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Sample records for high therapeutic index

  1. Iterative Chemical Engineering of Vancomycin Leads to Novel Vancomycin Analogs With a High in Vitro Therapeutic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigam M. Mishra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits transpeptidation during cell wall synthesis by binding to the D-Ala-D-Ala termini of lipid II. For long, it has been used as a last resort antibiotic. However, since the emergence of the first vancomycin-resistant enterococci in 1987, vancomycin resistance has become widespread, especially in hospitals. We have synthesized and evaluated 110 vancomycin analogs modified at the C-terminal carboxyl group of the heptapeptide moiety with R2NHR1NH2 substituents. Through iterative optimizations of the substituents, we identified vancomycin analogs that fully restore (or even exceed the original inhibitory activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, vancomycin-intermediate (VISA and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA strains. The best analogs have improved growth inhibitory activity and in vitro therapeutic indices against a broad set of VRE and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA isolates. They also exceed the activity of vancomycin against Clostridium difficile ribotypes. Vanc-39 and Vanc-42 have a low probability to provoke antibiotic resistance, and overcome different vancomycin resistance mechanisms (VanA, VanB, and VanC1.

  2. Therapeutic whole-body hypothermia reduces mortality in severe traumatic brain injury if the cooling index is sufficiently high: meta-analyses of the effect of single cooling parameters and their integrated measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, Emoke; Poto, Laszlo; Hegyi, Peter; Szabo, Imre; Hartmann, Petra; Solymar, Margit; Petervari, Erika; Balasko, Marta; Habon, Tamas; Rumbus, Zoltan; Tenk, Judit; Rostas, Ildiko; Weinberg, Jordan; Romanovsky, Andrej A; Garami, Andras

    2018-04-21

    Therapeutic hypothermia was investigated repeatedly as a tool to improve the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), but previous clinical trials and meta-analyses found contradictory results. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of therapeutic whole-body hypothermia on the mortality of adult patients with severe TBI by using a novel approach of meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to February 2017. The identified human studies were evaluated regarding statistical, clinical, and methodological designs to ensure inter-study homogeneity. We extracted data on TBI severity, body temperature, mortality, and cooling parameters; then we calculated the cooling index, an integrated measure of therapeutic hypothermia. Forest plot of all identified studies showed no difference in the outcome of TBI between cooled and not cooled patients, but inter-study heterogeneity was high. On the contrary, by meta-analysis of RCTs which were homogenous with regards to statistical, clinical designs and precisely reported the cooling protocol, we showed decreased odds ratio for mortality in therapeutic hypothermia compared to no cooling. As independent factors, milder and longer cooling, and rewarming at < 0.25°C/h were associated with better outcome. Therapeutic hypothermia was beneficial only if the cooling index (measure of combination of cooling parameters) was sufficiently high. We conclude that high methodological and statistical inter-study heterogeneity could underlie the contradictory results obtained in previous studies. By analyzing methodologically homogenous studies, we show that cooling improves the outcome of severe TBI and this beneficial effect depends on certain cooling parameters and on their integrated measure, the cooling index.

  3. Illegal "no prescription" internet access to narrow therapeutic index drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim K; Lovett, Kimberly M

    2013-05-01

    Narrow therapeutic index (NTI) drugs, because of proximity of therapeutic amounts to toxic amounts, require close professional oversight, particularly when switching formulations. However, safe use may be compromised by unsupervised switching through access to online "no prescription" Web sites. We assessed no prescription online availability of NTI drugs, using an academically published list (core NTI drugs). Using the Google search term "buy DRUG no prescription," we reviewed the first 5 search result pages for marketing of no prescription NTI drugs. We further assessed if National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) Not Recommended vendors were marketing NTI drugs. Searches were conducted from November 3, 2012 to January 3, 2013. For core NTI drugs, we found 13 of 14 NTI drugs (92%) marketed as available without prescription, all from NABP Not Recommended vendors. On the basis of these initial findings, we expanded our core list to 12 additional NTI drugs; 11 of 12 of these drugs (92%) were available from no prescription Web sites. Overall, 24 of 26 NTI drugs (92%) were illegally marketed as available online without the need for a prescription. Suspect online NTI drug access from no prescription vendors represents a significant patient safety risk because of potential patient drug switching and risk of counterfeit versions. Further, state health care exchanges with coverage limitations may drive patients to seek formulations online. Food and Drug Administration harmonization with tighter international NTI drug standards should be considered, and aggressive action against suspect online marketers should be a regulatory and public health priority. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Flavonoids at the pharma-nutrition interface: Is a therapeutic index in demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Palmery, Maura

    2015-04-01

    The consumption of flavonoid-rich foods could have beneficial effects on health. However, different classes of flavonoids have different effect on disease risk and the relationship between flavonoid intake and risk of disease appeared to be non-linear. Furthermore, contrarily to vitamins, there are no symptoms of deficiency for flavonoids; therefore, our body treats them like other xenobiotics. Therefore, a therapeutic index should be determined. Despite flavonoids are at the pharma-nutrition interface, drugs and foods are subject to different regulatory frameworks and there is no recommended daily allowance (RDA) for flavonoids. Relatively little is known about the efficacy, safety and underlying mechanisms of these bioactive compounds, especially when taken in concert with drugs. Flavonoids could act both as drugs and pro-drugs with pharmacological and toxicological promiscuity. Due to the low bioavailability, the gastrointestinal tract could be the primary target of flavonoids and metabolites. Different effects have been observed after acute and chronic consumption and bioavailability and bioactivity have high inter-individual variability. Furthermore, the difficulties in the design and in the interpretation of human intervention studies make difficult the establishment of a therapeutic index for flavonoids. Probably the concept of 'personalized nutrition' previously proposed could be the better approach. However, despite more studies are needed in order to establish a therapeutic index for each flavonoid subclasses, at the moment RDA of total flavonoids could be between 250-400 mg/d, respecting the seasonality of food sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective effect and the therapeutic index of indralin in juvenile rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasin, Mikhail V.; Antipov, Vsevolod V.; Ushakov, Igor B.; Semenov, Leonid F.; Lapin, Boris A.; Suvorov, Nikolai N.; Ilyin, Leonid A.

    2014-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of indralin in rhesus monkeys was examined over 60 d following gamma irradiation. Male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) 2-3-years-old and weighing 2.1-3.5 kg were used. Animals were exposed to total-body gamma irradiation from 60 Co at a dose of 6.8 Gy (lethal dose, 100% lethality over 30 days). Indralin (40-120 mg kg -1 ) was administered intramuscularly 5 min prior to radiation exposure. Indralin taken at a dose of 120 mg kg -1 protected five out of six monkeys (compared with the radiation control group, in which all 10 animals died). The average effective dose of indralin in the monkeys exposed to gamma irradiation for 30 min was equal to 77.3 (63.3-94.3) mg kg -1 , and the maximum tolerated dose of indralin administered to monkeys was 800 mg kg -1 . Indralin reduced radiation-induced injuries in macaques, thus resulting in a less severe course of acute radiation syndrome. Delayed and less pronounced manifestation of the haemorrhagic syndrome of the disease, and milder forms of both leukopenia and anaemia were also noted. The therapeutic index for indralin, expressed as the ratio of the maximum tolerated dose to the average effective dose, was equal to 10. Therefore, indralin has a significant radioprotective effect against radiation and has a high therapeutic index in rhesus monkeys. (author)

  6. Effects of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on the therapeutic index of amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhachemi, M H; Boucherit, K; Boucherit-Otmani, Z; Belmir, S; Benbekhti, Z

    2014-12-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) remains the antifungal polyene of choice in deep fungal infections, but its high toxicity to mammalian cells limits its use. This toxicity is partly due to lipid peroxidation exerted by amphotericin B in cell membranes. The work we have undertaken focused on the one part the evaluation of the efficacy of amphotericin B in the presence of some antioxidants vitamins (vitamin C "ascorbic acid" and vitamin E "α-tocopherol") against the yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Secondly, we have tested the cytotoxicity of these formulations on human red blood cells. The results showed a significant improvement in the efficiency of our formulations tested from 7% to 12% compared with amphotericin B alone at therapeutic concentrations. Furthermore, the addition of vitamin C and vitamin E protects human red blood cells against the cytotoxicity induced by amphotericin B with 17%. This is due may be to the antioxidant power of vitamins which confer protection against the autoxidation of the molecule of amphotericin B. On the other hand, it is noticed that the yeast regrows after 24h whatever in complex with vitamin C or vitamin E of the stock solution. On completion of this study, the incorporation of antioxidant vitamins that we propose to the reaction medium of antifungal improved the therapeutic index of amphotericin B. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards cheminformatics-based estimation of drug therapeutic index: Predicting the protective index of anticonvulsants using a new quantitative structure-index relationship approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangying; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Xin; Qin, Chu; Tao, Lin; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Sheng Yong; Chen, Yu Zong; Chui, Wai Keung

    2016-06-01

    The overall efficacy and safety profile of a new drug is partially evaluated by the therapeutic index in clinical studies and by the protective index (PI) in preclinical studies. In-silico predictive methods may facilitate the assessment of these indicators. Although QSAR and QSTR models can be used for predicting PI, their predictive capability has not been evaluated. To test this capability, we developed QSAR and QSTR models for predicting the activity and toxicity of anticonvulsants at accuracy levels above the literature-reported threshold (LT) of good QSAR models as tested by both the internal 5-fold cross validation and external validation method. These models showed significantly compromised PI predictive capability due to the cumulative errors of the QSAR and QSTR models. Therefore, in this investigation a new quantitative structure-index relationship (QSIR) model was devised and it showed improved PI predictive capability that superseded the LT of good QSAR models. The QSAR, QSTR and QSIR models were developed using support vector regression (SVR) method with the parameters optimized by using the greedy search method. The molecular descriptors relevant to the prediction of anticonvulsant activities, toxicities and PIs were analyzed by a recursive feature elimination method. The selected molecular descriptors are primarily associated with the drug-like, pharmacological and toxicological features and those used in the published anticonvulsant QSAR and QSTR models. This study suggested that QSIR is useful for estimating the therapeutic index of drug candidates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Microdosimetry of high LET therapeutic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akira

    1980-01-01

    Experimental microdosimetry of high LET therapeutic beams were presented. The cyclotron produced fast neutron beams at IMS, TAMVEC and NRL, a reactor fast neutron at YAYOI, a proctor beam at Harvard and a pion beam at TRIUMF are included. Measurements were performed with a conventional tissue equivalent spherical proportional counter with a logarithmic amplifier which made the recording and analysis quite simple. All the energy deposition spectra were analysed in the conventional manner and anti y F, anti y D as well as anti y D* were calculated. The spectra and their mean lineal energies showed wide variations, depending on the particle type, energy, position in phantom. Fractional contribution of elemental particles ( electron, muon, pion, proton, alpha and so on) to the total dose were analysed. For fast neutron beams, the y spectra stayed almost constant at any depth along the central axis in the phantom. The y spectra of proton beam changed slightly along the depth. On the other side, the y spectra of pion beam change drastically in the phantom between plateau and dose peak region. A novel technique of time-of-flight microdosimetry was employed, which made it possible to separate the fractional contribution of contaminant electrons and muons out of pions. Finally, a map of the radiation quality for all the beams is presented and its significances are discussed. (author)

  9. Progress in high index contrast integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baets, R.G.F.; Bienstman, P.; Bogaerts, W.; Brouckaert, J.; De Backere, P.; Dumon, P.; Roelkens, G.; Scheerlinck, S.; Smit, M.K.; Taillaert, D.; Van Campenhout, J.; Van Laere, F.; Thourhout, Van D.

    2007-01-01

    A large fraction of the recent innovation in integrated optics is enabled by the use of high index contrast structures and devices. The strong confinement achievable in such devices allows for dramatic performance benefits and downscaling. In this paper the progress in this field is reviewed.

  10. Amorphous silicon as high index photonic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, T.; Harke, A.; Horn, O.; Amthor, J.; Müller, J.

    2009-05-01

    Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) photonics has become an attractive research topic within the area of integrated optics. This paper aims to fabricate SOI-structures for optical communication applications with lower costs compared to standard fabrication processes as well as to provide a higher flexibility with respect to waveguide and substrate material choice. Amorphous silicon is deposited on thermal oxidized silicon wafers with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The material is optimized in terms of optical light transmission and refractive index. Different a-Si:H waveguides with low propagation losses are presented. The waveguides were processed with CMOS-compatible fabrication technologies and standard DUV-lithography enabling high volume production. To overcome the large mode-field diameter mismatch between incoupling fiber and sub-μm waveguides three dimensional, amorphous silicon tapers were fabricated with a KOH etched shadow mask for patterning. Using ellipsometric and Raman spectroscopic measurements the material properties as refractive index, layer thickness, crystallinity and material composition were analyzed. Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) experiments of amorphous thin films and rib waveguides were performed aiming to tune the refractive index of the deposited a-Si:H waveguide core layer after deposition.

  11. Modification of Low Refractive Index Polycarbonate for High Refractive Index Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Suri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycarbonates and polythiourethanes are the most popular materials in use today, for optical applications. Polycarbonates are of two types which fall in the category of low refractive index and medium refractive index. The present paper describes the conversion of low refractive index polycarbonates into high refractive index material by the use of a high refractive index monomer, polythiol, as an additive. Novel polycarbonates, where the properties of refractive index and Abbe number can be tailor made, have been obtained. Thermal studies and refractive index determination indicate the formation of a new polymer with improved properties and suitable for optical applications.

  12. Visceral adiposity index as a predictor of clinical severity and therapeutic outcome of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sai-Hua; Li, Xue-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine-metabolic disease which often accompany with abnormal fat distribution. Visceral adiposity has association with abnormal lipid metabolic, pro-inflammatory activity, insulin resistance (IR) and hyperandrogenism. Increased visceral adiposity raises the risk of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular (CV) events, and aggravates ovulatory dysfunction and hyperandrogenism in PCOS women. Visceral adiposity index (VAI), a simple surrogate maker of visceral adipose dysfunction and visceral adiposity, is a predictor of IR, and link hyperinsulinemia, hyperandrogenism and anovulation. This review aims to discuss the visceral adiposity situation in PCOS women, and suggests that VAI may be a useful predictor of clinical severity and therapeutic outcome of PCOS.

  13. Split Cas9, Not Hairs - Advancing the Therapeutic Index of CRISPR Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelas, Carolin; Grimm, Dirk

    2018-01-05

    The discovery that the bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system can be translated into mammalian cells continues to have an unprecedented impact on the biomedical research community, as it largely facilitates efforts to experimentally interrogate or therapeutically modify the cellular genome. In particular, CRISPR promises the ability to correct disease-associated genetic defects, or to target and destroy invading foreign DNA, in a simple, efficient, and selective manner directly in affected human cells or tissues. Here, we highlight a set of exciting new strategies that aim at further increasing the therapeutic index of CRISPR technologies, by reducing the size of Cas9 expression cassettes and thus enhancing their compatibility with viral gene delivery vectors. Specifically, we discuss the concept of splitCas9 whereby the Cas9 holo-protein is segregated into two parts that are expressed individually and reunited in the cell by various means, including use of 1) the gRNA as a scaffold for Cas9 assembly; 2) the rapamycin-controlled FKBP/FRB system; 3) the light-regulated Magnet system; or 4) inteins. We describe how these avenues, despite pursuing the identical aim, differ in critical features comprising the extent of spatio-temporal control of CRISPR activity, and discuss additional improvements to their efficiency or specificity that should foster their clinical translation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. High body mass index and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Smith, George Davey

    2016-01-01

    of follow-up (range 0-37), 8002 developed non-skin cancer, 3347 non-melanoma skin cancer, 1396 lung cancer, 637 other smoking related cancers, 1203 colon cancer, 159 kidney cancer, 1402 breast cancer, 1062 prostate cancer, and 2804 other cancers. Participants were genotyped for five genetic variants...... with a BMI ≥ 30 versus 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2). Corresponding risk of breast cancer was 20 % (0-44 %) higher in postmenopausal women. BMI was not associated with risk of colon, kidney, other smoking related cancers, prostate cancer, or other cancers. In genetic analyses, carrying 7-10 versus 0-4 BMI increasing......High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of some cancer. Whether these reflect causal associations is unknown. We examined this issue. Using a Mendelian randomisation approach, we studied 108,812 individuals from the general population. During a median of 4.7 years...

  15. High Performance Graded Index Polymer Optical Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garito, Anthony

    1998-01-01

    ...) plastic optical fibers (POF) and graded index (GI) POFs are reported. A set of criteria and analyses of physical parameters are developed in context to the major issues of POF applications in short-distance communication systems...

  16. Tablet splitting of narrow therapeutic index drugs: a nationwide survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Lin; Hsu, Chia-Chen; Chou, Chia-Yu; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Li-Fang; Chou, Yueh-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Tablet splitting or pill splitting frequently occurs in daily medical practice. For drugs with special pharmacokinetic characters, such as drugs with narrow therapeutic index (NTI), unequal split tablets might lead to erroneous dose titration and it even cause toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of prescribing split NTI drugs at ambulatory setting in Taiwan. A population-based retrospective study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. All ambulatory visits were analyzed from the longitudinal cohort datasets of the National Health Insurance Research Database. The details of ambulatory prescriptions containing NTI drugs were extracted by using the claims datasets of one million beneficiaries from National Healthcare Insurance Research Database in 2010 in Taiwan. The analyses were stratified by dosage form, patient age and the number of prescribed tablets in a single dose for each NTI drugs. Main outcome measures Number and distinct dosage forms of available NTI drug items in Taiwan, number of prescriptions involved split NTI drugs, and number of patients received split NTI drugs. A total of 148,548 patients had received 512,398 prescriptions of NTI drugs and 41.8 % (n = 62,121) of patients had received 36.3 % (n = 185,936) of NTI drug prescriptions in form of split tablets. The percentage of splitting was highest in digoxin prescriptions (81.0 %), followed by warfarin (72.0 %). In the elderly patients, split tablets were very prevalent with digoxin (82.4 %) and warfarin (84.5 %). NTI drugs were frequently prescribed to be taken in split forms in Taiwan. Interventions may be needed to provide effective and convenient NTI drug use. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical outcome of inappropriate split NTI drugs.

  17. Biominetic High Density Lipoproteins for the Delivery of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sushant

    Advances in nanotechnology have brought about novel inorganic and hybrid nanoparticles with unique physico-chemical properties that make them suitable for a broad range of applications---from nano-circuitry to drug delivery. A significant part of those advancements have led to ground-breaking discoveries that have changed the approaches to formulation of therapeutics against diseases, such as cancer. Now-a-days the focus does not lie solely on finding a candidate small-molecule therapeutic with minimal adverse effects, but researchers are looking up to nanoparticles to improve biodistribution and biocompatibility profile of clinically proven therapeutics. The plethora of conjugation chemistries offered by currently extant inorganic nanoparticles have, in recent years, led to great leaps in the field of biomimicry---a modality that promises high biocompatibility. Further, in the pursuit of highly specific therapeutic molecules, researchers have turned to silencing oligonucleotides and some have already brought together the strengths of nanoparticles and silencing oligonucleotides in search of an efficacious therapy for cancer with minimal adverse effects. This dissertation work focuses on such a biomimetic platform---a gold nanoparticle based high density lipoprotein biomimetic (HDL NP), for the delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. The first chapter of this body of work introduces the molecular target of the silencing oligonucleotides---VEGFR2, and its role in the progression of solid tumor cancers. The background information also covers important aspects of natural high density lipoproteins (HDL), especially their innate capacity to bind and deliver exogenous and endogenous silencing oligonucleotides to tissues that express their high affinity receptor SRB1. We subsequently describe the synthesis of the biomimetic HDL NP and its oligonucleotide conjugates, and establish their biocompatibility. Further on, experimental data demonstrate the efficacy of silencing

  18. Improving the in vivo therapeutic index of siRNA polymer conjugates through increasing pH responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, Erin N; Farand, Julie; Soheili, Arash; Parish, Craig A; Kevin, Nancy J; Pipik, Brenda; Calati, Kathleen B; Ikemoto, Nori; Waldman, Jacob H; Latham, Andrew H; Howell, Bonnie J; Leone, Anthony; Garbaccio, Robert M; Barrett, Stephanie E; Parmar, Rubina Giare; Truong, Quang T; Mao, Bing; Davies, Ian W; Colletti, Steven L; Sepp-Lorenzino, Laura

    2014-02-19

    Polymer based carriers that aid in endosomal escape have proven to be efficacious siRNA delivery agents in vitro and in vivo; however, most suffer from cytotoxicity due in part to a lack of selectivity for endosomal versus cell membrane lysis. For polymer based carriers to move beyond the laboratory and into the clinic, it is critical to find carriers that are not only efficacious, but also have margins that are clinically relevant. In this paper we report three distinct categories of polymer conjugates that improve the selectivity of endosomal membrane lysis by relying on the change in pH associated with endosomal trafficking, including incorporation of low pKa heterocycles, acid cleavable amino side chains, or carboxylic acid pH sensitive charge switches. Additionally, we determine the therapeutic index of our polymer conjugates in vivo and demonstrate that the incorporation of pH responsive elements dramatically expands the therapeutic index to 10-15, beyond that of the therapeutic index (less than 3), for polymer conjugates previously reported.

  19. Improving DNA double-strand repair inhibitor KU55933 therapeutic index in cancer radiotherapy using nanoparticle drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xi; Lara, Haydee; Wagner, Kyle T.; Saripalli, Srinivas; Hyder, Syed Nabeel; Foote, Michael; Sethi, Manish; Wang, Edina; Caster, Joseph M.; Zhang, Longzhen; Wang, Andrew Z.

    2015-11-01

    Radiotherapy is a key component of cancer treatment. Because of its importance, there has been high interest in developing agents and strategies to further improve the therapeutic index of radiotherapy. DNA double-strand repair inhibitors (DSBRIs) are among the most promising agents to improve radiotherapy. However, their clinical translation has been limited by their potential toxicity to normal tissue. Recent advances in nanomedicine offer an opportunity to overcome this limitation. In this study, we aim to demonstrate the proof of principle by developing and evaluating nanoparticle (NP) formulations of KU55933, a DSBRI. We engineered a NP formulation of KU55933 using nanoprecipitation method with different lipid polymer nanoparticle formulation. NP KU55933 using PLGA formulation has the best loading efficacy as well as prolonged drug release profile. We demonstrated that NP KU55933 is a potent radiosensitizer in vitro using clonogenic assay and is more effective as a radiosensitizer than free KU55933 in vivo using mouse xenograft models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Western blots and immunofluorescence showed NP KU55933 exhibited more prolonged inhibition of DNA repair pathway. In addition, NP KU55933 leads to lower skin toxicity than KU55933. Our study supports further investigations using NP to deliver DSBRIs to improve cancer radiotherapy treatment.

  20. Linezolid in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis: the challenge of its narrow therapeutic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Sean; Meintjes, Graeme; Maartens, Gary

    2016-10-01

    Linezolid is an oxazolidinone with potent activity against M tuberculosis, and improves culture conversion and cure rates when added to treatment regimens for drug resistant tuberculosis. However, linezolid has a narrow therapeutic window, and the optimal dosing strategy that minimizes the substantial toxicity associated with linezolid's prolonged use in tuberculosis treatment has not been determined, limiting the potential impact of this anti-mycobacterial agent. This paper aims to review and summarize the current knowledge on linezolid for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The focus is on the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic determinants of linezolid's efficacy and toxicity in tuberculosis, and how this relates to defining an optimal dose. Mechanisms of linezolid toxicity and resistance, and the potential role of therapeutic drug monitoring are also covered. Expert commentary: Prospective pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies are required to define optimal therapeutic targets and to inform improved linezolid dosing strategies for drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  1. Indexed compilation of experimental high energy physics literature. [Synopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, C.P.; Yost, G.P.; Rittenberg, A.

    1978-09-01

    An indexed compilation of approximately 12,000 experimental high energy physics documents is presented. A synopsis of each document is presented, and the documenta are indexed according to beam/target/momentum, reaction/momentum, final-state-particle, particle/particle-property, accelerator/detector, and (for a limited set of the documents) experiment. No data are given.

  2. Indexed compilation of experimental high energy physics literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, C.P.; Yost, G.P.; Rittenberg, A.

    1978-09-01

    An indexed compilation of approximately 12,000 experimental high energy physics documents is presented. A synopsis of each document is presented, and the documenta are indexed according to beam/target/momentum, reaction/momentum, final-state-particle, particle/particle-property, accelerator/detector, and (for a limited set of the documents) experiment. No data are given

  3. Medulloblastoma: evaluation of proliferative index by monoclonal antibody Mib-1, its prognostic correlation and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Antonio Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 has been used by researchers in order to retrospectively study paraffin imbibed tumor fragments. The medulloblastoma is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in childhood. The objectives were: determination of the mean Mib-1 LI value from these patients, as well as the prognostic value of the method.This retrospective study represents an analysis of the cellular proliferation index of posterior fossa medulloblastomas collected from 22 patients at A.C. Camargo Hospital, from January 1990 to December 1999. The histopathological diagnosis was confirmed by H&E and proliferative index (LI was achived with Mib-1 which detects proliferating cells during G1, G2, S and M phases.The results demostrated that the mean Mib-1 was 30,1%, and ranged from 5,2% to 62,0%.In conclusion, this method has prognostic value, has to be used as routine for patients harboring medulloblastomas and the ones who have PI greater than the mean value found in this study, should be treated aggressively.

  4. Impact of therapeutic and high doses of florfenicol on kidney and liver functional indicators in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Muhammad Shah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of therapeutic and high doses of florfenicol on kidney and liver functional indicators in goat species. Materials and Methods: Six mature, healthy goats (combine breed and sex with average weight 25 kg were selected for this study. The therapeutic (20 mg/kg b.w. and high doses (40 and 60 mg of florfenicol were administered for 3 days with 24 h interval. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h following the each administered dose. Results: The results showed that the therapeutic dose of florfenicol produced nonsignificant effect on serum urea, creatinine, total protein (TP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT and bilirubin on all timings, and increased (p<0.05 the serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT levels for 48 h. Whereas the high doses of florfenicol (40 and 60 mg significantly altered the kidney and liver functional indicators in the blood. In contrast with control, the serum urea level was (p<0.01 increased at all timing points. Creatinine values were altered (p<0.01, <0.05 in increasing manner from 24 to 96 h. The high dose of 40 mg decreased the TP (p<0.05 for 72 h and 60 mg persisted same effect (p<0.01 up to 120 h. The indices of ALP, GGT, SGOT, and SGPT were raised (p<0.01, <0.05 at all timings. The bilirubin indexes also (p<0.05 elevated from 48 to 72. Conclusion: It was concluded that the high doses of florfenicol produced reversible dose-dependent effects on functional indicators of kidney and liver such as urea, creatinine, TP, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, GGT, and bilirubin.

  5. 1060-nm Tunable Monolithic High Index Contrast Subwavelength Grating VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Chung, Il-Sug; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2013-01-01

    We present the first tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) where the top distributed Bragg reflector has been completely substituted by an air-cladded high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) mirror. In this way, an extended cavity design can be realized by reducing...

  6. Polarization-Independent Wideband High-Index-Contrast Grating Mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekele, Dagmawi Alemayehu; Park, Gyeong Cheol; Malureanu, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Island-type two-dimensional high-index-contrast grating mirror based on a standard silicon-on-insulator wafer have been experimentally demonstrated. The measured spectra shows a bandwidth of ∼192 nm with a reflectivity over 99% as well as polarization independence. Numerical simulations show...

  7. Directly patternable high refractive index ferroelectric sol–gel resist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garoli, D., E-mail: denis.garoli@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 16, 16136 Genova (Italy); Della Giustina, G. [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Padova and INSTM, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    The development of a ferroelectric negative tone sol–gel resist for Ultraviolet (UV) and Electron Beam (EB) lithography is presented. A new system based on Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT, with formula PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3}) was synthesized by sol–gel method. The lithographic performances were investigated and several structures spanning from the micron range down to less than 50 nm have been achieved by UV and EB lithography. The system interaction with UV light and Electron beam was thoroughly characterized by FT-IT spectroscopy. The exposed PZT was annealed at high temperatures in order to study the crystalline phase evolution, the optical constants values and stability of patterned structures. After exposure and annealing, the refractive index of the material can vary from 1.68 up to 2.33 (@400 nm), while the ferroelectric behaviour seems to be maintained after high temperature annealing. These results suggest a possible application of PZT resist not only as ferroelectric but also as nanopatternable high refractive index material. Moreover, direct nanopatterning by means of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) lithography was verified and the potentiality for the preparation of high aspect ratio hollow nanostructures will be presented. - Highlights: • A new formula directly patternable PZT high refractive index resist is presented. • The gel is sensitive to both UV and electron beam exposure. • The refractive index can vary from 1.68 up to 2.33 (@400 nm). • Direct nanopatterning by means of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) lithography was verified. • High aspect ratio hollow nanostructures will be presented.

  8. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  9. Hemoglobin glycation index as a useful predictor of therapeutic responses to dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available A high hemoglobin glycation index (HGI and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level are associated with greater inflammatory status, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors can suppress inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between HGI and the therapeutic effect of DPP-4 inhibitors.This retrospective cohort study followed 468 patients with type 2 diabetes receiving DPP-4 inhibitor treatment for 1 year. Estimated HbA1c was calculated using a linear regression equation derived from another 2969 randomly extracted patients with type 2 diabetes based on fasting plasma glucose (FPG level. The subjects were divided into two groups based on HGI (HGI = observed HbA1c - estimated HbA1c. Mixed model repeated measures were used to compare the treatment efficacy after 1 year in patients with a low (HGI<0, n = 199 and high HGI (HGI≧0, n = 269.There were no significant group differences in mean changes of FPG after 1 year (-12.8 and -13.4 mg/dL in the low and high HGI groups, respectively. However, the patients with a high HGI had a significantly greater reduction in HbA1c from baseline compared to those with a low HGI (-1.9 versus -0.3% [-20.8 versus -3.3 mmol/mol]. Improvements in glycemic control were statistically significantly associated with the tested DPP-4 inhibitors in the high HGI group (-2.4, -1.4, -1.2 and -2.2% [-26.2, -15.3, -13.1 and -24.0 mmol/mol] for vildagliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin and sitagliptin, respectively but not in the low HGI group.The HGI index derived from FPG and HbA1c may be able to identify who will have a better response to DPP-4 inhibitors.

  10. High body mass index is associated with impaired cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaro, Roberta; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and cognitive deficits concerning mental flexibility and inhibitory control efficiency. The present study aims at replicating and extending these observations. We compared cognitive control performance of normal weight (BMI task tapping either inhibitory control (Experiment 1) or interference control (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 replicated previous findings that found less efficient inhibitory control in overweight individuals. Experiment 2 complemented these findings by showing that cognitive control impairments associated with high BMI also extend to the ability to resolve stimulus-induced response conflict and to engage in conflict-driven control adaptation. The present results are consistent with and extend previous literature showing that high BMI in young, otherwise healthy individuals is associated with less efficient cognitive control functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phase sensitive diffraction sensor for high sensitivity refractive index measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumawat, Nityanand; Varma, Manoj; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-02-01

    In this study a diffraction based sensor has been developed for bio molecular sensing applications and performing assays in real time. A diffraction grating fabricated on a glass substrate produced diffraction patterns both in transmission and reflection when illuminated by a laser diode. We used zeroth order I(0,0) as reference and first order I(0,1) as signal channel and conducted ratiometric measurements that reduced noise by more than 50 times. The ratiometric approach resulted in a very simple instrumentation with very high sensitivity. In the past, we have shown refractive index measurements both for bulk and surface adsorption using the diffractive self-referencing approach. In the current work we extend the same concept to higher diffraction orders. We have considered order I(0,1) and I(1,1) and performed ratiometric measurements I(0,1)/I(1,1) to eliminate the common mode fluctuations. Since orders I(0,1) and I(1,1) behaved opposite to each other, the resulting ratio signal amplitude increased more than twice compared to our previous results. As a proof of concept we used different salt concentrations in DI water. Increased signal amplitude and improved fluid injection system resulted in more than 4 times improvement in detection limit, giving limit of detection 1.3×10-7 refractive index unit (RIU) compared to our previous results. The improved refractive index sensitivity will help significantly for high sensitivity label free bio sensing application in a very cost-effective and simple experimental set-up.

  12. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan SÁNCHEZ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society. We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  13. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas.The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  14. The potential usefulness of the Response Index in positron emission tomography assessing the therapeutic effect of pre-operative chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Nishimura, Junichi; Hata, Taishi; Matsuda, Chu; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Murata, Kohei; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Mizushima, Tsunekazu

    2017-12-01

    Pre-operative chemotherapy is an option for patients with local advanced rectal cancer, but the response rate to pre-operative chemotherapy with oxaliplatin is still low. If the therapeutic effect of pre-operative chemotherapy could be assessed, we may be able to convert to surgery early. The purpose of the present study was to validate the correlation between the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) of the primary tumor and the therapeutic effect of pre-operative chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer. Retrospective cohort study from January 2011 to October 2015. We examined 28 patients with pathologically confirmed sigmoid or rectal cancer that underwent pre-operative chemotherapy and surgery. The correlation between Response Index (RI), calculated as (SUV max after chemotherapy)/(SUV max before chemotherapy), and the therapeutic effect on the primary tumor in advanced colorectal cancer. The degree of differentiation (p = 0.04), SUV max in the primary tumor after chemotherapy (p = 0.02), and RI (p = 0.008) were significant predictors of the therapeutic effect in univariate analysis. The areas under the ROC curve constructed with RI and therapeutic effect was 0.77. The optimal cut-off values for the RI in the responder group was effect of chemotherapy on advanced colorectal cancer. Thus, RI is potentially useful for predicting the therapeutic effect in advanced colorectal cancer.

  15. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ISSN: 2255-2863 is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence, and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.

  16. Toward endobronchial Ir-192 high-dose-rate brachytherapy therapeutic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, H A; Allison, R R; Downie, G H; Mota, H C; Austerlitz, C; Jenkins, T; Sibata, C H

    2007-01-01

    A number of patients with lung cancer receive either palliative or curative high-dose-rate (HDR) endobronchial brachytherapy. Up to a third of patients treated with endobronchial HDR die from hemoptysis. Rather than accept hemoptysis as an expected potential consequence of HDR, we have calculated the radial dose distribution for an Ir-192 HDR source, rigorously examined the dose and prescription points recommended by the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS), and performed a radiobiological-based analysis. The radial dose rate of a commercially available Ir-192 source was calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the linear quadratic model, the estimated palliative, curative and blood vessel rupture radii from the center of an Ir-192 source were obtained for the ABS recommendations and a series of customized HDR prescriptions. The estimated radius at risk for blood vessel perforation for the ABS recommendations ranges from 7 to 9 mm. An optimized prescription may in some situations reduce this radius to 4 mm. The estimated blood perforation radius is generally smaller than the palliative radius. Optimized and individualized endobronchial HDR prescriptions are currently feasible based on our current understanding of tumor and normal tissue radiobiology. Individualized prescriptions could minimize complications such as fatal hemoptysis without sacrificing efficacy. Fiducial stents, HDR catheter centering or spacers and the use of CT imaging to better assess the relationship between the catheter and blood vessels promise to be useful strategies for increasing the therapeutic index of this treatment modality. Prospective trials employing treatment optimization algorithms are needed

  17. The Potential Biochemical Diagnosis Criteria and Therapeutic Effect Indexes: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels and Free Androgen Index in Blood of Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-02

    The Investigators Collected 534 PCOS Patients as the Case Group,and 580 Infertile Women With Normal Ovulatory Cycle of the Control Group;; At the Same Time, the Investigators Continuedly Collect Cases to October 2012, and Totally Collected 579 Patients With PCOS Altogether;; 534 Patients in the Cases Group and 580 Women in the Control Group Received no Measures, While 579 Patients Received Drugs;; The Investigators Monitored Basic Indexes in Blood of All the Subjects in This Suvey,and Also Monitored Indexes of 579 Patients After Treatment.

  18. High Density Lipoprotein: A Therapeutic Target in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Barter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High density lipoproteins (HDLs have a number of properties that have the potential to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis and thus reduce the risk of having a cardiovascular event. These protective effects of HDLs may be reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, a condition in which the concentration of HDL cholesterol is frequently low. In addition to their potential cardioprotective properties, HDLs also increase the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle and stimulate the synthesis and secretion of insulin from pancreatic β cells and may thus have a beneficial effect on glycemic control. This raises the possibility that a low HDL concentration in type 2 diabetes may contribute to a worsening of diabetic control. Thus, there is a double case for targeting HDLs in patients with type 2 diabetes: to reduce cardiovascular risk and also to improve glycemic control. Approaches to raising HDL levels include lifestyle factors such as weight reduction, increased physical activity and stopping smoking. There is an ongoing search for HDL-raising drugs as agents to use in patients with type 2 diabetes in whom the HDL level remains low despite lifestyle interventions.

  19. H-index, mentoring-index, highly-cited and highly-accessed: how to evaluate scientists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeang Kuan-Teh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract How best to evaluate scientists within a peer group is a difficult task. This editorial discusses the use of the H-index and total citations. It also raises the consideration of a mentoring-index and the value of understanding the frequency that a published paper is accessed by readers.

  20. Development and characterization of high refractive index and high scattering acrylate polymer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselt, Thomas; Gomard, Guillaume; Preinfalk, Jan; Gleißner, Uwe; Lemmer, Uli; Hanemann, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we develop a wet-processable scattering layer exhibiting a high refractive index that can be used in organic light-emitting diodes for light outcoupling purposes. The composite layers contain an acrylate casting resin, benzylmethacrylate, and phenanthrene, which is employed to increase the refractive index. The mixtures are first rheologically characterized and then polymerized with heat and UV radiation. For the refractive index measurements, the polymerized samples require a planar surface without air bubbles. To produce flat samples, a special construction consisting of a glass plate, a teflon sheet, a silicone ring (PDMS mold), another teflon sheet, and another glass plate is developed. Glue clamps are used to hold the construction together. The refractive index of the samples can be increased from 1.565 to 1.585 at 20°C at a wavelength of 589 nm following the addition of 20 wt% phenanthrene. A master mixture with a high refractive index is taken for further experiments. Nanoscaled titanium dioxide is added and dispersed into the master mixture and then spin coated on a glass substrate. These layers are optically characterized. Most of the presented layers present the expected haze of over 50%.

  1. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP2-02: FLASH Irradiation Improves the Therapeutic Index Following GI Tract Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, E; Trovati, S; King, G; Lartey, F; Rafat, M; Loo, B; Maxim, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and characterize the radiobiological effectiveness of very high dose rate radiotherapy (FLASH) compared to conventional irradiation in an in vivo model. Methods: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with doses ranging between 10 and 18 Gy using a custom stereotactic jig. A Varian Clinac 21EX was modified to allow dose rates ranging from 0.05 to 240 Gy/s at the position of the mirror. With the gantry at 180 degrees, the jig holding the individual animals was placed above the mirror to take advantage of the reduced source to target distance. Mice were irradiated with 20MeV electrons. Following irradiation, the mice were monitored twice daily for morbidity and daily for weight changes. Results: Mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had lower weight loss compared to the mice receiving conventional irradiation. Following FLASH irradiation, a maximum weight loss of ∼20% was observed at day 6 with subsequent recovery, while following conventional irradiation, higher weight losses was observed with fewer instances of recovery. Concerning survival, all mice in the conventionally irradiated groups had a 100% mortality in the range of 15.5–18 Gy, while the mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had a 100% survival in the same range. Conclusion: These results have demonstrated proof of principle that FLASH irradiations have a dramatic impact on the overall survival of mice following GI tract irradiations. If the increase in the therapeutic window can be validated and understood, this would revolutionize the field of radiation oncology and lead to increased cure rates with reduced side effects following treatment, resulting in increased quality of life for cancer survivors. Funding: DoD, Award#:W81XWH-14-1-0014, Weston Havens Foundation, Bio-X (Stanford University), the Office of the Dean of the Medical School, the Office of the Provost (Stanford University), and the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation; BL and PM are

  2. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP2-02: FLASH Irradiation Improves the Therapeutic Index Following GI Tract Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, E; Trovati, S; King, G; Lartey, F; Rafat, M; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate and characterize the radiobiological effectiveness of very high dose rate radiotherapy (FLASH) compared to conventional irradiation in an in vivo model. Methods: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with doses ranging between 10 and 18 Gy using a custom stereotactic jig. A Varian Clinac 21EX was modified to allow dose rates ranging from 0.05 to 240 Gy/s at the position of the mirror. With the gantry at 180 degrees, the jig holding the individual animals was placed above the mirror to take advantage of the reduced source to target distance. Mice were irradiated with 20MeV electrons. Following irradiation, the mice were monitored twice daily for morbidity and daily for weight changes. Results: Mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had lower weight loss compared to the mice receiving conventional irradiation. Following FLASH irradiation, a maximum weight loss of ∼20% was observed at day 6 with subsequent recovery, while following conventional irradiation, higher weight losses was observed with fewer instances of recovery. Concerning survival, all mice in the conventionally irradiated groups had a 100% mortality in the range of 15.5–18 Gy, while the mice irradiated with FLASH irradiation had a 100% survival in the same range. Conclusion: These results have demonstrated proof of principle that FLASH irradiations have a dramatic impact on the overall survival of mice following GI tract irradiations. If the increase in the therapeutic window can be validated and understood, this would revolutionize the field of radiation oncology and lead to increased cure rates with reduced side effects following treatment, resulting in increased quality of life for cancer survivors. Funding: DoD, Award#:W81XWH-14-1-0014, Weston Havens Foundation, Bio-X (Stanford University), the Office of the Dean of the Medical School, the Office of the Provost (Stanford University), and the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation; BL and PM are

  3. Connective tissue growth factor as a novel therapeutic target in high grade serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Jones, Kim; Gloss, Brian S; Murali, Rajmohan; Chang, David K; Colvin, Emily K; Jones, Marc D; Yuen, Samuel; Howell, Viive M; Brown, Laura M; Wong, Carol W; Spong, Suzanne M; Scarlett, Christopher J; Hacker, Neville F; Ghosh, Sue; Mok, Samuel C; Birrer, Michael J; Samimi, Goli

    2015-12-29

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among women with gynecologic cancer. We examined molecular profiles of fibroblasts from normal ovary and high-grade serous ovarian tumors to identify novel therapeutic targets involved in tumor progression. We identified 2,300 genes that are significantly differentially expressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts. Fibroblast expression of one of these genes, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. CTGF protein expression in ovarian tumor fibroblasts significantly correlated with gene expression levels. CTGF is a secreted component of the tumor microenvironment and is being pursued as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. We examined its effect in in vitro and ex vivo ovarian cancer models, and examined associations between CTGF expression and clinico-pathologic characteristics in patients. CTGF promotes migration and peritoneal adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. These effects are abrogated by FG-3019, a human monoclonal antibody against CTGF, currently under clinical investigation as a therapeutic agent. Immunohistochemical analyses of high-grade serous ovarian tumors reveal that the highest level of tumor stromal CTGF expression was correlated with the poorest prognosis. Our findings identify CTGF as a promoter of peritoneal adhesion, likely to mediate metastasis, and a potential therapeutic target in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. These results warrant further studies into the therapeutic efficacy of FG-3019 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

  4. Comparison of bacillary index on slit skin smear with bacillary index of granuloma in leprosy and its relevance to present therapeutic regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendhil M Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the world moves toward elimination of leprosy, persistence of infective cases in endemic pockets remains a significant problem. The use of clinical criteria to decide the paucibacillary (PB versus multibacillary (MB regimens has greatly simplified therapy at the field setting. However, a small but significant risk of under-treatment of so-called "PB" cases which actually have significant bacillary load exists. This study was undertaken to assess this risk and compare two methods of assessment of bacillary load, namely bacillary index on slit skin smear (BIS versus bacillary index of granuloma (BIG. Aims: To compare BIS with BIG on skin biopsy in consecutive untreated cases of leprosy. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted over a period of 12 months, wherein new untreated patients with leprosy were consecutively recruited. After a thorough clinical examination, each patient underwent slit skin smear (SSS where the BIS was calculated. The same patient also underwent a skin biopsy from a clinical lesion where, the BIG was calculated. SSS and skin biopsy for BIS and BIG respectively were repeated for all patients at the end of therapy for comparison. All patients received therapy according to World Health Organization-Multidrug Therapy Guidelines. Results: The BIG was positive in all cases where the BIS was positive. Significantly, BIG was positive in three cases of borderline tuberculoid leprosy with <5 lesions who received PB regimen, whereas the BIS was negative in all three cases. Conclusion: This study suggests that BIG may be a better indicator of the true bacillary load in leprosy as compared to BIS. Its role in management is significant, at least in tertiary care centers to prevent "under-treatment" of so called PB cases, which may actually warrant MB regimens.

  5. Org 214007-0: a novel non-steroidal selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator with full anti-inflammatory properties and improved therapeutic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lierop, Marie-José C; Alkema, Wynand; Laskewitz, Anke J; Dijkema, Rein; van der Maaden, Hans M; Smit, Martin J; Plate, Ralf; Conti, Paolo G M; Jans, Christan G J M; Timmers, C Marco; van Boeckel, Constant A A; Lusher, Scott J; McGuire, Ross; van Schaik, Rene C; de Vlieg, Jacob; Smeets, Ruben L; Hofstra, Claudia L; Boots, Annemieke M H; van Duin, Marcel; Ingelse, Benno A; Schoonen, Willem G E J; Grefhorst, Aldo; van Dijk, Theo H; Kuipers, Folkert; Dokter, Wim H A

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) such as prednisolone are potent immunosuppressive drugs but suffer from severe adverse effects, including the induction of insulin resistance. Therefore, development of so-called Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor Modulators (SGRM) is highly desirable. Here we describe a non-steroidal Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR)-selective compound (Org 214007-0) with a binding affinity to GR similar to that of prednisolone. Structural modelling of the GR-Org 214007-0 binding site shows disturbance of the loop between helix 11 and helix 12 of GR, confirmed by partial recruitment of the TIF2-3 peptide. Using various cell lines and primary human cells, we show here that Org 214007-0 acts as a partial GC agonist, since it repressed inflammatory genes and was less effective in induction of metabolic genes. More importantly, in vivo studies in mice indicated that Org 214007-0 retained full efficacy in acute inflammation models as well as in a chronic collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. Gene expression profiling of muscle tissue derived from arthritic mice showed a partial activity of Org 214007-0 at an equi-efficacious dosage of prednisolone, with an increased ratio in repression versus induction of genes. Finally, in mice Org 214007-0 did not induce elevated fasting glucose nor the shift in glucose/glycogen balance in the liver seen with an equi-efficacious dose of prednisolone. All together, our data demonstrate that Org 214007-0 is a novel SGRMs with an improved therapeutic index compared to prednisolone. This class of SGRMs can contribute to effective anti-inflammatory therapy with a lower risk for metabolic side effects.

  6. Effects of an Alternative to Suspension Intervention in a Therapeutic High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Melis, Claudia; Fenning, Pamela; Lawrence, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of an alternative to suspension intervention on students' subsequent major referrals. The intervention included activities designed to teach social coping strategies as well as mediation to resolve interpersonal conflicts. The intervention was implemented in a therapeutic high school, and…

  7. Decreases in Dietary Glycemic Index Are Related to Weight Loss among Individuals following Therapeutic Diets for Type 2 Diabetes1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Jenkins, David J. A.; Barnard, Neal D.; Cohen, Joshua; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of changes in glycemic index (GI) and load (GL) on weight loss and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among individuals with type 2 diabetes beginning a vegan diet or diet following the 2003 American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations. The study was a 22-wk, randomized trial of 99 participants with type 2 diabetes who were counseled to follow 1 of 2 diet treatments. GI and GL changes were assessed based on 3-d dietary records. The relationships between GI/GL and changes in weight and HbA1C were calculated. In an intention-to-treat analysis (n = 99), the vegan group reduced GI to a greater extent than the ADA group (P vegan group (P vegan or ADA diet in reducing body weight among people with type 2 diabetes. The reduction of body weight, in turn, was predictive of decreasing HbA1C. PMID:21653575

  8. Decreases in dietary glycemic index are related to weight loss among individuals following therapeutic diets for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Jenkins, David J A; Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A

    2011-08-01

    This study assessed the effect of changes in glycemic index (GI) and load (GL) on weight loss and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among individuals with type 2 diabetes beginning a vegan diet or diet following the 2003 American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations. The study was a 22-wk, randomized trial of 99 participants with type 2 diabetes who were counseled to follow 1 of 2 diet treatments. GI and GL changes were assessed based on 3-d dietary records. The relationships between GI/GL and changes in weight and HbA1C were calculated. In an intention-to-treat analysis (n = 99), the vegan group reduced GI to a greater extent than the ADA group (P vegan group (P vegan or ADA diet in reducing body weight among people with type 2 diabetes. The reduction of body weight, in turn, was predictive of decreasing HbA1C.

  9. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Baak, Marleen van

    2010-01-01

    Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power.......Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power....

  10. Plasmonic nanoshell functionalized etched fiber Bragg gratings for highly sensitive refractive index measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgmeier, Jörg; Feizpour, Amin; Schade, Wolfgang; Reinhard, Björn M

    2015-02-15

    A novel fiber optical refractive index sensor based on gold nanoshells immobilized on the surface of an etched single-mode fiber including a Bragg grating is demonstrated. The nanoparticle coating induces refractive index dependent waveguide losses, because of the variation of the evanescently guided part of the light. Hence the amplitude of the Bragg reflection is highly sensitive to refractive index changes of the surrounding medium. The nanoshell functionalized fiber optical refractive index sensor works in reflectance mode, is suitable for chemical and biochemical sensing, and shows an intensity dependency of 4400% per refractive index unit in the refractive index range between 1.333 and 1.346. Furthermore, the physical length of the sensor is smaller than 3 mm with a diameter of 6 μm, and therefore offers the possibility of a localized refractive index measurement.

  11. Development of an Objective High Spatial Resolution Soil Moisture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, B.; Case, J.; White, K.; Bell, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Drought detection, analysis, and mitigation has become a key challenge for a diverse set of decision makers, including but not limited to operational weather forecasters, climatologists, agricultural interests, and water resource management. One tool that is heavily used is the United States Drought Monitor (USDM), which is derived from a complex blend of objective data and subjective analysis on a state-by-state basis using a variety of modeled and observed precipitation, soil moisture, hydrologic, and vegetation and crop health data. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center currently runs a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The LIS-Noah is run at 3-km resolution for local numerical weather prediction (NWP) and situational awareness applications at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) forecast offices over the Continental U.S. (CONUS). To enhance the practicality of the LIS-Noah output for drought monitoring and assessing flood potential, a 30+-year soil moisture climatology has been developed in an attempt to place near real-time soil moisture values in historical context at county- and/or watershed-scale resolutions. This LIS-Noah soil moisture climatology and accompanying anomalies is intended to complement the current suite of operational products, such as the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2), which are generated on a coarser-resolution grid that may not capture localized, yet important soil moisture features. Daily soil moisture histograms are used to identify the real-time soil moisture percentiles at each grid point according to the county or watershed in which the grid point resides. Spatial plots are then produced that map the percentiles as proxies to the different USDM categories. This presentation will highlight recent developments of this gridded, objective soil moisture index, comparison to subjective

  12. 4-1BB Aptamer-Based Immunomodulation Enhances the Therapeutic Index of Radiation Therapy in Murine Tumor Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benaduce, Ana Paula; Brenneman, Randall; Schrand, Brett; Pollack, Alan; Gilboa, Eli; Ishkanian, Adrian, E-mail: aishkanian@med.miami.edu

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To report a novel strategy using oligonucleotide aptamers to 4-1BB as an alternate method for costimulation, and show that combinatorial therapy with radiation improves the therapeutic ratio over equivalent monoclonal antibodies. Methods and Materials: Subcutaneous 4T1 (mouse mammary carcinoma) tumors were established (approximately 100 mm{sup 3}), and a radiation therapy (RT) dose/fractionation schedule that optimally synergizes with 4-1BB monoclonal antibody (mAb) was identified. Comparable tumor control and animal survival was observed when either 4-1BB antibody or aptamer were combined with RT using models of breast cancer and melanoma (4T1 and B16-F10). Off-target CD8{sup +} T-cell toxicity was evaluated by quantification of CD8{sup +} T cells in livers and spleens of treated animals. Results: When combined with 4-1BB mAb, significant differences in tumor control were observed by varying RT dose and fractionation schedules. Optimal synergy between RT and 4-1BB mAb was observed at 5 Gy × 6. Testing 4-1BB mAb and aptamer independently using the optimal RT (5 Gy × 6 for 4T1/Balb/c and 12 Gy × 1 for B16/C57BL6J mouse models) revealed equivalent tumor control using 4-1BB aptamer and 4-1BB mAb. 4-1BB mAb, but not 4-1BB aptamer-treated animals, exhibited increased lymphocytic liver infiltrates and increased splenic and liver CD8{sup +} T cells. Conclusions: Radiation therapy synergizes with 4-1BB mAb, and this effect is dependent on RT dose and fractionation. Tumor control by 4-1BB aptamer is equivalent to 4-1BB mAb when combined with optimal RT dose, without eliciting off-target liver and spleen CD8{sup +} expansion. 4-1BB aptamer-based costimulation affords a comparable and less toxic strategy to augment RT-mediated tumor control.

  13. Micropillar arrays as a high-throughput screening platform for therapeutics in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Feng; Fancy, Stephen P J; Shen, Yun-An A; Niu, Jianqin; Zhao, Chao; Presley, Bryan; Miao, Edna; Lee, Seonok; Mayoral, Sonia R; Redmond, Stephanie A; Etxeberria, Ainhoa; Xiao, Lan; Franklin, Robin J M; Green, Ari; Hauser, Stephen L; Chan, Jonah R

    2014-08-01

    Functional screening for compounds that promote remyelination represents a major hurdle in the development of rational therapeutics for multiple sclerosis. Screening for remyelination is problematic, as myelination requires the presence of axons. Standard methods do not resolve cell-autonomous effects and are not suited for high-throughput formats. Here we describe a binary indicant for myelination using micropillar arrays (BIMA). Engineered with conical dimensions, micropillars permit resolution of the extent and length of membrane wrapping from a single two-dimensional image. Confocal imaging acquired from the base to the tip of the pillars allows for detection of concentric wrapping observed as 'rings' of myelin. The platform is formatted in 96-well plates, amenable to semiautomated random acquisition and automated detection and quantification. Upon screening 1,000 bioactive molecules, we identified a cluster of antimuscarinic compounds that enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation and remyelination. Our findings demonstrate a new high-throughput screening platform for potential regenerative therapeutics in multiple sclerosis.

  14. Analysis of Indexed-Guided Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a comparative study of three geometries of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers (HB PCF) is presented. The proposed geometries are: V type PCF, Pseudo-Panda PCF and selectively liquid-filled PCF. Based on the famous Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method with the perfectly matched layer ...

  15. Erythemal and therapeutic response of psoriasis to PUVA using high-dose UVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speight, E.L.; Farr, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    In PUVA treatment of psoriasis, clinical observation suggests that uninvolved skin is more susceptible to PUVA erythema than lesions of psoriasis. If this is the case, then the efficacy of PUVA treatment might be increased by using localized high-dose UVA restricted to lesional skin. We have therefore studied the erythemal and therapeutic response of psoriasis to PUVA using high-dose UVA and, for comparison, the erythemal response to UVB. This study demonstrates that psoriasis may clear rapidly, without burning, using high-dose UVA. Availability of a suitable irradiation apparatus would allow rapid and effective PUVA treatment to be used for localized, resistant disease. (author)

  16. New infrared transmitting material via inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur to prepare high refractive index polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Jared J; Namnabat, Soha; Kim, Eui Tae; Himmelhuber, Roland; Moronta, Dominic H; Chung, Woo Jin; Simmonds, Adam G; Kim, Kyung-Jo; van der Laan, John; Nguyen, Ngoc A; Dereniak, Eustace L; Mackay, Michael E; Char, Kookheon; Glass, Richard S; Norwood, Robert A; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2014-05-21

    Polymers for IR imaging: The preparation of high refractive index polymers (n = 1.75 to 1.86) via the inverse vulcanization of elemental sulfur is reported. High quality imaging in the near (1.5 μm) and mid-IR (3-5 μm) regions using high refractive index polymeric lenses from these sulfur materials was demonstrated. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Development of high-index optical coating for security holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadir A. G.

    2000-10-01

    Over the past few years security holograms have grown into a complex business to prevent counterfeiting of security cards, banknotes and the like. Rapid advances in holographic technology have led to a growing requirement for optical materials and coating methods to produce such holograms at reasonable costs. These materials have specific refractive indices and are used to fabricate semi- transparent holograms. The present paper describes a coating process to deposit optical coating on flexible films inside a vacuum web metallizer for the production of high quality semi-transparent holograms.

  18. High-performance technology for indexing of high volumes of Earth remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotov, Valery V.; Taganov, Alexander I.; Kolesenkov, Aleksandr N.; Kostrov, Boris V.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper has suggested a technology for search, indexing, cataloging and distribution of aerospace images on the basis of geo-information approach, cluster and spectral analysis. It has considered information and algorithmic support of the system. Functional circuit of the system and structure of the geographical data base have been developed on the basis of the geographical online portal technology. Taking into account heterogeneity of information obtained from various sources it is reasonable to apply a geoinformation platform that allows analyzing space location of objects and territories and executing complex processing of information. Geoinformation platform is based on cartographic fundamentals with the uniform coordinate system, the geographical data base, a set of algorithms and program modules for execution of various tasks. The technology for adding by particular users and companies of images taken by means of professional and amateur devices and also processed by various software tools to the array system has been suggested. Complex usage of visual and instrumental approaches allows significantly expanding an application area of Earth remote sensing data. Development and implementation of new algorithms based on the complex usage of new methods for processing of structured and unstructured data of high volumes will increase periodicity and rate of data updating. The paper has shown that application of original algorithms for search, indexing and cataloging of aerospace images will provide an easy access to information spread by hundreds of suppliers and allow increasing an access rate to aerospace images up to 5 times in comparison with current analogues.

  19. A high dietary glycemic index increases total mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.

  20. Tree-indexed processes: a high level crossing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kelbert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider a branching diffusion process on R1 starting at the origin. Take a high level u>0 and count the number R(u,n of branches reaching u by generation n. Let Fk,n(u be the probability P(R(u,n

  1. A Simple and Sensitive High-Content Assay for the Characterization of Antiproliferative Therapeutic Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengl, Andreas; Hörl, David; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Helma, Jonas

    2017-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become a central class of therapeutic agents in particular as antiproliferative compounds. Their often complex modes of action require sensitive assays during early, functional characterization. Current cell-based proliferation assays often detect metabolites that are indicative of metabolic activity but do not directly account for cell proliferation. Measuring DNA replication by incorporation of base analogues such as 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) fills this analytical gap but was previously restricted to bulk effect characterization in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay formats. Here, we describe a cell-based assay format for the characterization of antiproliferative mAbs regarding potency and mode of action in a single experiment. The assay makes use of single cell-based high-content-analysis (HCA) for the reliable quantification of replicating cells and DNA content via 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), respectively, as sensitive measures of antiproliferative mAb activity. We used trastuzumab, an antiproliferative therapeutic antibody interfering with HER2 cell surface receptor-mediated growth signal transduction, and HER2-overexpressing cell lines BT474 and SKBR3 to demonstrate up to 10-fold signal-to-background (S/B) ratios for treated versus untreated cells and a shift in cell cycle profiles indicating antibody-induced cell cycle arrest. The assay is simple, cost-effective, and sensitive, providing a cell-based format for preclinical characterization of therapeutic mAbs.

  2. Air pollution forecast in cities by an air pollution index highly correlated with meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogliani, E.

    2001-01-01

    There are many different air pollution indexes which represent the global urban air pollution situation. The daily index studied here is also highly correlated with meteorological variables and this index is capable of identifying those variables that significantly affect the air pollution. The index is connected with attention levels of NO 2 , CO and O 3 concentrations. The attention levels are fixed by a law proposed by the Italian Ministries of Health and Environment. The relation of that index with some meteorological variables is analysed by the linear multiple partial correlation statistical method. Florence, Milan and Vicence were selected to show the correlation among the air pollution index and the daily thermic excursion, the previous day's air pollution index and the wind speed. During the January-March period the correlation coefficient reaches 0.85 at Milan. The deterministic methods of forecasting air pollution concentrations show very high evaluation errors and are applied on limited areas around the observation stations, as opposed to the whole urban areas. The global air pollution, instead of the concentrations at specific observation stations, allows the evaluation of the level of the sanitary risk regarding the whole urban population. (Author)

  3. Printable photonic crystals with high refractive index for applications in visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calafiore, Giuseppe; Mejia, Camilo A; Munechika, Keiko; Peroz, Christophe; Piña-Hernandez, Carlos; Fillot, Quentin; Dhuey, Scott; Sassolini, Simone; Salvadori, Filippo; Cabrini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) of functional high-refractive index materials has proved to be a powerful candidate for the inexpensive manufacturing of high-resolution photonic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate the fabrication of printable photonic crystals (PhCs) with high refractive index working in the visible wavelengths. The PhCs are replicated on a titanium dioxide-based high-refractive index hybrid material by reverse NIL with almost zero shrinkage and high-fidelity reproducibility between mold and printed devices. The optical responses of the imprinted PhCs compare very well with those fabricated by conventional nanofabrication methods. This study opens the road for a low-cost manufacturing of PhCs and other nanophotonic devices for applications in visible light. (paper)

  4. Enhancement by O6-benzyl-N2-acetylguanosine of N'-[2-chloroethyl]-N-[2-(methylsulphonyl)ethyl]-N'-nitrosourea therapeutic index on nude mice bearing resistant human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiton, E.; Cussac-Buchdhal, C.; Mounetou, E.; Rapp, M.; Dupuy, J. M.; Maurizis, J. C.; Veyre, A.; Madelmont, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    The exposure of cells to O6-benzyl-N2-acetylguanosine (BNAG) and several guanine derivatives is known to reduce the activity of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (MGMT) and to enhance the sensitivity of Mer+ (methyl enzyme repair positive) tumour cells to chloroethylnitrosoureas (CENUs) in vitro and in vivo. High water solubility and the pharmacokinetic properties of BNAG make it a candidate for simultaneous administration with CENUs by the i.v. route in human clinical use. In vivo we have shown previously that BNAG significantly increases the efficiency of N'-[2-chloroethyl]-N-[2-(methylsulphonyl)ethyl]-N'-nitrosourea (cystemustine) against M4Beu melanoma cells (Mer+) through its cytostatic activity by the i.p. route, but also increases its toxicity. To investigate the toxicity of BNAG and cystemustine when administered simultaneously in mice, we compared the maximum tolerated dose and LD50 doses of cystemustine alone or in combination with 40 mg kg(-1) BNAG by the i.p. route. The toxicity of cystemustine was enhanced by a factor of almost 1.44 when combined with BNAG. To compare the therapeutic index of cystemustine alone and the cystemustine/BNAG combination, pharmacological tests were carried out in nude mice bearing Mer+ M4Beu human melanoma cells. Isotoxic doses were calculated using the 1.44 ratio. The treatments were administered three times by the i.v. route on days 1, 5 and 9 after s.c. inoculation of tumour cells. Although the toxicities of the treatments were equal, BNAG strongly enhanced tumour growth inhibition. These results demonstrate the increase of the therapeutic index of cystemustine by BNAG and justify the use of BNAG to enhance nitrosourea efficiency in vivo by i.v. co-injection. PMID:9365163

  5. Refractive index engineering of high performance coupler for compact photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhou, Zhiping

    2017-04-01

    High performance couplers are highly desired in many applications, but the design is limited by nearly unchangeable material refractive index. To tackle this issue, refractive index engineering method is investigated, which can be realized by subwavelength grating. Subwavelength gratings are periodical structures with pitches small enough to locally synthesize the refractive index of photonic waveguides, which allows direct control of optical profile as well as easier fabrication process. This review provides an introduction to the basics of subwavelength structures and pay special attention to the design strategies of some representative examples of subwavelength grating devices, including: edge couplers, fiber-chip grating couplers, directional couplers and multimode interference couplers. Benefited from the subwavelength grating which can engineer the refractive index as well as birefringence and dispersion, these devices show better performance when compared to their conventional counterparts.

