Sample records for high temperature decomposition

  1. Decomposition of silicon carbide at high pressures and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daviau, Kierstin; Lee, Kanani K. M.


    We measure the onset of decomposition of silicon carbide, SiC, to silicon and carbon (e.g., diamond) at high pressures and high temperatures in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. We identify decomposition through x-ray diffraction and multiwavelength imaging radiometry coupled with electron microscopy analyses on quenched samples. We find that B3 SiC (also known as 3C or zinc blende SiC) decomposes at high pressures and high temperatures, following a phase boundary with a negative slope. The high-pressure decomposition temperatures measured are considerably lower than those at ambient, with our measurements indicating that SiC begins to decompose at ~ 2000 K at 60 GPa as compared to ~ 2800 K at ambient pressure. Once B3 SiC transitions to the high-pressure B1 (rocksalt) structure, we no longer observe decomposition, despite heating to temperatures in excess of ~ 3200 K. The temperature of decomposition and the nature of the decomposition phase boundary appear to be strongly influenced by the pressure-induced phase transitions to higher-density structures in SiC, silicon, and carbon. The decomposition of SiC at high pressure and temperature has implications for the stability of naturally forming moissanite on Earth and in carbon-rich exoplanets.

  2. High-temperature catalyst for catalytic combustion and decomposition (United States)

    Mays, Jeffrey A. (Inventor); Lohner, Kevin A. (Inventor); Sevener, Kathleen M. (Inventor); Jensen, Jeff J. (Inventor)


    A robust, high temperature mixed metal oxide catalyst for propellant composition, including high concentration hydrogen peroxide, and catalytic combustion, including methane air mixtures. The uses include target, space, and on-orbit propulsion systems and low-emission terrestrial power and gas generation. The catalyst system requires no special preheat apparatus or special sequencing to meet start-up requirements, enabling a fast overall response time. Start-up transients of less than 1 second have been demonstrated with catalyst bed and propellant temperatures as low as 50 degrees Fahrenheit. The catalyst system has consistently demonstrated high decomposition effeciency, extremely low decomposition roughness, and long operating life on multiple test particles.

  3. High-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Giri, Binod


    This work reports rate coefficients of the thermal unimolecular decomposition reaction of ethyl propionate (EP) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 976–1300 K and pressures of 825–1875 Torr. The reaction progress was monitored by detecting CH near 10.532 μm using CO gas laser absorption. In addition, G3//MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ and master equation calculations were performed to assess the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that CH elimination occurs via a six-centered retro-ene transition state. Our measured rate data are close to the high-pressure limit and showed no discernable temperature fall off.

  4. Radiolysis of lignin: Prospective mechanism of high-temperature decomposition (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. V.


    The range of the radiation-thermal processes resulting in conversion of lignin into monomeric phenols is considered. Statistically the most probable places of macromolecule ionization are aromatic units. Release of phenolic products from a lignin macromolecule is the multistage process beginning via fragmentation of primary cation-radicals. Reactions of electrons and small radicals with macromolecules, also as degradation of cation-radicals, result in formation of phenoxyl radicals. Macroradicals possess lower heat stability in comparison with macromolecules. Thermal decomposition of macroradicals leads to release of monohydric and dihydric phenols. The probability of benzenediols formation increases in the presence of alkanes. As noted, partial transformation of lignin into charcoal is inevitable.

  5. On the high-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl levulinate

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed


    The pyrolysis of ethyl levulinate (EL) was studied behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1015-1325K and pressures of 750-1650Torr. The reaction progress was followed by measuring ethylene mole fraction using CO2 gas laser absorption near 10.532 μm. The rate coefficients for the unimolecular dissociation of EL were extracted from the initial slope method and further ascertained by using a complete kinetic model. Our data exhibited no discernible pressure dependence under the current experimental conditions. To rationalize our results further, high-level quantum chemical and master equation calculations were employed to calculate the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that unimolecular dissociation of EL involves simultaneous 1,5-hydrogen shift of the β-hydrogen to the carbonyl group, rupture of the O-C ester bond and formation of the π-bond (C α -C β ). Our results present evidences that the C2H4 elimination from EL occurs in a concerted manner. To our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental and theoretical study of the thermal unimolecular dissociation of ethyl levulinate. © 2016 The Combustion Institute.

  6. High temperature performance and stability of Fe-FER catalyst for N2O decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sádovská, Galina; Tabor, Edyta; Sazama, Petr; Lhotka, M.; Bernauer, M.; Sobalík, Zdeněk


    Roč. 89, JAN 2017 (2017), s. 133-137 ISSN 1566-7367 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10251S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : High temperature N2O decomposition * FER * Iron Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.330, year: 2016

  7. A High Temperature Kinetic Study for the Thermal Unimolecular Decomposition of Diethyl Carbonate

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed


    Thermal unimolecular decomposition of diethyl carbonate (DEC) was investigated in a shock tube by measuring ethylene concentration with a CO2 gas laser over 900 - 1200 K and 1.2 – 2.8 bar. Rate coefficients were extracted using a simple kinetic scheme comprising of thermal decomposition of DEC as initial step followed by rapid thermal decomposition of the intermediate ethyl-hydrogen-carbonate. Our results were further analysed using ab initio and master equation calculations to obtain pressure- and temperature- dependence of rate coefficients. Similar to alkyl esters, unimolecular decomposition of DEC is found to undergo six-center retro-ene elimination of ethylene in a concerted manner.

  8. High-temperature Raman study of L-alanine, L-threonine and taurine crystals related to thermal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaignac, A.L.O. [Centro de Ciências Sociais, Saúde e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Imperatriz, MA 65900-410 (Brazil); Lima, R.J.C., E-mail: [Centro de Ciências Sociais, Saúde e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Imperatriz, MA 65900-410 (Brazil); Façanha Filho, P.F. [Centro de Ciências Sociais, Saúde e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Imperatriz, MA 65900-410 (Brazil); Moreno, A.J.D. [Coordenação de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Bacabal, MA 65700-000 (Brazil); Freire, P.T.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE 60455-760 (Brazil)


    In this work high-temperature Raman spectra are used to compare temperature dependence of the lattice mode wavenumber of L-alanine, L-threonine and taurine crystals. Anharmonic effects observed are associated with intermolecular N-H· · ·O hydrogen bond that plays an important role in thermal decomposition process of these materials. Short and strong hydrogen bonds in L-alanine crystal were associated with anharmonic effects in lattice modes leading to low thermal stability compared to taurine crystals. Connection between thermal decomposition process and anharmonic effects is furnished for the first time.

  9. High-Temperature Decomposition of Brønsted Acid Sites in Gallium-Substituted Zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Al-majnouni; N Hould; W Lonergan; D Vlachos; R Lobo


    The dehydroxylation of Broensted acid sites (BAS) in Ga-substituted zeolites was investigated at temperatures up to 850 C using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass spectrometry-temperature programmed desorption (MS-TPD). X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) revealed that the majority of gallium has tetrahedral coordination even after complete dehydroxylation. The interatomic gallium-oxygen distance and gallium coordination number determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are consistent with gallium in tetrahedral coordination at low T (< 550 C). Upon heating Ga-Beta and Ga-ZSM5 to 850 C, analysis of the EXAFS showed that 70 and 80% of the gallium was still in tetrahedral coordination. The remainder of the gallium was found to be in octahedral coordination. No trigonal Ga atoms were observed. FTIR measurements carried out at similar temperatures show that the intensity of the OH vibration due to BAS has been eliminated. MS-TPD revealed that hydrogen in addition to water evolved from the samples during dehydroxylation. This shows that dehydrogenation in addition to dehydration is a mechanism that contributes to BAS decomposition. Dehydrogenation was further confirmed by exposing the sample to hydrogen to regenerate some of the BAS as monitored by FTIR and MS-TPD.

  10. Thermal decomposition of polystyrene in the high temperature fabrication technology of hollow microspheres. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorogotovtsev, V.M.; Akunets, A.A.; Merkuliev, Y.A.; Turivnoy, A.P. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Fizicheskij Inst.; Reibold, R.; Fearon, E.; Cook, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The degree and nature of polymer degradation that occurs in the high temperature microshell formation process developed at the Lebedev Physical Institute has been examined experimentally. We find that significant mass degradation occurs during the final stages of shell formation. This manifests itself both in terms of mass loss and molecular weight degradation as measured by gel permeation chromatography. This decrease in the molecular weight may be in part responsible for the relatively fragile nature of the shells produced by this high temperature process. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Thermal expansion and decomposition of jarosite: a high-temperature neutron diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongwu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhao, Yusheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vogel, Sven C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hickmott, Donald D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daemen, Luke L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hartl, Monika A [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The structure of deuterated jarosite, KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OD){sub 6}, was investigated using time-of-flight neutron diffraction up to its dehydroxylation temperature. Rietveld analysis reveals that with increasing temperature, its c dimension expands at a rate {approx}10 times greater than that for a. This anisotropy of thermal expansion is due to rapid increase in the thickness of the (001) sheet of [Fe(O,OH){sub 6}] octahedra and [SO{sub 4}] tetrahedra with increasing temperature. Fitting of the measured cell volumes yields a coefficient of thermal expansion, a = a{sub 0} + a{sub 1} T, where a{sub 0} = 1.01 x 10{sup -4} K{sup -1} and a{sub 1} = -1.15 x 10{sup -7} K{sup -2}. On heating, the hydrogen bonds, O1{hor_ellipsis}D-O3, through which the (001) octahedral-tetrahedral sheets are held together, become weakened, as reflected by an increase in the D{hor_ellipsis}O1 distance and a concomitant decrease in the O3-D distance with increasing temperature. On further heating to 575 K, jarosite starts to decompose into nanocrystalline yavapaiite and hematite (as well as water vapor), a direct result of the breaking of the hydrogen bonds that hold the jarosite structure together.

  12. Decomposition of nitrous oxide at medium temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, G.; Wargadalam, V.J.; Winter, F.; Hofbauer, H.


    Flow reactor experiments were done to study the decomposition of N{sub 2}O at atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range of 600--1,000 C. Dilute mixtures of N{sub 2}O with H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO with and without oxygen with N{sub 2} as carrier gas were studied. To see directly the relative importance of the thermal decomposition versus the destruction by free radicals (i.e.: H, O, OH) iodine was added to the reactant mixture suppressing the radicals' concentrations towards their equilibrium concentrations. The experimental results were discussed using a detailed chemistry model. This work shows that there are still some uncertainties regarding the kinetics of the thermal decomposition and the reaction between N{sub 2}O and the O radical. Using the recommendations applied in this work for the reaction N{sub 2}O + M {leftrightarrow} N{sub 2} + O + M and for N{sub 2}O + O {leftrightarrow} products, a good agreement with the experimental data can be obtained over a wide range of experimental conditions. The reaction between N{sub 2}O and OH is of minor importance under present conditions as stated in latest literature. The results show that N{sub 2}O + H {leftrightarrow} N{sub 2} + OH is the most important reaction in the destruction of N{sub 2}O. In the presence of oxygen it competes with H + O{sub 2} + M {leftrightarrow} HO{sub 2} + M and H + O{sub 2} {leftrightarrow} O + OH, respectively. The importance of the thermal decomposition (N{sub 2}O + M {leftrightarrow} N{sub 2} + O + M) increases with residence time. Reducing conditions and a long residence time lead to a high potential in N{sub 2}O reduction. Especially mixtures of H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O and CO/H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2}O in nitrogen lead to a chain reaction mechanism causing a strong N{sub 2}O reduction.

  13. Observations of Glide and Decomposition of a Dislocations at High Temperatures in Ni-Al Single Crystals Deformed along the Hard Orientation (United States)

    Srinivasan, R.; Daw, M. S.; Noebe, R. D.; Mills, M. J.


    Ni-44at.% Al and Ni-50at.% single crystals were tested in compression in the hard (001) orientations. The dislocation processes and deformation behavior were studied as a function of temperature, strain and strain rate. A slip transition in NiAl occurs from alpha(111) slip to non-alphaaaaaaaaaaa9111) slip at intermediate temperatures. In Ni-50at.% Al single crystal, only alpha(010) dislocations are observed above the slip transition temperature. In contrast, alpha(101)(101) glide has been observed to control deformation beyond the slip transition temperature in Ni-44at.%Al. alpha(101) dislocations are observed primarily along both (111) directions in the glide plane. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations show that the core of the alpha(101) dislocations along these directions is decomposed into two alpha(010) dislocations, separated by a distance of approximately 2nm. The temperature window of stability for these alpha(101) dislocations depends upon the strain rate. At a strain rate of 1.4 x 10(exp -4)/s, lpha(101) dislocations are observed between 800 and 1000K. Complete decomposition of a alpha(101) dislocations into alpha(010) dislocations occurs beyond 1000K, leading to alpha(010) climb as the deformation mode at higher temperature. At lower strain rates, decomposition of a alpha(101) dislocations has been observed to occur along the edge orientation at temperatures below 1000K. Embedded-atom method calculations and experimental results indicate that alpha(101) dislocation have a large Peieris stress at low temperature. Based on the present microstructural observations and a survey of the literature with respect to vacancy content and diffusion in NiAl, a model is proposed for alpha(101)(101) glide in Ni-44at.%Al, and for the observed yield strength versus temperature behavior of Ni-Al alloys at intermediate and high temperatures.

