponent of -0.93 and a turnover point at about 5 × 1019 cm-2. H I column density and velocity maps of the HVC sky are made publicly available as FITS images for scientific use by the community.

  7. Industrial refrigeration with high efficiency absorption; Refrigeracion industrial por absorcion de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala Delgado, R.; Heard, C. L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, (Mexico); Pardubicki, J. [LAJ International, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)


    The absorption refrigeration ammonia-lithium nitrate offers great advantages compared with the mechanical compression refrigeration with ammonia as well as with the absorption ammonia-water refrigeration. With heat temperatures of 1000 to 1400 Celsius degrees, for instance low pressure steam the generation of cold at low temperatures (-100 to -200 Celsius degrees) is possible. The system has less components and is much less expensive than the ammonia-water equipment with a price very similar to the ammonia mechanical compression equipment. The equipment consists of five main heat exchangers and a solution pump, resulting in a high reliability of its operation, requiring a minimum maintenance. The operation cost depends directly of the cost of the energy source. In case of using residual heat the operation cost is only the maintenance cost. Nowadays the cost of the electric energy is below the production cost, which can be a short term situation. In time terms of the comparable useful life time of an absorption refrigeration system (in excess of 20 years), it is reasonable to think that the operation costs will be less than the operation costs of an equipment with mechanical compression. To this day it is available a demonstration unit to exhibit the system in industrial plants with different energy sources. [Espanol] La refrigeracion por absorcion amoniaco/nitrato de litio ofrece grandes ventajas comparada tanto con la refrigeracion por compresion mecanica con amoniaco como con la refrigeracion por absorcion amoniaco/agua. Este sistema es mas eficiente y sencillo que el sistema de amoniaco/agua. Con calor de temperatura (100 a 140 grados centigrados por ejemplo vapor de baja presion, se permite la generacion de frio a temperaturas bajas (-10 a -20 grados centigrados). El sistema tiene menos componentes y es mucho mas barato que equipo de amoniaco/agua con un precio muy similar a sistemas por compresion mecanica de amoniaco. El sistema consiste en cinco

  8. Absorption cross-section measurements of methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol at high temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Alrefae, Majed


    Mid-IR absorption cross-sections are measured for methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol over 2800-3400 cm-1 (2.9-3.6 μm) spectral region. Measurements are carried out using a Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with temperatures ranging 296-1100 K and pressures near atmospheric. As temperature increases, the peak cross-sections decrease but the wings of the bands increase as higher rotational lines appear. Integrated band intensity is also calculated over the measured spectral region and is found to be a very weak function of temperature. The absorption cross-sections of the relatively small fuels studied here show dependence on the bath gas. This effect is investigated by studying the variation of absorption cross-sections at 3.392 μm using a HeNe laser in mixtures of fuel and nitrogen, argon, or helium. Mixtures of fuel with He have the highest value of absorption cross-sections followed by Ar and N2. Molecules with narrow absorption lines, such as methane and methanol, show strong dependence on bath gas than molecules with relatively broader absorption features i.e. ethane and ethylene. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SiC absorption of near-infrared laser radiation at high temperatures (United States)

    Adelmann, B.; Hellmann, R.


    We report on a theoretical and experimental investigation of the temperature-dependent optical absorption of nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC for a temperature range between room temperature and the decomposition point. The theoretical model is based on free carrier absorption including the temperature dependence of the electron mobility. With respect to laser material processing of silicon carbide, the analysis focusses on a near-infrared wavelength range. At room temperature, the calculated absorption is in excellent agreement to transmission and reflection measurements. For the experimental study of the absorption at higher temperatures induced by intense 1070-nm laser irradiation, a two-color pyrometer is employed with the thermal emission of the laser interaction zone being collected coaxial to the impinging laser. Exemplarily, the simulated temperature-dependent absorption is used to determine the heating of a 0.4-mm-thick 4H-SiC specimen during laser irradiation and compared to the experimentally determined temperature. In an initial time domain of the irradiation with an attained temperature below 1350 K, the simulated and measured temperatures are in good agreement. Above 1350 K, however, the measured temperature reveals a sharp and fast increase up to 2100 K which is not predicted by the model. This discrepancy is attributed to a strong additional absorption mechanism caused by carbonization at the surface which is confirmed by EDX analysis.

  10. Efficacy of single-component MTV to measure turbulent wall-flow velocity derivative profiles at high resolution (United States)

    Elsnab, John R.; Monty, Jason P.; White, Christopher M.; Koochesfahani, Manoochehr M.; Klewicki, Joseph C.


    Physical interpretations and especially analytical considerations benefit from the ability to accurately estimate derivatives of experimentally measured statistical profiles. Toward this aim, experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of single-component molecular tagging velocimetry (1c-MTV) to measure mean velocity profiles that can be differentiated multiple times. Critical effects here pertain to finite measurement uncertainty in the presence of high spatial resolution. Measurements acquired in fully developed turbulent channel flow over a friction Reynolds number range from 390 to 1800 are used to investigate these issues. Each measured profile contains about 880 equally spaced data points that span from near the edge of the viscous sublayer to the channel centreline. As a result of the high spatial resolution, even very small levels of uncertainty in the data adversely affect the capacity to produce smooth velocity derivative profiles. It is demonstrated that the present 1c-MTV measurements can be differentiated twice, with the resulting profile remaining smooth and accurate. The experimental mean velocity profiles and their wall-normal derivatives up to second order are shown to convincingly agree with existing DNS data, including the apparent variations with Reynolds number.

  11. High flow rates during modified ultrafiltration decrease cerebral blood flow velocity and venous oxygen saturation in infants. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rosendo A; Ruel, Marc; Broecker, Lothar; Cornel, Garry


    The intracranial hemodynamic effects of modified ultrafiltration in children are unknown. We investigated the effects of different blood flow rates during modified ultrafiltration on the cerebral hemodynamics of children with weights above and below 10 kg. Thirty-one children (weights: 10 kg, n = 10) undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass were studied. Middle-cerebral artery blood flow velocities and cerebral mixed venous oxygen saturations were measured before, five minutes from the beginning, and at the end of ultrafiltration. Patients were classified according to their blood flow rates during ultrafiltration in three groups: high (> or = 20 mL/kg/min), moderate (10-19 mL/kg/min), and low flow rates (flow rates of ultrafiltration and the decline in mean cerebral blood flow velocity (r = - 0.48; p = 0.005) and cerebral oxygen saturation (r = - 0.49; p = 0.005) or hematocrit increase (r = 0.59; p = 0.001). Infants exposed to high flow rates had greater reduction of cerebral blood flow velocity and regional mixed venous saturation and higher hematocrit at the end of ultrafiltration compared with those subjected to moderate and low flow rates (p flow rates through the ultrafilter during modified ultrafiltration transiently decrease the cerebral circulation in young infants compared with lower blood flow rates. These effects may be related to an increased diastolic runoff from the aorta into the ultrafiltration circuit that leads to a "stealing" effect from the intracranial circulation, which may be important in infants with dysfunctional cerebral autoregulation.

  12. Analysis of high-altitude planetary ion velocity space distributions detected by the Ion Mass Analyzer aboard Mars Express (United States)

    Johnson, B. C.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fraenz, M.; Curry, S.; Mitchell, D. L.


    We present observations of planetary ion velocity space distributions from the Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) onboard Mars Express (MEX). The magnetometer data from Mars Global Surveyor is used to obtain a rough estimate of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation. Characteristic features of the velocity space distributions will be examined and discussed for orbits aligned with the convective electric field and those in the Mars terminator plane. This study will focus on the high (keV) energy ions, as well as the relative importance of a high-altitude magnetosheath source of escaping planetary ions. Furthermore, this paper will examine various methods for converting the IMA detector counts to species-specific fluxes. After mimicking the methods previously used by researchers, we apply each of these methods of species extraction to data collected during the same time intervals. We discuss the implications for planetary ion motion around Mars, using the details of the velocity space observations to better understand the solar wind interaction with Mars. Comparisons to virtual detections using a test particle simulation will also provide insight into ion origins and trajectories.

  13. Escape Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Vlacic


    Full Text Available In this project, we investigated if it is feasible for a single staged rocket with constant thrust to attain escape velocity. We derived an equation for the velocity and position of a single staged rocket that launches vertically. From this equation, we determined if an ideal model of a rocket is able to reach escape velocity.

  14. The influence of the Al stabilizer layer thickness on the normal zone propagation velocity in high current superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shilon, I.; Langeslag, S.A.E.; Martins, L.P.; ten Kate, H.H.J.


    The stability of high-current superconductors is challenging in the design of superconducting magnets. When the stability requirements are fulfilled, the protection against a quench must still be considered. A main factor in the design of quench protection systems is the resistance growth rate in the magnet following a quench. The usual method for determining the resistance growth in impregnated coils is to calculate the longitudinal velocity with which the normal zone propagates in the conductor along the coil windings. Here, we present a 2D numerical model for predicting the normal zone propagation velocity in Al stabilized Rutherford NbTi cables with large cross section. By solving two coupled differential equations under adiabatic conditions, the model takes into account the thermal diffusion and the current redistribution process following a quench. Both the temperature and magnetic field dependencies of the superconductor and the metal cladding materials properties are included. Unlike common normal zon...

  15. Coefficient of Friction Measurements for Thermoplastics and Fiber Composites under Low Sliding Velocity and High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Svendsen, G.; Hiller, Jochen


    Friction materials for typical brake applications are normally designed considering thermal stability as the major performance criterion. There are however brake applications with very limited sliding velocities, where the generated heat is insignificant. In such cases it is possible that friction...... materials which are untypical for brake applications, like thermoplastics and fiber composites, can offer superior performance in terms of braking torque, wear resistance and cost than typical brake linings. In this paper coefficient of friction measurements for various thermoplastic and fiber composite...... materials running against a steel surface are presented. All tests were carried out on a pin-on-disc test-rig at a fixed sliding speed and various pressure levels for both dry and grease lubricated conditions....

  16. A computational model for assessing high-velocity debris impact in space applications (United States)

    Bergh, M.; Garcia, V.


    Man-made space debris is dominating the background meteorite environment with a growing debris population leading to increased collision risks for satellites, especially in the low Earth orbit and geostationary orbit protected environments. Here we present a computational model for estimating the effect of hypervelocity impact from debris particles on non-shielded propellant and pressurant tanks. Eulerian hydrocode simulation is utilised to model firstly penetration and shock wave formation in the propellant and secondly subsequent detonation wave propagation and interaction with the tank wall. Furthermore, reactive molecular dynamics is used to estimate the risk of detonation in a liquid hydrazine layer. We present simulations of a 3.5 mm aluminium spherical debris particle at a velocity of 14 km/s relative to a hydrazine tank. We find that the degree of damage is strongly dependent on tank temperature and hence on the satellite thermal configuration at its end of life.

  17. Entrepreneurship and prior experience as antecedents of absorptive capacity of high-tech academic spin-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodaei, H.; Scholten, V.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Omta, S.W.F.


    We investigate the influence of entrepreneurial orientation and team efficacy, in addition to the impact of domain-specific industry and research experience of spin-off management teams, on absorptive capacity, both potential and realised. A multiple regression analysis in 95 Dutch high-tech

  18. Influence of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion. (United States)

    Thomas, E; von Unruh, G E; Hesse, A


    To compare quantitatively the effect of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion. Eight healthy volunteers (three men and five women, mean age 28.6+/-6.3) were studied. Each volunteer performed the [(13)C(2)]oxalate absorption test thrice on a low-oxalate mixed diet, thrice on a low-oxalate vegetarian diet and thrice on a high-oxalate vegetarian diet. For each test, the volunteers had to adhere to an identical diet and collect their 24-h urines. In the morning of the second day, a capsule containing [(13)C(2)]oxalate was ingested. On the low-oxalate vegetarian diet, mean intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly to 15.8+/-2.9% (P=0.012) and 0.414+/-0.126 mmol/day (P=0.012), compared to the mixed diet. On the high-oxalate vegetarian diet, oxalate absorption (12.5+/-4.6%, P=0.161) and urinary excretion (0.340+/-0.077 mmol/day, P=0.093) did not change significantly, compared to the mixed diet. A vegetarian diet can only be recommended for calcium oxalate stone patients, if the diet (1) contains the recommended amounts of divalent cations such as calcium and its timing of ingestion to a meal rich in oxalate is considered and (2) excludes foodstuffs with a high content of nutritional factors, such as phytic acid, which are able to chelate calcium.

  19. Three Highly Stable Cobalt MOFs Based on "Y"-Shaped Carboxylic Acid: Synthesis and Absorption of Anionic Dyes. (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Han, Li-Juan; Jia, Hai-Lang; Shen, Kang; Wang, Ting; Zheng, He-Gen


    Three Co(II) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were synthesized employing a rational design approach. On the basis of the different structures of three complexes, we tested their absorption properties toward two anionic dyes. The absorption results indicate that not only uncoordinated functional groups in the structure play an important role in adsorbing capacity but also physical forces can affect absorbing ability. Water stability testing shows that three crystals display high stability in aqueous solutions with different pH values. To our delight, the framework integrity of three complexes can be well-retained even after absorbing dyes.

  20. Augmentation of Critical Heat Flux of High Velocity Liquid Jet Flow utilizing Flat-Narrow Rectangular Channel (United States)

    Sakurai, Hisashi; Koizumi, Yasuo; Ohtake, Hiroyasu

    Sub-cooled flow boiling heat transfer experiments were performed for narrow-flat flow passages of 2 mm wide and 0.2 mm high. A heat transfer surface of 2 mm × 2 mm was placed at the just downstream of the flow channel outlet. A fast wall plane-jet was formed on the heat transfer surface and space for vapor generated on the heat transfer surface to leave freely form the plane jet was provided The experiments covered the flow rate from 5 m⁄s through 20 m⁄s and the inlet sub-cooling from 30 K through 70 K. Critical heat fluxes were greatly augmented about twice compared with those in the previous experiments where the heat transfer surface was located at the outlet end of the same flow channel as that in the present experiments. This has indicated that the present idea of the flow system is effective to enhance the critical heat flux. When the flow velocity was slower than 10 m⁄s, a large secondary bubble that was formed as a result of coalescence of many primary bubbles on the heat transfer surface covered the heat transfer surface. The large-coalesced bubble triggered the occurrence of the critical heat flux. When the flow velocity became faster than 10 m⁄s, the heat transfer surface was covered with many tiny-primary bubbles even at the critical heat flux condition. The critical heat fluxes in the present experiments were much larger than predictions of correlations. The triggering mechanism of the critical heat flux condition was proposed based on the observation mentioned above. It has two parts; for low flow velocity and for high flow velocity. The boundary is 10 m⁄s. In both cases, disappearance of a liquid film under the bubble due to evaporation is related to the appearance of the critical heat flux condition. The predicted critical heat fluxes were larger than that measured, however, qualitatively agreed well.

  1. ALMA observations of the extremely high velocity, massive and compact molecular outflow G331.512-0.103 (United States)

    Merello, Manuel; Evans, N. J.; Bronfman, L.; Garay, G.; Lo, N.; Nyman, L.; Cortés, J. R.; Cunningham, M. R.


    Cycle 0 ALMA observations are presented for one of the most energetic and luminous molecular outflows known in the Galaxy, G331.512-0.103. High angular resolution observations with Band 7 (350 GHz; 0.86 mm) show that the bipolar molecular outflow is very compact and extremely young, with velocities relative to the ambient cloud of 70 km/s. The SiO (8-7) emission is confined in a region less than 5’’ in size, corresponding to 0.18 pc at the source distance 7.5 kpc, and it reveals the presence of a ring-type structure toward the systemic velocity of the source. This feature is also observed in the H13CO+ emission line, and the cavity is coincident with a strong and compact radio continuum source detected at 4.8 and 8.6 GHz, using ATCA. We interpret these observations as a young stellar object producing a compact H II region, with an expansion shock propagating into the medium and possible dense material still infalling around this shell. The expansion velocity of the shocked shell is ~ 24 km/s, suggesting a crossing time of about 2000 yr. The spectral index of the radio continuum source is consistent with an ionized jet, which is likely to drive the associated energetic molecular outflow. The H13CO+ emission also shows the presence of a feature in the position-velocity maps, associated with the presence of a bullet of dense material. The complete Band 7 spectra show a rich set of complex emission lines, possibly associated with hot core chemistry, with gas rotational temperature ~ 100 K. The source is one of the youngest examples of a massive molecular outflow found associated with a high-mass star.

  2. Velocity-space observation regions of high-resolution two-step reaction gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.


    High-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy (GRS) measurements resolve spectral shapes of Dopplerbroadened γ-rays. We calculate weight functions describing velocity-space sensitivities of any two-step reaction GRS measurements in magnetized plasmas using the resonant nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ)12C...... as an example. The energy-dependent cross sections of this reaction suggest that GRS is sensitive to alpha particles above about 1.7 MeV and highly sensitive to alpha particles at the resonance energies of the reaction. Here we demonstrate that highresolution two-step reaction GRS measurements are not only...

  3. A study on stimulation of DC high voltage power of LCC series parallel resonant in projectile velocity measurement system (United States)

    Lu, Dong-dong; Gu, Jin-liang; Luo, Hong-e.; Xia, Yan


    According to specific requirements of the X-ray machine system for measuring velocity of outfield projectile, a DC high voltage power supply system is designed for the high voltage or the smaller current. The system comprises: a series resonant circuit is selected as a full-bridge inverter circuit; a high-frequency zero-current soft switching of a high-voltage power supply is realized by PWM output by STM32; a nanocrystalline alloy transformer is chosen as a high-frequency booster transformer; and the related parameters of an LCC series-parallel resonant are determined according to the preset parameters of the transformer. The concrete method includes: a LCC series parallel resonant circuit and a voltage doubling circuit are stimulated by using MULTISM and MATLAB; selecting an optimal solution and an optimal parameter of all parts after stimulation analysis; and finally verifying the correctness of the parameter by stimulation of the whole system. Through stimulation analysis, the output voltage of the series-parallel resonant circuit gets to 10KV in 28s: then passing through the voltage doubling circuit, the output voltage gets to 120KV in one hour. According to the system, the wave range of the output voltage is so small as to provide the stable X-ray supply for the X-ray machine for measuring velocity of outfield projectile. It is fast in charging and high in efficiency.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nidever, David L.; Zasowski, Gail; Majewski, Steven R.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; O' Connell, Robert W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Bird, Jonathan; Schoenrich, Ralph; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Sellgren, Kris [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Robin, Annie C.; Schultheis, Mathias [Institut Utinam, CNRS UMR 6213, OSU THETA, Universite de Franche-Comte, 41bis avenue de l' Observatoire, F-25000 Besancon (France); Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Gerhard, Ortwin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Shetrone, Matthew [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A' Ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Street, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos, E-mail: [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); and others


    Commissioning observations with the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, have produced radial velocities (RVs) for {approx}4700 K/M-giant stars in the Milky Way (MW) bulge. These high-resolution (R {approx} 22, 500), high-S/N (>100 per resolution element), near-infrared (NIR; 1.51-1.70 {mu}m) spectra provide accurate RVs ({epsilon}{sub V} {approx} 0.2 km s{sup -1}) for the sample of stars in 18 Galactic bulge fields spanning -1 Degree-Sign -32 Degree-Sign . This represents the largest NIR high-resolution spectroscopic sample of giant stars ever assembled in this region of the Galaxy. A cold ({sigma}{sub V} {approx} 30 km s{sup -1}), high-velocity peak (V{sub GSR} Almost-Equal-To +200 km s{sup -1}) is found to comprise a significant fraction ({approx}10%) of stars in many of these fields. These high RVs have not been detected in previous MW surveys and are not expected for a simple, circularly rotating disk. Preliminary distance estimates rule out an origin from the background Sagittarius tidal stream or a new stream in the MW disk. Comparison to various Galactic models suggests that these high RVs are best explained by stars in orbits of the Galactic bar potential, although some observational features remain unexplained.

  5. Absorbing boundary conditions for low group velocity electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals. (United States)

    Askari, Murtaza; Momeni, Babak; Reinke, Charles M; Adibi, Ali


    We present an efficient method for the absorption of slow group velocity electromagnetic waves in photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs). We show that adiabatically matching the low group velocity waves to high group velocity waves of the PCW and extending the PCW structure into the perfectly matched layer (PML) region results in a 15 dB reduction of spurious reflections from the PML. We also discuss the applicability of this method to structures other than PCWs.

  6. Feasibility of high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry in flame and furnace for sulphur determination in petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalewska, Zofia, E-mail:


    For the first time, high-resolution molecular absorption spectrometry with a high-intensity xenon lamp as radiation source has been applied for the determination of sulphur in crude oil and petroleum products. The samples were analysed as xylene solutions using vaporisation in acetylene-air flame or in an electrothermally heated graphite furnace. The sensitive rotational lines of the CS molecule, belonging to the {Delta}{nu} = 0 vibrational sequence within the electronic transition X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} {yields} A{sup 1}{Pi}, were applied. For graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry, the Pd + Mg organic modifier was selected. Strong interactions with Pd atoms enable easier decomposition of sulphur-containing compounds, likely through the temporal formation of Pd{sub x}S{sub y} molecules. At the 258.056 nm line, with the wavelength range covering central pixel {+-} 5 pixels and with application of interactive background correction, the detection limit was 14 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and 18 mg kg{sup -1} in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. Meanwhile, application of 2-points background correction found a characteristic mass of 12 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and a characteristic concentration of 104 mg kg{sup -1} in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. The range of application of the proposed methods turned out to be significantly limited by the properties of the sulphur compounds of interest. In the case of volatile sulphur compounds, which can be present in light petroleum products, severe difficulties were encountered. On the contrary, heavy oils and residues from distillation as well as crude oil could be analysed using both flame and graphite furnace vaporisation. The good accuracy of the proposed methods for these samples was confirmed by their mutual consistency and the results from analysis of reference samples (certified reference materials and home reference materials with

  7. Seismic Technology Adapted to Analyzing and Developing Geothermal Systems Below Surface-Exposed High-Velocity Rocks Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; DeAngelo, Michael V. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Ermolaeva, Elena [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Hardage, Bob A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Remington, Randy [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Sava, Diana [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wagner, Donald [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wei, Shuijion [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology


    The objective of our research was to develop and demonstrate seismic data-acquisition and data-processing technologies that allow geothermal prospects below high-velocity rock outcrops to be evaluated. To do this, we acquired a 3-component seismic test line across an area of exposed high-velocity rocks in Brewster County, Texas, where there is high heat flow and surface conditions mimic those found at numerous geothermal prospects. Seismic contractors have not succeeded in creating good-quality seismic data in this area for companies who have acquired data for oil and gas exploitation purposes. Our test profile traversed an area where high-velocity rocks and low-velocity sediment were exposed on the surface in alternating patterns that repeated along the test line. We verified that these surface conditions cause non-ending reverberations of Love waves, Rayleigh waves, and shallow critical refractions to travel across the earth surface between the boundaries of the fast-velocity and slow-velocity material exposed on the surface. These reverberating surface waves form the high level of noise in this area that does not allow reflections from deep interfaces to be seen and utilized. Our data-acquisition method of deploying a box array of closely spaced geophones allowed us to recognize and evaluate these surface-wave noise modes regardless of the azimuth direction to the surface anomaly that backscattered the waves and caused them to return to the test-line profile. With this knowledge of the surface-wave noise, we were able to process these test-line data to create P-P and SH-SH images that were superior to those produced by a skilled seismic data-processing contractor. Compared to the P-P data acquired along the test line, the SH-SH data provided a better detection of faults and could be used to trace these faults upward to the boundaries of exposed surface rocks. We expanded our comparison of the relative value of S-wave and P-wave seismic data for geothermal

  8. Study of the microstructure evolution of zirconium alloy during deuterium absorption at high temperature (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Yin; Liu, Jingru; You, Li; Song, Xiping


    In the exploration of fusion power, zirconium alloy has been viewed as a potential deuterium storage material to store and deliver deuterium fuel into fusion reactors, due to its large deuterium storage capacity, low deuterium desorption pressure and fast deuterium absorption kinetics. But it often cracks after deuterium absorption. In this study, the microstructure and deuterium absorption kinetic of β-Zr in various deuteriding conditions (pressure, time and temperature) were investigated. The results showed that, with the increase of deuteriding pressures from 1 bar to 3 bar at 1173 K, the deuteride content and the deuteride morphology changed significantly. During deuterium absorption at 3 bar, the surface deuteride layer was formed first, and then the inner deuteride network was gradually developed with the time. There existed an apparent deuterium concentration gradient from surface to center. With the increase of deuteriding temperatures from 973 K to 1173 K, the deuteride content decreased. The kinetic of deuterium absorption at 1173 K was found to be affected by the deuteriding pressures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that ε deuterides nucleated and grew at the interface of δ deuterides, and small bands with different crystal orientation were found within the ε deuterides. The γ deuterides were found at 3 bar, within which twins and tweed structure were observed. An orientation relationship of δ//ε, {111}δ//{111}ε between δ and ε deuterides was also determined by TEM analysis.