  6. Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract Prevents Growth of MCF-7 and HeLa Cells and Potentiates the Therapeutic Index of Cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhavi Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to gain insight into the antiproliferative activity of ethanolic neem leaves extract (ENLE alone or in combination with cisplatin by cell viability assay on human breast (MCF-7 and cervical (HeLa cancer cells. Nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis were performed to determine the mode of cell death. Further, to identify its molecular targets, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and drug metabolism was analyzed by RT-PCR. Treatment of MCF-7, HeLa, and normal cells with ENLE differentially suppressed the growth of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through apoptosis. Additionally, lower dose combinations of ENLE with cisplatin resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of these cells compared to the individual drugs (combination index <1. ENLE significantly modulated the expression of bax, cyclin D1, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP 1A1 and CYP 1A2 in a time-dependent manner in these cells. Conclusively, these results emphasize the chemopreventive ability of neem alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment to reduce the cytotoxic effects on normal cells, while potentiating their efficacy at lower doses. Thus, neem may be a prospective therapeutic agent to combat gynecological cancers.

  7. High-negative effective refractive index of silver nanoparticles system in nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunin, Konstantin K.; Gadomsky, Oleg N.

    2012-03-01

    We have proved on the basis of the experimental optical reflection and transmission spectra of the nanocomposite film of poly(methyl methacrylate) with silver nanoparticles that (PMMA + Ag) nanocomposite films have quasi-zero refractive indices in the optical wavelength range. We show that to achieve quasi-zero values of the complex index of refraction of composite materials is necessary to achieve high-negative effective refractive index in the system of spherical silver nanoparticles.

  8. High-Density Near-Field Readout over 50 GB Capacity Using Solid Immersion Lens with High Refractive Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Kondo, Takao; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi

    2003-02-01

    We have investigated high-density near-field readout using a solid immersion lens with a high refractive index. By using a glass material with a high refractive index of 2.08, we developed an optical pick-up with the effective numerical aperture of 1.8. We could observe a clear eye pattern for a 50 GB capacity disc in 120 mm diameter. We confirmed that the near-field readout system is promising method of realizing a high-density optical disc system.

  9. Chemotherapy and novel therapeutics before radical prostatectomy for high-risk clinically localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eugene K; Eastham, James A

    2015-05-01

    Although both surgery and radiation are potential curative options for men with clinically localized prostate cancer, a significant proportion of men with high-risk and locally advanced disease will demonstrate biochemical and potentially clinical progression of their disease. Neoadjuvant systemic therapy before radical prostatectomy (RP) is a logical strategy to improve treatment outcomes for men with clinically localized high-risk prostate cancer. Furthermore, delivery of chemotherapy and other systemic agents before RP affords an opportunity to explore the efficacy of these agents with pathologic end points. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, primarily with docetaxel (with or without androgen deprivation therapy), has demonstrated feasibility and safety in men undergoing RP, but no study to date has established the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapies. Other novel agents, such as those targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, clusterin, and immunomodulatory therapeutics, are currently under investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A derating method for therapeutic applications of high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessonova, O. V.; Khokhlova, V. A.; Canney, M. S.; Bailey, M. R.; Crum, L. A.

    2010-05-01

    Current methods of determining high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields in tissue rely on extrapolation of measurements in water assuming linear wave propagation both in water and in tissue. Neglecting nonlinear propagation effects in the derating process can result in significant errors. A new method based on scaling the source amplitude is introduced to estimate focal parameters of nonlinear HIFU fields in tissue. Focal values of acoustic field parameters in absorptive tissue are obtained from a numerical solution to a KZK-type equation and are compared to those simulated for propagation in water. Focal wave-forms, peak pressures, and intensities are calculated over a wide range of source outputs and linear focusing gains. Our modeling indicates, that for the high gain sources which are typically used in therapeutic medical applications, the focal field parameters derated with our method agree well with numerical simulation in tissue. The feasibility of the derating method is demonstrated experimentally in excised bovine liver tissue.

  11. Purging of acute myeloid leukaemia cells from stem cell grafts by hyperthermia : enhancement of the therapeutic index by the tetrapeptide AcSDKP and the alkyl-lysophospholipid ET-18-OCH3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, PK; Setroikromo, R; Vellenga, E; Kampinga, HH

    2000-01-01

    Hyperthermia has been shown to be a potential purging modality in autologous stem cell transplantation settings owing to its selective toxicity towards leukaemic cells, We describe two approaches to further increase the therapeutic index of the hyperthermic purging modality by using normal murine

  12. Facile Synthesis of Gold Nanorice Enclosed by High- Index Facets and Its Application for CO Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.; Tao, J.; Liu, H.; Zeng, J.; Yu, T.; Ma, Y.; Moran, C.; Wu, L.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, J.; Xia, Y.

    2011-01-01

    A facile method for generating Au nanorice enclosed by high-index facets in high purity. The nanorice shows much higher catalytic activity for CO oxidation than multiply twinned particles of Au enclosed by {111} facets at temperatures below 300 C.

  13. Waveguide-loaded silica fibers for coupling to high-index micro-resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latawiec, P.; Burek, M. J.; Venkataraman, V.; Lončar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Tapered silica fibers are often used to rapidly probe the optical properties of micro-resonators. However, their low refractive index precludes phase-matching when coupling to high-index micro-resonators, reducing efficiency. Here, we demonstrate efficient optical coupling from tapered fibers to high-index micro-resonators by loading the fibers with an ancillary adiabatic waveguide-coupler fabricated via angled-etching. We demonstrate greatly enhanced coupling to a silicon multimode micro-resonator when compared to coupling via the bare fiber only. Signatures of resonator optical bistability are observed at high powers. This scheme can be applied to resonators of any size and material, increasing the functional scope of fiber coupling.

  14. Extraction of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes via high-index coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Bert J; Frischeisen, Jörg; Jaeger, Arndt; Setz, Daniel S; Reusch, Thilo C G; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2012-03-12

    The efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is still limited by poor light outcoupling. In particular, the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at metal-organic interfaces represents a major loss channel. By combining optical simulations and experiments on simplified luminescent thin-film structures we elaborate the conditions for the extraction of SPPs via coupling to high-index media. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate the possibility to extract light from wave-guided modes and surface plasmons in a top-emitting white OLED by a high-index prism.

  15. Highly sensitive electrochemical determination of 1-naphthol based on high-index facet SnO2 modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaofeng; Zhao Guohua; Liu Meichuan; Li Fengting; Qiao Junlian; Zhao Sichen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► It is the first time to employ high-index faceted SnO 2 in electrochemical analysis. ► High-index faceted SnO 2 has excellent electrochemical activity toward 1-naphthol. ► Highly sensitive determination of 1-naphthol is realized on high-index faceted SnO 2 . ► The detection limit of 1-naphthol is as low as 5 nM on high-index faceted SnO 2 . ► Electro-oxidation kinetics for 1-napthol on the novel electrode is discussed. - Abstract: SnO 2 nanooctahedron with {2 2 1} high-index facet (HIF) was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method, and was firstly employed to sensitive electrochemical sensing of a typical organic pollutant, 1-naphthol (1-NAP). The constructed HIF SnO 2 modified glassy carbon electrode (HIF SnO 2 /GCE) possessed advantages of large effective electrode area, high electron transfer rate, and low charge transfer resistance. These improved electrochemical properties allowed the high electrocatalytic performance, high effective active sites and high adsorption capacity of 1-NAP on HIF SnO 2 /GCE. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) results showed that the electrochemical oxidation of 1-NAP obeyed a two-electron transfer process and the electrode reaction was under diffusion control on HIF SnO 2 /GCE. By adopting differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), electrochemical detection of 1-NAP was conducted on HIF SnO 2 /GCE with a limit of detection as low as 5 nM, which was relatively low compared to the literatures. The electrode also illustrated good stability in comparison with those reported value. Satisfactory results were obtained with average recoveries in the range of 99.7–103.6% in the real water sample detection. A promising device for the electrochemical detection of 1-NAP with high sensitivity has therefore been provided.

  16. Single-mode optical waveguides on native high-refractive-index substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Grote

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High-refractive-index semiconductor optical waveguides form the basis for modern photonic integrated circuits (PICs. However, conventional methods for achieving optical confinement require a thick lower-refractive-index support layer that impedes large-scale co-integration with electronics and limits the materials on which PICs can be fabricated. To address this challenge, we present a general architecture for single-mode waveguides that confine light in a high-refractive-index material on a native substrate. The waveguide consists of a high-aspect-ratio fin of the guiding material surrounded by lower-refractive-index dielectrics and is compatible with standard top-down fabrication techniques. This letter describes a physically intuitive, semi-analytical, effective index model for designing fin waveguides, which is confirmed with fully vectorial numerical simulations. Design examples are presented for diamond and silicon at visible and telecommunications wavelengths, respectively, along with calculations of propagation loss due to bending, scattering, and substrate leakage. Potential methods of fabrication are also discussed. The proposed waveguide geometry allows PICs to be fabricated alongside silicon CMOS electronics on the same wafer, removes the need for heteroepitaxy in III-V PICs, and will enable wafer-scale photonic integration on emerging material platforms such as diamond and SiC.

  17. Rational design of highly potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitory proteins: Implication for developing antiviral therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Ling; Gao, George F.; Tien Po

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant protein containing one heptad-repeat 1 (HR1) segment and one HR2 segment of the HIV-1 gp41 (HR1-HR2) has been shown to fold into thermally stable six-helix bundle, representing the fusogenic core of gp41. In this study, we have used the fusogenic core as a scaffold to design HIV-1 fusion inhibitory proteins by linking another HR1 to the C terminus of HR1-HR2 (HR121) or additional HR2 to the N terminus of HR1-HR2 (HR212). Both recombinant proteins could be abundantly and solubly expressed and easily purified, exhibiting high stability and potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 fusion with IC 50 values of 16.2 ± 2.8 and 2.8 ± 0.63 nM, respectively. These suggest that these rationally designed proteins can be further developed as novel anti-HIV-1 therapeutics

  18. Novel approaches to improve the therapeutic index of head and neck radiotherapy: An analysis of data from the PARSPORT randomised phase III trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, Florian; Miah, Aisha B.; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Hall, Emma; Harrington, Kevin J.; Webb, Steve; Partridge, Mike; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Subjective xerostomia is a common side-effect following radiotherapy for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer. Standard mean dose models previously used to model xerostomia only that partially predict the occurrence of xerostomia. Studies in animal models have suggested that there are regional variations in the radiosensitivity of the parotid glands. In this work we tested the hypothesis that this is also true for the human parotid gland. Methods: We present novel dose–response models explicitly taking the spatial distribution of the radiation dose into account. We considered dose to the submandibular gland and other clinical factors and used a variable-selection algorithm to select the best dose–response model. This methodology was applied to 63 head and neck cancer patients and validated using two independent patient cohorts of 19 and 29 patients, respectively. Results: The predictive accuracy of dose–response models improved significantly when including regional variations of radiosensitivity of the parotid glands compared to standard mean-dose models (p = 0.001, t-test). Beneficial dose-pattern analysis demonstrated the importance of minimising dose to the lateral and cranial component of the human parotid gland in order to avoid xerostomia. Furthermore we found an evidence that surgical removal of the sub-mandibular gland significantly increases the risk of radiation-induced xerostomia. Conclusion: Dose–response models which take the shape of the dose-distribution into account predicted xerostomia significantly better than standard mean-dose models. Our novel model could be used to rank potential treatment plans more reliably according to their therapeutic index and may be useful to generate better treatment plans.

  19. Stability studies of therapeutic 131I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (131I-mIBG) using high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murhekar, V.V.; Mathur, Anupam; Pilkhwal, Neelam S.; Prabhakar, G.; Padmanabhan, D.; Sachdev, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    BRIT is a manufacturer and supplier of therapeutic doses (100 mCi) of the radiopharmaceutical 131 I-mIBG to various nuclear medicine centers in India. The therapeutic formulation is of high radioactive concentration (>10 mCi/ml) and is thus prone to radiolytic damage during transport, storage until administration. Earlier stability studies at this laboratory were done using conventional methods like Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) which has an inherent limitation in terms of resolution. In view of this, a suitable HPLC method has been developed and the stability of therapeutic 131 I-mIBG was monitored at various conditions

  20. Cover-layer with High Refractive Index for Near-Field Recording Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jun-Seok

    2007-06-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles are added into UV-curable resin to increase the refractive index of the cover-layer laminated for cover-layer incident near-field recording media. A high refractive index is required for the cover-layer operating with an optical head with a high numerical aperture. The eye pattern from a cover-layer coated 20 GB read-only memory disc in which the refractive index of the cover-layer is 1.75 is achieved, but the gap servo is unstable owing to the rough surface of the cover-layer. Even though the light loss due to the nanoparticles is negligible, a rough microstructure is developed by adding the nanoparticles into an organic binder material. To achieve a smooth surface for a stable gap servo, the solubility of the nanoparticles should be enhanced by the optimization of the surface of the nanoparticles.

  1. Therapeutic approach to patients complaining of high blood pressure in a cardiological emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gus

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the management of patients complaining of high blood pressure (BP in a cardiological emergency room. METHODS: Patients referred to the cardiological emergency room with the main complaint of high blood pressure were consecutively selected. The prescriptions and the choice of antihypertensive drugs were assessed. The classification of these patients as hypertensive emergencies or pseudoemergencies, according to the physician who provided initial care, was recorded. RESULTS: From a total of 858 patients presenting to the emergency room, 80 (9.3% complained of high BP, and 61 (76.3% received antihypertensive drugs. Sublingual nifedipine was the most commonly used drug (59%. One patient received intravenous medication, one patient was hospitalized and 6 patients (7.5% were classified as hypertensive emergencies or pseudoemergencies. CONCLUSION: High BP could seldom be classified as a hypertensive emergency or pseudoemergency, even though it was a frequent complaint (9.3% of visits. Currently, the therapeutic approach is not recommended, even in specialized clinics.

  2. Automatic design of basin-specific drought indexes for highly regulated water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniolo, Marta; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea Francesco; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    Socio-economic costs of drought are progressively increasing worldwide due to undergoing alterations of hydro-meteorological regimes induced by climate change. Although drought management is largely studied in the literature, traditional drought indexes often fail at detecting critical events in highly regulated systems, where natural water availability is conditioned by the operation of water infrastructures such as dams, diversions, and pumping wells. Here, ad hoc index formulations are usually adopted based on empirical combinations of several, supposed-to-be significant, hydro-meteorological variables. These customized formulations, however, while effective in the design basin, can hardly be generalized and transferred to different contexts. In this study, we contribute FRIDA (FRamework for Index-based Drought Analysis), a novel framework for the automatic design of basin-customized drought indexes. In contrast to ad hoc empirical approaches, FRIDA is fully automated, generalizable, and portable across different basins. FRIDA builds an index representing a surrogate of the drought conditions of the basin, computed by combining all the relevant available information about the water circulating in the system identified by means of a feature extraction algorithm. We used the Wrapper for Quasi-Equally Informative Subset Selection (W-QEISS), which features a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to find Pareto-efficient subsets of variables by maximizing the wrapper accuracy, minimizing the number of selected variables, and optimizing relevance and redundancy of the subset. The preferred variable subset is selected among the efficient solutions and used to formulate the final index according to alternative model structures. We apply FRIDA to the case study of the Jucar river basin (Spain), a drought-prone and highly regulated Mediterranean water resource system, where an advanced drought management plan relying on the formulation of an ad hoc state index is used

  3. Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index and Circulating T-Cell Immune Index Predict Outcomes in High-Risk Acral Melanoma Patients Treated with High-Dose Interferon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayi Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High-dose interferon alfa-2b (IFN-α-2b improves the survival of patients with high-risk melanoma. We aimed to identify baseline peripheral blood biomarkers to predict the outcome of acral melanoma patients treated with IFN-α-2b. Pretreatment baseline parameters and clinical data were assessed in 226 patients with acral melanoma. Relapse-free survival (RFS and overall survival (OS were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied after adjusting for stage, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and ulceration. Univariate analysis showed that neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥2.35, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥129, systemic immune-inflammation index (SII ≥615 × 109/l, and elevated LDH were significantly associated with poor RFS and OS. The SII is calculated as follows: platelet count × neutrophil count/lymphocyte count. On multivariate analysis, the SII was associated with RFS [hazard ratio (HR=1.661, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.066-2.586, P=.025] and OS (HR=2.071, 95% CI: 1.204-3.564, P=.009. Additionally, we developed a novel circulating T-cell immune index (CTII calculated as follows: cytotoxic T lymphocytes/(CD4+ regulatory T cells × CD8+ regulatory T cells. On univariate analysis, the CTII was associated with OS (HR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.01-2.94, P=.044. The SII and CTII might serve as prognostic indicators in acral melanoma patients treated with IFN-α-2b. The indexes are easily obtainable via routine tests in clinical practice.

  4. Indexing Permafrost Soil Organic Matter Degradation Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Benjamin F; Chen, Hongmei; Herndon, Elizabeth M; Chu, Rosalie K; Tolic, Nikola; Portier, Evan F; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Robinson, Errol W; Callister, Stephen J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Graham, David E; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2015-01-01

    Microbial degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) is a key process for terrestrial carbon cycling, although the molecular details of these transformations remain unclear. This study reports the application of ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to profile the molecular composition of SOM and its degradation during a simulated warming experiment. A soil sample, collected near Barrow, Alaska, USA, was subjected to a 40-day incubation under anoxic conditions and analyzed before and after the incubation to determine changes of SOM composition. A CHO index based on molecular C, H, and O data was utilized to codify SOM components according to their observed degradation potentials. Compounds with a CHO index score between -1 and 0 in a water-soluble fraction (WSF) demonstrated high degradation potential, with a highest shift of CHO index occurred in the N-containing group of compounds, while similar stoichiometries in a base-soluble fraction (BSF) did not. Additionally, compared with the classical H:C vs O:C van Krevelen diagram, CHO index allowed for direct visualization of the distribution of heteroatoms such as N in the identified SOM compounds. We demonstrate that CHO index is useful not only in characterizing arctic SOM at the molecular level but also enabling quantitative description of SOM degradation, thereby facilitating incorporation of the high resolution MS datasets to future mechanistic models of SOM degradation and prediction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. High reliability solid refractive index matching materials for field installable connections in FTTH network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kotaro; Kihara, Mitsuru; Shimizu, Tomoya; Yoneda, Keisuke; Kurashima, Toshio

    2015-06-01

    We performed environmental and accelerated aging tests to ensure the long-term reliability of solid type refractive index matching material at a splice point. Stable optical characteristics were confirmed in environmental tests based on an IEC standard. In an accelerated aging test at 140 °C, which is very much higher than the specification test temperature, the index matching material itself and spliced fibers passing through it had steady optical characteristics. Then we performed an accelerated aging test on an index matching material attached to a built-in fiber before splicing it in the worst condition, which is different from the normal use configuration. As a result, we confirmed that the repeated insertion and removal of fiber for splicing resulted in failure. We consider that the repetition of adhesion between index matching material and fibers causes the splice to degrade. With this result, we used the Arrhenius model to estimate a median lifetime of about 68 years in a high temperature environment of 60 °C. Thus solid type index matching material at a splice point is highly reliable over long periods under normal conditions of use.

  6. Developments on drug discovery and on new therapeutics: highly diluted tinctures act as biological response modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Carolina C; Abud, Ana Paula R; de Oliveira, Simone M; Guimarães, Fernando de S F; de Andrade, Lucas F; Di Bernardi, Raffaello P; Coletto, Ediely L de O; Kuczera, Diogo; Da Lozzo, Eneida J; Gonçalves, Jenifer P; Trindade, Edvaldo da S; Buchi, Dorly de F

    2011-10-26

    In the search for new therapies novel drugs and medications are being discovered, developed and tested in laboratories. Highly diluted substances are intended to enhance immune system responses resulting in reduced frequency of various diseases, and often present no risk of serious side-effects due to its low toxicity. Over the past years our research group has been investigating the action of highly diluted substances and tinctures on cells from the immune system. We have developed and tested several highly diluted tinctures and here we describe the biological activity of M1, M2, and M8 both in vitro in immune cells from mice and human, and in vivo in mice. Cytotoxicity, cytokines released and NF-κB activation were determined after in vitro treatment. Cell viability, oxidative response, lipid peroxidation, bone marrow and lymph node cells immunophenotyping were accessed after mice in vivo treatment. None of the highly diluted tinctures tested were cytotoxic to macrophages or K562. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages treated with all highly diluted tinctures decreased tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) release and M1, and M8 decreased IFN-γ production. M1 has decreased NF-κB activity on TNF-α stimulated reporter cell line. In vivo treatment lead to a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) production was increased by M1, and M8, and lipid peroxidation was induced by M1, and M2. All compounds enhanced the innate immunity, but M1 also augmented acquired immunity and M2 diminished B lymphocytes, responsible to acquired immunity. Based on the results presented here, these highly diluted tinctures were shown to modulate immune responses. Even though further investigation is needed there is an indication that these highly diluted tinctures could be used as therapeutic interventions in disorders where the immune system is compromised.

  7. Developments on drug discovery and on new therapeutics: highly diluted tinctures act as biological response modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Carolina C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the search for new therapies novel drugs and medications are being discovered, developed and tested in laboratories. Highly diluted substances are intended to enhance immune system responses resulting in reduced frequency of various diseases, and often present no risk of serious side-effects due to its low toxicity. Over the past years our research group has been investigating the action of highly diluted substances and tinctures on cells from the immune system. Methods We have developed and tested several highly diluted tinctures and here we describe the biological activity of M1, M2, and M8 both in vitro in immune cells from mice and human, and in vivo in mice. Cytotoxicity, cytokines released and NF-κB activation were determined after in vitro treatment. Cell viability, oxidative response, lipid peroxidation, bone marrow and lymph node cells immunophenotyping were accessed after mice in vivo treatment. Results None of the highly diluted tinctures tested were cytotoxic to macrophages or K562. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophages treated with all highly diluted tinctures decreased tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α release and M1, and M8 decreased IFN-γ production. M1 has decreased NF-κB activity on TNF-α stimulated reporter cell line. In vivo treatment lead to a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS, nitric oxide (NO production was increased by M1, and M8, and lipid peroxidation was induced by M1, and M2. All compounds enhanced the innate immunity, but M1 also augmented acquired immunity and M2 diminished B lymphocytes, responsible to acquired immunity. Conclusions Based on the results presented here, these highly diluted tinctures were shown to modulate immune responses. Even though further investigation is needed there is an indication that these highly diluted tinctures could be used as therapeutic interventions in disorders where the immune system is compromised.

  8. Effect of low and high glycaemic index drink on sleep pattern in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilolghadr, S.; Afaghi, A.; Connor, H.O.; Chow, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of high and low glycaemic index drinks on children's sleep pattern. Methods: Eight children underwent 3 nights of full polysomnography study, one familiarization and two test nights consecutively. On the test nights, 1 hour before bedtime, the children had a milk drink of either low or high GI in a random order. The glycaemic loads (GL) were 7.4 and 52.8 for low and high GI drink respectively. Results: The mean of total arousal index in the first half of night after the high GI was greater than that of low GI drink. (12.9 +- 4.6 vs. 9.9 +- 2.2, P=0.03). NREM arousal index in the first half of night after the high GI was also higher than that of low GI drink. (12.7+- 4.8 vs. 9.6 +- 2.3, P=0.05). Other sleep parameters did not show any significant difference in low GI and high GI diets. Conclusion: NREM and total arousal indices were higher in those who consumed high GI drinks compared with low GI, one hour before sleep. It seems that the high quantity consumption of carbohydrates close to the bedtime is accompanied by frequent arousals and may affect the sleep quality. (author)

  9. Zero-velocity solitons in high-index photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear propagation in slow-light states of high-index photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is studied numerically. To avoid divergencies in dispersion and nonlinear parameters around the zero-velocity mode, a time-propagating generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is formulated. Calculated slow-...

  10. Prism coupling technique for characterization of the high refractive index planar waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prajzler, V.; Nekvindová, P.; Varga, Marián; Bruncko, J.; Remeš, Zdeněk; Kromka, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, 11-12 (2016), s. 915-921 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high index contrast * optical planar waveguides * zinc oxide * nanocrystalline diamond * gallium nitride Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2016

  11. Twenty Hirsch index variants and other indicators giving more or less preference to highly cited papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, M.

    2010-08-01

    The Hirsch index or h-index is widely used to quantify the impact of an individual's scientific research output, determining the highest number h of a scientist's papers that received at least h citations. Several variants of the index have been proposed in order to give more or less preference to highly cited papers. I analyse the citation records of 26 physicists discussing various suggestions, in particular A, e, f, g, h(2), h_w, h_T, \\hbar, m, {\\pi}, R, s, t, w, and maxprod. The total number of all and of all cited publications as well as the highest and the average number of citations are also compared. Advantages and disadvantages of these indices and indicators are discussed. Correlation coefficients are determined quantifying which indices and indicators yield similar and which yield more deviating rankings of the 26 datasets. For 6 datasets the determination of the indices and indicators is visualized.

  12. High index of refraction films for dielectric mirrors prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusasco, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    A wide variety of metal oxides with high index of refraction can be prepared by Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition. We present some recent optical and laser damage results on oxide films prepared by MOCVD which could be used in a multilayer structure for highly reflecting (HR) dielectric mirror applications. The method of preparation affects both optical properties and laser damage threshold. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Multiplex target enrichment using DNA indexing for ultra-high throughput SNP detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, Elaine M

    2011-02-01

    Screening large numbers of target regions in multiple DNA samples for sequence variation is an important application of next-generation sequencing but an efficient method to enrich the samples in parallel has yet to be reported. We describe an advanced method that combines DNA samples using indexes or barcodes prior to target enrichment to facilitate this type of experiment. Sequencing libraries for multiple individual DNA samples, each incorporating a unique 6-bp index, are combined in equal quantities, enriched using a single in-solution target enrichment assay and sequenced in a single reaction. Sequence reads are parsed based on the index, allowing sequence analysis of individual samples. We show that the use of indexed samples does not impact on the efficiency of the enrichment reaction. For three- and nine-indexed HapMap DNA samples, the method was found to be highly accurate for SNP identification. Even with sequence coverage as low as 8x, 99% of sequence SNP calls were concordant with known genotypes. Within a single experiment, this method can sequence the exonic regions of hundreds of genes in tens of samples for sequence and structural variation using as little as 1 μg of input DNA per sample.

  14. Comparison of therapeutic lipid target achievements among high-risk patients in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Baneerje, Yajnavalka; Al-Sabti, Hilal; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Farhan, Hatem; Habsi, Khadija Al; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2014-05-01

    We compared therapeutic lipid target achievements among patients with diabetes or coronary heart disease (CHD) in Oman. A retrospective chart review of 94 patients was conducted at an outpatient clinic in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. The variables included low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (apo B). The overall mean age of the cohort was 59 ± 12 years, 54% were male, 66% were diabetic, 48% hypertensive, 45% had CHD, 94% were on simvastatin, 4% were on fenofibrate, and 2% were on both simvastatin and fenofibrate. Lipid goal attainments of calculated LDL-C (<2.6 mmol/L), apo B (<0.9 g/L), and non-HDL-C (<3.36 mmol/L) were reached in 52%, 39%, and 53% of the patients, respectively. A significant proportion of high-risk patients treated with lipid-lowering agents reach LDL-C but not the apo B treatment targets, suggesting that the use of apo B target values should also be considered.

  15. Generation of highly confined photonic nanojet using crescent-shape refractive index profile in microsphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, H. S.; Kushwaha, P. K.; Swami, M. K.

    2018-05-01

    Photonic nanojets (PNJs) owing to their sub-wavelength near-field features have found many interesting applications like nanoscopy, nano photolithography, high density optical storage, enhancement of Raman signal and single molecule spectroscopy etc. More recently, the focus of research has been on tailoring of PNJs either for better confinement and thus higher peak intensity or for elongation of nanojet for high resolution far field applications. In this paper, we show that crescent-shape refractive index profile (CSRP) of microspheres can be used to generate highly confined PNJ. By optimizing the refractive index of different layers in CSRP microsphere, we show a free space confinement down to ∼ λ / 4 . 5 (FWHM ∼ 110 nm for excitation with 500 nm wavelength). Further, it was observed that the optical properties of substrates also modulate the PNJ characteristics and lead to a further improvement in the transverse confinement to ∼ λ / 6 . 7.

  16. EFFECT OF HIGH & LOW INTENSITIES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL FITNESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces body fat and improves weight control, increases HDL&Vo2 max. Also improves PFI (physical fitness index which is defined as ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue. Though aerobic exercise is found to improve physical fitness, the relative merits of different intensities of aerobi c exercise in improving physical fitness is still uncertain. AIM: The present study was conducted to know the Effect of High & low intensity aerobic training on physical fitness index. MATERIALS & METHODS : 80 sedentary men (18 - 40 years were randomized in to 2 equal groups (High Intensity & low intensity group . The High [80% HR max] & Low intensity [50 % HR max] groups underwent aerobic exercise training using Bicycle ergo meter (COSCO at 900kpm & 540kpm, for 15mins/day & 30mins/day respectively, 5days a week, for a period of 14weeks. Physical fitness index of each subject was recorded by Modified Harvard step test before & after intervention. RESULTS : After 14 weeks of aerobic training both the exercise groups had improvement in PFI, but high intensity gr oup had a significant (p<0.05 improvement in PFI (97.18 - 101.14 than low intensity group (98.12 - 100.6. CONCLUSION : High intensity aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical fitness.

  17. Identifying and engineering promoters for high level and sustainable therapeutic recombinant protein production in cultured mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Steven C L; Yang, Yuansheng

    2014-08-01

    Promoters are essential on plasmid vectors to initiate transcription of the transgenes when generating therapeutic recombinant proteins expressing mammalian cell lines. High and sustained levels of gene expression are desired during therapeutic protein production while gene expression is useful for cell engineering. As many finely controlled promoters exhibit cell and product specificity, new promoters need to be identified, optimized and carefully evaluated before use. Suitable promoters can be identified using techniques ranging from simple molecular biology methods to modern high-throughput omics screenings. Promoter engineering is often required after identification to either obtain high and sustained expression or to provide a wider range of gene expression. This review discusses some of the available methods to identify and engineer promoters for therapeutic recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells.

  18. Monitoring of high refractive index edible oils using coated long period fiber grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luís.; Viegas, Diana; Santos, José Luís.; de Almeida, Jose Manuel M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the quality of high refractive index edible oils is of great importance for the human health. Uncooked edible oils in general are healthy foodstuff, olive oil in particular, however, they are frequently used for baking and cooking. High quality edible oils are made from seeds, nuts or fruits by mechanical processes. Nevertheless, once the mechanical extraction is complete, up to 15% of the oil remains in oil pomace and in the mill wastewater, which can be extracted using organic solvents, often hexane. Optical fiber sensors based on long period fiber gratings (LPFG) have very low wavelength sensitivity when the surround refractive index is higher than the refractive index of the cladding. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) coated LPFG could lead to the realization of high sensitivity chemical sensor for the food industry. In this work LPFG coated with a TiO2 thin film were successfully used for to detect small levels of hexane diluted in edible oils and for real time monitoring the thermal deterioration of edible oils. For a TiO2 coating of 30 nm a wavelength sensitivity of 1361.7 nm/RIU (or 0.97 nm / % V/V) in the 1.4610-1.4670 refractive index range was achieved, corresponding to 0 to 12 % V/V of hexane in olive oil. A sensitivity higher than 638 nm/RIU at 225 ºC was calculated, in the 1.4670-1.4735 refractive index range with a detection limit of thermal deterioration of about 1 minute.

  19. Refractive Index Tuning of Hybrid Materials for Highly Transmissive Luminescent Lanthanide Particle-Polymer Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul; Li, Cheng; Riman, Richard E; Watkins, James

    2018-03-14

    High-refractive-index ZrO 2 nanoparticles were used to tailor the refractive index of a polymer matrix to match that of luminescent lanthanide-ion-doped (La 0.92 Yb 0.075 Er 0.005 F 3 ) light-emitting particles, thereby reducing scattering losses to yield highly transparent emissive composites. Photopolymerization of blends of an amine-modified poly(ether acrylate) oligomer and tailored quantities of ZrO 2 nanoparticles yielded optically transparent composites with tailored refractive indices between 1.49 and 1.69. By matching the refractive index of the matrix to that of La 0.92 Yb 0.075 Er 0.005 F 3 , composites with high transmittance (>85%) and low haze from the visible to infrared regions, bright 1530 nm optical emissions were achieved at solids loadings of La 0.92 Yb 0.075 Er 0.005 F 3 , ranging from 5 to 30 vol %. These optical results suggest that a hybrid matrix approach is a versatile strategy for the fabrication of functional luminescent optical composites of high transparency.

  20. Delta/mu opioid receptor interactions in operant conditioning assays of pain-depressed responding and drug-induced rate suppression: assessment of therapeutic index in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Katherine; Lanpher, Janell; Kinens, Abigail; Richard, Philomena; Couture, Sarah; Brackin, Rebecca; Payne, Emily; Harrington, Kylee; Rice, Kenner C; Stevenson, Glenn W

    2018-05-01

    Although delta/mu receptor interactions vary as a function of behavioral endpoint, there have been no assessments of these interactions using assays of pain-depressed responding. This is the first report of delta/mu interactions using an assay of pain-depressed behavior. A mult-cycle FR10 operant schedule was utilized in the presence of (nociception) and in the absence of (rate suppression) a lactic acid inflammatory pain-like manipulation. SNC80 and methadone were used as selective/high efficacy delta and mu agonists, respectively. Both SNC80 and methadone alone produced a dose-dependent restoration of pain-depressed responding and dose-dependent response rate suppression. Three fixed ratio mixtures, based on the relative potencies of the drugs in the nociception assay, also produced dose-dependent antinociception and sedation. Isobolographic analysis indicated that all three mixtures produced supra-additive antinociceptive effects and simply additive sedation effects. The therapeutic index (TI) inversely varied as a function of amount of SNC80 in the mixture, such that lower amounts of SNC80 produced a higher TI, and larger amounts produced a lower TI. Compared to literature using standard pain-elicited assays, the orderly relationship between SNC80 and TI reported here may be a unique function of assessing pain-depressed behavior.

  1. [Moderate exercise and intake of either high or low glycemic index carbohydrates in sedentary women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, Briseidy; De León, Lidia G; Esparza-Romero, Julián; Carrasco-Legleu, Claudia E; Candia-Luján, Ramón

    2018-05-25

    To analyze changes in blood glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations in relation to a moderate aerobic exercise in sedentary women of different body weight, exposed to either a high or low glycemic index carbohydrates diet. DISEñO: Cross-over type. SITE: Research was performed in the Exercise Physiology Laboratory at Facultad de Ciencias de la Cultura Física, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, México. Twenty-six young sedentary women who did not exercise in the last year participated in the study. Four of adequate weight (AW) and 2 with obesity (OB) were excluded for not consuming the suggested carbohydrates (1gr/kg of weight) nor completed the programed exercise. There were n=10 in each group (AW/OB). Two treatments of 55minutes of aerobic exercise each were applied one day after consuming either high or low glycemic index carbohydrates. Plasmatic glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were determined before and after the scheduled exercise. Glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were higher in OB than in AW at baseline. Glucose was normalized in OB from 5.8±0.35 to 5.3±0.23 mmol/L (P=.001), only by eating foods with low glycemic index; triglycerides increased from 139.5±66.0 to 150.8±67.2mg/dl (P=.004) at the end of the exercise, after consumption of low glycemic index carbohydrates. Elevation of triglycerides secondary to exercise after consumption of low glycemic index seems to indicate an increase of lipid oxidation in OB. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Double-layered metal grating for high-performance refractive index sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guozhen; Shen, Yang; Xiao, Guohui; Jin, Chongjun

    2015-04-06

    The detection of minuscule changes in the local refractive index by localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs), carried by metal nanostructures, has been used successfully in applications such as real-time and label-free detection of molecular binding events. However, localized plasmons demonstrate 1-2 orders of magnitude lower figure of merit (FOM) compared with their propagating counterparts. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a high-performance refractive index sensor based on a structure of double-layered metal grating (DMG) with an FOM and FOM* reaching 38 and 40 respectively under normal incidence. Such a high FOM and FOM* arise from a result of a sharp fano resonance, which is caused by the coherent interference between the LSPR from the individual top gold stripes and Wood's anomaly (WA). Moreover, a small conformal decay length of ~68 nm is determined in DMG, indicating that the DMG is a promising candidate for label-free biomedical sensing.

  3. Therapeutic potential of an anti-high mobility group box-1 monoclonal antibody in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junli; Wang, Yi; Xu, Cenglin; Liu, Keyue; Wang, Ying; Chen, Liying; Wu, Xiaohua; Gao, Feng; Guo, Yi; Zhu, Junming; Wang, Shuang; Nishibori, Masahiro; Chen, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Brain inflammation is a major factor in epilepsy, and the high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein is known to contribute significantly to the generation of seizures. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of an anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in epilepsy. anti-HMGB1 mAb attenuated both acute seizure models (maximal electroshock seizure, pentylenetetrazole-induced and kindling-induced), and chronic epilepsy model (kainic acid-induced) in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the anti-HMGB1 mAb also attenuated seizure activities of human brain slices obtained from surgical resection from drug-resistant epilepsy patients. The mAb showed an anti-seizure effect with a long-term manner and appeared to be minimal side effects at even very high dose (no disrupted physical EEG rhythm and no impaired basic physical functions, such as body growth rate and thermoregulation). This anti-seizure effect of mAb results from its inhibition of translocated HMGB1 from nuclei following seizures, and the anti-seizure effect was absent in toll-like receptor 4 knockout (TLR4 -/- ) mice. Interestingly, the anti-HMGB1 mAb also showed a disease-modifying anti-epileptogenetic effect on epileptogenesis after status epileptics, which is indicated by reducing seizure frequency and improving the impaired cognitive function. These results indicate that the anti-HMGB1 mAb should be viewed as a very promising approach for the development of novel therapies to treat refractory epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Embedded plasmonic nanoparticles in high refractive index TiOx matrix for photovoltaics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco

    Resume: More frequently high refractive index dielectric matrix are used in thin film photovoltaics as transporting layers with good optical proprieties. Doping such matrix with plasmonic resonant scatterers is a promising way to further increase energy conversion efficiencies by trapping incoming...... light in ultrathin solar cells. Colloidal plasmonic oligomers are obtained following a cost-effective selfassembly strategy and incorporated in organic based cells produced using spincoating techniques in ambient air conditions. An interesting increase is observed of both external quantum efficiency...

  5. Rolling estimations of long range dependence volatility for high frequency S&P500 index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Chin Wen; Pei, Tan Pei

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the time-varying long range dependence behaviors of the S&P500 volatility index using the modified rescaled adjusted range (R/S) statistic. For better computational result, a high frequency rolling bipower variation realized volatility estimates are used to avoid possible abrupt jump. The empirical analysis findings allow us to understand better the informationally market efficiency before and after the subprime mortgage crisis.

  6. Creating a placental inflammatory composite index that has a high prognostic relevance to child morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zou, Lile; Zhao, Yanjun; Wu, Ting; Ye, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Huijuan; Zhang, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Selecting pathologic measures of placental inflammation that affect pregnancy and childhood health is largely empirical. We aimed to systematically select several core inflammation-related placental measures to construct a novel placental inflammatory evaluation criterion with a high prognostic relevance to child morbidity. We used data from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1976), a longitudinal birth cohort study that recruited women during pregnancy and followed the children until 7 years of age. Bootstrap resampling, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and receiver-operator curve were used to select placental pathologic measures that were closely related to child morbidity to form a placental inflammatory composite index. Twenty-six candidate placental inflammation-related measures were ranked based on their close association with adverse neonatal outcomes. The top five placental measures were: (i) neutrophilic infiltration in umbilical artery; (ii) placental weight-birthweight ratio; (iii) necrosis in decidua capsularis; (iv) bacterial colony in epithelium of amnion; and (v) opacity of membranes and fetal surface. Several composite indexes were constructed. A five-measure composite index that had the highest prognostic relevance was chosen. Compared with subjects without any of the five abnormal measures, those with any lesion ranging from 1 to 5 had a 1.2- to 4.6-fold risk of adverse child outcomes, respectively. Our composite index is simple, evidence-based, and has predictive value for child morbidity. It may be used as a novel placental inflammatory evaluation criterion. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. High-precision diode-laser-based temperature measurement for air refractive index compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieta, Tuomas; Merimaa, Mikko; Vainio, Markku; Seppä, Jeremias; Lassila, Antti

    2011-11-01

    We present a laser-based system to measure the refractive index of air over a long path length. In optical distance measurements, it is essential to know the refractive index of air with high accuracy. Commonly, the refractive index of air is calculated from the properties of the ambient air using either Ciddor or Edlén equations, where the dominant uncertainty component is in most cases the air temperature. The method developed in this work utilizes direct absorption spectroscopy of oxygen to measure the average temperature of air and of water vapor to measure relative humidity. The method allows measurement of temperature and humidity over the same beam path as in optical distance measurement, providing spatially well-matching data. Indoor and outdoor measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. In particular, we demonstrate an effective compensation of the refractive index of air in an interferometric length measurement at a time-variant and spatially nonhomogeneous temperature over a long time period. Further, we were able to demonstrate 7 mK RMS noise over a 67 m path length using a 120 s sample time. To our knowledge, this is the best temperature precision reported for a spectroscopic temperature measurement. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  8. High-precision diode-laser-based temperature measurement for air refractive index compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hieta, Tuomas; Merimaa, Mikko; Vainio, Markku; Seppae, Jeremias; Lassila, Antti

    2011-01-01

    We present a laser-based system to measure the refractive index of air over a long path length. In optical distance measurements, it is essential to know the refractive index of air with high accuracy. Commonly, the refractive index of air is calculated from the properties of the ambient air using either Ciddor or Edlen equations, where the dominant uncertainty component is in most cases the air temperature. The method developed in this work utilizes direct absorption spectroscopy of oxygen to measure the average temperature of air and of water vapor to measure relative humidity. The method allows measurement of temperature and humidity over the same beam path as in optical distance measurement, providing spatially well-matching data. Indoor and outdoor measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. In particular, we demonstrate an effective compensation of the refractive index of air in an interferometric length measurement at a time-variant and spatially nonhomogeneous temperature over a long time period. Further, we were able to demonstrate 7 mK RMS noise over a 67 m path length using a 120 s sample time. To our knowledge, this is the best temperature precision reported for a spectroscopic temperature measurement.

  9. The "Pulse Time Index of Norm" highly correlates with the left ventricular mass index in patients with arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posokhov, Igor N; Kulikova, Natalya N; Starchenkova, Irina V; Grigoricheva, Elena A; Evdokimov, Vitaly V; Orlov, Artemy V; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, as measured by the pulse wave velocity (PWV), is recommended for routine use in clinical practice as an important parameter for the evaluation of cardiovascular risk.1 New 24-hour monitors (eg, with Vasotens technology; Petr Telegin Company, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation) provide single PWV measurements as well as several PWV measurements over a period of 24 hours.2 Such 24-hour pulse wave analysis led to the development of the novel Pulse Time Index of Norm (PTIN), which is defined as the percentage of a 24-hour period during which the PWV does not exceed the 10 m/second PWV threshold. The aim of this study is to test the new PTIN for correlation with the left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Oscillometrically generated waveform files (n=137) used for clinical research studies were reanalyzed using the new 2013 version of the Vasotens technology program, which enables PTIN calculations. A good correlation (r=-0.72) between the PTIN and the LVMI was shown, which was significantly above the blood pressure load (r=0.41). The PTIN generated by the Vasotens technology can be recommended as an indicator of end organ damage via hypertension.

  10. Improving axial resolution in confocal microscopy with new high refractive index mounting media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Coralie; Gilles, Jean-François; Heck, Nicolas; Dos Santos, Marc; Schwartzmann, Richard; Cannaya, Vidjeacoumary; Morel, Marie-Pierre; Davidson, Robert Stephen; Trembleau, Alain; Bolte, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Resolution, high signal intensity and elevated signal to noise ratio (SNR) are key issues for biologists who aim at studying the localisation of biological structures at the cellular and subcellular levels using confocal microscopy. The resolution required to separate sub-cellular biological structures is often near to the resolving power of the microscope. When optimally used, confocal microscopes may reach resolutions of 180 nm laterally and 500 nm axially, however, axial resolution in depth is often impaired by spherical aberration that may occur due to refractive index mismatches. Spherical aberration results in broadening of the point-spread function (PSF), a decrease in peak signal intensity when imaging in depth and a focal shift that leads to the distortion of the image along the z-axis and thus in a scaling error. In this study, we use the novel mounting medium CFM3 (Citifluor Ltd., UK) with a refractive index of 1.518 to minimize the effects of spherical aberration. This mounting medium is compatible with most common fluorochromes and fluorescent proteins. We compare its performance with established mounting media, harbouring refractive indices below 1.500, by estimating lateral and axial resolution with sub-resolution fluorescent beads. We show furthermore that the use of the high refractive index media renders the tissue transparent and improves considerably the axial resolution and imaging depth in immuno-labelled or fluorescent protein labelled fixed mouse brain tissue. We thus propose to use those novel high refractive index mounting media, whenever optimal axial resolution is required.

  11. Improving axial resolution in confocal microscopy with new high refractive index mounting media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Fouquet

    Full Text Available Resolution, high signal intensity and elevated signal to noise ratio (SNR are key issues for biologists who aim at studying the localisation of biological structures at the cellular and subcellular levels using confocal microscopy. The resolution required to separate sub-cellular biological structures is often near to the resolving power of the microscope. When optimally used, confocal microscopes may reach resolutions of 180 nm laterally and 500 nm axially, however, axial resolution in depth is often impaired by spherical aberration that may occur due to refractive index mismatches. Spherical aberration results in broadening of the point-spread function (PSF, a decrease in peak signal intensity when imaging in depth and a focal shift that leads to the distortion of the image along the z-axis and thus in a scaling error. In this study, we use the novel mounting medium CFM3 (Citifluor Ltd., UK with a refractive index of 1.518 to minimize the effects of spherical aberration. This mounting medium is compatible with most common fluorochromes and fluorescent proteins. We compare its performance with established mounting media, harbouring refractive indices below 1.500, by estimating lateral and axial resolution with sub-resolution fluorescent beads. We show furthermore that the use of the high refractive index media renders the tissue transparent and improves considerably the axial resolution and imaging depth in immuno-labelled or fluorescent protein labelled fixed mouse brain tissue. We thus propose to use those novel high refractive index mounting media, whenever optimal axial resolution is required.

  12. High slope efficiency and high refractive index change in direct-written Yb-doped waveguide lasers with depressed claddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Guido; Gross, Simon; Fuerbach, Alexander; Lancaster, David G; Withford, Michael J

    2013-07-15

    We report the first Yb:ZBLAN and Yb:IOG10 waveguide lasers fabricated by the fs-laser direct-writing technique. Pulses from a Titanium-Sapphire laser oscillator with 5.1 MHz repetition rate were utilized to generate negative refractive index modifications in both glasses. Multiple modifications were aligned in a depressed cladding geometry to create a waveguide. For Yb:ZBLAN we demonstrate high laser slope efficiency of 84% with a maximum output power of 170 mW. By using Yb:IOG10 a laser performance of 25% slope efficiency and 72 mW output power was achieved and we measured a remarkably high refractive index change exceeding Δn = 2.3 × 10(-2).

  13. Design and Application of Drought Indexes in Highly Regulated Mediterranean Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Zaniolo, M.; Giuliani, M.

    2017-12-01

    Costs of drought are progressively increasing due to the undergoing alteration of hydro-meteorological regimes induced by climate change. Although drought management is largely studied in the literature, most of the traditional drought indexes fail in detecting critical events in highly regulated systems, which generally rely on ad-hoc formulations and cannot be generalized to different context. In this study, we contribute a novel framework for the design of a basin-customized drought index. This index represents a surrogate of the state of the basin and is computed by combining the available information about the water available in the system to reproduce a representative target variable for the drought condition of the basin (e.g., water deficit). To select the relevant variables and combinatione thereof, we use an advanced feature extraction algorithm called Wrapper for Quasi Equally Informative Subset Selection (W-QEISS). W-QEISS relies on a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to find Pareto-efficient subsets of variables by maximizing the wrapper accuracy, minimizing the number of selected variables, and optimizing relevance and redundancy of the subset. The accuracy objective is evaluated trough the calibration of an extreme learning machine of the water deficit for each candidate subset of variables, with the index selected from the resulting solutions identifying a suitable compromise between accuracy, cardinality, relevance, and redundancy. The approach is tested on Lake Como, Italy, a regulated lake mainly operated for irrigation supply. In the absence of an institutional drought monitoring system, we constructed the combined index using all the hydrological variables from the existing monitoring system as well as common drought indicators at multiple time aggregations. The soil moisture deficit in the root zone computed by a distributed-parameter water balance model of the agricultural districts is used as target variable. Numerical results show that

  14. Periodical rocking long period gratings in PANDA fibers for high temperature and refractive index sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wa; Bi, Wei-hong; Fu, Xing-hu; Fu, Guang-wei

    2017-09-01

    We report periodical rocking long period gratings (PR-LPGs) in PANDA fibers fabricated with CO2 laser. The PR-LPGs achieve very high coupling efficiency of 19 dB with 12 periods and a 3.5° twist angle in just one scanning cycle, which is much more effective than the conventional CO2 laser fabrication technique. This type of LPGs exhibits polarization-selective resonance dips which demonstrate different sensitivities to environmental parameters. The high temperature and external refractive index sensitivities are measured simultaneously, so it can be used as a wavelength-selective polarization filter and sensor.

  15. Low index contrast heterostructure photonic crystal cavities with high quality factors and vertical radiation coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaochen; Minkov, Momchil; Fan, Shanhui; Li, Xiuling; Zhou, Weidong

    2018-04-01

    We report here design and experimental demonstration of heterostructure photonic crystal cavities resonating near the Γ point with simultaneous strong lateral confinement and highly directional vertical radiation patterns. The lateral confinement is provided by a mode gap originating from a gradual modulation of the hole radii. High quality factor resonance is realized with a low index contrast between silicon nitride and quartz. The near surface-normal directional emission is preserved when the size of the core region is scaled down. The influence of the cavity size parameters on the resonant modes is also investigated theoretically and experimentally.

  16. Highly reflective Bragg gratings in slightly etched step-index polymer optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuehao; Pun, Chi-Fung Jeff; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Mégret, Patrice; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2014-07-28

    During the past few years, a strong progress has been made in the photo-writing of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in polymer optical fibers (POFs), animated by the constant wish to enhance the grating reflectivity and improve the sensing performances. In this paper, we report the photo-inscription of highly reflective gratings in step-index POFs, obtained thanks to a slight etching of the cladding. We demonstrate that a cladding diameter decrease of ~12% is an ideal trade-off to produce highly reflective gratings with enhanced axial strain sensitivity, while keeping almost intact their mechanical resistance. For this, we make use of Trans-4-stilbenemethanol-doped photosensitive step-index poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) POFs. FBGs are inscribed at ~1550 nm by the scanning phase mask technique in POFs of different external diameters. Reflectivity reaching 97% is achieved for 6 mm long FBGs, compared to 25% for non-etched POFs. We also report that a cladding decrease enhances the FBG axial tension while keeping unchanged temperature and surrounding refractive index sensitivities. Finally and for the first time, a measurement is conducted in transmission with polarized light, showing that a photo-induced birefringence of 7 × 10(-6) is generated (one order of magnitude higher than the intrinsic fiber birefringence), which is similar to the one generated in silica fiber using ultra-violet laser.

  17. Hyperbaric index in the primary prevention of hypertensive complications in high-risk pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero González, Alfonso; Uribe Moya, Silvia; Arenas Moncaleano, Ivan Gilberto; Borrajo Prol, María Paz; García García, María Jesús; López Sánchez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of fetal morbidity and mortality. In the Western World, PE affects 2-7% of pregnancies and is responsible for 50,000 deaths annually. Early detection is a priority as it can change the clinical course, but there are no biomarkers or instrumental methods with high sensitivity and specificity. Only the hyperbaric index has a sensitivity and specificity of 99% for early identification of pregnant women at risk of developing PE, but its use is not widespread. To assess the usefulness of the hyperbaric index in the primary prevention of hypertensive pregnancy complications in a public healthcare area. This is a retrospective study of pregnancies that occurred in our area during the period 2007-2012 (N=11,784). The diagnosis was established by the hyperbaric index and pregnant women at risk were treated with ASA at night. In pregnant patients referred to the nephrology clinic (38.2%), diagnosed as high-risk for PE, and treated with 100mg ASA/night (from week 17), the incidence of PE episodes was reduced by 96.94. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The "Pulse Time Index of Norm" highly correlates with the left ventricular mass index in patients with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posokhov IN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Igor N Posokhov,1 Natalya N Kulikova,2 Irina V Starchenkova,2 Elena A Grigoricheva,3 Vitaly V Evdokimov,3 Artemy V Orlov,4 Anatoly N Rogoza5 On behalf of The BPLab-Vasotens Registry Collaborators 1Hemodynamic Laboratory Ltd, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia; 23rd Republican Hospital, Saransk, Russia; 3Chelyabinsk State Medical Academy, Chelyabinsk, Russia; 4National Research Nuclear University MEPhl, Moscow, Russia; 5Cardiology Research Center, Moscow, Russia Background: Arterial stiffness, as measured by the pulse wave velocity (PWV, is recommended for routine use in clinical practice as an important parameter for the evaluation of cardiovascular risk.1 New 24-hour monitors (eg, with Vasotens® technology; Petr Telegin Company, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation provide single PWV measurements as well as several PWV measurements over a period of 24 hours.2 Such 24-hour pulse wave analysis led to the development of the novel Pulse Time Index of Norm (PTIN, which is defined as the percentage of a 24-hour period during which the PWV does not exceed the 10 m/second PWV threshold. The aim of this study is to test the new PTIN for correlation with the left ventricular mass index (LVMI. Methods: Oscillometrically generated waveform files (n=137 used for clinical research studies were reanalyzed using the new 2013 version of the Vasotens technology program, which enables PTIN calculations. Results: A good correlation (r=−0.72 between the PTIN and the LVMI was shown, which was significantly above the blood pressure load (r=0.41. Conclusion: The PTIN generated by the Vasotens technology can be recommended as an indicator of end organ damage via hypertension. Keywords: pulse wave velocity, ambulatory, 24-hour, monitoring, PTIN, arterial stiffness, LVMI

  19. High refractive index organic–inorganic composites with TiO2 nanocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yang-Yen; Yu, Hui-Huan

    2013-01-01

    Highly transparent polyimide–nanocrystalline-titania hybrid materials with a relatively high titania content (up to 90 wt.%) have been fabricated via sol–gel process. The organo-soluble polyimide was synthesized from 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride, 3,3′-Diaminodiphenyl sulfone, and 4-aminobenzoic acid. Such carboxylic acid end groups could provide the organic–inorganic bonding with titania. The images of atomic force and scanning electron microscope showed the well-dispersed nanocrystalline-titania. The analytical results of transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer indicated that the formation of nanocrystalline-titania domains of around 3–4 nm in the hybrid films. The experimental results suggest that the prepared hybrid films have high thermal stability, good surface planarity, tunable refractive index (1.61 < n < 2.01), and optical transparency in the visible range. These results indicate that the polyimide–nanocrystalline-titania hybrid materials have potential applications for optical devices. - Highlights: ► Polyimide–titania hybrid materials with up to 90 wt.% titania via sol–gel process. ► The hybrid films are highly transparent. ► Organic–inorganic bonding through the carboxylic acid end groups of polymide. ► Nanocrystalline–titania domains in the hybrid films around 3–4 nm. ► High thermal stability, good surface planarity, tunable refractive index are obtained

  20. Highly sensitive refractive index fiber inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining and chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Yan; Chu, Dong-Kai; Dong, Xin-Ran; Zhou, Chu; Li, Hai-Tao; Luo-Zhi; Hu, You-Wang; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Cong-Wang; Duan, Ji-An

    2016-03-01

    A High sensitive refractive index (RI) sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) in a conventional single-mode optical fiber is proposed, which is fabricated by femtosecond laser transversal-scanning inscription method and chemical etching. A rectangular cavity structure is formed in part of fiber core and cladding interface. The MZI sensor shows excellent refractive index sensitivity and linearity, which exhibits an extremely high RI sensitivity of -17197 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) with the linearity of 0.9996 within the refractive index range of 1.3371-1.3407. The experimental results are consistent with theoretical analysis.

  1. Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of Colloidal Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles for High-Refractive-Index Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Hajagos, Tibor Jacob; Chen, Dustin; Chen, Yi; Kishpaugh, David; Pei, Qibing

    2016-02-01

    Zirconium oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for optical engineering, photocatalysis, and high-κ dielectrics. However, reported synthetic methods for the colloidal zirconium oxide nanoparticles use unstable alkoxide precursors and have various other drawbacks, limiting their wide application. Here, we report a facile one-pot method for the synthesis of colloidally stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Using a simple solution of zirconium trifluoroacetate in oleylamine, highly stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized with high yield, following a proposed amidization-assisted sol-gel mechanism. The nanoparticles can be readily dispersed in nonpolar solvents, forming a long-term stable transparent solution, which can be further used to fabricate high-refractive-index nanocomposites in both monolith and thin-film forms. In addition, the same method has also been extended to the synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles, demonstrating its general applicability to all group IVB metal oxide nanoparticles.

  2. Near-infrared refractive index of synthetic single crystal and polycrystalline diamonds at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurov, V. Yu.; Bushuev, E. V.; Popovich, A. F.; Bolshakov, A. P.; Ashkinazi, E. E.; Ralchenko, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    We measured the refractive index n(T) and thermo-optical coefficient β(T) = (1/n)(dn/dT) of high quality synthetic diamonds from room temperature to high temperatures, up to 1520 K, in near-infrared spectral range at wavelength 1.56 μm, using a low-coherence interferometry. A type IIa single crystal diamond produced by high pressure-high temperature technique and a transparent polycrystalline diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition were tested and revealed a very close n(T) behavior, with n = 2.384 ± 0.001 at T = 300 K, monotonically increasing to 2.428 at 1520 K. The n(T) data corrected to thermal expansion of diamond are well fitted with 3rd order polynomials, and alternatively, with the Bose-Einstein model with an effective oscillator frequency of 970 cm-1. Almost linear n(T) dependence is observed above 800 K. The thermo-optical coefficient is found to increase monotonically from (0.6 ± 0.1) × 10-5 K-1 (300 K) to (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10-5 K-1 (1300 K) with a tendency to saturation at >1200 K. These β(T) values are an order of magnitude lower than those known for Si, GaAs, and InP. The obtained results significantly extend the temperature range, where the refractive index of diamond was previously measured.

  3. High-oleic ready-to-use therapeutic food maintains docosahexaenoic acid status in severe malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the preferred treatment for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition. It contains large amounts of linoleic acid and little a-linolenic acid, which may reduce the availability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to the recovering child...

  4. Ultrasound-Stimulated Drug Delivery Using Therapeutic Reconstituted High-Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fangyuan; Nirupama, Sabnis; Sirsi, Shashank R; Lacko, Andras; Hoyt, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    method for monitoring the effects of US-stimulated drug delivery of IR-780 dye-loaded rHDL NPs in living animals. No change in optical imaging data was found in the control animals. However, there was considerable dye accumulation (surrogate drug) within 48 h in the low (5 µg), moderate (10 µg), and high (50 µg) rHDL NP concentration-dosed group animals ( p 0.69, p < 0.003). IR-780 dye extraction from the tumor tissue samples confirmed the in vivo and ex vivo US therapy findings. Overall, the addition of US therapy considerably improved local rHDL NP accumulation in tumor tissue. This study concludes that US-mediated drug delivery can facilitate tumor uptake of rHDL NPs and more research is warranted to optimize the drug dosing schedule and the respective therapeutic protocols.

  5. Wp index: A new substorm index derived from high-resolution geomagnetic field data at low latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nose, M.; Iyemori, T.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Geomagnetic field data with high time resolution (typically 1 s) have recently become more commonly acquired by ground stations. Such high time resolution data enable identifying Pi2 pulsations which have periods of 40-150 s and irregular (damped) waveforms. It is well-known that pulsations of th...

  6. Grooved windows for scintillation crystals and light pipes of high refractive index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinehart, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    Scintillation crystals are disclosed which have improved resolution and pulse height. An improved crystal has shallow grooves or spot depressions cut in the window, usually an end surface. Typical grooves are about 1.5 mm wide and about .1 mm deep. The grooves may be either horizontal, generally parallel grooves in spaced apart relationship, or concentric rings in radially spaced apart relationship. A light pipe of high refractive index, such as a crystal of pure sodium iodide, may also be improved with shallow grooves or spot depressions cut in an end surface

  7. Polarization-independent high-index contrast grating and its fabrication tolerances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Kazuma; Takayose, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    also investigated the fabrication tolerances of the structure and found that, assuming careful optimizations of electron beam lithography for the precise grating width and dry-etching for the vertical sidewall, the suggested polarization-independent HCG can be fabricated using standard technologies.......A polarization-independent, high-index contrast grating (HCG) with a single layer of cross stripes allowing simple fabrication is proposed. Since the cross stripes structure can be suspended in air by selectively wet-etching the layer below, all the layers can be grown at once when implemented...

  8. Interferometric determination of electron density in a high pressure hydrogen arc. 1. Calculation of refraction index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, R; Guenther, K; Ulbricht, R [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronenphysik

    1980-01-14

    The refraction index of a hydrogen plasma in LTE was calculated as a function of the wavelength of observation, temperature and pressure, taking into account bound-bound and bound-free transitions of the neutral atom. According to the present calculation, the influence of excited states at higher temperatures is smaller than indicated by Baum et al (Plasma Phys.; 17: 79 (1975)) for argon. Using the calculations presented here, the interferometric investigation of a high pressure hydrogen arc should allow the determination of the electron density with an accuracy of the order of 1%.

  9. Semiconductive 3-D haloplumbate framework hybrids with high color rendering index white-light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-E; Xu, Gang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Cai, Li-Zhen; Li, Wen-Hua; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2015-12-01

    Single-component white light materials may create great opportunities for novel conventional lighting applications and display systems; however, their reported color rendering index (CRI) values, one of the key parameters for lighting, are less than 90, which does not satisfy the demand of color-critical upmarket applications, such as photography, cinematography, and art galleries. In this work, two semiconductive chloroplumbate (chloride anion of lead(ii)) hybrids, obtained using a new inorganic-organic hybrid strategy, show unprecedented 3-D inorganic framework structures and white-light-emitting properties with high CRI values around 90, one of which shows the highest value to date.