  14. Interactions among temperature, moisture, and oxygen concentrations in controlling decomposition rates in a boreal forest soil


    Sierra, Carlos A.; Malghani, Saadatullah; Henry W Loescher


    Determining environmental controls on soil organic matter decomposition is of importance for developing models that predict the effects of environmental change on global soil carbon stocks. There is uncertainty about the environmental controls on decomposition rates at temperature and moisture extremes, particularly at high water content levels and high temperatures. It is uncertain whether observed declines in decomposition rates at high temperatures are due to declines ...

  15. Cyclic degradation of titanium-tantalum high-temperature shape memory alloys - The role of dislocation activity and chemical decomposition


    Niendorf, T.; Krooß, P.; Somsen, C.; Rynko, R.; Paulsen, A.; Batyrshina, E.; Frenzel, J.; G. Eggeler; Maier, Hans Jürgen


    Titanium-tantalum shape memory alloys (SMAs) are promising candidates for actuator applications at elevated temperatures. They may even succeed in substituting ternary nickel-titanium high temperature SMAs, which are either extremely expensive or difficult to form. However, titanium-tantalum alloys show rapid functional and structural degradation under cyclic thermo-mechanical loading. The current work reveals that degradation is not only governed by the evolution of the ω-phase. Dislocation ...

  16. High temperature shock tube studies on the thermal decomposition of O3 and the reaction of dimethyl carbonate with O-atoms. (United States)

    Peukert, S L; Sivaramakrishnan, R; Michael, J V


    The shock tube technique was used to study the thermal decomposition of ozone, O3, with a view to using this as a thermal precursor of O-atoms at high temperatures. The formation of O-atoms was measured behind reflected shock waves by using atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS). The experiments span a T-range, 819 K ≤ T ≤ 1166 K, at pressures 0.13 bar ≤ P ≤ 0.6 bar. Unimolecular rate theory provides an excellent representation of the falloff characteristics from the present and literature data on ozone decomposition at high temperatures. The present decomposition study on ozone permits its usage as a thermal source for O-atoms allowing measurements for, O + CH3OC(O)OCH3 → OH + CH3OC(O)OCH2 [A]. Reflected shock tube experiments monitoring the formation and decay of O-atoms were performed on reaction A using mixtures of O3 and CH3OC(O)OCH3, (DMC), in Kr bath gas over the T-range, 862 K ≤ T ≤ 1167 K, and pressure range, 0.15 bar ≤ P ≤ 0.33 bar. A detailed model was used to fit the O-atom temporal profile to obtain experimental rate constants for reaction A. Rate constants from the present experiments for O + DMC can be represented by the Arrhenius expression: kA(T) = 2.70 × 10(-11) exp(-2725 K/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) (862-1167 K). Transition state theory calculations employing CCSD(T)/cc-pv∞z//M06-2X/cc-pvtz energetics and molecular properties for reaction A are in good agreement with the experimental rate constants. The theoretical rate constants can be well represented (to within ±10%) over the 500-2000 K temperature range by: kA(T) = 1.87 × 10(-20)T(2.924) exp(-2338 K/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The present study represents the first experimental measurement and theoretical study on this bimolecular reaction which is of relevance to the high temperature oxidation of DMC.

  17. Interactions among temperature, moisture, and oxygen concentrations in controlling decomposition rates in a boreal forest soil (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Malghani, Saadatullah; Loescher, Henry W.


    Determining environmental controls on soil organic matter decomposition is of importance for developing models that predict the effects of environmental change on global soil carbon stocks. There is uncertainty about the environmental controls on decomposition rates at temperature and moisture extremes, particularly at high water content levels and high temperatures. It is uncertain whether observed declines in decomposition rates at high temperatures are due to declines in the heat capacity of extracellular enzymes as predicted by thermodynamic theory, or due to simultaneous declines in soil moisture. It is also uncertain whether oxygen limits decomposition rates at high water contents. Here we present the results of a full factorial experiment using organic soils from a boreal forest incubated at high temperatures (25 and 35 °C), a wide range of water-filled pore space (WFPS; 15, 30, 60, 90 %), and contrasting oxygen concentrations (1 and 20 %). We found support for the hypothesis that decomposition rates are high at high temperatures, provided that enough moisture and oxygen are available for decomposition. Furthermore, we found that decomposition rates are mostly limited by oxygen concentrations at high moisture levels; even at 90 % WFPS, decomposition proceeded at high rates in the presence of oxygen. Our results suggest an important degree of interaction among temperature, moisture, and oxygen in determining decomposition rates at the soil core scale.

  18. High temperature shock tube and theoretical studies on the thermal decomposition of dimethyl carbonate and its bimolecular reactions with H and D-atoms. (United States)

    Peukert, S L; Sivaramakrishnan, R; Michael, J V


    The shock tube technique was used to study the high temperature thermal decomposition of dimethyl carbonate, CH3OC(O)OCH3 (DMC). The formation of H-atoms was measured behind reflected shock waves by using atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS). The experiments span a T-range of 1053-1157 K at pressures ∼0.5 atm. The H-atom profiles were simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for DMC thermal decomposition. Simulations indicate that the formation of H-atoms is sensitive to the rate constants for the energetically lowest-lying bond fission channel, CH3OC(O)OCH3 → CH3 + CH3OC(O)O [A], where H-atoms form instantaneously at high temperatures from the sequence of radical β-scissions, CH3OC(O)O → CH3O + CO2 → H + CH2O + CO2. A master equation analysis was performed using CCSD(T)/cc-pv∞z//M06-2X/cc-pvtz energetics and molecular properties for all thermal decomposition processes in DMC. The theoretical predictions were found to be in good agreement with the present experimentally derived rate constants for the bond fission channel (A). The theoretically derived rate constants for this important bond-fission process in DMC can be represented by a modified Arrhenius expression at 0.5 atm over the T-range 1000-2000 K as, kA(T) = 6.85 × 10(98)T (-24.239) exp(-65250 K/T) s(-1). The H-atom temporal profiles at long times show only minor sensitivity to the abstraction reaction, H + CH3OC(O)OCH3 → H2 + CH3OC(O)OCH2 [B]. However, H + DMC is an important fuel destruction reaction at high temperatures. Consequently, measurements of D-atom profiles using D-ARAS allowed unambiguous rate constant measurements for the deuterated analog of reaction B, D + CH3OC(O)OCH3 → HD + CH3OC(O)OCH2 [C]. Reaction C is a surrogate for H + DMC since the theoretically predicted kinetic isotope effect at high temperatures (1000 - 2000K) is close to unity, kC ≈ 1.2 kB. TST calculations employing CCSD(T)/cc-pv∞z//M06-2X/cc-pvtz energetics and molecular properties

  19. Effect of high-temperature treatment in air on the surface area and porous texture of zirconium dioxide prepared by thermal decomposition of the nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arean, C.O.; Colinas, J.M.F.; Garcia, M.A.V. (Oviedo Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry); Arjona, A.M. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry)


    Zirconium dioxide, prepared by thermal decomposition of zirconium nitrate, was heated in air at temperatures ranging from 573 to 1023 K. An analysis of nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms on the resulting materials allowed determination of the corresponding specific surface area and porous texture. All oxides calcined within the temperature range 573 to 873 K were found to be basically mesoporous; the most frequent pore radius increasing from 3 to 10.5 nm as the temperature was raised. BET surface areas decreased across the same temperature range, from 94 down to 20 m/sup 2/ g/sup -1/. The sample fired at 1023 K showed a BET surface area smaller than 5 m/sup 2/ g/sup -1/.

  20. Temperature sensitivity of decomposition of soil organic carbon fractions (United States)

    Hilasvuori, Emmi; Järvenpää, Marko; Akujärvi, Anu; Arppe, Laura; Christensen, Bent T.; Fritze, Hannu; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Karhu, Kristiina; Oinonen, Markku; Palonen, Vesa; Pitkänen, Juha-Matti; Repo, Anna; Vanhala, Pekka; Liski, Jari


    Knowing the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is important for estimating the release of carbon from soil to the atmosphere in response to global warming. This temperature sensitivity is known relatively well for the most labile SOM fractions but still quite poorly for more recalcitrant fractions that represent the great majority of SOM. We report results for the temperature sensitivity of various SOM fractions in two different experiments in which we utilized natural abundances of carbon isotopes 13C and 14C combined with Bayesian mathematical modelling. In one experiment, the different age fractions were distinguished based on depth in a peat profile. In the other experiment, the age fractions were separated based on a time series of conversion from C3 vegetation to C4 vegetation. In both experiments, the temperature sensitivity of the SOM fractions was estimated by measuring the carbon isotope composition of heterotrophic soil respiration at different temperatures in laboratory. The results from these experiments suggest that the temperature sensitivity of unprotected SOM fractions increases with age, but if an environmental factor, such as bonding to soil minerals, limits decomposition of a SOM fraction, the temperature sensitivity is reduced. Our results are in agreement with the theory that suggests that in soil without environmental, physical or chemical protection, temperature sensitivity of carbon compounds is mainly determined by its chemical structure. The more complex the structure is the higher activation energy is needed and the higher its temperature sensitivity. Since SOM enriches with more complicated carbon compounds with time, this leads to increase in temperature sensitivity as SOM ages. However, our results also indicate that if the soil carbon is associated with minerals it might exhibit lower temperature sensitivities than when the carbon is "free" in the soil. Since the mineral associated carbon can have high

  1. Substrate-dependent temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition (United States)

    Myachina, Olga; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia


    Activity of extracellular enzymes responsible for decomposition of organics is substrate dependent. Quantity of the substrate is the main limiting factor for enzymatic or microbial heterotrophic activity in soils. Different mechanisms of enzymes response to temperature suggested for low and high substrate availability were never proved for real soil conditions. We compared the temperature responses of enzymes-catalyzed reactions in soils. Basing on Michaelis-Menten kinetics we determined the enzymes affinity to substrate (Km) and mineralization potential of heterotrophic microorganisms (Vmax) 1) for three hydrolytic enzymes: β-1,4-glucosidase, N-acetyl- β -D-glucosaminidase and phosphatase by the application of fluorogenically labeled substrates and 2) for mineralization of 14C-labeled glucose by substrate-dependent respiratory response. Here we show that the amount of available substrate is responsible for temperature sensitivity of hydrolysis of polymers in soil, whereas monomers oxidation to CO2 does not depend on substrate amount and is mainly temperature governed. We also found that substrate affinity of enzymes (which is usually decreases with the temperature) differently responded to warming for the process of depolymerisation versus monomers oxidation. We suggest the mechanism to temperature acclimation based on different temperature sensitivity of enzymes kinetics for hydrolysis of polymers and for monomers oxidation.

  2. Sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to simultaneous changes in temperature and moisture (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos; Trumbore, Susan; Davidson, Eric; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, Ivan


    Soil organic matter decomposition depends on multiple factors that are being altered simultaneously as a result of global environmental change. For this reason it is important to study the overall sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition with respect to multiple and interacting drivers. Here we present an analysis of the potential response of decomposition rates to simultaneous changes in temperature and moisture. To address this problem, we first present a theoretical framework to study the sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition when multiple driving factors change simultaneously. We then apply this framework to models and data at different levels of abstraction: 1) to a mechanistic model that addresses the limitation of enzyme activity by simultaneous effects of temperature and soil water content, the latter controlling substrate supply and oxygen concentration for microbial activity; 2) to different mathematical functions used to represent temperature and moisture effects on decomposition in biogeochemical models. To contrast model predictions at these two levels of organization, we compiled different datasets of observed responses in field and laboratory studies. Then we applied our conceptual framework to: 3) observations of soil respiration at the ecosystem level; 4) laboratory experiments looking at the response of heterotrophic respiration to independent changes in moisture and temperature; and 5) ecosystem-level experiments manipulating soil temperature and water content simultaneously. The combined theoretical and empirical evidence reviewed suggests: first, large uncertainties still remain regarding the combined controls of temperature and moisture on decomposition rates, particularly at high temperatures and the extremes of the soil moisture range; second, the highest sensitivities of decomposition rates are likely in systems where temperature and moisture are high such as tropical peatlands, and at temperatures near the freezing point

  3. Simultaneous determination of arbutin and its decomposed product hydroquinone in whitening creams using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection: Effect of temperature and pH on decomposition. (United States)

    Jeon, J S; Kim, B H; Lee, S H; Kwon, H J; Bae, H J; Kim, S K; Park, J A; Shim, J H; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, H C


    Arbutin is an effective agent for the treatment of melanin disorders. Arbutin may be converted to hydroquinone under conditions of high temperature, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and dilute acid. The aim of the current study was to develop an analytical method to determine the levels of arbutin and hydroquinone in whitening cosmetic products using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD). In addition, we investigated the effects of high temperature and pH on the decomposition of arbutin. Samples extracted using two-step sonications were separated on a C18 column using a gradient mobile phase consisting of water and methanol. A 60-mm (40 μL) DAD cell was used to enhance the sensitivity of hydroquinone determination. Thermal decomposition of arbutin was evaluated at temperatures ranging from 60 to 120°C for 1-36 h. The method showed good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9997), precision (relative standard deviation, RSD cream and 0.12 g 100 g(-1) cream of hydroquinone. Arbutin (327.18 ppm) decomposed after 6 h at 120°C and produced 10.73 ppm of hydroquinone. The developed method is simple to detect both arbutin and hydroquinone simultaneously in cosmetic products, at an adequate level of sensitivity. Notably, temperature and pH did not influence the decomposition of arbutin to hydroquinone in a 2% arbutin cream. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. Highly Scalable Matching Pursuit Signal Decomposition Algorithm (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this research, we propose a variant of the classical Matching Pursuit Decomposition (MPD) algorithm with significantly improved scalability and computational...