  9. Keck-I MOSFIRE spectroscopy of compact star-forming galaxies at z ≳ 2: high velocity dispersions in progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C.; Faber, Sandra M.; Guo, Yicheng; Toloba, Elisa; Fang, Jerome J. [University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Trump, Jonathan R. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16802 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Kassin, Susan A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kocevski, Dale D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pérez-González, Pablo G. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. de Sneca, 2 Ciudad Universitaria, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University 50, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Simons, Raymond [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2683 (United States); Campbell, Randy D.; Goodrich, Bob; Kassis, Marc [W. M. Keck Observatory, California Association for Research in Astronomy, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Highway, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Ceverino, Daniel [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Finkelstein, Steven L. [The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); and others


    We present Keck-I MOSFIRE near-infrared spectroscopy for a sample of 13 compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at redshift 2 ≤ z ≤ 2.5 with star formation rates of SFR ∼ 100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and masses of log(M/M {sub ☉}) ∼10.8. Their high integrated gas velocity dispersions of σ{sub int} =230{sub −30}{sup +40} km s{sup –1}, as measured from emission lines of Hα and [O III], and the resultant M {sub *}-σ{sub int} relation and M {sub *}-M {sub dyn} all match well to those of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2, as measured from stellar absorption lines. Since log(M {sub *}/M {sub dyn}) =–0.06 ± 0.2 dex, these compact SFGs appear to be dynamically relaxed and evolved, i.e., depleted in gas and dark matter (<13{sub −13}{sup +17}%), and present larger σ{sub int} than their non-compact SFG counterparts at the same epoch. Without infusion of external gas, depletion timescales are short, less than ∼300 Myr. This discovery adds another link to our new dynamical chain of evidence that compact SFGs at z ≳ 2 are already losing gas to become the immediate progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies by z ∼ 2.

  10. An Impact Velocity Device Design for Blood Spatter Pattern Generation with Considerations for High-Speed Video Analysis. (United States)

    Stotesbury, Theresa; Illes, Mike; Vreugdenhil, Andrew J


    A mechanical device that uses gravitational and spring compression forces to create spatter patterns of known impact velocities is presented and discussed. The custom-made device uses either two or four springs (k1 = 267.8 N/m, k2 = 535.5 N/m) in parallel to create seventeen reproducible impact velocities between 2.1 and 4.0 m/s. The impactor is held at several known spring extensions using an electromagnet. Trigger inputs to the high-speed video camera allow the user to control the magnet's release while capturing video footage simultaneously. A polycarbonate base is used to allow for simultaneous monitoring of the side and bottom views of the impact event. Twenty-four patterns were created across the impact velocity range and analyzed using HemoSpat. Area of origin estimations fell within an acceptable range (ΔXav = -5.5 ± 1.9 cm, ΔYav = -2.6 ± 2.8 cm, ΔZav = +5.5 ± 3.8 cm), supporting distribution analysis for the use in research or bloodstain pattern training. This work provides a framework for those interested in developing a robust impact device. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wire-feed, high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray torch (United States)

    Lopez, A. R.; Hassan, B.; Oberkampf, W. L.; Neiser, R. A.; Roemer, T. J.


    The fluid and particle dynamics of a high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray torch are analyzed using computational and experimental techniques. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results are presented for a curved aircap used for coating interior surfaces such as engine cylinder bores. The device analyzed is similar to the Metco diamond jet rotating wire (DJRW) torch. The feed gases are injected through an axisymmetric nozzle into the curved aircap. Premixed propylene and oxygen are introduced from an annulus in the nozzle, while cooling air is injected between the nozzle and the interior wall of the aircap. The combustion process is modeled using a single-step, finite-rate chemistry model with a total of nine gas species which includes dissociation of combustion products. A continually fed steel wire passes through the center of the nozzle, and melting occurs at a conical tip near the exit of the aircap. Wire melting is simulated computationally by injecting liquid steel particles into the flow field near the tip of the wire. Experimental particle velocity measurements during wire feed were also taken using a laser two-focus (L2F) velocimeter system. Flow fields inside and outside the aircap are presented, and particle velocity predictions are compared with experimental measurements outside of the aircap.

  12. Complexity in the scaling of velocity fluctuations in the high-latitude F-region ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson


    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of F-region velocity fluctuations, δvlos, were characterised over 17 octaves of temporal scale from τ=1 s to <1 day using a new data base of 1-s time resolution SuperDARN radar measurements. After quality control, 2.9 (1.9 million fluctuations were recorded during 31.5 (40.4 days of discretionary mode soundings using the Tasmanian (New Zealand radars. If the fluctuations were statistically self-similar, the probability density functions (PDFs of δvlos would collapse onto the same PDF using the scaling Ps (δvs, τ=ταP (δvlos, τ and δvs=δvlosτ−α where α is the scaling exponent. The variations in scaling exponents α and multi-fractal behaviour were estimated using peak scaling and generalised structure function (GSF analyses, and a new method based upon minimising the differences between re-scaled probability density functions (PDFs. The efficiency of this method enabled calculation of "α spectra", the temporal spectra of scaling exponents from τ=1 s to ~2048 s. The large number of samples enabled calculation of α spectra for data separated into 2-h bins of MLT as well as two main physical regimes: Population A echoes with Doppler spectral width <75 m s−1 concentrated on closed field lines, and Population B echoes with spectral width >150 m s−1 concentrated on open field lines. For all data there was a scaling break at τ~10 s and the similarity of the fluctuations beneath this scale may be related to the large spatial averaging (~100 km×45 km employed by SuperDARN radars. For Tasmania Population B, the velocity fluctuations exhibited approximately mono fractal power law scaling between τ~8 s and 2048 s (34 min, and probably up to several hours. The scaling exponents were generally less than that expected for basic MHD turbulence (α=0.25, except close to magnetic dusk where they peaked towards the basic MHD value. For Population A, the scaling exponents were larger than for Population B

  13. High-efficiency gas heat pump air-conditioner equipped with absorption refrigerator (United States)

    Kawakami, Ryuichiro; Imai, Kazuya; Nakajima, Hidekazu; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Hihara, Eiji

    To improve rated efficiency and partial load efficiency of gas engine heat pump (GHP), we are developing a new type air-cooled absorption refrigerator which is driven by the engine waste hot water. To shape the compact absorption refrigerator body that was able to be built into the space of a GHP outdoor-unit, an air-cooled sub-cooled adiabatic absorber and flowing liquid film plate type generator were newly developed. Maximum cooling capacity was increased about 20%, rated load COP was increased 40%, and partial load COP was increased 46% or less, as a result of the combination examination of a prototype 8.0kW absorption refrigerator and a 56kW GHP at a laboratory.

  14. Highly absorptive curcumin reduces serum atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein levels in patients with mild COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funamoto M


    Full Text Available Masafumi Funamoto,1,2 Yoichi Sunagawa,1–3 Yasufumi Katanasaka,1–3 Yusuke Miyazaki,1,2 Atsushi Imaizumi,4 Hideaki Kakeya,5 Hajime Yamakage,2 Noriko Satoh-Asahara,2 Maki Komiyama,2 Hiromichi Wada,2 Koji Hasegawa,2 Tatsuya Morimoto1–3 1Division of Molecular Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, 2Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, 3Shizuoka General Hospital, Shizuoka, 4Theravalues Corporation, Kioicho, Tokyo, 5Department of System Chemotherapy and Molecular Sciences, Division of Bioinformatics and Chemical Genomics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: COPD is mainly caused by tobacco smoking and is associated with a high frequency of coronary artery disease. There is growing recognition that the inflammation in COPD is not only confined to the lungs but also involves the systemic circulation and can impact nonpulmonary organs, including blood vessels. α1-antitrypsin–low-density lipoprotein (AT-LDL complex is an oxidatively modified LDL that accelerates atherosclerosis. Curcumin, one of the best-investigated natural products, is a powerful antioxidant. However, the effects of curcumin on AT-LDL remain unknown. We hypothesized that Theracurmin®, a highly absorptive curcumin with improved bioavailability using a drug delivery system, ameliorates the inflammatory status in subjects with mild COPD.Patients and methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Subjects with stages I–II COPD according to the Japanese Respiratory Society criteria were randomly assigned to receive 90 mg Theracurmin® or placebo twice a day for 24 weeks, and changes in inflammatory parameters were evaluated.Results: There were no differences between the Theracurmin® and placebo groups in terms of age, male/female ratio, or body mass index in 39 evaluable subjects. The percent changes in blood pressure

  15. Air-Induced Drag Reduction at High Reynolds Numbers: Velocity and Void Fraction Profiles (United States)

    Elbing, Brian; Mäkiharju, Simo; Wiggins, Andrew; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven


    The injection of air into a turbulent boundary layer forming over a flat plate can reduce the skin friction. With sufficient volumetric fluxes an air layer can separate the solid surface from the flowing liquid, which can produce drag reduction in excess of 80%. Several large scale experiments have been conducted at the US Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9 m long flat plate model investigating bubble drag reduction (BDR), air layer drag reduction (ALDR) and the transition between BDR and ALDR. The most recent experiment acquired phase velocities and void fraction profiles at three downstream locations (3.6, 5.9 and 10.6 m downstream from the model leading edge) for a single flow speed (˜6.4 m/s). The profiles were acquired with a combination of electrode point probes, time-of-flight sensors, Pitot tubes and an LDV system. Additional diagnostics included skin-friction sensors and flow-field image visualization. During this experiment the inlet flow was perturbed with vortex generators immediately upstream of the injection location to assess the robustness of the air layer. From these, and prior measurements, computational models can be refined to help assess the viability of ALDR for full-scale ship applications.

  16. Luminous Type IIP SN 2013ej with high-velocity 56Ni ejecta (United States)

    Utrobin, V. P.; Chugai, N. N.


    We explore the well-observed Type IIP supernova 2013ej with peculiar luminosity evolution. It is found that the hydrodynamic model cannot reproduce in detail the bolometric luminosity at both the plateau and the radioactive tail. Yet the ejecta mass of 23-26 M⊙ and the kinetic energy of (1.2-1.4) × 1051 erg are determined rather confidently. We suggest that the controversy revealed in hydrodynamic simulations stems from the strong asphericity of the 56Ni ejecta. An analysis of the asymmetric nebular H α line and of the peculiar radioactive tail made it possible to recover parameters of the asymmetric bipolar 56Ni ejecta with the heavier jet residing in the rear hemisphere. The inferred 56Ni mass is 0.039 M⊙, twice as large compared to a straightforward estimate from the bolometric luminosity at the early radioactive tail. The bulk of ejected 56Ni has velocities in the range of 4000-6500 km s-1. The linear polarization predicted by the model with the asymmetric ionization produced by bipolar 56Ni ejecta is consistent with the observational value.

  17. highly selective amino acid salt solutions as absorption liquid for CO(2) capture in gas-liquid membrane contactors. (United States)

    Simons, Katja; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Mengers, Harro; Brilman, Wim; Wessling, Matthias


    The strong anthropogenic increase in the emission of CO(2) and the related environmental impact force the developments towards sustainability and carbon capture and storage (CCS). In the present work, we combine the high product yields and selectivities of CO(2) absorption processes with the advantages of membrane technology in a membrane contactor for the separation of CO(2) from CH(4) using amino acid salt solutions as competitive absorption liquid to alkanol amine solutions. Amino acids, such as sarcosine, have the same functionality as alkanol amines (e.g., monoethanolamine=MEA), but in contrast, they exhibit a better oxidative stability and resistance to degradation. In addition, they can be made nonvolatile by adding a salt functionality, which significantly reduces the liquid loss due to evaporation at elevated temperatures in the desorber. Membrane contactor experiments using CO(2)/CH(4) feed mixtures to evaluate the overall process performance, including a full absorption/desorption cycle show that even without a temperature difference between absorber and desorber, a CO(2)/CH(4) selectivity of over 70 can be easily achieved with the sarcosine salt solution as absorption liquid. This selectivity reaches values of 120 at a temperature difference between absorber and desorber of 35 degrees C, compared to a value of only 60 for MEA under the same conditions. Although CO(2) permeance values are somewhat lower than the values obtained for MEA, the results clearly show the potential of amino acid salt solutions as competitive absorption liquids for the energy efficient removal of CO(2). In addition, due to the low absorption of CH(4) in sarcosine compared to MEA, the loss of CH(4) is reduced and significantly higher CH(4) product yields can be obtained.

  18. VUV absorption spectroscopy measurements of the role of fast neutral atoms in a high-power gap breakdown (United States)

    Filuk; Bailey; Cuneo; Lake; Nash; Noack; Maron


    The maximum power achieved in a wide variety of high-power devices, including electron and ion diodes, z pinches, and microwave generators, is presently limited by anode-cathode gap breakdown. A frequently discussed hypothesis for this effect is ionization of fast neutral atoms injected throughout the anode-cathode gap during the power pulse. We describe a newly developed diagnostic tool that provides a direct test of this hypothesis. Time-resolved vacuum-ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy is used to directly probe fast neutral atoms with 1-mm spatial resolution in the 10-mm anode-cathode gap of the SABRE 5 MV, 1 TW applied-B ion diode. Absorption spectra collected during Ar RF glow discharges and with CO2 gas fills confirm the reliability of the diagnostic technique. Throughout the 50-100 ns ion diode pulses no measurable neutral absorption was seen, setting upper limits of (0.12-1.5)x10(14) cm(-3) for ground-state fast neutral atom densities of H, C, N, O, and F. The absence of molecular absorption bands also sets upper limits of (0.16-1.2)x10(15) cm(-3) for common simple molecules. These limits are low enough to rule out ionization of fast neutral atoms as a breakdown mechanism. Breakdown due to ionization of molecules is also found to be unlikely. This technique can now be applied to quantify the role of neutral atoms in other high-power devices.

  19. High-Velocity Frictional Properties of Westerly Granite and the Role of Thermal Cracking on Gouge Production (United States)

    Passelegue, F. X.; Di Toro, G.; Spagnuolo, E.; Violay, M.; Nielsen, S. B.; Schubnel, A.


    With the advent of high-velocity rotary shear apparatus, several experimental studies have been conducted in the last decades improving our understanding of fault friction at seismic slip rates (0.1 friction drops are observed: the first drop at Vs > 0.1 m/s is explained by flash heating mechanism while the second drop is due to the formation and growth of a continuous melt layer on the fault surface. In wet conditions, only the second drop of friction is observed. Average values of the fracture energy are independent of normal stress and sliding velocity. However, measurements of elastic wave velocities travelling through the fault strongly suggest that higher damage is induced for 0.1friction drop, that is, once the fault surface temperature is high, suggesting they may be due to thermal cracking induced by heat diffusion. In addition, the presence of pore fluid pressure (water) delayed the appearance of AEs, supporting the link between AEs and the production and diffusion of heat. Using the thermo-elastic crack model, we demonstrate that damage can indeed be induced by heat diffusion. Our theoretical results predict accurately the amount of sample wear, supporting the idea that gouge production and gouge comminution is in fact largely controlled by thermal cracking. Finally, we show that this new fracture energy term is non-negligible in the energy balance so that thermal cracking induced during seismic slip, in dry conditions, could play a key role both in the evolution of the physical properties of the slip zone and the high frequency radiation.

  20. Ulnar nerve injury after a comminuted fracture of the humeral shaft from a high-velocity accident: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak Ritesh


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Injury to the ulnar nerve following humerus shaft fracture is a very rare entity because the ulnar nerve is well protected from the bone by muscle and soft tissue, and thus remains unaffected in these fractures. We report what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of ulnar nerve injury due to a comminuted humeral shaft fracture. The injury manifested and was diagnosed the day after a high-velocity accident. The paucity of related literature and the necessity for early diagnosis and subsequent treatment of such injuries in high-velocity accidents urged us to document this case. Case presentation A 30-year-old Indian man presented to our Emergency Department after a road traffic accident. Our patient complained of right arm pain and the inability to move his extremity. The following morning he developed clawing. Nerve conduction studies on the peripheral nerves of his arm in addition to an X-ray confirmed the diagnosis of a possible injury to the ulnar nerve. Our patient was taken to our Operating Room for surgery, during which a fragment of bone was found abutting the ulnar nerve after penetrating his triceps. This fragment of bone was replaced and the fracture was reduced by open reduction and internal fixation using a dynamic compression plate and screws. Postoperatively, our patient received physical therapy and was discharged two weeks after surgery with no neurological deficit. Conclusions This case emphasizes the urgency and importance of careful neurological examination of all the peripheral nerves supplying the arm in patients with a fracture of the shaft of the humerus. In the setting of injury to the arm in high-velocity accidents, a differential diagnosis of ulnar nerve injury should always be considered.

  1. Deep seismic structure of the northeastern South China Sea: Origin of a high-velocity layer in the lower crust (United States)

    Wan, Kuiyuan; Xia, Shaohong; Cao, Jinghe; Sun, Jinlong; Xu, Huilong


    We present a 2-D seismic tomographic image of the crustal structure along the OBS2012 profile, which delineates the Moho morphology and magmatic features of the northeastern South China Sea margin. The image was created by forward modeling (RayInvr) and traveltime tomographic inversion (Tomo2D). Overall, the continental crust thins seaward from 27 km to 21 km within the continental shelf across the Zhu I Depression and Dongsha Rise, with slight local thickening beneath the Dongsha Rise accompanying the increase in the Moho depth. The Dongsha Rise is also characterized by 4-7 km thick high-velocity layer (HVL) ( 7.0-7.6 km/s) in the lower crust and exhibits a relatively high velocity ( 5.5-6.4 km/s) in the upper crust with a velocity gradient lower than those of the Zhu I Depression and Tainan Basin. Across the continental slope and continent-ocean transition (COT), which contain the Tainan Basin, the crust sharply thins from 20 km to 10 km seaward and a 2-3 km thick HVL is imaged in the lower crust. We observed that volcanoes are located only within the COT, but none exist in the continental shelf; the Dongsha Rise exhibits a high magnetic anomaly zone and different geochemical characteristics from the COT. Based on those observations, we conclude that the HVL underlying the COT is probably extension related resulting from the decompression melting in the Cenozoic, whereas the HVL beneath the Dongsha Rise is probably arc related and associated with the subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate. These findings are inconsistent with those of some previous studies.

  2. High-resolution absorption measurements of NH3 at high temperatures: 500–2100cm−1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barton, Emma J.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan


    High-resolution absorption spectra of NH3 in the region 500–2100 cm -1 at temperatures up to1027 1C and approximately atmospheric pressure (1013±20 mbar) are measured. NH3 concentrations of 1000 ppm,0.5% and 1% in volume fraction were used in the measurements. Spectra are recorded in high tempera...

  3. High-resolution absorption measurements of NH3 at high temperatures: 2100–5500 cm−1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barton, Emma J.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan


    High-resolution absorption spectra of NH3 in the region 2100–5500 cm−1 at 1027 °C and approximately atmospheric pressure (1045±3 mbar) are measured. An NH3 concentration of 10% in volume fraction is used in the measurements. Spectra are recorded in a high-temperature gas-flow cell using a Fourier...

  4. High space velocities of single radio pulsars versus low orbital eccentricities and masses of double neutron stars: Evidence for two different neutron star formation mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, E.P.J.


    Radio pulsars tend to be high-velocity objects, which implies that the majority of them received a velocity kick of several hundreds of km s(-1) at birth. However, six of the eight known double neutron stars in the galactic disk have quite low orbital eccentricities (0.085-0.27), indicating - taking

  5. High velocity SAW using aluminum nitride film on unpolished nucleation side of free-standing CVD diamond. (United States)

    Elmazria, Omar; Mortet, Vincent; El Hakiki, Mohamed; Nesladek, Milos; Alnot, Patrick


    High performances surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters based on aluminium nitride (AlN)/diamond layered structure have been fabricated. The C-axis oriented aluminum nitride films with various thicknesses were sputtered on unpolished nucleation side of free-standing polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond obtained by silicon substrate etching. Experimental results show that high order modes as well as Rayleigh waves are excited. Experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical dispersion curves determined by software simulation with Green's function formalism. We demonstrate that high phase velocity first mode wave (so-called Sezawa wave) with high electromechanical coupling coefficient are obtained on AlN/diamond structure. This structure also has a low temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF), and preliminary results suggest that a zero TCF could be expected.