  10. Geometric variations in high index-contrast waveguides, coupled mode theory in curvilinear coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Jacobs, Steven; Johnson, Steven; Fink, Yoel

    2002-10-21

    Perturbation theory formulation of Maxwell's equations gives a theoretically elegant and computationally efficient way of describing small imperfections and weak interactions in electro-magnetic systems. It is generally appreciated that due to the discontinuous field boundary conditions in the systems employing high dielectric contrast profiles standard perturbation formulations fail when applied to the problem of shifted material boundaries. In this paper we developed a novel coupled mode and perturbation theory formulations for treating generic non-uniform (varying along the direction of propagation) perturbations of a waveguide cross-section based on Hamiltonian formulation of Maxwell equations in curvilinear coordinates. We show that our formulation is accurate and rapidly converges to an exact result when used in a coupled mode theory framework even for the high index-contrast discontinuous dielectric profiles. Among others, our formulation allows for an efficient numerical evaluation of induced PMD due to a generic distortion of a waveguide profile, analysis of mode filters, mode converters and other optical elements such as strong Bragg gratings, tapers, bends etc., and arbitrary combinations of thereof. To our knowledge, this is the first time perturbation and coupled mode theories are developed to deal with arbitrary non-uniform profile variations in high index-contrast waveguides.

  11. Tunable Resonant-Cavity-Enhanced Photodetector with Double High-Index-Contrast Grating Mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Learkthanakhachon, Supannee; Yvind, Kresten; Chung, Il-Sug

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a broadband-tunable resonant-cavity-enhanced photodetector (RCE-PD) structure with double high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirrors and numerically investigate its characteristics. The detector is designed to operate at 1550-nm wavelength. The detector structure consists....... Furthermore, the fact that it can be fabricated on a silicon platform offers us a possibility of integration with electronics.......In this paper, we propose a broadband-tunable resonant-cavity-enhanced photodetector (RCE-PD) structure with double high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirrors and numerically investigate its characteristics. The detector is designed to operate at 1550-nm wavelength. The detector structure consists...... of a top InP HCG mirror, a p-i-n photodiode embedding multiple quantum wells, and a Si HCG mirror formed in the Si layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The detection wavelength can be changed by moving the top InP HCG mirror suspended in the air. High reflectivity and small penetration length of HCGs...

  12. A topological screening heuristic for low-energy, high-index surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenhao; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2018-03-01

    Robust ab initio investigations of nanoparticle surface properties require a method to identify candidate low-energy surface facets a priori. By assuming that low-energy surfaces are planes with high atomic density, we devise an efficient algorithm to screen for low-energy surface orientations, even if they have high (hkl) miller indices. We successfully predict the observed low-energy, high-index { 10 12 bar } and { 10 1 bar 4 } surfaces of hematite α-Fe2O3, the {311} surfaces of cuprite Cu2O, and the {112} surfaces of anatase TiO2. We further tabulate candidate low-energy surface orientations for nine of the most common binary oxide structures. Screened surfaces are found to be generally applicable across isostructural compounds with varying chemistries, although relative surface energies between facets may vary based on the preferred coordination of the surface atoms.

  13. Color design model of high color rendering index white-light LED module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Shang-Ping; Fu, Han-Kuei; Hsieh, Hsin-Hsin; Hsieh, Kun-Yang

    2017-05-10

    The traditional white-light light-emitting diode (LED) is packaged with a single chip and a single phosphor but has a poor color rendering index (CRI). The next-generation package comprises two chips and a single phosphor, has a high CRI, and retains high luminous efficacy. This study employs two chips and two phosphors to improve the diode's color tunability with various proportions of two phosphors and various densities of phosphor in the silicone used. A color design model is established for color fine-tuning of the white-light LED module. The maximum difference between the measured and color-design-model simulated CIE 1931 color coordinates is approximately 0.0063 around a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 2500 K. This study provides a rapid method to obtain the color fine-tuning of a white-light LED module with a high CRI and luminous efficacy.

  14. Therapeutic High-Density Barium Enema in a Case of Presumed Diverticular Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonthalee Pausawasdi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding do not have an identifiable source of bleeding at colonoscopy. A significant percentage of these patients will have recurrent bleeding. In many patients, the presence of multiple diverticula leads to a diagnosis of presumed diverticular bleeding. Current treatment options include therapeutic endoscopy, angiography, or surgical resection, all of which depend on the identification of the diverticular source of bleeding. This report describes a case of recurrent bleeding in an elderly patient with diverticula but no identifiable source treated successfully with barium impaction therapy. This therapeutic modality does not depend on the identification of the bleeding diverticular lesion and was well tolerated by our 86-year-old patient.

  15. Gender disparities in high-quality research revealed by Nature Index journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendels, Michael H K; Müller, Ruth; Brueggmann, Doerthe; Groneberg, David A

    2018-01-01

    The present study aims to elucidate the state of gender equality in high-quality research by analyzing the representation of female authorships in the last decade (from 2008 to 2016). Based on the Gendermetrics platform, 293,557 research articles from 54 journals listed in the Nature Index were considered covering the categories Life Science, Multidisciplinary, Earth & Environmental and Chemistry. The core method was the combined analysis of the proportion of female authorships and the female-to-male odds ratio for first, co- and last authorships. The distribution of prestigious authorships was measured by the Prestige Index. 29.8% of all authorships and 33.1% of the first, 31.8% of the co- and 18.1% of the last authorships were held by women. The corresponding female-to-male odds ratio is 1.19 (CI: 1.18-1.20) for first, 1.35 (CI: 1.34-1.36) for co- and 0.47 (CI: 0.46-0.48) for last authorships. Women are underrepresented at prestigious authorships compared to men (Prestige Index = -0.42). The underrepresentation accentuates in highly competitive articles attracting the highest citation rates, namely, articles with many authors and articles that were published in highest-impact journals. More specifically, a large negative correlation between the 5-Year-Impact-Factor of a journal and the female representation at prestigious authorships was revealed (r(52) = -.63, P authorships) and are underrepresented at productivity levels of more than 2 articles per author. Articles with female key authors are less frequently cited than articles with male key authors. The gender-specific differences in citation rates increase the more authors contribute to an article. Distinct differences at the journal, journal category, continent and country level were revealed. The prognosis for the next decades forecast a very slow harmonization of authorships odds between the two genders.

  16. Low- and high-index sol-gel films for planar and channel-doped waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canva, Michael; Chaput, Frederic; Lahlil, Khalid; Rachet, Vincent; Goudket, Helene; Boilot, Jean-Pierre; Levy, Yves

    2001-11-01

    In view of realizing integrated optic components based on effects such as electro-optic, chi(2):chi(2) cascading, stimulated emission,... one has to first synthesize materials with the proper functionality; this may be achieved by doping solid state matrices by the appropriate organic chromophores. Second, and as important, these materials have to be properly structured into the final optical guiding structures. We shall report on issues related to the realization of chromophore-doped planar waveguides as well as channel waveguides. These structures were realized by either photo-transformation such as photo- chromism and photo-bleaching or reactive ion etching technique, starting with chromophore doped sol-gel materials at high loading contents for which optical index may be controlled via the local dopant concentration. With these materials and techniques, waveguides and components characterized by propagation losses of the order of a cm-1, measured off the edge of the absorption band of the doping species, were fabricated. In order to be also able to study and use waveguide functionalized with low concentration of chromophore species, we developed new sol-gel materials of high optical index, yet low temperature processed. These new films are under study to evaluate their potential as host for organic doped waveguides devices.

  17. Optical emission from a high-refractive-index waveguide excited by a traveling electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwamura, Yuji; Yamada, Minoru; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Kanai, Takeshi; Fares, Hesham

    2008-01-01

    An optical emission scheme was demonstrated, in which a high-refractive-index waveguide is excited by a traveling electron beam in a vacuum environment. The waveguide was made of Si-SiO 2 layers. The velocity of light propagating in the waveguide was slowed down to 1/3 of that in free space due to the high refractive index of Si. The light penetrated partly into the vacuum in the form of a surface wave. The electron beam was emitted from an electron gun and propagated along the surface of the waveguide. When the velocity of the electron coincided with that of the light, optical emission was observed. This emission is a type of Cherenkov radiation and is not conventional cathode luminescence from the waveguide materials because Si and SiO 2 are transparent to light at the emitted wavelength. This type of emission was observed in an optical wavelength range from 1.2 to 1.6 μm with an electron acceleration voltage of 32-42 kV. The characteristics of the emitted light, such as the polarization direction and the relation between the acceleration voltage of the electron beam and the optical wavelength, coincided well with the theoretical results. The coherent length of an electron wave in the vacuum was confirmed to be equal to the electron spacing, as found by measuring the spectral profile of the emitted light

  18. NanoDisk containing super aggregated amphotericin B: a high therapeutic index antifungal formulation with enhanced potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess BL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Braydon L Burgess,1,2 Yumin He,1 Mandie M Baker,1,2 Bing Luo,2 Stephen F Carroll,2 Trudy M Forte,2 Michael N Oda11Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA, USA; 2Lypro Biosciences, Berkeley, CA, USAObjectives: NanoDisk–amphotericin B (ND-AMB is a protein-phospholipid bioparticle containing a “super aggregate” form of antifungal AMB. While lipid-based formulations of AMB, including liposomal AMB (L-AMB, are safer than the deoxycholate (DOC solubilized form (DOC-AMB, the potency of lipid-based formulations is attenuated. We have developed an AMB-based therapy that is both well tolerated and fully efficacious.Methods: Potency was determined using broth culture growth-inhibition assays and candidacidal kinetics by quantitative culture plating. Toxicology studies were performed in healthy mice. Efficacy was assessed using both immune-competent and leukopenic murine models of systemic Candida albicans infection.Results: ND-AMB C. albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus minimum inhibitory concentrations were fourfold and sixfold lower, respectively, than that observed for L-AMB. ND-AMB exhibited candidacidal activity at 0.125 mg/L, 16-fold lower than L-AMB. In mice, ND-AMB produced no statistically significant kidney or liver toxicity at 15 mg/kg, the highest dose tested. When evaluated in immune-competent mice infected with C. albicans, ND-AMB was at least as effective as DOC-AMB or L-AMB. In a leukopenic model of candidiasis, the 50% effective dose of ND-AMB was around threefold lower than L-AMB.Conclusion: These results indicate that ND-AMB exhibits a more favorable safety profile while maintaining uncompromised antifungal properties compared to both DOC-AMB and L-AMB. ND-AMB is a promising therapy for the treatment of invasive fungal infections.Keywords: nanoparticles, infectious diseases, drug delivery, candidiasis, apolipoprotein A-I

  19. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip; Smith, Bryan; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'être of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multistep work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self-assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  20. Plasmonic Refractive Index Sensor with High Figure of Merit Based on Concentric-Rings Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaojian; Yang, Junbo; He, Xin; Zhang, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Chen, Dingbo; Han, Yunxin

    2018-01-01

    A plasmonic refractive index (RI) sensor based on metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide coupled with concentric double rings resonator (CDRR) is proposed and investigated numerically. Utilizing the novel supermodes of the CDRR, the FWHM of the resonant wavelength can be modulated, and a sensitivity of 1060 nm/RIU with high figure of merit (FOM) 203.8 is realized in the near-infrared region. The unordinary modes, as well as the influence of structure parameters on the sensing performance, are also discussed. Such plasmonic sensor with simple framework and high optical resolution could be applied to on-chip sensing systems and integrated optical circuits. Besides, the special cases of bio-sensing and triple rings are also discussed. PMID:29300331

  1. Methods for semi-automated indexing for high precision information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Cucina, Russell J.; Fagan, Lawrence M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new system, ISAID (Internet-based Semi-automated Indexing of Documents), and to generate textbook indexes that are more detailed and more useful to readers. DESIGN: Pilot evaluation: simple, nonrandomized trial comparing ISAID with manual indexing methods. Methods evaluation: randomized, cross-over trial comparing three versions of ISAID and usability survey. PARTICIPANTS: Pilot evaluation: two physicians. Methods evaluation: twelve physicians, each of whom used three different versions of the system for a total of 36 indexing sessions. MEASUREMENTS: Total index term tuples generated per document per minute (TPM), with and without adjustment for concordance with other subjects; inter-indexer consistency; ratings of the usability of the ISAID indexing system. RESULTS: Compared with manual methods, ISAID decreased indexing times greatly. Using three versions of ISAID, inter-indexer consistency ranged from 15% to 65% with a mean of 41%, 31%, and 40% for each of three documents. Subjects using the full version of ISAID were faster (average TPM: 5.6) and had higher rates of concordant index generation. There were substantial learning effects, despite our use of a training/run-in phase. Subjects using the full version of ISAID were much faster by the third indexing session (average TPM: 9.1). There was a statistically significant increase in three-subject concordant indexing rate using the full version of ISAID during the second indexing session (p < 0.05). SUMMARY: Users of the ISAID indexing system create complex, precise, and accurate indexing for full-text documents much faster than users of manual methods. Furthermore, the natural language processing methods that ISAID uses to suggest indexes contributes substantially to increased indexing speed and accuracy.

  2. High index glass thin film processing for photonics and photovoltaic (PV) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuu, Okechukwu Anthony

    To favorably compete with fossil-fuel technology, the greatest challenge for thin film solar-cells is to improve efficiency and reduce material cost. Thickness scaling to thin film reduces material cost but affects the light absorption in the cells; therefore a concept that traps incident photons and increases its optical path length is needed to boost absorption in thin film solar cells. One approach is the integration of low symmetric gratings (LSG), using high index material, on either the front-side or backside of 30 um thin c-Si cells. In this study, Multicomponent TeO2--Bi2O 3--ZnO (TBZ) glass thin films were prepared using RF magnetron sputtering under different oxygen flow rates. The influences of oxygen flow rate on the structural and optical properties of the resulting thin films were investigated. The structural origin of the optical property variation was studied using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that TBZ glass thin film is a suitable material for front side LSG material photovoltaic and photonics applications due to their amorphous nature, high refractive index (n > 2), broad band optical transparency window, low processing temperature. We developed a simple maskless method to pattern sputtered tellurite based glass thin films using unconventional agarose hydrogel mediated wet etching. Conventional wet etching process, while claiming low cost and high throughput, suffers from reproducibility and pattern fidelity issues due to the isotropic nature of wet chemical etching when applied to glasses and polymers. This method overcomes these challenges by using an agarose hydrogel stamp to mediate a conformal etching process. In our maskless method, agarose hydrogel stamps are patterned following a standard soft lithography and replica molding process from micropatterned masters and soaked in a chemical etchant. The micro-scale features on the stamp are

  3. Non-perturbative approach to high-index-contrast variations in electromagnetic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars Henning; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2006-01-01

    We present a method that formally calculates exact frequency shifts of an electromagnetic field for arbitrary changes in the refractive index. The possible refractive index changes include both anisotropic changes and boundary shifts. Degenerate eigenmode frequencies pose no problems...

  4. Relic gravitational waves with a running spectral index and its constraints at high frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, M. L.; Zhang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We study the impact of a running index α t on the spectrum of relic gravitational waves (RGWs) over the whole range of frequency (10 -18 ∼10 10 ) Hz and reveal its implications in RGWs detections and in cosmology. Analytical calculations show that, although the spectrum of RGWs on low frequencies is less affected by α t ≠0, on high frequencies, the spectrum is modified substantially. Investigations are made toward potential detections of the α t -modified RGWs for several kinds of current and planned detectors. The Advanced LIGO will likely be able to detect RGWs with α t ≥0 for inflationary models with the inflation index β=-1.956 and the tensor-scalar ratio r=0.55. The future LISA can detect RGWs for a much broader range of (α t ,β,r), and will have a better chance to break a degeneracy between them. Constraints on α t are estimated from several detections and cosmological observations. Among them, the most stringent one is from the bound of the big bang nucleosynthesis, and requires α t s to be of the same magnitude as α t , if both RGWs and scalar perturbations are generated by the same scalar inflation.

  5. Langevin modelling of high-frequency Hang-Seng index data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei-Han

    2003-06-01

    Accurate statistical characterization of financial time series, such as compound stock indices, foreign currency exchange rates, etc., is fundamental to investment risk management, pricing of derivative products and financial decision making. Traditionally, such data were analyzed and modeled from a purely statistics point of view, with little concern on the specifics of financial markets. Increasingly, however, attention has been paid to the underlying economic forces and the collective behavior of investors. Here we summarize a novel approach to the statistical modeling of a major stock index (the Hang Seng index). Based on mathematical results previously derived in the fluid turbulence literature, we show that a Langevin equation with a variable noise amplitude correctly reproduces the ubiquitous fat tails in the probability distribution of intra-day price moves. The form of the Langevin equation suggests that, despite the extremely complex nature of financial concerns and investment strategies at the individual's level, there exist simple universal rules governing the high-frequency price move in a stock market.

  6. The role of macromolecular crowding in the evolution of lens crystallins with high molecular refractive index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Huaying; Magone, M Teresa; Schuck, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Crystallins are present in the lens at extremely high concentrations in order to provide transparency and generate a high refractive power of the lens. The crystallin families prevalent in the highest density lens tissues are γ-crystallins in vertebrates and S-crystallins in cephalopods. As shown elsewhere, in parallel evolution, both have evolved molecular refractive index increments 5–10% above those of most proteins. Although this is a small increase, it is statistically very significant and can be achieved only by very unusual amino acid compositions. In contrast, such a molecular adaptation to aid in the refractive function of the lens did not occur in crystallins that are preferentially located in lower density lens tissues, such as vertebrate α-crystallin and taxon-specific crystallins. In the current work, we apply a model of non-interacting hard spheres to examine the thermodynamic contributions of volume exclusion at lenticular protein concentrations. We show that the small concentration decrease afforded by the higher molecular refractive index increment of crystallins can amplify nonlinearly to produce order of magnitude differences in chemical activities, and lead to reduced osmotic pressure and the reduced propensity for protein aggregation. Quantitatively, this amplification sets in only at protein concentrations as high as those found in hard lenses or the nucleus of soft lenses, in good correspondence to the observed crystallin properties in different tissues and different species. This suggests that volume exclusion effects provide the evolutionary driving force for the unusual refractive properties and the unusual amino acid compositions of γ-crystallins and S-crystallins

  7. Impact of high resolution 3 tesla MR neurography (MRN) on diagnostic thinking and therapeutic patient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Belzberg, Allan J.; Rosson, Gedge D.; Shores, Jaimie T.; Deune, Gene; Thawait, Gaurav K.; Chalian, M.; Farahani, Sahar J.; Thawait, Shrey K.; Hashemi, Shar; Subhawong, Ty K.; Carrino, John A.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) on diagnostic thinking and therapeutic choices in patients with suspected peripheral neuropathy. IRB approval was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. Questionnaires were administered to six surgeons regarding the diagnosis and treatment in 85 patients suspected of having peripheral neuropathy, before (pretest) and after (posttest) MRN. Multiple outcome measures related to diagnostic confidence and surgical decision-making were assessed. The final cohort included 81 patients (30 men and 51 women, age 47 ± 17 years). The following changes were observed from pretest to posttest questionnaires: 23 % in nerve involvement (P < 0.05), 48 % in degree of confidence of nerve involvement (P < 0.01), 27 % in grade of injury (P < 0.05), 33 % in differential diagnosis (P < 0.05), 63 % in degree of confidence in need for surgery (P < 0.001), 41 % in timing of surgery (P < 0.01), 30 % in approach to surgery (P < 0.05), 58 % in degree of confidence in approach to surgery (P < 0.001), 30 % in estimated length of surgery (P < 0.05) and 27 % in length of incision (P < 0.05). The dichotomous decision regarding surgical or nonsurgical treatment changed from pro to con in 17 %. MRN results significantly influenced the diagnostic thinking and therapeutic recommendations of peripheral nerve surgeons. circle In patients with peripheral neuropathy, MRN significantly impacts diagnostic thinking. (orig.)

  8. Impact of high resolution 3 tesla MR neurography (MRN) on diagnostic thinking and therapeutic patient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Avneesh [Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Belzberg, Allan J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rosson, Gedge D.; Shores, Jaimie T.; Deune, Gene [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Plastic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Thawait, Gaurav K.; Chalian, M.; Farahani, Sahar J.; Thawait, Shrey K. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Hashemi, Shar [Dellon Institute, Towson, MD (United States); Subhawong, Ty K. [University of Miami Health System, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Carrino, John A. [Weill Cornell Medical College, Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology and Imaging, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-05-15

    To evaluate the impact of magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) on diagnostic thinking and therapeutic choices in patients with suspected peripheral neuropathy. IRB approval was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. Questionnaires were administered to six surgeons regarding the diagnosis and treatment in 85 patients suspected of having peripheral neuropathy, before (pretest) and after (posttest) MRN. Multiple outcome measures related to diagnostic confidence and surgical decision-making were assessed. The final cohort included 81 patients (30 men and 51 women, age 47 ± 17 years). The following changes were observed from pretest to posttest questionnaires: 23 % in nerve involvement (P < 0.05), 48 % in degree of confidence of nerve involvement (P < 0.01), 27 % in grade of injury (P < 0.05), 33 % in differential diagnosis (P < 0.05), 63 % in degree of confidence in need for surgery (P < 0.001), 41 % in timing of surgery (P < 0.01), 30 % in approach to surgery (P < 0.05), 58 % in degree of confidence in approach to surgery (P < 0.001), 30 % in estimated length of surgery (P < 0.05) and 27 % in length of incision (P < 0.05). The dichotomous decision regarding surgical or nonsurgical treatment changed from pro to con in 17 %. MRN results significantly influenced the diagnostic thinking and therapeutic recommendations of peripheral nerve surgeons. circle In patients with peripheral neuropathy, MRN significantly impacts diagnostic thinking. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of different options for harvest of a therapeutic protein product from high cell density yeast fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alice; Lewus, Rachael; Rathore, Anurag S

    2006-05-05

    Recovery of therapeutic protein from high cell density yeast fermentations at commercial scale is a challenging task. In this study, we investigate and compare three different harvest approaches, namely centrifugation followed by depth filtration, centrifugation followed by filter-aid enhanced depth filtration, and microfiltration. This is achieved by presenting a case study involving recovery of a therapeutic protein from Pichia pastoris fermentation broth. The focus of this study is on performance of the depth filtration and the microfiltration steps. The experimental data has been fitted to the conventional models for cake filtration to evaluate specific cake resistance and cake compressibility. In the case of microfiltration, the experimental data agrees well with flux predicted by shear induced diffusion model. It is shown that, under optimal conditions, all three options can deliver the desired product recovery ( >80%), harvest time ( making a final decision on a harvesting approach.

  10. The effects of gender on circadian rhythm of human physiological indexes in high temperature environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, G. Z.; Li, K.; Bu, W. T.; Lu, Y. Z.; Wang, Y. J.

    2018-03-01

    In the context of frequent high temperature weather in recent years, peoples’ physical health is seriously threatened by the indoor high temperature. The physiological activities of human body show a certain changes of circadian rhythm. In this paper, the circadian rhythms of the physiological indexes in indoor high temperature environment were quantified and compared between the male subjects and female subjects. Ten subjects (five males and five females) were selected. The temperature conditions were set at 28°C, 32°C, 36°C and 38°C, respectively. The blood pressure, heart rate, rectal temperature, eardrum temperature, forehead temperature and mean skin temperature were measured for 24 hours continuously. The medians, amplitudes and acrophases of the circadian rhythms were obtained by the cosinor analysis method. Then the effects of gender on the circadian rhythm of the human body in high temperature environment were analyzed. The results indicate that, compared with the female subjects, the male medians of the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure were higher, and the male medians of heart rate and rectal temperature were lower, however, no significant differences were found between eardrum temperature, forehead temperature and mean skin temperature. This study can provide scientific basis for the health protection of the indoor relevant personnel.

  11. The association between higher body mass index and poor school performance in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, L; Fabbri, M; Filardi, M; Martoni, M; Natale, V

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and school performance in high school students by controlling for relevant mediators such as sleep quality, sleep duration and socioeconomic status. Thirty-seven high school students (mean age: 18.16 ± 0.44 years) attending the same school type, i.e. 'liceo scientifico' (science-based high school), were enrolled. Students' self-reported weight and height were used to calculate BMI. Participants wore an actigraph to objectively assess the quality and duration of sleep. School performance was assessed through the actual grade obtained at the final school-leaving exam, in which higher grades indicate higher performance. BMI, get-up time, mean motor activity, wake after sleep onset and number of awakenings were negatively correlated with the grade, while sleep efficiency was positively correlated. When performing a multiple regression analysis, BMI proved the only significant (negative) predictor of grade. When controlling for sleep quality, sleep duration and socioeconomic status, a higher BMI is associated with a poorer school performance in high school students. © 2015 World Obesity Federation.

  12. InGaAs Quantum Well Grown on High-Index Surfaces for Superluminescent Diode Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The morphological and optical properties of In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs quantum wells grown on various substrates are investigated for possible application to superluminescent diodes. The In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs quantum wells are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (100, (210, (311, and (731 substrates. A broad photoluminescence emission peak (~950 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM of 48 nm is obtained from the sample grown on (210 substrate at room temperature, which is over four times wider than the quantum well simultaneously grown on (100 substrate. On the other hand, a very narrow photoluminescence spectrum is observed from the sample grown on (311 with FWHM = 7.8 nm. The results presented in this article demonstrate the potential of high-index GaAs substrates for superluminescent diode applications.

  13. Low amniotic fluid index in high risk pregnancy and poor apgar score at birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, S.; Akhtar, K.A.K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of antepartum Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) of 5 cm was labeled as predictor of good outcome at birth. The subjects in both the groups were demographically matched and fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The Apgar score was calculated at 5 minutes of birth. The newborns, with Apgar score 6 were labeled as healthy. AFI was compared with Apgar score, using Chi-square and a p-value was calculated to determine the statistical significance. Sensitivity, specificity, efficiency and the predictive values of AFI at a cut off point of < 5 cm as a predictor of adverse outcome at birth (Apgar score of < 6 at 5 minutes of birth) in high-risk pregnancy were calculated. Only 8 neonates of 50 women with low AFI had low Apgar score. Similarly, 6 neonates of 50 women with normal AFI had poor Apgar score. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and efficiency of AFI as test were 57.1%, 51.3%, 16%, 88% and 52% respectively. Low AFI is a poor predictor of adverse outcome for high-risk term patients. AFI is not a good screening test for high-risk pregnant women at term for birth of an infant with low Apgar score. (author)

  14. Kinetic Assessment and Therapeutic Modulation of Metabolic and Inflammatory Profiles in Mice on a High-Fat and Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura W. Engstrom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of metabolic and inflammatory parameters associated with obesity were evaluated in a murine diet-induced obesity (DIO model using a diet high in fat and cholesterol. Cellular infiltration and mediator production were assessed and shown to be therapeutically modulated by the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone. C57BL/6 mice were maintained on a 45% fat/0.12% cholesterol (HF/CH or Chow diet for 3, 6, 16, or 27 weeks. Flow cytometry was employed to monitor peripheral blood monocytes and adipose tissue macrophages (ATM. Gene expression and protein analysis methods were used to evaluate mediator production from total epididymal fat (EF, stromal vascular fraction (SVF, and sorted SVF cells. To investigate therapeutic intervention, mice were fed a HF/CH diet for 12 weeks and then a diet formulated with rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg for an additional 6 weeks. A HF/CH diet correlated with obesity and a dramatic proinflammatory state. Therapeutic intervention with rosiglitazone attenuated the HF/CH induced inflammation. In addition, a novel population was found that expressed the highest levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators CCL2 and IL-6.

  15. THE INCLINATION ANGLE AND EVOLUTION OF THE BRAKING INDEX OF PULSARS WITH PLASMA-FILLED MAGNETOSPHERE: APPLICATION TO THE HIGH BRAKING INDEX OF PSR J1640–4631

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekşi, K. Y.; Andaç, I. C.; Çıkıntoğlu, S.; Motlagh, A. Vahdat; Gügercinoğlu, E.; Kızıltan, B.

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered rotationally powered pulsar PSR J1640–4631 is the first to have a braking index measured, with high enough precision, that is greater than 3. An inclined magnetic rotator in vacuum or plasma would be subject not only to spin-down but also to an alignment torque. The vacuum model can address the braking index only for an almost orthogonal rotator, which is incompatible with the single-peaked pulse profile. The magnetic dipole model with the corotating plasma predicts braking indices between 3 and 3.25. We find that the braking index of 3.15 is consistent with two different inclination angles, 18.°5 ± 3° and 56° ± 4°. The smaller angle is preferred given that the pulse profile has a single peak and the radio output of the source is weak. We infer the change in the inclination angle to be at the rate −0.°23 per century, three times smaller in absolute value than the rate recently observed for the Crab pulsar.

  16. Prognostic value of low and high ankle-brachial index in hospitalized medical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Leonella; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Pirro, Matteo; Vaudo, Gaetano; Leli, Christian; Colella, Renato; Innocente, Salvatore; Ciuffetti, Giovanni; Mannarino, Elmo

    2012-04-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is frequently underdiagnosed in the clinical practice, leading to a lack of opportunity to detect subjects at a high risk for cardiovascular (CV) death. The ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) represents a noninvasive, objective tool to diagnose PAD and to predict adverse outcome. ABI was determined by means of Doppler velocimetry, in 707 patients, aged 50 years or older, consecutively hospitalized in an internal medicine ward, who were followed-up for at least 12 months in order to assess all-cause and CV mortality. Symptomatic PAD affected 8% of the population while the prevalence of PAD, defined as ABI 1.40) was found in 8% of the patients. After a mean follow-up period of 1.6 years, both low and high ABI were independently associated with CV mortality with a hazard ratio of 1.99 (p=0.016) for low and 2.13 (p=0.04) for high ABI, compared with normal ABI (0.90-1.40). High ABI also independently predicted all-cause mortality with a hazard ratio of 1.77 (p=0.04). ABI measurement reveals a large number of individuals with asymptomatic PAD among those hospitalized in an internal medicine department. An increased mortality was observed in patients with both low and high ABI. Hospital admission for any reason may serve as an opportunity to detect PAD and start appropriate preventive actions. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF HIGH-INTENSITY PULSED-PERIODIC LASER RADIATION (CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sokolov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the experience of clinical observations, we have shown a high therapeutic effectiveness of the medical laser KULON-MED in: cosmetics, non-cancer inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and cancer (cancer of the stomach and colon as at different wavelengths, and with different types of photosensitizers. In the area of anti-tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT, based on experimental studies, we have showed the high antitumor (sarcoma S‑37 effectiveness of the laser (with the inhibition of tumor growth of up to 100% for repetitively pulsed irradiation mode, and for mode fractionation doses laser radiation. In addition, significant differences are shown in the effectiveness of anticancer PDT methods in the application of high-intensity lasers, continuous and pulsed caused fundamental properties of laser radiation characteristics – time structure of the radiation pulses. Thus, for the first time we have shown that the time of high-intensity laser pulses structure significantly affects therapeutic efficacy laser system, and hence on the mechanisms of interaction of laser radiation with biological tissue.

  18. High-resolution imaging of cellular processes across textured surfaces using an indexed-matched elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasio, Andrea; Vaishnavi, Sree; Ladoux, Benoit; Viasnoff, Virgile

    2015-03-01

    Understanding and controlling how cells interact with the microenvironment has emerged as a prominent field in bioengineering, stem cell research and in the development of the next generation of in vitro assays as well as organs on a chip. Changing the local rheology or the nanotextured surface of substrates has proved an efficient approach to improve cell lineage differentiation, to control cell migration properties and to understand environmental sensing processes. However, introducing substrate surface textures often alters the ability to image cells with high precision, compromising our understanding of molecular mechanisms at stake in environmental sensing. In this paper, we demonstrate how nano/microstructured surfaces can be molded from an elastomeric material with a refractive index matched to the cell culture medium. Once made biocompatible, contrast imaging (differential interference contrast, phase contrast) and high-resolution fluorescence imaging of subcellular structures can be implemented through the textured surface using an inverted microscope. Simultaneous traction force measurements by micropost deflection were also performed, demonstrating the potential of our approach to study cell-environment interactions, sensing processes and cellular force generation with unprecedented resolution. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Object-based Morphological Building Index for Building Extraction from High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Xiangguo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Building extraction from high resolution remote sensing images is a hot research topic in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing. In this article, an object-based morphological building index (OBMBI is constructed based on both image segmentation and graph-based top-hat reconstruction, and OBMBI is used for building extraction from high resolution remote sensing images. First, bidirectional mapping relationship between pixels, objects and graph-nodes are constructed. Second, the OBMBI image is built based on both graph-based top-hat reconstruction and the above mapping relationship. Third, a binary thresholding is performed on the OBMBI image, and the binary image is converted into vector format to derive the building polygons. Finally, the post-processing is made to optimize the extracted building polygons. Two images, including an aerial image and a panchromatic satellite image, are used to test both the proposed method and classic PanTex method. The experimental results suggest that our proposed method has a higher accuracy in building extraction than the classic PanTex method. On average, the correctness, the completeness and the quality of our method are respectively 9.49%, 11.26% and 14.11% better than those of the PanTex.

  20. High color rendering index white organic light-emitting diode using levofloxacin as blue emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Yan-Qin; Zhang Ai-Qin; Li Yuan-Hao; Wang Hua; Jia Hu-Sheng; Liu Xu-Guang; Gao Zhi-Xiang; Tsuboi Taijuf

    2015-01-01

    Levofloxacin (LOFX), which is well-known as an antibiotic medicament, was shown to be useful as a 452-nm blue emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, the fabricated white OLED contains a 452-nm blue emitting layer (thickness of 30 nm) with 1 wt% LOFX doped in CBP (4,4’-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl) host and a 584-nm orange emitting layer (thickness of 10 nm) with 0.8 wt% DCJTB (4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7, 7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran) doped in CBP, which are separated by a 20-nm-thick buffer layer of TPBi (2,2’,2”-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl)-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole). A high color rendering index (CRI) of 84.5 and CIE chromaticity coordinates of (0.33, 0.32), which is close to ideal white emission CIE (0.333, 0.333), are obtained at a bias voltage of 14 V. Taking into account that LOFX is less expensive and the synthesis and purification technologies of LOFX are mature, these results indicate that blue fluorescence emitting LOFX is useful for applications to white OLEDs although the maximum current efficiency and luminance are not high. The present paper is expected to become a milestone to using medical drug materials for OLEDs. (paper)

  1. Therapeutic effects of microbubble added to combined high-intensity focused ultrasound and chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mi Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Ri [Dept. of Pre-Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University College of Dentistry, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model.

  2. Therapeutic Effects of Microbubbles Added to Combined High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound and Chemotherapy in a Pancreatic Cancer Xenograft Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mi Hye [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Ri [Department of Pre-Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University College of Dentistry, Gangneung 25457 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun-Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul 06973 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model.

  3. Risk assessment for cancer induction after low- and high-LET therapeutic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, H.; Menzel, H.G.; Pihet, P.; Wambersie, A.

    1999-01-01

    The risk of induction of a second primary cancer after a therapeutic irradiation with conventional photon beams is well recognized and documented. However, in general, it is totally overwhelmed by the benefit of the treatment. The same is true to a large extent for the combinations of radiation and drug therapy. After fast neutron therapy, the risk of induction of a second cancer is greater than after photon therapy. Neutron RBE increases with decreasing dose and there is a wide evidence that neutron RBE is greater for cancer induction (and for other late effects relevant in radiation protection) than for cell killing. Animal data on RBE for tumor induction are reviewed, as well as other biological effects such as life shortening, malignant cell transformation in vitro, chromosome aberrations, genetic effects. These effects can be related, directly or indirectly, to cancer induction to the extent that they express a 'genomic' lesions. Almost no reliable human epidemiological data are available so far. For fission neutrons a RBE for cancer induction of about 20 relative to photons seems to be a reasonable assumption. For fast neutrons, due to the difference in energy spectrum, a RBE of 10 can be assumed. After proton beam therapy (low-LET radiation), the risk of secondary cancer induction, relative to photons, can be divided by a factor of 3, due to the reduction of integral dose (as an average). The RBE of heavy-ions for cancer induction can be assumed to be similar to fission neutrons, i.e. about 20 relative to photons. However, after heavy-ion beam therapy, the risk should be divided by 3, as after proton therapy, due to the excellent physical selectivity of the irradiation. Therefore, a risk 5 to 10 times higher than photons could be assumed. This range is probably a pessimistic estimate for carbon ions since most of the normal tissues, at the level of the initial plateau, are irradiated with low-LET radiation. (orig.)

  4. Hand Grip Strength in Low, Medium, and High Body Mass Index Males and Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Hand grip strength (HGS is a predictor of upper extremity function and changes in muscle strength, physical movement and ability to undertake activities of daily living. Body mass index (BMI is a critical indicator of physical health; however, the relationship between HGS and BMI has not yet been thoroughly examined. Objectives The current study aims to compare HGS in low, medium, and high BMI males and females in both hands, and also investigates the correlation between HGS and anthropometric characteristics among the three BMI groups. Patients and Methods The study included 200 participants who were divided into three groups based on their BMI (60 low, 58 medium, and 82 high. HGS was assessed using a hand-held Jamar dynamometer. BMI was assessed by an electric body-weight height analysis machine. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics at P 0.05. Weight and height strongly correlated with HGS for hands (correlation (r ranged from 0.000 - 0.775. Regression analysis showed that when using sex and BMI as independent variables for predicting the dependent variable HGS, the coefficient of the determinant R2 was 0.753 (P < 0.001. Conclusions The current study revealed that a significant difference existed in HGS among the low, medium, and high BMI groups. A positive correlation existed between HGS and weight and height, while sex was the most significant factor affecting HGS. These findings can serve as a reference to assess HGS prediction, whereby the sex effect should be considered.

  5. The lumbar lordosis index: a new ratio to detect spinal malalignment with a therapeutic impact for sagittal balance correction decisions in adult scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissière, Louis; Bourghli, Anouar; Vital, Jean-Marc; Gille, Olivier; Obeid, Ibrahim

    2013-06-01

    Sagittal malalignment is frequently observed in adult scoliosis. C7 plumb line, lumbar lordosis and pelvic tilt are the main factors to evaluate sagittal balance and the need of a vertebral osteotomy to correct it. We described a ratio: the lumbar lordosis index (ratio lumbar lordosis/pelvic incidence) (LLI) and analyzed its relationships with spinal malalignment and vertebral osteotomies. 53 consecutive patients with a surgical adult scoliosis had preoperative and postoperative full spine EOS radiographies to measure spino-pelvic parameters and LLI. The lack of lordosis was calculated after prediction of theoretical lumbar lordosis. Correlation analysis between the different parameters was performed. All parameters were correlated with spinal malalignment but LLI is the most correlated parameter (r = -0.978). It is also the best parameter in this study to predict the need of a spinal osteotomy (r = 1 if LLI <0.5). LLI is a statistically validated parameter for sagittal malalignment analysis. It can be used as a mathematical tool to detect spinal malalignment in adult scoliosis and guides the surgeon decision of realizing a vertebral osteotomy for adult scoliosis sagittal correction. It can be used as well for the interpretation of clinical series in adult scoliosis.

  6. One-step patterning of double tone high contrast and high refractive index inorganic spin-on resist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanchetta, E.; Della Giustina, G.; Brusatin, G. [Industrial Engineering Department and INSTM, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-09-14

    A direct one-step and low temperature micro-fabrication process, enabling to realize large area totally inorganic TiO₂ micro-patterns from a spin-on resist, is presented. High refractive index structures (up to 2 at 632 nm) without the need for transfer processes have been obtained by mask assisted UV lithography, exploiting photocatalytic titania properties. A distinctive feature not shared by any of the known available resists and boosting the material versatility, is that the system behaves either as a positive or as negative tone resist, depending on the process parameters and on the development chemistry. In order to explain the resist double tone behavior, deep comprehension of the lithographic process parameters optimization and of the resist chemistry and structure evolution during the lithographic process, generally uncommon in literature, is reported. Another striking property of the presented resist is that the negative tone shows a high contrast up to 19, allowing to obtain structures resolution down to 2 μm wide. The presented process and material permit to directly fabricate different titania geometries of great importance for solar cells, photo-catalysis, and photonic crystals applications.

  7. Profitability of simple stationary technical trading rules with high-frequency data of Chinese Index Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Chao; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Xi

    2018-02-01

    Technical trading rules have been widely used by practitioners in financial markets for a long time. The profitability remains controversial and few consider the stationarity of technical indicators used in trading rules. We convert MA, KDJ and Bollinger bands into stationary processes and investigate the profitability of these trading rules by using 3 high-frequency data(15s,30s and 60s) of CSI300 Stock Index Futures from January 4th 2012 to December 31st 2016. Several performance and risk measures are adopted to assess the practical value of all trading rules directly while ADF-test is used to verify the stationarity and SPA test to check whether trading rules perform well due to intrinsic superiority or pure luck. The results show that there are several significant combinations of parameters for each indicator when transaction costs are not taken into consideration. Once transaction costs are included, trading profits will be eliminated completely. We also propose a method to reduce the risk of technical trading rules.

  8. The health and cost implications of high body mass index in Australian defence force personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peake Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequent illness and injury among workers with high body mass index (BMI can raise the costs of employee healthcare and reduce workforce maintenance and productivity. These issues are particularly important in vocational settings such as the military, which require good physical health, regular attendance and teamwork to operate efficiently. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of injury and illness, absenteeism, productivity, healthcare usage and administrative outcomes among Australian Defence Force personnel with varying BMI. Methods Personnel were grouped into cohorts according to the following ranges for (BMI: normal (18.5 − 24.9 kg/m2; n = 197, overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2; n = 154 and obese (≥30 kg/m2 with restricted body fat (≤28% for females, ≤24% for males (n = 148 and with no restriction on body fat (n = 180. Medical records for each individual were audited retrospectively to record the incidence of injury and illness, absenteeism, productivity, healthcare usage (i.e., consultation with medical specialists, hospital stays, medical investigations, prescriptions and administrative outcomes (e.g., discharge from service over one year. These data were then grouped and compared between the cohorts. Results The prevalence of injury and illness, cost of medical specialist consultations and cost of medical scans were all higher (p  Conclusions High BMI in the military increases healthcare usage, but does not disrupt workforce maintenance. The greater prevalence of injury and illness, greater healthcare usage and lower productivity in obese Australian Defence Force personnel is not related to higher levels of body fat.

  9. Body mass index predicts aldosterone production in normotensive adults on a high-salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Lewis, Rhonda; Adler, Gail K; Perlstein, Todd; Seely, Ellen W; Hopkins, Paul N; Williams, Gordon H; Garg, Rajesh

    2007-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying obesity-mediated cardiovascular disease are not fully understood. Aldosterone and insulin resistance both are associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to test the hypotheses that aldosterone production is elevated and associated with insulin resistance in overweight adults on a high-sodium diet. Healthy normotensive adults were categorized as lean body mass index (BMI) less than 25 kg/m(2) (n = 63) or overweight BMI 25 kg/m(2) or greater (n = 57). After 7 d of a high-sodium diet, participants fasted overnight and remained supine throughout hemodynamic and laboratory assessments and angiotensin II (AngII) stimulation. The overweight group, compared with the lean group, had higher 24-h urinary aldosterone (9.0 +/- 0.8 vs. 6.6 +/- 0.5 microg per 24 h; P = 0.003) and higher AngII-stimulated serum aldosterone (11.4 +/- 1.0 vs. 9.0 +/- 0.6 ng/dl; P = 0.04). There were no differences in 24-h urinary cortisol or sodium or supine measurements of plasma renin activity, serum aldosterone, or serum potassium. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was predicted by urinary aldosterone excretion (r = 0.32, P = 0.03) and serum aldosterone response to AngII stimulation (r = 0.28, P = 0.02) independent of age and BMI. Urinary aldosterone excretion and AngII-stimulated aldosterone are increased in overweight, compared with lean, normotensive adults. The correlation of these measures of aldosterone production with insulin resistance suggests a potential role for aldosterone in the pathophysiology of obesity-mediated insulin resistance.

  10. High color rendering index white organic light-emitting diode using levofloxacin as blue emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yan-Qin; Gao, Zhi-Xiang; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Li, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Hua; Jia, Hu-Sheng; Liu, Xu-Guang; Tsuboi, Taijuf

    2015-05-01

    Levofloxacin (LOFX), which is well-known as an antibiotic medicament, was shown to be useful as a 452-nm blue emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, the fabricated white OLED contains a 452-nm blue emitting layer (thickness of 30 nm) with 1 wt% LOFX doped in CBP (4,4’-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl) host and a 584-nm orange emitting layer (thickness of 10 nm) with 0.8 wt% DCJTB (4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran) doped in CBP, which are separated by a 20-nm-thick buffer layer of TPBi (2,2’,2”-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl)-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole). A high color rendering index (CRI) of 84.5 and CIE chromaticity coordinates of (0.33, 0.32), which is close to ideal white emission CIE (0.333, 0.333), are obtained at a bias voltage of 14 V. Taking into account that LOFX is less expensive and the synthesis and purification technologies of LOFX are mature, these results indicate that blue fluorescence emitting LOFX is useful for applications to white OLEDs although the maximum current efficiency and luminance are not high. The present paper is expected to become a milestone to using medical drug materials for OLEDs. Project supported by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. NCET-13-0927), the International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China (Grant No. 2012DFR50460), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21101111 and 61274056), and the Shanxi Provincial Key Innovative Research Team in Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012041011).

  11. Yeast Augmented Network Analysis (YANA: a new systems approach to identify therapeutic targets for human genetic diseases [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3gk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Wiley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic interaction networks that underlie most human diseases are highly complex and poorly defined. Better-defined networks will allow identification of a greater number of therapeutic targets. Here we introduce our Yeast Augmented Network Analysis (YANA approach and test it with the X-linked spinal muscular atrophy (SMA disease gene UBA1. First, we express UBA1 and a mutant variant in fission yeast and use high-throughput methods to identify fission yeast genetic modifiers of UBA1. Second, we analyze available protein-protein interaction network databases in both fission yeast and human to construct UBA1 genetic networks. Third, from these networks we identified potential therapeutic targets for SMA. Finally, we validate one of these targets in a vertebrate (zebrafish SMA model. This study demonstrates the power of combining synthetic and chemical genetics with a simple model system to identify human disease gene networks that can be exploited for treating human diseases.

  12. First-In-Class Small Molecule ONC201 Induces DR5 and Cell Death in Tumor but Not Normal Cells to Provide a Wide Therapeutic Index as an Anti-Cancer Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joshua E; Crowder, Roslyn N; Crowder, Roslyn; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified ONC201 (TIC10) as a first-in-class orally active small molecule with robust antitumor activity that is currently in clinical trials in advanced cancers. Here, we further investigate the safety characteristics of ONC201 in preclinical models that reveal an excellent safety profile at doses that exceed efficacious doses by 10-fold. In vitro studies indicated a strikingly different dose-response relationship when comparing tumor and normal cells where maximal effects are much stronger in tumor cells than in normal cells. In further support of a wide therapeutic index, investigation of tumor and normal cell responses under identical conditions demonstrated large apoptotic effects in tumor cells and modest anti-proliferative effects in normal cells that were non-apoptotic and reversible. Probing the underlying mechanism of apoptosis indicated that ONC201 does not induce DR5 in normal cells under conditions that induce DR5 in tumor cells; DR5 is a pro-apoptotic TRAIL receptor previously linked to the anti-tumor mechanism of ONC201. GLP toxicology studies in Sprague-Dawley rats and beagle dogs at therapeutic and exaggerated doses revealed no dose-limiting toxicities. Observations in both species at the highest doses were mild and reversible at doses above 10-fold the expected therapeutic dose. The no observed adverse event level (NOAEL) was ≥42 mg/kg in dogs and ≥125 mg/kg in rats, which both correspond to a human dose of approximately 1.25 g assuming standard allometric scaling. These results provided the rationale for the 125 mg starting dose in dose escalation clinical trials that began in 2015 in patients with advanced cancer.

  13. First-In-Class Small Molecule ONC201 Induces DR5 and Cell Death in Tumor but Not Normal Cells to Provide a Wide Therapeutic Index as an Anti-Cancer Agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua E Allen

    Full Text Available We previously identified ONC201 (TIC10 as a first-in-class orally active small molecule with robust antitumor activity that is currently in clinical trials in advanced cancers. Here, we further investigate the safety characteristics of ONC201 in preclinical models that reveal an excellent safety profile at doses that exceed efficacious doses by 10-fold. In vitro studies indicated a strikingly different dose-response relationship when comparing tumor and normal cells where maximal effects are much stronger in tumor cells than in normal cells. In further support of a wide therapeutic index, investigation of tumor and normal cell responses under identical conditions demonstrated large apoptotic effects in tumor cells and modest anti-proliferative effects in normal cells that were non-apoptotic and reversible. Probing the underlying mechanism of apoptosis indicated that ONC201 does not induce DR5 in normal cells under conditions that induce DR5 in tumor cells; DR5 is a pro-apoptotic TRAIL receptor previously linked to the anti-tumor mechanism of ONC201. GLP toxicology studies in Sprague-Dawley rats and beagle dogs at therapeutic and exaggerated doses revealed no dose-limiting toxicities. Observations in both species at the highest doses were mild and reversible at doses above 10-fold the expected therapeutic dose. The no observed adverse event level (NOAEL was ≥42 mg/kg in dogs and ≥125 mg/kg in rats, which both correspond to a human dose of approximately 1.25 g assuming standard allometric scaling. These results provided the rationale for the 125 mg starting dose in dose escalation clinical trials that began in 2015 in patients with advanced cancer.

  14. Scanning the horizon for high value-add manufacturing science: Accelerating manufacturing readiness for the next generation of disruptive, high-value curative cell therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourd, Paul; Williams, David J

    2018-05-01

    Since the regenerative medicine sector entered the second phase of its development (RegenMed 2.0) more than a decade ago, there is increasing recognition that current technology innovation trajectories will drive the next translational phase toward the production of disruptive, high-value curative cell and gene-based regenerative medicines. To identify the manufacturing science problems that must be addressed to permit translation of these next generation therapeutics. In this short report, a long lens look within the pluripotent stem cell therapeutic space, both embryonic and induced, is used to gain early insights on where critical technology and manufacturing challenges may emerge. This report offers a future perspective on the development and innovation that will be needed within manufacturing science to add value in the production and commercialization of the next generation of advanced cell therapies and precision medicines. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-density lipoproteins: a novel therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TS Mohamed Saleem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TS Mohamed Saleem1, PV Sandhya Rani1, K Gauthaman21Department of Pharmacology, Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, New Boyanapalli, Andhrapradesh, India; 2Department of Drug Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Derna, LibyaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease has a high rate of mortality in both Western and developing countries. Atherosclerosis and generation of reactive oxygen species through oxidative stress is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Atherothrombosis with low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL and high levels of low-density lipoprotein is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular disease. Lipid-lowering drugs like statins, niacin, fibrates, and some newer agents, ie, the apolipoprotein A-I mimetics and the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, not only increase HDL levels but are also effective in reducing key atherogenic lipid components, including triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The aim of this review is to discuss the accumulating evidence suggesting that HDL possesses a diverse range of biological actions, and that increasing HDL levels by drug treatment may be beneficial in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.Keywords: cardiovascular disease, lipoproteins, statins, apolipoprotein, atherosclerosis

  16. The Coastal Resilience Index: High School Students Planning for Their Community's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastler, J. A.; Dorcik, S.; Sempier, T.; Kimbrell, C.

    2017-12-01

    Communities in Jackson County, Mississippi sustained heavy damages during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and are expected to experience early effects as sea level rise and increasing episodes of nuisance flooding. Many high school students still remember months-long evacuations and other disruptions to home and family in 2005. Others do not remember or moved here recently. None anticipate their communities are likely to face similar challenges in the future, nor do they have a strong understanding that preparing for such an event is a practical, local career choice for a science major. Through a series of classroom and field lessons, students in two coastal communities learned how and why coastal habitats are changing, and how modeling predicts future impacts. During a culminating experience students learn how to use the Coastal Resilience Index developed by Mississippi Alabama Sea Grant Consortium. Working in teams or three to four students, the students addressed one of twelve scenarios based on real experiences observed by Gulf Coast communities during their post-hurricane assessments. Each team explored its topic using internet resources and conversations with family members, then worked together to brainstorm possible approaches to address the situation described in their scenario. They selected one potential solution for their focus and developed it, ultimately producing a poster of the scenario and their idea of its solution. The teams gathered at the University of Southern Mississippi at the end of the term to present their work, science fair style, to a selection of community leaders from the Climate Community of Practice. Posters were judged and best poster presentations were awarded. This talk will focus on the evaluation results. Existing qualitative observations show differences in awareness and self-efficacy to work productively in this field. Community leaders expressed interest in the solutions offered. Ongoing quantitative evaluations will also be

  17. Therapeutic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Lawrence A

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques. (amum lecture)

  18. A high throughput capillary electrophoresis method to obtain pharmacokinetics and quality attributes of a therapeutic molecule in circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piparia, Reema; Ouellette, David; Stine, W. Blaine; Grinnell, Christine; Tarcsa, Edit; Radziejewski, Czeslaw; Correia, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic proteins circulating in blood are in a highly crowded, redox environment at high temperatures of ~37°C. These molecules circulate in the presence of enzymes and other serum proteins making it difficult to predict from in vitro studies the stability, aggregation or pharmacokinetics of a therapeutic protein in vivo. Here, we describe use of a high throughput capillary electrophoresis based microfluidic device (LabChip GXII) to obtain pharmacokinetics (PK) of a fluorescently labeled human mAb directly from serum. The non-labeled and labeled mAbs were evaluated in single dose rat PK studies using a traditional ELISA method or LabChip GXII, respectively. The fluorescent dye did not significantly alter clearance of this particular mAb, and PK parameters were comparable for labeled and unlabeled molecules. Further, from the CE profile we concluded that the mAb was resistant to fragmentation or aggregation during circulation. In a follow-up experiment, dimers were generated from the mAb using photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) and labeled with the same fluorophore. The extent of dimerization was incomplete and some monomer and higher molecular weight species were found in the preparation. In rat PK studies, the serum concentration-time profile of the three entities present in the dimer preparation could be followed simultaneously with the GXII technology. While further studies are warranted, we believe this method could be adapted to obtain PK of different forms of antibodies (oxidized, deamidated or various glycosylated species) and other proteins. PMID:22647389

  19. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  20. Management of Hypercholesterolemia, Appropriateness of Therapeutic Approaches and New Drugs in Patients with High Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabiti Rosei, Enrico; Salvetti, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    Control of lipid levels is one of the most effective strategies for cardiovascular (CV) event prevention. In fact, many clinical trials have clearly demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering, primarily with statins, reduces major CV events and mortality. The evidence from these trials has been useful in designing the cholesterol treatment guidelines, which are mainly aimed at preventing and managing cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, available data indicate that a large proportion of patients fail to achieve lipid goals, and this is particularly frequent in patients at high or very high CV risk. Furthermore, owing to side effects, a significant percentage of patients cannot tolerate statin treatment. Hence, researchers have focused their attention on novel LDL-C-lowering agents that act via mechanisms distinct from that of statins. Among the new compounds under investigation, the monoclonal antibodies to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) seem particularly promising, having recently been shown to be well tolerated and highly effective at lowering LDL-C, with a possible effect on the occurrence of CV events. Currently, alirocumab is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for use in adults with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) or those with atherosclerotic CV disease who require additional LDL-C lowering; it has also been recently approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for use in patients with heterozygous FH, non-familial hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia in whom statins are ineffective or not tolerated. Evolocumab is approved by the FDA as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statins for adults with hetero- and homozygous FH and those with atherosclerotic CV disease who require additional lowering of LDL-C, and by the EMA in adults with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia, as an adjunct

  1. Metronomic chemotherapy – promising therapeutical approach for recurrent/ refractory high risk tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deak, L.; Feketeova, J.; Haluskova, V.; Sencakova, I.; Jenco, I.; Oravkinova, I.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a great progress in the treatment of pediatric malignancies, the outcome of children with high risk refractory or relapsed tumours, as are some types of brain tumours or metastatic sarcomas, remain poor. In contrast to dose – intensified chemotherapy, utilizing „maximal tolerated doses“ of chemotherapy, the metronomic chemotherapy (MC) is based on chronic administration of significantly lower doses of chemotherapy in an uninterrupted manner, for prolonged periods. Because of different mechanism of action against conventional chemotherapy and no cross- resistance, this treatment modality is effective also in refractory and recurrent tumours. The predominant mechanism of action of MC is antiangiogenic. In last decades several studies confirmed the efficacy and low toxicity of this new treatment modality. It can be delivered on outpatient basis and is well tolerated even in heavily pretreated patients. The authors present an overview of studies on MC in pediatric oncology and their own experience. (author)

  2. A highly invasive human glioblastoma pre-clinical model for testing therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Brian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models greatly facilitate understanding of cancer and importantly, serve pre-clinically for evaluating potential anti-cancer therapies. We developed an invasive orthotopic human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM mouse model that enables real-time tumor ultrasound imaging and pre-clinical evaluation of anti-neoplastic drugs such as 17-(allylamino-17-demethoxy geldanamycin (17AAG. Clinically, GBM metastasis rarely happen, but unexpectedly most human GBM tumor cell lines intrinsically possess metastatic potential. We used an experimental lung metastasis assay (ELM to enrich for metastatic cells and three of four commonly used GBM lines were highly metastatic after repeated ELM selection (M2. These GBM-M2 lines grew more aggressively orthotopically and all showed dramatic multifold increases in IL6, IL8, MCP-1 and GM-CSF expression, cytokines and factors that are associated with GBM and poor prognosis. DBM2 cells, which were derived from the DBTRG-05MG cell line were used to test the efficacy of 17AAG for treatment of intracranial tumors. The DMB2 orthotopic xenografts form highly invasive tumors with areas of central necrosis, vascular hyperplasia and intracranial dissemination. In addition, the orthotopic tumors caused osteolysis and the skull opening correlated to the tumor size, permitting the use of real-time ultrasound imaging to evaluate antitumor drug activity. We show that 17AAG significantly inhibits DBM2 tumor growth with significant drug responses in subcutaneous, lung and orthotopic tumor locations. This model has multiple unique features for investigating the pathobiology of intracranial tumor growth and for monitoring systemic and intracranial responses to antitumor agents.

  3. Pregnancy after high therapeutic doses of iodine-131 in differentiated thyroid cancer: potential risks and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casara, D.; Rubello, D.; Saladini, G.; Piotto, A.; Pelizzo, M.R.; Girelli, M.E.; Busnardo, B.

    1993-01-01

    Seventy female patients who had been treated with high doses of iodine-131 for differented thyroid cancer (DTC) and who had a subsequent pregnancy were evaluated. The global 131 I dose ranged from 1.85 to 16.55 GBq (mean±SD=4.39±25.20 GBq). Age at first therapy ranged from 15 to 36 years (mean±SD=24.3±5.0 years) and the interval from 131 I therapy to pregnancy varied from 2 to 10 years (mean±SD=5.3±2.8 years). The estimated radiation dose to the gonads ranged from 10 to 63 cGy (mean±SD=24.0±13.5 cGy). All patients were treated with L-thyroxine at doses capable of suppressing thyroid-stimulating hormone. Seventy-three children were followed-up and seven pregnancies are still in progress. One child was affected by Fallot's trilogy and three had a low birth weight though with subsequent regular growth; the others were healthy with subsequent regular growth. No newborn with clinical or biochemical thyroid dysfunctions was found. Two spontaneous abortions during the second month of pregnancy were recorded. One of two patients in question subsequently had two healthy children. On the basis of these data, previous administration of high 131 I doses does not appear to be a valid reason for dissuading young female DTC patients from considering pregnancy. However, patients should be advised to avoid pregnancy after 131 I administration for a period sufficient to ensure complete elimination of the radionuclide and to permit confirmation of complete disease remission, i.e. at least 1 year in our opinion. (orig.)

  4. Focusing of high intensity ultrasound through the rib cage using a therapeutic random phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, Svetlana; Gavrilov, Leonid; Khokhlova, Vera; Shaw, Adam; Hand, Jeffrey; #, ||

    2010-01-01

    A method for focusing high intensity ultrasound through a rib cage that aims to minimize heating of the ribs whilst maintaining high intensities at the focus (or foci) is proposed and tested theoretically and experimentally. Two approaches, one based on geometric acoustics and the other accounting for diffraction effects associated with propagation through the rib cage, are investigated theoretically for idealized source conditions. It is shown that for an idealized radiator the diffraction approach provides a 23% gain in peak intensity and results in significantly less power losses on the ribs (1% versus 7.5% of the irradiated power) compared with the geometric one. A 2D 1-MHz phased array with 254 randomly distributed elements, tissue mimicking phantoms, and samples of porcine rib cages are used in experiments; the geometric approach is used to configure how the array is driven. Intensity distributions are measured in the plane of the ribs and in the focal plane using an infra-red camera. Theoretical and experimental results show that it is possible to provide adequate focusing through the ribs without overheating them for a single focus and several foci, including steering at ± 10–15 mm off and ± 20 mm along the array axis. Focus splitting due to the periodic spatial structure of ribs is demonstrated both in simulations and experiments; the parameters of splitting are quantified. The ability to produce thermal lesions with a split focal pattern in ex vivo porcine tissue placed beyond the rib phantom is also demonstrated. The results suggest that the method is potentially useful for clinical applications of HIFU for which the rib cage lies between the transducer(s) and the targeted tissue. PMID:20510186

  5. Suppression of Air Refractive Index Variations in High-Resolution Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Buchta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the refractive index of air has proven to be a major problem on the road to improvement of the uncertainty in interferometric displacement measurements. We propose an approach with two counter-measuring interferometers acting as a combination of tracking refractometer and a displacement interferometer referencing the wavelength of the laser source to a mechanical standard made of a material with ultra-low thermal expansion. This technique combines length measurement within a specified range with measurement of the refractive index fluctuations in one axis. Errors caused by different position of the interferometer laser beam and air sensors are thus eliminated. The method has been experimentally tested in comparison with the indirect measurement of the refractive index of air in a thermal controlled environment. Over a 1 K temperature range an agreement on the level of 5 × 10−8 has been achieved.

  6. Testing high spatial resolution WorldView-2 imagery for retrieving the leaf area index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Eufemia; Novelli, Antonio; Laterza, Maurizio; Gioia, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    This work analyzes the potentiality of WorldView-2 satellite data for retrieving the Leaf Area Index (LAI) area located in Apulia, the most Eastern region of Italy, overlooking the Adriatic and Ionian seas. Lacking contemporary in-situ measurements, the semi-empiric method of Clevers (1989) (CLAIR model) was chosen as a feasible image-based LAI retrieval method, which is based on an inverse exponential relationship between the LAI and the WDVI (Weighted Difference Vegetation Index) with relation to different land covers. Results were examined in homogeneous land cover classes and compared with values obtained in recent literature.

  7. High refractive index modification of SiO2 created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillot, T; Grojo, D; Gertsvolf, M; Rayner, D M; Corkum, P B; Lei, S

    2010-01-01

    By comparing simulations with experiment, we show that the effective refractive index of fused SiO 2 can be locally reduced by (1.8 ± 0.2)% by femtosecond laser nanostructuring. We create a microlens of material containing a planar array of nanocracks embedded inside fused silica and probe how it refracts or absorbs light as a function of pulse energy. The self-generated microlens lowers the peak light intensity by deflecting the light around the focus. We obtain the refractive index by simulating the beam transport using the 3D wave equation in conjunction with the measured dimensions of the modified material.

  8. Low-cost and high-capacity short-range optical interconnects using graded-index plastic optical fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangdiongga, E.; Yang, H.; Lee, S.C.J.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Randel, S.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a transmission rate of 51.8 Gb/s over 100-meters of perfluorinated multimode graded-index plastic optical fiber using discrete multitone modulation. The results prove suitability of plastic fibers for low-cost high-capacity optical interconnects.