  5. The effect of increased temperature and nitrogen deposition on decomposition in bogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, A.J.G.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Limpens, J.; Berendse, F.


    Despite their low primary production, ombrotrophic peatlands have a considerable potential to store atmospheric carbon as a result of their extremely low litter decomposition rates. Projected changes in temperature and nitrogen (N) deposition may increase decomposition rates by their positive

  6. Programming Enhancements for Low Temperature Thermal Decomposition Workstation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igou, R.E.


    This report describes a new control-and-measurement system design for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant's Low Temperature Thermal Decomposition (LTTD) process. The new design addresses problems with system reliability stemming from equipment obsolescence and addresses specific functional improvements that plant production personnel have identified, as required. The new design will also support new measurement techniques, which the Y-12 Development Division has identified for future operations. The new techniques will function in concert with the original technique so that process data consistency is maintained.

  7. Coupling of temperature with pressure induced initial decomposition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The pressure effects on the initial decomposition stepsand initially generated products on PETN and NTO were very different. PETN was triggered by C-H... O intermolecular hydrogen transfer. The initial decomposition mechanism was independent of the pressure. ForNTO, two different initial decomposition mechanisms ...

  8. Low temperature decomposition of metal borohydride drives autogenous synthesis of MgB2 (United States)

    Mackinnon, I. D. R.; Shahbazi, M.; Alarco, J. A.; Talbot, P. C.


    We describe a low temperature, autogenous pressure method to synthesise mm-scale MgB2 aggregates with highly connected grains. The decomposition of metal borohydrides such as NaBH4 and KBH4 at low temperature (i.e. 30 min then a ramp to 450 °C Magnetic measurements of MgB2 aggregates show a grain connectivity comparable to powders produced at higher temperature (> 800 °C) and suggests that this synthesis approach may be effective for ex situ wire production.

  9. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.


    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  10. Solar hydrogen by thermochemical water splitting cycles: design, modeling, and demonstration of a novel receiver/reactor for the high temperature decomposition of zno using concentrated sunlight (United States)

    Kaiser, Zachary David Epping

    Documenting the presence of rare bat species can be difficult. The current summer survey protocol for the federally endangered Indiana bat ( Myotis sodalis) requires passive acoustic sampling with directional microphones (e.g., Anabats), but there are still questions about best practices for choosing survey sites and appropriate detector models. Indiana bats are capable of foraging in an array of cover types, including structurally-complex, interior forests. Further, data acquisition among different commercially available bat detectors is likely highly variable, due to the use of proprietary microphones with different frequency responses, sensitivities, and directionality. We paired omnidirectional Wildlife Acoustic SM2BAT+ (SM2) and directional Titley Scientific Anabat SD2 (Anabat) detectors at 71 random points near Indianapolis, Indiana from May-August 2012-2013 to compare data acquisition by phonic group (low, mid, Myotis) and to determine what factors affect probability of detection and site occupancy for Indiana bats when sampling with acoustics near an active maternity colony (0.20--8.39 km away). Weatherproofing for Anabat microphones was 45° angle PVC tubes and for SM2 microphones was their foam shielding; microphones were paired at 2 m and 5 m heights. Habitat and landscape covariates were measured in the field or via ArcGIS. We adjusted file parameters to make SM2 and Anabat data comparable. Files were identified using Bat Call ID software, with visual inspection of Indiana bat calls. The effects of detector type, phonic group, height, and their interactions on mean files recorded per site were assessed using generalized estimating equations and LSD pairwise comparisons. We reduced probability of detection (p) and site occupancy (ψ) model covariates with Pearson's correlation and PCA. We used Presence 6.1 software and Akaike's Information Criteria to assess models for p and ψ. Anabats and SM2s did not perform equally. Anabats recorded more low and

  11. The Effect of Heating Temperature on the Prooxidant and Hydroperoxide Decomposition Activity of Myoglobin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BERISHA, Adrian; ENDO, Yasushi; FUJIMOTO, Kenshiro


    Solutions of myoglobin from the heart of a horse were heated at various temperatures to assess the effect of heating temperature on the prooxidant and hydroperoxide decomposition activity of myoglobin...

  12. Linking temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to its molecular structure, accessibility, and microbial physiology. (United States)

    Wagai, Rota; Kishimoto-Mo, Ayaka W; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Shirato, Yasuhito; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Yagasaki, Yasumi


    Temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition may have a significant impact on global warming. Enzyme-kinetic hypothesis suggests that decomposition of low-quality substrate (recalcitrant molecular structure) requires higher activation energy and thus has greater temperature sensitivity than that of high-quality, labile substrate. Supporting evidence, however, relies largely on indirect indices of substrate quality. Furthermore, the enzyme-substrate reactions that drive decomposition may be regulated by microbial physiology and/or constrained by protective effects of soil mineral matrix. We thus tested the kinetic hypothesis by directly assessing the carbon molecular structure of low-density fraction (LF) which represents readily accessible, mineral-free SOM pool. Using five mineral soil samples of contrasting SOM concentrations, we conducted 30-days incubations (15, 25, and 35 °C) to measure microbial respiration and quantified easily soluble C as well as microbial biomass C pools before and after the incubations. Carbon structure of LFs (soil was measured by solid-state (13) C-NMR. Decomposition Q10 was significantly correlated with the abundance of aromatic plus alkyl-C relative to O-alkyl-C groups in LFs but not in bulk soil fraction or with the indirect C quality indices based on microbial respiration or biomass. The warming did not significantly change the concentration of biomass C or the three types of soluble C despite two- to three-fold increase in respiration. Thus, enhanced microbial maintenance respiration (reduced C-use efficiency) especially in the soils rich in recalcitrant LF might lead to the apparent equilibrium between SOM solubilization and microbial C uptake. Our results showed physical fractionation coupled with direct assessment of molecular structure as an effective approach and supported the enzyme-kinetic interpretation of widely observed C quality-temperature relationship for short-term decomposition. Factors

  13. Effects of stoichiometry and temperature perturbations on beech leaf litter decomposition, enzyme activities and protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Keiblinger


    community structures and functions was detected, but decomposition was mainly driven by a combination of the investigated factors. Temperature perturbations resulted in short- to medium-term alterations of microbial functions; especially high temperature treatments blocked decomposing enzymes.

  14. Effects of stoichiometry and temperature perturbations on beech leaf litter decomposition, enzyme activities and protein expression (United States)

    Keiblinger, K. M.; Schneider, T.; Roschitzki, B.; Schmid, E.; Eberl, L.; Hämmerle, I.; Leitner, S.; Richter, A.; Wanek, W.; Riedel, K.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.


    functions was detected, but decomposition was mainly driven by a combination of the investigated factors. Temperature perturbations resulted in short- to medium-term alterations of microbial functions; especially high temperature treatments blocked decomposing enzymes.

  15. Protolytic decomposition of n-octane on graphite at near room temperature (United States)

    Kawashima, Yasushi; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa


    Graphite basal surface is inert, and decomposition of n-alkanes on the graphite surface has not been discovered. We here report the evidence of decomposition of n-octanes on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface, heat-treated up to 1200 °C under high vacuum (10-7 Pa), at near room temperatures. Using a temperature programmed desorption apparatus equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer showed the production of hydrogen molecules, methane, and ethane, suggesting that the protonation of n-octane takes place on graphite surface at near room temperature. It is known that acidic functional groups are terminated at edges on the air-cleaved HOPG surface and they increase their acidity via reactions with water. However, it is most unlikely that they protonate n-alkanes at near room temperature such as superacids. We anticipate that superacidic protons, which can protonate n-octanes, are produced on the graphite surface through a novel reaction mechanism.

  16. Temperature and soil organic matter decomposition rates - synthesis of current knowledge and a way forward (United States)

    Richard T. Conant; Michael Ryan; Goran I. Agren; Hannah E. Birge; Eric A. Davidson; Peter E. Eliasson; Sarah E. Evans; Serita D. Frey; Christian P. Giardina; Francesca M. Hopkins; Riitta Hyvonen; Miko U. F . Kirschbaum; Jocelyn M. Lavallee; Jens Leifeld; William J. Parton; Jessica Megan Steinweg; Matthew D. Wallenstein; J . A. Martin Wetterstedt; Mark A. Bradford


    The response of soil organic matter (OM) decomposition to increasing temperature is a critical aspect of ecosystem responses to global change. The impacts of climate warming on decomposition dynamics have not been resolved due to apparently contradictory results from field and lab experiments, most of which has focused on labile carbon with short turnover times. But...

  17. Temperature sensitivity and enzymatic mechanisms of soil organic matter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient on Mount Kilimanjaro. (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Еvgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Khomyakov, Nikita; Myachina, Olga; Kuzyakov, Yakov


    Short-term acceleration of soil organic matter decomposition by increasing temperature conflicts with the thermal adaptation observed in long-term studies. Here we used the altitudinal gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to demonstrate the mechanisms of thermal adaptation of extra- and intracellular enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose, chitin and phytate and oxidize monomers ((14)C-glucose) in warm- and cold-climate soils. We revealed that no response of decomposition rate to temperature occurs because of a cancelling effect consisting in an increase in half-saturation constants (Km), which counteracts the increase in maximal reaction rates (Vmax with temperature). We used the parameters of enzyme kinetics to predict thresholds of substrate concentration (Scrit) below which decomposition rates will be insensitive to global warming. Increasing values of Scrit, and hence stronger canceling effects with increasing altitude on Mt. Kilimanjaro, explained the thermal adaptation of polymer decomposition. The reduction of the temperature sensitivity of Vmax along the altitudinal gradient contributed to thermal adaptation of both polymer and monomer degradation. Extrapolating the altitudinal gradient to the large-scale latitudinal gradient, these results show that the soils of cold climates with stronger and more frequent temperature variation are less sensitive to global warming than soils adapted to high temperatures.

  18. Effect of Temperature on the Desorption and Decomposition of GB on Activated Carbon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karwacki, Christopher


    ...) and its decomposition products on coconut shell activated carbon (CSC). The results show that, under equilibrium conditions on dry CSC, changes in the partial pressure of GB are affected primarily by its loading and temperature of the adsorbent...

  19. High-temperature metal corrosion tests for HI decomposer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Young Soo; Sah, In Jin; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Sulfur-Iodine thermochemical Nuclear hydrogen production process is composed of three parts, Bunsen reaction, sulfuric acid decomposition reaction and hydriodic acid decomposition reaction. Among them, hydriodic acid decomposition reaction has low kinetics and equilibrium yield is poor, being an efficiency-determining step.1) Thus, many efforts are tried to raise the reaction rate and yield, such as extractive/reactive distillation or EED method. High temperature decomposition process,2) another candidate of HI decomposition method nowadays, has a simple process but due to highly corrosive environment, a material problem is one of crucial obstacles. In this paper, a number of structure material candidates are tested at high temperature for HI decomposition process

  20. Decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method proposed involves the decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas via electrolysis, which is used in internal combustion engines of electrical generators for electricity generation. The by-product obtained from combustion of this gas is water vapour and oxygen to replenish the atmosphere.

  1. The influence of temperature on the decomposition kinetics of peracetic acid in solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunigk L.


    Full Text Available Peracetic acid is a powerful sanitizer that has only recently been introduced in the Brazilian food industry. The main disadvantage of this sanitizer is its decomposition rate. The main purpose of this paper is to present results obtained in experiments carried out to study the decomposition kinetics of peracetic acid in aqueous solutions at 25, 35, 40 and 45 °C. The decompositon of peracetic acid is a first-order reaction. The decomposition rate constants are between 1.71x10-3 h -1 for 25 °C and 9.64x10-3 h-1 for 45 °C. The decomposition rate constant is affected by temperature according to the Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy for the decomposition of peracetic acid in aqueous solutions prepared from the commercial formulation used in this work is 66.20 kJ/mol.

  2. Temperature or substrate: what is responsible for carbon decomposition in mountain soils? (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Khomyakov, Nikita; Myachina, Olga; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Kuzyakov, Yakov


    Decomposition of organic substrates in soil is enzymes mediated process. Activity of enzymes is substrate dependent and mostly increases with temperature up to an optimum. Quantity of the substrate is the main limiting factor for enzymatic or microbial heterotrophic activity in mountain soils. It remains unclear whether the lack of available substrate can counterbalance the temperature induced acceleration of mineralization of soil organic carbon caused by global warming. Different mechanisms of enzymes response to temperature suggested for low and high substrate availability were never proved for real soil conditions. The ecological importance of temperature acclimation of enzyme activity also remains to be tested. To estimate the possible "temperature acclimation" of enzyme activity we compared the responses of enzymes-catalyzed reactions using the natural climatic differences in soils located at 950, 2010, 2435, 2780 and 3020 m altitudes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Basing on Michaelis-Menten kinetics we determined the enzymes affinity to substrate (Km) and mineralization potential of heterotrophic microorganisms (Vmax) 1) for three hydrolytic enzymes: β-1,4-glucosidase, N-acetyl- β -D-glucosaminidase and phosphatase by the application of fluorogenically labeled substrates and 2) for mineralization of 14C-labeled glucose by substrate-dependent respiratory response. Here we show that the amount of available substrate is responsible for temperature sensitivity of hydrolysis of polymers in soil, whereas monomers oxidation to CO2 does not depend on substrate amount and is mainly temperature governed. We also found different response of Km to warming for the processes of depolymerisation and monomers oxidation. So, the enzymes responsible for hydrolysis of polymers and for monomers oxidation have different temperature sensitivity. Both substrate affinity and heterotrophic potential showed the weaker response to increasing temperature at high versus low altitudes. This

  3. Thermal decomposition and kinetics of 2,4-dinitroimidazole: An insensitive high explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anniyappan, M., E-mail:; Sonawane, S.H.; Pawar, S.J.; Sikder, A.K.