  6. Complexity in the scaling of velocity fluctuations in the high-latitude F-region ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson


    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of F-region velocity fluctuations, δvlos, were characterised over 17 octaves of temporal scale from τ=1 s to <1 day using a new data base of 1-s time resolution SuperDARN radar measurements. After quality control, 2.9 (1.9 million fluctuations were recorded during 31.5 (40.4 days of discretionary mode soundings using the Tasmanian (New Zealand radars. If the fluctuations were statistically self-similar, the probability density functions (PDFs of δvlos would collapse onto the same PDF using the scaling Psvs, τ=ταPvlos, τ and δvsvlosτ−α where α is the scaling exponent. The variations in scaling exponents α and multi-fractal behaviour were estimated using peak scaling and generalised structure function (GSF analyses, and a new method based upon minimising the differences between re-scaled probability density functions (PDFs. The efficiency of this method enabled calculation of "α spectra", the temporal spectra of scaling exponents from τ=1 s to ~2048 s. The large number of samples enabled calculation of α spectra for data separated into 2-h bins of MLT as well as two main physical regimes: Population A echoes with Doppler spectral width <75 m s−1 concentrated on closed field lines, and Population B echoes with spectral width >150 m s−1 concentrated on open field lines. For all data there was a scaling break at τ~10 s and the similarity of the fluctuations beneath this scale may be related to the large spatial averaging (~100 km×45 km employed by SuperDARN radars. For Tasmania Population B, the velocity fluctuations exhibited approximately mono fractal power law scaling between τ~8 s and 2048 s (34 min, and probably up to several hours. The scaling exponents were generally less than that expected for basic MHD


    Beppu, Masuhiro; Miwa, Koji; Takahashi, Jun

    This paper presents failure mechanism of the scabbing of concrete plates subjected to high velocity impact and effects of fiber sheet reinforcement. Prior to impact tests, strain measurement method using acrylic bar with strain gauges is validated by conducting impact test to concrete bar specimen. Then, impact tests are carried out to examine the failure mechanism of scabbing of concrete plates. In the tests, the strain measurement method is applied and strain behavior inside the concrete plate is discussed. After that, impact tests of fiber sheet reinforced concrete plates are conducted. Based on failure mode and strain behavior, effects of fiber sheet reinforcement on the failure of concrete plates are examined.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana Ines [Grupo de Investigación Complutense AEGORA and S.D. Astronomía y Geodesia, Fac. de CC Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)


    The He II (1640 Å) line and the resonance doublet of N V (UV1) provide a good diagnostic tool to constrain the excitation mechanism of hot (T{sub e} > 40,000 K) atmospheric/magnetospheric plasmas in T Tauri stars (TTSs). Making use of the data available in the Hubble Space Telescope archive, this work shows that there are at least two distinct physical components contributing to the radiation in these tracers: the accretion flow sliding on the magnetosphere and the atmosphere. The N V profiles in most sources are symmetric and at rest with respect to the star. The velocity dispersion of the profile increases from non-accreting (σ = 40 km s{sup –1}) to accreting (σ = 120 km s{sup –1}) TTSs, suggesting that the macroturbulence field in the line formation region decreases as the stars approach the main sequence. Evidence of the N V line being formed in a hot solar-like wind has been found in RW Aur, HN Tau, and AA Tau. The He II profile has a strong narrow component that dominates the line flux; the dispersion of this component ranges from 20 to 60 km s{sup –1}. Current data suggest that both accretion shocks and atmospheric emission might contribute to the line flux. In some sources, the He II line shows a broad and redward-shifted emission component often accompanied by semiforbidden O III] emission that has a critical electron density of ∼3.4 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup 3}. In spite of their different origins (inferred from the kinematics of the line formation region), N V and He II fluxes are strongly correlated, with only the possible exception of some of the heaviest accretors.

  9. Optimized Trajectories to the Nearest Stars Using Lightweight High-velocity Photon Sails (United States)

    Heller, René; Hippke, Michael; Kervella, Pierre


    New means of interstellar travel are now being considered by various research teams, assuming lightweight spaceships to be accelerated via either laser or solar radiation to a significant fraction of the speed of light (c). We recently showed that gravitational assists can be combined with the stellar photon pressure to decelerate an incoming lightsail from Earth and fling it around a star or bring it to rest. Here, we demonstrate that photogravitational assists are more effective when the star is used as a bumper (I.e., the sail passes “in front of” the star) rather than as a catapult (I.e., the sail passes “behind” or “around” the star). This increases the maximum deceleration at α Cen A and B and reduces the travel time of a nominal graphene-class sail (mass-to-surface ratio 8.6× {10}-4 {{g}} {{{m}}}-2) from 95 to 75 years. The maximum possible velocity reduction upon arrival depends on the required deflection angle from α Cen A to B and therefore on the binary’s orbital phase. Here, we calculate the variation of the minimum travel times from Earth into a bound orbit around Proxima for the next 300 years and then extend our calculations to roughly 22,000 stars within about 300 lt-yr. Although α Cen is the most nearby star system, we find that Sirius A offers the shortest possible travel times into a bound orbit: 69 years assuming 12.5% c can be obtained at departure from the solar system. Sirius A thus offers the opportunity of flyby exploration plus deceleration into a bound orbit of the companion white dwarf after relatively short times of interstellar travel.

  10. High Ultraviolet Absorption in Colloidal Gallium Nanoparticles Prepared from Thermal Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Nucciarelli


    Full Text Available New methods for the production of colloidal Ga nanoparticles (GaNPs are introduced based on the evaporation of gallium on expendable aluminum zinc oxide (AZO layer. The nanoparticles can be prepared in aqueous or organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran in order to be used in different sensing applications. The particles had a quasi mono-modal distribution with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 80 nm, and their aggregation status depended on the solvent nature. Compared to common chemical synthesis, our method assures higher yield with the possibility of tailoring particles size by adjusting the deposition time. The GaNPs have been studied by spectrophotometry to obtain the absorption spectra. The colloidal solutions exhibit strong plasmonic absorption in the ultra violet (UV region around 280 nm, whose width and intensity mainly depend on the nanoparticles dimensions and their aggregation state. With regard to the colloidal GaNPs flocculate behavior, the water solvent case has been investigated for different pH values, showing UV-visible absorption because of the formation of NPs clusters. Using discrete dipole approximation (DDA method simulations, a close connection between the UV absorption and NPs with a diameter smaller than ~40 nm was observed.

  11. Total absorption studies of high priority decays for reactor applications: 86Br and 91Rb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algora A.


    Full Text Available Preliminary results from beta decay studies of nuclei that are important for reactor applications are presented. The beta decays have been studied using the total absorption technique (TAS and the pure beams provided by the JYFLTRAP system at the IGISOL facility of the University of Jyväskylä.

  12. Highly efficient absorption of visible and near infrared light in convex gold and nickel grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, René Lynge; Beermann, Jonas; Søndergaard, Thomas

    The realization of nonresonant light absorption with nanostructured metal surfaces by making practical use of nanofocusing optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides, is of one of the most fascinating and fundamental phenomena in plasmonics [1,2]. We recently realized broadband light absorpti...

  13. Longitudinal sound velocities, elastic anisotropy, and phase transition of high-pressure cubic H2O ice to 82 GPa (United States)

    Kuriakose, Maju; Raetz, Samuel; Hu, Qing Miao; Nikitin, Sergey M.; Chigarev, Nikolay; Tournat, Vincent; Bulou, Alain; Lomonosov, Alexey; Djemia, Philippe; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Zerr, Andreas


    Water ice is a molecular solid whose behavior under compression reveals the interplay of covalent bonding in molecules and forces acting between them. This interplay determines high-pressure phase transitions, the elastic and plastic behavior of H2O ice, which are the properties needed for modeling the convection and internal structure of the giant planets and moons of the solar system as well as H2O -rich exoplanets. We investigated experimentally and theoretically elastic properties and phase transitions of cubic H2O ice at room temperature and high pressures between 10 and 82 GPa. The time-domain Brillouin scattering (TDBS) technique was used to measure longitudinal sound velocities (VL) in polycrystalline ice samples compressed in a diamond anvil cell. The high spatial resolution of the TDBS technique revealed variations of VL caused by elastic anisotropy, allowing us to reliably determine the fastest and the slowest sound velocity in a single crystal of cubic H2O ice and thus to evaluate existing equations of state. Pressure dependencies of the single-crystal elastic moduli Ci j(P ) of cubic H2O ice to 82 GPa have been obtained which indicate its hardness and brittleness. These results were compared with ab initio calculations. It is suggested that the transition from molecular ice VII to ionic ice X occurs at much higher pressures than proposed earlier, probably above 80 GPa.

  14. Integral Field Spectroscopy of Markarian 273: Mapping High-Velocity Gas Flows and an Off-Nucleus Seyfert 2 Nebula. (United States)

    Colina; Arribas; Borne


    Integral field optical spectroscopy with the INTEGRAL fiber-based system is used to map the extended ionized regions and gas flows in Mrk 273, one of the closest ultraluminous infrared galaxies. The Hbeta and [O iii] lambda5007 maps show the presence of two distinct regions separated by 4&arcsec; (3.1 kpc) along position angle (P.A.) 240 degrees. The northeastern region coincides with the optical nucleus of the galaxy and shows the spectral characteristics of LINERs. The southwestern region is dominated by [O iii] emission and is classified as a Seyfert 2. Therefore, in the optical, Mrk 273 is an ultraluminous infrared galaxy with a LINER nucleus and an extended off-nucleus Seyfert 2 nebula. The kinematics of the [O iii] ionized gas shows (1) the presence of highly disturbed gas in the regions around the LINER nucleus, (2) a high-velocity gas flow with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 2.4x103 km s-1, and (3) quiescent gas in the outer regions (at 3 kpc). We hypothesize that the high-velocity flow is the starburst-driven superwind generated in an optically obscured nuclear starburst and that the quiescent gas is directly ionized by a nuclear source, similar to the ionization cones typically seen in Seyfert galaxies.

  15. Sensitivity of tropical rainbelt over Africa and Middle East to dust shortwave absorption: Experiments using a high resolution AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu


    Response of the rainbelt over Africa to dust direct radiative forcing has been an area of lively debate and is a subject of ongoing research. Previous modeling studies have contrasting results producing different amplitudes or even signs of responses. Uncertainties in the dust radiative forcing are thought to be the major cause of discrepancies in the simulated responses among various studies. The imaginary part of mineral dust shortwave refractive index, which defines the dust absorptivity, has a wide range of values estimated from various observational and modeling studies, as it depends on dust chemical composition and mineralogy. Balkanski et al. (2007) estimated dust shortwave refractive indices by assuming 3 different hematite contents, 0.9%, 1.5% and 2.7% by volume, which corresponds to inefficient, standard, and very efficient dust shortwave absorption, respectively. To investigate the sensitivity of the position and intensity of the tropical rainbelt over Africa and its extension to the Arabian Peninsula to dust shortwave absorption, we have conducted ensembles of numerical simulations for each of the three dust absorptivity scenarios using a high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), GFDL\\'s High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM), at a spatial resolution of 25 km. We found that the strength and the latitudinal extent of the rainbelt are very sensitive to dust shortwave absorption, as well as circulations at various spatiotemporal scales that drive the climate of the region. Reference: Balkanski, Y., M. Schulz, T. Claquin, and S. Guibert (2007), Reevaluation of mineral aerosol radiative forcings suggests a better agreement with satellite and AERONET data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 81 - 95.

  16. The Numerical Investigation of Temperature and Velocity Distribution in the High-Bay Depot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehong Wu


    Full Text Available High-bay depot plays an important role in the storage industry. Due to large and high space of high-bay depot, it is difficult to make temperature distribution uniform, which will influence the storage time of raw materials. In this paper, the aim is to find the reasonable air supply and energy-saving method; a supply-air method of high-bay depot is investigated as an example. The results show the radius and spacing of the supply-air inlet have great influence on temperature distribution. The temperature nonuniformity coefficient of summer is smaller than that of winter. The investigated results can provide a theoretical reference for the high-bay depot design and economic operation.

  17. High-efficiency NO(x) absorption in water using equipment packed with a glass fiber filter. (United States)

    Yasuda, Masahiro; Tsugita, Nobuhiro; Ito, Katsuaki; Yamauchi, Shiro; Glomm, Wilhelm R; Tsuji, Izumi; Asano, Hideaki


    NO(X) absorption in water is quite difficult by comparison with other exhausted gas, such as SO(2), CO(2), and NH(3) because of low solubility of NO(X) in water. We have been developed a NO(X) absorption equipment with a glass fiber filter having high porosity and surface area. When feed NO(X) gas concentration was high, high NO(X) removal efficiency was obtained. This was because the surface area per glass fiber filter volume was about 40 to 600 times higher than for common packing materials. For verification test and industrial application, a high concentration of NO(X) gas (206,000 ppm) produced by a metal dissolution process was treated with a series of two absorption experiments. We can attain 97.6% of NO(X) removal efficiency, and HNO(3) concentration in water was concentrated up to 56.3 wt %. Furthermore, ozone addition to gas and usage of ozone saturated water as an absorbent resulted in complete removal of NO(X) in the gas (up to 120 ppm). This result indicated the importance of aqueous phase oxidation of HNO(2), which produces NO in the gas phase.

  18. Measurements of drift-wave-induced density and velocity fluctuations using high-speed passive impurity spectroscopy (United States)

    Nishizawa, Takashi; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.


    Passive impurity spectroscopy is used to study high frequency ( 100 kHz) electron density and ion velocity fluctuations in the edge of MST reversed field pinch plasmas. When tearing modes are suppressed, stochastic transport is greatly reduced and microturbulence is anticipated to become important. Gyrokinetic simulations predict unstable trapped electron modes (TEM) in the edge region of these improved-confinement MST plasmas. Interferometry measurements reveal electron density fluctuations with wavenumbers, propagation direction, and a density-gradient threshold in good agreement with predictions for TEMs. These density fluctuations are also observed as emission fluctuations using a recently upgraded Ion Dynamics Spectrometer (IDS II) through edge passive C +2 measurements. The particle transport associated with TEMs will be evaluated directly by correlating the IDS-measured ion velocity and density fluctuations. The measurement is localized to the C +2 emission shell in the edge of the plasma, which is determined by a coronal charge-state balance model using ADAS. We used a large-throughput spectrometer originally developed for fast CHERS measurements and PMTs for light detection to achieve high time resolution. This work is supported by the US DOE.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Multi-layer Insulation Effect on Damage of Stuffed Shield by High-velocity Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUAN Gong-shun


    Full Text Available The stuffed shield with multi-layer insulation(MLI was designed by improving on Al Whipple shield, and a series of high-velocity impact tests were practiced with a two-stage light gas gun facility at vacuum environment. The damage model of the stuffed shield with different MLI location by Al-sphere projectile impacting was obtained. The effect of MLI on damage of the stuffed shield by high-velocity impact was studied. The results indicate when the MLI is located at front side of the first Al-plate, the protection performance of the stuffed shield is improved with the larger perforation diameter of the first Al-plate and more impact kinetic energy dissipation of the projectile. When MLI is arranged at back side of the first Al-plate, the expansion of the secondary debris cloud from projectile impacting the first Al-plate is restrained, it is not good to improve the protection performance of the stuffed shield. When MLI is arranged at front side of the stuffed wall, the perforation size of the stuffed wall increases; when MLI is arranged at front side of the rear wall, the distribution range of crater on the rear wall decreases.

  20. A Microchannel Inlet to Reduce High-Velocity Impact Fragmentation of Molecules in Orbital and Fly-by Mass Spectrometers (United States)

    Turner, Brandon; Anupriya, Anupriya; Sevy, Eric; Austin, Daniel E.


    Closed source neutral mass spectrometers are often used on flyby missions to characterize the molecular components of planetary exospheres. In a typical closed source, neutrals are thermalized as they deflect off the walls within a spherical antechamber prior to ionization and mass analysis. However, the high kinetic energy of each molecule as it impacts the chamber can lead to fragmentation before the ionization region is reached. Due to this fragmentation, the original composition of the molecule can be altered, leading to ambiguous identification.Even knowing the fragmentation pathways that occur may not allow deconvolution of data to give the correct composition. Only stable, volatile fragments will be observed in the subsequent mass spectrometer and different organic compounds likely give similar fragmentation products. Simply detecting these products will not lead to unambiguous identication of the precursor molecules. Here, we present a hardware solution to this problem—an inlet that reduces the fragmentation of molecules that impact at high velocities.We present a microchannel inlet that reduces the impact fragmentation by allowing the molecules to dissipate kinetic energy faster than their respective dissociation lifetimes. Preliminary calculations indicate that impact-induced fragmentation will be reduced up to three orders of magnitude compared with conventional closed sources by using this inlet. The benefits of such an inlet apply to any orbital or flyby velocity. The microchannel inlet enables detection of semi-volatile molecules that were previously undetectable due to impact fragmentation.

  1. An experimental study of non-destructive testing on glass fibre reinforced polymer composites after high velocity impact event (United States)

    Razali, N.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Cardona, F.


    A non-destructive testing method on Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) after high velocity impact event using single stage gas gun (SSGG) is presented. Specimens of C- type and E-type fibreglass reinforcement, which were fabricated with 6mm, 8mm, 10mm and 12mm thicknesses and size 100 mm x 100 mm, were subjected to a high velocity impact with three types of bullets: conical, hemispherical and blunt at various gas gun pressure levels from 6 bar to 60 bar. Visual observation techniques using a lab microscope were used to determine the infringed damage by looking at the crack zone. Dye penetrants were used to inspect the area of damage, and to evaluate internal and external damages on the specimens after impact. The results from visual analysis of the impacted test laminates were discussed and presented. It was found that the impact damage started with induced delamination, fibre cracking and then failure, simultaneously with matrix cracking and breakage, and finally followed by the fibres pulled out. C-type experienced more damaged areas compared to E-type of GFRP.

  2. Characterization of High-Velocity Solution Precursor Flame-Sprayed Manganese Cobalt Oxide Spinel Coatings for Metallic SOFC Interconnectors (United States)

    Puranen, Jouni; Laakso, Jarmo; Kylmälahti, Mikko; Vuoristo, Petri


    A modified high-velocity oxy-fuel spray (HVOF) thermal spray torch equipped with liquid feeding hardware was used to spray manganese-cobalt solutions on ferritic stainless steel grade Crofer 22 APU substrates. The HVOF torch was modified in such a way that the solution could be fed axially into the combustion chamber through 250- and 300-μm-diameter liquid injector nozzles. The solution used in this study was prepared by diluting nitrates of manganese and cobalt, i.e., Mn(NO3)2·4H2O and Co(NO3)2·6H2O, respectively, in deionized water. The as-sprayed coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy operating in secondary electron mode. Chemical analyses were performed on an energy dispersive spectrometer. Coatings with remarkable density could be prepared by the novel high-velocity solution precursor flame spray (HVSPFS) process. Due to finely sized droplet formation in the HVSPFS process and the use of as delivered Crofer 22 APU substrate material having very low substrate roughness ( R a MnCo2O4 spinel with addition of Co-oxide phases. Crystallographic structure was restored back to single-phase spinel structure by heat treatment.

  3. Very high finesse optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for low concentration water vapor isotope analyses. (United States)

    Landsberg, J; Romanini, D; Kerstel, E


    So far, cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) has been based on optical cavities with a high finesse F that, however, has been limited by mirror reflectivity and by cavity transmission considerations to a few times 10,000. Here, we demonstrate a compact near-infrared optical-feedback CEAS instrument for water vapor isotope ratio measurements, with F>140,000. We show that this very high finesse can be effectively exploited to improve the detection sensitivity to the full extent predicted by the increased effective path length to reach a noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 5.7×10(-11)  cm(-1) Hz(-1/2) for a full spectrum registration (including possible effects of interference fringes and fit model inadequacies).

  4. Sound velocity of hcp-Fe at high pressure: experimental constraints, extrapolations and comparison with seismic models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonangeli, Daniele; Ohtani, Eiji


    .... Here, we review techniques and methodologies used to measure sound velocities in metals at megabar pressures, with specific focus on the compressional sound velocity of hexagonal close-packed iron...

  5. High precision radial velocities in the near-infrared domain: Status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzano A.M.


    Full Text Available The extension of the highly successful Doppler technique into the near-infrared (0.9–2.5 μm is highly desirable as it would open the possibility for searches for extra-solar planets around young stars, very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Here we review the current status of this technique and discuss future prospects with particular emphasis on challenging problems for the next decade.

  6. Depot-Level Simulation and Multivariate Analysis on B-1 High Velocity Maintenance (United States)


    High p-value in the Durbin - Watson test suggests that the residuals are independent. The lack of megaphone shape in every residual vs. variable...AvgSimTime The lack of cyclical pattern in residual vs. predicted plot suggests that the residuals are linear. High p-value in the Durbin ... Watson test suggests that the residuals are independent. 75 The lack of megaphone shape in every residual vs. variable plot suggests the

  7. Perylene-fused BODIPY dye with near-IR absorption/emission and high photostability

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun


    A N-annulated perylene unit was successfully fused to the meso-and β-positions of a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) core. The newly synthesized BODIPY dye 1b exhibits intensified near-infrared (NIR) absorption and the longest emission maximum ever observed for all BODIPY derivatives. In addition, this dye possesses excellent solubility and photostability, beneficial to practical applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.


    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  9. Ultrasonic pulse velocity for the evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of a highly porous building limestone. (United States)

    Vasanelli, Emilia; Colangiuli, Donato; Calia, Angela; Sileo, Maria; Aiello, Maria Antonietta


    UPV as non-destructive technique can effectively contribute to the low invasive in situ analysis and diagnosis of masonry elements related to the conservation, rehabilitation and strengthening of the built heritage. The use of non-destructive and non-invasive techniques brings all the times many advantages in diagnostic activities on pre-existing buildings in terms of sustainability; moreover, it is a strong necessity with respect to the conservation constraints when dealing with the historical-architectural heritage. In this work laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) in evaluating physical and mechanical properties of Lecce stone, a soft and porous building limestone. UPV and selected physical-mechanical parameters such as density and uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) were determined. Factors such as anisotropy and water presence that induce variations on the ultrasonic velocity were also assessed. Correlations between the analysed parameters are presented and discussed. The presence of water greatly affected the values of the analysed parameters, leading to a decrease of UPV and to a strong reduction of the compressive strength. A discussion of the role of the water on these results is provided. Regression analysis showed a reliable linear correlation between UPV and compressive strength, which allows a reasonable estimation of the strength of Lecce stone by means of non-destructive testing methods such as the ultrasonic wave velocity. Low correlation between UPV and density was found, suggesting that other factors than density, related to the fabric and composition, also influence the response of the selected stone to the UPV. They have no influence on the UCS, that instead showed to be highly correlated with the packing density. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Direct determination of fluorine in niobium oxide using slurry sampling electrothermal high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut [Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften—ISAS—e.V., Department Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Okruss, Michael, E-mail: [Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften—ISAS—e.V., Department Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Geisler, Sebastian; Florek, Stefan [Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften—ISAS—e.V., Department Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Richter, Silke; Meckelburg, Angela [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willstätter-Str. 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany)


    Aiming for a round-robin test, a new method for the direct determination of fluorine in niobium oxide has been developed. It is based on the use of high-resolution molecular absorption spectra of calcium mono-fluoride (CaF) generated in the graphite tube, combined with the slurry sampling technique. The absorption measurement was performed at the 606.44 nm CaF rotational line. By using graphite tubes with zirconium carbide (ZrC) modified platform, the molecular absorption sensitivity of CaF has been improved by a factor of 20, and no additional chemical modifier was necessary. Generally, non-spectral interferences were observed in the presence of HCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. For HCl, additional spectral interference occurred due to an overlap of the absorption spectra of CaF and CaCl. However, due to the absence of these mentioned substances in the current material, such interferences do not exist for this application. The characteristic mass found for the CaF 606.44 nm line was 0.1 ng; the limit of detection was 5 mg fluorine per kg solid sample (3σ criterion). The results obtained by the method were within the range of certified values. Comparing to the classical method such as the pyrohydrolysis-photometric method, the developed new method showed clear advantages regarding sensitivity and specificity. The time requirement for one sample analysis was strongly shortened from several hours to only some minutes. - Highlights: • First time determination of fluorine in niobium oxide using the slurry sampling technique • Application of calcium fluoride molecular absorption in graphite tube with ZrC modification • Higher specificity, better sensitivity, and huge time saving compared with the classical method based on pyrohydrolysis • New method verified by successful participation in round robin test.

  11. A Review on Level of Specific Absorption Rate Due to High Power Transmission Lines: Analysis toward Human Position Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazali Z.