  9. Combined adverse effects of maternal smoking and high body mass index on heart development in offspring : evidence for interaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baardman, M.E.; Kerstjens-Frederikse, W.S.; Corpeleijn, E.; de Walle, H.E.K.; Hofstra, R.M.W.; Berger, R.M.F.; Bakker, M.K.

    Objective To study the influence of a possible interaction between maternal smoking and high body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of specific congenital heart anomalies (CHA) in offspring. Design Case-control study. Setting Data from a population-based birth defects registry in the Netherlands.

  10. 80-nm-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL: Proposal and numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper; Sirbu, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    A widely-tunable single-mode long wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structure employing a MEMStunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) is suggested and numerically investigated. A very large 80- nm linear tuning range was obtained as the HCG was actuated by -220 to ...

  11. Modified Thiele massage as therapeutic intervention for female patients with interstitial cystitis and high-tone pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Ian A; Rejba, Amy; Lukban, James C; Fletcher, Erica; Kellogg-Spadt, Susan; Holzberg, Adam S; Whitmore, Kristene E

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of transvaginal manual therapy of the pelvic floor musculature (Thiele massage) in symptomatic female patients with interstitial cystitis and high-tone dysfunction of the pelvic floor. A total of 21 women with documented interstitial cystitis and high-tone pelvic floor dysfunction underwent transvaginal massage using the Thiele technique twice a week for 5 weeks. Symptoms were evaluated before massage, at protocol conclusion, and at a mean of 4.5 months after therapy completion (long-term follow-up). The response to treatment was evaluated through the O'Leary-Sant Interstitial Cystitis Symptom and Problem Indexes, Likert Visual Analogue Scales for urgency and pain, and Short-Form 12-item (SF-12) Quality-of-Life Scale, and through changes in the physical examination findings using a 5-point modified Oxford Scale to document pelvic floor tenderness. A statistically significant improvement was seen in the Symptom and Problem Indexes of the O'Leary-Sant Questionnaire (P = 0.015 and P = 0.039, respectively), Likert Visual Analogue Scales for urgency and pain (P = 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively), the Physical and Mental Component Summary from the SF-12 Quality-of-Life Scale (P = 0.049 and P = 0.044, respectively), and the modified Oxford Scale (P pelvic floor (P pelvic floor dysfunction in addition to decreasing pelvic floor muscle tone.

  12. School Health Index: A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide. Middle School/High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Lisa C.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Crossett, Linda; Harrykissoon, Samantha D.; Pritzl, Jane; Wechsler, Howell; Kuester, Sarah A.; Pederson, Linda; Graffunder, Corinne; Rainford, Neil; Sleet, David

    2004-01-01

    The "School Health Index" is a self-assessment and planning guide that will enable schools to: (1) identify the strengths and weaknesses of school policies and programs for promoting health and safety; (2) develop an action plan for improving student health and safety, and (3) involve teachers, parents, students, and the community in improving…

  13. The Development and Validation of the Ethical Climate Index for Middle and High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Laura E.; Thompson, Franklin; Talbott, Jeanie; Luther, Ann; Garcia, Michelle; Blanchard, Shirley; Conway, Laraine; Mueller, Melanie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the School Ethical Climate Index (SECI), an instrument to measure the ethical climate of a school. The SECI could be used in school districts to assess areas for school improvement and thereby help reduce school disorder and violence. (Contains 4 tables and 39 references.) (Author/WFA)

  14. Association of UV Index and Sunscreen Use among White High School Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett Jones, Sherry; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Michael, Shannon L.; Saraiya, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Background: When used appropriately, sunscreen decreases the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure to the skin and is recommended to prevent skin cancer. This study examined the association between annual average UV index and sunscreen use among White, non-Hispanic youth. Methods: The 2007 and 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey…

  15. Verantwoording en kosteneffectiviet van therapeutic drug monitoring (1) : Betere behandeling voor minder geld

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D.J.; Neef, C.; Vinks, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    There are a number of effective but highly toxic drugs that exhibit a narrow therapeutic index and marked intersubject pharmacokinetic variability. Optimal therapy with such drugs requires therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in order to safely obtain the desired clinical effects. A systematic review

  16. CT urography in the urinary bladder: To compare excretory phase images using a low noise index and a high noise index with adaptive noise reduction filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeyama, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Takaki; Ohgiya, Yoshimitsu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although CT urography (CTU) is widely used for the evaluation of the entire urinary tract, the most important drawback is the radiation exposure. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a noise reduction filter (NRF) using a phantom and to quantitatively and qualitatively compare excretory phase (EP) images using a low noise index (NI) with those using a high NI and postprocessing NRF (pNRF). Material and Methods: Each NI value was defined for a slice thickness of 5 mm, and reconstructed images with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm were assessed. Sixty patients who were at high risk of developing bladder tumors (BT) were divided into two groups according to whether their EP images were obtained using an NI of 9.88 (29 patients; group A) or an NI of 20 and pNRF (31 patients; group B). The CT dose index volume (CTDI vol ) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the bladder with respect to the anterior pelvic fat were compared in both groups. Qualitative assessment of the urinary bladder for image noise, sharpness, streak artifacts, homogeneity, and the conspicuity of polypoid or sessile-shaped BTs with a short-axis diameter greater than 10 mm was performed using a 3-point scale. Results: The phantom study showed noise reduction of approximately 40% and 76% dose reduction between group A and group B. CTDI vol demonstrated a 73% reduction in group B (4.6 ± 1.1 mGy) compared with group A (16.9 ± 3.4 mGy). The CNR value was not significantly different (P = 0.60) between group A (16.1 ± 5.1) and group B (16.6 ± 7.6). Although group A was superior (P < 0.01) to group B with regard to image noise, other qualitative analyses did not show significant differences. Conclusion: EP images using a high NI and pNRF were quantitatively and qualitatively comparable to those using a low NI, except with regard to image noise

  17. Single mode step-index polymer optical fiber for humidity insensitive high temperature fiber Bragg grating sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Fasano, Andrea; Stefani, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    We have fabricated the first single-mode step-index and humidity insensitive polymer optical fiber operating in the 850 nm wavelength ranges. The step-index preform is fabricated using injection molding, which is an efficient method for cost effective, flexible and fast preparation of the fiber...... preform. The fabricated single-mode step-index (SI) polymer optical fiber (POF) has a 4.8µm core made from TOPAS grade 5013S-04 with a glass transition temperature of 134°C and a 150 µm cladding made from ZEONEX grade 480R with a glass transition temperature of 138°C. The key advantages of the proposed...... SIPOF are low water absorption, high operating temperature and chemical inertness to acids and bases and many polar solvents as compared to the conventional poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene based POFs. In addition, the fiber Bragg grating writing time is short compared to microstructured...

  18. Slow light effect with high group index and wideband by saddle-like mode in PC-CROW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yong; Jiang, Li-Jun; Xu, Sheng; Li, Meng-Xue; Liu, Meng-Nan; Jiang, Cheng-Yi; Yuan, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Slow light with high group index and wideband is achieved in photonic crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides (PC-CROWs). According to the eye-shaped scatterers and various microcavities, saddle-like curves between the normalized frequency f and wave number k can be obtained by adjusting the parameters of the scatterers, parameters of the coupling microcavities, and positions of the scatterers. Slow light with decent flat band and group index can then be achieved by optimizing the parameters. Simulations prove that the maximal value of the group index is > 104, and the normalized delay bandwidth product within a new varying range of n g > 102 or n g > 103 can be a new and effective criterion of evaluation for the slow light in PC-CROWs.

  19. Therapeutic response assessment of high intensity focused ultrasound therapy for uterine fibroid: Utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaodong; Ren Xiaolong; Zhang Jun; He Guangbin; Zheng Minjuan; Tian Xue; Li Li; Zhu Ting; Zhang Min; Wang Lei; Luo Wen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (ceUS) in the assessment of the therapeutic response to high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation in patients with uterine fibroid. Materials and methods: Sixty-four patients with a total of 64 uterine fibroids (mean: 5.3 ± 1.2 cm; range: 3.2-8.9 cm) treated with HIFU ablation under the ultrasound guidance were evaluated with ceUS after receiving an intravenous bolus injection of a microbubble contrast agent (SonoVue) within 1 week after intervention. We obtained serial ceUS images during the time period from beginning to 5 min after the initiation of the bolus contrast injection. All of the patients underwent a contrast enhanced MRI (ceMRI) and ultrasound guided needle puncture biopsy within 1 week after HIFU ablation. And as a follow-up, all of the patients underwent US at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after HIFU treatment. The volume change was observed and compared to pre- and post-HIFU ablation. The results of the ceUS were compared with those of the ceMRI in terms of the presence or absence of residual unablated tumor and pathologic change in the treated lesions. Results: On ceUS, diagnostic accuracy was 100%, while residual unablated tumors were found in three uterine fibroids (4.7%) and failed treatment was found in eight uterine fibroids (12.5%). All the 11 fibroids were subjected to additional HIFU ablation. Of the 58 ablated fibroids without residual tumors on both the ceUS and ceMRI after the HIFU ablation, the volumes of all the fibroids decreased in different degrees during the 1 year follow-up USs. And histologic examinations confirmed findings of necrotic and viable tumor tissue, respectively. Conclusion: CEUS is potentially useful for evaluating the early therapeutic effect of percutaneous HIFU ablation for uterine fibroids

  20. Index of thermal stress for cows (ITSC) under high solar radiation in tropical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Maia, Alex Sandro C.; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new thermal stress index for dairy cows in inter-tropical regions, with special mention to the semi-arid ones. Holstein cows were measured for rectal temperature ( T R), respiratory rate ( F R) and rates of heat exchange by convection ( C), radiation ( R), skin surface evaporation ( E S) and respiratory evaporation ( E R) in the north eastern region of Brazil, after exposure to sun for several hours. Average environmental measurements during the observations were air temperature ( T A) 32.4 °C (24.4-38.9°), wind speed ( U) 1.8 m.s-1 (0.01-11.0), relative humidity 63.6 % (36.8-81.5) and short-wave solar radiation 701.3 W m-2 (116-1,295). The effective radiant heat load (ERHL) was 838.5 ± 4.9 W m-2. Values for the atmospheric transmittance ( τ) were also determined for tropical regions, in order to permit adequate estimates of the solar radiation. The average value was τ = 0.611 ± 0.004 for clear days with some small moving clouds, with a range of 0.32 to 0.91 in the day period from 1000 to 1300 hours. Observed τ values were higher (0.62-0.66) for locations near the seacoast and in those regions well-provided with green fields. Effects of month, location and time of the day were all statistically significant ( P cows exposed for 1 to 8 h to sun during the day; in 7 months (February, March, April, July, August, September and November), 4 days per month on the average. A principal component analysis summarised the T R, F R, C, R, E S and E R measurements into just one synthetic variable ( y 1); several indexes were then obtained by multiple regression of y 1 on the four environmental variables and its combinations, by using Origin 8.1 software (OriginLab Corp.). The chosen equation was the index of thermal stress for cows, ITSC = 77.1747 + 4.8327 T A - 34.8189 U + 1.111 U 2 + 118.6981 P V - 14.7956 P V 2 - 0.1059 ERHL with r 2 = 0.812. The correlations of ITSC with T R, F R, C, E S, R and E R were 0.275, 0.255, -0.493, -0.647, -0.818 and 0

  1. Consistent manufacturing and quality control of a highly complex recombinant polyclonal antibody product for human therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Torben P; Naested, Henrik; Rasmussen, Søren K; Hauptig, Peter; Wiberg, Finn C; Rasmussen, Lone Kjaer; Jensen, Anne Marie Valentin; Persson, Pia; Wikén, Margareta; Engström, Anders; Jiang, Yun; Thorpe, Susan J; Förberg, Cecilia; Tolstrup, Anne B

    2011-09-01

    The beneficial effect of antibody therapy in human disease has become well established mainly for the treatment of cancer and immunological disorders. The inherent monospecificity of mAbs present limitations to mAb therapy which have become apparent notably in addressing complex entities like infectious agents or heterogenic endogenous targets. For such indications mixtures of antibodies comprising a combination of specificities would convey more potent biological effect which could translate into therapeutic efficacy. Recombinant polyclonal antibodies (rpAb) consisting of a defined number of well-characterized mAbs constitute a new class of target specific antibody therapy. We have developed a cost-efficient cell banking and single-batch manufacturing concept for the production of such products and demonstrate that a complex pAb composition, rozrolimupab, comprising 25 individual antibodies can be manufactured in a highly consistent manner in a scaled-up manufacturing process. We present a strategy for the release and characterization of antibody mixtures which constitute a complete series of chemistry, manufacturing, and control (CMC) analytical methods to address identity, purity, quantity, potency, and general characteristics. Finally we document selected quality attributes of rozrolimupab based on a battery of assays at the genetic-, protein-, and functional level and demonstrate that the manufactured rozrolimupab batches are highly pure and very uniform in their composition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Study on Brewster angle thin film polarizer using hafnia-silica mixture as high-refractive-index material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nuo; Zhu, Meiping; Sun, Jian; Chai, Yingjie; Kui, Yi; Zhao, Yuanan; Shao, Jianda

    2018-02-01

    Two kinds of polarizer coatings were prepared by electron beam evaporation, using HfO2-SiO2 mixture and HfO2 as the high-refractive-index materials, respectively. The HfO2-SiO2 mixture layer was implemented by coevaporating SiO2 and metal Hf, the materials were deposited at an oxygen atmosphere to achieve stoichiometric coatings. The certain HfO2 and SiO2 content ratio is controlled by adjusting the deposition rate of HfO2 and SiO2 using individual quartz crystal monitor. The spectral performance, surface and interfacial properties, as well as the laser-induced damage performance were studied and compared. Comparing with polarizer coating using HfO2 as high-refractive-index material, the polarizer coating using HfO2-SiO2 mixture as high-refractive-index material shows better performance with broader polarizing bandwidth, lower surface roughness, better interfacial property while maintaining high laser-induced damage threshold.

  3. Induction of high mitotic index in Petunia suspension cultures by sequential treatment with aphidicolin and colchicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, A; Zelcer, A; Izhar, S

    1984-12-01

    Significantly higher than normal mitotic index (MI) values were induced in Petunia cell suspensions following treatments with colchicine, aphidicolin, drastic medium replacement, or a sequential application of aphidicolin and colchicine. This last treatment yielded the highest MI values: cells incubated with 30 μg/ml aphidicolin for 18 h, then cultured in drug-free medium for 8 h and finally exposed to 0.1% colchicine for 8 additional hours exhibited MI of 62.8% and 65.7% respectively, for the two cell lines in study.

  4. Research on power market technical analysis index system employing high-low matching mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Shengyu

    2018-06-01

    The power market trading technical analysis refers to a method that takes the bidding behavior of members in the power market as the research object, sums up some typical market rules and price trends by applying mathematical and logical methods, and finally can effectively assist members in the power market to make more reasonable trading decisions. In this paper, the following four indicators have been proposed: bidding price difference scale, extreme bidding price rate, dispersion of bidding price and monthly transaction satisfaction of electricity trading, which are the core of the index system.

  5. High symmetry versus optical isotropy of a negative-index metamaterial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lliew, Rumen

    2010-01-01

    condition since it is usually assumed that light does not resolve the spatial details of MM but experiences the properties of an effective medium, which is then optically isotropic. In this work we challenge this assumption by analyzing the isofrequency surfaces of the dispersion relation of the split cube...... in carcass negative index MM. We show that this MM is basically optically isotropic but not in the spectral domain where it exhibits negative refraction. The primary goal of this contribution is to introduce a tool that allows to probe a MM against optical isotropy....

  6. Highly efficient channel waveguide lasers at 1 µm and 2 µm in refractive-index-engineered potassium double tungstates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalfsen, Koop; Geskus, D.; García Blanco, Sonia Maria; Pollnau, Markus

    Epitaxial growth of rare-earth-ion-activated KY(1-x-y)Gd(x)Lu(y)(WO4)2 co-doped thin layers onto KY(WO4)2 substrates has enabled lattice-matched waveguides with high refractive-index contract and large variation of the active rare-earth-ion concentration. In Yb3+-activated micro-structured channel

  7. INDEX - a solution to the high cost of processing transient workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroupe, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    In 1985 twelve midwestern utilities formed the Nuclear Employee Data System for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Region III (NEDS III) group. These utilities are Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company, Commonwealth Edison Company, Consumers Power Company, Detroit Edison Company, Illinois Power Company, Indiana and Michigan Electric Company, Iowa Electric Light and Power Company, Northern States Power Company, Toledo Edison Company, Union Electric Company, and Wisconsin Public Service Corporation. Early in 1986, Kansas Gas and Electric of NRC's Region IV joined the group and a cost-benefit study of a nuclear employee data system was initiated. The purpose of this system is to reduce the cost of processing workers requiring unescorted access to nuclear power plants. The involved utilities continued this project as the Integrated Nuclear Data Exchange (INDEX). In 1987 the following additional utilities joined INDEX: Houston Lighting and Power, Pacific Gas and Electric, Texas Utilities Electric Company, Arkansas Power and Light, Louisiana Power and Light, Systems Energy Resources Inc., and Southern California Edison. This paper summarizes the results of the study and discusses the current status of the program

  8. Guided-Mode-Leaky-Mode-Guided-Mode Fiber Interferometer and Its High Sensitivity Refractive Index Sensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A cascaded symmetrical dual-taper Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure based on guided-mode and leaky-mode interference is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the interference spectrum characteristics of interferometer has been analyzed by the Finite Difference-Beam Propagation Method (FD-BPM. When the diameter of taper waist is 20 μm–30 μm, dual-taper length is 1 mm and taper distance is 4 cm–6 cm, the spectral contrast is higher, which is suitable for sensing. Secondly, experimental research on refractive index sensitivity is carried out. A refractive index sensitivity of 62.78 nm/RIU (refractive index unit can achieved in the RI range of 1.3333–1.3792 (0%~25% NaCl solution, when the sensor structure parameters meet the following conditions: diameter of taper waist is 24 μm, dual-taper length is 837 μm and taper distance is 5.5 cm. The spectrum contrast is 0.8 and measurement resolution is 1.6 × 10−5 RIU. The simulation analysis is highly consistent with experimental results. Research shows that the sensor has promising application in low RI fields where high-precision measurement is required due to its high sensitivity and stability.

  9. Comparison of Body Image and its Relationship with Body Mass Index (BMI in High School Students of Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Behdarvandi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is not clearly specified that which of the components of body mass index (BMI affect body image and which of them do not. Given that having information in this regard is of special importance as a basis for future planning for adolescents, the present research aimed to compare body image in female and male adolescents and study its relationship with body mass index in high school students of Ahwaz, Khuzestan Province in the academic year 2015-2016.Materials and MethodsIn this descriptive-analytic study, 200 high school students were selected as the sample using the random cluster sampling method. The required data were collected using demographic questionnaire, anthropometric data checklist (height and weight, and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ. All descriptive and inferential statistics tests were performed using SPSS-17 at a confidence level of 95%.Results: The students ranged from 15 to 18 years old. Equal distribution was employed among all four grades of high school. Body mass index (BMI in male students showed a significant inverse relationship only with appearance orientation (P

  10. A pilot study for robot appearance preferences among high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder: Implications for therapeutic use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kumazaki

    Full Text Available Recent rapid technological advances have enabled robots to fulfill a variety of human-like functions, leading researchers to propose the use of such technology for the development and subsequent validation of interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Although a variety of robots have been proposed as possible therapeutic tools, the physical appearances of humanoid robots currently used in therapy with these patients are highly varied. Very little is known about how these varied designs are experienced by individuals with ASD. In this study, we systematically evaluated preferences regarding robot appearance in a group of 16 individuals with ASD (ages 10-17. Our data suggest that there may be important differences in preference for different types of robots that vary according to interaction type for individuals with ASD. Specifically, within our pilot sample, children with higher-levels of reported ASD symptomatology reported a preference for specific humanoid robots to those perceived as more mechanical or mascot-like. The findings of this pilot study suggest that preferences and reactions to robotic interactions may vary tremendously across individuals with ASD. Future work should evaluate how such differences may be systematically measured and potentially harnessed to facilitate meaningful interactive and intervention paradigms.

  11. Stepwise high-throughput virtual screening of Rho kinase inhibitors from natural product library and potential therapeutics for pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao; Yan, Ji; Xu, Jian; Fan, Xi-Zhen; Sun, Xian-Lin; Chen, Kang-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating disease characterized by progressive elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure and vascular resistance due to pulmonary vasoconstriction and vessel remodeling. The activation of RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway plays a central role in the pathologic progression of PH and thus the Rho kinase, an essential effector of the ROCK pathway, is considered as a potential therapeutic target to attenuate PH. In the current study, a synthetic pipeline is used to discover new potent Rho inhibitors from various natural products. In the pipeline, the stepwise high-throughput virtual screening, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR)-based rescoring, and kinase assay were integrated. The screening was performed against a structurally diverse, drug-like natural product library, from which six identified compounds were tested to determine their inhibitory potencies agonist Rho by using a standard kinase assay protocol. With this scheme, we successfully identified two potent Rho inhibitors, namely phloretin and baicalein, with activity values of IC50 = 0.22 and 0.95 μM, respectively. Structural examination suggested that complicated networks of non-bonded interactions such as hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic forces, and van der Waals contacts across the complex interfaces of Rho kinase are formed with the screened compounds.

  12. A novel method to create high density stratification with matching refractive index for optical flow investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Benedikt; Manera, Annalisa; Petrov, Victor

    2018-04-01

    Turbulent mixing in stratified environments represents a challenging task in experimental turbulence research, especially when large density gradients are desired. When optical measurement techniques like particle image velocimetry (PIV) are applied to stratified liquids, it is common practice to combine two aqueous solutions with different density but equal refractive index, to suppress particle image deflections. While refractive image matching (RIM) has been developed in the late 1970s, the achieved limit of 4% density ratio was not rivalled up to day. In the present work, we report a methodology, based on the behavior of excess properties and their change in a multicomponent system while mixing, that allows RIM for solutions with higher density differences. The methodology is then successfully demonstrated using a ternary combination of water, isopropanol and glycerol, for which RIM in presence of a density ratio of 8.6% has been achieved. Qualitative PIV results of a turbulent buoyant jet with 8.6% density ratio are shown.

  13. Index-Based Assessment of Voltage Rise and Reverse Power Flow Phenomena in a Distribution Feeder Under High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasheminamin, Maryam; Agelidis, Vassilios G.; Salehi, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    -based methodology for assessing the impact of high solar PV generation, considering the reverse power flow and voltage rise phenomena. Indices are defined that link these two phenomena and their impact on the voltage profile across the feeder. This assessment relies on detailed modeling of the network and the solar......The proliferation of photovoltaic (PV) generation in low- and medium-voltage distribution networks is expected to continue. Qualified studies can quantify adverse impacts of high PV penetration on distribution networks and assist utilities in decision making. This paper proposes an index...

  14. Modified complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition and intrinsic mode functions evaluation index for high-speed train gearbox fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongyue; Lin, Jianhui; Li, Yanping

    2018-06-01

    Complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) has been developed for the mode-mixing problem in Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method. Compared to the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), the CEEMD method reduces residue noise in the signal reconstruction. Both CEEMD and EEMD need enough ensemble number to reduce the residue noise, and hence it would be too much computation cost. Moreover, the selection of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) for further analysis usually depends on experience. A modified CEEMD method and IMFs evaluation index are proposed with the aim of reducing the computational cost and select IMFs automatically. A simulated signal and in-service high-speed train gearbox vibration signals are employed to validate the proposed method in this paper. The results demonstrate that the modified CEEMD can decompose the signal efficiently with less computation cost, and the IMFs evaluation index can select the meaningful IMFs automatically.

  15. High Recharge Areas in the Choushui River Alluvial Fan (Taiwan Assessed from Recharge Potential Analysis and Average Storage Variation Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Tsai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High recharge areas significantly influence the groundwater quality and quantity in regional groundwater systems. Many studies have applied recharge potential analysis (RPA to estimate groundwater recharge potential (GRP and have delineated high recharge areas based on the estimated GRP. However, most of these studies define the RPA parameters with supposition, and this represents a major source of uncertainty for applying RPA. To objectively define the RPA parameter values without supposition, this study proposes a systematic method based on the theory of parameter identification. A surrogate variable, namely the average storage variation (ASV index, is developed to calibrate the RPA parameters, because of the lack of direct GRP observations. The study results show that the correlations between the ASV indexes and computed GRP values improved from 0.67 before calibration to 0.85 after calibration, thus indicating that the calibrated RPA parameters represent the recharge characteristics of the study area well; these data also highlight how defining the RPA parameters with ASV indexes can help to improve the accuracy. The calibrated RPA parameters were used to estimate the GRP distribution of the study area, and the GRP values were graded into five levels. High and excellent level areas are defined as high recharge areas, which composed 7.92% of the study area. Overall, this study demonstrates that the developed approach can objectively define the RPA parameters and high recharge areas of the Choushui River alluvial fan, and the results should serve as valuable references for the Taiwanese government in their efforts to conserve the groundwater quality and quantity of the study area.

  16. The relationship between lipid accumulation product, visceral adiposity index and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan ZHANG

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the correlation between lipid accumulation product (LAP, visceral adiposity index (VAI and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in adults, and explore whether to use such correlation as indications is superior to the traditional body fat index based on body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. Methods  The present work was a cross-sectional study involving 501 healthy adults (321 males and 180 females from the community of Chongqing Municipality. Anthropometric indexes [height, weight, WC, hip circumference (HC], blood pressure (BP, fasting lipid profile and levels of fasting and post-load glucose, insulin and hs-CRP were measured, and BMI, WHR, WHtR, fasting insulin resistant homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, LAP and VAI were calculated. The correlations between hs-CRP and other variables were analyzed. Results  Following the elevation of titer of the hs-CRP, LAP, VAI, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, BP, glucose level, HOMA-IR, insulin, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and apolipoprotein B (ApoB increased (P<0.05, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1 levels declined (P<0.0001. Pearson's correlation analysis demonstrated that hs-CRP was correlated with all variances (P<0.01 except for total cholesterol (TC (P=0.181 and LDL -C (P=0.325. According to forward stepwise multiple regression analysis with hs-CRP as the dependent variance, WC was the only variance entering the regression model. Conclusion  LAP, VAI levels are correlated with hs-CRP level but not the major determinant factors of hs-CRP. WC is stronger than other variances in the association with hs-CRP in adults, and is still an independent predictor of inflammation.

  17. Rapid high-throughput assay to assess scavenging capacity index using DPPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Arribas, Silvia M; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2013-11-15

    A new microplate-adapted DPPH rapid assay was developed to assess the antioxidant capacity of pure compounds and foods. The assay was carried out in buffered medium (methanol: 10mmol/l Tris buffer pH 7.5, 1:1 v/v) and reaction was completed at 10min. The scavenging capacity index (SCI), a theoretical antioxidant parameter directly related to the antioxidant capacity of samples, was calculated. SCI for pure compounds: gallic acid (6.76±0.08), quercetin (7.89±0.24), catechin (6.05±0.23), trolox (2.32±0.03), ascorbic acid (2.52±0.15) and gluthatione (1.08±0.08) and foods (μmol DPPH scavenged/100ml): tropical juice (655.62±12.18), mediterraneo juice (702.87±11.13), apple juice (212.52±17.22), pomegranate juice (319.83±9.45), red grape nectar (1093.05±18.69), Don Simon orange juice (632.94±17.22) and date syrup (15992.34±250.7) were comparable to those in previous reports using the classic DPPH assay. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the SCI on the same and different days was less than 8.12% in all cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Therapeutic efficiency of synthokine SC-55494, a human IL-3 receptor agonist, in a nonhuman primate model of HIGH dose, sublethal, radiation-induced marrow aplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Farese, A.; Grab, L.; McKearn, J.P.; Mestries, J.C.; McVittie, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    The synthetic cytokine (Synthokine) SC-55494 is a high affinity IL-3 receptor ligand. The therapeutic administration of Synthokine to total body irradiated (TBI) monkeys (7 Gy gamma) from day 1 post TBI for 23 days, significantly enhanced platelet recovery and modulated aneutrophil nadir. (author)

  19. Semi-analytical approach for guided mode resonance in high-index-contrast photonic crystal slab: TE polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Peng, Chao; Li, Zhengbin

    2013-09-09

    In high-contrast (HC) photonic crystals (PC) slabs, the high-order coupling is so intense that it is indispensable for analyzing the guided mode resonance (GMR) effect. In this paper, a semi-analytical approach is proposed for analyzing GMR in HC PC slabs with TE-like polarization. The intense high-order coupling is included by using a convergent recursive procedure. The reflection of radiative waves at high-index-contrast interfaces is also considered by adopting a strict Green's function for multi-layer structures. Modal properties of interest like band structure, radiation constant, field profile are calculated, agreeing well with numerical finite-difference time-domain simulations. This analysis is promising for the design and optimization of various HC PC devices.

  20. Prostate Health Index (PHI) Predicts High-stage Pathology in African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwen, Zeyad R; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Sokoll, Lori J; Mangold, Leslie; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Schaeffer, Edward M; Partin, Alan W; Ross, Ashley E

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the association between the Prostate Health Index (PHI) and adverse pathology in a cohort of African American (AA) men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Eighty AA men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 2-10 ng/mL underwent measurement of PSA, free PSA (fPSA), and p2PSA prior to radical prostatectomy. PHI was calculated as [(p2PSA/fPSA) × (PSA)(½)]. Biomarker association with pT3 disease was assessed using logistic regression, and covariates were added to a baseline multivariable model including digital rectal examination. Biomarker ability to predict pT3 disease was measured using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve. Sixteen men (20%) demonstrated pT3 disease on final pathology. Mean age, PSA, and %fPSA were similar in men with and without pT3 disease (all P  >  .05), whereas PHI was significantly greater in men with pT3 disease (mean 57.2 vs 46.6, P  =  .04). Addition of PHI to the baseline multivariable model improved discriminative ability by 12.9% (P  =. .04) and yielded greater diagnostic accuracy than models, including other individual biomarkers. In AA men with PSA of 2-10 ng/mL, PHI was predictive of pT3 prostate cancer and may help to identify men at increased risk of adverse pathology. Additional studies are needed to substantiate these findings and identify appropriate thresholds for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum High-Mobility-Group Box 1 as a Biomarker and a Therapeutic Target during Respiratory Virus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mira C; Shirey, Kari Ann; Boukhvalova, Marina S; Vogel, Stefanie N; Blanco, Jorge C G

    2018-03-13

    Host-derived "danger-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs) contribute to innate immune responses and serve as markers of disease progression and severity for inflammatory and infectious diseases. There is accumulating evidence that generation of DAMPs such as oxidized phospholipids and high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1) during influenza virus infection leads to acute lung injury (ALI). Treatment of influenza virus-infected mice and cotton rats with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist Eritoran blocked DAMP accumulation and ameliorated influenza virus-induced ALI. However, changes in systemic HMGB1 kinetics during the course of influenza virus infection in animal models and humans have yet to establish an association of HMGB1 release with influenza virus infection. To this end, we used the cotton rat model that is permissive to nonadapted strains of influenza A and B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human rhinoviruses (HRVs). Serum HMGB1 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) prior to infection until day 14 or 18 post-infection. Infection with either influenza A or B virus resulted in a robust increase in serum HMGB1 levels that decreased by days 14 to 18. Inoculation with the live attenuated vaccine FluMist resulted in HMGB1 levels that were significantly lower than those with infection with live influenza viruses. RSV and HRVs showed profiles of serum HMGB1 induction that were consistent with their replication and degree of lung pathology in cotton rats. We further showed that therapeutic treatment with Eritoran of cotton rats infected with influenza B virus significantly blunted serum HMGB1 levels and improved lung pathology, without inhibiting virus replication. These findings support the use of drugs that block HMGB1 to combat influenza virus-induced ALI. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus is a common infectious agent causing serious seasonal epidemics, and there is urgent need to develop an alternative treatment

  2. Neste Oy starts the production of extra high viscosity index lubricating oil in Porvoo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilander, H.

    1997-01-01

    Neste Oy is starting the manufacture of basic oil, used in advanced motor lubricants, in Finland. The plant will start the manufacture of the EHVI (Extra High Viscosity) by the end of 1997. The EHVI basic oil is a synthetic-like oil product, suitable for manufacture of high-quality lubricants. In the beginning the production of the basic oil will be about 50 000 tons/a. The investment costs of the plants are 180 million FIM

  3. Macromolecular therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2014-09-28

    This review covers water-soluble polymer-drug conjugates and macromolecules that possess biological activity without attached low molecular weight drugs. The main design principles of traditional and backbone degradable polymer-drug conjugates as well as the development of a new paradigm in nanomedicines - (low molecular weight) drug-free macromolecular therapeutics are discussed. To address the biological features of cancer, macromolecular therapeutics directed to stem/progenitor cells and the tumor microenvironment are deliberated. Finally, the future perspectives of the field are briefly debated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonlinear High-Energy Pulse Propagation in Graded-Index Multimode Optical Fibers for Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    power kW at nm in a C-GIMF segment in the lowest order mode ; this pulse can be ob- tained from a typical titanium –sapphire mode-locked laser . A much...single- andmulticore double- clad and PCF lasers . He was a Senior Research Scientist at Corning Inc. from 2005 to 2008. He is currently an Assistant...High-Energy Pulse Propagation in Graded-Index Multimode Optical Fibers for Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1

  5. High throughput resistance profiling of Plasmodium falciparum infections based on custom dual indexing and Illumina next generation sequencing-technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nag, Sidsel; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in P. falciparum can be used to indicate the parasite's susceptibility to antimalarial drugs as well as its geographical origin. Both of these factors are key to monitoring development and spread of antimalarial drug resistance. In this study, we combine multiplex PCR, custom...... designed dual indexing and Miseq sequencing for high throughput SNP-profiling of 457 malaria infections from Guinea-Bissau, at the cost of 10 USD per sample. By amplifying and sequencing 15 genetic fragments, we cover 20 resistance-conferring SNPs occurring in pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, pfdhps, as well...

  6. The efficacy of a high protein/low glycemic index diet intervention in non-obese patients with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Tønnesen, Louise Lindhardt; Astrup, Arne

    2018-01-01

    intervention consisted of a high protein and low GI diet whilst the control group continued habitual diet. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients in the diet and 34 in the control group completed the study. The diet group reduced their energy intake by ~20% and had high dietary compliance. Intake of fatty fish doubled......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: EFFORT Asthma study is a randomized controlled trial designed to assess the effects of diet and exercise in non-obese, untrained patients with asthma. We here present results from a subgroup of participants in the diet and control group to assess the feasibility of a high...... protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet and the effects on body composition. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Of the 149 subjects who were included in the study, 76 subjects (30 males) were randomized into either a diet group (n = 38) or a control group (n = 38) and included in the present analysis. The 8 week...

  7. High-glycemic index carbohydrates abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Qin; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Fjære, Even

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high-fat d...... metabolic effects of fish oil by demonstrating that high-GI carbohydrates attenuate the antiobesity effects of fish oil.......Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high...

  8. A highly efficient method for generation of therapeutic quality human pluripotent stem cells by using naive induced pluripotent stem cells nucleus for nuclear transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2014-01-01

    Even after several years since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), we are still unable to make any significant therapeutic benefits out of them such as cell therapy or generation of organs for transplantation. Recent success in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) made it possible to generate diploid embryonic stem cells, which opens up the way to make high-quality pluripotent stem cells. However, the process is highly inefficient and hence e...

  9. Creep behavior of soil nail walls in high plasticity index (PI) soils : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    An aspect of particular concern in the Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 7: Soil Nail Walls (i.e., the soil : nail wall manual and construction guidelines) is the creep behavior of soil nail systems in high-plasticity : clays. This research proje...

  10. New concepts in therapeutic photomedicine: photochemistry, optical targeting and the therapeutic window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Advances in optics technology, synthetic photochemistry, and the science of photobiology make it possible to think beyond phototherapy and photochemotherapy which is dependent on direct photochemical alteration of metabolites or direct phototoxic insult to cells. This report discusses another gender of photomedicine therapy which includes in vivo photoactivation of medicines, photon-dependent drug delivery, and manipulation of host and exposure source to maximize therapeutic index. These therapeutic manipulations are made possible because the skin is highly overperfused and because non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation that enters skin and blood has adequate photon energy to cause electronic excitation. Radiation of 320-800 nm is not very directly phototoxic, is absorbed by a variety of relatively nontoxic photolabile molecules and has an internal dosimetric depth profile. This radiation can therefore be used to activate, deactivate, bind, release or biotransform medications in vivo in skin or other organs. The photochemist, synthetic chemist and photobiologist can collaborate to significantly increase therapeutic possibilities

  11. Design Procedure and Fabrication of Reproducible Silicon Vernier Devices for High-Performance Refractive Index Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troia, Benedetto; Khokhar, Ali Z; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Reynolds, Scott A; Hu, Youfang; Mashanovich, Goran Z; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2015-06-10

    In this paper, we propose a generalized procedure for the design of integrated Vernier devices for high performance chemical and biochemical sensing. In particular, we demonstrate the accurate control of the most critical design and fabrication parameters of silicon-on-insulator cascade-coupled racetrack resonators operating in the second regime of the Vernier effect, around 1.55 μm. The experimental implementation of our design strategies has allowed a rigorous and reliable investigation of the influence of racetrack resonator and directional coupler dimensions as well as of waveguide process variability on the operation of Vernier devices. Figures of merit of our Vernier architectures have been measured experimentally, evidencing a high reproducibility and a very good agreement with the theoretical predictions, as also confirmed by relative errors even lower than 1%. Finally, a Vernier gain as high as 30.3, average insertion loss of 2.1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB have been achieved.

  12. Body mass index, cognitive deficit and depressive symptoms in high cardiovascular risk patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lucas da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the relationship of obesity, cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in patients with high cardiovascular risk. Methods: A sample of 93 patients aged 50 years or older was selected from the Center of Dyslipidemia and High Cardiovascular Risk from Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA. Patients with stroke were excluded. For cognitive evaluation, the MMSE (Mini Mental State Examination was used. A score of 24 or less was considered as cognitive impairment, and for those who had 4 years or less of education, the cutoff point was 17. The GDS-15 (Geriatric Depression Scale was also used, with the cutoff of 6 for presence of depressive symptoms. Results: Obese patients showed lower mean MMSE scores compared to non-obese patients (p=0.0012. Additionally, for every one point increase in BMI above 30 there was a 27% increase in the chances of the patient having cognitive impairment. The obese patients presented 31% chance of having cognitive impairment compared with overweight subjects. Conclusions: Our findings corroborated the association between obesity and cognitive impairment in high cardiovascular risk patients. This association however, was not observed for depressive symptoms.

  13. Microvessel rupture induced by high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound-a study of parameter sensitivity in a simple in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonho; Nabili, Marjan; Acharya, Priyanka; Lopez, Asis; Myers, Matthew R

    2017-01-01

    Safety analyses of transcranial therapeutic ultrasound procedures require knowledge of the dependence of the rupture probability and rupture time upon sonication parameters. As previous vessel-rupture studies have concentrated on a specific set of exposure conditions, there is a need for more comprehensive parametric studies. Probability of rupture and rupture times were measured by exposing the large blood vessel of a live earthworm to high-intensity focused ultrasound pulse trains of various characteristics. Pressures generated by the ultrasound transducers were estimated through numerical solutions to the KZK (Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov) equation. Three ultrasound frequencies (1.1, 2.5, and 3.3 MHz) were considered, as were three pulse repetition frequencies (1, 3, and 10 Hz), and two duty factors (0.0001, 0.001). The pressures produced ranged from 4 to 18 MPa. Exposures of up to 10 min in duration were employed. Trials were repeated an average of 11 times. No trends as a function of pulse repetition rate were identifiable, for either probability of rupture or rupture time. Rupture time was found to be a strong function of duty factor at the lower pressures; at 1.1 MHz the rupture time was an order of magnitude lower for the 0.001 duty factor than the 0.0001. At moderate pressures, the difference between the duty factors was less, and there was essentially no difference between duty factors at the highest pressure. Probability of rupture was not found to be a strong function of duty factor. Rupture thresholds were about 4 MPa for the 1.1 MHz frequency, 7 MPa at 3.3 MHz, and 11 MPa for the 2.5 MHz, though the pressure value at 2.5 MHz frequency will likely be reduced when steep-angle corrections are accounted for in the KZK model used to estimate pressures. Mechanical index provided a better collapse of the data (less separation of the curves pertaining to the different frequencies) than peak negative pressure, for both probability of rupture and

  14. Impact of body mass index on high blood pressure among obese children in the western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agha, Abdulmoein E; Mahjoub, Areej O

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on high blood pressure among obese children and adolescents in western region, Saudi Arabia.  Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained from 306 (female: 140, male: 166) child, between August 2016 and March 2017. A questioner was filled by health professionals at ambulatory pediatric clinic followed by waist-hip circumference, height, weight, and blood pressure measurement. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were adjusted to gender, height, and age. World Health Organization growth standards were used to calculate BMI z-scores. Results: The mean age of subjects was 10.1 years. Body mass index increased SBP by 1.722 mmHg (p=0.001), and DBP by 0.901 mmHg (p=0.006) in boys, and 0.969 mmHg (p=0.036), and DBP by 0.704 mmHg (p=0.045) in girls. Waist hip ratio showed significant difference p=0.041, (p=0.0001) between male and female. Of the baseline characteristics, age greater than 11 years showed significant difference. Symptomatic manifestation of high blood pressure, family history of hypertension, level of activity, income level and post-secondary education in parents, did not show any significant results. Conclusion: Elevated BMI is associated with significantly increased diastolic and systolic blood pressure in obese children, especially in children older than 11 years.

  15. High-directionality fiber-chip grating coupler with interleaved trenches and subwavelength index-matching structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikovic, Daniel; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Cheben, Pavel; Schmid, Jens H; Wang, Shurui; Xu, Dan-Xia; Lapointe, Jean; Janz, Siegfried; Halir, Robert; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Pérez, J Gonzalo; Molina-Fernández, Iñigo; Fédéli, Jean-Marc; Vivien, Laurent; Dado, Milan

    2015-09-15

    We present the first experimental demonstration of a new fiber-chip grating coupler concept that exploits the blazing effect by interleaving the standard full (220 nm) and shallow etch (70 nm) trenches in a 220 nm thick silicon layer. The high directionality is obtained by controlling the separation between the deep and shallow trenches to achieve constructive interference in the upward direction and destructive interference toward the silicon substrate. Utilizing this concept, the grating directionality can be maximized independent of the bottom oxide thickness. The coupler also includes a subwavelength-engineered index-matching region, designed to reduce the reflectivity at the interface between the injection waveguide and the grating. We report a measured fiber-chip coupling efficiency of -1.3  dB, the highest coupling efficiency achieved to date for a surface grating coupler in a 220 nm silicon-on-insulator platform fabricated in a conventional dual-etch process without high-index overlays or bottom mirrors.

  16. Experimental study on efficacy of compression systems with a high static stiffness index for treatment of venous ulcer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Andriessen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study measured interface pressure and static stiffness index of four different compression systems in fifty-two healthy volunteers. For the study interface pressure (3 cm ø probe was placed at the anatomical B1 point was recorded on application of the compression systems every 15 min for 4 h, in supine, standing, while sitting and during walking. For this purpose a portable Kikuhime (Harada Corp., Osaka, Japan device was used. Further static stiffness index (SSI was calculated. The evaluated systems were: short stretch bandage system (SSB Rosidal sys (Lohmann & Rauscher, Rengsdorf, Germany, multi-layer bandaging (LSB Profore (Smith & Nephew, Hull, UK, varistretch bandage (VSB Proguide (Smith & Nephew and tubular compression (CS Rosidal mobil (Lohmann & Rauscher. The mean interface pressure of SSB, LSB and VSB was significantly higher (P<0.05 in each position measured over 4 h, compared to CS. In supine VSB showed high-pressure levels, up to 60 mmHg, which remained high. The other systems had more tolerable levels of about 30 mmHg. Interface pressure exerted on limbs is an indicator of their clinical effect. The experimental study results showed different patterns of interface pressure and SSI, which may enable clinicians to predict the frequency of bandage application, supporting an adequate and safe choice of bandage system.

  17. Low-to-high refractive index contrast transition (RICT) device for low loss polymer-based optical coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabretta, N.; Cooman, I. A.; Stabile, R.

    2018-04-01

    We propose for the first time a coupling device concept for passive low-loss optical coupling, which is compatible with the ‘generic’ indium phosphide (InP) multi-project-wafer manufacturing. A low-to-high vertical refractive index contrast transition InP waveguide is designed and tapered down to adiabatically couple light into a top polymer waveguide. The on-chip embedded polymer waveguide is engineered at the chip facets for offering refractive-index and spot-size-matching to silica fiber-arrays. Numerical analysis shows that coupling losses lower than 1.5 dB can be achieved for a TE-polarized light between the InP waveguide and the on-chip embedded polymer waveguide at 1550 nm wavelength. The performance is mainly limited by the difficulty to control single-mode operation. However, coupling losses lower than 1.9 dB can be achieved for a bandwidth as large as 200 nm. Moreover, the foreseen fabrication process steps are indicated, which are compatible with the ‘generic’ InP multi-project-wafer manufacturing. A fabrication error tolerance study is performed, indicating that fabrication errors occur only in 0.25 dB worst case excess losses, as long as high precision lithography is used. The obtained results are promising and may open the route to large port counts and cheap packaging of InP-based photonic integrated chips.

  18. Impact of body mass index on high blood pressure among obese children in the western region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmoein E. Al-Agha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI on high blood pressure among obese children and adolescents in western region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained from 306 (female: 140, male: 166 child, between August 2016 and March 2017. A questioner was filled by health professionals at ambulatory pediatric clinic followed by waist-hip circumference, height, weight, and blood pressure measurement. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP and systolic blood pressure (SBP were adjusted to gender, height, and age. World Health Organization growth standards were used to calculate BMI z-scores. Results: The mean age of subjects was 10.1 years. Body mass index increased SBP by 1.722 mmHg (p=0.001, and DBP by 0.901 mmHg (p=0.006 in boys, and 0.969 mmHg (p=0.036, and DBP by 0.704 mmHg (p=0.045 in girls. Waist hip ratio showed significant difference p=0.041, (p=0.0001 between male and female. Of the baseline characteristics, age greater than 11 years showed significant difference. Symptomatic manifestation of high blood pressure, family history of hypertension, level of activity, income level and post-secondary education in parents, did not show any significant results. Conclusion: Elevated BMI is associated with significantly increased diastolic and systolic blood pressure in obese children, especially in children older than 11 years.

  19. Sub-GHz-resolution C-band Nyquist-filtering interleaver on a high-index-contrast photonic integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Leimeng; Zhu, Chen; Corcoran, Bill; Burla, Maurizio; Roeloffzen, Chris G H; Leinse, Arne; Schröder, Jochen; Lowery, Arthur J

    2016-03-21

    Modern optical communications rely on high-resolution, high-bandwidth filtering to maximize the data-carrying capacity of fiber-optic networks. Such filtering typically requires high-speed, power-hungry digital processes in the electrical domain. Passive optical filters currently provide high bandwidths with low power consumption, but at the expense of resolution. Here, we present a passive filter chip that functions as an optical Nyquist-filtering interleaver featuring sub-GHz resolution and a near-rectangular passband with 8% roll-off. This performance is highly promising for high-spectral-efficiency Nyquist wavelength division multiplexed (N-WDM) optical super-channels. The chip provides a simple two-ring-resonator-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which has a sub-cm2 footprint owing to the high-index-contrast Si3N4/SiO2 waveguide, while manifests low wavelength-dependency enabling C-band (> 4 THz) coverage with more than 160 effective free spectral ranges of 25 GHz. This device is anticipated to be a critical building block for spectrally-efficient, chip-scale transceivers and ROADMs for N-WDM super-channels in next-generation optical communication networks.

  20. Behavioral Indexes of Test Anxiety in Mathematics among Senior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL MACÍAS-MARTÍNEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of Mathematics has been and is still a source of frustration and anxiety for a large number of students. The purpose of this study was to inquire systematically upon levels of test anxiety through behavioral and physiological procedures before and after a Math test, in 205 senior high school students. Academic worries were assessed by means of a computerized task based on the emotional version of the Stroop paradigm designed ex profeso to measure school anxiety (Hernández-Pozo, Macías & Torres, 2004. The Stroop task was administered, along with recordings of blood pressure and pulse, before and after the first Math test of the course. Academic general scores were inverse to the behavioral anxiety level, however the best Math scores were associated to middle levels of behavioral anxiety. Contradictory findings between academic performance in Math and global score, and the apparent lack of gender difference in anxiety measured through behavioral procedures suggests the need to review the generality of previous assertions relating academic performance inversely with levels of anxiety of high school students.

  1. A comparison of light-coupling into high and low index nanostructured photovoltaic thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pfadler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodically structured electrodes are typically introduced to thin-film photovoltaics for the purpose of light management. Highly effective light-trapping and optimal in-coupling of light is crucial to enhance the overall device performance in such thin-film systems. Here, wavelength-scale structures are transferred via direct laser interference patterning to electron-selective TiO2 electrodes. Two representative thin-film solar cell architectures are deposited on top: an organic solar cell featuring blended P3HT:PCBM as active material, and a hybrid solar cell with Sb2S3 as inorganic active material. A direct correlation in the asymmetry in total absorption enhancement and in structure-induced light in-coupling is spectroscopically observed for the two systems. The structuring is shown to be beneficial for the total absorption enhancement if a high n active material is deposited on TiO2, but detrimental for a low n material. The refractive indices of the employed materials are determined via spectroscopic ellipsometry. The study outlines that the macroscopic Fresnel equations can be used to investigate the spectroscopically observed asymmetry in light in-coupling at the nanostructured TiO2 active material interfaces by visualizing the difference in reflectivity caused by the asymmetry in refractive indices.

  2. High resolution satellite image indexing and retrieval using SURF features and bag of visual words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteldja, Samia; Kourgli, Assia

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the performance of SURF descriptor for high resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) retrieval through a BoVW model on a land-use/land-cover (LULC) dataset. Local feature approaches such as SIFT and SURF descriptors can deal with a large variation of scale, rotation and illumination of the images, providing, therefore, a better discriminative power and retrieval efficiency than global features, especially for HRSI which contain a great range of objects and spatial patterns. Moreover, we combine SURF and color features to improve the retrieval accuracy, and we propose to learn a category-specific dictionary for each image category which results in a more discriminative image representation and boosts the image retrieval performance.

  3. Vegetation extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShamsi, Meera R.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past years, there has been various urban development all over the UAE. Dubai is one of the cities that experienced rapid growth in both development and population. That growth can have a negative effect on the surrounding environment. Hence, there has been a necessity to protect the environment from these fast pace changes. One of the major impacts this growth can have is on vegetation. As technology is evolving day by day, there is a possibility to monitor changes that are happening on different areas in the world using satellite imagery. The data from these imageries can be utilized to identify vegetation in different areas of an image through a process called vegetation detection. Being able to detect and monitor vegetation is very beneficial for municipal planning and management, and environment authorities. Through this, analysts can monitor vegetation growth in various areas and analyze these changes. By utilizing satellite imagery with the necessary data, different types of vegetation can be studied and analyzed, such as parks, farms, and artificial grass in sports fields. In this paper, vegetation features are detected and extracted through SAFIY system (i.e. the Smart Application for Feature extraction and 3D modeling using high resolution satellite ImagerY) by using high-resolution satellite imagery from DubaiSat-2 and DEIMOS-2 satellites, which provide panchromatic images of 1m resolution and spectral bands (red, green, blue and near infrared) of 4m resolution. SAFIY system is a joint collaboration between MBRSC and DEIMOS Space UK. It uses image-processing algorithms to extract different features (roads, water, vegetation, and buildings) to generate vector maps data. The process to extract green areas (vegetation) utilize spectral information (such as, the red and near infrared bands) from the satellite images. These detected vegetation features will be extracted as vector data in SAFIY system and can be updated and edited by end-users, such as

  4. Comparison of therapeutic efficacy and clinical parameters between recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone withdrawal in high-dose radioiodine treatment with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Hun; Na, Chang Ju; Kim, Jeong Hun; Han, Yeon Hee; KIm, Hee Kwon; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    High-dose radioiodine treatment (HD-RIT) after injection of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) has become widely used. This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of HD-RIT and clinical parameters between rh-TSH supplement and thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 266 patients (47 male and 219 female; age, 49.0 ± 10.9 years) with differentiated thyroid cancer detected from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients comprised THW (217, 81.6 %) and rh-TSH (49, 18.4 %). Inclusion criteria were: first HD-RIT; any TN stage; absence of distant metastasis. To evaluate the complete ablation of the remnant thyroid tissue or metastasis, we reviewed stimulated serum thyroglobulin (sTg), I-123 whole-body scan (RxWBS) on T4 off-state, and thyroid ultrasonography (US) or [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) 6–8 months after HD-RIT. We defined a complete ablation state when all three of the follow-up conditions were satisfied; <2.0 ng/ml of the sTg, I-123 RxWBS (−), and thyroid US or F-18 FDG PET/CT (−). If one of the three was positive, ablation was considered incomplete. We also compared various clinical biomarkers (body weight, body mass index, liver and kidney function) between THW and rh-TSH groups. The rates of complete ablation were 73.7 % (160/217) for the THW group and 73.5 % (36/49) for the rh-TSH group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.970). The follow-up aspartate transaminase (p = 0.001) and alanine transaminase (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the THW group. The renal function parameters of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.001) and creatinine (p = 0.005) tended to increase in the THW group. The change of body weight was + Δ0.96 (±1.9) kg for the THW group and was decreased by -Δ1.39 (±1.5) kg for the rh-TSH group. The change

  5. The “Pulse Time Index of Norm” highly correlates with the left ventricular mass index in patients with arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posokhov, Igor N; Kulikova, Natalya N; Starchenkova, Irina V; Grigoricheva, Elena A; Evdokimov, Vitaly V; Orlov, Artemy V; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness, as measured by the pulse wave velocity (PWV), is recommended for routine use in clinical practice as an important parameter for the evaluation of cardiovascular risk.1 New 24-hour monitors (eg, with Vasotens® technology; Petr Telegin Company, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation) provide single PWV measurements as well as several PWV measurements over a period of 24 hours.2 Such 24-hour pulse wave analysis led to the development of the novel Pulse Time Index of Norm (PTIN), which is defined as the percentage of a 24-hour period during which the PWV does not exceed the 10 m/second PWV threshold. The aim of this study is to test the new PTIN for correlation with the left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Methods Oscillometrically generated waveform files (n=137) used for clinical research studies were reanalyzed using the new 2013 version of the Vasotens technology program, which enables PTIN calculations. Results A good correlation (r=−0.72) between the PTIN and the LVMI was shown, which was significantly above the blood pressure load (r=0.41). Conclusion The PTIN generated by the Vasotens technology can be recommended as an indicator of end organ damage via hypertension. PMID:24672245

  6. A new concept of efficient therapeutic drug monitoring using the high-resolution continuum source absorption spectrometry and the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yanlong; Fuss, Harald; Lademann, Jürgen; Huang, Mao Dong; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Florek, Stefan; Patzelt, Alexa; Meinke, Martina C.; Jung, Sora; Esser, Norbert

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a new therapeutic drug monitoring approach has been tested based on the combination of CaF molecular absorption using high-resolution continuum source absorption spectrometry (HR-CSAS) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). HR-CSAS with mini graphite tube was successfully tested for clinical therapeutic drug monitoring of the fluorine-containing drug capecitabine in sweat samples of cancer patients: It showed advantageous features of high selectivity (no interference from Cl), high sensitivity (characteristic mass of 0.1 ng at CaF 583.069 nm), low sample consumption (down to 30 nL) and fast measurement (no sample pretreatment and less than 1 min of responding time) in tracing the fluorine signal out of capecitabine. However, this technique has the disadvantage of the total loss of the drug's structure information after burning the sample at very high temperature. Therefore, a new concept of combining HR-CSAS with a non-destructive spectroscopic method (SERS) was proposed for the sensitive sensing and specific identification of capecitabine. We tested and succeed in obtaining the molecular characteristics of the metabolite of capecitabine (named 5-fluorouracil) by the non-destructive SERS technique. With the results shown in this work, it is demonstrated that the combined spectroscopic technique of HR-CSAS and SERS will be very useful in efficient therapeutic drug monitoring in the future.

  7. Index extraction for electromagnetic field evaluation of high power wireless charging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, SangWook

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the precise dosimetry for highly resonant wireless power transfer (HR-WPT) system using an anatomically realistic human voxel model. The dosimetry for the HR-WPT system designed to operate at 13.56 MHz frequency, which one of the ISM band frequency band, is conducted in the various distances between the human model and the system, and in the condition of alignment and misalignment between transmitting and receiving circuits. The specific absorption rates in the human body are computed by the two-step approach; in the first step, the field generated by the HR-WPT system is calculated and in the second step the specific absorption rates are computed with the scattered field finite-difference time-domain method regarding the fields obtained in the first step as the incident fields. The safety compliance for non-uniform field exposure from the HR-WPT system is discussed with the international safety guidelines. Furthermore, the coupling factor concept is employed to relax the maximum allowable transmitting power. Coupling factors derived from the dosimetry results are presented. In this calculation, the external magnetic field from the HR-WPT system can be relaxed by approximately four times using coupling factor in the worst exposure scenario.

  8. High trait aggression in men is associated with low 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4 receptor binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; MacDonald Fisher, Patrick; Jensen, Peter Steen; Svarer, Claus; Moos Knudsen, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Impulsive aggression has commonly been associated with a dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system: many, but not all, studies point to an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression. As cerebral 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) binding has recently been recognized as a proxy for stable brain levels of 5-HT, we here test the hypothesis in healthy men and women that brain 5-HT levels, as indexed by cerebral 5-HT4R, are inversely correlated with trait aggression and impulsivity. Sixty-one individuals (47 men) underwent positron emission tomography scanning with the radioligand [11C]SB207145 for quantification of brain 5-HT4R binding. The Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were used for assessment of trait aggression and trait impulsivity. Among male subjects, there was a positive correlation between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ total score (P = 0.037) as well as BPAQ physical aggression (P = 0.025). No main effect of global 5-HT4R on trait aggression or impulsivity was found in the mixed gender sample, but there was evidence for sex interaction effects in the relationship between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ physical aggression. In conclusion we found that low cerebral 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4R binding were associated with high trait aggression in males, but not in females. PMID:26772668

  9. Evaluation of automatic cloud removal method for high elevation areas in Landsat 8 OLI images to improve environmental indexes computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, César I.; Teodoro, Ana; Tierra, Alfonso

    2017-10-01

    Thin clouds in the optical remote sensing data are frequent and in most of the cases don't allow to have a pure surface data in order to calculate some indexes as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This paper aims to evaluate the Automatic Cloud Removal Method (ACRM) algorithm over a high elevation city like Quito (Ecuador), with an altitude of 2800 meters above sea level, where the clouds are presented all the year. The ACRM is an algorithm that considers a linear regression between each Landsat 8 OLI band and the Cirrus band using the slope obtained with the linear regression established. This algorithm was employed without any reference image or mask to try to remove the clouds. The results of the application of the ACRM algorithm over Quito didn't show a good performance. Therefore, was considered improving this algorithm using a different slope value data (ACMR Improved). After, the NDVI computation was compared with a reference NDVI MODIS data (MOD13Q1). The ACMR Improved algorithm had a successful result when compared with the original ACRM algorithm. In the future, this Improved ACRM algorithm needs to be tested in different regions of the world with different conditions to evaluate if the algorithm works successfully for all conditions.

  10. High pulmonary vascular resistance in addition to low right ventricular stroke work index effectively predicts biventricular assist device requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Kinoshita, Osamu; Nawata, Kan; Ono, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Although the right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI) is a good index for RV function, a low RVSWI is not necessarily an indicator for the need for a right ventricular assist device at the time of left VAD implantation. We here aimed to determine a more precise indicator for the need for a biventricular assist device (BiVAD). In total, 116 patients (mean age, 38 ± 14 years), who underwent hemodynamic assessments preoperatively including 12 BiVAD patients, and had been followed at our institute from 2003 to 2015, were included. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that RVSWI and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were independent predictors of BiVAD requirement (P 5 g/m, PVR 5, PVR > 3.7), (3) RV failure (RVSWI 3.7), and examined. Most of the patients in Group 4 (75 %), with acutely depressed hemodynamics and inflammatory responses in the myocardium, required BiVAD. Overall, patients with BiVAD had a worse survival rate as compared with those with LVAD alone. In conclusion, high PVR in addition to low RVSWI effectively predicts BiVAD requirement.

  11. Weight loss maintenance in overweight subjects on ad libitum diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aller, E E J G; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Holst, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Background:A high dietary protein (P) content and low glycemic index (GI) have been suggested to be beneficial for weight management, but long-term studies are scarce.Objective:The DIOGENES randomized clinical trial investigated the effect of P and GI on weight loss maintenance in overweight...... or obese adults in 8 centers across Europe. This study reports the 1-year results in 2 of the centers that extended the intervention to 1 year.Method:After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD), 256 adults (BMI>27 kg/m(2)) were randomized to 5 ad libitum diets for 12 months: high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high...... GI (HP/HGI), low P/low GI (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI) and a control diet. During the first 6 months foods were provided for free through a shop system, during the whole 12-month period subjects received guidance by a dietician. Primary outcome variable was the change in body weight over the 12...

  12. Formulating CdSe quantum dots for white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fei; Li, Wan-Nan; Fu, Shao-Yun; Xiao, Hong-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Generation of white light using CdSe quantum dots (QDs) alone presents exciting possibilities for solid state lighting technology. In this work, Cd(Ac) 2 ·2H 2 O and Na 2 SeSO 3 are used as precursors to synthesize CdSe-QDs with an average diameter ranging from 2.77 to 4.65 nm at the low temperature from 60 to 180 °C. Smaller CdSe-QDs with an average diameter of 2.29 nm are got by an oxidation etching process using H 2 O 2 as oxidant. The structural and optical properties of these QDs are investigated and proper formulation of CdSe QDs with various sizes is carefully designed to achieve white light with a high color rendering index (CRI). It is observed for the first time that the as-prepared white light-emitting diodes from single CdSe-QDs show the Commission Inernationale del’Eclairage coordinate (CIE) of (0.30,0.34) very close to that (0.33,0.33) of pure white light and a high CRI of 84. Owing to these advantages, the as-prepared white light-emitting diodes from a single compound are promising for lighting applications. - Highlights: • CdSe-quantum dots (QDs) with a continuously changing size from 2.31 to 4.74 nm are prepared. • The obtained CdSe-QDs emit lights with tunable colors in the whole visible range. • The obtained mixture sample generates white light with a high color rendering index of 84. • The sample yields white light with the CIE coordinate (0.30, 0.34) very close to that of pure white light

  13. The administration of long-term high-fat diet in ovariectomized wistar rat (Study on Daily Food Intake, Lee Index, Abdominal Fat Mass and Leptin Serum Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Fitriani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Serum leptin levels positively correlated with Lee index and abdominal fat mass, but negatively correlated with daily food intake. Administration of long-term high-fat diet in this study cannot induce leptin resistance.