    Highlights: • Pure 2,4-dinitroimidazole was prepared by re-crystallization from hot methanol. • A detailed thermal analysis of 2,4-DNI by DSC, TGA, GC–MS and ignition temperature. • Activation energy was calculated for thermal decomposition of 2,4-DNI • Effect of polymeric binder on thermal decomposition of 2,4-DNI were also studied. • Decomposition mechanisms of 2,4-DNI based on EI mass spectra were also described. - Abstract: 2,4-Dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI) is a novel energetic material with much less sensitive and potential for use as a propellant/insensitive munition (IM) formulations. 2,4-DNI possess high thermal stability and less sensitivity as compared to RDX and HMX which are high explosives extensively used at present. This paper reports a detailed thermal study of 2,4-DNI using various instrumental techniques. The activation energy (E = 205 ± 15 kJ/mol) was calculated from thermal decomposition of 2,4-DNI using DSC at different heating rate. The ignition temperature of pure 2,4-DNI was measured and showed at 285 °C. The TGA experiments demonstrate that 2,4-DNI decomposes in three steps with 92% total weight lose. Moreover, the effect of thermal energy on decomposition of 2,4-DNI in presence of polymeric binders like GAP and HTPB were investigated. Further, decomposition mechanisms of 2,4-DNI based on Electron Impact mass spectra analysis were also reported along with its explosive properties.

  4. High temperature measuring device (United States)

    Tokarz, Richard D.


    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2, C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  5. Effect of temperature on the decomposition of labile and recalcitrant organic matter in Chernozem (United States)

    Larioinova, Alla; Kvitkina, Anna; Bykhovets, Sergey; Stulin, Alexandr; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia


    We tested the hypothesis that the recalcitrant pool of soil organic matter (SOM) is more temperature sensitive to decomposition than the labile one. The hypothesis was verified for Chernozem soil sampled from the control (unfertilized) and fertilized with NPK experimental plots of the 50 year field experiment with maize monoculture in Voronezh Region, Russia (51o41'N, 39o15'E). The labile and recalcitrant SOM pools at 2, 12, and 22°C in a long-term (430 d) incubation experiment were traced using the method of 13C natural abundance by C3-C4 transition. Based on decomposition rate constants, the SOM pools followed the order plant residues fertilized with NPK, the increased decomposition of C3 SOM was observed compared to the unfertilized control. The input of new C4 carbon decreased the rate of CO2 emission during the decomposition of the old C3 SOM, i.e. induced negative priming effect (PE). To the contrast, the fertilization increased the positive PE for the C3 SOM. Along with the SOM decomposition rate constants, the magnitude of PE was also temperature dependent. The maximal negative PE in control treatment was found at the lowest temperature of 2oC, while the highest positive PE in NPK fertilized soil was observed at the highest temperature of 22oC.

  6. Ultrafine ferromagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Facile synthesis by low temperature decomposition of iron glycerolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartůněk, Vilém, E-mail: [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Průcha, David [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Švecová, Marie [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Ulbrich, Pavel [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Huber, Štěpán; Sedmidubský, David; Jankovský, Ondřej [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)


    We synthesized dark colored ultrafine – sub 10 nm iron oxide nanoparticles by a facile and low temperature process based on thermal decomposition of an affordable precursor – iron glycerolate. Simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) was used to study the thermal behaviour during the decomposition. The iron glycerolate was thoroughly analysed by various methods. The size of the iron nanoparticles was determined from XRD patterns and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their composition has been confirmed by XPS. Magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were studied by vibrating sample magnetometry. The prepared single phase material exhibiting ferromagnetic properties is usable in a wide range of applications and may be suitable even for large scale industrial applications. - Highlights: • Iron glycerolate prepared and characterised. • Iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by thermal decomposition of iron glycerolate. • STA used to study the decomposition. • Products characterised by XRD, XPS, FT-IR, SEM and TEM. • Magnetic behaviour of monophasic samples determined.

  7. Room temperature and thermal decomposition of magnesium hydride/deuteride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ares, J.R.; Leardini, F.; Bodega, J.; Macia, M.D.; Diaz-Chao, P.; Ferrer, I.J.; Fernandez, J.F.; Sanchez, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Lab. de Materiales de Interes en Energias Renovables


    Magnesium hydride (MgH{sub 2}) can be considered an interesting material to store hydrogen as long as two main drawbacks were solved: (i) its high stability and (ii) slow (de)hydriding kinetics. In that context, magnesium hydride films are an excellent model system to investigate the influence of structure, morphology and dimensionality on kinetic and thermodynamic properties. In the present work, we show that desorption mechanism of Pd-capped MgH{sub 2} at room temperature is controlled by a bidimensional interphase mechanism and a similar rate step limiting mechanism is observed during thermal decomposition of MgH{sub 2}. This mechanism is different to that occurring in bulk MgH{sub 2} (nucleation and growth) and obtained activation energies are lower than those reported in bulk MgH{sub 2}. We also investigated the Pd-capping properties upon H-absorption/desorption by means of RBS and isotope experiments. (orig.)

  8. Effects of temperature on decomposition of a potential nuisance species: the submerged aquatic macrophyte Egeria najas planchom (Hydrocharitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Carvalho

    Full Text Available Decomposition of aquatic plants is influenced by several biotic and abiotic factors. Among them, temperature plays an important role. Despite the increasing number of studies describing the effects of temperature on the decomposition of aquatic macrophytes, little attention has been given to the decay of submerged macrophytes. In this paper, we assessed the effect of temperature on weight loss and chemical composition of detritus of the submerged aquatic macrophyte Egeria najas Planchon (Hydrocharitaceae. Fresh plant material was maintained at 17ºC and 27ºC, in the dark, in incubation chambers. The overall decay process was best described by a linear model, with rates of 0.014 day-1 (R² = 94% and 0.045 day-1 (R² = 96% obtained at 17ºC and 27ºC, respectively. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA indicated a significant difference between the decomposition rates at the two temperatures. The rapid breakdown of E. najas detritus, indicated by the decay coefficient, may be explained by its low content of resistant compounds such as cellulose and lignin. The variables analyzed in this study (pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen in the water and organic matter, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentration in detritus showed accentuated responses at 27ºC. It is likely that the higher temperature increased microbial activity and, therefore, oxygen consumption in the water, consequently affecting the pH and the rate of ion and nutrient liberation into the aquatic ecosystem. Due to the rapid decomposition of E. najas at high temperatures, a small exportation is expected of this species from its stands to distant regions in tropical reservoirs, where it is considered a potential nuisance species.

  9. Corrosion reliability of electronics: the influence of solder temperature on the decomposition of flux activators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piotrowska, Kamila; Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl


    This manuscript gives a brief overview on the studies of thermal decomposition of solder flux systems commonly used in the electronic industry. Changes in chemical composition and structural changes of the flux components have been investigated as a function of temperature. Six weak organic acids...

  10. Quantitative structure—property relationship for thermal decomposition temperature of ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharagheizi, Farhad; Sattari, Mehdi; Ilani-Kashkouli, Poorandokht


    In this study, a wide literature survey has been conducted to gather an extensive set of thermal decomposition temperature (Td) data for ionic liquids (ILs). A data set consisting of Td data for 586 ILs was collated from 71 different literature sources. Using this data set, a reliable quantitative...

  11. Effect of Hydration State of Martian Perchlorate Salts on Their Decomposition Temperatures During Thermal Extraction (United States)

    Royle, Samuel H.; Montgomery, Wren; Kounaves, Samuel P.; Sephton, Mark A.


    Three Mars missions have analyzed the composition of surface samples using thermal extraction techniques. The temperatures of decomposition have been used as diagnostic information for the materials present. One compound of great current interest is perchlorate, a relatively recently discovered component of Mars' surface geochemistry that leads to deleterious effects on organic matter during thermal extraction. Knowledge of the thermal decomposition behavior of perchlorate salts is essential for mineral identification and possible avoidance of confounding interactions with organic matter. We have performed a series of experiments which reveal that the hydration state of magnesium perchlorate has a significant effect on decomposition temperature, with differing temperature releases of oxygen corresponding to different perchlorate hydration states (peak of O2 release shifts from 500 to 600°C as the proportion of the tetrahydrate form in the sample increases). Changes in crystallinity/crystal size may also have a secondary effect on the temperature of decomposition, and although these surface effects appear to be minor for our samples, further investigation may be warranted. A less than full appreciation of the hydration state of perchlorate salts during thermal extraction analyses could lead to misidentification of the number and the nature of perchlorate phases present.

  12. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.


    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  13. High temperature structural silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.


    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi{sub 2} single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi{sub 2} possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing.

  14. High-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Ajay Kumar


    The present book aims at describing the phenomenon of superconductivity and high-temperature superconductors discovered by Bednorz and Muller in 1986. The book covers the superconductivity phenomenon, structure of high-Tc superconductors, critical currents, synthesis routes for high Tc materials, superconductivity in cuprates, the proximity effect and SQUIDs, theories of superconductivity and applications of superconductors.

  15. High Temperature Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elder, Rachael; Cumming, Denis; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    High temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide, or co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam, has a great potential for carbon dioxide utilisation. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), operating between 500 and 900. °C, is used to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. If steam is also...... input to the cell then hydrogen is produced giving syngas. This syngas can then be further reacted to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. Operating at high temperature gives much higher efficiencies than can be achieved with low temperature electrolysis. Current state of the art SOECs utilise a dense...

  16. High Temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardo, M P


    I review recent results on QCD at high temperature on a lattice. Steady progress with staggered fermions and Wilson type fermions allow a quantitative description of hot QCD whose accuracy in many cases parallels that of zero temperature studies. Simulations with chiral quarks are coming of age, and togheter with theoretical developments trigger interesting developments in the analysis of the critical region. Issues related with the universality class of the chiral transition and the fate of the axial symmetry are discussed in the light of new numerical and analytical results. Transport coefficients and analysis of bottomonium spectra compare well with results of heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Model field theories, lattice simulations and high temperature systematic expansions help building a coherent picture of the high temperature phase of QCD. The (strongly coupled) Quark Gluon Plasma is heavily investigated, and asserts its role as an inspiring theoretical laboratory.

  17. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard


    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...... electrolysis using SOECs is competitive to H-2 production from fossil fuels at electricity prices below 0.02-0.03 is an element of per kWh. Though promising SOEC results on H-2 production have been reported a substantial R&D is still required to obtain inexpensive, high performing and long-term stable...

  18. High temperature superconducting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alario-Franco, M.A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas


    The perovskite structure is the basis of all known high-temperature superconducting materials. Many of the most successful (highest T{sub c}) materials are based on mercury and thallium phases but, due to the high toxicity of the component compounds effort has been invested in the substitution of these elements with silver. Progress is reviewed. (orig.)

  19. Loop for the observation of film temperature effects on decomposition (LOFTED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Chemistry; Kolb, William J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Briggs, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Christian, Joshua Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Ray, Daniel A [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Gill, David. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Kelton, John W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Chisman, Kye Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.


    Molten nitrate salt Loop for the Observation of Film Temperature Effects on Decomposition (LOFTED) was designed, fabricated, and tested. This unique experimental arrangement allowed a 60/40 molten nitrate salt to be continuously pumped through a Haynes 230 pipe, allowing simulation of a solar receiver. The wall temperature was held at 670°C during the test and the bulk temperature range from 600-610°C for approximately 1200 hours. Salt decomposition was tested using a calibrated total alkalinity methodology to assess oxide content over time. Several alloys (347SS, HR-224, In625-SQ, Haynes 230) were tested for corrosion performance over the duration of the study and compared to previous static tests. Results yielded nearly a tenfold increase in corrosion rate as compared to 600°C, owing to the need to understand the effects of flow and mass transport on corrosion in molten salt environments.

  20. Regional variation in the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition in China's forests and grasslands (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; He, Nianpeng


    How to assess the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and its regional variation with high accuracy is one of the largest uncertainties in determining the intensity and direction of the global carbon (C) cycle in response to climate change. In this study, we collected a series of soils from 22 forest sites and 30 grassland sites across China to explore regional variation in Q10 and its underlying mechanisms. We conducted a novel incubation experiment with periodically changing temperature (5-30 °C), while continuously measuring soil microbial respiration rates. The results showed that Q10 varied significantly across different ecosystems, ranging from 1.16 to 3.19 (mean 1.63). Q10 was ordered as follows: alpine grasslands (2.01) > temperate grasslands (1.81) > tropical forests (1.59) > temperate forests (1.55) > subtropical forests (1.52). The Q10 of grasslands (1.90) was significantly higher than that of forests (1.54). Furthermore, Q10 significantly increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing longitude. Environmental variables and substrate properties together explained 52% of total variation in Q10 across all sites. Overall, pH and soil electrical conductivity primarily explained spatial variation in Q10. The general negative relationships between Q10 and substrate quality among all ecosystem types supported the C quality temperature (CQT) hypothesis at a large scale, which indicated that soils with low quality should have higher temperature sensitivity. Furthermore, alpine grasslands, which had the highest Q10, were predicted to be more sensitive to climate change under the scenario of global warming.