    Full Text Available The main contribution of this project is the development of a homogeneous model of a man to presents the specific absorption rate (SAR due to high power transmission line. As a low frequency application under high power transmission line of 50 Hz in electrical engineering, to studies the influence of human’s posture on specific absorption rate. This project designs two types of human body which one design uses most cylinder block and another design use brick block where both blocks have a different value of mesh cells. For each design has four types of posture are standing, sitting, arms up and arms out by using Computer Simulation Technology (CST Studio Software. This analysis does toward for four types of the human position postures because each posture has different value of specific absorption rate (SAR based on the size of the mesh cells of the design. Based on two designs of the human body, the lowest of the mesh cells value will reduce time to simulate SAR. For each posture has different value of SAR for each part of the human body because the whole human body has different types of tissues. Therefore, the CST studio software uses extremely to simulate the SAR value toward human position posture due to high power transmission line.

  12. Ultrasonic Acoustic Wave Velocities of Neighborite (NaMgF3) Across Orthorhombic and Cubic Phase Boundary at High P-T (United States)

    Weidner, D. J.; Li, L.; Whitaker, M. L.; Triplett, R.


    Neighborite perovskite (NaMgF3) is a close analogue to Mg or Ca silicate perovskite. It experience a second-order phase transition at high T which may have a significant effect on the acoustic velocities. Here we report the measurement of elastic wave velocities of neighborite perovskite using multi-anvil high pressure apparatus located in beamline BM6 Advance Photon Source. We use the newly installed ultrasonic equipment using pulse-echo-overlap method coupled with D-DIA device. X-ray radiograph is used to measure sample length at high P-T. X-ray diffraction spectrum is used to determine the pressure and sample conditions. Precise measurements of P and S wave velocities are at 60 and 35 MHz respectively and are nearly simultaneous. We use a double reflector method to enable measurement of elastic wave velocities of cold-pressed polycrystalline sample which is sintered in situ at high P-T. Experiments were carried out up to 3 GPa and 1100 oC. Our preliminary results indicated that at MHz frequencies the change in acoustic velocities across the orthorhombic-cubic phase boundaries is very smooth, with no indication of a velocity minimum at the transition, nor velocity increase for the cubic phase.

  13. Influence of self-affine roughness on the friction coefficient of rubber at high sliding velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G


    In this work we investigate the influence of self-affine roughness on the friction coefficient of a rubber body onto a solid surface at high speeds. The roughness is characterized by the rms amplitude w, the correlation length xi, and the roughness exponent H. It is shown that the friction

  14. Proper motion with HST: Searching for high-velocity stars in the core of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meylan, G. [European Southern Observatory, Garching b. Muenchen, (Germany); Minniti, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Pryor, C. [Rutgers, Univ., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, New Jersey (United States); Tinney, C.G. [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping, NSW (Australia); Phinney, E.S. [Theoretical Astrophysics, Caltech, Pasadena, (United States); Sams, B. [Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., Joplin, MO (United States). Electronics Div.


    Binary stars play an essential role during the late phases of the dynamical evolution of a globular cluster. They transfer energy to passing stars and so can strongly influence the cluster evolution, enough to delay, halt, and even reverse core collapse. Hard binaries are known to exist in cluster cores, e.g., in the form of millisecond pulsars (about half of the millisecond pulsars observed in 47 Tucanae are such hard binaries). The presence of hard binaries may also be revealed by searching for the by-products of close encounters: high- velocity stars, such as those discovered in the core of 47 Tuc by Meylan et al. (1991) and Gebhardt et al. (1995). These studies represent the limit of the radial velocity data which can be obtained from the ground. If more progress is to be made, it must come through obtaining proper motions--a task for which {ital only} the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is suitable. We are using WFPC2 to obtain deep U (F300W) images of the core of 47 Tuc at three different epochs over two years, with which we will measure differential proper motions to a 1-{sigma} limit of 0.23 mas/yr. This--rather conservative--estimate corresponds to a 5-{sigma} detection of all stars with tangential velocities greater than 22 km s{sup -1}. By using the F300W filter we can measure stars over the whole color-magnitude diagram, from the red-giant branch to well down the main sequence. Such a complete census will provide unique constraints as a function of the stellar mass on relaxation processes, collision and ejection rates, and the velocity distribution. Here we report on the first-epoch (Cycle 5) observations of this project. Although no proper motions are available yet, some preliminary by-product results are presented. These include luminosity functions and color-magnitude diagrams for the core of 47 Tuc and the light curves of variable blue straggler stars and of a candidate X-ray source. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Present-day Galactic Evolution: Low-metallicity, Warm, Ionized Gas Inflow Associated with High-velocity Cloud Complex A (United States)

    Barger, K. A.; Haffner, L. M.; Wakker, B. P.; Hill, Alex. S.; Madsen, G. J.; Duncan, A. K.


    The high-velocity cloud Complex A is a probe of the physical conditions in the Galactic halo. The kinematics, morphology, distance, and metallicity of Complex A indicate that it represents new material that is accreting onto the Galaxy. We present Wisconsin Hα Mapper kinematically resolved observations of Complex A over the velocity range of -250 to -50 km s-1 in the local standard of rest reference frame. These observations include the first full Hα intensity map of Complex A across (\\mathit {l, b}) = (124{^\\circ }, 18{^\\circ }) to (171°, 53°) and deep targeted observations in Hα, [S II] λ6716, [N II] λ6584, and [O I] λ6300 toward regions with high H I column densities, background quasars, and stars. The Hα data imply that the masses of neutral and ionized material in the cloud are similar, both being greater than 106 M ⊙. We find that the Bland-Hawthorn & Maloney model for the intensity of the ionizing radiation near the Milky Way is consistent with the known distance of the high-latitude part of Complex A and an assumed cloud geometry that puts the lower-latitude parts of the cloud at a distance of 7-8 kpc. This compatibility implies a 5% ionizing photon escape fraction from the Galactic disk. We also provide the nitrogen and sulfur upper abundance solutions for a series of temperatures, metallicities, and cloud configurations for purely photoionized gas; these solutions are consistent with the sub-solar abundances found by previous studies, especially for temperatures above 104 K or for gas with a high fraction of singly ionized nitrogen and sulfur.

  16. High velocity proton collision with liquid lithium: a time dependent density functional theory study. (United States)

    Bi, Gang; Kang, Jun; Wang, Lin-Wang


    Liquid lithium is often used as a coating material in fusion reaction chambers, where it is under constant bombardment from high speed neutrons and protons. However, numerous fundamental questions are unanswered, for example whether a single proton impact can cause Li atom sputtering, and what is the electron excitation energy profile after a collision particularly for extremely high energy projectiles. Herein, we use a real-time dependent density functional method to study these questions for proton energies in the range of 30 eV to 1 MeV. The calculated stopping power agrees well with experiment, and it is found that the stopping power cannot be described by the single electron exciting spectrum based on the adiabatic eigen energies, and Li atom sputtering is not observed within our simulation time.

  17. NEID: A High Precision Radial Velocity Spectrograph for the WIYN 3.5-m Telescope (United States)

    Allen, Lori E.; Wright, Jason; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Santoro, Fernando; Liang, Ming; Timmerman, Erik; Christensen, Robert; Hunting, Emily; Wolf, Marsha; Jaehnig, Kurt; Percival, Jeffrey; Smith, Michael; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Hearty, Fred; Bender, Chad; Blake, Cullen; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Akeson, Rachel; Capps, Richard W.; Callas, John; Willems, Phillip A.; McElwain, Michael; McElwain, Michael W.; Basten, Fabienne; Monson, Andy; Stefansson, Gudmundur; Ramsey, Larry; Ninan, Joe; Blakeslee, Scott; Kaplan, Kyle; Halverson, Sam; Roy, Arpita; Terrien, Ryan; Robertson, Paul; Schwab, Christian; Rud, Mayer; Kanodia, Shubham


    NEID will be an ultra-stable optical high resolution echelle spectrograph on the 3.5 WIYN telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory, with a design goal of NASA initiative (NN-EXPLORE) to support ground-based Doppler velocimetry of nearby stars for the detection and characterization of rocky exoplanets around nearby stars. Here we describe the instrument's design, construction and commissioning schedule, capabilities, and future opportunities to apply for public time on this flagship Doppler instrument.

  18. High-Speed Resistance Training Modifies Load-Velocity and Load-Power Relationships in Parkinson's Disease. (United States)

    Ni, Meng; Signorile, Joseph F


    Muscle power is a major neuromuscular factor affecting motor function and independence in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and it is commonly targeted using high-speed exercise. This study examined the changes in velocities (Vpp) and percent loads (%1RMpp) at peak power and load-velocity (L-V) and load-power (L-P) relationships, resulting from resistance training because of exercise choice and loading in older patients with PD. Fourteen older adults with mild to moderate PD participated in a 12-week randomized controlled power training trial. Changes in L-V and L-P relationships for the biceps curl, chest press, leg press, hip abduction, and seated calf were assessed using pneumatic resistance machines at loads ranging from 30 through 90% of subjects' 1 repetition maximum for each exercise. Significant increases in Vpp were seen for biceps curl, leg press, hip abduction, and seated calf and decreases in %1RMpp were noted for biceps curl and hip abduction. Additionally, unique patterns of change were seen in these relationships across exercises, with biceps curl, chest press, and leg press showing the greatest shifts at the lower load end of the loading spectrum, and hip abduction and seated calf showing greatest responses at the higher end. The patterns of change in L-V and L-P relationships provide evidence for the unique responses of the specific muscle groups and joints to the exercises evaluated and offer a framework for more exacting exercise prescriptions in patients with PD.

  19. Comparison of velocity measurements by high temperature anemometer and laser-doppler anemometer with results of CFD-simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmel M.


    Full Text Available In the present work, results of gas velocity measurements with a newly developed vane anemometer (HTA - High Tem per a ture Anemometer are compared with re sults of measurements obtained from Laser-Doppler Anemometer (LDA. The measurements were carried out at the combustion test rig of ALSTOM Combustion Services Ltd. in Derby/UK, and demonstrate the usability and accuracy of the HTA under severe conditions. The test rig was provided with a triple register low NOx coal burner firing pulverised Colombian blended coal at a constant thermal load of 30 MW. Although the environment was both very hot (up to 1350 °C and dust laden, the vane anemometer worked with an accuracy comparable to the reference LDA measurement. Since the anemometer represents a relatively simple to use and low cost option compared with LDA, it is seen as aviable alternative for gas velocity measurements in difficult environments. The measurement results are also demonstrated to compare favourably with the results from CFD calculations of the flow in the combustion chamber of the test rig.

  20. Dark Matter Profiles in Dwarf Galaxies: A Statistical Sample Using High-Resolution Hα Velocity Fields from PCWI (United States)

    Relatores, Nicole C.; Newman, Andrew B.; Simon, Joshua D.; Ellis, Richard; Truong, Phuongmai N.; Blitz, Leo


    We present high quality Hα velocity fields for a sample of nearby dwarf galaxies (log M/M⊙ = 8.4-9.8) obtained as part of the Dark Matter in Dwarf Galaxies survey. The purpose of the survey is to investigate the cusp-core discrepancy by quantifying the variation of the inner slope of the dark matter distributions of 26 dwarf galaxies, which were selected as likely to have regular kinematics. The data were obtained with the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager, located on the Hale 5m telescope. We extract rotation curves from the velocity fields and use optical and infrared photometry to model the stellar mass distribution. We model the total mass distribution as the sum of a generalized Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo along with the stellar and gaseous components. We present the distribution of inner dark matter density profile slopes derived from this analysis. For a subset of galaxies, we compare our results to an independent analysis based on CO observations. In future work, we will compare the scatter in inner density slopes, as well as their correlations with galaxy properties, to theoretical predictions for dark matter core creation via supernovae feedback.

  1. Simultaneous high-pressure high-temperature elastic velocity measurement system up to 27 GPa and 1873 K using ultrasonic and synchrotron X-ray techniques (United States)

    Higo, Yuji; Irifune, Tetsuo; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi


    A new pulse-echo interferometry system has been developed for measurements of sound velocity at simultaneous high pressure and temperature corresponding to those of the Earth's lower mantle, using synchrotron X-ray techniques at SPring-8. A combination of a low-noise high-frequency amplifier and a high-speed solid-state relay system allowed us to clearly detect the ultrasonic echoes of a small sample (<1.0 mm in diameter and length) in multi-anvil apparatus. A new high-pressure cell has also been introduced for precise measurement of the length of the tiny sample by X-ray radiography imaging under very high pressure and temperature. The new system was tested by measuring elastic velocities of α-Al2O3 over wide pressure and temperature ranges of up to 27 GPa and 1873 K, respectively. The resultant adiabatic bulk modulus, shear modulus, and pressure and temperature derivatives of α-Al2O3 are K0S = 251.2 (18) GPa, ∂ KS/∂ P = 4.21 (10), ∂ KS/∂ T = -0.025 (1), G = 164.1 (7), ∂ G/∂ P = 1.59 (3), ∂ G/∂ T = -0.021 (1). These values are consistent with those previously reported based on experiments at high temperatures at ambient pressure and high pressures at room temperature. The present system allows precise measurements of the elastic velocities of minerals under the pressures and temperatures corresponding to the lower mantle for the first time, which should greatly contribute to our understanding of mineralogy of the whole mantle.

  2. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature. (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle


    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4 · 7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  3. Preparation and high-performance microwave absorption of hierarchical dendrite-like Co superstructures self-assembly of nanoflakes (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Wang, Lirui; Yang, Pingan; Fu, Jie


    Dendritic-like Co superstructures based on the self-assembly of nanoflakes that could efficiently suppress the eddy current were successfully synthesized via a facile, rapid, and energy-saving chemical reduction method. Since crystal structure, size, and special geometrical morphology, magnetism have a vital influence on microwave absorption properties, the as-obtained products were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, and vector network analysis. The prepared dendritic Co possesses abundant secondary branches that extend to the 3D space. Their dimensions, spacing, sheet-like blocks, and high-ordering microstructures all contribute to the penetration, scattering, and attenuation of EM waves. The composites present attractive microwave absorption performances in the X band, as well as in the whole S band (2–4 GHz). This work investigates the mechanism of absorption for the as-obtained Co, offers a promising strategy for the fabrication of hierarchical Co microstructure assemblies by multi-leaf flakes and introduces the application of dendritic-like Co as a highly efficient absorber in the S band and X band.

  4. Seasonal variations in the incidence of auroral radio absorption events at very high latitude, and the influence of the magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hargreaves


    Full Text Available A statistical analysis has been made of the incidence of auroral radio absorption events at South Pole, and of its dependence on basic geophysical parameters such as season, time of day, and magnetic activity level. It is found that at low and moderate levels of activity the incidence of events in the winter season is at least twice that in the summer. However, at high activity no events at all occurred during the local summer night, which appears to be explicable as the effect of the magnetotail and the consequent distortion of the magnetosphere when the southern polar region is tilted strongly towards the Sun. Previous results from even higher latitudes show the effect in an even more exaggerated form, in that both the day and night periods of absorption activity exhibit strong seasonal variations.

  5. Electromagnetic Absorbers based on High-Impedance Surfaces: From ultra-narrowband to ultra-wideband absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Costa


    Full Text Available Different electrically-thin absorbing designs based on  High-Impedance Surfaces (HIS are presented and classified on the basis of the nature of loss. HIS structures allow achieving absorption by exploiting either dielectric or ohmic (resistive losses. The former ultra-narrowband absorption phenomenon can be obtained by employing dielectric losses of commercial substrates. The resonant structure, often referred to as Perfect Metamaterial Absorber, usually comprises a metallic frequency selective surfaces located above a ultra-thin grounded dielectric substrate. The metamaterial absorber is also angularly stable because of its reduced thickness. Alternatively, if a loss component is introduced in the frequency selective surface located in front of the grounded dielectric substrate both narrowband and wideband absorbing structures can be designed.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of a high temperature triple absorption heat transformer. (United States)

    Khamooshi, Mehrdad; Parham, Kiyan; Yari, Mortaza; Egelioglu, Fuat; Salati, Hana; Babadi, Saeed


    First law of thermodynamics has been used to analyze and optimize inclusively the performance of a triple absorption heat transformer operating with LiBr/H2O as the working pair. A thermodynamic model was developed in EES (engineering equation solver) to estimate the performance of the system in terms of the most essential parameters. The assumed parameters are the temperature of the main components, weak and strong solutions, economizers' efficiencies, and bypass ratios. The whole cycle is optimized by EES software from the viewpoint of maximizing the COP via applying the direct search method. The optimization results showed that the COP of 0.2491 is reachable by the proposed cycle.

  7. Monitoring Temperature in High Enthalpy Arc-heated Plasma Flows using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (United States)

    Martin, Marcel Nations; Chang, Leyen S.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Nawaz, Anuscheh; Taunk, Jaswinder S.; Driver, David M.; Raiche, George


    A tunable diode laser sensor was designed for in situ monitoring of temperature in the arc heater of the NASA Ames IHF arcjet facility (60 MW). An external cavity diode laser was used to generate light at 777.2 nm and laser absorption used to monitor the population of electronically excited oxygen atoms in an air plasma flow. Under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, time-resolved temperature measurements were obtained on four lines-of-sight, which enabled evaluation of the temperature uniformity in the plasma column for different arcjet operating conditions.

  8. Hot corrosion of TD nickel and TD nickel chromium in a high velocity gas stream. (United States)

    Sanders, W. A.; Probst, H. B.


    Results of cyclical tests of TD nickel (2% thoria-dispersed nickel) and TD nickel chromium (2% thoria-dispersed nickel-20% chromium alloy) 1.5 mm (60 mil) sheet specimens for susceptibility to hot corrosion in a Mach 0.5 gas stream of Jet A-1 fuel combustion products containing 2 ppm sea salt. Tests as long as 500 one-hour cycles between room temperature and specimen hot zone temperatures of 899 C (1650 F), 982 C (1800 F), and 1149 C (2100 F) were performed. Evidence of hot corrosion was found for both materials in the 899 C (1650 F) and 982 C (1800 F) tests, but not at 1149 C (2100 F). It was concluded that because of high metal thickness losses neither alloy in sheet form is suitable for long-time engine application in a hot corrosion environment at temperatures of 982 C (1800 F) or above.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Air Staged Mechanism Effect in a High Velocity Burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo A. Herrera-Múnera


    Full Text Available In this work, staged air combustion in a high speed burner was analyzed by mean of numerical simulation in order to determine its effects on temperature distribution and pollutant chemical species formation such as CO and NOx. The simulations were achieved using the commercial software ANSYS FLUENT as a design tool to predict the behavior of the thermal system and to establish operation conditions with or without staged air. Eddy Dissipation model was used for combustion simulation, while k - ε Realizable and Discrete Ordinates models were utilized for turbulence and radiation simulation, respectively. Results show that staged air mechanism allows better flame stabilization, combustion reactions initiation and fuel-air mixing. The CO formation was different in reaction zone and NOx emissions were not significantly influenced by the staged air.

  10. High-quality electromagnetically-induced absorption resonances in a buffer-gas-filled vapour cell (United States)

    Brazhnikov, D. V.; Ignatovich, S. M.; Vishnyakov, V. I.; Skvortsov, M. N.; Andreeva, Ch; Entin, V. M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.


    Magneto-optical subnatural-linewidth resonances of electromagnetically-induced absorption (EIA) in an alkali vapour cell have been experimentally studied. The observation configuration includes using two counter-propagating pumps and probe light waves with mutually orthogonal linear polarizations, exciting an open optical transition in the 87Rb D 1 line in the presence of argon buffer gas. The EIA signals registered in a probe-wave transmission reach an unprecedented contrast of about 135% with respect to the wide ‘Doppler’ absorption pedestal and 29% with respect to the level of background transmission signal. These contrast values correspond to a relatively small resonance full width at half maximum of about 7.2 mG (5.2 kHz). The width of the narrowest EIA resonance observed is about 2.1 mG (1.5 kHz). To our knowledge, such a large relative contrast at the kHz-width is the record result for EIA resonances. In general, the work has experimentally proved that the magneto-optical scheme used has very good prospects for various quantum technologies (quantum sensors of weak magnetic fields, optical switches and other photonic elements).

  11. A High Order Element Based Method for the Simulation of Velocity Damping in the Hyporheic Zone of a High Mountain River (United States)

    Preziosi-Ribero, Antonio; Peñaloza-Giraldo, Jorge; Escobar-Vargas, Jorge; Donado-Garzón, Leonardo


    Groundwater - Surface water interaction is a topic that has gained relevance among the scientific community over the past decades. However, several questions remain unsolved inside this topic, and almost all the research that has been done in the past regards the transport phenomena and has little to do with understanding the dynamics of the flow patterns of the above mentioned interactions. The aim of this research is to verify the attenuation of the water velocity that comes from the free surface and enters the porous media under the bed of a high mountain river. The understanding of this process is a key feature in order to characterize and quantify the interactions between groundwater and surface water. However, the lack of information and the difficulties that arise when measuring groundwater flows under streams make the physical quantification non reliable for scientific purposes. These issues suggest that numerical simulations and in-stream velocity measurements can be used in order to characterize these flows. Previous studies have simulated the attenuation of a sinusoidal pulse of vertical velocity that comes from a stream and goes into a porous medium. These studies used the Burgers equation and the 1-D Navier-Stokes equations as governing equations. However, the boundary conditions of the problem, and the results when varying the different parameters of the equations show that the understanding of the process is not complete yet. To begin with, a Spectral Multi Domain Penalty Method (SMPM) was proposed for quantifying the velocity damping solving the Navier - Stokes equations in 1D. The main assumptions are incompressibility and a hydrostatic approximation for the pressure distributions. This method was tested with theoretical signals that are mainly trigonometric pulses or functions. Afterwards, in order to test the results with real signals, velocity profiles were captured near the Gualí River bed (Honda, Colombia), with an Acoustic Doppler

  12. High chronic training loads and exposure to bouts of maximal velocity running reduce injury risk in elite Gaelic football. (United States)

    Malone, Shane; Roe, Mark; Doran, Dominic A; Gabbett, Tim J; Collins, Kieran


    To examine the relationship between chronic training loads, number of exposures to maximal velocity, the distance covered at maximal velocity, percentage of maximal velocity in training and match-play and subsequent injury risk in elite Gaelic footballers. Prospective cohort design. Thirty-seven elite Gaelic footballers from one elite squad were involved in a one-season study. Training and game loads (session-RPE multiplied by duration in min) were recorded in conjunction with external match and training loads (using global positioning system technology) to measure the distance covered at maximal velocity, relative maximal velocity and the number of player exposures to maximal velocity across weekly periods during the season. Lower limb injuries were also recorded. Training load and GPS data were modelled against injury data using logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated based on chronic training load status, relative maximal velocity and number of exposures to maximal velocity with these reported against the lowest reference group for these variables. Players who produced over 95% maximal velocity on at least one occasion within training environments had lower risk of injury compared to the reference group of 85% maximal velocity on at least one occasion (OR: 0.12, p=0.001). Higher chronic training loads (≥4750AU) allowed players to tolerate increased distances (between 90 to 120m) and exposures to maximal velocity (between 10 to 15 exposures), with these exposures having a protective effect compared to lower exposures (OR: 0.22 p=0.026) and distance (OR=0.23, p=0.055). Players who had higher chronic training loads (≥4750AU) tolerated increased distances and exposures to maximal velocity when compared to players exposed to low chronic training loads (≤4750AU). Under- and over-exposure of players to maximal velocity events (represented by a U-shaped curve) increased the risk of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by

  13. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH-LM). High-velocity H2O bullets in L1448-MM observed with HIFI (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Tafalla, M.; Bachiller, R.; Nisini, B.; Liseau, R.; Yıldız, U. A.