  14. The role of group index engineering in series-connected photonic crystal microcavities for high density sensor microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Yi; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Ray T.; Chakravarty, Swapnajit

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an efficient and robust method for series connection of photonic crystal microcavities that are coupled to photonic crystal waveguides in the slow light transmission regime. We demonstrate that group index taper engineering provides excellent optical impedance matching between the input and output strip waveguides and the photonic crystal waveguide, a nearly flat transmission over the entire guided mode spectrum and clear multi-resonance peaks corresponding to individual microcavities that are connected in series. Series connected photonic crystal microcavities are further multiplexed in parallel using cascaded multimode interference power splitters to generate a high density silicon nanophotonic microarray comprising 64 photonic crystal microcavity sensors, all of which are interrogated simultaneously at the same instant of time

  15. Optical Microbubble Resonators with High Refractive Index Inner Coating for Bio-Sensing Applications: An Analytical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barucci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The design of Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators (WGMRs used as an optical transducer for biosensing represents the first and crucial step towards the optimization of the final device performance in terms of sensitivity and Limit of Detection (LoD. Here, we propose an analytical method for the design of an optical microbubble resonator (OMBR-based biosensor. In order to enhance the OMBR sensing performance, we consider a polymeric layer of high refractive index as an inner coating for the OMBR. The effect of this layer and other optical/geometrical parameters on the mode field distribution, sensitivity and LoD of the OMBR is assessed and discussed, both for transverse electric (TE and transverse magnetic (TM polarization. The obtained results do provide physical insights for the development of OMBR-based biosensor.

  16. Fabrication of Radiation Shielding Glasses Based on Lead-free High Refractive Index Glasses Prepared from Local Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dararutana, Pisutti; Dutchaneepet, Jirapan; Sirikulrat, Narin

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Lead glasses that show high refractive index are the best know and most popular for radiation shielding. Due to harmful effects of lead and considering the health as well as the environmental issues, lead-free glasses were developed. In this work, content of Chumphon sand was fixed at 40 % (by weight) as a main composition but concentrations of BaCO3 were varied from 6 to 30 % (by weight). It was found that the absorption coefficient of the glass samples containing 30 % BaCO3 was 0.233 cm-1 for Ba-133. The density was also measured. It can be concluded that the prepared lead free glasses offered adequate shielding to gamma radiation in comparison with the lead ones. These glasses were one of the environmental friendly materials

  17. The role of group index engineering in series-connected photonic crystal microcavities for high density sensor microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yi, E-mail: yzou@utexas.edu; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Ray T., E-mail: raychen@uts.cc.utexas.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Chakravarty, Swapnajit, E-mail: swapnajit.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com [Omega Optics, Inc., 8500 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    We experimentally demonstrate an efficient and robust method for series connection of photonic crystal microcavities that are coupled to photonic crystal waveguides in the slow light transmission regime. We demonstrate that group index taper engineering provides excellent optical impedance matching between the input and output strip waveguides and the photonic crystal waveguide, a nearly flat transmission over the entire guided mode spectrum and clear multi-resonance peaks corresponding to individual microcavities that are connected in series. Series connected photonic crystal microcavities are further multiplexed in parallel using cascaded multimode interference power splitters to generate a high density silicon nanophotonic microarray comprising 64 photonic crystal microcavity sensors, all of which are interrogated simultaneously at the same instant of time.

  18. Discussion of quantitative assessment index system of suitability of the site for geological disposal repository of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Rui; Wang Ju

    2014-01-01

    Site selection and suitability assessment of site are one of important tasks of research and development of geological disposal engineering for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Quantitative assessment of suitability of the site is based on the scientific, reasonable and operational index system. The discussion of index screening of quantitative assessment of suitability of the site is conducted. Principle of index screening is presented and index systems are established for different stages of site selection, including planning stage of site selection, region or area investigation stage, site characterization and site confirmation stage. But the considerations are taken of the complexity of site selection of geological disposal engineering for HLW and itself development of quantitative assessment method, so improvement of the index systems presented above is needed in the further. (authors)

  19. Impairment of fat oxidation under high- vs. low-glycemic index diet occurs before the development of an obese phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isken, F; Klaus, S; Petzke, K J; Loddenkemper, C; Pfeiffer, A F H; Weickert, M O

    2010-02-01

    Exposure to high vs. low glycemic index (GI) diets increases fat mass and insulin resistance in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. However, the longer-term effects and potentially involved mechanisms are largely unknown. We exposed four groups of male C57BL/6J mice (n = 10 per group) to long-term (20 wk) or short-term (6 wk) isoenergetic and macronutrient matched diets only differing in starch type and as such GI. Body composition, liver fat, molecular factors of lipid metabolism, and markers of insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility were investigated in all four groups of mice. Mice fed the high GI diet showed a rapid-onset (from week 5) marked increase in body fat mass and liver fat, a gene expression profile in liver consistent with elevated lipogenesis, and, after long-term exposure, significantly reduced glucose clearance following a glucose load. The long-term high-GI diet also led to a delayed switch to both carbohydrate and fat oxidation in the postprandial state, indicating reduced metabolic flexibility. In contrast, no difference in carbohydrate oxidation was observed after short-term high- vs. low-GI exposure. However, fatty acid oxidation was significantly blunted as early as 3 wk after beginning of the high-GI intervention, at a time where most measured phenotypic markers including body fat mass were comparable between groups. Thus long-term high-GI feeding resulted in an obese, insulin-resistant, and metabolically inflexible phenotype in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. Early onset and significantly impaired fatty acid oxidation preceded these changes, thereby indicating a potentially causal involvement.

  20. Spiral phase plates for the generation of high-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams with non-zero radial index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffato, G.; Carli, M.; Massari, M.; Romanato, F.

    2015-03-01

    The work of design, fabrication and characterization of spiral phase plates for the generation of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with non-null radial index is presented. Samples were fabricated by electron beam lithography on polymethylmethacrylate layers over glass substrates. The optical response of these phase optical elements was measured and the purity of the experimental beams was investigated in terms of Laguerre-Gaussian modes contributions. The farfield intensity pattern was compared with theoretical models and numerical simulations, while the expected phase features were confirmed by interferometric analyses. The high quality of the output beams confirms the applicability of these phase plates for the generation of high-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams. A novel application consisting in the design of computer-generated holograms encoding information for light beams carrying phase singularities is shown. A numerical code based on iterative Fourier transform algorithm has been developed for the computation of the phase pattern of phase-only diffractive optical element for illumination under LG beams. Numerical analysis and preliminary experimental results confirm the applicability of these devices as high-security optical elements.

  1. Comparison of Nocturia Response to Desmopressin Treatment between Patients with Normal and High Nocturnal Bladder Capacity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Hajdinjak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare efficacy of desmopressin for treatment of nocturia between patients with normal and high nocturnal bladder capacity index (NBCi. Methods. Retrospective analysis of adult patients treated with desmopressin for nocturia. Patients were analyzed according to high or normal NBCi value before treatment. Results. 55 patients were identified, aged 49–84, 47 males, 8 females, who started desmopressin 0.2 mg nocte between 2009 and 2011. Two groups (N: normal and H: high NBCi were similar regarding number, gender, age, 24 h urine volume, and nocturnal urine volume. On treatment, nocturnal volume decreased by mean of 364 mL. Number of nightly voids decreased in N group from 3.11 to 1.50, in H from 3.96 to 1.44. Nocturnal polyuria and nocturia indices also decreased significantly. NBCi remained the same in N group (0.56 on therapy and in H group decreased to mean 0.63. All on-treatment values were statistically similar in N and H groups. Pretreatment differences were abolished with treatment. NBCi was significantly correlated to nocturia reduction—larger reduction was observed in patients with higher NBCi. In 8/55 patients, hyponatremia was detected, but without clinical consequences. Conclusions. The results indicate that the effectiveness of desmopressin on nocturia is not dependent upon the patient's pretreatment NBCi.

  2. A critical source area phosphorus index with topographic transport factors using high resolution LiDAR digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Murphy, Paul; Fenton, Owen; Shine, Oliver; Mellander, Per-Erik; Dunlop, Paul; Jordan, Phil

    2015-04-01

    A new phosphorus index (PI) tool is presented which aims to improve the identification of critical source areas (CSAs) of phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural land to surface waters. In a novel approach, the PI incorporates topographic indices rather than watercourse proximity as proxies for runoff risk, to account for the dominant control of topography on runoff-generating areas and P transport pathways. Runoff propensity and hydrological connectivity are modelled using the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and Network Index (NI) respectively, utilising high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to capture the influence of micro-topographic features on runoff pathways. Additionally, the PI attempts to improve risk estimates of particulate P losses by incorporating an erosion factor that accounts for fine-scale topographic variability within fields. Erosion risk is modelled using the Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition (USPED) model, which integrates DEM-derived upslope contributing area and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) factors. The PI was developed using field, sub-field and sub-catchment scale datasets of P source, mobilisation and transport factors, for four intensive agricultural catchments in Ireland representing different agri-environmental conditions. Datasets included soil test P concentrations, degree of P saturation, soil attributes, land use, artificial subsurface drainage locations, and 2 m resolution LiDAR DEMs resampled from 0.25 m resolution data. All factor datasets were integrated within a Geographical Information System (GIS) and rasterised to 2 m resolution. For each factor, values were categorised and assigned relative risk scores which ranked P loss potential. Total risk scores were calculated for each grid cell using a component formulation, which summed the products of weighted factor risk scores for runoff and erosion pathways. Results showed that the new PI was able to predict

  3. The effect of consuming low- versus high-glycemic index meals after exercise on postprandial blood lipid response following a next-day high-fat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, M; Chilibeck, P D; Yee, P; Zello, G A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Exercise performed shortly before (that is, within half a day of) a high-fat meal is beneficial for stimulating fat oxidation after the meal and reducing postprandial triglycerides (TG). This benefit of exercise is unfortunately negated if the after-exercise food choice to replace the calories expended during exercise is one containing high-glycemic index (HGI) carbohydrates. We determined the effect of consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates after an exercise session on fat oxidation and TG after a subsequent high-fat meal. Subjects/Methods: Using a randomized, counterbalanced crossover design, 23 overweight or obese individuals (body mass index ⩾25 kg m−2) performed: walking exercise (90 min) at 1800 h followed by no meal (EX); exercise followed by a meal with LGI carbohydrates (that is, lentils, EX-LGI); exercise followed by a meal with HGI carbohydrates (that is, instant potatoes, white bread, EX-HGI); and a control condition with no exercise or meal. After a 10-h overnight fast, participants were given a standardized high-fat meal. Fat oxidation was estimated before and for 6 h after this meal from respiratory gas measures and TG determined from blood samples. Results: Fat oxidation (mean±s.d.) was higher with EX (6.9±1.7 g h−1) than EX-HGI (6.3±1.6 g h−1; P=0.007) and Control (5.9±1.7 g h−1; P=0.00002), and EX-LGI (6.6±1.7 g h−1) was higher than Control (P=0.002). TG total area under the curve was 18–32% lower with EX and EX-LGI compared with control (P=0.0005 and P=0.0001, respectively) and EX-HGI (P=0.05 and P=0.021, respectively). Conclusions: A meal containing HGI carbohydrates consumed after an evening exercise session cancels the beneficial effect of exercise for stimulating fat oxidation and lowering TG after a subsequent high-fat meal, whereas consuming a post-exercise meal with LGI carbohydrates retains the positive effect of exercise. PMID:27376698

  4. High trait aggression in men is associated with low 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4 receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald; Jensen, Peter Steen; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2016-04-01

    Impulsive aggression has commonly been associated with a dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system: many, but not all, studies point to an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression. As cerebral 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) binding has recently been recognized as a proxy for stable brain levels of 5-HT, we here test the hypothesis in healthy men and women that brain 5-HT levels, as indexed by cerebral 5-HT4R, are inversely correlated with trait aggression and impulsivity. Sixty-one individuals (47 men) underwent positron emission tomography scanning with the radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 for quantification of brain 5-HT4R binding. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were used for assessment of trait aggression and trait impulsivity. Among male subjects, there was a positive correlation between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ total score (P = 0.037) as well as BPAQ physical aggression (P = 0.025). No main effect of global 5-HT4R on trait aggression or impulsivity was found in the mixed gender sample, but there was evidence for sex interaction effects in the relationship between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ physical aggression. In conclusion we found that low cerebral 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4R binding were associated with high trait aggression in males, but not in females. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Estimating fractional vegetation cover and the vegetation index of bare soil and highly dense vegetation with a physically based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wanjuan; Mu, Xihan; Ruan, Gaiyan; Gao, Zhan; Li, Linyuan; Yan, Guangjian

    2017-06-01

    Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of highly dense vegetation (NDVIv) and bare soil (NDVIs), identified as the key parameters for Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) estimation, are usually obtained with empirical statistical methods However, it is often difficult to obtain reasonable values of NDVIv and NDVIs at a coarse resolution (e.g., 1 km), or in arid, semiarid, and evergreen areas. The uncertainty of estimated NDVIs and NDVIv can cause substantial errors in FVC estimations when a simple linear mixture model is used. To address this problem, this paper proposes a physically based method. The leaf area index (LAI) and directional NDVI are introduced in a gap fraction model and a linear mixture model for FVC estimation to calculate NDVIv and NDVIs. The model incorporates the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) model parameters product (MCD43B1) and LAI product, which are convenient to acquire. Two types of evaluation experiments are designed 1) with data simulated by a canopy radiative transfer model and 2) with satellite observations. The root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) for simulated data is less than 0.117, depending on the type of noise added on the data. In the real data experiment, the RMSD for cropland is 0.127, for grassland is 0.075, and for forest is 0.107. The experimental areas respectively lack fully vegetated and non-vegetated pixels at 1 km resolution. Consequently, a relatively large uncertainty is found while using the statistical methods and the RMSD ranges from 0.110 to 0.363 based on the real data. The proposed method is convenient to produce NDVIv and NDVIs maps for FVC estimation on regional and global scales.

  6. Body mass index and waist-to-height ratio cut-offs as predictors of high blood pressure in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Febriana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is associated with increased risk for high blood pressure (BP. Although a routine BP measurement is indicated for all children visiting pediatric practice, recognition of children particularly at risk may save times. The aim of this study was to assess the cut-off point for body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR to predict high BP in adolescents. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 928 children aged 11 to 16 years in Yogyakarta. BP were measured using standard technique described by The Fourth Report on The Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. BMI was adjusted for age and sex using the WHO 2007 growth reference. WHtR was ratio of waist circumference related to height in centimeters. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to estimate the best cut-offs. Results: The best cut-off point for BMI-for-age Z-score (BMIZ to predict high BP was 0.51 with sensitivity and specificity of 82% (95% CI = 78-86 and 76% (95% CI = 67-78 for systolic BP and sensitivity and specificity of 82% (95% CI = 78-86 and 72% (95% CI = 68-76 for diastolic BP. The best cut-off point for WHtR was 0.45, with sensitivity of 76% (95% CI = 67-78 and specificity of 74% (95% CI = 71-79 for systolic BP and sensitivity of 76% (95% CI = 72-80 and specificity of 70% (95% CI = 61-75 for diastolic BP.Conclusion: BMIZ of 0.51 and WHtR of 0.45 are the best cut-off point to predict high BP in adolescents.

  7. First meeting on the CRP 'standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, P. van den

    2000-01-01

    The Cyclotron Department of the VUB has three groups performing research in the field of target development, production of radionuclides and their application in nuclear medicine. 1. The Physics Group is busy on the optimization of beam parameters, on the determination of cross sections and on neutron spectrometry. 2. The Inorganic Radiochemistry Group performs research on solid target electroplating (Tl, Zn, Cd, Rh ... ), on optimisation of target carrier geometry and cooling and on automated PC-controlled radiochemistry (Tl-201, Ga-67, In-111) and recovery systems and the associated software written in Modula-2 and Visual Basic. 3. The Organic Radiochemistry Group develops new techniques for radiolabelling of organic molecules (fatty acids, neuroleptics, synthetic polypeptides...) useful in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. All three groups take part in bulk productions of radionuclides

  8. SU-E-J-04: Integration of Interstitial High Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound Applicators On a Clinical MRI-Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment Planning Software Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellens, N [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Partanen, A [Philips Healthcare, Andover, Massachusetts (United States); Ghoshal, G; Burdette, E [Acoustic MedSystems Inc., Savoy, IL (United States); Farahani, K [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Interstitial high intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) applicators can be used to ablate tissue percutaneously, allowing for minimally-invasive treatment without ionizing radiation [1,2]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and usability of combining multielement interstitial HITU applicators with a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound software platform. Methods: The Sonalleve software platform (Philips Healthcare, Vantaa, Finland) combines anatomical MRI for target selection and multi-planar MRI thermometry to provide real-time temperature information. The MRI-compatible interstitial US applicators (Acoustic MedSystems, Savoy, IL, USA) had 1–4 cylindrical US elements, each 1 cm long with either 180° or 360° of active surface. Each applicator (4 Fr diameter, enclosed within a 13 Fr flexible catheter) was inserted into a tissue-mimicking agar-silica phantom. Degassed water was circulated around the transducers for cooling and coupling. Based on the location of the applicator, a virtual transducer overlay was added to the software to assist targeting and to allow automatic thermometry slice placement. The phantom was sonicated at 7 MHz for 5 minutes with 6–8 W of acoustic power for each element. MR thermometry data were collected during and after sonication. Results: Preliminary testing indicated that the applicator location could be identified in the planning images and the transducer locations predicted within 1 mm accuracy using the overlay. Ablation zones (thermal dose ≥ 240 CEM43) for 2 active, adjacent US elements ranged from 18 mm × 24 mm (width × length) to 25 mm × 25 mm for the 6 W and 8 W sonications, respectively. Conclusion: The combination of interstitial HITU applicators and this software platform holds promise for novel approaches in minimally-invasive MRI-guided therapy, especially when bony structures or air-filled cavities may preclude extracorporeal HIFU.[1] Diederich et al

  9. Estimation of the R134a gas refractive index for use as a Cherenkov radiator, using a high energy charged particle beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charitonidis, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Gatignon, L.

    2017-11-01

    Gases with relatively high refractive index, n - 1 ≥ 500 ×10-6 at atmospheric pressure, giving a satisfactory photoelectron yield at relatively low pressures (≤ 5 bar) are rare. These gases are often the only practical solution for low momentum particle identification in conventional secondary beam lines. The refractive index of R134a, one of the most common gases available to the physics community, has never been measured or reported. In the present note, the results of a dedicated experiment to estimate the refractive index of R134a, using mixed hadron/electron beams in the range 0.5-10 GeV are presented.

  10. Relation between eating habits and a high body mass index among freshman students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Fatma Esra; Bekiroglu, Nural; Imeryuz, Nese; Agirbasli, Mehmet

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the relation between eating habits and a high body mass index (BMI) in first-year freshman university students and included 2525 freshman university students 18 to 22 years old from a Turkish population. İn this study, 48% of the students were men. They were asked to complete a questionnaire on their dietary habits including the frequency of their consumption of individual food items, demographic data, and smoking habit. The effects of eating habits on increased BMI (≥25) were analyzed. Of 2259 subjects included in the analyses, 322 were overweight or obese and 1937 had normal and thin BMI (ender, recent weight change, and high number of meals as independent predictors of obesity/overweight. Frequent consumptions of beer, alcoholic drinks other than beer and wine (e.g., spirits including whisky, gin, raki, vodka), coffee, tea, coke, red meat, variety meat, and eggs were associated with a significantly higher risk of obesity/overweight, whereas frequent consumption of snacks was associated with a low risk. Findings of further studies, possibly taking into consideration the absolute quantities of consumption along with cultural and local issues, would guide the adoption of healthier feeding behaviors in this particular age group.

  11. Transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using step-index fibers having large cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer P; Joshi, Sachin

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus and method for transmission of laser pulses with high output beam quality using large core step-index silica optical fibers having thick cladding, are described. The thick cladding suppresses diffusion of modal power to higher order modes at the core-cladding interface, thereby enabling higher beam quality, M.sup.2, than are observed for large core, thin cladding optical fibers. For a given NA and core size, the thicker the cladding, the better the output beam quality. Mode coupling coefficients, D, has been found to scale approximately as the inverse square of the cladding dimension and the inverse square root of the wavelength. Output from a 2 m long silica optical fiber having a 100 .mu.m core and a 660 .mu.m cladding was found to be close to single mode, with an M.sup.2=1.6. Another thick cladding fiber (400 .mu.m core and 720 .mu.m clad) was used to transmit 1064 nm pulses of nanosecond duration with high beam quality to form gas sparks at the focused output (focused intensity of >100 GW/cm.sup.2), wherein the energy in the core was laser pulses was about 6 ns. Extending the pulse duration provided the ability to increase the delivered pulse energy (>20 mJ delivered for 50 ns pulses) without damaging the silica fiber.

  12. Histological evaluation of patients with gastritis at high risk of developing gastric cancer using a conventional index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Aki; Kamada, Tomoari; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Shiotani, Akiko; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Manabe, Noriaki; Ito, Masanori; Hata, Jiro; Haruma, Ken

    2011-06-15

    Although gastric cancer (GCa) is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, only some H. pylori-positive subjects develop gastric cancer. The aim of this study is to identify H. pylori-positive subjects at high risk of developing GCa by assessment of the histopathological findings in the non-cancer-containing mucosa of patients with and without GCa. The subjects were 35 patients with diffuse-type gastric cancer (D-GCa), 55 with intestinal-type gastric cancer (I-GCa), and 99 H. pylori-positive controls without GCa. Two specimens were taken from the greater curvature of the antrum and the middle body. Histopathological gradings were evaluated using the updated Sydney System, and the risk of GCa was evaluated using a modified Meining's gastric cancer risk index (GCRI). Among the H. pylori-positive controls, corpus gastritis was seen in 98.0% (97/99) and corpus atrophic gastritis in 78.8% (78/99). The mean GCRI for the D-GCa (5.514±2.03) and I-GCa (6.836±2.08) groups was significantly greater than that for the H. pylori-positive controls (4.071±2.07; p=0.0005, pcancer. However, H. pylori-positive patients at high risk of developing GCa (not only intestinal-type but also diffuse-type) may be detected using a simple GCRI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations of Body Mass Index with Sexual Risk-Taking and Injection Drug Use among US High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lowry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if body mass index (BMI is associated with behaviors that may increase risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs among US high school students. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2005–2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS to examine associations of BMI categories with sexual risk behaviors and injection drug use among sexually active high school students, using sex-stratified logistic regression models. Controlling for race/ethnicity and grade, among female and male students, both underweight (BMI < 5th percentile and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile were associated with decreased odds of being currently sexually active (i.e., having had sexual intercourse during the past 3 months. However, among sexually active female students, obese females were more likely than normal weight females to have had 4 or more sex partners (odds ratio, OR = 1.59, not used a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.30, and injected illegal drugs (OR = 1.98. Among sexually active male students, overweight (85th percentile ≤ BMI < 95th percentile was associated with not using a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.19 and obesity was associated with injection drug use (OR = 1.42. Among sexually active students, overweight and obesity may be indicators of increased risk for HIV and other STDs.

  14. Life style profile of High School students and its association with Body Mass Index in Nagpur city, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Trilok Hajare

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present era with a drastic change in lifestyle of every individual, weight gain and obesity are posing a growing threat to health in countries all over the world. Once a problem of affluence, obesity growing in many developing countries also due to decreased physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, altered eating habits, increased fat content in diet and decreased social activities. It is therefore imperative that rising incidence of obesity is controlled by tracking the trend of obesity since childhood and by BCC activities. Aims & Objectives: To study the life-style profile of high school students and association of lifestyle with Body Mass Index. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 565 high school students. Students were interviewed regarding daily activity, physical activity, hours of television and computer viewing and routine food habits. The anthropometric measurements were done. BMI was calculated according to WHO 2007 criteria. Results: The prevalence of overweight in students was found to be 5.84% and obesity was 0.35%. There was statistical evidence that the overweight students were associated with higher socio economic status group (p=0.000107, decreased physical activity (p= 0.0001; OR- 10.88, increased consumption of junk food (p=0.0005817; OR- 3.4 and more hours of viewing television/ computer (p=0.00555; OR- 2.99.

  15. Life style profile of High School students and its association with Body Mass Index in Nagpur city, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Trilok Hajare

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the present era with a drastic change in lifestyle of every individual, weight gain and obesity are posing a growing threat to health in countries all over the world. Once a problem of affluence, obesity growing in many developing countries also due to decreased physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, altered eating habits, increased fat content in diet and decreased social activities. It is therefore imperative that rising incidence of obesity is controlled by tracking the trend of obesity since childhood and by BCC activities. Aims & Objectives: To study the life-style profile of high school students and association of lifestyle with Body Mass Index. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 565 high school students. Students were interviewed regarding daily activity, physical activity, hours of television and computer viewing and routine food habits. The anthropometric measurements were done. BMI was calculated according to WHO 2007 criteria. Results: The prevalence of overweight in students was found to be 5.84% and obesity was 0.35%. There was statistical evidence that the overweight students were associated with higher socio economic status group (p=0.000107, decreased physical activity (p= 0.0001; OR- 10.88, increased consumption of junk food (p=0.0005817; OR- 3.4 and more hours of viewing television/ computer (p=0.00555; OR- 2.99.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of high body mass index in rural Appalachian children aged 6-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Reagan, Karen; Bianco, Joseph A; Heh, Victor; Rettos, Jean; Huston, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In rural regions of the United States of America, estimates of pediatric obesity often exceed national averages. This problem may be particularly pronounced in Appalachian regions, where significant health and economic disparities abound. This study presents the findings of a body mass index (BMI) screening program for 6-11 year old children living in a rural Appalachian community. County-wide estimates of high BMI (>or=85th percentile) were obtained to understand the health status and needs of our pediatric community and to compare obesity prevalence rates with national averages. An additional aim was to identify subpopulations of children who may warrant clinical intervention due to demographic and behavioral risks factors of high BMI. A school-based BMI screening was conducted of 6-11 year old children in southeastern Ohio. Investigators collected 3 sets of height and weight measurements from approximately 2000 elementary school students between 2006 and 2007. Caregivers for a subset of this population also completed a health behaviors questionnaire. Thirty-eight percent of children had high BMI, with 17% at risk for overweight and 20.9% overweight. Boys were 23% more likely than girls to be overweight (chi(2)(1) = 95% CI = 1.08, 1.40) and 11% more likely to become overweight with each year of age (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.15). Overweight children were more likely to view television, eat meals at school, and live with a caregiver who smokes. Consistent with expectations, prevalence of high BMI in this sample of rural Appalachian children exceeds national averages. Prevalence of overweight varied by age and sex; boys are particularly vulnerable to developing obesity, especially as they age. Preliminary survey data suggest that eating breakfast at home and at school and increased hours of television viewing may be associated with higher BMI, especially in younger boys.

  17. The dynamic behavior of microbubbles during long ultrasound tone-burst excitation: mechanistic insights into ultrasound-microbubble mediated therapeutics using high-speed imaging and cavitation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacella, John J.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound (US)-microbubble (MB) mediated therapies have been shown to restore perfusion and enhance drug/gene delivery. Due to the presumption that MBs do not persist during long US exposure under high acoustic pressures, most schemes utilize short US pulses when a high US pressure is employed. However, we recently observed an enhanced thrombolytic effect using long US pulses at high acoustic pressures. Therefore we explored the fate of MBs during long tone-burst exposures (5 ms) at various acoustic pressures and MB concentrations via direct high-speed optical observation and passive cavitation detection. MBs first underwent stable or inertial cavitation depending on the acoustic pressure, and then formed gas-filled clusters that continued to oscillate, break up, and form new clusters. Cavitation detection confirmed continued, albeit diminishing acoustic activity throughout the 5-ms US excitation. These data suggest that persisting cavitation activity during long tone-bursts may confer additional therapeutic effects. PMID:26603628

  18. Cerenkov counting and Cerenkov-scintillation counting with high refractive index organic liquids using a liquid scintillation counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, L I; Helus, F; Maier-Borst, W [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1978-06-01

    /sup 18/F and /sup 14/C radioactivity was measured in methyl salicylate (MS), a high refractive index hybrid Cherenkov-scintillation generating medium, using a liquid scintillation counter. At concentrations of up to 21.4%, in MS, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) quenched /sup 14/C fluorescence, and with a 10-fold excess of DMSO over MS, /sup 18/F count rates were reduced below that for DMSO alone, probably as a result of concentration-independent self-quenching due to 'dark-complex' formation. DMSO in lower concentrations did not reduce the counting efficiency of /sup 18/F in MS. Nitrobenzene was a concentration-dependent quencher for both /sup 14/C and /sup 18/F in MS. Chlorobenzene (CB) and DMSO were both found to be weak Cherenkov generators with /sup 18/F. Counting efficiencies for /sup 18/F in MS, CB, and DMSO were 50.3, 7.8 and 4.3% respectively in the coincidence counting mode, and 58.1, 13.0 and 6.8% in the singles mode. /sup 14/C efficiencies were 14.4 and 22.3% for coincidence and singles respectively, and 15.3 and 42.0% using a modern counter designed for coincidence and single photon counting. The high /sup 14/C and /sup 18/F counting efficiency in MS are discussed with respect to excitation mechanism, on the basis of quench and channels ratios changes observed. It is proposed that MS functions as an efficient Cherenkov-scintillation generator for high-energy beta emitters such as /sup 18/F, and as a low-efficiency scintillator for weak beta emitting radionuclides such as /sup 14/C.

  19. Cerenkov counting and Cerenkov-scintillation counting with high refractive index organic liquids using a liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, L.I.; Helus, F.; Maier-Borst, W.

    1978-01-01

    18 F and 14 C radioactivity was measured in methyl salicylate (MS), a high refractive index hybrid Cherenkov-scintillation generating medium, using a liquid scintillation counter. At concentrations of up to 21.4%, in MS, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) quenched 14 C fluorescence, and with a 10-fold excess of DMSO over MS, 18 F count rates were reduced below that for DMSO alone, probably as a result of concentration-independent self-quenching due to 'dark-complex' formation. DMSO in lower concentrations did not reduce the counting efficiency of 18 F in MS. Nitrobenzene was a concentration-dependent quencher for both 14 C and 18 F in MS. Chlorobenzene (CB) and DMSO were both found to be weak Cherenkov generators with 18 F. Counting efficiencies for 18 F in MS, CB, and DMSO were 50.3, 7.8 and 4.3% respectively in the coincidence counting mode, and 58.1, 13.0 and 6.8% in the singles mode. 14 C efficiencies were 14.4 and 22.3% for coincidence and singles respectively, and 15.3 and 42.0% using a modern counter designed for coincidence and single photon counting. The high 14 C and 18 F counting efficiency in MS are discussed with respect to excitation mechanism, on the basis of quench and channels ratios changes observed. It is proposed that MS functions as an efficient Cherenkov-scintillation generator for high-energy beta emitters such as 18 F, and as a low-efficiency scintillator for weak beta emitting radionuclides such as 14 C. (author)

  20. Overweight and Cognitive Performance: High Body Mass Index Is Associated with Impairment in Reactive Control during Task Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Steenbergen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and deficits in cognitive control. The present study aims to clarify the association between weight status and the degree of impairment in cognitive flexibility, i.e., the ability to efficiently switch from one task to another, by disentangling the preparatory and residual domains of task switching. Twenty-six normal weight (BMI < 25, five males and twenty-six overweight (BMI ≥ 25, seven males university students performed a task-switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of proactive vs. reactive control with regard to cognitive flexibility. Compared to individuals with a BMI lower than 25, overweight (i.e., ≥25 was associated with increased switching costs in the reactive switching condition (i.e., when preparation time is short, representing reduced cognitive flexibility in the preparatory domain. In addition, the overweight group reported significantly more depression and binge eating symptoms, although still indicating minimal depression. No between-group differences were found with regard to self-reported autism spectrum symptoms, impulsiveness, state- and trait anxiety, and cognitive reactivity to depression. The present findings are consistent with and extend previous literature showing that elevated BMI in young, otherwise healthy individuals is associated with significantly more switching costs due to inefficiency in the retrieval, implementation, and maintenance of task sets, indicating less efficient cognitive control functioning.

  1. A high-fat, high-glycaemic index, low-fibre dietary pattern is prospectively associated with type 2 diabetes in a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Silvia; Richards, Marcus; Pierce, Mary; Ambrosini, Gina L

    2016-05-01

    The combined association of dietary fat, glycaemic index (GI) and fibre with type 2 diabetes has rarely been investigated. The objective was to examine the relationship between a high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern across adult life and type 2 diabetes risk using reduced rank regression. Data were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Repeated measures of dietary intake estimated using 5-d diet diaries were available at the age of 36, 43 and 53 years for 1180 study members. Associations between dietary pattern scores at each age, as well as longitudinal changes in dietary pattern z-scores, and type 2 diabetes incidence (n 106) from 53 to 60-64 years were analysed. The high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was characterised by low intakes of fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products and whole-grain cereals, and high intakes of white bread, fried potatoes, processed meat and animal fats. There was an increasing trend in OR for type 2 diabetes with increasing quintile of dietary pattern z-scores at the age of 43 years among women but not among men. Women in the highest z-score quintile at the age of 43 years had an OR for type 2 diabetes of 5·45 (95 % CI 2·01, 14·79). Long-term increases in this dietary pattern, independently of BMI and waist circumference, were also detrimental among women: for each 1 sd unit increase in dietary pattern z-score between 36 and 53 years, the OR for type 2 diabetes was 1·67 (95 % CI 1·20, 2·43) independently of changes in BMI and waist circumference in the same periods. A high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged British women but not in men.

  2. Redefining high-risk patients with stage II colon cancer by risk index and microRNA-21: results from a population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T F; Kjær-Frifeldt, S; Christensen, R D

    2014-01-01

    Background:The aim of the present study was to analyse the prognostic value of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21) in patients with stage II colon cancer aiming at a risk index for this group of patients.Methods:A population-based cohort of 554 patients was included. MicroRNA-21 was analysed by qPCR based.......001). The overall survival (OS) index identified three different subgroups (Pcolon cancer. Furthermore...... on tumour tissue. An index was created using the coefficients obtained from a collective multiple Cox regression. The entire procedure was cross-validated (10-fold). The performance of the index was quantified by time-dependent receiver operating characteristics curves.Results:High miRNA-21 expression...

  3. Frontal delta-beta cross-frequency coupling in high and low social anxiety: An index of stress regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppelaars, Eefje S; Harrewijn, Anita; Westenberg, P Michiel; van der Molen, Melle J W

    2018-05-17

    Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between frontal delta (1-4 Hz) and beta (14-30 Hz) oscillations has been suggested as a candidate neural correlate of social anxiety disorder, a disorder characterized by fear and avoidance of social and performance situations. Prior studies have used amplitude-amplitude correlation (AAC) as a CFC measure and hypothesized it as a candidate neural mechanism of affective control. However, using this metric has yielded inconsistent results regarding the direction of CFC, and the functional significance of coupling strength is uncertain. To offer a better understanding of CFC in social anxiety, we compared frontal delta-beta AAC with phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) - a mechanism for information transfer through neural circuits. Twenty high socially anxious (HSA) and 32 low socially anxious (LSA) female undergraduates participated in a social performance task (SPT). Delta-beta PAC and AAC were estimated during the resting state, as well as the anticipation and recovery conditions. Results showed significantly more AAC in LSA than HSA participants during early anticipation, as well as significant values during all conditions in LSA participants only. PAC did not distinguish between LSA and HSA participants, and instead was found to correlate with state nervousness during early anticipation, but in LSA participants only. Together, these findings are interpreted to suggest that delta-beta AAC is a plausible neurobiological index of adaptive stress regulation and can distinguish between trait high and low social anxiety during stress, while delta-beta PAC might be sensitive enough to reflect mild state anxiety in LSA participants.

  4. A highly efficient method for generation of therapeutic quality human pluripotent stem cells by using naive induced pluripotent stem cells nucleus for nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2014-01-01

    Even after several years since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), we are still unable to make any significant therapeutic benefits out of them such as cell therapy or generation of organs for transplantation. Recent success in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) made it possible to generate diploid embryonic stem cells, which opens up the way to make high-quality pluripotent stem cells. However, the process is highly inefficient and hence expensive compared to the generation of iPSC. Even with the latest SCNT technology, we are not sure whether one can make therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cell from any patient's somatic cells or by using oocytes from any donor. Combining iPSC technology with SCNT, that is, by using the nucleus of the candidate somatic cell which got reprogrammed to pluripotent state instead that of the unmodified nucleus of the candidate somatic cell, would boost the efficiency of the technique, and we would be able to generate therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cell nuclear transfer (iPSCNT) combines the efficiency of iPSC generation with the speed and natural reprogramming environment of SCNT. The new technique may be called iPSCNT. This technique could prove to have very revolutionary benefits for humankind. This could be useful in generating organs for transplantation for patients and for reproductive cloning, especially for childless men and women who cannot have children by any other techniques. When combined with advanced gene editing techniques (such as CRISPR-Cas system) this technique might also prove useful to those who want to have healthy children but suffer from inherited diseases. The current code of ethics may be against reproductive cloning. However, this will change with time as it happened with most of the revolutionary scientific breakthroughs. After all, it is the right of every human to have healthy offspring and it is the question of

  5. Superior assessment of CVD death by MACD index compared with the framingham score is highly associated with predisposition to diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltyskinska, Ewa; Barascuk, Natascha; Ganz, Melanie

    an OR of 20 which was significantly higher than the AC24 index OR of 5.0 and any other single or multivariate metabolic/physical marker, alone or in combination. The MACD index, compared to that of AC24, was significantly correlated to baseline glucose levels (p... to triglyceride levels.   Conclusions: The newly established MACD-index that encompasses information on plaque morphology, distribution and growth potential provides additional biological information emphasizing that smaller plaques with a spread elongated morphology have a larger growth potential and thereby...... subsequent rupture potential. This results in a superior identification of CVD related death with an OR of 20.  This increased biological information of the MACD index correlated strongly to glucose levels suggesting that this assessment method entails information of pre-diabetic status that is an important...

  6. Experimental study on efficacy of compression systems with a high static stiffness index for treatment of venous ulcer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Anneke Andriessen; Martin Abel

    2013-01-01

    The experimental study measured interface pressure and static stiffness index of four different compression systems in fifty-two healthy volunteers. For the study interface pressure (3 cm ø probe was placed at the anatomical B1 point) was recorded on application of the compression systems every 15 min for 4 h, in supine, standing, while sitting and during walking. For this purpose a portable Kikuhime (Harada Corp., Osaka, Japan) device was used. Further static stiffness index (SSI) was...

  7. Brewster-angle 50%-50% beam splitter for p-polarized infrared light using a high-index quarter-wave layer deposited on a low-index prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A

    2017-08-10

    A quarter-wave layer (QWL) of high refractive index, which is deposited on a transparent prism of low refractive index, can be designed to split an incident p-polarized light beam at the Brewster angle (BA) of the air-substrate interface into p-polarized reflected and transmitted beams of equal intensity (50% each) that travel in orthogonal directions. For reflection of p-polarized light at the BA, the supported QWL functions as a free-standing (unsupported) pellicle. An exemplary design is presented that uses Si x Ge 1-x QWL deposited on an IRTRAN1 prism for applications (such as Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometry) with a variable compositional fraction x in the 2-6 μm mid-IR spectral range.

  8. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  9. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score).......The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score)....

  10. Fabrication, Physicochemical Characterization, and Performance Evaluation of Biodegradable Polymeric Microneedle Patch System for Enhanced Transcutaneous Flux of High Molecular Weight Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Viral; Choudhury, Bijaya Krushna

    2017-11-01

    A revolutionary paradigm shift is being observed currently, towards the use of therapeutic biologics for disease management. The present research was focused on designing an efficient dosage form for transdermal delivery of α-choriogonadotropin (high molecular weight biologic), through biodegradable polymeric microneedles. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-based biodegradable microneedle arrays loaded with high molecular weight polypeptide, α-choriogonadotropin, were fabricated for its systemic delivery via transdermal route. Varied process and formulation parameters were optimized for fabricating microneedle array, which in turn was expected to temporally rupture the stratum corneum layer of the skin, acting as a major barrier to drug delivery through transdermal route. The developed polymeric microneedles were optimized on the basis of quality attributes like mechanical strength, axial strength, insertion ratio, and insertion force analysis. The optimized polymeric microneedle arrays were characterized for in vitro drug release studies, ex vivo drug permeation studies, skin resealing studies, and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies. Results depicted that fabricated polymeric microneedle arrays with mechanical strength of above 5 N and good insertion ratio exhibited similar systemic bioavailability of α-choriogonadotropin in comparison to marketed subcutaneous injection formulation of α-choriogonadotropin. Thus, it was ultimately concluded that the designed drug delivery system can serve as an efficient tool for systemic delivery of therapeutic biologics, with an added benefit of overcoming the limitations of parenteral delivery, achieving better patient acceptability and compliance.

  11. Identification of genes highly downregulated in pancreatic cancer through a meta-analysis of microarray datasets: implications for discovery of novel tumor-suppressor genes and therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonesekere, Nalin C W; Andersen, Wyatt; Smith, Alex; Wang, Xiaosheng

    2018-02-01

    The lack of specific symptoms at early tumor stages, together with a high biological aggressiveness of the tumor contribute to the high mortality rate for pancreatic cancer (PC), which has a 5-year survival rate of about 7%. Recent failures of targeted therapies inhibiting kinase activity in clinical trials have highlighted the need for new approaches towards combating this deadly disease. In this study, we have identified genes that are significantly downregulated in PC, through a meta-analysis of large number of microarray datasets. We have used qRT-PCR to confirm the downregulation of selected genes in a panel of PC cell lines. This study has yielded several novel candidate tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) including GNMT, CEL, PLA2G1B and SERPINI2. We highlight the role of GNMT, a methyl transferase associated with the methylation potential of the cell, and CEL, a lipase, as potential therapeutic targets. We have uncovered genetic links to risk factors associated with PC such as smoking and obesity. Genes important for patient survival and prognosis are also discussed, and we confirm the dysregulation of metabolic pathways previously observed in PC. While many of the genes downregulated in our dataset are associated with protein products normally produced by the pancreas for excretion, we have uncovered some genes whose downregulation appear to play a more causal role in PC. These genes will assist in providing a better understanding of the disease etiology of PC, and in the search for new therapeutic targets and biomarkers.

  12. Patterns of failure after multimodal treatments for high-grade glioma: effectiveness of MIB-1 labeling index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Kazuyuki; Fujii, Osamu; Soejima, Toshinori; Sugimura, Kazuro; Kohmura, Eiji; Sasaki, Ryohei; Sasayama, Takashi; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Nishimura, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenji; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Mukumoto, Naritoshi; Akasaka, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Masamitsu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the recurrence pattern of high-grade glioma treated with a multimodal treatment approach and to evaluate whether the MIB-1 labeling index (LI) could be a useful marker for predicting the pattern of failure in glioblastoma (GB). We evaluated histologically confirmed 131 patients with either anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or GB. A median dose was 60 Gy. Concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy were administered to 111 patients. MIB-1 LI was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Recurrence patterns were categorized according to the areas of recurrence as follows: central failure (recurrence in the 95% of 60 Gy); in-field (recurrence in the high-dose volume of 50 Gy; marginal (recurrence outside the high-dose volume) and distant (recurrence outside the RT field). The median follow-up durations were 13 months for all patients and 19 months for those remaining alive. Among AA patients, the 2-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 23.1% and 39.2%, respectively, while in GB patients, the rates were 13.3% and 27.6%, respectively. The median survival time was 20 months for AA patients and 15 months for GB patients. Among AA patients, recurrences were central in 68.7% of patients; in-field, 18.8%; and distant, 12.5%, while among GB patients, 69.0% of recurrences were central, 15.5% were in-field, 12.1% were marginal, and 3.4% were distant. The MIB-1 LI medians were 18.2% in AA and 29.8% in GB. Interestingly, in patients with GB, the MIB-1 LI had a strong effect on the pattern of failure (P = 0.014), while the extent of surgical removal (P = 0.47) and regimens of chemotherapy (P = 0.57) did not. MIB-1 LI predominantly affected the pattern of failure in GB patients treated with a multimodal approach, and it might be a useful tool for the management of the disease

  13. The EIT-based global inhomogeneity index is highly correlated with regional lung opening in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqi; Pulletz, Sven; Frerichs, Inéz; Müller-Lisse, Ullrich; Möller, Knut

    2014-02-06

    The electrical impedance tomography (EIT)-based global inhomogeneity (GI) index was introduced to quantify tidal volume distribution within the lung. Up to now, the GI index was evaluated for plausibility but the analysis of how it is influenced by various physiological factors is still missing. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of proportion of open lung regions measured by EIT on the GI index. A constant low-flow inflation maneuver was performed in 18 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients (58 ± 14 years, mean age ± SD) and 8 lung-healthy patients (41 ± 12 years) under controlled mechanical ventilation. EIT raw data were acquired at 25 scans/s and reconstructed offline. Recruited lung regions were identified as those image pixels of the lung regions within the EIT scans where local impedance amplitudes exceeded 10% of the maximum amplitude during the maneuver. A series of GI indices was calculated during mechanical lung inflation, based on the differential images obtained between different time points. Respiratory system elastance (Ers) values were calculated at 10 lung volume levels during low-flow maneuver. The GI index decreased during low-flow inflation, while the percentage of open lung regions increased. The values correlated highly in both ARDS (r2 = 0.88 ± 0.08, p EIT. The GI index may prove to be a useful EIT-based index to guide ventilation therapy.

  14. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  15. Identification of high-efficiency 3′GG gRNA motifs in indexed FASTA files with ngg2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha D. Roberson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 is emerging as one of the most-used methods of genome modification in organisms ranging from bacteria to human cells. However, the efficiency of editing varies tremendously site-to-site. A recent report identified a novel motif, called the 3′GG motif, which substantially increases the efficiency of editing at all sites tested in C. elegans. Furthermore, they highlighted that previously published gRNAs with high editing efficiency also had this motif. I designed a Python command-line tool, ngg2, to identify 3′GG gRNA sites from indexed FASTA files. As a proof-of-concept, I screened for these motifs in six model genomes: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Danio rerio, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens. I also scanned the genomes of pig (Sus scrofa and African elephant (Loxodonta africana to demonstrate the utility in non-model organisms. I identified more than 60 million single match 3′GG motifs in these genomes. Greater than 61% of all protein coding genes in the reference genomes had at least one unique 3′GG gRNA site overlapping an exon. In particular, more than 96% of mouse and 93% of human protein coding genes have at least one unique, overlapping 3′GG gRNA. These identified sites can be used as a starting point in gRNA selection, and the ngg2 tool provides an important ability to identify 3′GG editing sites in any species with an available genome sequence.

  16. CdSe white quantum dots-based white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Sheng; Hsiao, Chih-Chun; Chung, Shu-Ru

    2016-09-01

    A white light emission CdSe quantum dots (QDs) can be prepared by chemical route under 180°C. An organic oleic acid (OA) is used to react with CdO to form Cd-OA complex. Hexadecylamine (HDA) and 1-Octadecene (ODE) were used as co-surfactants. By controlling the reaction time, a white light emission CdSe QDs can be obtained after reacts for 3 to 10 min. The luminescence spectra compose two obvious emission peaks and entire visible light ranges from 400 to 650 nm. Based on TEM measurement result, spherical morphologies with particle size 2.39+/-0.27 nm can be obtained. The quantum yields (QYs) of white CdSe QD are between 20 and 60 %, which depends on reaction time. A white CdSe QDs were mixed with UV cured gel (OPAS-226) with weight ratios 50.0 wt. %, and putted the mixture into reflective cup (3020, 13 mil) as convert type. The white LEDs have controllable CIE coordinates and correlated color temperature (CCT). The luminous efficacy of the device is less than 3 lm/W, but the color rendering index (CRI) for all devices are higher than 80. Since the luminous efficacy of hybrid devices has a direct dependence on the external QY of the UV-LED as well, the luminous efficacy can be improved by well dispersion of CdSe QDs in UV gel matrix and using optimized LED chips. Therefore, in this study, we provide a new and simple method to prepare high QY of white CdSe QDs and its have a potential to applicate in solid-state lighting.

  17. High-flavanol and high-theobromine versus low-flavanol and low-theobromine chocolate to improve uterine artery pulsatility index: a double blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, Emmanuel; Leblanc, Vicky; Lavoie-Lebel, Élise; Babar, Asma; Girard, Mario; Poungui, Lionel; Blanchet, Claudine; Marc, Isabelle; Lemieux, Simone; Belkacem, Abdous; Sidi, Elhadji Laouan; Dodin, Sylvie

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of high-flavanol and high-theobromine (HFHT) chocolate in women at risk of preeclampsia (PE). We conducted a single-center randomized controlled trial including women with singleton pregnancy between 11 and 14 weeks gestation who had bilateral abnormal uterine artery (UtA) waveforms (notching) and elevated pulsatility index (PI). Participants were randomized to either HFHT or low-flavanol and low-theobromine (LFLT) chocolate (30 grams daily for a total of 12 weeks). UtA PI, reported as multiple of medians (MoM) adjusted for gestational age, was assessed at baseline and 12 weeks after randomization. One hundred thirty-one women were randomized with mean gestational age of 12.4 ± 0.6 weeks and a mean UtA PI of 1.39 ± 0.31 MoM. UtA PI adjusted for gestational age significantly decreased from baseline to the second visit (12 weeks later) in the two groups (p chocolate, daily intake of HFHT chocolate was not associated with significant changes of UtA PI. Nevertheless, the improvement observed in both groups suggests that chocolate could improve placental function independently of flavanol and/or theobromine content.

  18. High-Efficiency and High-Color-Rendering-Index Semitransparent Polymer Solar Cells Induced by Photonic Crystals and Surface Plasmon Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Wang, Guoxin; Kang, Bonan; Guo, Wenbin; Shen, Liang

    2018-02-21

    Semitransparent polymer solar cells (ST-PSCs) show attractive potential in power-generating windows or building-integrated photovoltaics. However, the development of ST-PSCs is lagging behind opaque PSCs because of the contradiction between device efficiency and transmission. Herein, Ag/Au alloy nanoparticles and photonic crystals (PCs) were simultaneously introduced into ST-PSCs, acting compatibly as localized surface plasmon resonances and distributed Bragg reflectors to enhance light absorption and transmission. As a result, ST-PSCs based on a hybrid PTB7-Th:PC 71 BM active layer contribute an efficiency as high as 7.13 ± 0.15% and an average visible transmission beyond 20%, which are superior to most of the reported results. Furthermore, PCs can partly compensate valley range of transmission by balancing reflection and transmission regions, yielding a high color rendering index of 95. We believe that the idea of two light management methods compatibly enhancing the performance of ST-PSCs can offer a promising path to develop photovoltaic applications.

  19. Therapeutic rationale to target highly expressed CDK7 conferring poor outcomes in triple-negative breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Bo; Chonghaile, Triona Ni; Fan, Yue; Madden, Stephen F.; Klinger, Rut; O'Connor, Aisling E.; Walsh, Louise; O'Hurley, Gillian; Udupi, Girish Mallya; Joseph, Jesuchristopher; Tarrant, Finbarr; Conroy, Emer; Gaber, Alexander; Chin, Suet-Feung; Bardwell, Helen A; Provenzano, Elena; Crown, John; Dubois, Thierry; Linn, Sabine; Jirstrom, Karin; Caldas, Carlos; O'Connor, Darran P; Gallagher, William M

    2017-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients commonly exhibit poor prognosis and high relapse after treatment, but there remains a lack of biomarkers and effective targeted therapies for this disease. Here, we report evidence highlighting the cell-cycle–related kinase CDK7 as a driver and candidate

  20. Adult high-grade B-cell lymphoma with Burkitt lymphoma signature: genomic features and potential therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouska, Alyssa; Bi, Chengfeng; Lone, Waseem; Zhang, Weiwei; Kedwaii, Ambreen; Heavican, Tayla; Lachel, Cynthia M; Yu, Jiayu; Ferro, Roberto; Eldorghamy, Nanees; Greiner, Timothy C; Vose, Julie; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Gascoyne, Randy D; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Campo, Elias; Rimsza, Lisa M; Jaffe, Elaine S; Braziel, Rita M; Siebert, Reiner; Miles, Rodney R; Dave, Sandeep; Reddy, Anupama; Delabie, Jan; Staudt, Louis M; Song, Joo Y; McKeithan, Timothy W; Fu, Kai; Green, Michael; Chan, Wing C; Iqbal, Javeed

    2017-10-19

    The adult high-grade B-cell lymphomas sharing molecular features with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) are highly aggressive lymphomas with poor clinical outcome. High-resolution structural and functional genomic analysis of adult Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and high-grade B-cell lymphoma with BL gene signature (adult-molecularly defined BL [mBL]) revealed the MYC-ARF-p53 axis as the primary deregulated pathway. Adult-mBL had either unique or more frequent genomic aberrations (del13q14, del17p, gain8q24, and gain18q21) compared with pediatric-mBL, but shared commonly mutated genes. Mutations in genes promoting the tonic B-cell receptor (BCR)→PI3K pathway ( TCF3 and ID3 ) did not differ by age, whereas effectors of chronic BCR→NF-κB signaling were associated with adult-mBL. A subset of adult-mBL had BCL2 translocation and mutation and elevated BCL2 mRNA and protein expression, but had a mutation profile similar to mBL. These double-hit lymphomas may have arisen from a tumor precursor that acquired both BCL2 and MYC translocations and/or KMT2D ( MLL2 ) mutation. Gain/amplification of MIR17HG and its paralogue loci was observed in 50% of adult-mBL. In vitro studies suggested miR-17∼92 's role in constitutive activation of BCR signaling and sensitivity to ibrutinib. Overall integrative analysis identified an interrelated gene network affected by copy number and mutation, leading to disruption of the p53 pathway and the BCR→PI3K or NF-κB activation, which can be further exploited in vivo by small-molecule inhibitors for effective therapy in adult-mBL.

  1. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF HIGHLY PURIFIED DE-GLYCOSYLATED GCMAF IN THE IMMUNOTHERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Lynda Thyer; Emma Ward; Rodney Smith; Jacopo J.V. Branca; Gabriele Morucci; Massimo Gulisano; David Noakes; Stefania Pacini

    2013-01-01

    The de-Glycosylated vitamin D binding protein is a powerful Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF) that shows multiple biological effects that could be exploited in the immunotherapy of tumours, viral infections and autism. Here we report the observation of a series of clinical cases describing the results obtained administering highly purified GcMAF to patients with diverse types of chronic diseases. These are heterogeneous and refer to patients with different types of diseases at different s...

  2. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  3. Antiviral cationic peptides as a strategy for innovation in global health therapeutics for dengue virus: high yield production of the biologically active recombinant plectasin peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Hussin A; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Suhaeb, Abdulrazzaq M; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Yusof, Rohana

    2013-11-01

    Dengue virus infects millions of people worldwide, and there is no vaccine or anti-dengue therapeutic available. Antimicrobial peptides have been shown to possess effective antiviral activity against various viruses. One of the main limitations of developing these peptides as potent antiviral drugs is the high cost of production. In this study, high yield production of biologically active plectasin peptide was inexpensively achieved by producing tandem plectasin peptides as inclusion bodies in E. coli. Antiviral activity of the recombinant peptide towards dengue serotype-2 NS2B-NS3 protease (DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro) was assessed as a target to inhibit dengue virus replication in Vero cells. Single units of recombinant plectasin were collected after applying consecutive steps of refolding, cleaving by Factor Xa, and nickel column purification to obtain recombinant proteins of high purity. The maximal nontoxic dose (MNTD) of the recombinant peptide against Vero cells was 20 μM (100 μg/mL). The reaction velocity of DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro decreased significantly after increasing concentrations of recombinant plectasin were applied to the reaction mixture. Plectasin peptide noncompetitively inhibited DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro at Ki value of 5.03 ± 0.98 μM. The percentage of viral inhibition was more than 80% at the MNTD value of plectasin. In this study, biologically active recombinant plectasin which was able to inhibit dengue protease and viral replication in Vero cells was successfully produced in E. coli in a time- and cost- effective method. These findings are potentially important in the development of potent therapeutics against dengue infection.

  4. High-concentration contrast media (HCCM) in CT angiography of the carotid system: impact on therapeutic decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuknecht, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    CT angiography (CTA) is a minimally invasive technique that enables precise delineation of extracranial and intracranial vascular anatomy and pathology based on high intravascular density. With a 64-slice MDCT scanner, improved first-pass vascular visualization can be obtained with HCCM (400 mg I/ml) using 25 ml for combined intra-and extracranial studies and 20 ml for intracranial examinations alone. We reviewed 23 patients with extra-cranial stenoocclusive disease and 12 patients with intra-cranial aneurysms. Two additional patients presented with a mycotic aneurysm and a micro arteriovenous malformation (micro-AVM). In 23 patients with 27 significant (≥70%) vascular stenoses, high intraluminal contrast density and optimal projection of the stenosis profile facilitated precise delineation of the residual lumen in all vessels affected. Pseudoocclusion was present in 3 of the 27 vessels (11%) and ulceration in 5 (18.5%). CTA, in contrast to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), was able to delineate the mural constituents of stenoses, particularly marked calcification (present in 17 of 27 vessels, 62.9%). Eccentric vessel wall narrowing indicated dissection in three vessels (11%) and circular postradiation fibrosis was found in two vessels (7.4%). High-quality CTA obviated the need for DSA for diagnostic purposes in every patient. The decision regarding surgical treatment in nine vessels (33%) was influenced by the location of the stenosis relative to the carotid bifurcation, the length of the stenosis, and the level of the carotid bifurcation. Endovascular treatment in 12 vessels (44.4%) and the appropriate choice and placement of endovascular devices was affected by the anatomic configuration of the supraaortic vessels, and by the intrastenotic dimensions relative to the dimensions of the vessel proximal and distal to the stenosis. (orig.)

  5. Dietary Intakes of Urban, High Body Mass Index, African American Children: Family and Child Dietary Attributes Predict Child Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…

  6. Dynamics of Nonlinear Excitation of the High-Order Mode in a Single-Mode Step-Index Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdin, V.; Bourdine, A.

    2018-04-01

    This work is concerned with approximate model of higher-order mode nonlinear excitation in a singlemode silica optical fiber. We present some results of simulation for step-index optical fiber under femtosecond optical pulse launching, which confirm ability of relatively stable higher-order mode excitation in such singlemode optical fiber over sufficiently narrow range of launched optical power variation.

  7. Relation Education Index Norms for 500 Picture Pairs and 10 Relations: High School Sample. Technical Report No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, James L.; And Others

    Mode of presentation (word vs. picture) is said to be a factor in social class differences in performance on analogy tests. To investigate this contention, data were needed on equivalent word and picture analogy test performance. This report presents data on relation education index (REI) norms for 500 picture pairs collected in the process of…

  8. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one

  9. Preventing preterm births: analysis of trends and potential reductions with interventions in 39 countries with very high human development index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hannah H; Larson, Jim; Blencowe, Hannah; Spong, Catherine Y; Howson, Christopher P; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Lackritz, Eve M; Lee, Shoo K; Mason, Elizabeth; Serazin, Andrew C; Walani, Salimah; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Lawn, Joy E

    2013-01-19

    Every year, 1·1 million babies die from prematurity, and many survivors are disabled. Worldwide, 15 million babies are born preterm (rates in almost all countries with reliable data. The understanding of drivers and potential benefit of preventive interventions for preterm births is poor. We examined trends and estimate the potential reduction in preterm births for countries with very high human development index (VHHDI) if present evidence-based interventions were widely implemented. This analysis is to inform a rate reduction target for Born Too Soon. Countries were assessed for inclusion based on availability and quality of preterm prevalence data (2000-10), and trend analyses with projections undertaken. We analysed drivers of rate increases in the USA, 1989-2004. For 39 countries with VHHDI with more than 10,000 births, we did country-by-country analyses based on target population, incremental coverage increase, and intervention efficacy. We estimated cost savings on the basis of reported costs for preterm care in the USA adjusted using World Bank purchasing power parity. From 2010, even if all countries with VHHDI achieved annual preterm birth rate reductions of the best performers for 1990-2010 (Estonia and Croatia), 2000-10 (Sweden and Netherlands), or 2005-10 (Lithuania, Estonia), rates would experience a relative reduction of less than 5% by 2015 on average across the 39 countries. Our analysis of preterm birth rise 1989-2004 in USA suggests half the change is unexplained, but important drivers include non-medically indicated labour induction and caesarean delivery and assisted reproductive technologies. For all 39 countries with VHHDI, five interventions modelling at high coverage predicted a 5% relative reduction of preterm birth rate from 9·59% to 9·07% of livebirths: smoking cessation (0·01 rate reduction), decreasing multiple embryo transfers during assisted reproductive technologies (0·06), cervical cerclage (0·15), progesterone

  10. Measurement of cardiac index by transpulmonary thermodilution using an implanted central venous access port: a prospective study in patients scheduled for oncologic high-risk surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suria, Stéphanie; Wyniecki, Anne; Eghiaian, Alexandre; Monnet, Xavier; Weil, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Transpulmonary thermodilution allows the measurement of cardiac index for high risk surgical patients. Oncologic patients often have a central venous access (port-a-catheter) for chronic treatment. The validity of the measurement by a port-a-catheter of the absolute cardiac index and the detection of changes in cardiac index induced by fluid challenge are unknown. We conducted a monocentric prospective study. 27 patients were enrolled. 250 ml colloid volume expansions for fluid challenge were performed during ovarian cytoreductive surgery. The volume expansion-induced changes in cardiac index measured by transpulmonary thermodilution by a central venous access (CIcvc) and by a port-a-catheter (CIport) were recorded. 23 patients were analyzed with 123 pairs of measurements. Using a Bland and Altman for repeated measurements, the bias (lower and upper limits of agreement) between CIport and CIcvc was 0.14 (-0.59 to 0.88) L/min/m2. The percentage error was 22%. The concordance between the changes in CIport and CIcvc observed during volume expansion was 92% with an r = 0.7 (with exclusion zone). No complications (included sepsis) were observed during the follow up period. The transpulmonary thermodilution by a port-a-catheter is reliable for absolute values estimation of cardiac index and for measurement of the variation after fluid challenge. clinicaltrials.gov NCT02063009.