  1. Decomposition and particle release of a carbon nanotube/epoxy nanocomposite at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlagenhauf, Lukas [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Functional Polymers (Switzerland); Kuo, Yu-Ying; Bahk, Yeon Kyoung [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Analytical Technologies (Switzerland); Nüesch, Frank [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Functional Polymers (Switzerland); Wang, Jing, E-mail: [Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Analytical Technologies (Switzerland)


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as fillers in nanocomposites have attracted significant attention, and one of the applications is to use the CNTs as flame retardants. For such nanocomposites, possible release of CNTs at elevated temperatures after decomposition of the polymer matrix poses potential health threats. We investigated the airborne particle release from a decomposing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy nanocomposite in order to measure a possible release of MWCNTs. An experimental set-up was established that allows decomposing the samples in a furnace by exposure to increasing temperatures at a constant heating rate and under ambient air or nitrogen atmosphere. The particle analysis was performed by aerosol measurement devices and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of collected particles. Further, by the application of a thermal denuder, it was also possible to measure non-volatile particles only. Characterization of the tested samples and the decomposition kinetics were determined by the usage of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The particle release of different samples was investigated, of a neat epoxy, nanocomposites with 0.1 and 1 wt% MWCNTs, and nanocomposites with functionalized MWCNTs. The results showed that the added MWCNTs had little effect on the decomposition kinetics of the investigated samples, but the weight of the remaining residues after decomposition was influenced significantly. The measurements with decomposition in different atmospheres showed a release of a higher number of particles at temperatures below 300 °C when air was used. Analysis of collected particles by TEM revealed that no detectable amount of MWCNTs was released, but micrometer-sized fibrous particles were collected.

  2. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.


    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  3. High temperature superconductivity: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedell, K.S.; Coffey, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Meltzer, D.E. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA)); Pines, D. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA)); Schrieffer, J.R. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA)) (eds.)


    This book is the result of a symposium at Los Alamos in 1989 on High Temperature Superconductivity. The topics covered include: phenomenology, quantum spin liquids, spin space fluctuations in the insulating and metallic phases, normal state properties, and numerical studies and simulations. (JF)

  4. Life at High Temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 9. Life at High Temperatures. Ramesh Maheshwari. General Article Volume 10 Issue 9 September 2005 pp 23-36. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  5. Mesoporous Silica Supported Pd-MnOx Catalysts with Excellent Catalytic Activity in Room-Temperature Formic Acid Decomposition (United States)

    Jin, Min-Ho; Oh, Duckkyu; Park, Ju-Hyoung; Lee, Chun-Boo; Lee, Sung-Wook; Park, Jong-Soo; Lee, Kwan-Young; Lee, Dong-Wook


    For the application of formic acid as a liquid organic hydrogen carrier, development of efficient catalysts for dehydrogenation of formic acid is a challenging topic, and most studies have so far focused on the composition of metals and supports, the size effect of metal nanoparticles, and surface chemistry of supports. Another influential factor is highly desired to overcome the current limitation of heterogeneous catalysis for formic acid decomposition. Here, we first investigated the effect of support pore structure on formic acid decomposition performance at room temperature by using mesoporous silica materials with different pore structures such as KIE-6, MCM-41, and SBA-15, and achieved the excellent catalytic activity (TOF: 593 h-1) by only controlling the pore structure of mesoporous silica supports. In addition, we demonstrated that 3D interconnected pore structure of mesoporous silica supports is more favorable to the mass transfer than 2D cylindrical mesopore structure, and the better mass transfer provides higher catalytic activity in formic acid decomposition. If the pore morphology of catalytic supports such as 3D wormhole or 2D cylinder is identical, large pore size combined with high pore volume is a crucial factor to achieve high catalytic performance.

  6. Adomian Decomposition Method for a Nonlinear Heat Equation with Temperature Dependent Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaque H. Bokhari


    Full Text Available The solutions of nonlinear heat equation with temperature dependent diffusivity are investigated using the modified Adomian decomposition method. Analysis of the method and examples are given to show that the Adomian series solution gives an excellent approximation to the exact solution. This accuracy can be increased by increasing the number of terms in the series expansion. The Adomian solutions are presented in some situations of interest.

  7. Effects of stoichiometry and temperature perturbations on beech litter decomposition, enzyme activities and protein expression (United States)

    Keiblinger, K. M.; Schneider, T.; Roschitzki, B.; Schmid, E.; Eberl, L.; Hämmerle, I.; Leitner, S.; Richter, A.; Wanek, W.; Riedel, K.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.


    Microbes are major players in leaf litter decomposition and therefore advances in the understanding of their control on element cycling are of paramount importance. Our aim was to investigate the influence of leaf litter stoichiometry in terms of carbon (C) : nitrogen (N) : phosphorus (P) on the decomposition process, and to follow changes in microbial community structure and function in response to temperature-stress treatments. To elucidate how the stoichiometry of beech litter (Fagus sylvatica L.) and stress treatments interactively affect the decomposition processes, a terrestrial microcosm experiment was conducted. Beech litter from different Austrian sites covering C:N ratios from 39 to 61 and C:P ratios from 666 to 1729 were incubated at 15 °C and 60% moisture for six months. Part of the microcosms were then subjected to severe changes in temperature (+30 °C and -15 °C) to monitor the influence of temperature stress. Extracellular enzyme activities were assayed and respiratory activities measured. A semi-quantitative metaproteomics approach (1D-SDS PAGE combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass-spectrometry; unique spectral counting) was employed to investigate the impact of the applied stress treatments in dependency of litter stoichiometry on structure and function of the decomposing community. In litter with narrow C:nutrient ratios microbial decomposers were most abundant. Cellulase, chitinase, phosphatase and protease activity decreased after heat and frost treatments. Decomposer communities and specific functions varied with site i.e. stoichiometry. The applied stress evoked strong changes of enzyme activities, dissolved organic nitrogen and litter pH. Freeze treatments resulted in a decline in residual plant litter material, and increased fungal abundance indicating slightly accelerated decomposition. Overall, we could detect a strong effect of litter stoichiometry on microbial community structure as well as function. Temperature

  8. Kinetics of methane hydrate decomposition studied via in situ low temperature X-ray powder diffraction. (United States)

    Everett, S Michelle; Rawn, Claudia J; Keffer, David J; Mull, Derek L; Payzant, E Andrew; Phelps, Tommy J


    Gas hydrate is known to have a slowed decomposition rate at ambient pressure and temperatures below the melting point of ice. As hydrate exothermically decomposes, gas is released and water of the clathrate cages transforms into ice. Based on results from the decomposition of three nominally similar methane hydrate samples, the kinetics of two regions, 180-200 and 230-260 K, within the overall decomposition range 140-260 K, were studied by in situ low temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The kinetic rate constants, k(a), and the reaction mechanisms, n, for ice formation from methane hydrate were determined by the Avrami model within each region, and activation energies, E(a), were determined by the Arrhenius plot. E(a) determined from the data for 180-200 K was 42 kJ/mol and for 230-260 K was 22 kJ/mol. The higher E(a) in the colder temperature range was attributed to a difference in the microstructure of ice between the two regions.

  9. High temperature future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinkopf, K. [Solar Energy Research and Education Foundation, Washington, DC (United States)


    During the past few years, there have been dramatic accomplishments and success of high temperature solar thermal systems and significant development of these systems. High temperature technologies, about 500 F and higher, such as dish engines, troughs, central receiver power towers and solar process heat systems, have been tested, demonstrated and used in an array of applications, including many cost-effective utility bulk power production and demand side supply projects in the United States. Large systems provide power and hot water to prisons, schools, nursing homes and other institutions. Joint ventures with industry, utility projects, laboratory design assistance and other activities are building a solid industry of US solar thermal systems ready for use today.

  10. Palladium-atom catalyzed formic acid decomposition and the switch of reaction mechanism with temperature. (United States)

    He, Nan; Li, Zhen Hua


    Formic acid decomposition (FAD) reaction has been an innovative way for hydrogen energy. Noble metal catalysts, especially palladium-containing nanoparticles, supported or unsupported, perform well in this reaction. Herein, we considered the simplest model, wherein one Pd atom is used as the FAD catalyst. With high-level theoretical calculations of CCSD(T)/CBS quality, we investigated all possible FAD pathways. The results show that FAD catalyzed by one Pd atom follows a different mechanism compared with that catalyzed by surfaces or larger clusters. At the initial stage of the reaction, FAD follows a dehydration route and is quickly poisoned by CO due to the formation of very stable PdCO. PdCO then becomes the actual catalyst for FAD at temperatures approximately below 1050 K. Beyond 1050 K, there is a switch of catalyst from PdCO to Pd atom. The results also show that dehydration is always favoured over dehydrogenation on either the Pd-atom or PdCO catalyst. On the Pd-atom catalyst, neither dehydrogenation nor dehydration follows the formate mechanism. In contrast, on the PdCO catalyst, dehydrogenation follows the formate mechanism, whereas dehydration does not. We also systematically investigated the performance of 24 density functional theory methods. We found that the performance of the double hybrid mPW2PLYP functional is the best, followed by the B3LYP, B3PW91, N12SX, M11, and B2PLYP functionals.

  11. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom


    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  12. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server


    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  13. High temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Paranthaman, Parans


    This essential reference provides the most comprehensive presentation of the state of the art in the field of high temperature superconductors. This growing field of research and applications is currently being supported by numerous governmental and industrial initiatives in the United States, Asia and Europe to overcome grid energy distribution issues. The technology is particularly intended for densely populated areas. It is now being commercialized for power-delivery devices, such as power transmission lines and cables, motors and generators. Applications in electric utilities include current limiters, long transmission lines and energy-storage devices that will help industries avoid dips in electric power.

  14. Effects of different tree species on soil organic matter composition, decomposition rates and temperature sensitivities in boreal forest (United States)

    Segura, Javier; Nilsson, Mats B.; Erhagen, Björn; Sparrman, Tobias; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Schleucher, Jürgen; Öquist, Mats


    High-latitude ecosystems store a large proportion of the global soil organic matter (SOM) and its mineralization constitutes a major carbon flux to the atmosphere. It has been suggested that different tree species can significantly influence organo-chemical composition of SOM, and rate and temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition. In this study we used surface soil samples (top 5 cm) from a field experiment where five different tree species (Pinus silvestrys L, Picea abies (L.) H. Karst., Larix decidua Mill., Betula pendula Roth, and Pinus contorta Douglas) were planted on a grass meadow in a randomized block design (n=3) ca. 40 years ago. The samples were incubated at 4, 9, 14, and 19 °C at a soil water potential of -25 kPa (previously determined as optimal water content for decomposition). CO2 production rates were measured hourly for 13 days. CO2 production rates were consequently lowest in the control plots and increased in the order Meadow< Contorta < Betula < Larix < Pinus < Picea. The values ranged between 0.03-0.1, 0.06-0.154, 0.1-0.24 and 0.13-0.36 mg CO2 g-1 OM (dw) h-1 at 4, 9, 14 and 19°C respectively. The temperature response of CO2 production corresponded to Q10s of 2.22 (±0.11), 2.22(±0.15), 2.66 (±0.18), 2.09 (±0.33), 2.38 (±0.31) and 2.31 (±0.09) for meadow, contorta, betula, larix, pinus and picea respectively. Only betula resulted in significantly higher Q10s as compared to the control plots, picea, contorta and larix treatments. These differences in tree species effects on SOM decomposition and its temperature sensitivity will be further discussed in relation to the organo-chemical composition of SOM as determined by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) techniques. We conclude that the temperature response of SOM decomposition rates is likely coupled to tree species composition and may have important implications for soil C dynamics. This finding can have

  15. Decomposition of methane over alumina supported Fe and Ni–Fe bimetallic catalyst: Effect of preparation procedure and calcination temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Al-Fatesh


    Full Text Available Catalytic decomposition of methane has been studied extensively as the production of hydrogen and formation of carbon nanotube is proven crucial from the scientific and technological point of view. In that context, variation of catalyst preparation procedure, calcination temperature and use of promoters could significantly alter the methane conversion, hydrogen yield and morphology of carbon nanotubes formed after the reaction. In this work, Ni promoted and unpromoted Fe/Al2O3 catalysts have been prepared by impregnation, sol–gel and co-precipitation method with calcination at two different temperatures. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 physisorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA techniques. The catalytic activity was tested for methane decomposition reaction. The catalytic activity was high when calcined at 500 °C temperature irrespective of the preparation method. However while calcined at high temperature the catalyst prepared by impregnation method showed a high activity. It is found from XRD and TPR characterization that disordered iron oxides supported on alumina play an important role for dissociative chemisorptions of methane generating molecular hydrogen. The transmission electron microscope technique results of the spent catalysts showed the formation of carbon nanotube which is having length of 32–34 nm. The Fe nanoparticles are present on the tip of the carbon nanotube and nanotube grows by contraction–elongation mechanism. Among three different methodologies impregnation method was more effective to generate adequate active sites in the catalyst surface. The Ni promotion enhances the reducibility of Fe/Al2O3 oxides showing a higher catalytic activity. The catalyst is stable up to six hours on stream as observed in the activity results.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Cu-MFI catalyst for the direct medium temperature range NO decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valkaj Karolina Maduna


    Full Text Available In this study the physico-chemical and catalytic properties of copper bearing MFI zeolites (Cu-MFI with different Si/Al and Si/Cu ratios were investigated. Two different methods for incorporation of metal ions into the zeolite framework were used: the ion exchange from the solution of copper acetate and the direct hydrothermal synthesis. Direct synthesis of a zeolite in the presence of copper-phosphate complexes was expected to generate more active copper species necessary for the desired reaction than the conventional ion exchange method. Direct decomposition of NO was used as a model reaction, because this reaction still offers a very attractive approach to NOX removal. The catalytic properties of zeolite samples were studied using techniques, such as XRD, SEM, EPR and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements at 77 K. Results of the kinetic investigation revealed that both methods are applicable for the preparation of the catalysts with active sites capable of catalyzing the NO decomposition. It was found out that Cu-MFI zeolites obtained through direct synthesis are promising catalysts for NO decomposition, especially at lower reaction temperatures. The efficiency of the catalysts prepared by both methods is compared and discussed.