    Herschel-HIFI observations of water in the low-mass star-forming object L1448-MM, known for its prominent outflow, are presented, as obtained within the "Water in star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) key programme. Six H216O lines are targeted and detected (Eup/kB ~ 50-250 K), as is CO J = 10-9 (Eup/kB ~ 305 K), and tentatively H218O 110-101 at 548 GHz. All lines show strong emission in the "bullets" at |3| > 50 km s-1 from the source velocity, in addition to a broad, central component and narrow absorption. The bullets are seen much more prominently in H2O than in CO with respect to the central component, and show little variation with excitation in H2O profile shape. Excitation conditions in the bullets derived from CO lines imply a temperature >150 K and density >105 cm-3, similar to that of the broad component. The H2O/CO abundance ratio is similar in the "bullets" and the broad component, ~0.05-1.0, in spite of their different origins in the molecular jet and the interaction between the outflow and the envelope. The high H2O abundance indicates that the bullets are H2 rich. The H2O cooling in the "bullets" and the broad component is similar and higher than the CO cooling in the same components. These data illustrate the power of Herschel-HIFI to disentangle different dynamical components in low-mass star-forming objects and determine their excitation and chemical conditions. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices and Tables 2 and 3 are available in electronic form at

  14. Thermal and force loads on the vehicle surface in high-velocity motion in the earth's atmosphere (United States)

    Tarnavskii, G. A.


    Consideration has been given to a number of aspects of mathematical modeling of a high-velocity flight in the earth’s atmosphere in a wide range of variation of the determining parameters. Super-and hypersonic gas flow past flying vehicles has been investigated based on computer-aided calculations with allowance for its actual properties. Data on the distribution of gasdynamic parameters in the flow field, including thermal and force loads on the surface, have been obtained and analyzed. The issues of applying today’s information technologies to archiving scientific knowledge obtained in electronic databases of a specialized Internet center and their dissemination via the Global Network have been discussed.

  15. Study of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution (United States)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Ushakov, M. V.; Senthilkumar, B.; Selvan, R. Kalai; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Felner, I.; Semionkin, V. A.


    The nanocrystalline NiFe2O4 particles prepared by solution combustion synthesis technique using different fuels such as ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (NA sample) and urea (NB sample) were studied using magnetic measurement and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. The temperature dependence of magnetization is different for the two samples. Mössbauer spectra demonstrate the necessity to use more than two magnetic sextets, usually used to fit the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles spectra. Evaluation of the different local microenvironments for Fe in both tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites, caused by different Ni2 + occupation of octahedral sites, demonstrates at least five different local microenvironments for both A and B sites. Therefore, the Mössbauer spectra were fitted by using ten magnetic sextets which are related to the spread 57Fe location in octahedral and tetrahedral sites.

  16. Characterization of Copper Coatings Deposited by High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spray for Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Applications (United States)

    Salimijazi, H. R.; Aghaee, M.; Salehi, M.; Garcia, E.


    Copper coatings were deposited on steel substrates by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying. The microstructure of the feedstock copper powders and free-standing coatings were evaluated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The x-ray diffraction pattern was utilized to determine phase compositions of powders and coatings. Oxygen content was determined by a LECO-T300 oxygen determiner. The thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured in two directions, through-thickness and in-plane by laser flash apparatus. The electrical resistivity of the coatings was measured by the four-point probe method. Oxygen content of the coatings was two times higher than that of the initial powders (0.35-0.37%). The thermal and electrical conductivities of the coatings were different depending on the direction of the measurement. The thermal and electrical conductivity of the coatings improved after annealing for 6 h at a temperature of 600°C.

  17. Neuromuscular contributions to the age-related reduction in muscle power: Mechanisms and potential role of high velocity power training. (United States)

    McKinnon, Neal B; Connelly, Denise M; Rice, Charles L; Hunter, Susan W; Doherty, Timothy J


    Although much of the literature on neuromuscular changes with aging has focused on loss of muscle mass and isometric strength, deficits in muscle power are more pronounced with aging and may be a more sensitive measure of neuromuscular degeneration. This review aims to identify the adaptations to the neuromuscular system with aging, with specific emphasis on changes that result in decreased muscle power. We discuss how these changes in neuromuscular performance can affect mobility, and ultimately contribute to an increased risk for falls in older adults. Finally, we evaluate the literature regarding high-velocity muscle power training (PT), and its potential advantages over conventional strength training for improving functional performance and mitigating fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High gas velocity oxidation and hot corrosion testing of oxide dispersion-strengthened nickel-base alloys (United States)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.


    Several oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) nickel-base alloys were tested in high velocity gases for cyclic oxidation resistance at temperatures to 1200 C and times to 500 hours and for hot corrosion resistance at 900 C for 200 hours. Nickel-chromium-aluminum ODS alloys were found to have superior resistance to oxidation and hot corrosion when compared to bare and coated nickel-chromium ODS alloys. The best of the alloys tested had compositions of nickel - 15.5 to 16 weight percent chromium with aluminum weight percents between 4.5 and 5.0. All of the nickel-chromium-aluminum ODS materials experienced small weight losses (less than 16 mg/sq cm).

  19. Statistical Study of High-Velocity Compact Clouds Based on the Complete CO Imagings of the Central Molecular Zone (United States)

    Tokuyama, Sekito; Oka, Tomoharu; Takekawa, Shunya; Yamada, Masaya; Iwata, Yuhei; Tsujimoto, Shiho


    High-velocity compact clouds (HVCCs) is one of the populations of peculiar clouds detected in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) of our Galaxy. They have compact appearances ( 50 km s-1). Several explanations for the origin of HVCC were proposed; e.g., a series of supernovae (SN) explosions (Oka et al. 1999) or a gravitational kick by a point-like gravitational source (Oka et al. 2016). To investigate the statistical property of HVCCs, a complete list of them is acutely necessary. However, the previous list is not complete since the identification procedure included automated processes and manual selection (Nagai 2008). Here we developed an automated procedure to identify HVCCs in a spectral line data.

  20. High increment of economy with modified absorption cooling process between 0 and -30 C; Effizienzsprung fuer die absorptive Kaelteerzeugung zwischen 0 und -30 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Hans [IFM Ingenieurbuero Dr.-Ing. H. Foerster, Magdeburg (Germany)


    With a new absorption cooling process for ammoniac-water as working substance it is able to use the heat off smokegas and at the same time the waste heat of motors for generation of chilling/freezing energy. The modified new process is very important for the economy in the decentralized energy-supply industry to utilization of waste heat. (orig.)

  1. Annealed FINEMET ribbons: Structure and magnetic anisotropy as revealed by the high velocity resolution Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M.I., E-mail: [Department of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Department of Experimental Physics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Klencsár, Z. [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Semionkin, V.A. [Department of Experimental Physics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Kuzmann, E.; Homonnay, Z. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest (Hungary); Varga, L.K. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)


    The high velocity resolution {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used in order to elucidate structural and compositional details of FINEMET (Fe{sub 73.5}Si{sub 15.5}Nb{sub 3}B{sub 7}Cu{sub 1}) alloys obtained via the annealing (with and without external magnetic field) of rapidly quenched ribbons. The analysis of the measured Mössbauer spectra was carried out, on one hand, by considering the possibility of a random distribution of iron atoms substituting Si at the D sites in the well crystallized DO{sub 3} Fe-Si phase, on the other hand, by allowing for an arbitrary-shape hyperfine magnetic field distribution for the case of the amorphous matrix. The results refer to the influence of the next-nearest-neighbor configurations on the magnitude of iron magnetic moments at the D sites in the precipitated nanocrystalline Fe-Si phase. The applied analysis method enables us to draw conclusions regarding the relative occurrence of the various iron microenvironments in the nanocrystalline phase and amorphous matrix, and the associated Si concentration of the precipitated nanocrystalline DO{sub 3} Fe-Si phase. The studied samples provide further evidence concerning the correlation between the induced magnetic anisotropy and the magnetic permeability in annealed FINEMET ribbons. - Highlights: • FINEMET ribbons annealed with and without external magnetic field. • Mössbauer spectra of FINEMET measured with a high velocity resolution. • Application of novel fit model for the FINEMET Mössbauer spectra.

  2. High-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires for effective microwave absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Bo


    In the current report, we have demonstrated that the high-efficient production of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires can be achieved through the introduction of trace of water vapor during the chemical vapor deposition process. The yield of the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires is dramatically improved due to the introduction of water vapor. The SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires exhibit an excellent microwave absorption property in the frequency range of 2.0–18.0GHz with a very low weight percentage of 0.50wt.% in the absorbers. A minimum reflection loss value of −32.72dB (>99.99% attenuation) at 13.84GHz has been observed with the absorber thickness of 3.0mm. Moreover, the SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires based absorber can reach an effective absorption bandwidth (<−10dB) of 5.32GHz with the absorber thickness of 3.5mm. Furthermore, a possible absorption mechanism is also proposed in detail for such effective attenuation of microwave which can be attributed to the dielectric loss and magnetic loss of SiC/SiO2 core-shell nanowires.

  3. Measurement of the Hg distribution in a high-pressure arc lamp by x-ray absorption (United States)

    Curry, J. J.; Sakai, M.; Lawler, J. E.


    We have used an x-ray absorption technique to measure the distribution of Hg atoms in a pure-Hg high-pressure arc lamp. The x rays are obtained from a molybdenum-anode x-ray tube at an accelerating potential of 25.3 kV. The spectral distribution of x rays which produce the absorption signal consists mainly of the Mo Kα and Kβ fluorescence peaks at 17.5 and 19.6 keV, respectively. Plane-wave illumination of the lamp and two-dimensional detection of the transmitted x rays allow us to probe the Hg atom density in all regions of the lamp, simultaneously, with a spatial resolution of 170 μm. A complete two-dimensional map of the density is obtained by Abel inversion of the absorption data. This map extends all the way out to the arc-envelope boundary and includes the cold regions of the discharge behind the electrodes. A temperature map of the discharge is obtained by combining the density information with an optical emission measurement of the core temperature at a single axial location.

  4. Feature of high velocity oxygen-fuel flame spraying; Kosoku flame yoshaho no tokucho to sono oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Y.; Sakaki, K. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A description is given about the high velocity flame spraying method. In this method, fuel and oxygen under high pressure are supplied to a spraying gun, a supersonic stream of flame is jetted out of a fine nozzle, and spray particles are injected into the flame to impinge on the substrate surface at a very high speed for the formation of a coating. This method is advantageous in that the spray particles are higher in flying speed than in other spraying methods, that the produced coating is dense and close and excellent in adhesion, that the flame temperature is relatively low, and that the spray material is suppressed in terms of phase transformation, oxidation, and decomposition. This spraying technique is disadvantageous in that the spray materials that it can use are limited in variety because this method meets difficulties in spraying upon high melting-point metal or ceramics. This paper also outlines the spraying devices (chamber combustion type and throat combustion type) and the characteristics of produced coatings, and spray materials and their application (centering about carbide thermit spraying) are mentioned. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. [Measurements of CO2 concentration at high temperature and pressure environments using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Cai, Ting-Dong; Gao, Guang-Zhen; Wang, Min-Rui; Wang, Gui-Shi; Gao, Xiao-Ming


    The present research was planned to develop a method for species concentration measurements under high temperature and pressure environments. The characteristics of CO2 spectrum at high temperature and pressure were studied at first. Based on the research above, tunable diode-laser absorption of CO2 near 2.0 microm incorporating fixed-wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection was used to provide a method for sensitive and accurate measurements of gas temperature and CO2 concentration at high temperature and pressure. Measurements were performed in a well-controlled high temperature and pressure static cell. The results show that the average error of the CO2 concentration measurements at 5 atm, 500 K and 10 atm, 1000 K is 4. 49%. All measurements show the accuracy and potential utility of the method for high temperature and pressure diagnostics.

  6. Elementary reaction rate measurements at high temperatures by tunable-laser flash-absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessler, J.P. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)


    The major objective of this program is to measure thermal rate coefficients and branching ratios of elementary reactions. To perform these measurements, the authors constructed an ultrahigh-purity shock tube to generate temperatures between 1000 and 5500 K. The tunable-laser flash-absorption technique is used to measure the rate of change of the concentration of species which absorb below 50,000 cm{sup {minus}1} e.g.: OH, CH, and CH{sub 3}. This technique is being extended into the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral region where one can measure atomic species e.g.: H, D, C, O, and N; and diatomic species e.g.: O{sub 2}, CO, and OH.

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization of a High Temperature Triple Absorption Heat Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khamooshi


    Full Text Available First law of thermodynamics has been used to analyze and optimize inclusively the performance of a triple absorption heat transformer operating with LiBr/H2O as the working pair. A thermodynamic model was developed in EES (engineering equation solver to estimate the performance of the system in terms of the most essential parameters. The assumed parameters are the temperature of the main components, weak and strong solutions, economizers’ efficiencies, and bypass ratios. The whole cycle is optimized by EES software from the viewpoint of maximizing the COP via applying the direct search method. The optimization results showed that the COP of 0.2491 is reachable by the proposed cycle.

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization of a High Temperature Triple Absorption Heat Transformer (United States)

    Khamooshi, Mehrdad; Yari, Mortaza; Egelioglu, Fuat; Salati, Hana


    First law of thermodynamics has been used to analyze and optimize inclusively the performance of a triple absorption heat transformer operating with LiBr/H2O as the working pair. A thermodynamic model was developed in EES (engineering equation solver) to estimate the performance of the system in terms of the most essential parameters. The assumed parameters are the temperature of the main components, weak and strong solutions, economizers' efficiencies, and bypass ratios. The whole cycle is optimized by EES software from the viewpoint of maximizing the COP via applying the direct search method. The optimization results showed that the COP of 0.2491 is reachable by the proposed cycle. PMID:25136702

  9. Prediction of the consequences of a high-velocity collision between meteoric particles and elements of a titanium alloy protective structure (United States)

    Ishchenko, A. N.; Afanas'eva, S. A.; Burkin, V. V.; Dudarev, E. F.; Rogaev, K. S.; Tabachenko, A. N.; Khabibullin, M. V.


    Calculation-experimental studies of a high-velocity collision between VT1-0 titanium plates and ultrafine- and coarse-grained structures with a steel spherical impactor are illustrated. Fine-grained VT1-0 titanium plate samples have been obtained using the abc pressing method. Ballistic measurements have been performed using a 30-mm smooth-bore ballistic installation at velocities of about 2500 m/s. A high-velocity collision has been calculated in the scope of an elastoplastic model of interacting materials with regard to destruction and a different phase state at velocities reaching 15 km/s. It has been indicated that the mechanical properties of the VT1-0 alloy are improved when proceeding from a coarse-grained structure to an ultrafine- grained structure; however, in this case, the result of shock loading is hardly affected in the considered velocity range. Titanium plates can be used as screens to protect the main structure of the aircraft from a high-velocity collision.

  10. Damage characterization of E-glass and C-glass fibre polymer composites after high velocity impact (United States)

    Razali, N.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Cardona, F.; Jawaid, M.


    The purpose of this work is to identify impact damage on glass fibre reinforced polymer composite structures after high velocity impact. In this research, Type C-glass (600 g/m2) and Type E-glass (600 g/m2) were used to fabricate Glass Fibre-Reinforced Polymer composites (GFRP) plates. The panels were fabricated using a vacuum bagging and hot bounder method. Single stage gas gun (SSGG) was used to do the testing and data acquisition system was used to collect the damage data. Different types of bullets and different pressure levels were used for the experiment. The obtained results showed that the C-glass type of GFRP experienced more damage in comparison to E-glass type of materials based on the amount of energy absorbed on impact and the size of the damage area. All specimens underwent a partial fibre breakage but the laminates were not fully penetrated by the bullets. This indicated that both types of materials have high impact resistance even though the applied pressures of the gas gun were on the high range. We concluded that within the material specifications of the laminates including the type of glass fibre reinforcement and the thickness of the panels, those composite materials are safe to be applied in structural and body armour applications as an alternative to more expensive materials such as Kevlar and type S-glass fibre based panels.

  11. Analysis of Antibody Aggregate Content at Extremely High Concentrations Using Sedimentation Velocity with a Novel Interference Optics (United States)

    Schilling, Kristian; Krause, Frank


    Monoclonal antibodies represent the most important group of protein-based biopharmaceuticals. During formulation, manufacturing, or storage, antibodies may suffer post-translational modifications altering their physical and chemical properties. Such induced conformational changes may lead to the formation of aggregates, which can not only reduce their efficiency but also be immunogenic. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the amount of size variants to ensure consistency and quality of pharmaceutical antibodies. In many cases, antibodies are formulated at very high concentrations > 50 g/L, mostly along with high amounts of sugar-based excipients. As a consequence, all routine aggregation analysis methods, such as size-exclusion chromatography, cannot monitor the size distribution at those original conditions, but only after dilution and usually under completely different solvent conditions. In contrast, sedimentation velocity (SV) allows to analyze samples directly in the product formulation, both with limited sample-matrix interactions and minimal dilution. One prerequisite for the analysis of highly concentrated samples is the detection of steep concentration gradients with sufficient resolution: Commercially available ultracentrifuges are not able to resolve such steep interference profiles. With the development of our Advanced Interference Detection Array (AIDA), it has become possible to register interferograms of solutions as highly concentrated as 150 g/L. The other major difficulty encountered at high protein concentrations is the pronounced non-ideal sedimentation behavior resulting from repulsive intermolecular interactions, for which a comprehensive theoretical modelling has not yet been achieved. Here, we report the first SV analysis of highly concentrated antibodies up to 147 g/L employing the unique AIDA ultracentrifuge. By developing a consistent experimental design and data fit approach, we were able to provide a reliable estimation of the minimum

  12. Analysis of antibody aggregate content at extremely high concentrations using sedimentation velocity with a novel interference optics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Schilling

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies represent the most important group of protein-based biopharmaceuticals. During formulation, manufacturing, or storage, antibodies may suffer post-translational modifications altering their physical and chemical properties. Such induced conformational changes may lead to the formation of aggregates, which can not only reduce their efficiency but also be immunogenic. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the amount of size variants to ensure consistency and quality of pharmaceutical antibodies. In many cases, antibodies are formulated at very high concentrations > 50 g/L, mostly along with high amounts of sugar-based excipients. As a consequence, all routine aggregation analysis methods, such as size-exclusion chromatography, cannot monitor the size distribution at those original conditions, but only after dilution and usually under completely different solvent conditions. In contrast, sedimentation velocity (SV allows to analyze samples directly in the product formulation, both with limited sample-matrix interactions and minimal dilution. One prerequisite for the analysis of highly concentrated samples is the detection of steep concentration gradients with sufficient resolution: Commercially available ultracentrifuges are not able to resolve such steep interference profiles. With the development of our Advanced Interference Detection Array (AIDA, it has become possible to register interferograms of solutions as highly concentrated as 150 g/L. The other major difficulty encountered at high protein concentrations is the pronounced non-ideal sedimentation behavior resulting from repulsive intermolecular interactions, for which a comprehensive theoretical modelling has not yet been achieved. Here, we report the first SV analysis of highly concentrated antibodies up to 147 g/L employing the unique AIDA ultracentrifuge. By developing a consistent experimental design and data fit approach, we were able to provide a reliable

  13. Using high-resolution laboratory and ground-based solar spectra to assess CH4 absorption coefficient calculations (United States)

    Mendonca, J.; Strong, K.; Sung, K.; Devi, V. M.; Toon, G. C.; Wunch, D.; Franklin, J. E.


    A quadratic-speed-dependent Voigt line shape (qSDV) with line mixing (qSDV+LM), together with spectroscopic line parameters from Devi et al. [1,2] for the 2v3 band of CH4, was used to retrieve total columns of CH4 from atmospheric solar absorption spectra. The qSDV line shape (Tran et al., 2013) [3] with line mixing (Lévy et al., 1992) [4] was implemented into the forward model of GFIT (the retrieval algorithm that is at the heart of the GGG software (Wunch et al., 2015) [5]) to calculate CH4 absorption coefficients. High-resolution laboratory spectra of CH4 were used to assess absorption coefficients calculated using a Voigt line shape and spectroscopic parameters from the atm line list (Toon, 2014) [6]. The same laboratory spectra were used to test absorption coefficients calculated using the qSDV+LM line shape with spectroscopic line parameters from Devi et al. [1,2] for the 2v3 band of CH4 and a Voigt line shape for lines that don't belong to the 2v3 band. The spectral line list for lines that don't belong to the 2v3 band is an amalgamation of multiple spectral line lists. We found that for the P, Q, and R branches of the 2v3 band, the qSDV+LM simulated the laboratory spectra better than the Voigt line shape. The qSDV+LM was also used in the spectral fitting of high-resolution solar absorption spectra from four ground-based remote sensing sites and compared to spectra fitted with a Voigt line shape. The average root mean square (RMS) residual for 131,124 solar absorption spectra fitted with absorption coefficients calculated using the qSDV+LM for the 2v3 band of CH4 and the new spectral line list for lines for lines that don't belong to the 2v3 band, was reduced in the P, Q, and R branches by 5%, 13%, and 3%, respectively when compared with spectra fitted using a Voigt line shape and the atm line list. We found that the average total column of CH4 retrieved from these 131,124 spectra, with the qSDV+LM was 1.1±0.3% higher than the retrievals performed using a

  14. X-ray Investigations of Quasars with XMM-Newton: Outflow Energetics and High- Redshift Intrinsic Absorption (United States)

    Brandt, William

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are among the most extreme physical environments in the Universe, and it now appears that feedback from AGN winds and jets plays a critical role in the evolution of typical massive galaxies and larger-scale structures. This proposal requests funding to support work on two XMM-Newton guest investigator projects that have already won competitive observing time to study quasars, the most luminous examples of AGNs. The first project is an approved XMM-Newton Large Program that won 350 ks of priority A observation time in AO-9. This project involves an ambitious long-look observation that will obtain the first high-quality grating spectroscopy of a mini-Broad Absorption Line (mini-BAL) quasar, with the aim of assessing the kinetic luminosity of its outflow (the target is PG 1114+445). Grating spectroscopy of a small sample of local Seyfert galaxies has led to highly regarded accurate determinations of their wind properties. The planned extension of grating spectroscopy to the first mini-BAL quasar level AGN will determine if the outflow becomes as powerful as proposed in current AGN feedback scenarios. The 375,000 count EPIC CCD spectra from this long-look will enable unprecedented complementary studies of high-energy absorption features and iron K emission. The data for this project will be gathered over the coming year starting in 2010 May. The second project is an investigation of X-ray absorption in the most-distant radio-loud quasars. Here we are extending our systematic X-ray studies of the most-distant known quasars with XMM-Newton spectroscopy of typical radio-loud quasars (RLQs) at z ~ 4- 5. Our targets are more representative of the overall RLQ population than the small number of highly radio-loud blazars studied at these redshifts. We will search for X-ray absorption in the quasars' environments to determine if it is common among typical RLQs at the highest redshifts. We will also measure X-ray continuum shapes and search for

  15. High coupling and high velocity surface acoustic waves using a c-axis oriented ZnO film on translucent Al2O3 ceramics (United States)

    Takeda, Fumio; Shiosaki, Tadashi; Kawabata, Akira


    The layered structure comprising a c-axis normally oriented ZnO piezoelectric film and a translucent Al2O3 ceramic substrate which has a high surface-acoustic-wave velocity and a small surface roughness has given both a high phase velocity Vp and a high coupling k2 for the 0th (Rayleigh) mode, 1st (Sezawa) mode, and leaky mode surface acoustic waves. The measured maximum values of k2 are 3.6% for the 0th mode at h/λ=0.45 where Vp is 3.2 km/s, 5.7% for the 1st mode at h/λ=0.21 where Vp is 5.6 km/s, and 6.7% for the leaky mode at h/λ=0.16 where Vp is 6.2 km/s, where the interdigital transducers are located at the interface in measuring the above values, and also electrically floating plane metals are on top of the ZnO film for the last two values.