  11. A highly efficient method for generation of therapeutic quality human pluripotent stem cells by using naive induced pluripotent stem cells nucleus for nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudana Girija Sanal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Even after several years since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC, we are still unable to make any significant therapeutic benefits out of them such as cell therapy or generation of organs for transplantation. Recent success in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT made it possible to generate diploid embryonic stem cells, which opens up the way to make high-quality pluripotent stem cells. However, the process is highly inefficient and hence expensive compared to the generation of iPSC. Even with the latest SCNT technology, we are not sure whether one can make therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cell from any patient’s somatic cells or by using oocytes from any donor. Combining iPSC technology with SCNT, that is, by using the nucleus of the candidate somatic cell which got reprogrammed to pluripotent state instead that of the unmodified nucleus of the candidate somatic cell, would boost the efficiency of the technique, and we would be able to generate therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cell nuclear transfer (iPSCNT combines the efficiency of iPSC generation with the speed and natural reprogramming environment of SCNT. The new technique may be called iPSCNT. This technique could prove to have very revolutionary benefits for humankind. This could be useful in generating organs for transplantation for patients and for reproductive cloning, especially for childless men and women who cannot have children by any other techniques. When combined with advanced gene editing techniques (such as CRISPR-Cas system this technique might also prove useful to those who want to have healthy children but suffer from inherited diseases. The current code of ethics may be against reproductive cloning. However, this will change with time as it happened with most of the revolutionary scientific breakthroughs. After all, it is the right of every human to have healthy offspring and it is

  12. Quantification of imatinib in human serum: validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende VM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vinicius Marcondes Rezende,1 Ariane Rivellis,1 Mafalda Megumi Yoshinaga Novaes,1 Dalton de Alencar Fisher Chamone,2 Israel Bendit1,21Laboratory of Tumor Biology, 2Department of Hematology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Imatinib mesylate has been a breakthrough treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia. It has become the ideal tyrosine kinase inhibitor and the standard treatment for chronic-phase leukemia. Striking results have recently been reported, but intolerance to imatinib and noncompliance with treatment remain to be solved. Molecular monitoring by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is the gold standard for monitoring patients, and imatinib blood levels have also become an important tool for monitoring.Methods: A fast and cheap method was developed and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantification of imatinib in human serum and tamsulosin as the internal standard. Remarkable advantages of the method includes use of serum instead of plasma, less time spent on processing and analysis, simpler procedures, and requiring reduced amounts of biological material, solvents, and reagents. Stability of the analyte was also studied. This research also intended to drive the validation scheme in clinical centers. The method was validated according to the requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency within the range of 0.500–10.0 µg/mL with a limit of detection of 0.155 µg/mL. Stability data for the analyte are also presented.Conclusion: Given that the validated method has proved to be linear, accurate, precise, and robust, it is suitable for pharmacokinetic assays, such as bioavailability and bioequivalence, and is being successfully applied in routine therapeutic drug monitoring in the hospital service.Keywords: imatinib, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, therapeutic

  13. High-risk human papilloma virus associated oropharynx squamous cells carcinomas: Clinical, biological implications and therapeutical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guihard, S.; Noel, G.; Jung, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    The infection of the head and neck epithelium by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) is a risk factor for cancer onset and development. The incidence of HPV-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is currently increasing. These lesions display distinct clinical features. HPV positive patients are often younger and have a smaller history of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, but have a history of virus-transmitting sex practices. HPV-related tumours are mainly found in the oropharynx, are more associated to a local lymph node invasion and display a poorly differentiated morphology. Despite these more aggressive features, HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinomas correlate with an improved local control, disease-free and global survival. It is thought that HPV-driven specific biologic abnormalities underlie higher tumour sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiations. The expression of the HPV E6 and E7 onco-proteins induce cell transformation by interfering with cell signalling pathways involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, angiogenesis and induce the overexpression of the CDKN2A gene. Therefore, alternative treatments based on therapies targeting these pathways in combination with radiation dose de-escalation could be proposed to HPV-positive patients, if they are properly and reliably identified. (authors)

  14. Synthesis of the highly selective p38 MAPK inhibitor UR-13756 for possible therapeutic use in Werner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Mark C; Davis, Terence; Rokicki, Michal J; Widdowson, Caroline S; Kipling, David

    2010-02-01

    UR-13756 is a potent and selective p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, reported to have good bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties and, thus, is of potential use in the treatment of accelerated aging in Werner syndrome. Irradiation of 2-chloroacrylonitrile and methylhydrazine in ethanol at 100 °C gives 1-methyl-3-aminopyrazole, which reacts with 4-fluorobenzaldehyde and a ketone, obtained by Claisen condensation of 4-picoline, in a Hantzsch-type 3-component hereocyclocondensation, to give the pyrazolopyridine UR-13756. UR-13756 shows p38 MAPK inhibitory activity in human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized HCA2 dermal fibroblasts, with an IC(50) of 80 nm, as shown by ELISA, is 100% efficacious for up to 24 h at 1.0 μm and displays excellent kinase selectivity over the related stress-activated c-Jun kinases. In addition, UR-13756 is an effective p38 inhibitor at 1.0 μm in Werner syndrome cells, as shown by immunoblot. The convergent synthesis of UR-13756 is realized using microwave dielectric heating and provides a highly selective inhibitor that shows excellent selectivity for p38 MAPK over c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

  15. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  16. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  17. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  18. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS. 1059. Radhakrishna M see Dev Sheena V .... Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic. Certainty Factor ... index via entropy-difference analysis. 687. Yidana Sandow ...

  19. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  20. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  1. A Comparison of body mass index and daily step numbers of secondary school and high school students according to age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Saygın

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare the body mass index and daily steps number of secondary and high school students in Mugla region according to age and gender. Material and Methods: A total of 1851 volunteer students (682 secondary school students and 1169 high school students participated in this study. Physical activity level was determined by measuring daily step numbers of students with a pedometer. Body mass index (kg/m2 was calculated by utilizing from height and weight measurements in order to find body composition. Acquired data was recorded in SPSS (18.0 program. In order to find a difference in body composition and physical activity level between gender, Independent t-test was applied. One-way Anova was applied in order to find the differences among ages. Tukey HSD Analysis was used to find from which age the difference stemmed from. Frequencies and percentages values were calculated to assess the number of daily steps and body mass index standards, and chi-square analysis was used to find differences according to sex. Results: As a result of the statistical analyse; statistically significant difference was found in the physical activity level of secondary school students, it was also found both high school student’s body composition and physical activity levels of high school students according to gender (p<0.05. While the body mass index values of both male and female students tend to increase with age, the physical activity level of both students tends to decrease with age. Statistically, a significant difference was found when the daily step count standards were compared by sex (X2=23.999 p=0.000. It was found that 65.91% (n=698 of the female students and 49.87% (n=395 of the male students were below the normal values of the daily step counts. Statistically, a significant difference was found when the body mass index standards were compared by sex (X2=15.702, p=0.000. It was seen that 16.90% of female students (n=179

  2. Causes of failure to achieve the low density lipoprotein cholesterol therapeutic target in patients with high and very high vascular risk controlled in Lipid and Vascular Risk Units. EROMOT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Clotilde; Plana, Núria; Arnau, Anna; Matas, Laia; Mauri, Marta; Vila, Àlex; Vila, Lluís; Soler, Cristina; Montesinos, Jesús; Masana, Lluís; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    Determination of the level of achievement of the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) therapeutic target in patients with high and very high vascular risk treated in Lipid Units, as well as the causes of non-achievement. Multicentre retrospective observational study that included patients over 18 years with high and very high vascular risk, according to the criteria of the 2012 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, referred consecutively to Lipid Units between January and June 2012 and with follow-up two years after the first visit. The study included a total of 243 patients from 16 lipid units. The mean age was 52.2 years (SD 13.7), of whom 62.6% were males, and 40.3% of them were very high risk. At the first visit, 86.8% (25.1% in combination) and 95.0% (47.3% in combination) in the second visit (P<.001) were treated with lipid-lowering treatment. The therapeutic target was achieved by 28% (95 CI: 22.4-34.1). As regards the causes of non-achievement, 24.6% were related to the medication (10.3% maximum tolerated dose and 10.9% due to the appearance of adverse effects), 43.4% due to the physician (19.4% by inertia, 13.7% considering that target already reached), and 46.9% due to the patient, highlighting the therapeutic non-compliance (31,4%). LDL-C targets were achieved in about one-third of patients. The low adherence of the patient, followed by medical inertia are the most frequent causes that can explain these results. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Redefining high-risk patients with stage II colon cancer by risk index and microRNA-21: results from a population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T F; Kjær-Frifeldt, S; Christensen, R D

    2014-01-01

    Background:The aim of the present study was to analyse the prognostic value of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21) in patients with stage II colon cancer aiming at a risk index for this group of patients.Methods:A population-based cohort of 554 patients was included. MicroRNA-21 was analysed by qPCR based...... on tumour tissue. An index was created using the coefficients obtained from a collective multiple Cox regression. The entire procedure was cross-validated (10-fold). The performance of the index was quantified by time-dependent receiver operating characteristics curves.Results:High miRNA-21 expression...... was associated with an unfavourable recurrence-free cancer-specific survival (RF-CSS), hazard ratio 1.35 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.76) (P=0.028). The generated RF-CSS index divided the traditional high-risk patients into subgroups with 5-year RF-CSS rates of 87% and 73%, respectively (P...

  4. Triglyceride-to-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio is an index of heart disease mortality and of incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Gloria Lena; Barlow, Carolyn E; Grundy, Scott M; Leonard, David; DeFina, Laura F

    2014-02-01

    High triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) impart risk for heart disease. This study examines the relationships of TG/HDL-C ratio to mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease (CHD), or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Survival analysis was done in 39,447 men grouped by TG/HDL-C ratio cut point of 3.5 and for metabolic syndrome. National Death Index International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 and ICD-10) codes were used for CVD and CHD deaths occurring from 1970 to 2008. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) according to ratio was estimated in 22,215 men. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and cross-product of TG and fasting blood glucose (TyG index) were used in analysis. Men were followed up for 581,194 person-years. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicted CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality after adjustment for established risk factors and non-HDL-C. Mortality rates were higher in individuals with a high ratio than in those with a low ratio. Fifty-five percent of men had metabolic syndrome that was also predictive of CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality. Annual incidence of DM was 2 times higher in men with high TG/HDL-C ratio than in those with a low ratio. Individuals with high TG/HDL-C ratio had a higher incidence of DM than those with a low ratio. The TyG index was not equally predictive of causes of mortality to TG/HDL-C, but both were equally predictive of diabetes incidence. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicts CHD and CVD mortality as well as or better than do metabolic syndrome in men. Also, a high ratio predisposes to DM. The TyG index does not predict CHD, CVD, or all-cause mortality equally well, but like TG/HDL-C ratio, it predicts DM incidence.

  5. Optimization of scAAVIL-1ra In Vitro and In Vivo to Deliver High Levels of Therapeutic Protein for Treatment of Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie R Goodrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA affects over 40 million people annually. We evaluated interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra gene transfer in an equine model based on IL-1ra protein therapy which inhibits inflammation through blocking IL-1. Using the self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAVIL-1ra equine gene as a starting construct, we optimized the transgene cassette by analyzing promoters (cytomegalovirus (CMV versus chicken β-actin hybrid (CBh, coding sequences (optimized versus unoptimized, vector capsid (serotype 2 versus chimeric capsid, and biological activity in vitro. AAV serotypes 2 and 2.5 CMV scAAVoptIL-1ra were tested in equine joints. We evaluated two doses of scAAVIL-1ra, scAAVGFP, and saline. We developed a novel endoscopy procedure and confirmed vector-derived transgene expression (GFP in chondrocytes 6 months post-injection. AAVIL-1ra therapeutic protein levels were 200–800 ng/ml of synovial fluid over 23 and 186 days, respectively. No evidence of intra-articular toxicity was detected and no vector genomes were found in contralateral joints based on GFP fluorescence microscopy and quantitative PCR. Finally, we assayed vector-derived IL-1ra activity based on functional assays which supported anti-inflammatory activity of our protein. These studies represent the first large animal intra-articular gene transfer approach with a therapeutic gene using scAAV and demonstrate high levels of protein production over extended time supporting further clinical investigation using scAAV gene therapy for OA.

  6. Therapeutic role of ursolic acid on ameliorating hepatic steatosis and improving metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songtao; Liao, Xilu; Meng, Fanyu; Wang, Yemei; Sun, Zongxiang; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Meng, Man; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases around the world, and is closely associated with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. Ursolic acid (UA), an ubiquitous triterpenoid with multifold biological roles, is distributed in various plants. This study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanisms of UA against hepatic steatosis in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rat model. Obese NAFLD model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by 8-week HFD feeding. Therapeutic role of UA was evaluated using 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% UA-supplemented diet for another 6 weeks. The results from both morphologic and histological detections indicated that UA significantly reversed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and liver injury. Besides, hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α was markedly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels by UA. Knocking down PPAR-α significantly inhibited the anti-steatosis role of UA in vitro. HFD-induced adverse changes in the key genes, which participated in hepatic lipid metabolism, were also alleviated by UA treatment. Furthermore, UA significantly ameliorated HFD-induced metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. These results demonstrated that UA effectively ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis through a PPAR-α involved pathway, via improving key enzymes in the controlling of lipids metabolism. The metabolic disorders were accordingly improved with the decrease of hepatic steatosis. Thereby, UA could be a promising candidate for the treatment of NAFLD.

  7. Therapeutic role of ursolic acid on ameliorating hepatic steatosis and improving metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most prevalent liver diseases around the world, and is closely associated with obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. Ursolic acid (UA, an ubiquitous triterpenoid with multifold biological roles, is distributed in various plants. This study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanisms of UA against hepatic steatosis in a high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD rat model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese NAFLD model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by 8-week HFD feeding. Therapeutic role of UA was evaluated using 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5% UA-supplemented diet for another 6 weeks. The results from both morphologic and histological detections indicated that UA significantly reversed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and liver injury. Besides, hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-α was markedly up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels by UA. Knocking down PPAR-α significantly inhibited the anti-steatosis role of UA in vitro. HFD-induced adverse changes in the key genes, which participated in hepatic lipid metabolism, were also alleviated by UA treatment. Furthermore, UA significantly ameliorated HFD-induced metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrated that UA effectively ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis through a PPAR-α involved pathway, via improving key enzymes in the controlling of lipids metabolism. The metabolic disorders were accordingly improved with the decrease of hepatic steatosis. Thereby, UA could be a promising candidate for the treatment of NAFLD.

  8. Jet formation and shock wave emission during collapse of ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles and their role in the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brujan, E A; Ikeda, T; Matsumoto, Y

    2005-10-21

    The dynamics of inertial cavitation bubbles produced by short pulses of high-intensity focused ultrasound near a rigid boundary are studied to get a better understanding of the role of jet formation and shock wave emission during bubble collapse in the therapeutic applications of ultrasound. The bubble dynamics are investigated by high-speed photography with up to 2 million frames/s and acoustic measurements, as well as by numerical calculations. The significant parameter of this study is the dimensionless stand-off, gamma, which is defined as the distance of the bubble centre at its maximum expansion scaled by the maximum bubble radius. High-speed photography is applied to observe the bubble motion and the velocity of the liquid jet formed during bubble collapse. Hydrophone measurements are used to determine the pressure and the duration of the shock wave emitted during bubble rebound. Calculations yield the variation with time of the bubble wall, the maximum velocity and the kinetic energy of the re-entrant jet. The comparisons between experimental and numerical data are favourable with regard to both shape history and translational motion of the bubble. The acoustic energy constitutes the largest individual amount in the energy balance of bubble collapse. The ratio of the shock wave energy, measured at 10 mm from the emission centre, to the cavitation bubble energy was 1:2.4 at gamma = 1.55 and 1:3.5 at gamma = 1. At this distance, the shock wave pressure ranges from 0.122 MPa, at gamma = 1, to 0.162 MPa, at gamma = 1.55, and the temporal duration at the half maximum level is 87 ns. The maximum jet velocity ranges from 27 m s(-1), at gamma = 1, to 36 m s(-1), at gamma = 1.55. For gamma < 1.2, the re-entrant jet can generate an impact pressure on the nearby boundary larger than 50 MPa. We discuss the implications of the results for the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound.

  9. Jet formation and shock wave emission during collapse of ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles and their role in the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brujan, E A; Ikeda, T; Matsumoto, Y

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of inertial cavitation bubbles produced by short pulses of high-intensity focused ultrasound near a rigid boundary are studied to get a better understanding of the role of jet formation and shock wave emission during bubble collapse in the therapeutic applications of ultrasound. The bubble dynamics are investigated by high-speed photography with up to 2 million frames/s and acoustic measurements, as well as by numerical calculations. The significant parameter of this study is the dimensionless stand-off, γ, which is defined as the distance of the bubble centre at its maximum expansion scaled by the maximum bubble radius. High-speed photography is applied to observe the bubble motion and the velocity of the liquid jet formed during bubble collapse. Hydrophone measurements are used to determine the pressure and the duration of the shock wave emitted during bubble rebound. Calculations yield the variation with time of the bubble wall, the maximum velocity and the kinetic energy of the re-entrant jet. The comparisons between experimental and numerical data are favourable with regard to both shape history and translational motion of the bubble. The acoustic energy constitutes the largest individual amount in the energy balance of bubble collapse. The ratio of the shock wave energy, measured at 10 mm from the emission centre, to the cavitation bubble energy was 1:2.4 at γ = 1.55 and 1:3.5 at γ = 1. At this distance, the shock wave pressure ranges from 0.122 MPa, at γ = 1, to 0.162 MPa, at γ 1.55, and the temporal duration at the half maximum level is 87 ns. The maximum jet velocity ranges from 27 m s -1 , at γ = 1, to 36 m s -1 , at γ = 1.55. For γ < 1.2, the re-entrant jet can generate an impact pressure on the nearby boundary larger than 50 MPa. We discuss the implications of the results for the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound

  10. Implementation of nanoparticles in therapeutic radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Erik; Gabani, Prashant; Singh, Om V.

    2017-05-01

    Development and progress of cancer is a very complex disease process to comprehend because of the multiple changes in cellular physiology, pathology, and pathophysiology resulting from the numerous genetic changes from which cancer originates. As a result, most common treatments are not directed at the molecular level but rather at the tissue level. While personalized care is becoming an increasingly aim, the most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery, each of which has a high likelihood of resulting in rather severe adverse side effects. For example, currently used radiation therapy does not discriminate between normal and cancerous cells and greatly relies on the external targeting of the radiation beams to specific cells and organs. Because of this, there is an immediate need for the development of new and innovative technologies that help to differentiate tumor cells and micrometastases from normal cells and facilitate the complete destruction of those cells. Recent advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology have paved a way for the development of nanoparticles (NPs) as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery, and improve the therapeutic index of radiation and tumor response to the treatment. The application of NPs in radiation therapy has aimed to improve outcomes in radiation therapy by increasing therapeutic effect in tumors and reducing toxicity on normal tissues. Because NPs possess unique properties, such as preferential accumulation in tumors and minimal uptake in normal tissues, it makes them ideal for the delivery of radiotherapy. This review provides an overview of the recent development of NPs for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment for a variety of cancers in radiation oncology.

  11. A comparison of low-carbohydrate vs. high-carbohydrate diets: energy restriction, nutrient quality and correlation to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shanthy A; Spence, Joseph T

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate free-living adults' diets that ranged from very low to high amounts of carbohydrate for their energy content, nutritional quality and correlation to Body Mass Index. Adults ages 19 years and older, who had complete dietary intake data on day-1 of the USDA's 1994 to 1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII 1994-1996), were divided into four groups--very low, low, moderate and high carbohydrate--based on the percent total energy from carbohydrate. Mean energy, nutrient, food intakes and Body Mass Index values were compared among the groups. SUDAAN software package was used for the data analysis and pair-wise mean comparisons (p low-fat foods, grain products and fruits. This group also had the lowest sodium intake. Adults eating a high-carbohydrate diet are more likely to have Body Mass Index values below 25. A study of diets of free-living adults in the U.S. showed that diets high in carbohydrate were both energy restrictive and nutritious and may be adopted for successful weight management.

  12. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  13. Effect of Gamma-Oryzanol as Therapeutic Agent to Prevent Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome in Animals Submitted to High Sugar-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Valentini Francisqueti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high consumption of fat and sugar contributes to the development of obesity and co-morbidities, such as diabetes, and cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Different strategies have been used to prevent these diseases associated with obesity, such as changes in eating habits and/or the addition of dietary components with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, such as gamma-oryzanol (γOz present mainly in bran layers and rice germ. Methods: Animals were randomly divided into four experimental groups and fed ad libitum for 20 weeks with control diet (C, n = 8, control diet + γOz (C + γOz, n = 8, high-sugar and high-fat diet (HSF, n = 8, and high-sugar and high-fat diet + γOz (HSF + γOz, n = 8. HSF groups also received water + sucrose (25%. The dose of γOz was added to diets to reach 0.5% of final concentration (w/w. Evaluation in animals included food and caloric intake, body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid, HOMA-IR, glomerular filtration rate, protein/creatinine ratio, systolic blood pressure, and Doppler echocardiographic. Results: Animals that consumed the HSF diet had weight gain compared to group C, increased insulin, HOMA, glucose and triglycerides, there were also atrial and ventricular structural alterations, deterioration of systolic and diastolic function, decreased glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria. Gamma-oryzanol is significantly protective against effects on body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, renal damage, and against structural and functional alteration of the heart. Conclusion: Gamma-oryzanol shows potential as a therapeutic to prevent Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome.

  14. Effector T-cells are expanded in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with high disease activity and damage indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, S; Regola, F; Zanola, A; Andreoli, L; Dall'Ara, F; Tincani, A; Airo', P

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives T-cell activation may be one of the pathogenic mechanisms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). After repeated antigenic stimulation, T-cells undergo different modifications, leading to the differentiation into effector memory T-cells (CCR7-CD45RA-) and terminally differentiated effector memory (TDEM) T-cells (CCR7-CD45RA+). Similarly, down-modulation of CD28 may lead to the expansion of the CD28- T-cells, a subpopulation with peculiar effector activities. The aim of this study was the characterization of T-cell phenotype in a cohort of patients with SLE according to disease activity and damage index. Materials and methods Phenotypic analysis of peripheral blood T lymphocytes of 51 SLE patients and 21 healthy controls was done by flow-cytometry. SLE disease activity was evaluated by SLE Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and damage by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI). The variations between different groups were evaluated by Mann-Whitney test. Bonferroni correction was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons ( p adj ). Spearman rank test was used to evaluate the correlations between quantitative variables. Results CD4+ lymphopenia was found among SLE patients. Patients showed a trend for a higher percentage of TDEM among the CD4+ T-cell subpopulation in comparison with healthy controls ( p = .04). SLE patients were divided into two groups according to disease activity: patients with SLEDAI-2K ≥ 6 ( n = 13) had a higher percentage of circulating CD4+ T-cells with CD28- phenotype ( p adj  = .005) as well as those with an effector memory ( p adj  = .004) and TDEM ( p adj  = .002) phenotype and a trend of decrease of regulatory T-cells (TREGs) ( p = .02), in comparison with patients with low disease activity ( n = 38). Patients with damage (SDI ≥ 1) tended to show an expansion of TDEM among CD4+ T-cells as compared with

  15. Broadband IR polarizing beam splitter using a subwavelength-structured one-dimensional photonic-crystal layer embedded in a high-index prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanfar, H K; Azzam, R M A

    2009-09-20

    An iterative procedure for the design of a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) that uses a form-birefringent, subwavelength-structured, one-dimensional photonic-crystal layer (SWS 1-D PCL) embedded in a high-index cubical prism is presented. The PBS is based on index matching and total transmission for the p polarization and total internal reflection for the s polarization at the prism-PCL interface at 45 degrees angle of incidence. A high extinction ratio in reflection (>50 dB) over the 4-12 microm IR spectral range is achieved using a SWS 1-D PCL of ZnTe embedded in a ZnS cube within an external field of view of +/-6.6 degrees and in the presence of grating filling factor errors of up to +/-10%. Comparable results, but with wider field of view, are also obtained with a Ge PCL embedded in a Si prism.

  16. Predicting success of high-flow nasal cannula in pneumonia patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure: The utility of the ROX index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Oriol; Messika, Jonathan; Caralt, Berta; García-de-Acilu, Marina; Sztrymf, Benjamin; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Masclans, Joan R

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe early predictors and to develop a prediction tool that accurately identifies the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) in pneumonia patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF) treated with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). This is a 4-year prospective observational 2-center cohort study including patients with severe pneumonia treated with HFNC. High-flow nasal cannula failure was defined as need for MV. ROX index was defined as the ratio of pulse oximetry/fraction of inspired oxygen to respiratory rate. One hundred fifty-seven patients were included, of whom 44 (28.0%) eventually required MV (HFNC failure). After 12 hours of HFNC treatment, the ROX index demonstrated the best prediction accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.74 [95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.84]; Pfailure in whom therapy can be continued after 12 hours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Develop Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing Process of ZrO2 Nanocrystals/Acrylic Nanocomposites for High Refractive Index Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Pooran C [ORNL; Compton, Brett G [ORNL; Li, Jianlin [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to develop and evaluate ZrO2/acrylic nanocomposite coatings for integrated optoelectronic applications. The formulations engineered to be compatible with roll-to-roll process were evaluated in terms of optical and dielectric properties. The uniform distribution of the ZrO2 nanocrystals in the polymer matrix resulted in highly tunable refractive index and dielectric response suitable for advanced photonic and electronic device applications.

  18. Physical Therapists in Primary Care Are Interested in High Quality Evidence Regarding Efficacy of Therapeutic Ultrasound for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Provincial Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma J. MacIntyre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent high-level evidence favours therapeutic ultrasound (US for reducing pain in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA. It is unknown how current practice patterns align with current evidence regarding US efficacy and whether physical therapists perceive a need for further high-level evidence. We conducted a descriptive electronic survey to characterize the beliefs and use of US among physical therapists in Ontario treating people with nonsurgical knee OA. Most of the 123 respondents (81% reported at least some use of US with 45% using it often or sometimes. The main goal for using US was to reduce pain in the surrounding soft tissue (n=66 and/or the knee joint (n=43. Almost half (46% endorsed the belief that US is likely to be beneficial for clients with nonsurgical knee OA. Most respondents (85% expressed interest in the results of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of US on pain and physical function. Patterns of use reflect the respondents’ belief that US is likely to be beneficial for knee OA pain.

  19. Should high risk patients with Hodgkin's disease be singled out for heavier therapeutic regimens while low risk patients are spared such therapies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, D

    1995-01-01

    In order to optimize the use of intensive therapy and autologous transplantation in patients with progressive Hodgkin's disease, we have examined the outcome of our initial 100 patients entered into autograft studies between 1985 and 1992. At a median follow-up of 3.6 (range 1.6-8.2) years, the actuarial progression free survival (PFS) was 46% (95% confidence intervals 33%-57%). The most significant determinant of PFS was the disease status at the time of protocol entry. Patients entered into transplant studies at the time of first untested relapse had a PFS of 61% compared with 38% in those who had failed induction chemotherapy, 25% in patients treated in > or = second untested relapse and 0% in those in a chemoresistant relapse. The reasons for failure differed, however, in that a high non-relapse mortality was seen in the > or = second untested relapse and resistant relapse groups while a high probability of relapse was observed in the induction failures and resistant relapse group. The most obvious group to target with more intensive therapeutic regimens consists of patients who have failed induction chemotherapy.

  20. More controlling child-feeding practices are found among parents of boys with an average body mass index compared with parents of boys with a high body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, Lynn S; Skinner, Jean D

    2005-09-01

    To determine if differences existed in mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their sons' weight, controlling child-feeding practices (ie, restriction, monitoring, and pressure to eat), and parenting styles (ie, authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) by their sons' body mass index (BMI). One person (L.S.B.) interviewed mothers and boys using validated questionnaires and measured boys' weight and height; fathers completed questionnaires independently. Subjects were white, preadolescent boys and their parents. Boys were grouped by their BMI into an average BMI group (n=25; BMI percentile between 33rd and 68th) and a high BMI group (n=24; BMI percentile > or = 85th). Multivariate analyses of variance and analyses of variance. Mothers and fathers of boys with a high BMI saw their sons as more overweight (mothers P=.03, fathers P=.01), were more concerned about their sons' weight (Pfathers of boys with an average BMI (Pfathers of boys with a high BMI monitored their sons' eating less often than fathers of boys with an average BMI (P=.006). No differences were found in parenting by boys' BMI groups for either mothers or fathers. More controlling child-feeding practices were found among mothers (pressure to eat) and fathers (pressure to eat and monitoring) of boys with an average BMI compared with parents of boys with a high BMI. A better understanding of the relationships between feeding practices and boys' weight is necessary. However, longitudinal research is needed to provide evidence of causal association.

  1. Strain in epitaxial high-index Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(221) films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin [Physics Department, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Chen, Weiguang [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Zhengzhou Normal University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450044 (China); Guo, Xin; Ho, Wingkin [Physics Department, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Dai, Xianqi [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Zhengzhou Normal University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450044 (China); Jia, Jinfeng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xie, Maohai, E-mail: mhxie@hku.hk [Physics Department, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • High-index, off c-axis, Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. • A retarded strain relaxation process in such high-index Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is observed, enabling experimentally probe strain effect on topological insulators. • It has been shown by calculation that the Dirac electrons participate in chemical bonding at the heterointerface. - Abstract: High-index Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(221) film has been grown on In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-buffered GaAs(001), in which a much retarded strain relaxation dynamics is recorded. The slow strain-relaxation process of in epitaxial Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}(221) can be attributed to the layered structure of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystal, where the epifilm grown along [221] is like a pile of weakly-coupled quintuple layer slabs stacked side-by-side on substrate. Finally, we reveal strong chemical bonding at the interface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} by plotting differential charge contour calculated by first-principle method. This study points to the feasibility of achieving strained TIs for manipulating the properties of topological systems.

  2. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  3. Waist-to-height ratio: an accurate anthropometric index of abdominal adiposity and a predictor of high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Inês Barreto; Lemos, Carla Cavalheiro da Silva; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Bregman, Rachel

    2014-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance (IR), mainly when associated with obesity and characterized by high abdominal adiposity (AbAd). Anthropometric measures are recommended for assessing AbAd in clinical settings, but their accuracies need to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of different anthropometric measures of AbAd in patients with CKD. We also sought to determine the AbAd association with high homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and the cutoff point for AbAd index to predict high HOMA-IR values. A subset of clinically stable nondialyzed patients with CKD followed at a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The accuracy of the following anthropometric indices: waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, conicity index and waist-to-height ratio (WheiR) to assess AbAd, was evaluated using trunk fat, by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), as a reference method. HOMA-IR was estimated to stratify patients in high and low HOMA-IR groups. The total area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC-ROC; sensitivity/specificity) was calculated: AbAd with high HOMA-IR values (95% confidence interval [CI]). We studied 134 patients (55% males; 54% overweight/obese, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), age 64.9 ± 12.5 y, estimated glomerular filtration rate 29.0 ± 12.7 mL/min). Among studied AbAd indices, WheiR was the only one to show correlation with DXA trunk fat after adjusting for confounders (P HOMA-IR values (r = 0.47; P HOMA-IR values was 0.55 (AUC-ROC = 0.69 ± 0.05; 95% CI, 0.60-0.77; sensitivity/specificity, 68.9/61.9). WheiR is recommended as an effective and precise anthropometric index to assess AbAd and to predict high HOMA-IR values in nondialyzed patients with CKD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.

  5. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    automorphic solutions to fractional order abstract integro-differential equations. 323. Afrouzi G A see Ala Samira ... 521. Agarwal Praveen. Certain fractional integral operators and the generalized multi-index Mittag- ... of positive solutions for sys- tems of second order multi-point bound- ary value problems on time scales 353.

  6. Should we monitor with bispectral index in all patients at high risk for seizures in the operating room?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, M F; Vega, P; Lema, G; Clede, L

    2013-10-01

    We report the case of a patient with a cerebral aneurysm, located in the left middle cerebral artery. During the clipping of this aneurysm, the bispectral index (BIS) increased for no apparent reason. This was then interpreted as intraoperative non-convulsive status epilepticus. This clinical condition may have negative impact in the prognosis of the patient, so it is very important to be able to detect this conditions as early as possible. Measuring the BIS while the patient is anaesthetised could be useful in this situation, considering that an increase in values greater than 60, associated with acidosis and without any other peri-anaesthetic explanation, may provide evidence of a convulsive equivalent state, allowing appropriate action to be taken. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. AN EXPLORATION OF THE IMPACT FACTOR OF BRAZILIAN PUBLICATIONS IN INDEXED JOURNALS ON HOMEOPATHY AND HIGH DILUTIONS APPLIED IN PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyse SANTOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing concerns about toxicity residues in agricultural products have stimulated an increased interest in new agricultural strategies. While considering new strategies, the question arises if homeopathic preparations could be of use in plants. Homeopathy was born as an experimental discipline, and, generally, plants are able to react to homeopathic substances. In this paper, we conduct an up-to-date review of the existing in literature on Brazilian basic research in homeopathy applied in plants and agroecosystems to raise the profiles of Brazilian publications, according QUALIS methods and H index of Journals. The results of this research are useful not only for those who are interested in the homeopathy itself, but also to analyze the expanding that through experiments attending mainly agroecological production, aimed at improving on the level of publications.

  8. High trait aggression in men is associated with low 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4 receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    of 5-HT, we here test the hypothesis in healthy men and women that brain 5-HT levels, as indexed by cerebral 5-HT4R, are inversely correlated with trait aggression and impulsivity. Sixty-one individuals (47 men) underwent positron emission tomography scanning with the radioligand [(11)C]SB207145......Impulsive aggression has commonly been associated with a dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system: many, but not all, studies point to an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression. As cerebral 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) binding has recently been recognized as a proxy for stable brain levels...... for quantification of brain 5-HT4R binding. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were used for assessment of trait aggression and trait impulsivity. Among male subjects, there was a positive correlation between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ total score (P = 0.037) as well...

  9. The refractive index distributions of KTP crystal waveguides formed with He-ions at high fluences and low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Jiao-Jian; Lu, Fei; Ming, Xian-Bing; Ma, Yu-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The 300 keV He + ions have been implanted into z-cut KTP crystals with fluences of 4 × 10 16 , 6 × 10 16 , 8 × 10 16 and 10 × 10 16 ions/cm 2 . The Rutherford back scattering spectrometry (RBS)/channelling spectra of KTP crystals and the dark-mode spectrum have been measured. According to the multiple scattering formulae of Feldman and Rodgers, the damage profiles of z-cut KTP crystals have been calculated and extracted. The relations between the damage ratio, fluence and the ion-implanted depth have been established. The refractive index profiles over depth have been calculated, which are very close to the real distribution in waveguide

  10. Race for novel high-index all-dielectric and hybrid metal-dielectric nanophotonic materials: Pit-stop optical tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Ivanova, A. K.; Kudryavtseva, A. D.; Tchiernega, N. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Kuchmizhak, A. A.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic dipolar Mie-resonance of nanodiamonds supports their highly-efficient stimulated low-frequency Raman scattering via nanosecond laser excitation of their fundamental breathing mode, with strong additional plasmonic enhancement of the Raman conversion efficiency upon ablative capping of the resonant nanodiamond core by a silver nanoshell with a broad overlapping electrical dipolar Mie-resonance. Also, crystalline selenium nanoparticles, exhibiting the high refractive index in the visible/near-IR ranges, were demonstrated as promising all-dielectric sensing building nanoblocks in nanophotonics.

  11. Application of A Physiological Strain Index in Evaluating Responses to Exercise Stress – A Comparison Between Endurance and High Intensity Intermittent Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokora Ilona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated differences in response to exercise stress between endurance and high-intensity intermittent trained athletes in a thermoneutral environment using a physiological strain index (PSI. Thirty-two subjects participated in a running exercise under normal (23°C, 50% RH conditions. The group included nine endurance trained athletes (middle-distance runners - MD, twelve high-intensity intermittent trained athletes (soccer players - HIIT and eleven students who constituted a control group. The exercise started at a speed of 4 km·h–1 which was increased every 3 min by 2 km·h–1 to volitional exhaustion. The heart rate was recorded with a heart rate monitor and aural canal temperature was measured using an aural canal temperature probe. The physiological strain index (PSI and the contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the overall physiological strain were calculated from the heart rate and aural canal temperature. The physiological strain index differed between the study and control participants, but not between the MD and HIIT groups. The physiological strain in response to exercise stress in a thermoneutral environment was mainly determined based on the circulatory strain (MD group - 73%, HIIT group – 70%. The contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the physiological strain did not differ significantly between the trained groups (MD and HIIT despite important differences in morphological characteristics and training-induced systemic cardiovascular and thermoregulatory adaptations.

  12. Quantification of imatinib in human serum: validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Vinicius Marcondes; Rivellis, Ariane; Novaes, Mafalda Megumi Yoshinaga; de Alencar Fisher Chamone, Dalton; Bendit, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate has been a breakthrough treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia. It has become the ideal tyrosine kinase inhibitor and the standard treatment for chronic-phase leukemia. Striking results have recently been reported, but intolerance to imatinib and noncompliance with treatment remain to be solved. Molecular monitoring by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is the gold standard for monitoring patients, and imatinib blood levels have also become an important tool for monitoring. A fast and cheap method was developed and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantification of imatinib in human serum and tamsulosin as the internal standard. Remarkable advantages of the method includes use of serum instead of plasma, less time spent on processing and analysis, simpler procedures, and requiring reduced amounts of biological material, solvents, and reagents. Stability of the analyte was also studied. This research also intended to drive the validation scheme in clinical centers. The method was validated according to the requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency within the range of 0.500-10.0 μg/mL with a limit of detection of 0.155 μg/mL. Stability data for the analyte are also presented. Given that the validated method has proved to be linear, accurate, precise, and robust, it is suitable for pharmacokinetic assays, such as bioavailability and bioequivalence, and is being successfully applied in routine therapeutic drug monitoring in the hospital service.

  13. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R is a highly effective general therapeutic for undifferentiated soft tissue sarcoma patient-derived orthotopic xenograft nude-mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Miyake, Kentaro; Miyake, Masuyo; Singh, Arun S; Eckardt, Mark A; Nelson, Scott D; Russell, Tara A; Dry, Sarah M; Li, Yunfeng; Yamamoto, Norio; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kimura, Hiroaki; Miwa, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Singh, Shree Ram; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-03-18

    Undifferentiated soft tissue sarcoma (USTS) is a recalcitrant and heterogeneous subgroup of soft tissue sarcoma with high risk of metastasis and recurrence. Due to heterogeneity of USTS, there is no reliably effective first-line therapy. We have generated tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R), which previously showed strong efficacy on single patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) models of Ewing's sarcoma and follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. In the present study, tumor resected from 4 patients with a biopsy-proven USTS (2 undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma [UPS], 1 undifferentiated sarcoma not otherwise specified [NOS] and 1 undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma [USS]) were grown orthotopically in the biceps femoris muscle of mice to establish PDOX models. One USS model and one UPS model were doxorubicin (DOX) resistant. One UPS and the NOS model were partially sensitive to DOX. DOX is first-line therapy for these diseases. S. typhimurium A1-R arrested tumor growth all 4 models. In addition to arresting tumor growth in each case, S. typhimurium A1-R was significantly more efficacious than DOX in each case, thereby surpassing first-line therapy. These results suggest that S. typhimurium A1-R can be a general therapeutic for USTS and possibly sarcoma in general. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. IMM-H007, a new therapeutic candidate for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, improves hepatic steatosis in hamsters fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huijie; Wang, Qingchun; Yang, Liu; Xie, Shouxia; Zhu, Haibo

    2017-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease in humans, is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerols (TGs) in hepatocytes. We tested whether 2',3',5'-tri-acetyl-N6-(3-hydroxylaniline) adenosine (IMM-H007) can eliminate hepatic steatosis in hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD), as a model of NAFLD. Compared with HFD-only controls, IMM-H007 treatment significantly lowered serum levels of TG, total cholesterol, and free fatty acids (FFAs) in hamsters fed the HFD, with a prominent decrease in levels of serum transaminases and fasting insulin, without affecting fasting glucose levels. Moreover, 1 H-MRI and histopathological analyses revealed that hepatic lipid accumulation and fibrosis were improved by IMM-H007 treatment. These changes were accompanied by improvement of insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and attenuation of inflammation. IMM-H007 reduced expression of proteins involved in uptake of hepatic fatty acids and lipogenesis, and increased very low density lipoprotein secretion and expression of proteins responsible for fatty acid oxidation and autophagy. In studies in vivo , IMM-H007 inhibited fatty acid import into hepatocytes and liver lipogenesis, and concomitantly stimulated fatty acid oxidation, autophagy, and export of hepatic lipids. These data suggest that IMM-H007 resolves hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed hamsters by the regulation of lipid metabolism. Thus, IMM-H007 has therapeutic potential for NAFLD.

  15. Application of a high-throughput relative chemical stability assay to screen therapeutic protein formulations by assessment of conformational stability and correlation to aggregation propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Joseph M; Shi, Shuai; Li, Yunsong; Semple, Andrew; Esposito, Jessica J; Yu, Shenjiang; Richardson, Daisy; Antochshuk, Valentyn; Shameem, Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    In this study, an automated high-throughput relative chemical stability (RCS) assay was developed in which various therapeutic proteins were assessed to determine stability based on the resistance to denaturation post introduction to a chaotrope titration. Detection mechanisms of both intrinsic fluorescence and near UV circular dichroism (near-UV CD) are demonstrated. Assay robustness was investigated by comparing multiple independent assays and achieving r(2) values >0.95 for curve overlays. The complete reversibility of the assay was demonstrated by intrinsic fluorescence, near-UV CD, and biologic potency. To highlight the method utility, we compared the RCS assay with differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic scanning fluorimetry methodologies. Utilizing C1/2 values obtained from the RCS assay, formulation rank-ordering of 12 different mAb formulations was performed. The prediction of long-term stability on protein aggregation is obtained by demonstrating a good correlation with an r(2) of 0.83 between RCS and empirical aggregation propensity data. RCS promises to be an extremely useful tool to aid in candidate formulation development efforts based on the complete reversibility of the method to allow for multiple assessments without protein loss and the strong correlation between the C1/2 data obtained and accelerated stability under stressed conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Variation of High-Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound (HITU) Pressure Field Characterization: Effects of Hydrophone Choice, Nonlinearity, Spatial Averaging and Complex Deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbo; Wear, Keith A; Harris, Gerald R

    2017-10-01

    Reliable acoustic characterization is fundamental for patient safety and clinical efficacy during high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) treatment. Technical challenges, such as measurement variation and signal analysis, still exist for HITU exposimetry using ultrasound hydrophones. In this work, four hydrophones were compared for pressure measurement: a robust needle hydrophone, a small polyvinylidene fluoride capsule hydrophone and two fiberoptic hydrophones. The focal waveform and beam distribution of a single-element HITU transducer (1.05 MHz and 3.3 MHz) were evaluated. Complex deconvolution between the hydrophone voltage signal and frequency-dependent complex sensitivity was performed to obtain pressure waveforms. Compressional pressure (p + ), rarefactional pressure (p - ) and focal beam distribution were compared up to 10.6/-6.0 MPa (p + /p - ) (1.05 MHz) and 20.65/-7.20 MPa (3.3 MHz). The effects of spatial averaging, local non-linear distortion, complex deconvolution and hydrophone damage thresholds were investigated. This study showed a variation of no better than 10%-15% among hydrophones during HITU pressure characterization. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. A new supersymmetric index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecotti, S.; Fendley, P.; Intriligator, K.; Vafa, C.

    1992-01-01

    We show that Tr(-1) F F e -βH is an index for N = 2 supersymmetric theories in two dimensions, in the sense that it is independent of almost all deformations of the theory. This index is related to the geometry of the vacua (Berry's curvature) and satisfies an exact differential equation as a function of β. For integrable theories we can also compute the index thermodynamically, using the exact S-matrix. The equivalence of these two results implies a highly non-trivial equivalence of a set of coupled integral equations with these differential equations, among them Painleve III and the affine Toda equations. (orig.)

  18. Cross-Country Individual Participant Analysis of 4.1 Million Singleton Births in 5 Countries with Very High Human Development Index Confirms Known Associations but Provides No Biologic Explanation for 2/3 of All Preterm Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, David M; Larson, Jim; Jacobsson, Bo; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Norman, Jane E; Martin, James N; D'Alton, Mary; Castelazo, Ernesto; Howson, Chris P; Sengpiel, Verena; Bottai, Matteo; Mayo, Jonathan A; Shaw, Gary M; Verdenik, Ivan; Tul, Nataša; Velebil, Petr; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Rushwan, Hamid; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam; Howse, Jennifer L; Simpson, Joe Leigh

    2016-01-01

    mechanisms of preterm birth and, hence, therapeutic intervention. Surprisingly, variation in prevalence of known risk factors accounted for less than 35% of the difference in preterm birth rates between countries. Known risk factors had an area under the curve of less than 0.7 in ROC analysis of preterm birth prediction within countries. These data suggest that other influences, as yet unidentified, are involved in preterm birth. Further research into biological mechanisms is warranted. We have quantified the causes of variation in preterm birth rates among countries with very high human development index. The paucity of explicit and currently identified factors amenable to intervention illustrates the limited impact of changes possible through current clinical practice and policy interventions. Our research highlights the urgent need for research into underlying biological causes of preterm birth, which alone are likely to lead to innovative and efficacious interventions.

  19. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security.......The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...

  20. High intensity focused ultrasound treatment of adenomyosis: The relationship between the features of magnetic resonance imaging on T2 weighted images and the therapeutic efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Chunmei [State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Engineering in Medicine Co-founded by Chongqing and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound in Medicine and Engineering, Chongqing Haifu Hospital, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Setzen, Raymond [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg (South Africa); Liu, Zhongqiong; Liu, Yunchang [State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Engineering in Medicine Co-founded by Chongqing and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound in Medicine and Engineering, Chongqing Haifu Hospital, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xie, Bin [Department of Ultrasound, Huanggang Central Hospital, Huanggang City, Hubei 438000 (China); Aili, Aixingzi, E-mail: 1819483078@qq.com [Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Health Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Lian, E-mail: lianwzhang@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Engineering in Medicine Co-founded by Chongqing and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound in Medicine and Engineering, Chongqing Haifu Hospital, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2017-04-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the features of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on T2 weighted images (T2WI) and the therapeutic efficacy of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on adenomyosis. Materials and methods: From January 2011 to November 2015, four hundred and twenty-eight patients with symptomatic adenomyosis were treated with HIFU. Based on the signal intensity and the number of hyperintense foci in the adenomyotic lesions on T2WI, the patients were classified into groups. The day after HIFU ablation patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI and a comparison was made of non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio, energy efficiency factor (EEF), treatment time, sonication time, and adverse effects. Results: No significant difference in terms of HIFU treatment settings and results was observed between the group of patients with hypointense adenomyotic lesions and the group with isointense adenomyotic lesions (P > 0.05). However, the sonication time and EEF were significantly higher in the group with multiple hyperintense foci compared to the group with few hyperintense foci. The NPV ratio achieved in the lesions with multiple hyperintenese foci was significantly lower than that in the lesions with few hyperintense foci (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in the rate of adverse effects between the two groups. Conclusions: Based on our results, the response of the adenomyotic lesions to HIFU treatment is not related to the signal intensity of adenomyotic lesions on T2WI. However, the number of the high signal intensity foci in the adenomyotic lesions on T2WI can be considered as a predictive factor to help select patients for HIFU treatment.

  1. High intensity focused ultrasound treatment of adenomyosis: The relationship between the features of magnetic resonance imaging on T2 weighted images and the therapeutic efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Chunmei; Setzen, Raymond; Liu, Zhongqiong; Liu, Yunchang; Xie, Bin; Aili, Aixingzi; Zhang, Lian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the features of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on T2 weighted images (T2WI) and the therapeutic efficacy of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on adenomyosis. Materials and methods: From January 2011 to November 2015, four hundred and twenty-eight patients with symptomatic adenomyosis were treated with HIFU. Based on the signal intensity and the number of hyperintense foci in the adenomyotic lesions on T2WI, the patients were classified into groups. The day after HIFU ablation patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI and a comparison was made of non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio, energy efficiency factor (EEF), treatment time, sonication time, and adverse effects. Results: No significant difference in terms of HIFU treatment settings and results was observed between the group of patients with hypointense adenomyotic lesions and the group with isointense adenomyotic lesions (P > 0.05). However, the sonication time and EEF were significantly higher in the group with multiple hyperintense foci compared to the group with few hyperintense foci. The NPV ratio achieved in the lesions with multiple hyperintenese foci was significantly lower than that in the lesions with few hyperintense foci (P < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in the rate of adverse effects between the two groups. Conclusions: Based on our results, the response of the adenomyotic lesions to HIFU treatment is not related to the signal intensity of adenomyotic lesions on T2WI. However, the number of the high signal intensity foci in the adenomyotic lesions on T2WI can be considered as a predictive factor to help select patients for HIFU treatment.

  2. Textural analysis of pre-therapeutic [18F]-FET-PET and its correlation with tumor grade and patient survival in high-grade gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyka, Thomas; Hiob, Daniela; Wester, Hans-Juergen [Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Gempt, Jens; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard [Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, Neurosurgic Department, Munich (Germany); Schlegel, Juergen [Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Munich (Germany); Bette, Stefanie [Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, Neuroradiologic department, Munich (Germany); Foerster, Stefan [Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TU Muenchen, TUM Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Munich (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    hold in multivariate analysis. Determination of uptake heterogeneity in pre-therapeutic FET-PET using textural features proved valuable for the (sub-)grading of high-grade glioma as well as prediction of tumor progression and patient survival, and showed improved performance compared to standard parameters such as TBR and tumor volume. Our results underscore the importance of intratumoral heterogeneity in the biology of high-grade glial cell tumors and may contribute to individual therapy planning in the future, although they must be confirmed in prospective studies before incorporation into clinical routine. (orig.)

  3. Associations between high prepregnancy body mass index, breast-milk expression, and breast-milk production and feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Geraghty, Sheela R; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2011-03-01

    Breast-milk expression is widely practiced by American mothers, but little is known about who expresses milk, how expression affects breastfeeding, or whether overweight or obese women, who have less breastfeeding success than do normal-weight women, express milk differently. We investigated 1) whether breast-milk expression behavior differed by body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) category and 2) whether the different breastfeeding behaviors of overweight (BMI: ≥25 and obese (BMI: ≥30) women resulted in different breastfeeding outcomes. The subjects (n = 2288) provided information on BMI and breast-milk production, feeding, and expression in mail-in questionnaires as part of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Longitudinal and cross-sectional data were analyzed by using regression procedures adjusted for confounding. Women of different BMI categories overall did not differ in whether, when, or why they expressed breast milk. Before 2 mo postpartum, however, obese women were more likely (P = 0.04, unadjusted) to try milk expression and were less likely (P = 0.01, unadjusted) to express milk successfully. In addition, overweight or obesity was associated (P milk production only in women who never expressed milk. In overweight or obese women, those who ever expressed milk had longer durations of breastfeeding (P milk. Breast-milk expression behaviors may differ by maternal BMI category only in the early postpartum period. In addition, breast-milk expression may reduce differences between BMI categories in the duration of breastfeeding and support longer durations of breastfeeding.

  4. Increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with high visceral adiposity index in apparently healthy Korean adults: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-09-01

    The visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a mathematical tool that reflects a patient's visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have noted an association between VAI and cardiovascular event. We analyzed the association between VAI and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in Korean adults. For 33,468 participants (mean age 42 yrs) in a health screening program, VAI was calculated using the following formulae: [waist circumference (WC)/{39.68 + (1.88 * body mass index (BMI))}] * (triglyceride/1.03) * {1.31/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)} for men and [WC/{36.58 + (1.89 * BMI)}] * (triglyceride/0.81) * (1.52/HDL-C) for women. Coronary artery calcium scores were measured with multi-detector computed tomography. CACS was positively correlated with VAI (r = 0.027, p 0 as the dependent variable, subjects in the highest tertile of VAI (>1.777) had significantly increased odds ratio for CACS >0 compared to subjects in the lowest tertile (<0.967), even after adjusting for confounding variables, including BMI (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.147-1.381). Subjects with high VAI had increased risk for subclinical atherosclerosis, as assessed by CACS. Key messages Recent studies have noted an association between visceral adiposity index (VAI) and cardiovascular event. Subjects with coronary artery calcification (CAC) showed significantly higher VAI compared to those without CAC. The subjects with high VAI showed increased odds ratio for CAC as compared to subjects with low VAI, suggesting high VAI reflects increased risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  5. [Relationship between the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio, insulin resistance index and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa Barrios, Marlene; Arata-Bellabarba, Gabriela; Valeri, Lenin; Velázquez-Maldonado, Elsy

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the triglyceride/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-c) ratio, insulin resistance index and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The present crosssectional study analyzed 62 women with PCOS and 48 healthy women (control group) aged 17- 35 years old. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure were registered. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-c were measured. TheTG/HDL-c ratio, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated. Women with PCOS showed significantly higher values of the TG/HDL-c ratio and HOMA(IR), and a significantly lower QUICKI value. These differences were related to BMI and WC, with the highest values being observed in obese patients. The 50th percentile for the TG/HDL-c ratio was 3.64; the TG/cHDL ratio was positively correlated with BMI, WC and HOMA(IR) (r=0.48, pglucose > 100 mg/dl (10% vs 3%; ptriglycerides>150 mg/dl (55% vs 20%; p80 cm (82.3% vs 43.8%; pindexes (HOMA(IR), QUICKI). The TG/HDL-c ratio could be considered as a useful and practical method to identify an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with PCOS.

  6. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M.; Crump, Erica M.; Rowland, Neil E.

    2008-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet con...

  7. The Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Relation to Age, Body Mass Index, and Physical Activity Among High School Girls in Daniel Susa, Iran 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayatinejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertension is the most common public health problem that its prevalence increases along with the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents. It also has a direct relationship with cardiovascular diseases in adults. Objectives This study was performed to determine the prevalence of hypertension among high school girls in Susa, Iran and its relation to age, body mass index, and physical activity. Patients and Methods In this cross sectional study, 400 female students aged 15 - 19 years were selected using multistage cluster random sampling method. Their height, weight, and blood pressure (blood pressure was measured twice while in sitting position were measured by standard methods. The international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ was used to score their physical activity. The individual questionnaire was completed by essential question toward hypertension. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 22 using descriptive indexes and the Chi-square and Pearson tests while P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension is 5% and 40.3% in the high school girls, respectively. The frequency of age ranges between 14 and 18 years, with the highest frequency belonged to the age of 16 years. Also, there was a significant relationship between age and increase in blood pressure (P = 0.022. Direct significant linear relationship and difference were reported between hypertension and exercise (P = 0.025, as well as body mass index (P = 0.036. Conclusions The results showed a high prevalence of hypertension in girls with little difference with regard to ethnic groups, indicating that the use of training programs to adjust and modify lifestyle attitudes not only is effective in reducing hypertension, but also can prevent the adolescents’ susceptibility to the diseases that cause disability, increased living costs and weakened family ties.

  8. Equivalent brain SPECT perfusion changes underlying therapeutic efficiency in pharmacoresistant depression using either high-frequency left or low-frequency right prefrontal rTMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richieri, Raphaëlle; Boyer, Laurent; Padovani, Romain; Adida, Marc; Colavolpe, Cécile; Mundler, Olivier; Lançon, Christophe; Guedj, Eric

    2012-12-03

    Functional neuroimaging studies have suggested similar mechanisms underlying antidepressant effects of distinct therapeutics. This study aimed to determine and compare functional brain patterns underlying the antidepressant response of 2 distinct protocols of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). 99mTc-ECD SPECT was performed before and after rTMS of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in 61 drug-resistant right-handed patients with major depression, using high frequency (10Hz) left-side stimulation in 33 patients, and low frequency (1Hz) right-side stimulation in 28 patients. Efficiency of rTMS response was defined as at least 50% reduction of the baseline Beck Depression Inventory score. We compared the whole-brain voxel-based brain SPECT changes in perfusion after rTMS, between responders and non-responders in the whole sample (pleft- and right-stimulation. Before rTMS, the left- and right-prefrontal stimulation groups did not differ from clinical data and brain SPECT perfusion. rTMS efficiency (evaluated on % of responders) was statistically equivalent in the two groups of patients. In the whole-group of responder patients, a perfusion decrease was found after rTMS, in comparison to non-responders, within the left perirhinal cortex (BA35, BA36). This result was secondarily confirmed separately in the two subgroups, i.e. after either left stimulation (p=0.017) or right stimulation (pbrain functional changes associated to antidepressive efficiency, consisting to a remote brain limbic activity decrease within the left perirhinal cortex. However, these results will have to be confirmed in a double-blind randomized trial using a sham control group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma by three-dimensional sonography with a perflubutane-based contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Kazushi; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Ohto, Masao; Itou, Ryu; Nozaki, Akito; Kondou, Masaaki; Morimoto, Manabu; Karasawa, Eii; Tanaka, Katsuaki

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We performed contrast-enhanced three-dimensional sonography (CE 3D US) with a perflubutane-based contrast agent to immediately evaluate the completeness of ablation of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions by extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Subjects and methods: Twenty-one HCC lesions were treated by a single ultrasound-guided HIFU ablation session, and CE 3D US was performed before, immediately after, and 1 week, and 1 month after HIFU, and contrast-enhanced CT (CE CT) or contrast-enhanced MRI (CE MRI) was performed before HIFU, 1 week and 1 month after HIFU, and during the follow-up period. Results: Immediately and 1 month after HIFU, 17 lesions were evaluated as adequately ablated by CE 3D US, and the other 4 lesions as residual tumors. One month after HIFU, 18 were evaluated as adequately ablated by CE CT or CE MRI, and the other 3 as residual tumors. The evaluation by CE 3D US immediately after HIFU and by CE CT or CE MRI 1 month after HIFU was concordant with 20 lesions. The kappa value for agreement between the findings of CE 3D US and other modalities by two blinded observers was 0.83. When the 1-month CE CT or CE MRI findings were used as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CE 3D US immediately after HIFU for the diagnosis of the adequate ablation were 100%, 75%, and 95%, respectively. Conclusion: CE 3D US appears to be a useful method for immediate evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of HIFU ablation of HCC lesions.

  10. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma by three-dimensional sonography with a perflubutane-based contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, Kazushi, E-mail: kz-numa@urahp.yokohama-cu.ac.j [Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232-0024 (Japan); Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Ohto, Masao; Itou, Ryu [Department of Internal Medicine, Naruto General Hospital, 167 Naruto, Sanbu, Chiba 289-1326 (Japan); Nozaki, Akito; Kondou, Masaaki; Morimoto, Manabu [Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232-0024 (Japan); Karasawa, Eii [Department of Gastroenterology, International University of Health and Welfare Atami Hospital, 13-1 Higashi Kaigan-cho, Atami, Shizuoka 413-0012 (Japan); Tanaka, Katsuaki [Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232-0024 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Objective: We performed contrast-enhanced three-dimensional sonography (CE 3D US) with a perflubutane-based contrast agent to immediately evaluate the completeness of ablation of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions by extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Subjects and methods: Twenty-one HCC lesions were treated by a single ultrasound-guided HIFU ablation session, and CE 3D US was performed before, immediately after, and 1 week, and 1 month after HIFU, and contrast-enhanced CT (CE CT) or contrast-enhanced MRI (CE MRI) was performed before HIFU, 1 week and 1 month after HIFU, and during the follow-up period. Results: Immediately and 1 month after HIFU, 17 lesions were evaluated as adequately ablated by CE 3D US, and the other 4 lesions as residual tumors. One month after HIFU, 18 were evaluated as adequately ablated by CE CT or CE MRI, and the other 3 as residual tumors. The evaluation by CE 3D US immediately after HIFU and by CE CT or CE MRI 1 month after HIFU was concordant with 20 lesions. The kappa value for agreement between the findings of CE 3D US and other modalities by two blinded observers was 0.83. When the 1-month CE CT or CE MRI findings were used as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CE 3D US immediately after HIFU for the diagnosis of the adequate ablation were 100%, 75%, and 95%, respectively. Conclusion: CE 3D US appears to be a useful method for immediate evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of HIFU ablation of HCC lesions.

  11. Prism-pair interferometry by homodyne interferometers with a common light source for high-accuracy measurement of the absolute refractive index of glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Yasuaki; Hirai, Akiko; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    A prism-pair interferometer comprising two homodyne interferometers with a common light source was developed for high-precision measurements of the refractive index of optical glasses with an uncertainty of the order of 10 -6 . The two interferometers measure changes in the optical path length in the glass sample and in air, respectively. Uncertainties in the absolute wavelength of the common light source are cancelled out by calculating a ratio between the results from the interferometers. Uncertainties in phase measurement are suppressed by a quadrature detection system. The combined standard uncertainty of the developed system is evaluated as 1.1x10 -6 .

  12. Augmentation of clozapine with amisulpride: an effective therapeutic strategy for violent treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients in a UK high-security hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, James E; Simpson, Patrick J D; Brooman-White, Rosalie S; Basu, Amlan; Ross, Callum C; Humphreys, Sharon A; Larkin, Fintan; Gupta, Nitin; Das, Mrigendra

    2014-10-01

    Clozapine is used in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia and is effective in reducing aggression; however a subgroup of patients is poorly responsive. For violent patients in this group, there is limited literature on the use of strategies to augment clozapine with other agents. Here we present a case series of 6 schizophrenia patients, within a high-security hospital, who have a history of serious violence and who were treated with clozapine augmented with amisulpride. We reviewed case notes and health records for evidence of violence/aggression and positive factors such as engagement in activities, and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scores were formulated. We also examined metabolic parameters before and after augmentation. All 6 of the patients showed clinical improvement in symptoms and a reduction in their risk of violence to others. Five patients had a reduction in number of violent/aggressive incidents, and all patients showed improvement in engagement in occupational, vocational, and/or psychological work. Metabolic parameters were largely unchanged except for 1 patient whose Body Mass Index (BMI) increased. Five patients reported side effects as unchanged or improved. These schizophrenia patients with a history of violence showed clinical improvement and reduced aggression and violence with amisulpride augmentation of clozapine. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an antiaggressive benefit of this combination in forensic psychiatric patients. Further studies are warranted to establish the efficacy and anti-aggressive effects of amisulpride augmentation of clozapine.

  13. Therapeutic efficiency of synthokine SC-55494, a human IL-3 receptor agonist, in a nonhuman primate model of HIGH dose, sublethal, radiation-induced marrow aplasia; Efficacite therapeutique d`un variant d`interleukine-3 chez des macaques irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herodin, F.; Farese, A.; Grab, L.; McKearn, J.P.; Mestries, J.C.; McVittie, T.J.

    1994-12-31

    The synthetic cytokine (Synthokine) SC-55494 is a high affinity IL-3 receptor ligand. The therapeutic administration of Synthokine to total body irradiated (TBI) monkeys (7 Gy gamma) from day 1 post TBI for 23 days, significantly enhanced platelet recovery and modulated aneutrophil nadir. (author). 6 refs.

  14. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M; Crump, Erica M; Rowland, Neil E

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet condition. Female offspring were weaned on either control or "junk food" diets until about 6 mo of age. Rats fed the high-fat junk food diet were hyperphagic relative to their chow-fed controls. The junk food-fed rats were significantly heavier and had greater fat pad mass than those rats maintained on chow alone. Importantly, those rats suckled by high-fat dams had heavier fat pads than those suckled by control diet dams. Fasting serum leptin and insulin levels differed as a function of the gestational, lactational, and postweaning diet histories. Rats gestated in, or suckled by high-fat dams, or maintained on the junk food diet were hyperleptinemic compared with their respective controls. Indirect blood pressure did not differ as a function of postweaning diet, but rats gestated in the high-fat dams had lower mean arterial blood pressures than those gestated in the control diet dams. The postweaning dietary history affected food-motivated behavior; junk food-fed rats earned less food pellets on fixed (FR) and progressive (PR) ratio cost schedules than chow-fed controls. In conclusion, the effects of maternal high-fat diet during gestation or lactation were mostly small and transient. The postweaning effects of junk food diet were evident on the majority of the parameters measured, including body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin and insulin levels, and operant performance.

  15. MRI-derived Restriction Spectrum Imaging Cellularity Index is Associated with High Grade Prostate Cancer on Radical Prostatectomy Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Andre Liss

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We evaluate a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique to improve detection of aggressive prostate cancer. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of presurgical prostate MRI scans using an advanced diffusion weighted imaging technique called Restriction Spectrum Imaging (RSI, which can be presented as a normalized z-score statistic (RSI z-score. Scans were acquired prior to radical prostatectomy. Prostatectomy specimens were processed using whole mount sectioning and regions of interest (ROIs were drawn around individual prostate cancer (PCa tumors. Corresponding ROIs were drawn on the MRI imaging and paired with ROIs in regions with no pathology. RSI z-score and conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values were recorded for each ROI. Paired t-test, ANOVA and logistic regression analyses were performed.Results: We evaluated 28 patients with 64 regions of interest (28 benign and 36 PCa. The mean difference in RSI z-score (PCa ROI – Benign ROI was 2.17 (SE = 0.11; p <0.001 and in ADC was 551 mm2/sec (SE = 80 mm2/sec; paired t-test, p <0.001. The differences in the means among all groups (benign, primary Gleason 3 and primary Gleason 4 was significant for both RSI z-score (F3,64 = 97.7, p <0.001 and ADC (F3,64 = 13.9, p <0.001. A t-test was performed on only PCa tumor ROIs (n=36 to determine prostate cancer aggressiveness (Gleason 3 vs. Gleason 4 revealing that RSI z-score was still significant (p = 0.03, whereas, ADC values were no longer significant (p = 0.08. In multivariable analysis adjusting for age and race, RSI z-score was associated with PCa aggressiveness (OR 10.3, 95%CI: 1.4-78.0, p=0.02 while ADC trended to significance (p=0.07. Conclusions: The RSI derived normalized cellularity index (RSI z-score is associated with aggressive prostate cancer as determined by pathologic Gleason scores. Further utilization of RSI techniques may serve to enhance standardized reporting systems.