  17. Effect of aging temperature on phase decomposition and mechanical properties in cast duplex stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mburu, Sarah; Kolli, R. Prakash; Perea, Daniel E.; Schwarm, Samuel C.; Eaton, Arielle; Liu, Jia; Patel, Shiv; Bartrand, Jonah; Ankem, Sreeramamurthy


    The microstructure and mechanical properties in unaged and thermally aged (at 280 oC, 320 oC, 360 oC, and 400 oC to 4300 h) CF–3 and CF–8 cast duplex stainless steels (CDSS) are investigated. The unaged CF–8 steel has Cr-rich M23C6 carbides located at the δ–ferrite/γ– austenite heterophase interfaces that were not observed in the CF–3 steel and this corresponds to a difference in mechanical properties. Both unaged steels exhibit incipient spinodal decomposition into Fe-rich α–domains and Cr-rich α’–domains. During aging, spinodal decomposition progresses and the mean wavelength (MW) and mean amplitude (MA) of the compositional fluctuations increase as a function of aging temperature. Additionally, G–phase precipitates form between the spinodal decomposition domains in CF–3 at 360 oC and 400 oC and in CF–8 at 400 oC. The microstructural evolution is correlated to changes in mechanical properties.

  18. High Temperature Aquifer Storage (United States)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas


    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. Apart from high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. An enormous technical challenge is the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10 - 50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye, into a depth of about 300 m b.s.l. resp. 470 m b.s.l. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. To achieve the desired water temperatures, about 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for analysing the concentration of the dyes and the major cations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analysed in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger prooved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating. Nevertheless, hydrochemical data proved both, dissolution and precipitation processes in the aquifer. This was also suggested by the hydrochemical modelling with PhreeqC and is traced back to mixture dissolution and changing

  19. Sensitivity of decomposition rates of soil organic matter with respect to simultaneous changes in temperature and moisture (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Trumbore, Susan E.; Davidson, Eric A.; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, I.


    The sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to global environmental change is a topic of prominent relevance for the global carbon cycle. Decomposition depends on multiple factors that are being altered simultaneously as a result of global environmental change; therefore, it is important to study the sensitivity of the rates of soil organic matter decomposition with respect to multiple and interacting drivers. In this manuscript, we present an analysis of the potential response of decomposition rates to simultaneous changes in temperature and moisture. To address this problem, we first present a theoretical framework to study the sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition when multiple driving factors change simultaneously. We then apply this framework to models and data at different levels of abstraction: (1) to a mechanistic model that addresses the limitation of enzyme activity by simultaneous effects of temperature and soil water content, the latter controlling substrate supply and oxygen concentration for microbial activity; (2) to different mathematical functions used to represent temperature and moisture effects on decomposition in biogeochemical models. To contrast model predictions at these two levels of organization, we compiled different data sets of observed responses in field and laboratory studies. Then we applied our conceptual framework to: (3) observations of heterotrophic respiration at the ecosystem level; (4) laboratory experiments looking at the response of heterotrophic respiration to independent changes in moisture and temperature; and (5) ecosystem-level experiments manipulating soil temperature and water content simultaneously.

  20. Differences in SOM decomposition and temperature sensitivity among soil aggregate size classes in a temperate grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10 of soil organic matter (SOM decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250-2000 μm, microaggregates (MI, 53-250 μm, and mineral fractions (MF, MF>bulk soil >MI(P <0.05. The Q10 values were highest for MA, followed (in decreasing order by bulk soil, MF, and MI. Similarly, the activation energies (Ea for MA, bulk soil, MF, and MI were 48.47, 33.26, 27.01, and 23.18 KJ mol-1, respectively. The observed significant negative correlations between Q10 and C quality index in bulk soil and soil aggregates (P<0.05 suggested that the CQT hypothesis is applicable to soil aggregates. Cumulative C emission differed significantly among aggregate size classes (P <0.0001, with the largest values occurring in MA (1101 μg g-1, followed by MF (976 μg g-1 and MI (879 μg g-1. These findings suggest that feedback from SOM decomposition in response to changing temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios.

  1. High Temperature Hybrid Elastomers (United States)

    Drake, Kerry Anthony

    Conventional high temperature elastomers are produced by chain polymerization of olefinic or fluorinated olefinic monomers. Ultimate thermal stabilities are limited by backbone bond strengths, lower thermal stability of cross-link sites relative to backbone bonds, and depolymerization or "unzipping" at high temperatures. In order to develop elastomers with enhanced thermal stability, hybrid thermally cross-linkable polymers that consisted only of organic-inorganic and aromatic bonds were synthesized and evaluated. The addition of phenylethynyl or phenylacetylinic functional groups to these polymers resulted in conversion of the polymers into high temperature elastomers when cross-linked by thermal curing. Polyphenyoxydiphenylsilanes were synthesized via several different condensation reactions. Results of these synthetic reactions, which utilized both hydroquinone and biphenol as monomers, were systematically evaluated to determine the optimal synthetic conditions for subsequent endcapping reactions. It was determined that dichlorodiphenylsilane condensations with biphenol in toluene or THF were best suited for this work. Use of excess dichlorodiphenylsilane yielded polymers of appropriate molecular weights with terminal reactive chlorosilane groups that could be utilized for coupling with phenylethynyl reagents in a subsequent reaction. Two new synthetic routes were developed to endcap biphenoxysilanes with ethynyl containing substituents, to yield polymers with cross-linkable end groups. Endcapping by lithiumphenylacetylide and 4[(4-fluorophenylethynyl))phenol yielded two new polymers that could be thermally cross-linked on heating above 300 °C. Successful endcapping was verified chemically by 13C NMR, FTIR and Raman analysis. Exothermic peaks consistent with ethynyl curing reactions were observed in endcapped polymers by DSC. A new diacetylinic polymer was prepared through reaction of 4,4'-buta-1,3-diyne-1,4-diyldiphenol and dichlorodiphenylsilane. This

  2. Decomposition kinetics of expanded austenite with high nitrogen contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    This paper addresses the decomposition kinetics of synthesized homogeneous expanded austenite formed by gaseous nitriding of stainless steel AISI 304L and AISI 316L with nitrogen contents up to 38 at.% nitrogen. Isochronal annealing experiments were carried out in both inert (N2) and reducing (H2......) atmospheres. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry were applied for identification of the decomposition reactions and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied for phase analysis. CrN precipitated upon annealing; the activation energies are 187 kJ/mol and 128 kJ/mol for AISI 316L and AISI 304L...

  3. A review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions and effects of decomposition temperature on the surface area of the plutonium dioxide product (United States)

    Orr, R. M.; Sims, H. E.; Taylor, R. J.


    Plutonium (IV) and (III) ions in nitric acid solution readily form insoluble precipitates with oxalic acid. The plutonium oxalates are then easily thermally decomposed to form plutonium dioxide powder. This simple process forms the basis of current industrial conversion or 'finishing' processes that are used in commercial scale reprocessing plants. It is also widely used in analytical or laboratory scale operations and for waste residues treatment. However, the mechanisms of the thermal decompositions in both air and inert atmospheres have been the subject of various studies over several decades. The nature of intermediate phases is of fundamental interest whilst understanding the evolution of gases at different temperatures is relevant to process control. The thermal decomposition is also used to control a number of powder properties of the PuO2 product that are important to either long term storage or mixed oxide fuel manufacturing. These properties are the surface area, residual carbon impurities and adsorbed volatile species whereas the morphology and particle size distribution are functions of the precipitation process. Available data and experience regarding the thermal and radiation-induced decompositions of plutonium oxalate to oxide are reviewed. The mechanisms of the thermal decompositions are considered with a particular focus on the likely redox chemistry involved. Also, whilst it is well known that the surface area is dependent on calcination temperature, there is a wide variation in the published data and so new correlations have been derived. Better understanding of plutonium (III) and (IV) oxalate decompositions will assist the development of more proliferation resistant actinide co-conversion processes that are needed for advanced reprocessing in future closed nuclear fuel cycles.

  4. Empirical Mode Decomposition on the sphere: application to the spatial scales of surface temperature variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fauchereau


    Full Text Available Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD is applied here in two dimensions over the sphere to demonstrate its potential as a data-adaptive method of separating the different scales of spatial variability in a geophysical (climatological/meteorological field. After a brief description of the basics of the EMD in 1 then 2 dimensions, the principles of its application on the sphere are explained, in particular via the use of a zonal equal area partitioning. EMD is first applied to an artificial dataset, demonstrating its capability in extracting the different (known scales embedded in the field. The decomposition is then applied to a global mean surface temperature dataset, and we show qualitatively that it extracts successively larger scales of temperature variations related, for example, to topographic and large-scale, solar radiation forcing. We propose that EMD can be used as a global data-adaptive filter, which will be useful in analysing geophysical phenomena that arise as the result of forcings at multiple spatial scales.

  5. High Performance Polar Decomposition on Distributed Memory Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sukkari, Dalal E.


    The polar decomposition of a dense matrix is an important operation in linear algebra. It can be directly calculated through the singular value decomposition (SVD) or iteratively using the QR dynamically-weighted Halley algorithm (QDWH). The former is difficult to parallelize due to the preponderant number of memory-bound operations during the bidiagonal reduction. We investigate the latter scenario, which performs more floating-point operations but exposes at the same time more parallelism, and therefore, runs closer to the theoretical peak performance of the system, thanks to more compute-bound matrix operations. Profiling results show the performance scalability of QDWH for calculating the polar decomposition using around 9200 MPI processes on well and ill-conditioned matrices of 100K×100K problem size. We study then the performance impact of the QDWH-based polar decomposition as a pre-processing step toward calculating the SVD itself. The new distributed-memory implementation of the QDWH-SVD solver achieves up to five-fold speedup against current state-of-the-art vendor SVD implementations. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

  6. Effect of high heating rate on thermal decomposition behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    but rely on the concentration of hydrogen. The model ... first-order rate law. Lehmhus and Rausch (2004) have annealed TiH2 pow- der in air and argon. In argon, the powder does not develop a surface layer and as a result, a small amount of hydro- gen is lost ... rate effect on the thermal decomposition behaviour of TiH2.

  7. Highly efficient and stable catalyst for peroxynitrite decomposition (United States)

    Yurii V. Geletii; Alan J. Bailey; Jennifer J. Cowan; Ira A. Weinstock; Craig L. Hill


    The new cobalt substituted-polyoxometalate K7[CoAlW11O39]•15H2O and the simple CoCl2•6H2O salt are efficient catalysts for peroxynitrite decomposition. These compounds also catalyze the oxidation of ascorbic acid and the nitration of phenol by peroxynitrite.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chertov


    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the creation of a new type of mixer to produce homogeneous mixtures of dissimilar materials applied to recycling of housing and communal services waste. The article describes the design of a dual-chamber device of the original high-temperature vacuum mixer, there investigated the processes occurring in the chambers of such devices. The results of theoretical and experimental research of the process of mixing recycled polyethylene with a mixture of "grinded food waste – Eco wool” are presented. The problem of the optimum choice of bending the curvilinear blades in the working volume of the seal, which is achieved by setting their profile in the form of involute arc of several circles of different radii, is examined . The dependences, allowing to define the limits of the changes of the main mode parameters the angular velocity of rotation of the working body of the mixer using two ways of setting the profile of the curvilinear blade mixer are obtained. Represented design of the mixer is proposed to use for a wide range of tasks associated with the mixing of the components with a strongly pronounced difference of physic al chemical properties and, in particular, in the production of composites out of housing and communal services waste.

  9. Advances in high temperature chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy


    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in the knowledge of the high temperature behavior of materials and the complex and unfamiliar characteristics of matter at high temperature. The book discusses the dissociation energies and free energy functions of gaseous monoxides; the matrix-isolation technique applied to high temperature molecules; and the main features, the techniques for the production, detection, and diagnosis, and the applications of molecular beams in high temperatures. The text also describes the chemical research in streaming thermal plasmas, as w

  10. Amorphization-decomposition behavior of HfW2O8 at high pressure (United States)

    Sakuntala, T.; Rao, Rekha; Garg, Alka B.; Achary, S. N.; Tyagi, A. K.