  16. Highly-sensitive Eu3+ ratiometric thermometers based on excited state absorption with predictable calibration (United States)

    Souza, Adelmo S.; Nunes, Luiz A. O.; Silva, Ivan G. N.; Oliveira, Fernando A. M.; da Luz, Leonis L.; Brito, Hermi F.; Felinto, Maria C. F. C.; Ferreira, Rute A. S.; Júnior, Severino A.; Carlos, Luís D.; Malta, Oscar L.


    Temperature measurements ranging from a few degrees to a few hundreds of Kelvin are of great interest in the fields of nanomedicine and nanotechnology. Here, we report a new ratiometric luminescent thermometer using thermally excited state absorption of the Eu3+ ion. The thermometer is based on the simple Eu3+ energy level structure and can operate between 180 and 323 K with a relative sensitivity ranging from 0.7 to 1.7% K-1. The thermometric parameter is defined as the ratio between the emission intensities of the 5D0 --> 7F4 transition when the 5D0 emitting level is excited through the 7F2 (physiological range) or 7F1 (down to 180 K) level. Nano and microcrystals of Y2O3:Eu3+ were chosen as a proof of concept of the operational principles in which both excitation and detection are within the first biological transparent window. A novel and of paramount importance aspect is that the calibration factor can be calculated from the Eu3+ emission spectrum avoiding the need for new calibration procedures whenever the thermometer operates in different media.Temperature measurements ranging from a few degrees to a few hundreds of Kelvin are of great interest in the fields of nanomedicine and nanotechnology. Here, we report a new ratiometric luminescent thermometer using thermally excited state absorption of the Eu3+ ion. The thermometer is based on the simple Eu3+ energy level structure and can operate between 180 and 323 K with a relative sensitivity ranging from 0.7 to 1.7% K-1. The thermometric parameter is defined as the ratio between the emission intensities of the 5D0 --> 7F4 transition when the 5D0 emitting level is excited through the 7F2 (physiological range) or 7F1 (down to 180 K) level. Nano and microcrystals of Y2O3:Eu3+ were chosen as a proof of concept of the operational principles in which both excitation and detection are within the first biological transparent window. A novel and of paramount importance aspect is that the calibration factor can be

  17. High-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry - An analytical and diagnostic tool for trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welz, Bernhard [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40170-290 Salvador - BA (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis - SC (Brazil)], E-mail:; Borges, Daniel L.G.; Lepri, Fabio G. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis - SC (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre - RS (Brazil); Heitmann, Uwe [ISAS - Institute for Analytical Sciences, Department of Interface Spectroscopy, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany)


    The literature about applications of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS AAS) with electrothermal atomization is reviewed. The historic development of HR-CS AAS is briefly summarized and the main advantages of this technique, mainly the 'visibility' of the spectral environment around the analytical line at high resolution and the unequaled simultaneous background correction are discussed. Simultaneous multielement CS AAS has been realized only in a very limited number of cases. The direct analysis of solid samples appears to have gained a lot from the special features of HR-CS AAS, and the examples from the literature suggest that calibration can be carried out against aqueous standards. Low-temperature losses of nickel and vanadyl porphyrins could be detected and avoided in the analysis of crude oil due to the superior background correction system. The visibility of the spectral environment around the analytical line revealed that the absorbance signal measured for phosphorus at the 213.6 nm non-resonance line without a modifier is mostly due to the PO molecule, and not to atomic phosphorus. The future possibility to apply high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption for the determination of non-metals is discussed.

  18. High-Energy Resolution Fluorescence Detected X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: A Powerful New Structural Tool in Environmental Biogeochemistry Sciences. (United States)

    Proux, Olivier; Lahera, Eric; Del Net, William; Kieffer, Isabelle; Rovezzi, Mauro; Testemale, Denis; Irar, Mohammed; Thomas, Sara; Aguilar-Tapia, Antonio; Bazarkina, Elena F; Prat, Alain; Tella, Marie; Auffan, Mélanie; Rose, Jérôme; Hazemann, Jean-Louis


    The study of the speciation of highly diluted elements by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is extremely challenging, especially in environmental biogeochemistry sciences. Here we present an innovative synchrotron spectroscopy technique: high-energy resolution fluorescence detected XAS (HERFD-XAS). With this approach, measurement of the XAS signal in fluorescence mode using a crystal analyzer spectrometer with a ∼1-eV energy resolution helps to overcome restrictions on sample concentrations that can be typically measured with a solid-state detector. We briefly describe the method, from both an instrumental and spectroscopic point of view, and emphasize the effects of energy resolution on the XAS measurements. We then illustrate the positive impact of this technique in terms of detection limit with two examples dealing with Ce in ecologically relevant organisms and with Hg species in natural environments. The sharp and well-marked features of the HERFD-X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra obtained enable us to determine unambiguously and with greater precision the speciation of the probed elements. This is a major technological advance, with strong benefits for the study of highly diluted elements using XAS. It also opens new possibilities to explore the speciation of a target chemical element at natural concentration levels, which is critical in the fields of environmental and biogeochemistry sciences. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. High Precision Measurements of Line Mixing and Collisional Induced Absorption in the O_{2} A-Band (United States)

    Adkins, Erin M.; Ghysels, Mélanie; Long, David A.; Hodges, Joseph T.


    Molecular oxygen (O_{2}) has a well-known and uniform molar fraction within the Earth's atmosphere. Consequently, the O_{2} A-band is commonly used in satellite and remote sensing measurements (GOSAT, OCO-2, TCCON) to determine the surface pressure-pathlength product for transmittance measurements that involve light propagation through the atmospheric column. For these missions, physics-based spectroscopic models and experimentally determined line-by-line parameters are used to predict the temperature- and pressure-dependence of the absorption cross-section as a function of wave number, pressure, temperature and water vapor concentration. At present, there remain airmass-dependent biases in retrievals of CO_{2} which are linked to limitations in existing models of line mixing (LM) and collisional induced absorption (CIA). In order to better quantify these effects, we measured O_{2} A-band spectra with a frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FS-CRDS) system. Because of the high molar fraction of O_{2} in air samples, line cores and near wings of the dominant absorption transitions are heavily saturated, which makes it impossible to obtain continuous FS-CRDS spectra over the entire range of optical depth. Here, we focused on LM and CIA effects which dominate the valleys between strongly absorbing transitions. To this end, the FS-CRDS system employs a thresholding mechanism that avoids the optically thick regions and scans over the entire O_{2} A-band and beyond the band head region. This approach provides high signal-to-noise ratio spectra that can be fit to yield LM and CIA parameters. These results are intended to provide strong constraints on multispectrum fits of continuous and broadband Fourier-transform-spectroscopy based O_{2} A-band spectra. Long D.A and J.T. Hodges, J. Geophys. Res. 2012, 117: p. D12309.

  20. Structure and performance of anisotropic nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets fabricated by high-velocity compaction followed by deformation (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Deng, X. X.; Yu, H. Y.; Guan, H. J.; Li, X. Q.; Xiao, Z. Y.; Liu, Z. W.; Greneche, J. M.


    High-velocity compaction (HVC) has been proposed as an effective approach for the fabrication of nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets. In this work, the effect of powder size on the density of HVCed magnets has been studied and the anisotropic nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets were prepared by HVC followed by hot deformation (HD). It is found that a proper particle size range is beneficial to high density. The investigations on the microstructure, magnetic domain structure, and hyperfine structure, indicate that the deformed grain structure and the magnetic domain structure with uniform paramagnetic grain boundary phase give good magnetic properties of HVC + HDed magnets. These magnets also have good mechanical and anti-corrosion properties. The results indicate that HVC is not only a near-net-shape, room temperature and binder-free process but is also able to maintain uniform nanostructure and to achieve good magnetic properties in both isotropic and anisotropic magnets. As a result, HVC can be employed as an ideal alternative process for bonding or hot pressing for the conventional MQI, MQII and MQIII magnets.

  1. A compact single-camera system for high-speed, simultaneous 3-D velocity and temperature measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Louise; Sick, Volker; Frank, Jonathan H.


    The University of Michigan and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the initial development of a compact single-camera approach for simultaneously measuring 3-D gasphase velocity and temperature fields at high frame rates. A compact diagnostic tool is desired to enable investigations of flows with limited optical access, such as near-wall flows in an internal combustion engine. These in-cylinder flows play a crucial role in improving engine performance. Thermographic phosphors were proposed as flow and temperature tracers to extend the capabilities of a novel, compact 3D velocimetry diagnostic to include high-speed thermometry. Ratiometric measurements were performed using two spectral bands of laser-induced phosphorescence emission from BaMg2Al10O17:Eu (BAM) phosphors in a heated air flow to determine the optimal optical configuration for accurate temperature measurements. The originally planned multi-year research project ended prematurely after the first year due to the Sandia-sponsored student leaving the research group at the University of Michigan.

  2. Orbital velocity


    Modestino, Giuseppina


    The trajectory and the orbital velocity are determined for an object moving in a gravitational system, in terms of fundamental and independent variables. In particular, considering a path on equipotential line, the elliptical orbit is naturally traced, verifying evidently the keplerian laws. The case of the planets of the solar system is presented.

  3. Highly sensitive fiber grating chemical sensors: An effective alternative to atomic absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Laxmeshwar, Lata. S.; Jadhav, Mangesh S.; Akki, Jyoti. F.; Raikar, Prasad; Kumar, Jitendra; prakash, Om; Raikar, U. S.


    Accuracy in quantitative determination of trace elements like Zinc, present in drinking water in ppm level, is a big challenge and optical fiber gratings as chemical sensors may provide a promising solution to overcome the same. This paper presents design of two simple chemical sensors based on the principle of shift in characteristic wavelength of gratings with change in their effective refractive index, to measure the concentration of Zinc in drinking water using etched short period grating (FBG) and Long period grating (LPG) respectively. Three samples of drinking water from different places have been examined for presence of Zinc. Further, the results obtained by our sensors have also been verified with the results obtained by a standard method, Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The whole experiment has been performed by fixing the fibers in a horizontal position with the sensor regions at the center of the fibers, making it less prone to disturbance and breaking. The sensitivity of LPG sensor is about 205 times that of the FBG sensor. A few advantages of Fiber grating sensors, besides their regular features, over AAS have also been discussed, that make our sensors potential alternatives for existing techniques in determination of trace elements in drinking water.

  4. In situ investigation of optical absorption changes in LiNbO{sub 3} during reducing/oxidizing high-temperature treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugak, D [Institute of Materials, SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska, Lviv, 79031 (Ukraine); Zhydachevskii, Ya [Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera, Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Sugak, Yu [Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera, Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Buryy, O [Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera, Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Ubizskii, S [Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandera, Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Solskii, I [Institute of Materials, SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska, Lviv, 79031 (Ukraine); Schrader, M [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Technical University Braunschweig, Braunschweig, D-38106 (Germany); Becker, K-D [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Technical University Braunschweig, Braunschweig, D-38106 (Germany)


    This paper presents experimental results of an in situ investigation of optical absorption of congruent lithium niobate during reducing (95% Ar+5% H{sub 2}) and oxidizing (O{sub 2}) high-temperature treatments in the temperature range from 20 to 800 deg. C. The absorption spectra measured at in situ conditions at high temperatures in reducing/oxidizing atmospheres as well as the kinetics recorded at fixed wavelength during rapid replacement of gas atmospheres have been analysed. The origin of the changes in optical absorption caused by the redox treatments is discussed in terms of hydrogen and oxygen ion diffusion and the point defect structure of the material.

  5. A novel high-pressure vessel for simultaneous observations of seismic velocity and in situ CO2 distribution in a porous rock using a medical X-ray CT scanner (United States)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Nishizawa, Osamu; Zhang, Yi; Park, Hyuck; Xue, Ziqiu


    Understanding the relationship between seismic wave velocity or attenuation and CO2 saturation is essential for CO2 storage in deep saline formations. In the present study, we describe a novel upright high-pressure vessel that is designed to keep a rock sample under reservoir conditions and simultaneously image the entire sample using a medical X-ray CT scanner. The pressure vessel is composed of low X-ray absorption materials: a carbon-fibre-enhanced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cylinder and PEEK vessel closures supported by carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) joists. The temperature was controlled by a carbon-coated film heater and an aramid fibre thermal insulator. The assembled sample cell allows us to obtain high-resolution images of rock samples during CO2 drainage and brine imbibition under reservoir conditions. The rock sample was oriented vertical to the rotation axis of the CT scanner, and seismic wave paths were aligned parallel to the rotation axis to avoid shadows from the acoustic transducers. The reconstructed CO2 distribution images allow us to calculate the CO2 saturation in the first Fresnel zone along the ray path between transducers. A robust relationship between the seismic wave velocity or attenuation and the CO2 saturation in porous rock was obtained from experiments using this pressure vessel.

  6. High-velocity frictional properties of Alpine Fault rocks: Mechanical data, microstructural analysis, and implications for rupture propagation (United States)

    Boulton, Carolyn; Yao, Lu; Faulkner, Daniel R.; Townend, John; Toy, Virginia G.; Sutherland, Rupert; Ma, Shengli; Shimamoto, Toshihiko


    The Alpine Fault in New Zealand is a major plate-bounding structure that typically slips in ∼M8 earthquakes every c. 330 years. To investigate the near-surface, high-velocity frictional behavior of surface- and borehole-derived Alpine Fault gouges and cataclasites, twenty-one rotary shear experiments were conducted at 1 MPa normal stress and 1 m/s equivalent slip velocity under both room-dry and water-saturated (wet) conditions. In the room-dry experiments, the peak friction coefficient (μp = τp/σn) of Alpine Fault cataclasites and fault gouges was consistently high (mean μp = 0.67 ± 0.07). In the wet experiments, the fault gouge peak friction coefficients were lower (mean μp = 0.20 ± 0.12) than the cataclasite peak friction coefficients (mean μp = 0.64 ± 0.04). All fault rocks exhibited very low steady-state friction coefficients (μss) (room-dry experiments mean μss = 0.16 ± 0.05; wet experiments mean μss = 0.09 ± 0.04). Of all the experiments performed, six experiments conducted on wet smectite-bearing principal slip zone (PSZ) fault gouges yielded the lowest peak friction coefficients (μp = 0.10-0.20), the lowest steady-state friction coefficients (μss = 0.03-0.09), and, commonly, the lowest specific fracture energy values (EG = 0.01-0.69 MJ/m2). Microstructures produced during room-dry and wet experiments on a smectite-bearing PSZ fault gouge were compared with microstructures in the same material recovered from the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1) drill cores. The near-absence of localized shear bands with a strong crystallographic preferred orientation in the natural samples most resembles microstructures formed during wet experiments. Mechanical data and microstructural observations suggest that Alpine Fault ruptures propagate preferentially through water-saturated smectite-bearing fault gouges that exhibit low peak and steady-state friction coefficients.

  7. Microstructural parameters and high third order nonlinear absorption characteristics of Mn-doped PbS/PVA nanocomposite films (United States)

    Ramezanpour, B.; Mahmoudi Chenari, Hossein; Sadigh, M. Khadem


    In this work, undoped and Mn-doped PbS/PVA nanocomposite films have been successfully fabricated using the simple solution-casting method. Their crystalline structure was examined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). XRD pattern show the formation of cubic structure of PbS for Mn-doped PbS in PVA matrix. Microstructure parameters of Mn-doped PbS/PVA nanocomposite films were obtained through the size-strain plot (SSP) method. The thermal stability of the nanocomposite film was determined using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Furthermore, Z-scan technique was used to investigate the optical nonlinearity of nanocomposite films by a continuous-wave laser irradiation at the wavelength of 655 nm. This experimental results show that undoped PbS/PVA nanocomposite films indicate high nonlinear absorption characteristics. Moreover, the nanocomposite films with easy preparation characteristics, high thermal stability and nonlinear absorption properties can be used as an active element in optics and photonic devices.

  8. Highly luminescent S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots with broad visible absorption bands for visible light photocatalysts (United States)

    Qu, Dan; Zheng, Min; Du, Peng; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Ligong; Li, Di; Tan, Huaqiao; Zhao, Zhao; Xie, Zhigang; Sun, Zaicheng


    A facile hydrothermal synthesis route to N and S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was developed by using citric acid as the C source and urea or thiourea as N and S sources. Both N and S, N doped GQDs showed high quantum yield (78% and 71%), excitation independent under excitation of 340-400 nm and single exponential decay under UV excitation. A broad absorption band in the visible region appeared in S, N co-doped GQDs due to doping with sulfur, which alters the surface state of GQDs. However, S, N co-doped GQDs show different color emission under excitation of 420-520 nm due to their absorption in the visible region. The excellent photocatalytic performance of the S, N co-doped GQD/TiO2 composites was demonstrated by degradation of rhodamine B under visible light. The apparent rate of S, N:GQD/TiO2 is 3 and 10 times higher than that of N:GQD/TiO2 and P25 TiO2 under visible light irradiation, respectively.A facile hydrothermal synthesis route to N and S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was developed by using citric acid as the C source and urea or thiourea as N and S sources. Both N and S, N doped GQDs showed high quantum yield (78% and 71%), excitation independent under excitation of 340-400 nm and single exponential decay under UV excitation. A broad absorption band in the visible region appeared in S, N co-doped GQDs due to doping with sulfur, which alters the surface state of GQDs. However, S, N co-doped GQDs show different color emission under excitation of 420-520 nm due to their absorption in the visible region. The excellent photocatalytic performance of the S, N co-doped GQD/TiO2 composites was demonstrated by degradation of rhodamine B under visible light. The apparent rate of S, N:GQD/TiO2 is 3 and 10 times higher than that of N:GQD/TiO2 and P25 TiO2 under visible light irradiation, respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More XPS and UV-Vis spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04402e

  9. Highly specific spectroscopic photoacoustic molecular imaging of dynamic optical absorption shifts of an antibody-ICG contrast agent (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Wilson, Katheryne E.; Bachawal, Sunitha; Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Jensen, Kristen C.; Machtaler, Steven; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Juergen K.


    Improved techniques for breast cancer screening are critically needed as current methods lack diagnostic accuracy. Using spectroscopic photoacoustic (sPA) molecular imaging with a priori knowledge of optical absorption spectra allows suppression of endogenous background signal, increasing the overall sensitivity and specificity of the modality to exogenous contrast agents. Here, sPA imaging was used to monitor antibody-indocyanine green (ICG) conjugates as they undergo optical absorption spectrum shifts after cellular endocytosis and degradation to allow differentiation between normal murine mammary glands from breast cancer by enhancing molecular imaging signal from target (B7-H3)-bound antibody-ICG. First, B7-H3 was shown to have highly specific (AUC of 0.93) expression on both vascular endothelium and tumor stroma in malignant lesions through quantitative immunohistochemical staining of B7-H3 on 279 human samples (normal (n=53), benign lesions (11 subtypes, n=182), breast cancers (4 subtypes, n=97)), making B7-H3 a promising target for sPA imaging. Second, absorption spectra of intracellular and degraded B7-H3-ICG and Isotype control (Iso-ICG) were characterized through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Finally, a transgenic murine breast cancer model (FVB/N-Tg(MMTVPyMT)634Mul) was imaged, and sPA imaging in found a 3.01 (IQR 2.63, 3.38, P<0.001) fold increase in molecular B7-H3-ICG signal in tumors (n=80) compared to control conditions (B7-H3-ICG in tumor negative animals (n=60), Iso-ICG (n=30), blocking B7-H3+B7-H3-ICG (n=20), and free ICG (n=20)) despite significant tumor accumulation of Iso-ICG, confirmed through ex vivo histology. Overall, leveraging anti-B7-H3 antibody-ICG contrast agents, which have dynamic optical absorption spectra representative of molecular interactions, allows for highly specific sPA imaging of murine breast cancer.

  10. Design Optimization of Liquid Fueled High Velocity Oxy- Fuel Thermal Spraying Technique for Durable Coating for Fossil Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Love, Norman [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)


    High-velocity oxy–fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying was developed in 1930 and has been commercially available for twenty-five years. HVOF thermal spraying has several benefits over the more conventional plasma spray technique including a faster deposition rate which leads to quicker turn-around, with more durable coatings and higher bond strength, hardness and wear resistance due to a homogeneous distribution of the sprayed particles. HVOF thermal spraying is frequently used in engineering to deposit cermets, metallic alloys, composites and polymers, to enhance product life and performance. HVOF thermal spraying system is a highly promising technique for applying durable coatings on structural materials for corrosive and high temperature environments in advanced ultra-supercritical coal- fired (AUSC) boilers, steam turbines and gas turbines. HVOF thermal spraying is the preferred method for producing coatings with low porosity and high adhesion. HVOF thermal spray process has been shown to be one of the most efficient techniques to deposit high performance coatings at moderate cost. Variables affecting the deposit formation and coating properties include hardware characteristics such as nozzle geometry and spraying distance and process parameters such as equivalence ratio, gas flow density, and powder feedstock. In the spray process, the powder particles experience very high speeds combined with fast heating to the powder material melting point or above. This high temperature causes evaporation of the powder, dissolution, and phase transformations. Due to the complex nature of the HVOF technique, the control and optimization of the process is difficult. In general, good coating quality with suitable properties and required performance for specific applications is the goal in producing thermal spray coatings. In order to reach this goal, a deeper understanding of the spray process as a whole is needed. Although many researchers studied commercial HVOF thermal spray

  11. Dogs with hearth diseases causing turbulent high-velocity blood flow have changes in patelet function and von Willebrand factor multimer distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier


    The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate platelet function using in vitro tests based on both high and low shear rates and von Willebrand factor (vWf) multimeric composition in dogs with cardiac disease and turbulent high-velocity blood flow. Client-owned asymptomatic, untreated d...

  12. Measurement of electron drift velocities in the mixture of Xe and He for a new high-pressure Xe gamma-ray detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, S; Dmitrenko, V V


    Drift velocities of electrons in a mixture of Xe (20 atm)-He (3 atm) were measured using a cylindrical high-pressure xenon chamber. The drift velocities were found to be greater than 3x10 sup 5 cm/s above the reduced electric field of 2.0x10 sup - sup 1 sup 8 V centre dot cm sup 2 at room temperature, which are close to those in Xe-H sub 2 (0.3%). The mixture of He gas into high-pressure xenon improved the resolving time of detectors because it increased the electron drift velocities. This implies that a high-pressure xenon chamber mixed with sup 3 He instead of He gas operates as a gamma-ray detector sensitive to thermal neutrons. (author)

  13. Detection of an Optical Counterpart to the ALFALFA Ultra-compact High-velocity Cloud AGC 249525 (United States)

    Janesh, William; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Cannon, John M.