  16. Physical activity, health, body mass index, sleeping habits and body complaints in Australian senior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alricsson, Marie; Domalewski, Debra; Romild, Ulla; Asplund, Ragnar

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents in the industrial world are becoming less physically active and are increasingly adopting a sedentary life-style in front of computers and television screens. to determine self-related health, physical activity, sleeping habits, prevalence of overweight, and body complaints in Australian senior high school students. Participants were 466 high school students aged 15-17 years enrolled in academic and vocational programs. A questionnaire was completed at two senior high schools with questions about weight and height, health, physical activity, type of physical activity/sport, intensity, sleeping habits, and possible injuries or complaints during the last three months. Seventy seven percent of the high school students participated in sports on a regular basis. Compared with vocational programs, more males and females in academic programs participated in sports (71% and 80% respectively) (p = .036). Males reported significantly better health than females (p sleep was reported in 82.1% of males and in 76.6% of females. In males, 44.3% were often sleepy in the daytime (females 56.6%, p sleep are factors with significant positive effect on good health, whereas overweight is a negative factor. Proper sleep habits and higher physical activity levels should be promoted among high school students, and TV viewing time and video game use restricted. Additionally, schools should provide opportunities for young people to participate in a wider range of physical activities that address their individual needs while promoting the health benefits of engaging in regular exercise.

  17. 高显色指数LED合成白光光源的研究%Study on LEDs Synthesized High Color Rendering Index White Light Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡奕彬; 庄其仁; 刘士伟; 赖传杜

    2016-01-01

    -green LEDs can lead to low color temperature white light (3500 K~4500 K) whose color rendering index Ra ranges between 95.0 and 97.8.The synthesis with cold white LEDs and red,green and bluishgreen LEDs can lead to high color temperature white light (8200 K~ 13000 K) whose color rendering index Ra ranges between 90.9 and 98.4.An actual fabrication is conducted following the calculated LED amount to produce an LED module with 7803 K color temperature and 97.29 color rendering index.Actual measurement shows that the produced LED module has a color temperature of 7992 K and a color rendering index of 97.1,which is well matched the theoretical results.

  18. Pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Seok Hwee; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2006-01-01

    1. Pharmacogenetics refers to the study of genetically controlled variations in drug response. Functional variants caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding drug-metabolising enzymes, transporters, ion channels and drug receptors have been known to be associated with interindividual and interethnic variation in drug response. Genetic variations in these genes play a role in influencing the efficacy and toxicity of medications. 2. Rapid, precise and cost-effective high-throughput technological platforms are essential for performing large-scale mutational analysis of genetic markers involved in the aetiology of variable responses to drug therapy. 3. The application of a pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics in general clinical practice is still far from being achieved today owing to various constraints, such as limited accessibility of technology, inadequate knowledge, ambiguity of the role of variants and ethical concerns. 4. Drug actions are determined by the interplay of several genes encoding different proteins involved in various biochemical pathways. With rapidly emerging SNP discovery technological platforms and widespread knowledge on the role of SNPs in disease susceptibility and variability in drug response, the pharmacogenetics approach to therapeutics is anticipated to take off in the not-too-distant future. This will present profound clinical, economic and social implications for health care.

  19. UV-curable hybrid organic-inorganic composite inks with a high refractive index for printing interference images and holograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eremeeva, Elena A.; Yakovlev, Aleksandr V.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Vinogradov, Alexandr V.

    2017-01-01

    Herein we report a new, facile and inexpensive methodology for obtaining highly refractive polymers suitable for inkjet printing using hexacoordinated titanium complexes (THC) and a UV-curable lacquer based on triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TGD) that is a cheap and non-toxic monomer that can be

  20. High index contrast potassium double tungstate waveguides towards efficient rare-earth ion amplification on-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sefünç, Mustafa; Segerink, Franciscus B.; García Blanco, Sonia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Rare-earth ion doped KY(WO4)2 amplifiers are proposed to be a good candidate for many future applications by benefiting from the excellent gain characteristics of rare-earth ions, namely high bit rate amplification (

  1. Beneficial Effects of ragi (Finger Millet) on Hematological Parameters, Body Mass Index, and Scholastic Performance among Anemic Adolescent High-School Girls (AHSG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkada, Suja; Upadhya, Sharmila; Upadhya, Subramanya; Bhat, Gopalakrishna

    2018-03-29

    Adolescence is a period characterized by rapid physical, emotional, and mental growth and changes potentially resulting in health challenges. Anemia, which is a fairly common complication in this age group, is reported to negatively affect the cognitive ability of adolescents. Traditionally, ragi (Finger millet: Eleusine coracana), a cereal available in India, has been recommended as nutritional supplement to combat anemia because of its high protein and mineral content as well as anti-microbial property. This study sought to establish the effect of ragi in improving hematological parameters, body mass index, and scholastic performance among adolescent school girls. Sixty adolescent girls were randomly selected and divided into intervention (n = 30) and control groups (n = 30). The effect of dietary supplementation of ragi porridge on hematological parameters was evaluated on the intervention group at 45 and 90 days. Both groups were monitored for changes in body mass index and scholastic performance. A statistically significant increase in hemoglobin levels was observed in the intervention group after 90 days (from a mean of 11.3 g% to 12.54 g%; t (29)  = 7.514, p < .0001), with no significant changes in the control group. No statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed for mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width, body mass index, and scholastic performance. The data show that daily dietary supplementation with ragi porridge has a positive effect on hemoglobin levels in adolescent high schools girls. A well planned nutrition education with dietary supplementation is thus recommended for better outcomes.

  2. Therapeutic analysis of high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir vaginal cuff brachytherapy for endometrial cancer using a cylindrical target volume model and varied cancer cell distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hualin, E-mail: hualin.zhang@northwestern.edu; Donnelly, Eric D.; Strauss, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois 60611 (United States); Qi, Yujin [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCBT) in the treatment of endometrial cancer in a cylindrical target volume with either a varied or a constant cancer cell distributions using the linear quadratic (LQ) model. Methods: A Monte Carlo (MC) technique was used to calculate the 3D dose distribution of HDR VCBT over a variety of cylinder diameters and treatment lengths. A treatment planning system (TPS) was used to make plans for the various cylinder diameters, treatment lengths, and prescriptions using the clinical protocol. The dwell times obtained from the TPS were fed into MC. The LQ model was used to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of two brachytherapy regimens prescribed either at 0.5 cm depth (5.5 Gy × 4 fractions) or at the vaginal mucosal surface (8.8 Gy × 4 fractions) for the treatment of endometrial cancer. An experimentally determined endometrial cancer cell distribution, which showed a varied and resembled a half-Gaussian distribution, was used in radiobiology modeling. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to cancer cells was calculated for each treatment scenario. The therapeutic ratio (TR) was defined by comparing VCBT with a uniform dose radiotherapy plan in term of normal cell survival at the same level of cancer cell killing. Calculations of clinical impact were run twice assuming two different types of cancer cell density distributions in the cylindrical target volume: (1) a half-Gaussian or (2) a uniform distribution. Results: EUDs were weakly dependent on cylinder size, treatment length, and the prescription depth, but strongly dependent on the cancer cell distribution. TRs were strongly dependent on the cylinder size, treatment length, types of the cancer cell distributions, and the sensitivity of normal tissue. With a half-Gaussian distribution of cancer cells which populated at the vaginal mucosa the most, the EUDs were between 6.9 Gy × 4 and 7.8 Gy × 4, the TRs were in the range from (5.0){sup 4} to (13

  3. Animal toxins with high therapeutic potential and their use in biomedicine Toxinas de serpientes con alto potencial terapéutico y su uso en la biomedicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Johana Vargas Muñoz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Animal venoms are complex mixtures of proteins, peptides, enzymes and trace elements such as carbohydrates and salts, which serve to immobilize preys and to begin their digestion. Some of these compounds have been isolated and characterized, or described as lethal toxins, while others have powerful actions on specific proteins, such as those involved in blood coagulation. Due to the discovery in 1971 of the peptide that gave rise to captopril and to a better understanding of the potential effects of toxins, animal venoms started to be considered as rich sources of bioactive compounds, which not only provide the necessary tools to decipher molecular details of various physiological processes, but also are a source of inspiration to design and develop a range of new therapeutic agents. This review presents the application of new therapeutic options or models to design them based on certain molecules isolated from snake venoms, with high potential in fields such as biomedicine and pharmacy.

    Los venenos de animales son mezclas complejas de proteínas, péptidos, enzimas y trazas de elementos no proteicos tales como carbohidratos y sales, cuya finalidad es inmovilizar la presa y comenzar a digerirla; algunos de estos compuestos han sido aislados y caracterizados o descritos como toxinas letales, o se les han atribuido acciones potentes sobre proteínas específicas como, por ejemplo, las involucradas en la coagulación sanguínea. Debido al descubrimiento

  4. Hesperetin-7,3'-O-dimethylether selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase 4 and effectively suppresses ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness with a high therapeutic ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang You-Lan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hesperetin was reported to selectively inhibit phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4. While hesperetin-7,3'-O-dimethylether (HDME is a synthetic liposoluble hesperetin. Therefore, we were interested in investigating its selectivity on PDE4 and binding ability on high-affinity rolipram-binding sites (HARBs in vitro, and its effects on ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo, and clarifying its potential for treating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods PDE1~5 activities were measured using a two-step procedure. The binding of HDME on high-affinity rolipram-binding sites was determined by replacing 2 nM [3H]-rolipram. AHR was assessed using the FlexiVent system and barometric plethysmography. Inflammatory cells were counted using a hemocytometer. Cytokines were determined using mouse T helper (Th1/Th2 cytokine CBA kits, and total immunoglobulin (IgE or IgG2a levels were done using ELISA method. Xylazine (10 mg/kg/ketamine (70 mg/kg-induced anesthesia was performed. Results HDME revealed selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4 inhibition with a therapeutic (PDE4H/PDE4L ratio of 35.5 in vitro. In vivo, HDME (3~30 μmol/kg, orally (p.o. dose-dependently and significantly attenuated the airway resistance (RL and increased lung dynamic compliance (Cdyn, and decreased enhanced pause (Penh values induced by methacholine in sensitized and challenged mice. It also significantly suppressed the increases in the numbers of total inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils, and levels of cytokines, including interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of these mice. In addition, HDME (3~30 μmol/kg, p.o. dose-dependently and significantly suppressed total and ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin (IgE levels in the BALF and serum, and enhanced IgG2a level in the serum of these mice. Conclusions HDME exerted anti

  5. High NDVI and Potential Canopy Photosynthesis of South American Subtropical Forests despite Seasonal Changes in Leaf Area Index and Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedad M. Cristiano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The canopy photosynthesis and carbon balance of the subtropical forests are not well studied compared to temperate and tropical forest ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to assess the seasonal dynamics of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and potential canopy photosynthesis in relation to seasonal changes in leaf area index (LAI, chlorophyll concentration, and air temperatures of NE Argentina subtropical forests throughout the year. We included in the analysis several tree plantations (Pinus, Eucalyptus and Araucaria species that are known to have high productivity. Field studies in native forests and tree plantations were conducted; stem growth rates, LAI and leaf chlorophyll concentration were measured. MODIS satellite-derived LAI (1 km SIN Grid and NDVI (250m SIN Grid from February 2000 to 2012 were used as a proxy of seasonal dynamics of potential photosynthetic activity at the stand level. The remote sensing LAI of the subtropical forests decreased every year from 6 to 5 during the cold season, similar to field LAI measurements, when temperatures were 10 °C lower than during the summer. The yearly maximum NDVI values were observed during a few months in autumn and spring (March through May and November, respectively because high and low air temperatures may have a small detrimental effect on photosynthetic activity during both the warm and the cold seasons. Leaf chlorophyll concentration was higher during the cold season than the warm season which may have a compensatory effect on the seasonal variation of the NDVI values. The NDVI of the subtropical forest stands remained high and fairly constant throughout the year (the intra-annual coefficient of variation was 1.9%, and were comparable to the values of high-yield tree plantations. These results suggest that the humid subtropical forests in NE Argentina potentially could maintain high canopy photosynthetic activity throughout the year and thus this ecosystem may

  6. Structure and morphology of platinum nanoparticles with critical new issues of low- and high-index facets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Viet-Long; Ohtaki, Michitaka; Van Nong, Ngo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, Pt nanoparticles were successfully prepared by modified polyol method using silver nitrate as an effective structure-modifying agent. The characterization of Pt nanoparticles was investigated by using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution...... (HR) TEM, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The method of selected area electron diffraction (SEAD) was used to study the structure of Pt nanoparticles. The results showed that the as-prepared Pt nanoparticles exhibiting the complexity of surface structure and morphology could be used as efficient...... catalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs)....

  7. Therapeutic drug monitoring of nevirapine in saliva in Uganda using high performance liquid chromatography and a low cost thin-layer chromatography technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamorde, M.; Fillekes, Q.; Sigaloff, K.; Kityo, C.; Buzibye, A.; Kayiwa, J.; Merry, C.; Nakatudde-Katumba, L.; Burger, D.M.; Wit, T.F. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In resource limited settings access to laboratory monitoring of HIV treatment is limited and therapeutic drug monitoring is generally unavailable. This study aimed to evaluate nevirapine concentrations in saliva using low-cost thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and nevirapine concentrations

  8. Therapeutic drug monitoring of nevirapine in saliva in Uganda using high performance liquid chromatography and a low cost thin-layer chromatography technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamorde, Mohammed; Fillekes, Quirine; Sigaloff, Kim; Kityo, Cissy; Buzibye, Allan; Kayiwa, Joshua; Merry, Concepta; Nakatudde-Katumba, Lillian; Burger, David; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2014-01-01

    In resource limited settings access to laboratory monitoring of HIV treatment is limited and therapeutic drug monitoring is generally unavailable. This study aimed to evaluate nevirapine concentrations in saliva using low-cost thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and nevirapine concentrations in plasma

  9. The reliability of echocardiographic left ventricular wall motion index to identify high-risk patients for multicenter studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Gunnar H; Gadsbøll, Niels; Quinones, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    that were screened for inclusion into the DIAMOND-CHF and DIAMOND-MI trials were reevaluated by an external expert echocardiographer. WMI was calculated using the 16-segment LV model. RESULTS: The external echocardiographer systematically found lower values of WMI than the core laboratory. The average...... difference in WMI was 0.18 (SD: 0.33) in the DIAMOND-CHF trial and 0.09 (SD: 0.33) in the DIAMOND-MI trial. The difference in WMI exceeded 0.33 in 34% of the patients in both trials. The cutoff value for inclusion into the DIAMOND trials was WMI ... overall agreement for identifying patients with severe impairment of LV function. This not only underscores the value of LV-WMI as a useful tool for selecting high-risk patients to be included in multicenter studies but also serves to warn against the use of rigid cutoff values for WMI in the treatment...

  10. Change in postprandial substrate oxidation after a high fructose meal is related to Body Mass Index (BMI) in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeraglio, Anne C.; Kennedy, Emily K.; Horgan, Angela; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Gillingham, Melanie B.

    2013-01-01

    Oral fructose decreases fat oxidation and increases carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation in obese subjects, but the metabolic response to fructose in lean individuals is less well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a single fructose-rich mixed meal on substrate oxidation in young healthy non-obese males. We hypothesized that a decrease in fat oxidation and an increase in carbohydrate oxidation would be observed following a fructose-rich mixed meal compared to a glucose-rich mixed meal. Twelve healthy males, normal to overweight and age 23–31 years old, participated in a double-blind, cross-over study. Each participant completed two study visits, eating a mixed meal containing 30% of the calories from either fructose or glucose. Blood samples for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin as well as gas exchange by indirect calorimetry were measured intermittently for 7 hours. Serum insulin was higher after a fructose mixed meal but plasma glucose, plasma leptin and serum triglycerides were not different. Mean postprandial respiratory quotient and estimated fat oxidation did not differ between the fructose and glucose meals. The change in fat oxidation between the fructose and glucose rich meals negatively correlated with BMI (r=−0.59, P=0.04 and r=−0.59, P=0.04 at the 4 and 7 hour time points, respectively). In healthy non-obese males, BMI correlates with altered postprandial fat oxidation after a high-fructose mixed meal. The metabolic response to a high fructose meal may be modulated by BMI. PMID:23746558

  11. Therapeutic drug monitoring of nevirapine in saliva in Uganda using high performance liquid chromatography and a low cost thin-layer chromatography technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorde, Mohammed; Fillekes, Quirine; Sigaloff, Kim; Kityo, Cissy; Buzibye, Allan; Kayiwa, Joshua; Merry, Concepta; Nakatudde-Katumba, Lillian; Burger, David; de Wit, Tobias F Rinke

    2014-09-01

    In resource limited settings access to laboratory monitoring of HIV treatment is limited and therapeutic drug monitoring is generally unavailable. This study aimed to evaluate nevirapine concentrations in saliva using low-cost thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and nevirapine concentrations in plasma and saliva using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods; and to correlate nevirapine plasma concentrations to HIV treatment outcomes in Ugandan patients. Paired plasma and stimulated saliva samples were obtained from Ugandan, HIV-infected adults on nevirapine-based ART. Nevirapine concentrations were measured using a validated HPLC method and a novel TLC method. Plasma nevirapine concentrations HPLC were considered subtherapeutic. Negative/positive predictive values of different thresholds for subtherapeutic nevirapine concentrations in saliva were determined. Virologic testing and, if applicable, HIV drug resistance testing was performed. Median (interquartile range, IQR) age of 297 patients was 39.1 (32.8-45.2) years. Three hundred saliva and 287 plasma samples were available for analysis. Attempts failed to determine nevirapine saliva concentrations by TLC. Using HPLC, median (IQR) nevirapine concentrations in saliva and plasma were 3.40 (2.59-4.47) mg/L and 6.17 (4.79-7.96) mg/L, respectively. The mean (coefficient of variation,%) nevirapine saliva/plasma ratio was 0.58 (62%). A cut-off value of 1.60 mg/L nevirapine in saliva was associated with a negative/positive predictive value of 0.99/0.72 and a sensitivity/specificity of 87%/98% for predicting subtherapeutic nevirapine plasma concentrations, respectively. Only 5% (15/287) of patients had subtherapeutic nevirapine plasma concentrations, of which 3 patients had viral load results > 400 copies/mL. Patients with nevirapine concentrations in plasma 400 copies/mL). The low-cost TLC technique for monitoring nevirapine in saliva was unsuccessful but monitoring nevirapine saliva and plasma

  12. Will Synergizing Vaccination with Therapeutics Boost Measles Virus Eradication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemper, Richard K; Hammond, Anthea L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Measles virus is a major human pathogen responsible for approximately 150,000 measles deaths annually. The disease is vaccine preventable and eradication of the virus is considered feasible in principle. However, a herd immunity exceeding 95% is required to prevent sporadic viral outbreaks in a population. Declining disease prevalence combined with public anxieties about vaccination safety has increased vaccine refusal especially in the European region, which has resulted in measles resurgence in some areas. Areas covered Here, we discuss whether synergizing effective measles therapeutics with vaccination could contribute to solving an endgame conundrum of measles elimination by accelerating the eradication effort. Based on an anticipated use for protection of high-risk contacts of confirmed measles cases through post-exposure prophylaxis, we identify key elements of the desirable drug profile, review current disease management strategies and the state of experimental inhibitor candidates, evaluate the risk associated with viral escape from inhibition, and consider the potential of measles therapeutics for the management of persistent viral infection of the CNS. Assuming a post-measles world with waning measles immunity, we contemplate the possible impact of therapeutics on controlling the threat imposed by closely related zoonotic pathogens of the same genus as measles virus. Expert opinion Efficacious therapeutics given for post-exposure prophylaxis of high-risk social contacts of confirmed index cases may aid measles eradication by closing herd immunity gaps due to vaccine refusal or failure in populations with overall good vaccination coverage. The envisioned primarily prophylactic application of measles therapeutics to a predominantly pediatric and/or adolescent patient population dictates the drug profile; the article must be safe and efficacious, orally available, shelf-stable at ambient temperature, and amenable to cost-effective manufacture

  13. Preventing preterm births: trends and potential reductions with current interventionsin 39 very high human development index countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hannah H.; Larson, Jim; Blencowe, Hannah; Spong, Catherine Y.; Howson, Christopher P.; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Lackritz, Eve M.; Lee, Shoo K.; Mason, Elizabeth; Serazin, Andrew C.; Walani, Salimah; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Lawn, Joy E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Each year,1.1 million babies die from prematurity, andmany survivors are disabled. Worldwide, 15 million babies are preterm(10,000 births, country-by-country analyses were performed based on target population, incremental coverage increase,and intervention efficacy. Cost savings were estimated based on reported costs for preterm care in the USAadjusted usingWorld Bank purchasing power parity. Findings From 2010, even if all VHHDI countries achieved annual preterm birth rate reductions of the best performers, (Sweden and Netherlands), 2000-2010 or 2005-2010(Lithuania, Estonia)), rates would experience a relative reduction of<5% by 2015 on average across the 39 countries.Our analysis of preterm birth rise 1998-2004 in USA suggests half the change is unexplained, but important drivers includeinductions/cesareandelivery and ART.For all 39 VHHDI countries, five interventionsmodeling at high coveragepredicted 5%preterm birth rate relative reduction from 9.59 to 9.07% of live births:smoking cessation (0.01 rate reduction), decreasing multiple embryo transfers during assisted reproductive technologies (0.06), cervical cerclage (0.15), progesterone supplementation (0.01), and reduction of non-medically indicated labour induction or caesarean delivery (0.29).These translate to 58,000 preterm births averted and total annual economic cost savings of ~US$ 3 billion. Interpretation Even with optimal coverage of current interventions, many being complex to implement, the estimated potential reduction in preterm birth is tiny. Hence we recommenda conservative target of 5% preterm birth rate relative reductionby 2015. Our findings highlight the urgent need for discovery research into underlying mechanisms of preterm birth, and developmentof innovative interventions. Furthermore, the highest preterm birth rates occur in low-income settings where the causes of prematurity may differand have simpler solutions, such as birth spacing and treatment of infections in

  14. The Proportion of Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency in Low, Medium, and High Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Analysis of National Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Olofin, Ibironke; Hurrell, Richard F.; Boy, Erick; Wirth, James P.; Moursi, Mourad; Donahue Angel, Moira; Rohner, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency is commonly assumed to cause half of all cases of anemias, with hereditary blood disorders and infections such as hookworm and malaria being the other major causes. In countries ranked as low, medium, and high by the Human Development Index, we conducted a systematic review of nationally representative surveys that reported the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and anemia among pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using random effects meta-analyses techniques, data from 23 countries for pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age was pooled, and the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency was estimated by region, inflammation exposure, anemia prevalence, and urban/rural setting. For pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age, the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was 25.0% (95% CI: 18.0, 32.0) and 37.0% (95% CI: 28.0, 46.0), respectively. The proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was lower in countries where anemia prevalence was >40%, especially in rural populations (14% for pre-school children; 16% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age), and in countries with very high inflammation exposure (20% for pre-school children; 25% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age). Despite large heterogeneity, our analyses suggest that the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency is lower than the previously assumed 50% in countries with low, medium, or high Human Development Index ranking. Anemia-reduction strategies and programs should be based on an analysis of country-specific data, as iron deficiency may not always be the key determinant of anemia. PMID:27827838

  15. The Proportion of Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency in Low, Medium, and High Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Analysis of National Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Petry

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is commonly assumed to cause half of all cases of anemias, with hereditary blood disorders and infections such as hookworm and malaria being the other major causes. In countries ranked as low, medium, and high by the Human Development Index, we conducted a systematic review of nationally representative surveys that reported the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and anemia among pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using random effects meta-analyses techniques, data from 23 countries for pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age was pooled, and the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency was estimated by region, inflammation exposure, anemia prevalence, and urban/rural setting. For pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age, the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was 25.0% (95% CI: 18.0, 32.0 and 37.0% (95% CI: 28.0, 46.0, respectively. The proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was lower in countries where anemia prevalence was >40%, especially in rural populations (14% for pre-school children; 16% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age, and in countries with very high inflammation exposure (20% for pre-school children; 25% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Despite large heterogeneity, our analyses suggest that the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency is lower than the previously assumed 50% in countries with low, medium, or high Human Development Index ranking. Anemia-reduction strategies and programs should be based on an analysis of country-specific data, as iron deficiency may not always be the key determinant of anemia.

  16. Comparing the Dry Season In-Situ Leaf Area Index (LAI Derived from High-Resolution RapidEye Imagery with MODIS LAI in a Namibian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J. Mayr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Leaf Area Index (LAI is one of the most frequently applied measures to characterize vegetation and its dynamics and functions with remote sensing. Satellite missions, such as NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS operationally produce global datasets of LAI. Due to their role as an input to large-scale modeling activities, evaluation and verification of such datasets are of high importance. In this context, savannas appear to be underrepresented with regards to their heterogeneous appearance (e.g., tree/grass-ratio, seasonality. Here, we aim to examine the LAI in a heterogeneous savanna ecosystem located in Namibia’s Owamboland during the dry season. Ground measurements of LAI are used to derive a high-resolution LAI model with RapidEye satellite data. This model is related to the corresponding MODIS LAI/FPAR (Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation scene (MOD15A2 in order to evaluate its performance at the intended annual minimum during the dry season. Based on a field survey we first assessed vegetation patterns from species composition and elevation for 109 sites. Secondly, we measured in situ LAI to quantitatively estimate the available vegetation (mean = 0.28. Green LAI samples were then empirically modeled (LAImodel with high resolution RapidEye imagery derived Difference Vegetation Index (DVI using a linear regression (R2 = 0.71. As indicated by several measures of model performance, the comparison with MOD15A2 revealed moderate consistency mostly due to overestimation by the aggregated LAImodel. Model constraints aside, this study may point to important issues for MOD15A2 in savannas concerning the underlying MODIS Land Cover product (MCD12Q1 and a potential adjustment by means of the MODIS Burned Area product (MCD45A1.

  17. Simultaneous observations of structure function parameter of refractive index using a high-resolution radar and the DataHawk small airborne measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipión, Danny E.; Lawrence, Dale A.; Milla, Marco A.; Woodman, Ronald F.; Lume, Diego A.; Balsley, Ben B.

    2016-09-01

    The SOUSY (SOUnding SYstem) radar was relocated to the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO) near Lima, Peru, in 2000, where the radar controller and acquisition system were upgraded with state-of-the-art parts to take full advantage of its potential for high-resolution atmospheric sounding. Due to its broad bandwidth (4 MHz), it is able to characterize clear-air backscattering with high range resolution (37.5 m). A campaign conducted at JRO in July 2014 aimed to characterize the lower troposphere with a high temporal resolution (8.1 Hz) using the DataHawk (DH) small unmanned aircraft system, which provides in situ atmospheric measurements at scales as small as 1 m in the lower troposphere and can be GPS-guided to obtain measurements within the beam of the radar. This was a unique opportunity to make coincident observations by both systems and to directly compare their in situ and remotely sensed parameters. Because SOUSY only points vertically, it is only possible to retrieve vertical radar profiles caused by changes in the refractive index within the resolution volume. Turbulent variations due to scattering are described by the structure function parameter of refractive index Cn2. Profiles of Cn2 from the DH are obtained by combining pressure, temperature, and relative humidity measurements along the helical trajectory and integrated at the same scale as the radar range resolution. Excellent agreement is observed between the Cn2 estimates obtained from the DH and SOUSY in the overlapping measurement regime from 1200 m up to 4200 m above sea level, and this correspondence provides the first accurate calibration of the SOUSY radar for measuring Cn2.

  18. Simultaneous observations of structure function parameter of refractive index using a high-resolution radar and the DataHawk small airborne measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Scipión

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The SOUSY (SOUnding SYstem radar was relocated to the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO near Lima, Peru, in 2000, where the radar controller and acquisition system were upgraded with state-of-the-art parts to take full advantage of its potential for high-resolution atmospheric sounding. Due to its broad bandwidth (4 MHz, it is able to characterize clear-air backscattering with high range resolution (37.5 m. A campaign conducted at JRO in July 2014 aimed to characterize the lower troposphere with a high temporal resolution (8.1 Hz using the DataHawk (DH small unmanned aircraft system, which provides in situ atmospheric measurements at scales as small as 1 m in the lower troposphere and can be GPS-guided to obtain measurements within the beam of the radar. This was a unique opportunity to make coincident observations by both systems and to directly compare their in situ and remotely sensed parameters. Because SOUSY only points vertically, it is only possible to retrieve vertical radar profiles caused by changes in the refractive index within the resolution volume. Turbulent variations due to scattering are described by the structure function parameter of refractive index Cn2. Profiles of Cn2 from the DH are obtained by combining pressure, temperature, and relative humidity measurements along the helical trajectory and integrated at the same scale as the radar range resolution. Excellent agreement is observed between the Cn2 estimates obtained from the DH and SOUSY in the overlapping measurement regime from 1200 m up to 4200 m above sea level, and this correspondence provides the first accurate calibration of the SOUSY radar for measuring Cn2.

  19. The Proportion of Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency in Low, Medium, and High Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Analysis of National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Olofin, Ibironke; Hurrell, Richard F; Boy, Erick; Wirth, James P; Moursi, Mourad; Donahue Angel, Moira; Rohner, Fabian

    2016-11-02

    Iron deficiency is commonly assumed to cause half of all cases of anemias, with hereditary blood disorders and infections such as hookworm and malaria being the other major causes. In countries ranked as low, medium, and high by the Human Development Index, we conducted a systematic review of nationally representative surveys that reported the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and anemia among pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using random effects meta-analyses techniques, data from 23 countries for pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age was pooled, and the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency was estimated by region, inflammation exposure, anemia prevalence, and urban/rural setting. For pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age, the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was 25.0% (95% CI: 18.0, 32.0) and 37.0% (95% CI: 28.0, 46.0), respectively. The proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was lower in countries where anemia prevalence was >40%, especially in rural populations (14% for pre-school children; 16% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age), and in countries with very high inflammation exposure (20% for pre-school children; 25% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age). Despite large heterogeneity, our analyses suggest that the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency is lower than the previously assumed 50% in countries with low, medium, or high Human Development Index ranking. Anemia-reduction strategies and programs should be based on an analysis of country-specific data, as iron deficiency may not always be the key determinant of anemia.

  20. The impact of body mass index on the risk of high spinal block in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamon, Agnes M; Einhorn, Lisa M; Cooter, Mary; Habib, Ashraf S

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that the risk of high spinal block is not increased in obese parturients undergoing cesarean delivery compared to non-obese parturients. This is a retrospective study at an academic center. We searched the perioperative database for women who underwent cesarean delivery under spinal or combined spinal epidural anesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine ≥10.5 mg. A body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m 2 was defined as obese. We categorized obesity into: obesity class I (BMI = 30-34.9 kg/m 2 ), obesity class II (BMI = 35-39.9 kg/m 2 ), obesity class III (BMI = 40-49.9 kg/m 2 ), and super obese (BMI ≥50 kg/m 2 ). The primary outcome was high spinal block defined as need to convert to general anesthesia within 20 min of spinal placement as a result of altered mental status, weakness, or respiratory distress resulting from the high block, or a recorded block height ≥T1. The analysis included 5015 women. High spinal blocks occurred in 29 patients (0.6%). The risk of high spinal was significantly different according to BMI (p = 0.025). In a multivariate model, BMI (p = 0.008) and cesarean delivery priority (p = 0.009) were associated with high blocks. BMI ≥50 kg/m 2 was associated with greater odds of high block compared to BMI block compared with unscheduled delivery. At standard spinal doses of hyperbaric bupivacaine used in our practice (≥10.5 mg), there were greater odds of high block in those with BMI ≥50 kg/m 2 .

  1. Why Electricity Demand Is Highly Income-Elastic in Spain: A Cross-Country Comparison Based on an Index-Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Pérez-García

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990, Spain has had one of the highest elasticities of electricity demand in the European Union. We provide an in-depth analysis into the causes of this high elasticity, and we examine how these same causes influence electricity demand in other European countries. To this end, we present an index-decomposition analysis of growth in electricity demand which allows us to identify three key factors in the relationship between gross domestic product (GDP and electricity demand: (i structural change; (ii GDP growth; and (iii intensity of electricity use. Our findings show that the main differences in electricity demand elasticities across countries and time are accounted for by the fast convergence in residential per capita electricity consumption. This convergence has almost concluded, and we expect the Spanish energy demand elasticity to converge to European standards in the near future.

  2. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pean High Power Laser Energy Research. Facility project. 759. Patidar R K ... pilot study. 1287. Pradhan Asima see Gharekhan Anita. 1281. Pradhan M K see Mukherjee A. 99 .... Testing fundamental symmetries using radioactive ion beams at ...

  3. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    hol (MBBA)resin as polymer-supported synthesis support: ... 203. Luo S. Catalytic synthesis of 2-methylpyrazine over Cr-pro- .... Roy S C. Titanium(III) chloride mediated synthesis of furan ... Gas phase toluene isopropylation over high silica.

  4. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle-embedded poly- mers for nonlinear optical ... and ionic states of some noble gases using .... An effective pair potential for liquid semi- ... by inert gas condensation using ultra high.

  5. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Activation energy of viscous flow. Density and viscosity of magnesium sulphate formamide + ethylene glycol mixed solvents ... high average power TEA CO2 laser. 659. Carpaine ... organic sulphides 2,2′-bipyridinium chlo- rochromate. 137.

  6. Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mei; Ma, Jiantao; Patel, Kamal; Berger, Samantha; Lau, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    Concerns have been raised about the concurrent temporal trend between simple sugar intakes, especially of fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the United States. We examined the effect of different amounts and forms of dietary fructose on the incidence or prevalence of NAFLD and indexes of liver health in humans. We conducted a systematic review of English-language, human studies of any design in children and adults with low to no alcohol intake and that reported at least one predetermined measure of liver health. The strength of the evidence was evaluated by considering risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision. Six observational studies and 21 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall strength of evidence for observational studies was rated insufficient because of high risk of biases and inconsistent study findings. Of 21 intervention studies, 19 studies were in adults without NAFLD (predominantly healthy, young men) and 1 study each in adults or children with NAFLD. We found a low level of evidence that a hypercaloric fructose diet (supplemented by pure fructose) increases liver fat and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in healthy men compared with the consumption of a weight-maintenance diet. In addition, there was a low level of evidence that hypercaloric fructose and glucose diets have similar effects on liver fat and liver enzymes in healthy adults. There was insufficient evidence to draw a conclusion for effects of HFCS or sucrose on NAFLD. On the basis of indirect comparisons across study findings, the apparent association between indexes of liver health (ie, liver fat, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, alanine aminotransferase, AST, and γ-glutamyl transpeptase) and fructose or sucrose intake appear to be confounded by excessive energy intake. Overall, the available evidence is not sufficiently robust to draw conclusions regarding effects of fructose

  7. Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mei; Ma, Jiantao; Patel, Kamal; Berger, Samantha; Lau, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been raised about the concurrent temporal trend between simple sugar intakes, especially of fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the United States. Objective: We examined the effect of different amounts and forms of dietary fructose on the incidence or prevalence of NAFLD and indexes of liver health in humans. Design: We conducted a systematic review of English-language, human studies of any design in children and adults with low to no alcohol intake and that reported at least one predetermined measure of liver health. The strength of the evidence was evaluated by considering risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision. Results: Six observational studies and 21 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall strength of evidence for observational studies was rated insufficient because of high risk of biases and inconsistent study findings. Of 21 intervention studies, 19 studies were in adults without NAFLD (predominantly healthy, young men) and 1 study each in adults or children with NAFLD. We found a low level of evidence that a hypercaloric fructose diet (supplemented by pure fructose) increases liver fat and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in healthy men compared with the consumption of a weight-maintenance diet. In addition, there was a low level of evidence that hypercaloric fructose and glucose diets have similar effects on liver fat and liver enzymes in healthy adults. There was insufficient evidence to draw a conclusion for effects of HFCS or sucrose on NAFLD. Conclusions: On the basis of indirect comparisons across study findings, the apparent association between indexes of liver health (ie, liver fat, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, alanine aminotransferase, AST, and γ-glutamyl transpeptase) and fructose or sucrose intake appear to be confounded by excessive energy intake. Overall, the available evidence is not sufficiently robust

  8. High Right Ventricular Stroke Work Index Is Associated with Worse Kidney Function in Patients with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanahattakij, Napatt; Sirinvaravong, Natee; Aguilar, Francisco; Agrawal, Akanksha; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Gupta, Shuchita

    2018-01-01

    In patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), worse kidney function is associated with worse overall cardiac mechanics. Right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI) is a parameter of right ventricular function. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between RVSWI and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with HFpEF. This was a single-center cross-sectional study. HFpEF is defined as patients with documented heart failure with ejection fraction > 50% and pulmonary wedge pressure > 15 mm Hg from right heart catheterization. RVSWI (normal value 8-12 g/m/beat/m2) was calculated using the formula: RVSWI = 0.0136 × stroke volume index × (mean pulmonary artery pressure - mean right atrial pressure). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to study the correlation between RVSWI and GFR. Ninety-one patients were included in the study. The patients were predominantly female (n = 64, 70%) and African American (n = 61, 67%). Mean age was 66 ± 12 years. Mean GFR was 59 ± 35 mL/min/1.73 m2. Mean RVSWI was 11 ± 6 g/m/beat/m2. Linear regression analysis showed that there was a significant independent inverse relationship between RVSWI and GFR (unstandardized coefficient = -1.3, p = 0.029). In the subgroup with combined post and precapillary pulmonary hypertension (Cpc-PH) the association remained significant (unstandardized coefficient = -1.74, 95% CI -3.37 to -0.11, p = 0.04). High right ventricular workload indicated by high RVSWI is associated with worse renal function in patients with Cpc-PH. Further prospective studies are needed to better understand this association. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Amniotic fluid index predicts the relief of variable decelerations after amnioinfusion bolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, C Y; McKindsey, F; Ross, M G

    1996-10-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether intrapartum amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion can be used to predict response to therapeutic amnioinfusion. Intrapartum patients (n = 85) with repetitive variable decelerations in fetal heart rate that necessitated amnioinfusion (10 ml/min for 60 minutes) underwent determination of amniotic fluid index before and after bolus amnioinfusion. The fetal heart tracing was scored (scorer blinded to amniotic fluid index values) for number and characteristics of variable decelerations before and 1 hour after initiation of amnioinfusion. The amnioinfusion was considered successful if it resulted in a decrease of > or = 50% in total number of variable decelerations or a decrease of > or = 50% in the rate of atypical or severe variable decelerations after administration of the bolus. Spontaneous vaginal births before completion of administration of the bolus (n = 18) were excluded from analysis. The probability of success of amnioinfusion in relation to amniotic fluid index was analyzed with the chi(2) test for progressive sequence. The mean amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion was 6.2 +/- 3.3 cm. An amniotic fluid index of amnioinfusion decreased with increasing amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion (76% [16/21] when initial amniotic fluid index was 0 to 4 cm, 63% [17/27] when initial amniotic fluid index was 4 to 8 cm, 44% [7/16] when initial amniotic fluid index was 8 to 12 cm, and 33% [1/3] when initial amniotic fluid index was > 12 cm, p = 0.03). The incidence of nuchal cords or true umbilical cord knots increased in relation to amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion. Amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion can be used to predict the success of amnioinfusion for relief of variable decelerations in fetal heart rate. Failure of amnioinfusion at a high amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion may be explained by the increased prevalence of nuchal cords or true knots in the umbilical cord.

  10. Effects of long-term intervention with low- and high-glycaemic-index breakfasts on food intake in children aged 8-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C Jeya K; Lightowler, Helen J; Strik, Caroline M

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term intervention of low-glycaemic-index (GI) v. high-GI breakfasts on energy and macronutrient intakes in children aged 8-11 years. Preadolescent children were assigned to one of two groups in a random cross-over design. Each group was given low-GI and high-GI breakfasts on two non-consecutive days per week for 10 weeks per breakfast type. Each breakfast provided approximately 1273 kJ (300 kcal) and was closely matched for macronutrient and dietary fibre content. Subsequent food intake at an ad libitum buffet lunch was recorded and daily energy and macronutrient intakes were measured by 24 h recall and 3 d food diaries. There was a tendency towards a reduced energy intake at lunch following the low-GI breakfast compared with the high-GI breakfast, although the mean difference of 75 kJ (18 kcal) was not significant (P = 0.406). In particular, there was a trend towards a reduced energy intake in the low-GI arm compared with the high-GI arm among boys. In addition, data from the 3 d food diaries showed that there was a tendency towards a reduced energy intake during the low-GI compared with the high-GI study period. In conclusion, although the difference in energy intake following the low-GI and high-GI breakfasts was not statistically significant, the reduced energy intake following the low-GI breakfast is encouraging. Both dietary fibre and carbohydrate type may affect GI, thus their potential and relative modulating effect on appetite requires further investigation.

  11. Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Cygnus X-3. X-ray Spectroscopy of Cygnus X-3 (M. Choudhury & A. R. Rao), 39. Eta carinae. High Energy Phenomena in Eta Carinae (R. F. Viotti, L. A. Antonelli, S. Rebecchi &. C. Rossi), 19. Galaxy, active. The Multiwavelength Study of Two Unique Radio Galaxies (N. A. B. Gizani, M. A. Gar- rett & J. P. Leahy), 89. 261 ...

  12. Comparison of appetite responses to high- and low-glycemic index postexercise meals under matched insulinemia and fiber in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew D; Gonzalez, Javier T; Rumbold, Penny L S; Walker, Mark; Shaw, James A; Stevenson, Emma J; West, Daniel J

    2015-03-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes face heightened risk of hypoglycemia after exercise. Subsequent overfeeding, as a preventative measure against hypoglycemia, negates the energy deficit after exercise. Patients are also required to reduce the insulin dose administered with postexercise foods to further combat hypoglycemia. However, the insulin dose is dictated solely by the carbohydrate content, even though postprandial glycemia is vastly influenced by glycemic index (GI). With a need to control the postexercise energy balance, appetite responses after meals differing in GI are of particular interest. We assessed the appetite response to low-glycemic index (LGI) and high-glycemic index (HGI) postexercise meals in type 1 diabetes patients. This assessment also offered us the opportunity to evaluate the influence of GI on appetite responses independently of insulinemia, which confounds findings in individuals without diabetes. Ten physically active men with type 1 diabetes completed 2 trials in a randomized crossover design. After 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% of the peak oxygen uptake, participants consumed an LGI (GI ∼37) or HGI (GI ∼92) meal with a matched macronutrient composition, negligible fiber content, and standardized insulin-dose administration. The postprandial appetite response was determined for 180 min postmeal. During this time, circulating glucose, insulin, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations and subjective appetite ratings were determined. The HGI meal produced an ∼60% greater postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC) than did the LGI meal (P = 0.008). Insulin, glucagon, and GLP-1 did not significantly differ between trials (P > 0.05). The fullness AUC was ∼25% greater after the HGI meal than after the LGI meal (P < 0.001), whereas hunger sensations were ∼9% lower after the HGI meal than after the LGI meal (P = 0.001). Under conditions of matched insulinemia and fiber, an HGI postexercise meal suppresses

  13. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    see Dhar S K. 885. Amrute K V. Modification of magnetic anisotropy in metal- lic glasses using high-energy ion beam irradi- ation. 1093. Andersen N H see Eskildsen M R. 903. Angappane S. Electrical transport in La1 xCaxMnO3 thin films at low temperatures. 1079. Aoki H see Gegenwart P. 715. Apte P R see Pai S P. 1147.

  14. Estimation of the soil heat flux/net radiation ratio based on spectral vegetation indexes in high-latitude Arctic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, A.; Hansen, B.U.

    1999-01-01

    The vegetation communities in the Arctic environment are very sensitive to even minor climatic variations and therefore the estimation of surface energy fluxes from high-latitude vegetated areas is an important subject to be pursued. This study was carried out in July-August and used micro meteorological data, spectral reflectance signatures, and vegetation biomass to establish the relation between the soil heat flux/net radiation (G / Rn) ratio and spectral vegetation indices (SVIs). Continuous measurements of soil temperature and soil heat flux were used to calculate the surface ground heat flux by use of conventional methods, and the relation to surface temperature was investigated. Twenty-seven locations were established, and six samples per location, including the measurement of the surface temperature and net radiation to establish the G/Rn ratio and simultaneous spectral reflectance signatures and wet biomass estimates, were registered. To obtain regional reliability, the locations were chosen in order to represent the different Arctic vegetation communities in the study area; ranging from dry tundra vegetation communities (fell fields and dry dwarf scrubs) to moist/wet tundra vegetation communities (snowbeds, grasslands and fens). Spectral vegetation indices, including the simple ratio vegetation index (RVI) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were calculated. A comparison of SVIs to biomass proved that RVI gave the best linear expression, and NDVI the best exponential expression. A comparison of SVIs and the surface energy flux ratio G / Rn proved that NDVI gave the best linear expression. SPOT HRV images from July 1989 and 1992 were used to map NDVI and G / Rn at a regional scale. (author)

  15. Using Haines Index coupled with fire weather model predicted from high resolution LAM forecasts to asses wildfire extreme behaviour in Southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetani, Francesco; Baptiste Filippi, Jean; Simeoni, Albert; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2010-05-01

    Haines Index (HI) was developed by USDA Forest Service to measure the atmosphere's contribution to the growth potential of a wildfire. The Haines Index combines two atmospheric factors that are known to have an effect on wildfires: Stability and Dryness. As operational tools, HI proved its ability to predict plume dominated high intensity wildfires. However, since HI does not take into account the fuel continuity, composition and moisture conditions and the effects of wind and topography on fire behaviour, its use as forecasting tool should be carefully considered. In this work we propose the use of HI, predicted from HR Limited Area Model forecasts, coupled with a Fire Weather model (i.e., RISICO system) fully operational in Italy since 2003. RISICO is based on dynamic models able to represent in space and in time the effects that environment and vegetal physiology have on fuels and, in turn, on the potential behaviour of wildfires. The system automatically acquires from remote databases a thorough data-set of input information both of in situ and spatial nature. Meteorological observations, radar data, Limited Area Model weather forecasts, EO data, and fuel data are managed by a Unified Interface able to process a wide set of different data. Specific semi-physical models are used in the system to simulate the dynamics of the fuels (load and moisture contents of dead and live fuel) and the potential fire behaviour (rate of spread and linear intensity). A preliminary validation of this approach will be provided with reference to Sardinia and Corsica Islands, two major islands of the Mediterranean See frequently affected by extreme plume dominated wildfires. A time series of about 3000 wildfires burnt in Sardinia and Corsica in 2007 and 2008 will be used to evaluate the capability of HI coupled with the outputs of the Fire Weather model to forecast the actual risk in time and in space.

  16. Increase in body mass index and waist circumference is associated with high blood pressure in children and adolescents in Mexico city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel; Reyes de la Cruz, Lorenzo; Santos, José Ignacio

    2009-04-01

    Currently, obesity has become a worldwide health problem affecting even children and yet little is known about its role as a determinant of high blood pressure in this age group. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the relationship between the increment of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in children and teenagers. The study was performed in Mexico City schools. Overweight was established if BMI ranged from >or=85(th) to th) percentiles and obesity if BMI was >or=95(th) percentile. WC was classified in two categories, one ranging between the 75(th) and 89.9(th) percentiles and >90(th) percentile. Blood pressure was measured four times during one visit by the auscultatory method. High blood pressure was defined if the levels were >or=90(th) percentile according to the guidelines of the 2004 North American Task Force. Ages of the study population ranged from 5-8 (n = 474), 9-12 (n = 643) and 13-17 (n = 912) years, respectively. The levels of blood pressure and prevalence of high blood pressure were higher in overweight and obese children and adolescents. In both genders, the prevalence of SBP and DBP increased directly correlated with increments in age, BMI and WC, although prevalence and odd ratios of high blood pressure were higher in individuals with increased WC in comparison to BMI. Increases in WC and BMI are parameters directly associated with high blood pressure in children and adolescents.

  17. Mangrove vulnerability index using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Zulkifli Mohd; Ahmad, Fatimah Shafinaz; Ibrahim, Nuremira

    2018-02-01

    Climate change, particularly its associated sea level rise, is major threat to mangrove coastal areas, and it is essential to develop ways to reduce vulnerability through strategic management planning. Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. Mangrove vulnerability ranking using up to 14 parameters found in study area, which is in Pulau Kukup and Sg Pulai, where 1 is low vulnerability and 5 is very high vulnerability. Mangrove Vulnerability Index (MVI) is divided into 3 main categories Physical Mangrove Index (PMI), Biological Mangrove Index (BMI) and Hazard Mangrove Index (HMI).

  18. Index Bioclimatic "Wind-Chill"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoreanu Elena

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an important bioclimatic index which shows the influence of wind on the human body thermoregulation. When the air temperature is high, the wind increases thermal comfort. But more important for the body is the wind when the air temperature is low. When the air temperature is lower and wind speed higher, the human body is threatening to freeze faster. Cold wind index is used in Canada, USA, Russia (temperature "equivalent" to the facial skin etc., in the weather forecast every day in the cold season. The index can be used and for bioclimatic regionalization, in the form of skin temperature index.

  19. [Prevalence of high blood pressure and their association with body mass index in children between 5 and 11 years of Nahbalam, Yucatan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saury-Paredes, Leonel Alejandro

    To determine the prevalence of high blood pressure in children aged between 5-11 years in the community of Nahbalam, Yucatan, and its association with the body mass index. A transversal study with children of the primary school "Lazaro Cardenas del Rio" was performed, measuring blood pressure, height, and weight of 259 girls and boys; systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure equal or greater than percentile 95 for gender, age, and height at three measures was considered as hypertension; prehypertension was considered as blood pressure equal or greater than percentile 90 but lower than percentile 95. A prevalence of 11.9% prehypertension and 6.1% hypertension was found. There is an association between hypertension and overweight and obesity (p ≤ 0.001). The prevalence of high blood pressure in children of the community of Nahbalam, Yucatan, is 18%. The children with overweight and obesity have an almost tenfold greater risk of hypertension than the eutrophic children (OR: 9.896; 95% CI: 2.738-35.764).

  20. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas P J; Haus, Jacob M; Kelly, Karen R; Filion, Julianne; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score). Twenty-one adults (66.2±1.1 years; BMI=35.3±0.9 kg/m2) with the metabolic syndrome were randomized to 12 weeks of exercise (60 min/day for 5 days/week at about 85% HRmax) and provided a LoGIx (n=11) or HiGIx (n=10) diet. Z-scores were determined from: blood pressure, triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and waist circumference (WC) before and after the intervention. Body composition, aerobic fitness, insulin resistance, and nonesterfied fatty acid (NEFA) suppression were also assessed. LoGIx and HiGIx diets decreased body mass and insulin resistance and increased aerobic fitness comparably (pdiets decreased the Z-score similarly as each intervention decreased blood pressure, TGs, FPG and WC (pdiet tended to suppress NEFA during insulin stimulation compared with the LoGIx diet (p=0.06). Our findings highlight that exercise with weight loss reduces the severity of the metabolic syndrome whether individuals were randomized to a HiGIx or a LoGIx diet.

  1. Strain, magnetic anisotropy, and anisotropic magnetoresistance in (Ga,Mn)As on high-index substrates: Application to (113)A -oriented layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, L.; Donhauser, D.; Daeubler, J.; Glunk, M.; Rapp, C.; Schoch, W.; Sauer, R.; Limmer, W.

    2010-06-01

    Based on a detailed theoretical examination of the lattice distortion in high-index epilayers in terms of continuum mechanics, expressions are deduced that allow the calculation and experimental determination of the strain tensor for (hhl) -oriented (Ga,Mn)As layers. Analytical expressions are derived for the strain-dependent free-energy density and for the resistivity tensor for monoclinic and orthorhombic crystal symmetries, phenomenologically describing the magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance by appropriate anisotropy and resistivity parameters, respectively. Applying the results to (113)A orientation with monoclinic crystal symmetry, the expressions are used to determine the strain tensor and the shear angle of a series of (113)A -oriented (Ga,Mn)As layers by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and to probe the magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance at 4.2 K by means of angle-dependent magnetotransport. Whereas the transverse-resistivity parameters are nearly unaffected by the magnetic field, the parameters describing the longitudinal resistivity are strongly field dependent.

  2. Impact of AlN seeding layer growth rate in MOVPE growth of semi-polar gallium nitride structures on high index silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravash, Roghaiyeh; Blaesing, Juergen; Hempel, Thomas; Noltemeyer, Martin; Dadgar, Armin; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, FNW/IEP/AHE, Postfach 4120, 39016 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    We present metal organic vapor phase epitaxy growth of semi-polar GaN structures on high index silicon surfaces. The crystallographic structure of GaN grown on Si(112), (115), and (117) substrates is investigated by X-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction was performed in Bragg Brentano geometry as well as pole figure measurements. The results demonstrate that the orientation of GaN crystallites on Si is significantly dependent on thickness of the AlN seeding layer and TMAl-flow rate. We observe that the crystallographic structures of GaN by applying thin AlN seeding layers grown with high TMAl-flow rate depend on Si surface direction while they are independent for thicker layers. By applying such seeding layer we obtain single crystalline semi-polar GaN on Si(112), while GaN structures grown with the same growth parameters on Si(117) show four components of GaN(0002). (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Efficacy and safety of a therapeutic interchange from high-dose calcium channel blockers to a fixed-dose combination of amlodipine/benazepril in patients with moderate-to-severe hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilleman, D E; Reyes, A P; Wurdeman, R L; Faulkner, M

    2001-08-01

    Recent hypertension trials have demonstrated the importance of achieving goal blood pressures to reduce the risk of target organ damage. In patients with moderate to severe hypertension, the use of high-dose monotherapy and/or combinations of drugs are necessary to achieve these goals. Fixed-dose combination products may be useful in these patients by reducing the number of daily doses required to control blood pressure. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a therapeutic interchange between high-dose calcium channel blocker therapy and a fixed-dose combination of amlodipine/ benazepril (Lotrel; Novartis Pharmaceuticals, USA) in patients with moderate to severe hypertension. A total of 75 patients were switched from amlodipine (n = 25), felodipine (n = 25), and nifedipine-GITS (n = 25) to amlodipine/benazepril. Twenty-eight of the 75 patients (37%) were taking either a beta-blocker or a diuretic in addition to the high-dose calcium channel blocker prior to the switch. Blood pressure control, side effects and the cost of the therapeutic interchange were evaluated in the year following the therapeutic interchange. Sixty-six of the 75 (88%) patients were successfully switched with maintenance of blood pressure control and without the development of new dose-limiting side effects. Reasons for treatment failure after the therapeutic interchange included loss of blood pressure control in five patients and the development of new dose-limiting side effects in four patients. These side effects included cough in three patients and rash in one patient. After accounting for differences in drug acquisition cost and costs related to the switch (clinic and emergency room and laboratory tests), a cost savings of $16030 for all 75 patients was realised in the first year. The per patient-per year cost savings was $214. Our data indicate that a therapeutic interchange from selected high-dose calcium channel blockers to a fixed-dose combination

  4. New architectures for integrated optics: low-loss tight bends and on-chip high-index-contrast potassium double Tungstate waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sefünç, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on improving the performance of low-index-contrast waveguides in terms of reducing the bend losses and increasing the index contrast of waveguides by heterogeneous adhesive bonding and thinning. In the first part of this thesis, we have demonstrated that introducing a thin

  5. Pharmacokinetic Profiling of Conjugated Therapeutic Oligonucleotides: A High-Throughput Method Based Upon Serial Blood Microsampling Coupled to Peptide Nucleic Acid Hybridization Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Bruno M D C; Gilbert, James W; Haraszti, Reka A; Coles, Andrew H; Biscans, Annabelle; Roux, Loic; Nikan, Mehran; Echeverria, Dimas; Hassler, Matthew; Khvorova, Anastasia

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic oligonucleotides, such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), hold great promise for the treatment of incurable genetically defined disorders by targeting cognate toxic gene products for degradation. To achieve meaningful tissue distribution and efficacy in vivo, siRNAs must be conjugated or formulated. Clear understanding of the pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic behavior of these compounds is necessary to optimize and characterize the performance of therapeutic oligonucleotides in vivo. In this study, we describe a simple and reproducible methodology for the evaluation of in vivo blood/plasma PK profiles and tissue distribution of oligonucleotides. The method is based on serial blood microsampling from the saphenous vein, coupled to peptide nucleic acid hybridization assay for quantification of guide strands. Performed with minimal number of animals, this method allowed unequivocal detection and sensitive quantification without the need for amplification, or further modification of the oligonucleotides. Using this methodology, we compared plasma clearances and tissue distribution profiles of two different hydrophobically modified siRNAs (hsiRNAs). Notably, cholesterol-hsiRNA presented slow plasma clearances and mainly accumulated in the liver, whereas, phosphocholine-docosahexaenoic acid-hsiRNA was rapidly cleared from the plasma and preferably accumulated in the kidney. These data suggest that the PK/biodistribution profiles of modified hsiRNAs are determined by the chemical nature of the conjugate. Importantly, the method described in this study constitutes a simple platform to conduct pilot assessments of the basic clearance and tissue distribution profiles, which can be broadly applied for evaluation of new chemical variants of siRNAs and micro-RNAs.

  6. Towards new therapeutic strategies in chondrosarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrage, Yvonne Maria

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the identification of new targets for therapeutic treatment of chondrosarcoma, tumours that are highly insensitive to conventional chemo- and radiation thearapy. A relatively new array technique to identify active kinases in chondrosarcoma cell cultures was used, which

  7. Incidence, Risk Factors, and the Protective Effect of High Body Mass Index against Sarcopenia in Suburb-Dwelling Elderly Chinese Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, P; Zhao, J; Guo, Q; Wang, J; Zhang, W; Shen, S; Wang, X; Dong, R; Ma, Y; Kang, L; Fu, L; Jia, L; Han, X; He, Z; Bao, Y; Wang, L; Niu, K

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the risk factors of sarcopenia in certain cohorts. The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of sarcopenia and associated factors over a 1-year period in an elderly Chinese suburban population. This study was conducted on 356 Chinese suburb-dwelling participants aged ≥60 years, for whom detailed information regarding sociodemographics, behavioral characteristics, and medical conditions had been documented. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria. Sarcopenia incidence was documented after one year of follow-up, and correlated with several possible factors. At baseline, 64 (9.7%) of the initial 657 participants had sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 10.4% after one year. Between baseline and 1-year follow-up, 13 of the participants without sarcopenia at baseline had developed sarcopenia. After multivariate adjustments, it was found that the incidence of sarcopenia increased with age and high body mass index (BMI) is associated with less incidence of sarcopenia. Incidence was also higher among women. We found sarcopenia incidence increased with age, and women were more likely to have sarcopenia. A higher BMI is also associated with a lower incidence of sarcopenia. Maintaining a healthy weight could be beneficial in the prevention of sarcopenia.

  8. Numerical analysis of light extraction enhancement of GaN-based thin-film flip-chip light-emitting diodes with high-refractive-index buckling nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qing-Yang; Yang, Yang; Cheng, Zhen-Jia; Guo, Cheng-Shan

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based thin-film flip-chip (TFFC) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with high-refractive-index (TiO2) buckling nanostructures was studied using the three-dimensional finite difference time domain method. Compared with 2-D photonic crystals, the buckling structures have the advantages of a random directionality and a broad distribution in periodicity, which can effectively extract the guided light propagating in all azimuthal directions over a wide spectrum. Numerical studies revealed that the light extraction efficiency of buckling-structured LEDs reaches 1.1 times that of triangular lattice photonic crystals. The effects of the buckling structure feature sizes and the thickness of the N-GaN layer on the light extraction efficiency for TFFC LEDs were also investigated systematically. With optimized structural parameters, a significant light extraction enhancement of about 2.6 times was achieved for TiO2 buckling-structured TFFC LEDs compared with planar LEDs.

  9. Comparison of two methods for calculating the mean vascularization index of ovarian stroma on the basis of spatio-temporal image correlation high-definition flow technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudla, Marek J; Kandzia, Tomasz; Alcázar, Juan Luis

    2013-11-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the agreement between two different methods for calculating the mean vascularization index (VI) of ovarian stroma using spatio-temporal image correlation-high definition flow (STIC-HDF) technology. Stored 4-D STIC-HDF volume data for ovaries of 34 premenopausal women were assessed retrospectively. We calculated the mean VI from the VI values derived for each 3-D volume within the STIC sequence. Then, the examiner subjectively selected the two volumes with the highest and lowest color signals, respectively. We averaged these two values. Agreement between VI measurements was estimated by calculating intra-class correlation coefficients. The intra-class correlation coefficient for the VI was 0.999 (95% confidence interval: 0.999-1.000). The mean time needed to calculate the mean VI using the entire 4-D STIC sequence was significantly longer than the mean time needed to calculate the average value from the volumes with the highest and lowest color signals determined by the operator (p < 0001). We conclude that there is significant agreement between the two methods. Calculating the average VI from the highest and lowest values is less time consuming than calculating the mean VI from the complete STIC sequence. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of Single Sugars, Including Inulin, in Plants and Feed Materials by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Refraction Index Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Weiß

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The exact and reliable detection of sugar monomers and fructans provides important information for the evaluation of carbohydrate metabolism in plants and animals. Using the HPLC method; a large number of samples and single sugars; with both high sensitivity and selectivity; may be analysed. It was shown that the described method—using a Nucleosil column loaded with Pb2+ ions; a refractive index detector (RID; and HPLC-grade water as the eluent—gives precise and reproducible results regarding the detection of individual sugars in extracts of plants and feed materials. The method can be applied for the detection of sucrose; maltose; lactose; xylose; glucose; galactose; arabinose; fructose; ribose; and mannitol. Furthermore; depending on the plant material; the sugars verbascose; stachyose; and raffinose can be separated. The peaks were well resolved and the reproducibility of the analysis; with 94–108% of recovery (RC and relative standard deviation (RSD of up to 5%; was very good. The method was successfully applied to a variety of green forages and samples of sugar beet pulp silages. It is also possible to determine fructan with inulin as a standard; together with the other sugars; or alone by a different protocol and column.

  11. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals ( P cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms ( P cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale ( P cows had significantly longer ( P heat stress in Nguni cows.