    Structural stability of HfW2O8 is investigated at high pressure using Raman spectroscopy. Irreversible amorphization is found to occur when pressurized to above 3 GPa under hydrostatic conditions. The Raman spectrum of the pressure-amorphized sample closely resembles that of amorphous WO3. On the other hand, spectrum of the recovered sample subjected to uniaxial compression of about 5 GPa showed bands characteristic of crystalline HfO2 besides the parent cubic phase and amorphous phase. Ex situ x-ray diffraction measurements on the pressure-cycled samples also indicated the presence of monoclinic HfO2. These results suggest that the observed pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) under hydrostatic compression is indeed due to hindered decomposition, which is facilitated under uniaxial compression. Thus, the behavior of HfW2O8 appears to be different from that of ZrW2O8, which exhibited only PIA and not pressure-induced decomposition at ambient temperature.

  11. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  12. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.


    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and

  13. Life at High Temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sep 15, 2005 ... or more in the vicinity of geothermal vents in the deep sea and the plant Tidestromia oblongifolia (Amaranthaceae) found in Death. Valley in California, where the hottest temperature on earth ever recorded during 43 consecutive days in 1917 was >48 °C. (Guinness Book of W orId Records, 1999).

  14. In situ synthesis of manganese oxides on polyester fiber for formaldehyde decomposition at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinlong [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality (China); Yunus, Rizwangul [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xinjiang Zhongtai Chemical Company, Xinjiang 831511 (China); Li, Jinge; Li, Peilin [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Pengyi, E-mail: [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality (China); Kim, Jeonghyun [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The MnO{sub x} particles assembled with nanosheets were uniformly coated on PET fibers. • The growth process of MnO{sub x} layer on PET is clearly clarified. • MnO{sub x}/PET showed good activity for HCHO decomposition at room temperature. • MnO{sub x}/PET material is promising for indoor air purification due to its light, flexible and low air-resistant properties. - Abstract: Removal of low-level formaldehyde (HCHO) is of great interest for indoor air quality improvement. Supported materials especially those with low air pressure drop are of necessity for air purification. Manganese oxides (MnO{sub x}) was in situ deposited on the surface of fibers of a non-woven fabric made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). As-synthesized MnO{sub x}/PET were characterized by SEM, XRD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis. The growth of MnO{sub x} layer on PET is thought to start with partial hydrolysis of PET, followed by surface oxidation by KMnO{sub 4} and then surface-deposition of MnO{sub x} particles from the bulk phase. The MnO{sub x} particles assembled with nanosheets were uniformly coated on the PET fibers. MnO{sub x}/PET showed good activity for HCHO decomposition at room temperature which followed the Mars–van Krevelen mechanism. The removal of HCHO was kept over 94% after 10 h continuous reaction under the conditions of inlet HCHO concentration ∼0.6 mg/m{sup 3}, space velocity ∼17,000 h{sup −1} and relative humidity∼50%. This research provides a facile method to deposit active MnO{sub x} onto polymers with low air resistance, and composite MnO{sub x}/PET material is promising for indoor air purification.

  15. Rate of warming affects temperature sensitivity of anaerobic peat decomposition and greenhouse gas production. (United States)

    Sihi, Debjani; Inglett, Patrick W; Gerber, Stefan; Inglett, Kanika S


    Temperature sensitivity of anaerobic carbon mineralization in wetlands remains poorly represented in most climate models and is especially unconstrained for warmer subtropical and tropical systems which account for a large proportion of global methane emissions. Several studies of experimental warming have documented thermal acclimation of soil respiration involving adjustments in microbial physiology or carbon use efficiency (CUE), with an initial decline in CUE with warming followed by a partial recovery in CUE at a later stage. The variable CUE implies that the rate of warming may impact microbial acclimation and the rate of carbon-dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) production. Here, we assessed the effects of warming rate on the decomposition of subtropical peats, by applying either a large single-step (10°C within a day) or a slow ramping (0.1°C/day for 100 days) temperature increase. The extent of thermal acclimation was tested by monitoring CO2 and CH4 production, CUE, and microbial biomass. Total gaseous C loss, CUE, and MBC were greater in the slow (ramp) warming treatment. However, greater values of CH4 -C:CO2 -C ratios lead to a greater global warming potential in the fast (step) warming treatment. The effect of gradual warming on decomposition was more pronounced in recalcitrant and nutrient-limited soils. Stable carbon isotopes of CH4 and CO2 further indicated the possibility of different carbon processing pathways under the contrasting warming rates. Different responses in fast vs. slow warming treatment combined with different endpoints may indicate alternate pathways with long-term consequences. Incorporations of experimental results into organic matter decomposition models suggest that parameter uncertainties in CUE and CH4 -C:CO2 -C ratios have a larger impact on long-term soil organic carbon and global warming potential than uncertainty in model structure, and shows that particular rates of warming are central to understand the response of

  16. High temperature materials; Materiaux a hautes temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  17. High Temperature Superconductor Machine Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten


    A versatile testing platform for a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) machine has been constructed. The stationary HTS field winding can carry up to 10 coils and it is operated at a temperature of 77K. The rotating armature is at room temperature. Test results and performance for the HTS field...

  18. Catalytic Ammonia Decomposition over High-Performance Ru/Graphene Nanocomposites for Efficient COx-Free Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li


    Full Text Available Highly-dispersed Ru nanoparticles were grown on graphene nanosheets by simultaneously reducing graphene oxide and Ru ions using ethylene glycol (EG, and the resultant Ru/graphene nanocomposites were applied as a catalyst to ammonia decomposition for COx-free hydrogen production. Tuning the microstructures of Ru/graphene nanocomposites was easily accomplished in terms of Ru particle size, morphology, and loading by adjusting the preparation conditions. This was the key to excellent catalytic activity, because ammonia decomposition over Ru catalysts is structure-sensitive. Our results demonstrated that Ru/graphene prepared using water as a co-solvent greatly enhanced the catalytic performance for ammonia decomposition, due to the significantly improved nano architectures of the composites. The long-term stability of Ru/graphene catalysts was evaluated for COx-free hydrogen production from ammonia at high temperatures, and the structural evolution of the catalysts was investigated during the catalytic reactions. Although there were no obvious changes in the catalytic activities at 450 °C over a duration of 80 h, an aggregation of the Ru nanoparticles was still observed in the nanocomposites, which was ascribed mainly to a sintering effect. However, the performance of the Ru/graphene catalyst was decreased gradually at 500 °C within 20 h, which was ascribed mainly to both the effect of the methanation of the graphene nanosheet under a H2 atmosphere and to enhanced sintering under high temperatures.

  19. Soil organic matter decomposition and temperature sensitivity after forest fire in permafrost regions in Canada (United States)

    Aaltonen, Heidi; Palviainen, Marjo; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka


    On the Northern Hemisphere, 24% of soils are underlain by permafrost. These soils contain 50% of the global soil carbon pool. The Northern Hemisphere is also the region which is predicted to be most affected by climate warming and this causes uncertainties over the future of the permafrost. It has been estimated that 25% of permafrost might thaw by 2100, exposing previously frozen carbon pools to decomposition. In addition, global warming is expected to cause increase in the frequency of wild fires, which further increase permafrost melting by removing the insulating organic surface layer. The amount of released soil carbon from permafrost soils after forest fire is affected by degradability and temperature sensitivity of the soil organic matter, as well as soil depth and the stage of succession. Yet the common effect of these factors remains unclear. We studied how soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity (Q10) vary in different depths and within time by taking soil samples from different fire chronosequence areas (burned 3, 25, 46 and 100 years ago) from permafrost region in Northern Canada (Yukon and Northwest Territories, along Dempster Highway). The samples from three different depths (5, 10 and 30 cm) were incubated in four different temperatures (1, 7, 13 and 19°C) over 24h. Our results showed that the CO2 fluxes followed the stages of succession, with recently burned sites having lowest rates. The organic matter at 5 cm depth proved to be more labile and temperature sensitive than in deeper depths. The Q10 values, however, did not differ between sites, excluding 30 cm at the most recently burned site that had a significantly higher Q10 value than the other sites. The results implicate that heterotrophic soil respiration decreases on permafrost regions during the first stages after forest fire. At the same time the temperature sensitivity in deeper soil layers may increase.

  20. Epoxy nanocomposites based on high temperature pyridinium-modified clays. (United States)

    Zhang, Qingxin; Naito, Kimiyoshi; Qi, Ben; Kagawa, Yutaka


    Polymer/clay nanocomposites are generally fabricated by thermal curing or melt compounding at elevated temperatures, however the thermal stability of common alkyl ammonium treated clays is poor and decomposition occurs inevitably during high temperature processing. In this study, we modified clays with an aromatic pyridinium salt. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the onset degradation temperature (Td(onset)) and maximum decomposition temperature (Td(max)) of the pyridinium treatment clays was up to 310 and 457 degrees C respectively implying high thermal stability. The thermal decomposition behaviour of the pyridinium modified clays was discussed. A series of epoxy/clay nanocomposites were synthesized using a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy and diethyltoluene diamine (DETDA). The morphology of epoxy/clay nanocomposites was characterized with wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), and intercalated structures were observed. The storage modulus of epoxy was increased but glass transition temperature was decreased with clay incorporation. The effects of clays on glass transition temperature (Tg) of epoxy were also discussed.

  1. High-Temperature Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Ajay Kumar


    This book presents the current knowledge about superconductivity in high Tc cuprate superconductors. There is a large scientific interest and great potential for technological applications. The book discusses all the aspects related to all families of cuprate superconductors discovered so far. Beginning with the phenomenon of superconductivity, the book covers: the structure of cuprate HTSCs, critical currents, flux pinning, synthesis of HTSCs, proximity effect and SQUIDs, possible applications of high Tc superconductors and theories of superconductivity. Though a high Tc theory is still awaited, this book describes the present scenario and BCS and RVB theories. The second edition was  significantly extended by including film-substrate lattice matching and buffer layer considerations in thin film HTSCs, brick-wall microstructure in the epitaxial films, electronic structure of the CuO2 layer in cuprates, s-wave and d-wave coupling in HTSCs and possible scenarios of theories of high Tc superconductivity.

  2. Decomposition and mineralization of amoxicillin by high ionizing energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Dong Kyu; Yu, Seung Ho; Lee, Myun Joo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung Woo [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)


    The presence of antibiotics in aquatic environment has been concerning as a new environment pollutant problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of antibiotics by gamma irradiation. Amoxicillin as one of β-lactam antibiotics is widely used for both human and animals. To compare the removal efficiencies of amoxicillin, amoxicillin solutions were saturated or purged with three difference gases; N{sub 2}O, O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} separately. The amoxicillin solutions were irradiated at up to 100 kGy. Amoxicillin was completely degraded between 20 and 40 kGy. Especially, amoxicillin saturated with N2O showed the highest degradation rate, and 90% TOC removal efficiency. The enhanced radiolytic decomposition of amoxicillin can be explained by the reactions with oxidizing radicals such as ∙OH and O{sub 2}∙{sup -}/HO{sub 2}∙ radicals.

  3. High Temperature Electrostrictive Ceramics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop high temperature electrostrictors from bismuth-based ferroelectrics. These materials will exhibit high strain and low loss in...

  4. Design and assembly of a catalyst bed gas generator for the catalytic decomposition of high concentration hydrogen peroxide propellants and the catalytic combustion of hydrocarbon/air mixtures (United States)

    Lohner, Kevin A. (Inventor); Mays, Jeffrey A. (Inventor); Sevener, Kathleen M. (Inventor)


    A method for designing and assembling a high performance catalyst bed gas generator for use in decomposing propellants, particularly hydrogen peroxide propellants, for use in target, space, and on-orbit propulsion systems and low-emission terrestrial power and gas generation. The gas generator utilizes a sectioned catalyst bed system, and incorporates a robust, high temperature mixed metal oxide catalyst. The gas generator requires no special preheat apparatus or special sequencing to meet start-up requirements, enabling a fast overall response time. The high performance catalyst bed gas generator system has consistently demonstrated high decomposition efficiency, extremely low decomposition roughness, and long operating life on multiple test articles.

  5. High Temperature Surface Interactions (United States)


    oxidation rate of "pure SiC* in air (from compilation of data by Schlichting6). For T < 14001C, partial cristobalite formation; T > 1400"C, decreased...aluminium content is high enough, the beta phase percolates and contains a dispersion of -- Ni particles. Such a tructure is certainly less favourable

  6. Characterisation of silica derived from rice husk (Muar, Johor, Malaysia) decomposition at different temperatures (United States)

    Azmi, M. A.; Ismail, N. A. A.; Rizamarhaiza, M.; W. M. Hasif. A. A., K.; Taib, H.