    We report on the detection at >98% confidence of an optical counterpart to AGC 249525, an ultra-compact high-velocity cloud (UCHVC) discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey blind neutral hydrogen survey. UCHVCs are compact, isolated H I clouds with properties consistent with their being nearby low-mass galaxies, but without identified counterparts in extant optical surveys. Analysis of the resolved stellar sources in deep g- and I-band imaging from the WIYN pODI camera reveals a clustering of possible red giant branch stars associated with AGC 249525 at a distance of 1.64 ± 0.45 Mpc. Matching our optical detection with the H I synthesis map of AGC 249525 from Adams et al. shows that the stellar overdensity is exactly coincident with the highest-density H I contour from that study. Combining our optical photometry and the H I properties of this object yields an absolute magnitude of -7.1≤slant {M}V≤slant -4.5, a stellar mass between 2.2+/- 0.6× {10}4 {M}⊙ and 3.6+/- 1.0× {10}5 {M}⊙ , and an H I to stellar mass ratio between 9 and 144. This object has stellar properties within the observed range of gas-poor ultra-faint dwarfs in the Local Group, but is gas-dominated.

  14. Teaching and Assessment of High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Techniques for the Spine in Predoctoral Medical Education. (United States)

    Channell, Millicent King


    Although national didactic criteria have been set for predoctoral education and assessment in osteopathic manipulative treatment, there is no criterion standard for teaching methods and assessments of osteopathic manipulative treatment competence in colleges of osteopathic medicine. This issue is more pressing with the creation of the single graduate medical education accreditation system by the American Osteopathic Association and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, which introduced the creation of "osteopathic recognition" for residencies that want to incorporate osteopathic principles and practice into their programs. Residencies with osteopathic recognition may include both osteopathic and allopathic graduates. Increased standardization at the predoctoral level, however, is recommended as osteopathic principles and practice training applications are expanded. The objectives of this article are to review the standards for teaching osteopathic medical students high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) techniques for the spine; to review and discuss the methods used to assess medical students' proficiency in using HVLA; and to propose baseline standards for teaching and assessing HVLA techniques among medical students.

  15. High velocity missile-related colorectal injuries: In-theatre application of injury scores and their effects on ostomy rates. (United States)

    Kaymak, Şahin; Ünlü, Aytekin; Harlak, Ali; Ersöz, Nail; Şenocak, Rahman; Coşkun, Ali Kağan; Zeybek, Nazif; Lapsekili, Emin; Kozak, Orhan


    Treatment of colorectal injuries (CRIs) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to analyze treatment trends of Turkish surgeons and effects of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST), Injury Severity (ISS), and Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI) scoring systems on decision-making processes and clinical outcomes. Data regarding high velocity missile (HVM)-related CRIs were retrospectively gathered. Four patient groups were included: Group 1 (stoma), Group 2 (no stoma in primary surgery), Group 2a (conversion to stoma in secondary surgery), and Group 2b (remaining Group 2 patients). Groups 1, 2, 2a, and 2b included 39 (66%), 20 (34%), 6 (30%), and 14 (70%) casualties, respectively. Ostomies were performed in casualties with significantly higher AAST scores (postomy (p=0.61; p=0.28, respectively). Ostomy rates of civilian and military surgeons were 62% and 68%, respectively (p=0.47). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that AAST score was a more accurate guide for performing ostomy, with sensitivity and specificity rates of 80% and 92.9%, respectively. Clinical significance of diversion in HVM-related CRIs remains. Stomas were associated with lower complication rates and significantly higher AAST colon/rectum injury scores.

  16. A Highly Similar Mathematical Model for Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity in Geriatric Patients with Suspected Cerebrovascular Disease (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Li, Qi; Wang, Jisheng; Xiang, Hu; Ge, Hong; Wang, Hui; Xie, Peng


    Cerebral blood flow velocity(CBFV) is an important parameter for study of cerebral hemodynamics. However, a simple and highly similar mathematical model has not yet been established for analyzing CBFV. To alleviate this issue, through TCD examination in 100 geriatric patients with suspected cerebrovascular disease (46 males and 54 females), we established a representative eighth-order Fourier function Vx(t) that simulates the CBFV. The measured TCD waveforms were compared to those derived from Vx(t), an illustrative Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was employed to determine the validity. The results showed that the TCD waves could been reconstructed for patients with different CBFVs by implementing their variable heart rates and the formulated maximum/minimum of Vx(t). Comparisons between derived and measured TCD waveforms suggest that the two waveforms are very similar. The results confirm that CBFV can be well-modeled through an eighth-order Fourier function. This function Vx(t) can be used extensively for a prospective study of cerebral hemodynamics in geriatric patients with suspected cerebrovascular disease.

  17. Andreas Acrivos Dissertation Award Talk: Modeling drag forces and velocity fluctuations in wall-bounded flows at high Reynolds numbers (United States)

    Yang, Xiang


    The sizes of fluid motions in wall-bounded flows scale approximately as their distances from the wall. At high Reynolds numbers, resolving near-wall, small-scale, yet momentum-transferring eddies are computationally intensive, and to alleviate the strict near-wall grid resolution requirement, a wall model is usually used. The wall model of interest here is the integral wall model. This model parameterizes the near-wall sub-grid velocity profile as being comprised of a linear inner-layer and a logarithmic meso-layer with one additional term that accounts for the effects of flow acceleration, pressure gradients etc. We use the integral wall model for wall-modeled large-eddy simulations (WMLES) of turbulent boundary layers over rough walls. The effects of rough-wall topology on drag forces are investigated. A rough-wall model is then developed based on considerations of such effects, which are now known as mutual sheltering among roughness elements. Last, we discuss briefly a new interpretation of the Townsend attached eddy hypothesis-the hierarchical random additive process model (HRAP). The analogy between the energy cascade and the momentum cascade is mathematically formal as HRAP follows the multi-fractal formulism, which was extensively used for the energy cascade.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 183-900, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Patel, N. A., E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    We report interferometric mapping of the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 08005-2356 (I 08005) with an angular resolution of ∼1″–5″, using the Submillimeter Array, in the {sup 12}CO J = 2–1, 3–2, {sup 13}CO J = 2–1, and SiO J = 5–4 (v = 0) lines. Single-dish observations, using the SMT 10 m, were made in these lines as well as in the CO J = 4–3 and SiO J = 6–5 (v = 0) lines. The line profiles are very broad, showing the presence of a massive (>0.1 M{sub ⊙}), extreme high velocity outflow (V ∼ 200 km s{sup −1}) directed along the nebular symmetry axis derived from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of this object. The outflow's scalar momentum far exceeds that available from radiation pressure of the central post-AGB star, and it may be launched from an accretion disk around a main-sequence companion. We provide indirect evidence for such a disk from its previously published, broad Hα emission profile, which we propose results from Lyβ emission generated in the disk followed by Raman-scattering in the innermost regions of a fast, neutral wind.

  19. Application of High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF Spraying to the Fabrication of Yb-Silicate Environmental Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bakan


    Full Text Available From the literature, it is known that due to their glass formation tendency, it is not possible to deposit fully-crystalline silicate coatings when the conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS process is employed. In APS, rapid quenching of the sprayed material on the substrate facilitates the amorphous deposit formation, which shrinks when exposed to heat and forms pores and/or cracks. This paper explores the feasibility of using a high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF process for the cost-effective fabrication of dense, stoichiometric, and crystalline Yb2Si2O7 environmental barrier coatings. We report our findings on the HVOF process optimization and its resultant influence on the microstructure development and crystallinity of the Yb2Si2O7 coatings. The results reveal that partially crystalline, dense, and vertical crack-free EBCs can be produced by the HVOF technique. However, the furnace thermal cycling results revealed that the bonding of the Yb2Si2O7 layer to the Silicon bond coat needs to be improved.

  20. High-resolution Vertical Profiling of Ocean Velocity and Water Properties Under Hurricane Frances in September 2004 (United States)

    Sanford, T. B.; D'Asarp, E. A.; Girton, J. B.; Price, J. F.; Webb, D. C.


    In ONR's CBLAST Hurricane research program observations were made of the upper ocean's response to Hurricane Frances. Three EM-APEX floats (velocity sensing versions of Webb Research APEX floats) and two Lagrangian floats were deployed north of Hispaniola from a C-130 aircraft ahead of Hurricane Frances in September 2004. The EM-APEX floats measured T, S and V over the upper 500 m starting about a day before the storm's arrival. The Lagrangian floats measured temperature and salinity while following the three- dimensional boundary layer turbulence in the upper 40 m. One EM-APEX float was directly under the track of the storm's eye, another EM-APEX and two Lagrangian floats went in about 50 km to the right of the track (where the surface winds are strongest) and the third float was about 100 km to the right. The EM-APEX floats profiled for 10 hours from the surface to 200 m, then continued profiling between 35 and 200 m with excursions to 500 m every half inertial period. After 5 days, the EM-APEX floats surfaced and transmitted the accumulated processed observations, then the floats profiled to 500 m every half inertial period until recovered early in October aided by GPS and Iridium. The float array sampled in unprecedented detail the upper-ocean turbulence, momentum, and salt and heat changes in response to the hurricane. The buildup of surface gravity waves in advance of the storm was also observed in the velocity profiles, with significant wave heights of up to 11 m. Rapid acceleration of inertial currents in the surface mixing layer (SML) to over 1 m/s stimulated vertical mixing by shear instability at the SML base, as indicated by low Richardson numbers and SML deepening from about 40 m to 120 m under the strongest wind forcing. Surface cooling of about 2.5 C was primarily due to the SML deepening and entrainment of colder water, with a small contribution from surface heat flux. Intense inertial pumping was observed under the eye, with vertical excursions of

  1. Selected properties of high velocity oxy liquid fuel (HVOLF - sprayed nanocrystalline WC-CO INFRALLOYTM S7412 coatings modified by high energy electric pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Spadło


    Full Text Available The paper presents a brief study of selected properties of HVOLF-sprayed nanocrystalline WC-Co InfralloyTM S7412 coatings modified by the application of a high energy electric pulse. The anti-wear coatings were applied on carbon steel with the use of High Velocity Oxy Liquid Fuel (HVOLF spraying system TAFA – JP-5000. The process was modified by the application of the SST France & Vision Lasertechnik device WS 7000 S. The resultant type of coatings may be applied to increase the abrasive wear resistance of tools and machine parts. The properties of the powders and coatings were studied using metallographic methods and EDS analyses. The microhardness and nanohardness of the resultant layers were measured and Young’s modulus of elasticity was determined.

  2. Flexible SiC/Si3N4 Composite Nanofibers with in Situ Embedded Graphite for Highly Efficient Electromagnetic Wave Absorption. (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Laifei; Zhang, Yani; Zhang, Litong


    SiC/Si3N4 composite nanofibers with in situ embedded graphite, which show highly efficient electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption performance in gigahertz frequency, were prepared by electrospinning with subsequent polymer pyrolysis and annealing. By means of incorporating graphite and Si3N4 into SiC, the EM wave absorption properties of the nanofibers were improved. The relationship among processing, fiber microstructure, and their superior EM wave absorption performance was systematically investigated. The EM wave absorption capability and effective absorption bandwidth (EAB) of nanofibers can be simply controlled by adjusting annealing atmosphere and temperature. The nanofibers after annealing at 1300 °C in Ar present a minimum reflection loss (RL) of -57.8 dB at 14.6 with 5.5 GHz EAB. The nanofibers annealed in N2 at 1300 °C exhibit a minimum RL value of -32.3 dB at a thickness of 2.5 mm, and the EAB reaches 6.4 GHz over the range of 11.3-17.7 GHz. The highly efficient EM wave absorption performance of nanofibers are closely related to dielectric loss, which originated from interfacial polarization and dipole polarization. The excellent absorbing performance together with wider EAB endows the composite nanofibers potential to be used as reinforcements in polymers and ceramics (SiC, Si3N4, SiO2, Al2O3, etc.) to improve their EM wave absorption performance.

  3. Determination of boron isotope ratios by high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry using graphite furnace vaporizers (United States)

    Abad, Carlos; Florek, Stefan; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Huang, Mao-Dong; Heinrich, Hans-Joachim; Recknagel, Sebastian; Vogl, Jochen; Jakubowski, Norbert; Panne, Ulrich


    Boron isotope amount ratios n(10B)/n(11B) have been determined by monitoring the absorption spectrum of boron monohydride (BH) in a graphite furnace using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-MAS). Bands (0 → 0) and (1 → 1) for the electronic transition X1Σ+ → A1Π were evaluated around wavelengths 433.1 nm and 437.1 nm respectively. Clean and free of memory effect molecular spectra of BH were recorded. In order to eliminate the memory effect of boron, a combination of 2% (v/v) hydrogen gas in argon and 1% trifluoromethane in argon, an acid solution of calcium chloride and mannitol as chemical modifiers was used. Partial least square regression (PLS) for analysis of samples and reference materials were applied. For this, a spectral library with different isotopes ratios for PLS regression was built. Results obtained around the 433.1 nm and 437.1 nm spectral regions are metrologically compatible with those reported by mass spectrometric methods. Moreover, for the evaluated region of 437 nm, an accuracy of 0.15‰ is obtained as the average deviation from the isotope reference materials. Expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor of k = 2 range between 0.15 and 0.44‰. This accuracy and precision are compatible with those obtained by mass spectrometry for boron isotope ratio measurements.

  4. Real-Time Thermographic-Phosphor-Based Temperature Measurements of Thermal Barrier Coating Surfaces Subjected to a High-Velocity Combustor Burner Environment (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Jenkins, Thomas P.; Allison, Stephen W.; Cruzen, Scott; Condevaux, J. J.; Senk, J. R.; Paul, A. D.


    Surface temperature measurements were conducted on metallic specimens coated with an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) with a YAG:Dy phosphor layer that were subjected to an aggressive high-velocity combustor burner environment. Luminescence-based surface temperature measurements of the same TBC system have previously been demonstrated for specimens subjected to static furnace or laser heating. Surface temperatures were determined from the decay time of the luminescence signal of the YAG:Dy phosphor layer that was excited by a pulsed laser source. However, the furnace and laser heating provides a much more benign environment than that which exists in a turbine engine, where there are additional challenges of a highly radiant background and high velocity gases. As the next step in validating the suitability of luminescence-based temperature measurements for turbine engine environments, new testing was performed where heating was provided by a high-velocity combustor burner rig at Williams International. Real-time surface temperature measurements during burner rig heating were obtained from the decay of the luminescence from the YAG:Dy surface layer. The robustness of several temperature probe designs in the sonic velocity, high radiance flame environment was evaluated. In addition, analysis was performed to show whether the luminescence decay could be satisfactorily extracted from the high radiance background.

  5. Improved high-intensity microwave discharge lamp for atomic resonance absorption and fluorescence spectrometry. (United States)

    Lifshitz, A; Skinner, G B; Wood, D R


    An unusually good combination of high intensity and narrow line has been achieved in a microwave discharge lamp by placing the optical window in the center of the microwave cavity. Construction details and performance characteristics are described.

  6. Solar absorption surface panel (United States)

    Santala, Teuvo J.


    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  7. High Accuracy Investigation of Microwave Absorption in Polymer Electrical Components on Motherboard of Computers (United States)

    Dašić, P.; Hutanu, C.; Jevremović, V.; Dobra, R.; Risteiu, M.; Ileana, I.


    Electronic operating at high frequencies can have problems with emission of high frequency noise. Once put inside an enclosure, the energy will add in phase at certain frequencies to cause resonances which will hinder the performance of the device. These absorbers are based upon open celled foam impregnated with a carbon coating. It is quite possible that in the near future, microprocessors would be to work on a frequency located in 5 to 10 GHz. In these circumstances it is useful to know how and how much of the electromagnetic field emitted by a microprocessor, it is absorbed by the circuit elements in the immediate vicinity of the microprocessor. The aim of this contribution is to demonstrate throughout high-level experimental analysis how the main electric parameters of polymer materials, which build the printed circuits and the one of electric capacitors and resistors, depend on the frequencies on which they work from the microwave range.

  8. Phase-contrast velocity mapping for highly diffusive fluids: optimal bipolar gradient pulse parameters for hyperpolarized helium-3. (United States)

    Martin, Lionel; Maître, Xavier; de Rochefort, Ludovic; Sarracanie, Mathieu; Friese, Marlies; Hagot, Pascal; Durand, Emmanuel


    In MR-velocity phase-contrast measurements, increasing the encoding bipolar gradient, i.e., decreasing the field of speed, usually improves measurement precision. However, in gases, fast diffusion during the bipolar gradient pulses may dramatically decrease the signal-to-noise ratio, thus degrading measurement precision. These two effects are contradictory. This work aims at determining the optimal sequence parameters to improve the velocity measurement precision. This work presents the theoretical optimization of bipolar gradient parameters (duration and amplitude) to improve velocity measurement precision. An analytical approximation is given as well as a numerical optimization. It is shown that the solution depends on the diffusion coefficient and T2 *. Experimental validation using hyperpolarized (3) He diluted in various buffer gases ((4) He, N2 , and SF6 ) is presented at 1.5 Tesla (T) in a straight pipe. Excellent agreement was found with the theoretical results for prediction of optimal field of speed and good agreement was found for the precision in measured velocity, but for SF6 buffered gas. The theoretical predictions were validated, providing a way to optimize velocity mapping in gases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Modelling High Resolution Absorption Spectra with ExoMolLine Lists: NH3and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barton, E. J.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.

    The conditions, chemical reactions and gas mixing in industrial progresses involving gasification or combustion can be monitored by in situ measurement of gas temperature and gas composition. This can be done spectroscopically, though the result is highly dependent on the quality of reference dat...

  10. High-resolution IR absorption spectroscopy of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: the realm of anharmonicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltseva, E.; Petrignani, A.; Candian, A.; Mackie, C.J.; Huang, X.; Lee, T.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Oomens, J.; Buma, W.J.


    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3-μm CH stretching region of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold (∼4K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene,

  11. Absorption of high-dose enteral vitamin A in low- birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was designed to detennine whether high-dose (25 000 IU) enteral vitamin A. to correct deficiency, would be absorbed and well tolerated in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Thirty-five LBW infants (950 - 1 700 g; gestational age. 27 - 36 weeks) were allocated to receive ...

  12. Absorption of high-dose enteral vitamin A in lowbirth- weight neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was designed to detennine whether high-dose (25 000 IU) enteral vitamin A. to correct deficiency, would be absorbed and well tolerated in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Thirty-five LBW infants (950 - 1 700 g; gestational age 27 - 36 weeks) were allocated to receive ...

  13. Kinetics of Moisture Absorption for Alkali Extracted Steam-Exploded Fiber Filled High-Density Polyethylene Composites (United States)

    Taib, R. M.; Ramarad, S.; Ishak, Z. A. M.; Rozman, H. D.


    Acacia mangium wood fiber derived from steam-explosion and fiber fractionation treatment was used as fillers for high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The alkali extracted steam-exploded fibers (AEF) obtained were acetylated to produce acetylated fibers (AAEF) having three different weight percent gain (WPG). Composites of AEF or AAEF and HDPE were prepared via 2-roll mill, compression molded and cut into dumbbell specimens. All samples were immersed in water at room temperature for 30 days. The process of absorption of water by all composites followed the kinetics and mechanisms described by the Fick's theory. Diffusion coefficient (D) values increased with filler loading but decreased with increasing WPG of the AAEF fiber. Further decrease was observed when maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was added to the composite system. This was due to improved fiber-matrix adhesion that restricts movement of water molecules from further penetrate inside the composite structures.

  14. Numerical and analytical solutions for sound propagation and absorption in porous media at high sound pressure levels. (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Tianning; Zhao, Yuyuan; Zhang, Weiyong; Zhu, Jian


    On the basis of the work of Wilson et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 350-359 (1988)], a more exact numerical approach was constructed for predicting the nonlinear sound propagation and absorption properties of rigid porous media at high sound pressure levels. The numerical solution was validated by the experimental results for sintered fibrous porous steel samples and its predictions were compared with the numerical solution of Wilson et al. An approximate analytical solution was further put forward for the normalized surface acoustic admittance of rigid air-saturated porous materials with infinite thickness, based on the wave perturbation method developed by Lambert and McIntosh [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 1950-1959 (1990)]. Comparisons were made with the numerical results.

  15. Task-dependent inhibition of slow-twitch soleus and excitation of fast-twitch gastrocnemius do not require high movement speed and velocity-dependent sensory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky eMehta


    Full Text Available Although individual heads of triceps surae, soleus (SO and medial gastrocnemius (MG muscles, are often considered close functional synergists, previous studies have shown distinct activity patterns between them in some motor behaviors. The goal of this study was to test two hypotheses explaining inhibition of slow SO with respect to fast MG: (1 inhibition occurs at high movement velocities and mediated by velocity-dependent sensory feedback and (2 inhibition depends on the ankle-knee joint moment combination and does not require high movement velocities. The hypotheses were tested by comparing the SO EMG/MG EMG ratio during fast and slow motor behaviors (cat paw shake responses vs. back, straight leg load lifting in humans, which had the same ankle extension-knee flexion moment combination; and during fast and slow behaviors with the ankle extension-knee extension moment combination (human vertical jumping and stance phase of walking in cats and leg load lifting in humans. In addition, SO EMG/MG EMG ratio was determined during cat paw shake responses and walking before and after removal of stretch velocity-dependent sensory feedback by self-reinnervating SO and/or gastrocnemius. We found the ratio SO EMG/MG EMG below 1 (p<0.05 during fast paw shake responses and slow back load lifting, requiring the ankle extension-knee flexion moment combination; whereas the ratio SO EMG/MG EMG was above 1 (p<0.05 during fast vertical jumping and slow tasks of walking and leg load lifting, requiring ankle extension-knee extension moments. Removal of velocity-dependent sensory feedback did not affect the SO EMG/MG EMG ratio in cats. We concluded that the relative inhibition of SO does not require high muscle velocities, depends on ankle-knee moment combinations, and is mechanically advantageous for allowing a greater MG contribution to ankle extension and knee flexion moments.

  16. Investigation of the formaldehyde differential absorption cross section at high and low spectral resolution in the simulation chamber SAPHIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Brauers


    Full Text Available The results from a simulation chamber study on the formaldehyde (HCHO absorption cross section in the UV spectral region are presented. We performed 4 experiments at ambient HCHO concentrations with simultaneous measurements of two DOAS instruments in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich. The two instruments differ in their spectral resolution, one working at 0.2 nm (broad-band, BB-DOAS, the other at 2.7 pm (high-resolution, HR-DOAS. Both instruments use dedicated multi reflection cells to achieve long light path lengths of 960 m and 2240 m, respectively, inside the chamber. During two experiments HCHO was injected into the clean chamber by thermolysis of well defined amounts of para-formaldehyde reaching mixing rations of 30 ppbV at maximum. The HCHO concentration calculated from the injection and the chamber volume agrees with the BB-DOAS measured value when the absorption cross section of Meller and Moortgat (2000 and the temperature coefficient of Cantrell (1990 were used for data evaluation. In two further experiments we produced HCHO in-situ from the ozone + ethene reaction which was intended to provide an independent way of HCHO calibration through the measurements of ozone and ethene. However, we found an unexpected deviation from the current understanding of the ozone + ethene reaction when CO was added to suppress possible oxidation of ethene by OH radicals. The reaction of the Criegee intermediate with CO could be 240 times slower than currently assumed. Based on the BB-DOAS measurements we could deduce a high-resolution cross section for HCHO which was not measured directly so far.