  12. The sensitivity of gamma-index method to the positioning errors of high-definition MLC in patient-specific VMAT QA for SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-in; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Jin Ho; Ye, Sung-Joon; Park, Jong Min

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of various gamma criteria used in the gamma-index method for patient-specific volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using a flattening filter free (FFF) photon beam. Three types of intentional misalignments were introduced to original high-definition multi-leaf collimator (HD-MLC) plans. The first type, referred to Class Out, involved the opening of each bank of leaves. The second type, Class In, involved the closing of each bank of leaves. The third type, Class Shift, involved the shifting of each bank of leaves towards the ground. Patient-specific QAs for the original and the modified plans were performed with MapCHECK2 and EBT2 films. The sensitivity of the gamma-index method using criteria of 1%/1 mm, 1.5%/1.5 mm, 1%/2 mm, 2%/1 mm and 2%/2 mm was investigated with absolute passing rates according to the magnitudes of MLCs misalignments. In addition, the changes in dose-volumetric indicators due to the magnitudes of MLC misalignments were investigated. The correlations between passing rates and the changes in dose-volumetric indicators were also investigated using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (γ). The criterion of 2%/1 mm was able to detect Class Out and Class In MLC misalignments of 0.5 mm and Class Shift misalignments of 1 mm. The widely adopted clinical criterion of 2%/2 mm was not able to detect 0.5 mm MLC errors of the Class Out or Class In types, and also unable to detect 3 mm Class Shift errors. No correlations were observed between dose-volumetric changes and gamma passing rates (γ < 0.8). Gamma criterion of 2%/1 mm was found to be suitable as a tolerance level with passing rates of 90% and 80% for patient-specific VMAT QA for SBRT when using MapCHECK2 and EBT2 film, respectively

  13. Pomegranate juice, but not an extract, confers a lower glycemic response on a high-glycemic index food: randomized, crossover, controlled trials in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimi, Asimina; Nyambe-Silavwe, Hilda; Gauer, Julia S; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Williamson, Gary

    2017-12-01

    Background: Low-glycemic index diets have demonstrated health benefits associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Objectives: We tested whether pomegranate polyphenols could lower the glycemic response of a high-glycemic index food when consumed together and the mechanism by which this might occur. Design: We compared the acute effect of a pomegranate juice and a polyphenol-rich extract from pomegranate (supplement) on the bread-derived postprandial blood glucose concentration in 2 randomized, crossover, controlled studies (double-blinded for the supplements), each on 16 healthy volunteers. An additional randomized, crossover, controlled study on 16 volunteers consuming constituent fruit acids in a pH-balanced solution (same pH as pomegranate) and bread was conducted to determine any contributions to postprandial responses caused by acidic beverages. Results: As primary outcome, the incremental area under the curve for bread-derived blood glucose (-33.1% ± 18.1%, P = 0.000005) and peak blood glucose (25.4% ± 19.3%, P = 0.0004) were attenuated by pomegranate juice, compared with a control solution containing the equivalent amount of sugars. In contrast, the pomegranate supplement, or a solution containing the malic and citric acid components of the juice, was ineffective. The pomegranate polyphenol punicalagin was a very effective inhibitor of human α-amylase in vitro, comparable to the drug acarbose. Neither the pomegranate extract nor the individual component polyphenols inhibited 14 C-D-glucose transport across differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers, but they inhibited uptake of 14 C-glucose into Xenopus oocytes expressing the human glucose transporter type 2. Further, some of the predicted pomegranate gut microbiota metabolites modulated 14 C-D-glucose and 14 C-deoxy-D-glucose uptake into hepatic HepG2 cells. Conclusions: These data indicate that pomegranate polyphenols, when present in a beverage but not in a supplement, can reduce the

  14. [Health security--GMOs in therapeutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouvin, J-H

    2003-03-01

    The recent progress in human therapeutics has been made possible thanks to molecular biology and its use in producing proteins having the same sequence and structure as that of human proteins. The use of GMOs allows production of proteins with high added value in therapeutics, which are of satisfactory quality. GMOs may also be directly administered to patients as gene therapy vectors. However, the use of GMOs in therapeutics must take into consideration some risks, particularly those of microbiological contamination, of neo-antigenicity as well as environmental risks with regard to the way of use of the GMO. Nevertheless, those risks are taken in due consideration in the development of these new medicinal products; solutions have been found to allow their use in therapeutics with a very positive benefit/risk ratio. Medicinal products from biotechnology have enabled considerable therapeutic progress without compromising health security.

  15. Sinigrin and Its Therapeutic Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Mazumder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sinigrin (allyl-glucosinolate or 2-propenyl-glucosinolate is a natural aliphatic glucosinolate present in plants of the Brassicaceae family, such as broccoli and brussels sprouts, and the seeds of Brassica nigra (mustard seeds which contain high amounts of sinigrin. Since ancient times, mustard has been used by mankind for its culinary, as well as medicinal, properties. It has been systematically described and evaluated in the classical Ayurvedic texts. Studies conducted on the pharmacological activities of sinigrin have revealed anti-cancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing properties and biofumigation. This current review will bring concise information about the known therapeutic activities of sinigrin. However, the information on known biological activities is very limited and, hence, further studies still need to be conducted and its molecular mechanisms also need to be explored. This review on the therapeutic benefits of sinigrin can summarize current knowledge about this unique phytocompounds.

  16. Proliferative activity (MIB-1 index) is an independent prognostic parameter in patients with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas of subtypes other than malignant fibrous histiocytomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, V; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bentzen, S M

    1998-01-01

    . The proliferative activity was assessed by use of the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 and evaluated in multiple, random systematic sampled fields of vision. The percentage of proliferating cells (the MIB-1 index) ranged between 1% and 85% (median 12%). A significant increase in mean MIB-1 index was seen with increasing...... histological malignancy grade. Variation in the incidence of p53 accumulation and bcl-2 positivity among different histological subtypes was observed. p53 accumulation was frequent in synovial sarcomas and leiomyo- and rhabdomyosarcomas, whereas bcl-2 preferentially was expressed in synovial sarcomas....... Univariate analysis identified patient age, tumour size, histological grade of malignancy, MIB-1 index and p53 accumulation as significant prognostic parameters. Multivariate Cox analysis, including tests for interaction terms between histological subtypes and MIB-1 index, showed independent prognostic...

  17. The relationship between high-frequency pure-tone hearing loss, hearing in noise test (HINT) thresholds, and the articulation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermiglio, Andrew J; Soli, Sigfrid D; Freed, Daniel J; Fisher, Laurel M

    2012-01-01

    Speech recognition in noise testing has been conducted at least since the 1940s (Dickson et al, 1946). The ability to recognize speech in noise is a distinct function of the auditory system (Plomp, 1978). According to Kochkin (2002), difficulty recognizing speech in noise is the primary complaint of hearing aid users. However, speech recognition in noise testing has not found widespread use in the field of audiology (Mueller, 2003; Strom, 2003; Tannenbaum and Rosenfeld, 1996). The audiogram has been used as the "gold standard" for hearing ability. However, the audiogram is a poor indicator of speech recognition in noise ability. This study investigates the relationship between pure-tone thresholds, the articulation index, and the ability to recognize speech in quiet and in noise. Pure-tone thresholds were measured for audiometric frequencies 250-6000 Hz. Pure-tone threshold groups were created. These included a normal threshold group and slight, mild, severe, and profound high-frequency pure-tone threshold groups. Speech recognition thresholds in quiet and in noise were obtained using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) (Nilsson et al, 1994; Vermiglio, 2008). The articulation index was determined by using Pavlovic's method with pure-tone thresholds (Pavlovic, 1989, 1991). Two hundred seventy-eight participants were tested. All participants were native speakers of American English. Sixty-three of the original participants were removed in order to create groups of participants with normal low-frequency pure-tone thresholds and relatively symmetrical high-frequency pure-tone threshold groups. The final set of 215 participants had a mean age of 33 yr with a range of 17-59 yr. Pure-tone threshold data were collected using the Hughson-Weslake procedure. Speech recognition data were collected using a Windows-based HINT software system. Statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive, correlational, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) statistics. The

  18. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  19. EJSCREEN Indexes 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  20. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  1. Antiretroviral therapeutic drug monitoring

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Winnie

    hepatotoxicity, particularly among women with a lower body mass index, reported in ... limitations of TDM. Lastly, the potential role of TDM in southern Africa will be discussed. ... higher rates of virological suppression in the TDM arms. However ...

  2. High-frequency ultrasound imaging of tattoo reactions with histopathology as a comparative method. Introduction of preoperative ultrasound diagnostics as a guide to therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, K Hutton; Tolstrup, J; Serup, J

    2014-08-01

    Tattoo adverse reactions requiring diagnostic evaluation and treatment are becoming more common. The aim of this study was to assess tattoo reactions by 20-MHz ultrasonography referenced to histopathology as a comparative method. A total of 73 individuals with clinical adverse reactions in their tattoos were studied. Punch biopsies for reference histology were available from 58 patients. The Dermascan C(®) of Cortex Technology, Denmark, was employed. Total skin thickness and echo density of the echolucent band in the outer dermis were measured. Biopsy served for diagnosis and for determination of the level of cellular infiltration in the dermis. In every tattoo reaction studied, the skin affected was found thicker compared with regional control of the same individual (mean difference 0.73 mm). A prominent echolucent band of mean thickness 0.89 mm was demonstrated, primarily located in the very outer dermis but propagating to deeper dermal layers parallel to increasing severity of reactions. The thickness of the echolucent band correlated with the thickness of cellular infiltration determined by microscopic examination, R = 0.6412 (P tattoo reactions showed no distinct characteristics by ultrasound, but mainly displayed themselves by their advanced inflammatory component. It is demonstrated for the first time that ultrasound, with histopathology as the comparative method, can quantify the severity of tattoo reactions and non-invasively diagnose the depth of the inflammatory process in the dermis elicited by the microparticulate tattoo pigment, which itself is too minute to be imaged by ultrasound. Preoperative 20-MHz ultrasound scanning is introduced as a potentially useful method to guide therapeutic interventions by surgery and lasers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Therapeutic Responses of Psychopathic Sexual Offenders: Treatment Attrition, Therapeutic Change, and Long-Term Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the therapeutic responses of psychopathic sex offenders (greater than or equal to 25 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; PCL-R) in terms of treatment dropout and therapeutic change, as well as sexual and violent recidivism over a 10-year follow-up among 156 federally incarcerated sex offenders treated in a high-intensity inpatient…

  4. Fabrication of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots-based white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chih-Chun; Su, Yu-Sheng; Chung, Shu-Ru

    2017-09-01

    Among solid-state lighting technology, phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (pc-WLEDs) are excellent candidates to replace incandescent lamps for their merit of high energy conservation, long lifetime, high luminous efficiency as well as polarized emissions. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are emerging color tunable emissive light converters. They have shown significant promise as light emitters, as solar cells, and in biological imaging. It has been demonstrated that the pc-WLED devices integrated with red emissive ZnCdSe QDs show improved color rendering index of device. However, cadmium-based QDs have limited future owing to the well-known toxicity. Recently, non-cadmium luminescence materials, i.e. CuInS2-based QDs, are investigated as desirable low toxic alternatives. Particularly, CuInS2-based QDs exhibit very broad emissions spectra with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 100-120 nm, large Stokes shifts of 200 300 meV and finely-tunable emissions. In order to adjust emission wavelengths and improved quantum yield (QY), CuInS2/ZnS (CIS/ZnS) core/shell structure was introduced. Therefore, CIS/ZnS QDs have been extensively investigated and be used as color converter in solid-state lighting. Synthesis and application of CuInS2/ZnS core/shell QDs are conducted using a hot injection route. CIS/ZnS core/shell QDs with molar ratio of Cu:In equal to 1:4 are prepared. For WLED fabrication, the CIS/ZnS QD is dispersed in toluene first, and then it is blended with transparent acrylic-based UV resin. Subsequently, the commercial green-emitting Lu3Al5O12: Ce3+ (LuAG) phosphors are mixed with QDs-resin mixture. After that, the QDs-phosphors-resin mixtures are put in the oven at 140 °C for 1 h to evaporate the toluene. Subsequently, the homogeneous QDs-phosphors-resin mixture is dropped on the top of a blue LED chip (InGaN). Then, the device is cured by 400 W UV light to form WLED. The emission wavelength of CIS/ZnS QD exhibits yellow region of 552 nm with QY

  5. High-molecular-weight adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with polycystic ovary syndrome independent of body mass index and severity of insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, A

    2010-03-01

    Context: High-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin contributes to insulin resistance (IR), which is closely associated with the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abnormalities in adipocyte function have been identified in PCOS and potentially contribute to lower adiponectin concentrations. Objective: Our objective was to determine which variables in plasma and adipose tissue influence HMW adiponectin in a well characterized cohort of women with PCOS. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Settings and Participants: A teaching hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 98) and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 103) (including 68 age-, BMI-, and IR-matched pairs). Interventions: A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed for each participant. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were taken by needle biopsy for a subset of PCOS women (n = 9) and controls (n = 8). Main Outcome Measures: Serum levels of HMW adiponectin and their relation to indices of insulin sensitivity, body composition, and circulating androgens as well as adipose tissue expression levels of ADIPOQ, TNFalpha, PPARgamma, and AR were assessed. Results: HMW adiponectin was significantly lower in women with PCOS compared with both BMI- and BMI- and IR-matched controls (P = 0.009 and P = 0.027, respectively). Although BMI and IR were the main predictors of HMW adiponectin, an interaction between waist to hip ratio and plasma testosterone contributed to its variance (P = 0.026). Adipose tissue gene expression analysis demonstrated that AR and TNFalpha (P = 0.008 and P = 0.035, respectively) but not ADIPOQ mRNA levels were increased in PCOS compared with controls. Conclusions: HMW adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with PCOS, independent of BMI and IR. Gene expression analysis suggests that posttranscriptional\\/translational modification contributes to reduced HMW adiponectin in PCOS.

  6. Soft drink prices, sales, body mass index and diabetes: Evidence from a panel of low-, middle- and high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Monsivais, Pablo; Suhrcke, Marc

    2017-12-01

    We take advantage of four different cross-country datasets containing data on 78 countries for the period 1999-2014, in order to assess the relationship of carbonated soft drinks' sales, as well as their prices, with body mass index (BMI), overweight, obesity and diabetes. Using an ecological study design and multivariate regression longitudinal estimation approaches, we find that carbonated soft drink sales were significantly positively related to BMI, overweight and obesity - but only in the low and lower-middle income countries. This finding was robust to a number of sensitivity and falsification checks. In this sub-sample, an increase in per capita soft drink sales by 1 litre per year was related to an increase of BMI by about 0.009 kg/m 2 (p < 0.1).. This is a small effect, implying that halving annual consumption per capita in this group of countries would result in a drop of BMI by only about 0.03 kg/m 2 . Although soft drink prices were negatively related to weight-related outcomes in the sample of higher middle income and high income countries, this finding was not robust to falsification checks. The results thus suggest that sales restrictions to steer consumers away from soft drinks could indeed have a beneficial health effects in poorer countries, although the effect magnitude appears to be very small. However, given potential limitations of using ecological research design, results from individual level studies would be required to further ascertain the role of soft drink sales and prices in obesity and diabetes.

  7. High color rendering index of remote-type white LEDs with multi-layered quantum dot-phosphor films and short-wavelength pass dichroic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Oh, Ji Hye; Do, Young Rag

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces high color rendering index (CRI) white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) coated with red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors and yellowish-green emitting AgIn5S8/ZnS (AIS/ZS) quantum dots (QDs) on glass or a short-wavelength pass dichroic filter (SPDF), which transmit blue wavelength regions and reflect yellow wavelength regions. The red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphor film is coated on glass and a SPDF using a screen printing method, and then the yellowish-green emitting AIS/ZS QDs are coated on the red phosphor (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu film-coated glass and SPDF using the electrospray (e-spray) method.To fabricate the red phosphor film, the optimum amount of phosphor is dispersed in a silicon binder to form a red phosphor paste. The AIS/ZS QDs are mixed with dimethylformamide (DMF), toluene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for the e-spray coating. The substrates are spin-coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to fabricate a conductive surface. The CRI of the white LEDs is improved through inserting the red phosphor film between the QD layer and the glass substrate. Furthermore, the light intensities of the multi-layered phosphor films are enhanced through changing the glass substrate to the SPDF. The correlated color temperatures (CCTs) vary as a function of the phosphor concentration in the phosphor paste. The optical properties of the yellowish-green AIS/ZS QDs and red (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors are characterized using photoluminescence (PL), and the multi-layered QD-phosphor films are measured using electroluminescence (EL) with an InGaN blue LED (λmax = 450 nm) at 60 mA.

  8. Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, Body Mass Index, and Waist Circumference among Young Adults from 24 Low- and Middle-Income and Two High-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-05-26

    Obesity and its comorbidities have emerged as a leading public health concern. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and sleep patterns, including duration and disturbances. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted with undergraduate university students that were randomly recruited in 26 universities in 24 low- and middle-income and two high-income countries. The sample included 18,211 (42.1% male and 57.9% female, mean age 21.0 in male and 20.7 years in female students) undergraduate university students. The overall BMI was a mean of 22.5 kg/m² for men and 22.0 kg/m² for women, and the mean WC was 78.4 cm for men and 73.8 cm for women. More than 39% of the students reported short sleep duration (≤6 h/day) and over 30% reported moderate to extreme sleep problems. In a linear multivariable regression, adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, short sleep duration was positively associated with BMI in both men and women, and was positively associated with WC among women but not among men. Sleep quality or problems among men were not associated with BMI, while among women mild sleep problems were inversely associated with BMI, and poor sleep quality or problems were positively associated with WC both among men and women. The study confirmed an association between short sleep duration and increased BMI and, among women, increased WC, and an association between poor sleep quality and increased WC but not BMI. Further, differences in the association between sleep characteristics and BMI and WC were found by region and country income.

  9. Elevated serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in fibromyalgia syndrome patients correlate with body mass index, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yangming; Haynes, Wanda L; Michalek, Joel E; Russell, I Jon

    2013-05-01

    The levels of several inflammatory cytokines are abnormal in many patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and may play a role in its pathogenesis. The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with the disease activity in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, but its role in FMS is unknown. We undertook this study to determine whether high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) is elevated in FMS and whether its levels relate to key biologic or clinical measures. One hundred and five patients with FMS (1990 ACR criteria) and 61 healthy normal controls (HNC) at a ratio of 2:1 were recruited. The serum concentrations of hsCRP, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The hsCRP levels were marginally higher in FMS than in HNC (p = 0.06) and its abnormality rate (>1.5 SD above the HNC mean) was significantly higher in FMS (25 %) compared with HNC (6.8 %) (p = 0.03). Serum IL-8 levels, IL-6 levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in FMS did not differ from those in HNC. Body mass index (BMI), ESR, IL-8, and IL-6 levels correlated with hsCRP levels in FMS. No associations were found between hsCRP and age, gender, ethnicity, or other clinical measures. Serum CRP levels were higher in FMS and significantly correlated with BMI, ESR, IL-8, and IL-6 levels, suggesting that inflammation may contribute to the symptoms in some FMS patients, particularly those who are obese. Weight loss and therapies directed against inflammation may be useful in the management of FMS patients with elevated hsCRP.

  10. Therapeutical aspect of trichomoniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Jelica

    2003-01-01

    phases proceeding in succession, in so far TV had not been eliminated by previous one. The number of cured patients, according to therapeutical phases, was shown in Table 4. Three patients (1.39 %, 2 males and 1 female were not cured in spite of all three completed phases of therapeutical protocol. In all three cases, TV was eliminated by MND application in dose of 3 g/daily, during two days. The failure of minute MND treatment was analyzed in relation to clinical forms of the infection (manifested or asymptomatic, as well as in relation to types of infection (single- or associated infection. The incidence of refractory trichomoniasis treated by a single metronidazole dose of 2 g was significantly higher in the group of patients with polyinfection (c2=18.270 p<0.01. There was no significant difference of resistance to a single MND dose between the groups with manifested and asymptomatic trichomoniasis (c2=0.321; p<0.01. The prevalence of TV in vaginal and urethral smears indicates the significant incidence of trichomoniasis in STD. TV was more frequently isolated in patients with clinically manifested infection. TV susceptibility to MND was tested in vitro in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The resistance of strains under in vitro conditions did not correlate with refractory feature of trichomoniasis to MND application [7 17, 18]. The success of trichomoniasis treatment depends upon multiple factors, including: a TV susceptibility to drug, b intravaginal redox potential, c drug concentration in situ, d associated microorganisms that may modify the amount of the drug available in situ [7, 18, 21]. The results of our investigation argue for the latter item, verifying that TV resistance to MND is higher in patients with polyinfection in relation to those with monoinfection (significant difference, c2=18.270; p<0.01. Repeated administration of low metronidazole doses may prolong the therapy of trichomonas infections, while application of high doses (over 3 g/day may result

  11. Dificuldade de aprendizagem: principais abordagens terapêuticas discutidas em artigos publicados nas principais revistas indexadas no LILACS de fonoaudiologia no período de 2001 a 2005 Learning difficulties: main therapeutic approaches in articles published in the main speech therapy journals from 2001 to 2005 - indexed on Lilacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Ferraz de Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar artigos referentes às dificuldades de aprendizagem, tendo como objetivos específicos classificar o tipo de artigo, além de analisar a abordagem e a nomenclatura utilizada para identificação dos problemas de aprendizagem, pelos autores dos mesmos, nas revistas de 2001 a 2005 com indexação no LILACS. MÉTODOS: foram selecionados artigos com base nas seguintes palavras chaves: dificuldade de aprendizagem, distúrbio de aprendizagem, dificuldade de leitura e/ou escrita, dislexia, disortografia e disgrafia. RESULTADOS: o tipo de artigo mais publicado foi artigo original, seguido de estudo de caso. A principal nomenclatura utilizada pelos autores foram distúrbios ou dificuldades de aprendizagem, e a abordagem mais citada foi aquela que contempla a consciência fonológica. Verificou-se 207 artigos em linguagem, sendo 22 referentes ao tema desse trabalho. CONCLUSÃO: existe uma escassez de publicação de trabalhos na área de linguagem, principalmente ao tema relacionado à dificuldade de aprendizagem que talvez seja explicado pela falta de consenso entre os autores, levando tanto a uma dificuldade diagnóstica como terapêutica.PURPOSE: to check articles regarding learning difficulties, with the specific objectives of classifying the type of article as well as analyzing the approach and nomenclature that the authors used in the identification of learning problems in publications from 2001 to 2005 - indexed on LILACS. METHODS: survey of articles taking into consideration the following key words: learning difficulty, learning disability, reading and/or writing difficulty, dyslexia, dysortography and dysgraphy. RESULTS: original article was the most published, followed by case study. The main nomenclature that the authors used were "learning disability" or "learning difficulty", and the most cited approach was the one addressing phonological awareness. We observed 207 articles on language, 22 of these articles referred to the

  12. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  13. Marketing therapeutic recreation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, B E

    1984-01-01

    The use of marketing strategies can enhance the delivery of therapeutic recreation services. This article discusses how agencies can adapt marketing techniques and use them to identify potential markets, improve image, evaluate external pressures, and maximize internal strengths. Four variables that can be controlled and manipulated in a proposed marketing plan are product, price, place and promotion.

  14. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  15. Therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.J.; Datz, F.L.; Beightol, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Whether a radiopharmaceutical has diagnostic or therapeutic application depends on both the isotope and pharmaceutical used. For diagnostic applications, the isotope should undergo only γ-decay, since usually only γ-radiation is detected by nuclear medicine cameras. The half-life should be just long enough to allow the procedure to be performed. In contrast, the isotope needed for therapeutic purposes should have particulate radiation, such as a β-particle (electron), since these are locally absorbed an increase the local radiation dose. γ-Radiation, which penetrates the tissues, produces less radiation dose than do Β-particles. Several references dealing with radioactive decay, particulate interactions, and diagnostic and therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals are available. Radiopharmaceuticals can legally be used only by physicians who are qualified by specific training in the safe handling of radionuclides. The experience and training of these physicians must be approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or Agreement State Agency authorized to license the use of radiopharmaceuticals. A list of all byproduct material and procedures is available in the Code of Federal Regulations. Of the many radiopharmaceuticals available for diagnostic and therapeutic use, only those commonly used are discussed in this chapter

  16. Suspected-target pesticide screening using gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with high resolution deconvolution and retention index/mass spectrum library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Haoyang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Ruojing; Yu, Chongtian; Wang, Wenwen; Guo, Yinlong

    2014-10-01

    A strategy for suspected-target screening of pesticide residues in complicated matrices was exploited using gas chromatography in combination with hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF MS). The screening workflow followed three key steps of, initial detection, preliminary identification, and final confirmation. The initial detection of components in a matrix was done by a high resolution mass spectrum deconvolution; the preliminary identification of suspected pesticides was based on a special retention index/mass spectrum (RI/MS) library that contained both the first-stage mass spectra (MS(1) spectra) and retention indices; and the final confirmation was accomplished by accurate mass measurements of representative ions with their response ratios from the MS(1) spectra or representative product ions from the second-stage mass spectra (MS(2) spectra). To evaluate the applicability of the workflow in real samples, three matrices of apple, spinach, and scallion, each spiked with 165 test pesticides in a set of concentrations, were selected as the models. The results showed that the use of high-resolution TOF enabled effective extractions of spectra from noisy chromatograms, which was based on a narrow mass window (5 mDa) and suspected-target compounds identified by the similarity match of deconvoluted full mass spectra and filtering of linear RIs. On average, over 74% of pesticides at 50 ng/mL could be identified using deconvolution and the RI/MS library. Over 80% of pesticides at 5 ng/mL or lower concentrations could be confirmed in each matrix using at least two representative ions with their response ratios from the MS(1) spectra. In addition, the application of product ion spectra was capable of confirming suspected pesticides with specificity for some pesticides in complicated matrices. In conclusion, GC-QTOF MS combined with the RI/MS library seems to be one of the most efficient tools for the analysis of suspected-target pesticide residues

  17. Therapeutic Strategy for Chronic Headache in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O. Lezhenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic efficacy of a combined homeopathic preparation Cefavora, which consists of alcoholic extracts of Ginkgo biloba, hawthorn (Crataegus and white mistletoe (Viscum album, has been studied in the treatment of chronic tension-type headache in children. It has been shown that alongside with elimination of headache manifestations, the use of homeopathic medicine has contributed to the normalization of adaptive mechanisms of autonomic regulation in children indicating its high therapeutic efficacy.

  18. Cerebral Pressure Passivity In Newborns With Encephalopathy Undergoing Therapeutic Hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinaswamy Bhavanandhan Govindan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We extended our recent modification of the power spectral estimation approach to quantify spectral coherence. We tested both the standard and the modified approaches on simulated data which showed that the modified approach was highly specific and sensitive to the coupling introduced in the simulation while the standard approach lacked these features. We also applied the modified and standard approaches to quantify the pressure passivity in 4 infants receiving therapeutic hypothermia. This was done by measuring the coupling between continuous cerebral hemoglobin differences and mean arterial blood pressure. Our results showed that the modified approach identified a lower pressure passivity index (PPI, percent time the coherence was above a predefined threshold than the standard approach ($P=0.0027$.

  19. New developments related to the Hirsch index

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the h-index on the one hand, and the A- and g-indices on the other, measure different things. The A-index, however, seems overly sensitive to one extremely highly cited article. For this reason it would seem that the g-index is the more useful of the two. As to the h- and the g-index: they do measure different aspects of a scientist’s publication list. Certainly the h-index does not tell the full story, and, although a more sensitive indicator than the h-index, neither does t...

  20. High-altitude hypoxia as a therapeutic factor in the management of X-ray and cytostatic lymphocytopenias in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, u.P.; Galkina, K.A.; Karabekova, Z.K.; Kudryavtsev, V.I.; Gudi, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to clarify possibilities of high-altitude conditions use in clinics to restore hematological indices deteriorating as a result of antitumoral radiation or cytostatic therapy. Using conventional methods the content of hemoglobin, the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes, leukocytic formula in the blood of patients have been determined. Using the method of hemocultures the ability of the blood serum to affect leukocyte migration of practically healthy people (donors) has been studied and by the method of amperometric titration the content of SH-groups in the blood is determined. In patients examined under high-altitude conditions the content of hemoglobin and the number of erythrocytes in blood increased, the level of total SH-groups of blood also grew. Blood serum of patients with the expressed lymphocytopenia instead of suppressing effect on leukocyte migration, observed under low-altitude conditions (Frunze), under high-altitude conditions attained the ability to increase leukocyte migration. The conclusion is made that high-altitude hypoxia is a positive factor in the treatment of radiation and cytostatic lymphopenias in cancer patients

  1. Associations of neonatal high birth weight with maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain: a case-control study in women from Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao Jie; Peng, Rong; Han, Lingli; Zhou, Xiaoli; Xiong, Zhengai; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Junnan; Yao, Ruoxue; Li, Tingyu; Zhao, Yong

    2016-08-16

    To examine the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with neonatal high birth weight (HBW) in a sample of Chinese women living in southwest China. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Chongqing, China. A total of 221 mothers who delivered HBW babies (>4.0 kg) were recruited as cases and 221 age-matched (2-year interval) mothers with normal birth weight babies (2.5-4.0 kg) were identified as controls. ORs were estimated using conditional logistic regression analysis. For the analysis, pre-pregnancy BMI was categorised as underweight/normal weight/overweight and obesity and GWG was categorised as inadequate/appropriate/excessive. Among the cases, mean pre-pregnancy BMI was 21.8±2.8 kg/m(2), mean GWG was 19.7±5.1 kg and mean neonatal birth weight was 4.2±0.2 kg. In the controls, the corresponding values were 21.1±3.1 kg/m(2), 16.4±5.0 kg and 3.3±0.4 kg, respectively. More cases than controls gained excessive weight during pregnancy (80.1% vs 48.4%, p0.05). GWG was positively related to HBW after adjustment for gravidity, gestational age, newborns' gender and family income (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.25; pweight women (OR=10.27, 95% CI 3.20 to 32.95; p<0.001). Overall, the findings suggest a significantly positive association between GWG and HBW. However, pre-pregnancy BMI shows no independent relationship with HBW. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Minimally invasive prediction of ScvO2 in high-risk surgery : The introduction of a model Index of Oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, Harm-Jan S.; Vos, Jaap Jan; Scheeren, Thomas; van Beest, Paul

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the trilateral relationship between cardiac index (CI), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and subsequently develop a model to predict ScvO2 on minimal invasive manner in patients undergoing major

  3. Combined therapy of mixed dyslipidemia in patients with high cardiovascular risk and changes in the lipid target values and atherogenic index of plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosolová, H.; Dobiášová, Milada; Soška, V.; Bláha, V.; Češka, R.; Nussbaumerová, B.; Pelikánová, T.; Souček, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2014), e133-e139 ISSN 1803-7712 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mixed dyslipidemia * atherogenic index of plasma (AIP=log[triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol]) * combined lipid modifying therapy Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  4. PYTHIOSIS: A THERAPEUTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. C. Falcão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pythiosis, a disease caused by the oomycete Pythium insidiosum, often presents inefficient response to chemotherapy. It is a consensus that, in spite the several therapeutic protocols, a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and immunotherapy should be used. Surgical excision requires the removal of the entire affected area, with a wide margin of safety. The use of antifungal drugs has resulted in variable results, both in vitro and in vivo, and presents low therapeutic efficiency due to differences in the agent characteristics, which differ from true fungi. Immunotherapy is a non-invasive alternative for the treatment of pythiosis, which aims at modifying the immune response of the host, thereby producing an effective response to the agent. Photodynamic therapy has emerged as a promising technique, with good activity against P. insidiosum in vitro and in vivo. However, more studies are necessary to increase the efficiency of the current treatment protocols and consequently improve the cure rates. This paper aims to conduct a review covering the conventional and recent therapeutic methods against P. insidiosum infections

  5. Prognostic model based on nailfold capillaroscopy for identifying Raynaud's phenomenon patients at high risk for the development of a scleroderma spectrum disorder: PRINCE (prognostic index for nailfold capillaroscopic examination).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingegnoli, Francesca; Boracchi, Patrizia; Gualtierotti, Roberta; Lubatti, Chiara; Meani, Laura; Zahalkova, Lenka; Zeni, Silvana; Fantini, Flavio

    2008-07-01

    To construct a prognostic index based on nailfold capillaroscopic examinations that is capable of predicting the 5-year transition from isolated Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) to RP secondary to scleroderma spectrum disorders (SSDs). The study involved 104 consecutive adult patients with a clinical history of isolated RP, and the index was externally validated in another cohort of 100 patients with the same characteristics. Both groups were followed up for 1-8 years. Six variables were examined because of their potential prognostic relevance (branching, enlarged and giant loops, capillary disorganization, microhemorrhages, and the number of capillaries). The only factors that played a significant prognostic role were the presence of giant loops (hazard ratio [HR] 2.64, P = 0.008) and microhemorrhages (HR 2.33, P = 0.01), and the number of capillaries (analyzed as a continuous variable). The adjusted prognostic role of these factors was evaluated by means of multivariate regression analysis, and the results were used to construct an algorithm-based prognostic index. The model was internally and externally validated. Our prognostic capillaroscopic index identifies RP patients in whom the risk of developing SSDs is high. This model is a weighted combination of different capillaroscopy parameters that allows physicians to stratify RP patients easily, using a relatively simple diagram to deduce the prognosis. Our results suggest that this index could be used in clinical practice, and its further inclusion in prospective studies will undoubtedly help in exploring its potential in predicting treatment response.

  6. Therapeutic platelet reduction: Use in postsplenectomy thrombocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Negi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic platelet reduction is an effective modality for the reduction of platelet count in patients with treatment of extreme thrombocytosis resulting from a variety of primary and secondary causes of thrombocytosis, which may be associated with thrombotic or hemorrhagic complications of varying degrees. These cases when symptomatic fall into the ASFA Category II indication for therapeutic platelet apheresis procedure. Here, we report a case of postsplenectomy secondary thrombocytosis presenting with extremely high platelet counts and subsequent thrombosis in the shunt and successful treatment after therapeutic platelet reduction. The case is being presented to bring forth the fact that therapeutic platelet reduction is an easy procedure that gives quick and good results and also to bring to the attention of transfusion specialists an associated but as yet unreported procedural finding.

  7. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danbo Yang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(L-g-glutamylglutamine-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX. PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic.

  8. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Danbo; Yu, Lei; Van, Sang

    2010-01-01

    The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(l-γ-glutamylglutamine)-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX). PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic

  9. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Danbo [Biomedical Engineering and Technology Institute, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Yu, Lei, E-mail: yu-lei@gg.nitto.co.jp [Biomedical Engineering and Technology Institute, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Biomedical Group, Nitto Denko Technical Corporation, 501 Via Del Monte, Oceanside, CA 92058 (United States); Van, Sang [Biomedical Group, Nitto Denko Technical Corporation, 501 Via Del Monte, Oceanside, CA 92058 (United States)

    2010-12-23

    The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(l-γ-glutamylglutamine)-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX). PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic.

  10. T wave abnormalities, high body mass index, current smoking and high lipoprotein (a levels predict the development of major abnormal Q/QS patterns 20 years later. A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundstrom Johan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on risk factors for development of coronary heart disease (CHD have been based on the clinical outcome of CHD. Our aim was to identify factors that could predict the development of ECG markers of CHD, such as abnormal Q/QS patterns, ST segment depression and T wave abnormalities, in 70-year-old men, irrespective of clinical outcome. Methods Predictors for development of different ECG abnormalities were identified in a population-based study using stepwise logistic regression. Anthropometrical and metabolic factors, ECG abnormalities and vital signs from a health survey of men at age 50 were related to ECG abnormalities identified in the same cohort 20 years later. Results At the age of 70, 9% had developed a major abnormal Q/QS pattern, but 63% of these subjects had not been previously hospitalized due to MI, while 57% with symptomatic MI between age 50 and 70 had no major Q/QS pattern at age 70. T wave abnormalities (Odds ratio 3.11, 95% CI 1.18–8.17, high lipoprotein (a levels, high body mass index (BMI and smoking were identified as significant independent predictors for the development of abnormal major Q/QS patterns. T wave abnormalities and high fasting glucose levels were significant independent predictors for the development of ST segment depression without abnormal Q/QS pattern. Conclusion T wave abnormalities on resting ECG should be given special attention and correlated with clinical information. Risk factors for major Q/QS patterns need not be the same as traditional risk factors for clinically recognized CHD. High lipoprotein (a levels may be a stronger risk factor for silent myocardial infarction (MI compared to clinically recognized MI.

  11. Reactivating TP53 signaling by the novel MDM2 inhibitor DS-3032b as a therapeutic option for high-risk neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhold, Viktor; Schmelz, Karin; Proba, Jutta; Winkler, Annika; Wünschel, Jasmin; Toedling, Joern; Deubzer, Hedwig E.; Künkele, Annette; Eggert, Angelika; Schulte, Johannes H.; Hundsdoerfer, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Fewer than 50% of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma survive five years after diagnosis with current treatment protocols. Molecular targeted therapies are expected to improve survival. Although MDM2 has been validated as a promising target in preclinical models, no MDM2 inhibitors have yet entered clinical trials for neuroblastoma patients. Toxic side effects, poor bioavailability and low efficacy of the available MDM2 inhibitors that have entered phase I/II trials drive the development of novel MDM2 inhibitors with an improved risk-benefit profile. We investigated the effect of the novel MDM2 small molecular inhibitor, DS-3032b, on viability, proliferation, senescence, migration, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a panel of six neuroblastoma cell lines with different TP53 and MYCN genetic backgrounds, and assessed efficacy in a murine subcutaneous model for high-risk neuroblastoma. Re-analysis of existing expression data from 476 primary neuroblastomas showed that high-level MDM2 expression correlated with poor patient survival. DS-3032b treatment enhanced TP53 target gene expression and induced G1 cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis. CRISPR-mediated MDM2 knockout in neuroblastoma cells mimicked DS-3032b treatment. TP53 signaling was selectively activated by DS-3032b in neuroblastoma cells with wildtype TP53, regardless of the presence of MYCN amplification, but was significantly reduced by TP53 mutations or expression of a dominant-negative TP53 mutant. Oral DS-3032b administration inhibited xenograft tumor growth and prolonged mouse survival. Our in vitro and in vivo data demonstrate that DS-3032b reactivates TP53 signaling even in the presence of MYCN amplification in neuroblastoma cells, to reduce proliferative capacity and cause cytotoxicity. PMID:29416773

  12. The Prognostic Value of International Prognostic Index and MIB-l Immunostaining of Peripheral Lymphoid Tissues and Bone Marrow in Patients with High-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assem, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Cell kinetic data are important indicator of the aggressiveness of tumour and clinical response. The Ki-67 antigen plays a pivotal role in maintaining cell proliferation and the expression of this antigen was found to be a valuable indicator for aggressive disease in a variety of neoplastic disorders. Aim of the study: This study aimed to assess the prognostic significance of the expression of Ki-67 antigen in peripheral lymphoid tissues and bone marrow, using the monoclonal antibody MIB-l that is applicable in formaline-fixed paraffin embedded samples in cases with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Material and methods: The MIB-I immunostaining was performed on 96 samples from 48 patients with high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The study was performed on tissue sections, nodal or extra nodal, as well as on BM smears or BM paraffin embedded sections of same patients. Ki-67 index was determined using image analyzer. Results: Forty-five out of the studied 48 cases (93.8%) were positive with a median labelling index of 20.425% (Range, 0-58%). We were able to detect bone marrow involvement by detecting MIB-l positive cells in BM samples of 29 patients who were not morphologically diagnosed to have BM infiltration. There was a strong correlation between BM positivity for Ki-67 and Ki-67 labelling index (p < 0.001). Twenty-eight (58.3%) out of the studied 48 cases achieved complete remission (CR). The median duration of CR was 35 months (range, 8-42 months) and the overall survival at 48 months was 35.4% (median 22 months, 95% CI, 13-31 months). The median Ki-67 index (20.425%) was chosen as a cut-off level for statistical analysis of the variables that influence clinical outcome. The probability of inducing CR was associated with low and low intermediate International Prognostic Index (IPI) whereas a low growth fraction was associated, although not significant, with a trend toward a higher probability of inducing a CR. In univariate analysis, high MIB1 labelling

  13. How indexes have changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The accompanying table compares refinery construction and operating wages monthly for the years 1990 and 1991. The Nelson-Farrar refinery construction cost indexes are inflation indexes, while the operating indexes incorporate a productivity which shows improvement with experience and the increasing size of operations. The refinery construction wage indexes in the table show a steady advance over the 2-year period. Common labor indexes moved up faster than skilled indexes. Refinery operating wages showed a steady increase, while productivities averaged higher near the end of the period. Net result is that labor costs remained steady for the period

  14. Assessing the usefulness of the water poverty index by applying it to a special case: Can one be water poor with high levels of access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komnenic, V.; Ahlers, R.; Zaag, P. van der

    Using indices and indicators in assessment of progress of a developing country has two sides. Such indicators offer an easy-to-understand shorthand/synopsis of issues vital for a country’s development. The other side of the coin, however, is that this synopsis may be distorted due to incorrect data or inapplicability of an index or an indicator to a specific case. This paper assesses the applicability of Water Poverty Index for the countries riparian to the Sava sub-basin, a tributary to the Danube river basin and presents the results of its application. At the same time, the paper discusses the concept of water poverty and the appropriateness of its use in the case of Sava River Basin countries by differentiating the economic poverty in some of those countries from sufficient access to and use of water resources in all of them.

  15. Acute Organophosphate Poisonings: Therapeutic Dilemmas and New Potential Therapeutic Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucinic, S.; Jovanovic, D.; Vucinic, Z.; Todorovic, V.; Segrt, Z.

    2007-01-01

    It has been six decades since synthesis of organophosphates, but this chapter has not yet come to a closure. Toxic effects of organophosphates are well known and the current therapeutic scheme includes supportive therapy and antidotes. There is a dilemma on whether and when to apply gastric lavage and activated charcoal. According to Position Statement (by EAPCCT) it should be applied only if the patient presents within one hour of ingestion, with potentially lethal ingested dose. Atropine, a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine at m-receptors, which antagonizes bronchosecretion and bronchoconstriction, is the corner stone of acute organophosphate poisoning therapy. There were many attempts to find a more efficient drug, including glycopyrrolate which has been used even in clinical trials, but it still can not replace atropine. The only dilemma about atropine usage which still exists, concerns usage of high atropine dose and scheme of application. The most efficient atropinization is achieved with bolus doses of 1-2mg of atropine i.v push, with repeating the dose on each 5 minutes until signs of atropinization are registered. Diazepam, with its GABA stabilizing effect, reduces central nervous system damage and central respiratory weakness. Oximes reactivate phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase, which still has not gone ageing, reducing acetylcholine concentration and cholinergic crisis. These effects are clearly demonstrated in experimental conditions, but the clinical significance of oximes is still unclear and there are still those who question oxime therapy. For those who approve it, oxime dosage, duration of therapy, the choice of oxime for certain OP is still an open issue. We need new, more efficient antidotes, and those that are in use are only the small part of the therapy which could be used. Experimental studies show favorable therapeutic effect of many agents, but none of them has been introduced in standard treatment of OPI poisoning in the last 30

  16. Popular heavy particle beam cancer therapeutic system (3). Development of high efficiency compact incident system-2. Great success of beam test of new APF-IH type DTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Iwata, Yoshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    High efficiency compact incident system consists of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator and an interdigital H-mode (IH) drift tube linear accelerator (DTL). IH type DTL and alternating phase focusing (APF) method is explained. Its special features, production, and beam test are reported. The electric field generation method, outline of the APF method, drift tube, IH type DTL, distribution of electric field and voltage, set up of beam test, ECR ion source and incident line, the inside structure of the RFQ type linear accelerator and the APF-IH type DTL, matching Q lens section, beam, emittance, measurement results of momentum dispersion are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  17. High index surfaces of Au-nanocrystals supported on one-dimensional MoO3-nanorod as a bi-functional electrocatalyst for ethanol oxidation and oxygen reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppasamy, L.; Chen, C.Y.; Anandan, S.; Wu, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Synthesis of a new class of Au nanocrystals enclosed with high index surface supported on MoO 3 nanorods by ultrasonic probe method. •The role of supporting materials reduces the loading of Au and acts as a co-catalyst. •The as prepared electrocatalyst exhibits enhanced catalytic activity and stability towards both EOR and ORR. -- Abstract: The design of highly active electrocatalyst for ethanol electrooxidation (EOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is of great significance for the improvement of efficient direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). Therefore, creating high index facets nanocrystals with abundant catalytic active sites of stepped atoms is an effective way to enhance the electrocatalytic performance. In this article, we prepared the high index surface structures of Au nanocrystals supported on one-dimensional (1-D) MoO 3 nanorods by using two steps ultrasonic probe irradiation method. The size and physical properties of as electrocatalysts were studied by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrumentation. Besides, the catalytic activity of as Au-MoO 3 electrocatalyst was determined by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometric (CA), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), CO-stripping, and linear sweep voltammetry-rotating disk electrode (LSV-RDE). As a consequence, the Au-MoO 3 nanocomposites has been considered as an effective electrocatalyst for both ethanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction.

  18. Digital radiography: are the manufacturers' settings too high? Optimisation of the Kodak digital radiography system with aid of the computed radiography dose index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Sinead E.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturers offer exposure indices as a safeguard against overexposure in computed radiography, but the basis for recommended values is unclear. This study establishes an optimum exposure index to be used as a guideline for a specific CR system to minimise radiation exposures for computed mobile chest radiography, and compares this with manufacturer guidelines and current practice. An anthropomorphic phantom was employed to establish the minimum milliamperes consistent with acceptable image quality for mobile chest radiography images. This was found to be 2 mAs. Consecutively, 10 patients were exposed with this optimised milliampere value and 10 patients were exposed with the 3.2 mAs routinely used in the department of the study. Image quality was objectively assessed using anatomical criteria. Retrospective analyses of 717 exposure indices recorded over 2 months from mobile chest examinations were performed. The optimised milliampere value provided a significant reduction of the average exposure index from 1840 to 1570 (p<0.0001). This new ''optimum'' exposure index is substantially lower than manufacturer guidelines of 2000 and significantly lower than exposure indices from the retrospective study (1890). Retrospective data showed a significant increase in exposure indices if the examination was performed out of hours. The data provided by this study emphasise the need for clinicians and personnel to consider establishing their own optimum exposure indices for digital investigations rather than simply accepting manufacturers' guidelines. Such an approach, along with regular monitoring of indices, may result in a substantial reduction in patient exposure. (orig.)

  19. Is Shock Index a Valid Predictor of Mortality in Emergency Department Patients With Hypertension, Diabetes, High Age, or Receipt of β- or Calcium Channel Blockers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders K B; Holler, Jon G; Hallas, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Shock index is a widely reported tool to identify patients at risk for circulatory collapse. We hypothesize that old age, diabetes, hypertension, and β- or calcium channel blockers weaken the association between shock index and mortality. METHODS: This was a cohort study of all...... first-time emergency department (ED) visits between 1995 and 2011 (n=111,019). We examined whether age 65 years or older, diabetes, hypertension, and use of β- or calcium channel blockers modified the association between shock index and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: The 30-day mortality was 3.0%. For all...... than or equal to 1 in patients aged 65 years or older was 8.2 (95% CI 7.2 to 9.4) compared with 18.9 (95% CI 15.6 to 23.0) in younger patients. β- Or calcium channel-blocked patients had an OR of 6.4 (95% CI 4.9 to 8.3) versus 12.3 (95% CI 11.0 to 13.8) in nonusers and hypertensive patients had...

  20. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase indexes and n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio as biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk factors in normal-weight rabbits fed high fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Gabriela; Roco, Julieta; Medina, Analia; Van Nieuwenhove, Carina; Medina, Mirta; Jerez, Susana

    2016-01-20

    Biomarkers for cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors would be important tools to maximize the effectiveness of dietary interventions to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) indexes and n-6/n-3 fatty acids (FA) ratio as biomarkers of CMR induced by feeding rabbits on high fat diets (HFDs). Rabbits were fed either regular diet or 18 % fat in regular diet (HFD) or 1 % cholesterol diet (HD) or diet containing 1 % cholesterol and 18 % fat (HFD-HD) during 6 weeks. Body weights (BW), blood pressure, visceral abdominal fat (VAF) and glucose tolerance test were determined. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), fasting glucose (FG), and FA levels from plasma were measured. SCD indexes were calculated as product/precursor ratios of individual FA. BW was similar in all diet groups. HD increased TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG. HFD increased TG, VAF and FG, and decreased HDL-C. The addition of HFD to HD joined to dyslipidemia increased VAF and FG. SCD indexes were increased and n-6/n-3 was unchanged in HD. SCD indexes were reduced and n-6/n-3 FA ratio was increased in HFD and HFD-HD. CMR factors were correlated positively with n-6/n-3 FA ratio. Although VAF had a stronger correlation with n-6/n-3 FA ratio than with SCD indexes, VAF was associated independently to both markers. HFD simulating lipid composition of the average Western-style diet induced experimental rabbit models of normal-weight metabolic syndrome (MS). SCD indexes and n-6/n-3 were modified according to the type of dietary fat. Considering that VAF and CMR factors appear to be stronger associated to n-6/n-3 FA ratio than to SCD indexes, n-6/n-3 FA ratio may be a better biomarker of MS and CMR in normal-weight subjects than SCD indexes.

  1. Stroke and Therapeutic Hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Ozkan Kuscu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is significant cause of morbidity and mortality caused by disruption of blood flow. Neural injury occurs with two stage; while primary neural injury occurs with disruption of blood flow, after days and hours with metabolic processes secondary injury develops in tissues which is non injured in the first stage. Therefore it is important to prevent and treat the secondary injury as much as preventing and treating the primary neural injury. In this article developing pathophysiological changes after stroke, mechanisms of therapeutic hypothermia, application methods, the factors that determine the effectiveness, side effects and complications were reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(3.000: 351-368

  2. Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  3. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  4. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  5. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  6. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  7. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  8. Potential Therapeutic Applications of Mucuna pruriens Peptide Fractions Purified by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography as Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Antioxidants, Antithrombotic and Hypocholesterolemic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Chalé, Francisco; Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Betancur-Ancona, David; Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi

    2016-02-01

    A Mucuna pruriens protein concentrate was hydrolyzed with a digestive (pepsin-pancreatin) enzymatic system. The soluble portion of the hydrolysate was fractionated by ultrafiltration and the ultrafiltered peptide fraction (PF) with lower molecular weight was purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The PF obtained were evaluated by testing the biological activity in vitro. Fractions showed that the ability to inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme had IC50 values that ranged from 2.7 to 6.2 μg/mL. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values ranged from 132.20 to 507.43 mM/mg. The inhibition of human platelet aggregation ranged from 1.59% to 11.11%, and the inhibition of cholesterol micellar solubility ranged from 0.24% to 0.47%. Hydrophobicity, size, and amino acid sequence could be factors in determining the biological activity of peptides contained in fractions. This is the first report that M. pruriens peptides act as antihypertensives, antioxidants, and inhibitors for human platelet aggregation and cholesterol micellar solubility in vitro.

  9. Therapeutic tests on methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma and transplanted fibrosarcoma of the mouse - clostridial oncolysis and its enhancement by high-frequency hyperthermia and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirlet, T.

    1982-01-01

    Tests aimed at a conditioning of tumours by means of x-ray irradiation and high-frequency hyperthermia. Methyl cholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma (IMCM) and its transplant version (T-IMCM) produced at the neck of NMRI-mice at a critical localization immediately next to vital organs, served as a test system since it is almost resistant to simple oncolysis. Individual therapy components were compared for their mutual enhancement of efficacy in 16 test groups, and the triple combination (Cl + X-ray + HFH) was tested in relapse application as well. A 2000-R-x-ray irradiation was followed by almost simultaneous 4 min HF heating and i.v. spore administration at 12 h intervals. Assessment criteria were tumour growth, survival rates and times, absence of recidivity and healing, analysis of post-mortem findings and dimension or duration of lyses. In addition, the two tumour types of induction and transplant tumour were compared. The typical course of clostridial oncolysis can be confirmed in principle. Results show that it is possible by means of additional physical methods as were applied, to increase the systemically apathogenic and selective therapy principle of rather negligible oncolysis to over 80% (IMCM) or 97% (T-IMCM). Concerning the MCA fibrosarcoma which is very resistant to clostridial oncolysis in this mouse-tumour model, marked prolongations of survival or healing are possible even in extremely critical localization. In principle, this provides the preconditions for including oncolysis in clinical studies in human medicine. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Adaptación del modelo de ciclos Terapéuticos (TCM a una población Adolescente de alto riesgo psicosocial Therapeutic Cycle Model (TCM Adaptation To A High Psychosocial Risk Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Quiroga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del Proyecto UBACyT 2004-2007 P069, desarrollado en el Programa de Psicología Clínica para Adolescentes, Sede Regional Sur, UBA, se planteó la necesidad de investigar de qué manera o cómo el cambio terapéutico ocurre, lo que significa profundizar en el difícil problema de medir procesos terapéuticos, no sólo en los sujetos sino también en la interacción de los sujetos en grupos y el grupo como un todo. En este trabajo se presenta la adaptación de uno de los instrumentos utilizados para medir el proceso terapéutico en el dispositivo Grupo de Terapia Focalizada- GTF: el Modelo de Ciclos Terapéuticos- TCM de Mergenthaler. El TCM permite analizar el proceso psicoterapéutico e identificar los "momentos claves" en el marco de una sesión y del tratamiento En esta adaptación al castellano para ser aplicado a una población de alto riesgo psicosocial, compuesta por adolescentes tempranos violentos con diagnóstico de Trastorno Negativista Desafiante y Trastorno Disocial, se reevaluaron alrededor de 4.500 nuevas palabras. Se distinguieron tres subgrupos de palabras que presentaron dificultades en la categorización: de uso regional, de jerga adolescente y de jerga transgresora con ciertos rasgos delincuenciales. Se presentan ejemplos de las mismas en el contexto de las sesiones del GTF.The necessity to do research on the way in which or how the therapeutic change takes place was put forward in the framework of the UBACyT 2004-2007 P069 Project, developed at the Clinical Psychology Program for Adolescents, Southern Region, University of Buenos Aires. This implies deepening into the difficult problem of measuring therapeutic processes, not only in individuals but also in the interaction of individuals in groups and in the groups as a whole. In this work the adaptation of one of the instruments used to measure therapeutic process in the Focalised Therapeutic Group-FTG: the Model of Therapeutic Cycles-MTC by Mergenthaler is

  11. Clinical relevance of consolidation radiotherapy and other main therapeutic issues in primary central nervous system lymphomas treated with upfront high-dose methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reni, Michele; Ferreri, Andres J.M.; Guha-Thakurta, Nandita; Blay, Jean-Yves; Dell'Oro, Stefania; Biron, Pierre; Hochberg, Fred H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the optimal dose of methotrexate (MTX) and the efficacy of other drugs, intrathecal chemotherapy (CHT), and radiotherapy (RT) in primary brain lymphomas. Methods and Materials: Two hundred eighty-eight immunocompetent patients with histologically documented, previously untreated primary brain lymphomas, receiving CHT containing high-dose MTX (≥1 g/m 2 ) with or without RT were selected from 19 prospective series. The impact on survival of the MTX dose ( 2 vs.≥3 g/m 2 ), the main drugs, intrathecal CHT, and combination CHT (mono-CHT vs. poly-CHT) was assessed, according to the intention-to-treat principle. The role of post-CHT irradiation (immediate vs. delayed RT) was evaluated in 119 patients with a complete response to CHT. The whole brain and tumor bed dose ( 2 (p=0.04), thiotepa (p=0.03), and intrathecal CHT (p=0.03) improved the OS, and nitrosoureas (p 0.01) correlated with a worse survival. In multivariate analysis, limited to patients receiving MTX ≥3 g/m 2 , only the addition of cytarabine improved the OS; nitrosoureas reduced MTX efficacy. Of the 119 complete responders, 70 received immediate RT. A RT dose of ≥40 Gy to the whole brain or tumor bed did not improve OS. The 3-year OS was similar between the immediate and delayed RT groups. In multivariate analysis, RT delay had no negative impact on survival. Conclusions: MTX ≥3 g/m 2 seems to improve survival in primary brain lymphoma patients. The efficacy of additional drugs, except for cytarabine, remains unproved. Randomized trials are needed to confirm that RT withdrawal yields no detrimental effect in complete responders

  12. Dynamic Behavior of Microbubbles during Long Ultrasound Tone-Burst Excitation: Mechanistic Insights into Ultrasound-Microbubble Mediated Therapeutics Using High-Speed Imaging and Cavitation Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xucai; Wang, Jianjun; Pacella, John J; Villanueva, Flordeliza S

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasound (US)-microbubble (MB)-mediated therapies have been found to restore perfusion and enhance drug/gene delivery. On the presumption that MBs do not persist during long US exposure under high acoustic pressures, most schemes use short US pulses when a high US pressure is employed. However, we recently observed an enhanced thrombolytic effect using long US pulses at high acoustic pressures. Therefore, we explored the fate of MBs during long tone-burst exposures (5 ms) at various acoustic pressures and MB concentrations via direct high-speed optical observation and passive cavitation detection. MBs first underwent stable or inertial cavitation depending on the acoustic pressure and then formed gas-filled clusters that continued to oscillate, break up and form new clusters. Cavitation detection confirmed continued, albeit diminishing, acoustic activity throughout the 5-ms US excitation. These data suggest that persisting cavitation activity during long tone bursts may confer additional therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Therapeutic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Discusses all aspects of radionuclide therapy, including basic principles, newly available treatments, regulatory requirements, and future trends. Provides the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Explains the role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in effectively coordinating a diverse multidisciplinary team. Written by leading experts. The recent revolution in molecular biology offers exciting new opportunities for targeted radionuclide therapy. The selective irradiation of tumor cells through molecular biological mechanisms is now permitting the radiopharmaceutical control of tumors that are unresectable and unresponsive to either chemotherapy or conventional radiotherapy. In this up-to-date, comprehensive book, world-renowned experts discuss the basic principles of radionuclide therapy, explore in detail the available treatments, explain the regulatory requirements, and examine likely future developments. The full range of clinical applications is considered, including thyroid cancer, hematological malignancies, brain tumors, liver cancer, bone and joint disease, and neuroendocrine tumors. The combination of theoretical background and practical information will provide the reader with all the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Careful attention is also paid to the important role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in delivering the effective coordination of a diverse multidisciplinary team that is essential to the safe provision of treatment.

  14. Mechanisms of Plasma Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, David

    2015-09-01

    In this talk, I address research directed towards biomedical applications of atmospheric pressure plasma such as sterilization, surgery, wound healing and anti-cancer therapy. The field has seen remarkable growth in the last 3-5 years, but the mechanisms responsible for the biomedical effects have remained mysterious. It is known that plasmas readily create reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS (or RONS), in addition to a suite of other radical and non-radical reactive species, are essential actors in an important sub-field of aerobic biology termed ``redox'' (or oxidation-reduction) biology. It is postulated that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) can trigger a therapeutic shielding response in tissue in part by creating a time- and space-localized, burst-like form of oxy-nitrosative stress on near-surface exposed cells through the flux of plasma-generated RONS. RONS-exposed surface layers of cells communicate to the deeper levels of tissue via a form of the ``bystander effect,'' similar to responses to other forms of cell stress. In this proposed model of CAP therapeutics, the plasma stimulates a cellular survival mechanism through which aerobic organisms shield themselves from infection and other challenges.

  15. Therapeutic nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Richard P. (ed.) [ENETS Center of Excellence, Bad Berka (Germany). THERANOSTICS Center for Molecular Radiotherapy and Molecular Imaging

    2014-07-01

    Discusses all aspects of radionuclide therapy, including basic principles, newly available treatments, regulatory requirements, and future trends. Provides the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Explains the role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in effectively coordinating a diverse multidisciplinary team. Written by leading experts. The recent revolution in molecular biology offers exciting new opportunities for targeted radionuclide therapy. The selective irradiation of tumor cells through molecular biological mechanisms is now permitting the radiopharmaceutical control of tumors that are unresectable and unresponsive to either chemotherapy or conventional radiotherapy. In this up-to-date, comprehensive book, world-renowned experts discuss the basic principles of radionuclide therapy, explore in detail the available treatments, explain the regulatory requirements, and examine likely future developments. The full range of clinical applications is considered, including thyroid cancer, hematological malignancies, brain tumors, liver cancer, bone and joint disease, and neuroendocrine tumors. The combination of theoretical background and practical information will provide the reader with all the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Careful attention is also paid to the important role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in delivering the effective coordination of a diverse multidisciplinary team that is essential to the safe provision of treatment.

  16. Effect of an intensive nutrition intervention of a high protein and low glycemic-index diet on weight of kidney transplant recipients: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrollo, Elis Forcellini; Nicoletto, Bruna Bellincanta; Carpes, Larissa Salomoni; de Freitas, Júlia de Melo Cardoso; Buboltz, Julia Roberta; Forte, Cristina Carra; Bauer, Andrea Carla; Manfro, Roberto Ceratti; Souza, Gabriela Corrêa; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann

    2017-09-06

    Excessive weight gain is commonly observed within the first year after kidney transplantation and is associated with negative outcomes, such as graft loss and cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high protein and low glycemic-index diet on preventing weight gain after kidney transplantation. We designed a prospective, single-center, open-label, randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy of a high protein (1.3-1.4 g/kg/day) and low-glycemic index diet versus a conventional diet (0.8-1.0 g/kg/day of protein) on preventing weight gain after kidney transplantation. A total of 120 eligible patients 2 months after transplantation will be recruited. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate through the modification of diet of renal disease (MDRD) formula  300 mg/24 h will be excluded. Patients' diets will be allocated through simple sequential randomization. Patients will be followed-up for 12 months with nine clinic appointments with a dietitian and the evaluations will include nutritional assessment (anthropometrics, body composition, and resting metabolic rate) and laboratory tests. The primary outcome is weight maintenance or body weight gain under 5% after 12 months. Secondary outcomes include body composition, resting metabolic rate, satiety sensation, kidney function, and other metabolic parameters. Diets with higher protein content and lower glycemic index may lead to weight loss because of higher satiety sensation. However, there is a concern about the association of high protein intake and kidney damage. Nevertheless, there is little evidence on the impact of high protein intake on long-term kidney function outcome. Therefore, we designed a study to test if a high protein diet with low-glycemic index will be an effective and safe nutritional intervention to prevent weight gain in kidney transplant patients. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02883777 . Registered on 3 August 2016.

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 5, No 1-2 (2013), Relative Therapeutic Efficacy of Phonophoresis and Cryotherapy as Combined Therapy in the Management of Musculoskeletal Injuries, Abstract PDF. HAK Onuwe, K Amadi. Vol 4, No 1-2 (2012), Relative Therapeutic Efficacy of the Treadmill and Step Bench in Gait Rehabilitation of Hemiparetic Stroke ...

  18. Optical trigger: a Cherenkov effect discriminator for high energy physics. Realisation and characterisation of thin films whose refractive index allow discrimination over a wide spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbart, A.

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this thesis sets the physical principles, and properties of actual Optical Triggers. For each of them, the cupel is sapphire made, and the external medium is liquid because of refractive index. The theory of Cherenkov emitted light cone explain how sapphire birefringence affects discrimination conditions.The second parts of the thesis (the main one) is focussed on study and realization of thin films for Optical Trigger. A layer characterization method has been developed by spectrophotometry, based on Perkin-Elmer laboratory device. Computerized simulation helped us to determine characteristics and limits of the studied device. (D.L.)

  19. Highly Sensitive Refractive Index Sensor Based on a Cladding-Etched Thin-Core Fiber Sandwiched between Two Single-Mode Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ben; Li Yi; Dong Xin-Yong; Jin Shang-Zhong; Zhang Zai-Xuan

    2012-01-01

    A refractive index (RI) sensor based on a cladding-etched thin-core single-mode fiber (TCSMF) sandwiched between two single-mode fibers is demonstrated. The experimental results show that the sensitivity, withi