  17. On the possibility of high-velocity tidal sterams as dynamic barriers to longshore sediment transport: evidence from the continental shelf off the Gulf of Kutch, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.; Rao, V.P.

    and clay minerals. The distinct differences have resulted because the high-velocity (2 to 2.5 knots) tidal stream at the gulf mouth acts as a dynamic barrier inhibiting sediment transport across the month. Differences in the distribution of sand size...

  18. Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, YH; Chen, ZP; Saxer, CE; Xiang, SH; de Boer, JF; Nelson, JS


    We have developed a novel phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical Doppler tomography (ODT) system that uses phase information derived from a Hilbert transformation to image blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity. Using the phase change

  19. Performance of Wireless Networks in Highly Reflective Rooms with Variable Absorption (United States)


    the-shelf CSMA/CA carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance DFT discrete Fourier transform DS direct sequence EMI electromagnetic...interference FDM frequency division multiplexing FEC forward error correction FFT fast Fourier transform FH frequency hopping GO geometrical optics...universal serial bus VHT very high throughput VoIP voice over Internet Protocol WLAN wireless local area network WMAN wireless metropolitan area

  20. Lightweight, Mesoporous, and Highly Absorptive All-Nanofiber Aerogel for Efficient Solar Steam Generation. (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Liu, He; Li, Yiju; Kuang, Yudi; Xu, Xu; Chen, Chaoji; Huang, Hao; Jia, Chao; Zhao, Xinpeng; Hitz, Emily; Zhou, Yubing; Yang, Ronggui; Cui, Lifeng; Hu, Liangbing


    The global fresh water shortage has driven enormous endeavors in seawater desalination and wastewater purification; among these, solar steam generation is effective in extracting fresh water by efficient utilization of naturally abundant solar energy. For solar steam generation, the primary focus is to design new materials that are biodegradable, sustainable, of low cost, and have high solar steam generation efficiency. Here, we designed a bilayer aerogel structure employing naturally abundant cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) as basic building blocks to achieve sustainability and biodegradability as well as employing a carbon nanotube (CNT) layer for efficient solar utilization with over 97.5% of light absorbance from 300 to 1200 nm wavelength. The ultralow density (0.0096 g/cm3) of the aerogel ensures that minimal material is required, reducing the production cost while at the same time satisfying the water transport and thermal-insulation requirements due to its highly porous structure (99.4% porosity). Owing to its rationally designed structure and thermal-regulation performance, the bilayer CNF-CNT aerogel exhibits a high solar-energy conversion efficiency of 76.3% and 1.11 kg m-2 h-1 at 1 kW m-2 (1 Sun) solar irradiation, comparable or even higher than most of the reported solar steam generation devices. Therefore, the all-nanofiber aerogel presents a new route for designing biodegradable, sustainable, and scalable solar steam generation devices with superb performance.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Pu; Lu, Kai-Xing; Hu, Chen; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Huang, Ying-Ke; Wang, Jian-Min [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Fang; Bai, Jin-Ming [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Bian, Wei-Hao [Physics Department, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Yuan, Ye-Fei [Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ho, Luis C., E-mail:, E-mail: [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaboration: SEAMBH Collaboration


    In the sixth of a series of papers reporting on a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with high accretion rates, we present velocity-resolved time lags of Hβ emission lines for nine objects observed in the campaign during 2012–2013. In order to correct the line broadening caused by seeing and instruments before analyzing the velocity-resolved RM, we adopt the Richardson–Lucy deconvolution to reconstruct their Hβ profiles. The validity and effectiveness of the deconvolution are checked using Monte Carlo simulation. Five among the nine objects show clear dependence of the time delay on velocity. Mrk 335 and Mrk 486 show signatures of gas inflow whereas the clouds in the broad-line regions (BLRs) of Mrk 142 and MCG +06-26-012 tend to be radial outflowing. Mrk 1044 is consistent with having virialized motions. The lags of the remaining four are not velocity-resolvable. The velocity-resolved RM of super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) shows that they have diverse kinematics in their BLRs. Comparing with the AGNs with sub-Eddington accretion rates, we do not find significant differences in the BLR kinematics of SEAMBHs.

  2. A Novel Temperature Measurement Approach for a High Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Using Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leiweke, R. J; Ganguly, B. N


    A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopic technique is used to measure both electronically excited state production efficiency and gas temperature rise in a dielectric barrier discharge in argon...

  3. Development of the negative-tone molecular resists for EB/EUVL having high EUV absorption capacity and molecular design method (United States)

    Sato, Takashi; Takigawa, Tomoaki; Togashi, Yuta; Toida, Takumi; Echigo, Masatoshi; Harada, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Takeo; Kudo, Hiroto


    In this paper, we designed the synthesis of negative-type molecular resist materials for EB and EUVL exposure tools, and their properties were examined. The resist materials for EUVL have been required showing higher sensitivity for high throughput in the lithographic process, and expecting lower shot noise to improve a roughness. In EUVL process, the resist materials must be ionized by absorbing EUV to emit more secondary electrons. The EUV absorption of the synthesized resist materials was measured using their thin films on the silicon wafer, and it was observed that the ratio of EUV absorption of the synthesized resist was higher than in the comparison of that of PHS as a reference., i.e., 2.4 times higher absorption was shown. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between the ratios of EUV absorptions and functional groups of the resist materials. As the result, the sensitivity of resist materials under EUV exposure tool was consistent with their structures.

  4. High-Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: The Realm of Anharmonicity (United States)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan


    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3 micrometers CH stretching region of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold ((is) approximately 4K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions enhanced with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilizes intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination bands as possible candidates to resolve remaining discrepancies. The anharmonic spectra as calculated with SPECTRO lead to predictions of the main modes that fall within 0.5% of the experimental frequencies. The implications for the Aromatic Infrared Bands, specifically the 3-m band are discussed.

  5. Optical Absorption in Commercial Single Mode Optical Fibers in a High Energy Physics Radiation Field

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, T; Kuhnhenn, J; Hoeffgen, S K; Weinand, U


    This paper reports on the radiation induced attenuation of light at 1310 nm and 1550 nm in 12 commercially available single mode (SM) optical fibers. The fiber samples are exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co source and to a high energy physics radiation field. The attenuation is studied as a function of total dose, dose rate, light power and temperature. Radiation hard fibers from one manufacturer show an extraordinary low attenuation for light at 1310 nm that does not exceed 5 dB/km even after a total dose of 1 MGy. 2500 km of this type of fiber have been produced by the manufacturer and quality assurance measurements of the production batches are presently ongoing.

  6. Simultaneous determination of rhodium and ruthenium by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (United States)

    Zambrzycka-Szelewa, Elżbieta; Lulewicz, Marta; Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz, Beata


    In the present paper a fast, simple and sensitive analytical method for simultaneous determination of rhodium and ruthenium by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GFAAS) was developed. Among six pairs of absorption atomic lines of Rh and Ru, which are close enough to enable their simultaneous detection, two pairs were selected for further studies. Best results were obtained for measurements of the resonance line of rhodium at 343.489 nm and the adjacent secondary line of ruthenium at 343.674 nm (23% intensity of this line). For evaluated lines, the absorbance values were obtained using three pixels. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 1200 °C and 2600 °C, respectively. Under these conditions the limits of detection achieved for Rh and Ru were found to be 1.0 μg L- 1 and 1.9 μg L- 1, respectively. The characteristic mass was 12.9 pg for Rh and 71.7 pg for Ru. Repeatability of the results expressed as a relative standard deviation was typically below 6%. The trueness of the method was confirmed by analysis of the certified reference material - platinum ore (SARM 76). The recovery of Rh and Ru from the platinum ore was 93.0 ± 4.6% and 90.1 ± 2.5%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the direct simultaneous determination of trace amounts of rhodium and ruthenium in spiked river water, road runoff, and municipal sewage. Separation of interfering matrix on cation exchange resin was required before analysis of road dust and tunnel dust (CW-7) by HR-CS GFAAS.

  7. The chemical generation of NO for the determination of nitrite by high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry. (United States)

    Brandao, Geovani C; Lima, Daniel C; Ferreira, Sergio L C


    In the present work, we propose a method for the determination of nitrite based on the chemical generation of nitric oxide (NO) and its detection by high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry. NO is generated by the reduction of nitrite in acidic media with ascorbic acid as the reducing agent and then transferred into a quartz cell by a stream of argon carrier gas. The conditions under which the NO is generated are as follows: 0.4 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid, 1.5%(w/v) ascorbic acid, an argon gas pressure of 0.03 MPa and an injection time of the reducing agent of 4s. All measurements of molecular absorption were performed using the NO line at 215.360 nm, and the signal was measured by peak height. Under these conditions, the method described has limits of detection and quantification of 0.045 and 0.150 μg mL(-1) of nitrite, respectively. The calibration curve is linear for nitrite concentrations in the range 0.15-15 μg mL(-1). The precision, estimated as the relative standard deviation (RSD), was 3.5% and 4.4% for solutions with nitrite concentrations of 0.5 and 5.0 μg mL(-1), respectively. This method was applied to the analysis of different water samples (well water, drinking water and river water) collected in Cachoeira City, Bahia State, Brazil. The results were in agreement with those obtained by a spectrophotometric method using the Griess reaction. Addition/recovery tests were also performed to check the validity of the proposed method. Recoveries of 93-106% were achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High-accuracy measurement of low-water-content in liquid using NIR spectral absorption method (United States)

    Peng, Bao-Jin; Wan, Xu; Jin, Hong-Zhen; Zhao, Yong; Mao, He-Fa


    Water content measurement technologies are very important for quality inspection of food, medicine products, chemical products and many other industry fields. In recent years, requests for accurate low-water-content measurement in liquid are more and more exigent, and great interests have been shown from the research and experimental work. With the development and advancement of modern production and control technologies, more accurate water content technology is needed. In this paper, a novel experimental setup based on near-infrared (NIR) spectral technology and fiber-optic sensor (OFS) is presented. It has a good measurement accuracy about -/+ 0.01%, which is better, to our knowledge, than most other methods published until now. It has a high measurement resolution of 0.001% in the measurement range from zero to 0.05% for water-in-alcohol measurement, and the water-in-oil measurement is carried out as well. In addition, the advantages of this method also include pollution-free to the measured liquid, fast measurement and so on.

  9. Universality, maximum radiation, and absorption in high-energy collisions of black holes with spin. (United States)

    Sperhake, Ulrich; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Pretorius, Frans


    We explore the impact of black hole spins on the dynamics of high-energy black hole collisions. We report results from numerical simulations with γ factors up to 2.49 and dimensionless spin parameter χ=+0.85, +0.6, 0, -0.6, -0.85. We find that the scattering threshold becomes independent of spin at large center-of-mass energies, confirming previous conjectures that structure does not matter in ultrarelativistic collisions. It has further been argued that in this limit all of the kinetic energy of the system may be radiated by fine tuning the impact parameter to threshold. On the contrary, we find that only about 60% of the kinetic energy is radiated for γ=2.49. By monitoring apparent horizons before and after scattering events we show that the "missing energy" is absorbed by the individual black holes in the encounter, and moreover the individual black-hole spins change significantly. We support this conclusion with perturbative calculations. An extrapolation of our results to the limit γ→∞ suggests that about half of the center-of-mass energy of the system can be emitted in gravitational radiation, while the rest must be converted into rest-mass and spin energy.

  10. Decay studies of Sr isotpes with high resolution and total absorption techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Cerdan, Ana-Belen


    High Resolution measurements The beta/EC decay of 77,78Sr and 76,78Rb have been studied in this work. Measurements were carried out of the energies and intensities of the emitted gamma-rays and conversion electrons as well as gamma-gamma and gamma-X-ray coincidences in the decays of 77,78Sr, which have extended our knowledge of their decay schemes including spin and parity assignments to the levels populated in the daughter nucleus, 77Rb and 78Rb respectively. For the decay of 78Sr, 16 new levels and 44 new gamma-ray transitions have been identified. The very much improved experimental knowledge of the 78Rb levels populated in the decay and the strong link between the parent and the daughter states has allowed us to infer some possible level configurations by comparison with HF+BCS calculations using the SG2 Skyrme force. For the decay of 77Sr, 9 new levels and 15 new gamma-ray transitions have been identified. The levels in the low energy part of the level scheme have been discussed in terms of HF+BCS+QRPA c...

  11. Sensitivity of Detecting Shallow Slip in Tsunami Earthquakes Using High-Rate Seismogeodetic Displacement and Velocity Waveforms (United States)

    Saunders, J. K.; Haase, J. S.; Bock, Y.


    The shallowest portion of the subduction zone, from the trench to 15 km depth, can facilitate long-duration, moderately sized earthquakes that have anomalously low seismic moment and short-period energy release accompanying large coseismic offsets. Such events have been dubbed `tsunami earthquakes' due to their disproportionately large tsunamis compared to their magnitude. The central portion of the subduction zone ( 15-50 km depth) is associated with generally higher rigidity and is where the majority of great subduction earthquakes nucleate. With increasing earthquake magnitude, the long-period and permanent deformations dominate motions in the near field, making displacement observations ideal for near-field earthquake characterization. In this study, we determine the sensitivity of seismogeodetic (combined high-rate GPS and accelerations) waveforms to slip location (shallow versus deeper slip) for the Cascadia subduction zone in order to assess their usefulness in rapidly determining the potential hazard of tsunami earthquakes with relatively small moment. We generate simple kinematic slip models that exhibit source properties according to the different subduction zone domains: a shallow Mw8 earthquake rupture, representing a tsunami earthquake, and a deeper earthquake of the same magnitude and slip distribution that does not rupture into the shallow portion. We choose rupture speed and slip duration for each simulation based on compilations of kinematic rupture models from past earthquakes. Specifically, the rupture speed is lowered and the slip duration is extended in the shallow earthquake to represent slip in the weaker, sediment-rich region near the trench. We generate synthetic waveforms and compare these displacements and velocities among scenarios to determine where there are differences that constrain the region and amount of slip. We then assess how well the current collocated seismogeodetic network samples the ground motions in critical areas for

  12. Highly porous carbon with large electrochemical ion absorption capability for high-performance supercapacitors and ion capacitors (United States)

    Wang, Shijie; Wang, Rutao; Zhang, Yabin; Zhang, Li


    Carbon-based supercapacitors have attracted extensive attention as the complement to batteries, owing to their durable lifespan and superiority in high-power-demand fields. However, their widespread use is limited by the low energy storage density; thus, a high-surface-area porous carbon is urgently needed. Herein, a highly porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area up to 3643 m2 g-1 has been synthesized by chemical activation of papayas for the first time. This sp2-bonded porous carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form narrow mesopores of 2 ˜ 5 nm in width, which can be systematically tailored with varied activation levels. Two-electrode symmetric supercapacitors constructed by this porous carbon achieve energy density of 8.1 Wh kg-1 in aqueous electrolyte and 65.5 Wh kg-1 in ionic-liquid electrolyte. Furthermore, half-cells (versus Li or Na metal) using this porous carbon as ion sorption cathodes yield high specific capacity, e.g., 51.0 and 39.3 mAh g-1 in Li+ and Na+ based organic electrolyte. These results underline the possibility of obtaining the porous carbon for high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors and ion capacitors in a readily scalable and economical way.

  13. Unusual presentation of Lisfranc fracture dislocation associated with high-velocity sledding injury: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benejam Christopher E


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lisfranc fracture dislocations of the foot are rare injuries. A recent literature search revealed no reported cases of injury to the tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc joint associated with sledding. Case presentation A 19-year-old male college student presented to the emergency department with a Lisfranc fracture dislocation of the foot as a result of a high-velocity sledding injury. The patient underwent an immediate open reduction and internal fixation. Conclusion Lisfranc injuries are often caused by high-velocity, high-energy traumas. Careful examination and thorough testing are required to identify the injury properly. Computed tomography imaging is often recommended to aid in diagnosis. Treatment of severe cases may require immediate open reduction and internal fixation, especially if the risk of compartment syndrome is present, followed by a period of immobilization. Complete recovery may take up to 1 year.

  14. Optical absorption measurement system (United States)

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.


    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  15. Quick and facile preparation of visible light-driven TiO2 photocatalyst with high absorption and photocatalytic activity. (United States)

    Yang, Yucheng; Zhang, Ting; Le, Ling; Ruan, Xuefeng; Fang, Pengfei; Pan, Chunxu; Xiong, Rui; Shi, Jing; Wei, Jianhong


    Self-doping TiO2 has recently attracted considerable attention for its high photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. However, the literature reported synthetic methods until now were very time-consuming. In this study, we establish a quick and facile method for obtaining self-doping TiO2 with the use of directly treated commercial P25 at a desired temperature for only 5 min through spark plasma sintering technology. With the using of this method, the modified P25 samples exhibit significantly high photoelectric and photocatalytic performance. Furthermore, the sample prepared at 600 °C exhibits the optimum catalytic activity. The photodegradation and H2 evolution rates of this samples are significantly higher than those of unmodified P25 sample under visible-light irradiation. The physical origin of the visible-light absorption for the modified P25 samples is investigated in detail according to their structural, optical, and electronic properties. This work will provide a quick and facile method for the large-scale synthesis of visible-light driven photocatalyst for practical applications.

  16. Broad Band Light Absorption and High Photocurrent of (In,Ga)N Nanowire Photoanodes Resulting from a Radial Stark Effect. (United States)

    Kamimura, Jumpei; Bogdanoff, Peter; Corfdir, Pierre; Brandt, Oliver; Riechert, Henning; Geelhaar, Lutz


    The photoelectrochemical properties of (In,Ga)N nanowire photoanodes are investigated using H2O2 as a hole scavenger to prevent photocorrosion. Under simulated solar illumination, In0.16Ga0.84N nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy show a high photocurrent of 2.7 mA/cm2 at 1.2 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode. This value is almost the theoretical maximum expected from the corresponding band gap (2.8 eV) for homogeneous bulk material without taking into account surface effects. These nanowires exhibit a higher incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency over a broader wavelength range and a higher photocurrent than a compact layer with higher In content of 28%. These results are explained by the combination of built-in electric fields at the nanowire sidewall surfaces and compositional fluctuations in (In,Ga)N, which gives rise to a radial Stark effect. This effect enables spatially indirect transitions at energies much lower than the band gap. The resulting broad band light absorption leads to high photocurrents. This benefit of the radial Stark effect in (In,Ga)N nanowires for solar harvesting applications opens up the perspective to break the theoretical limit for photocurrents.

  17. Evaluation of hybrid polymers for high-precision manufacturing of 3D optical interconnects by two-photon absorption lithography (United States)

    Schleunitz, A.; Klein, J. J.; Krupp, A.; Stender, B.; Houbertz, R.; Gruetzner, G.


    The fabrication of optical interconnects has been widely investigated for the generation of optical circuit boards. Twophoton absorption (TPA) lithography (or high-precision 3D printing) as an innovative production method for direct manufacture of individual 3D photonic structures gains more and more attention when optical polymers are employed. In this regard, we have evaluated novel ORMOCER-based hybrid polymers tailored for the manufacture of optical waveguides by means of high-precision 3D printing. In order to facilitate future industrial implementation, the processability was evaluated and the optical performance of embedded waveguides was assessed. The results illustrate that hybrid polymers are not only viable consumables for industrial manufacture of polymeric micro-optics using generic processes such as UV molding. They also are potential candidates to fabricate optical waveguide systems down to the chip level where TPA-based emerging manufacturing techniques are engaged. Hence, it is shown that hybrid polymers continue to meet the increasing expectations of dynamically growing markets of micro-optics and optical interconnects due to the flexibility of the employed polymer material concept.

  18. Approaching ultimate intrinsic specific absorption rate in radiofrequency shimming using high-permittivity materials at 7 Tesla. (United States)

    Haemer, Gillian G; Vaidya, Manushka; Collins, Christopher M; Sodickson, Daniel K; Wiggins, Graham C; Lattanzi, Riccardo


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrated high-permittivity materials (HPMs) on excitation homogeneity and global specific absorption rate (SAR) for transmit arrays at 7T. A rapid electrodynamic simulation framework was used to calculate L-curves associated with excitation of a uniform 2D profile in a dielectric sphere. We used ultimate intrinsic SAR as an absolute performance reference to compare different transmit arrays in the presence and absence of a layer of HPM. We investigated the optimal permittivity for the HPM as a function of its thickness, the sample size, and the number of array elements. Adding a layer of HPM can improve the performance of a 24-element array to match that of a 48-element array without HPM, whereas a 48-element array with HPM can perform as well as a 64-element array without HPM. Optimal relative permittivity values changed based on sample and coil geometry, but were always within a range obtainable with readily available materials (εr  = 100-200). Integration of HPMs could be a practical method to improve RF shimming performance, alternative to increasing the number of coils. The proposed simulation framework could be used to explore the design of novel transmit arrays for head imaging at ultra-high field strength. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Digital signal processor-based high-precision on-line Voigt lineshape fitting for direct absorption spectroscopy. (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Zheng, Deyan; Cao, Zhang; Cai, Weiwei


    To realize on-line high-accuracy measurement in direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS), a system-on-chip, high-precision digital signal processor-based on-line Voigt lineshape fitting implementation is introduced in this paper. Given that the Voigt lineshape is determined by the Gauss full width at half maximum (FWHM) and Lorentz FWHM, a look-up table, which covers a range of combinations of both, is first built to achieve rapid and accurate calculation of Voigt lineshape. With the look-up table and raw absorbance data in hand, Gauss-Newton nonlinear fitting module is implemented to obtain the parameters including both the Gauss and Lorentz FWHMs, which can be used to calculate the integrated absorbance. To realize the proposed method in hardware, a digital signal processor (DSP) is adopted to fit the Voigt lineshape in a real-time DAS measurement system. In experiment, temperature and H2O concentration of a flat flame are recovered from the transitions of 7444.36 cm(-1) and 7185.6 cm(-1) by the DSP-based on-line Voigt lineshape fitting and on-line integral of the raw absorbance, respectively. The results show that the proposed method can not only fit the Voigt lineshape on-line but also improve the measurement accuracy compared with those obtained from the direct integral of the raw absorbance.

  20. Digital signal processor-based high-precision on-line Voigt lineshape fitting for direct absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Zheng, Deyan; Cao, Zhang; Cai, Weiwei


    To realize on-line high-accuracy measurement in direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS), a system-on-chip, high-precision digital signal processor-based on-line Voigt lineshape fitting implementation is introduced in this paper. Given that the Voigt lineshape is determined by the Gauss full width at half maximum (FWHM) and Lorentz FWHM, a look-up table, which covers a range of combinations of both, is first built to achieve rapid and accurate calculation of Voigt lineshape. With the look-up table and raw absorbance data in hand, Gauss-Newton nonlinear fitting module is implemented to obtain the parameters including both the Gauss and Lorentz FWHMs, which can be used to calculate the integrated absorbance. To realize the proposed method in hardware, a digital signal processor (DSP) is adopted to fit the Voigt lineshape in a real-time DAS measurement system. In experiment, temperature and H2O concentration of a flat flame are recovered from the transitions of 7444.36 cm-1 and 7185.6 cm-1 by the DSP-based on-line Voigt lineshape fitting and on-line integral of the raw absorbance, respectively. The results show that the proposed method can not only fit the Voigt lineshape on-line but also improve the measurement accuracy compared with those obtained from the direct integral of the raw absorbance.