    Rice husk was thermally decomposed to yield powder composed of silica (SiO2). Temperatures of 700°C and 1000°C were chosen as the decomposition temperatures. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Florescence (XRF), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analyses were conducted on a synthetic silica powder (SS-SiO2) and the rice husk ash as for the comparative characterisation study. XRD analyses clearly indicated that the decomposed rice husk yielded silica of different nature which are Crystalline Rice Husk Silica (C-RHSiO2) and Amorphous Rice Husk Silica (A-RHSiO2). Moreover, it was found that SS-SiO2 was of Quartz phase, C-RHSiO2 was of Trydimite and Cristobalite. Through XRF detection, the highest SiO2 purity was detected in SS-SiO2 followed by C-RHSiO2 and A-RHSiO2 with purity percentages of 99.60%, 82.30% and 86.30% respectively. FTIR results clearly indicated silica (SiO2) bonding 1056, 1064, 1047, 777, 790 and 798 cm-1) increased as the crystallinity silica increased. The Cristobalite phase was detected in C-RH SiO2 at the wavelength of 620 cm-1. Morphological features as observed by FESEM analyses confirmed that, SS-SiO2 and C-RH SiO2 showed prominent coarse granular morphology.

  7. (Krauss) at constant high temperatures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snail Research Unit of the SAMRC and Department of Zoology, Potchefstroom University for CHE,. Potchefstroom. The survival of the freshwater snail species Bulinus africanus, Bulinus g/obosus and Biompha/aria pfeifferi at extreme high temperatures was experimentally investigated. Snails were exposed to temperatures ...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan


    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...

  9. High Temperature Bell Motor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The National Research Council (NRC) has identified the need for motors and actuators that can operate in extreme high and low temperature environments as a technical...

  10. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  11. A Two-Stage Decomposition of High School Timetabling applied to cases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Matias; Dahms, Florian H.W.


    Integer Programming (IP) has been used to model educational timetabling problems since the very early days of Operations Research. It is well recognized that these IP models in general are hard to solve, and this area of research is dominated by heuristic solution approaches. In this paper a Two-...... the database of the high school ERP system Lectio are used. Computational results show that the decomposition performs significantly better than solving the original IP, in terms of both found solutions and bounds.......-Stage Decomposition of an IP model for a practical case of high school timetabling is shown. This particular timetabling problem consists of assigning lectures to both a timeslot and a classroom, which is modeled using a very large amount of binary variables. The decomposition splits this model into two separate...

  12. Influence of thermal-decomposition temperatures on structures and properties of V2O5 as cathode materials for lithium ion battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen


    Full Text Available Submicron spherical V2O5 particles with a uniform size and a lower crystallinity were successfully synthesized by a chemical precipitation-thermal decomposition technique using the commercial V2O5 powders as starting material. The crystal structure and grain morphology of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Electrochemical testing such as discharge–charge cycling (CD and cyclic voltammetry (CV were employed in evaluating their electrochemical properties as cathode materials for lithium ion battery. Results reveal that the crystallinity and crystalline size of V2O5 particles increased when the thermal-decomposition temperature increased from 400 °C to 500 °C, and their adhesiveness was also synchronously increased. This indicate that the thermal-decomposition temperature palyed a significant influence on electrochemical properties of V2O5 cathodes. The V2O5 sample obtained at 400 °C delivered not only a high initial discharge capacity of 330 mA h g−1 and also the good cycle stability during 50 cycles due to its higher values of α in crystal structure and better dispersity in grain morphology.

  13. Temperature optimization of high con

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sabry


    Full Text Available Active cooling is essential for solar cells operating under high optical concentration ratios. A system comprises four solar cells that are in thermal contact on top of a copper tube is proposed. Water is flowing inside the tube in order to reduce solar cells temperature for increasing their performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation of such system has been performed in order to investigate the effect of water flow rate, tube internal diameter, and convective heat transfer coefficient on the temperature of the solar cells. It is found that increasing convective heat transfer coefficient has a significant effect on reducing solar cells temperatures operating at low flow rates and high optical concentration ratios. Also, a further increase of water flow rate has no effect on reducing cells temperatures.

  14. RPC operation at high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Stante, L; Liberti, B; Paoloni, A; Pastori, E; Santonico, R


    The resistive electrodes of RPCs utilised in several current experiments (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, BABAR and ARGO) are made of phenolic /melaminic polymers, with room temperature resistivities ranging from 10**1**0 Omega cm, for high rate operation in avalanche mode, to 5 multiplied by 10**1**1 Omega cm, for streamer mode operation at low rate. The resistivity has however a strong temperature dependence, decreasing exponentially with increasing temperature. We have tested several RPCs with different electrode resistivities in avalanche as well as in streamer mode operation. The behaviours of the operating current and of the counting rate have been studied at different temperatures. Long-term operation has also been studied at T = 45 degree C and 35 degree C, respectively, for high and low resistivity electrodes RPCs.

  15. HIgh Temperature Photocatalysis over Semiconductors (United States)

    Westrich, Thomas A.

    Due in large part to in prevalence of solar energy, increasing demand of energy production (from all sources), and the uncertain future of petroleum energy feedstocks, solar energy harvesting and other photochemical systems will play a major role in the developing energy market. This dissertation focuses on a novel photochemical reaction process: high temperature photocatalysis (i.e., photocatalysis conducted above ambient temperatures, T ≥ 100°C). The overarching hypothesis of this process is that photo-generated charge carriers are able to constructively participate in thermo-catalytic chemical reactions, thereby increasing catalytic rates at one temperature, or maintaining catalytic rates at lower temperatures. The photocatalytic oxidation of carbon deposits in an operational hydrocarbon reformer is one envisioned application of high temperature photocatalysis. Carbon build-up during hydrocarbon reforming results in catalyst deactivation, in the worst cases, this was shown to happen in a period of minutes with a liquid hydrocarbon. In the presence of steam, oxygen, and above-ambient temperatures, carbonaceous deposits were photocatalytically oxidized over very long periods (t ≥ 24 hours). This initial experiment exemplified the necessity of a fundamental assessment of high temperature photocatalytic activity. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that affect photocatalytic activity as a function of temperatures was achieved using an ethylene photocatalytic oxidation probe reaction. Maximum ethylene photocatalytic oxidation rates were observed between 100 °C and 200 °C; the maximum photocatalytic rates were approximately a factor of 2 larger than photocatalytic rates at ambient temperatures. The loss of photocatalytic activity at temperatures above 200 °C is due to a non-radiative multi-phonon recombination mechanism. Further, it was shown that the fundamental rate of recombination (as a function of temperature) can be effectively modeled as a

  16. Moire interferometry at high temperatures (United States)

    Wu, Jau-Je


    The objective of this study was to provide an optical technique allowing full-field in-plane deformation measurements at high temperature by using high-sensitivity moire interferometry. This was achieved by a new approach of performing deformation measurements at high temperatures in a vacuum oven using an achromatic interferometer. The moire system setup was designed with particular consideration for the stability, compactness, flexibility, and ease of control. A vacuum testing environment was provided to minimize the instability of the patterns by protecting the optical instruments from the thermal convection currents. Also, a preparation procedure for the high-temperature specimen grating was developed with the use of the plasma-etched technique. Gold was used as a metallic layer in this procedure. This method was demonstrated on a ceramic block, metal/matrix composite, and quartz. Thermal deformation of a quartz specimen was successfully measured in vacuum at 980 degrees Celsius, with the sensitivity of 417 nm per fringe. The stable and well-defined interference patterns confirmed the feasibility of the developments, including the high-temperature moire system and high-temperature specimen grating. The moire system was demonstrated to be vibration-insensitive. Also, the contrast of interference fringes at high temperature was enhanced by means of a spatial filter and a narrow band interference filter to minimize the background noise from the flow of the specimen and heater. The system was verified by a free thermal expansion test of an aluminum block. Good agreement demonstrated the validity of the optical design. The measurements of thermal deformation mismatch were performed on a graphite/epoxy composite, a metal/matrix composite equipped with an optical fiber, and a cutting tool bit. A high-resolution data-reduction technique was used to measure the strain distribution of the cutting tool bit.

  17. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets


    van Nugteren, J.


    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet is ...

  18. High Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets


    Van Nugteren, Jeroen; ten Kate, Herman; de Rijk, Gijs; Dhalle, Marc


    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding $20T$. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet ...

  19. Prediction of the maximum temperature for life based on the stability of metabolites to decomposition in water. (United States)

    Bains, William; Xiao, Yao; Yu, Changyong


    The components of life must survive in a cell long enough to perform their function in that cell. Because the rate of attack by water increases with temperature, we can, in principle, predict a maximum temperature above which an active terrestrial metabolism cannot function by analysis of the decomposition rates of the components of life, and comparison of those rates with the metabolites' minimum metabolic half-lives. The present study is a first step in this direction, providing an analytical framework and method, and analyzing the stability of 63 small molecule metabolites based on literature data. Assuming that attack by water follows a first order rate equation, we extracted decomposition rate constants from literature data and estimated their statistical reliability. The resulting rate equations were then used to give a measure of confidence in the half-life of the metabolite concerned at different temperatures. There is little reliable data on metabolite decomposition or hydrolysis rates in the literature, the data is mostly confined to a small number of classes of chemicals, and the data available are sometimes mutually contradictory because of varying reaction conditions. However, a preliminary analysis suggests that terrestrial biochemistry is limited to environments below ~150-180 °C. We comment briefly on why pressure is likely to have a small effect on this.

  20. Prediction of the Maximum Temperature for Life Based on the Stability of Metabolites to Decomposition in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bains


    Full Text Available The components of life must survive in a cell long enough to perform their function in that cell. Because the rate of attack by water increases with temperature, we can, in principle, predict a maximum temperature above which an active terrestrial metabolism cannot function by analysis of the decomposition rates of the components of life, and comparison of those rates with the metabolites’ minimum metabolic half-lives. The present study is a first step in this direction, providing an analytical framework and method, and analyzing the stability of 63 small molecule metabolites based on literature data. Assuming that attack by water follows a first order rate equation, we extracted decomposition rate constants from literature data and estimated their statistical reliability. The resulting rate equations were then used to give a measure of confidence in the half-life of the metabolite concerned at different temperatures. There is little reliable data on metabolite decomposition or hydrolysis rates in the literature, the data is mostly confined to a small number of classes of chemicals, and the data available are sometimes mutually contradictory because of varying reaction conditions. However, a preliminary analysis suggests that terrestrial biochemistry is limited to environments below ~150–180 °C. We comment briefly on why pressure is likely to have a small effect on this.

  1. High-Temperature Optical Sensor (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Varga, Donald J.; Floyd, Bertram M.


    A high-temperature optical sensor (see Figure 1) has been developed that can operate at temperatures up to 1,000 C. The sensor development process consists of two parts: packaging of a fiber Bragg grating into a housing that allows a more sturdy thermally stable device, and a technological process to which the device is subjected to in order to meet environmental requirements of several hundred C. This technology uses a newly discovered phenomenon of the formation of thermally stable secondary Bragg gratings in communication-grade fibers at high temperatures to construct robust, optical, high-temperature sensors. Testing and performance evaluation (see Figure 2) of packaged sensors demonstrated operability of the devices at 1,000 C for several hundred hours, and during numerous thermal cycling from 400 to 800 C with different heating rates. The technology significantly extends applicability of optical sensors to high-temperature environments including ground testing of engines, flight propulsion control, thermal protection monitoring of launch vehicles, etc. It may also find applications in such non-aerospace arenas as monitoring of nuclear reactors, furnaces, chemical processes, and other hightemperature environments where other measurement techniques are either unreliable, dangerous, undesirable, or unavailable.

  2. Solute strengthening at high temperatures (United States)

    Leyson, G. P. M.; Curtin, W. A.


    The high temperature behavior of solute strengthening has previously been treated approximately using various scaling arguments, resulting in logarithmic and power-law scalings for the stress-dependent energy barrier Δ E(τ ) versus stress τ. Here, a parameter-free solute strengthening model is extended to high temperatures/low stresses without any a priori assumptions on the functional form of Δ E(τ ) . The new model predicts that the well-established low-temperature, with energy barrier Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and zero temperature flow stress {τy0} , transitions to a near-logarithmic form for stresses in the regime 0.2intermediate-temperature and the associated transition for the activation volume. Overall, the present analysis unifies the different qualitative models in the literature and, when coupled with the previous parameter-free solute strengthening model, provides a single predictive model for solute strengthening as a function of composition, temperature, and strain rate over the full range of practical utility.

  3. High temperature superconductor current leads (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Poeppel, Roger B.


    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  4. High temperature corrosion in gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wate Bakker


    Full Text Available Several commercial scale coal gasification combined cycle power plants have been built and successfully operated during the last 5-10 years. Supporting research on materials of construction has been carried out for the last 20 years by EPRI and others. Emphasis was on metallic alloys for heat exchangers and other components in contact with hot corrosive gases at high temperatures. In this paper major high temperature corrosion mechanisms, materials performance in presently operating gasifiers and future research needs will be discussed.

  5. Nonlinear plasmonics at high temperatures (United States)

    Sivan, Yonatan; Chu, Shi-Wei


    We solve the Maxwell and heat equations self-consistently for metal nanoparticles under intense continuous wave (CW) illumination. Unlike previous studies, we rely on experimentally-measured data for metal permittivity for increasing temperature and for the visible spectral range. We show that the thermal nonlinearity of the metal can lead to substantial deviations from the predictions of the linear model for the temperature and field distribution and, thus, can explain qualitatively the strong nonlinear scattering from such configurations observed experimentally. We also show that the incompleteness of existing data of the temperature dependence of the thermal properties of the system prevents reaching a quantitative agreement between the measured and calculated scattering data. This modeling approach is essential for the identification of the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the thermo-optical nonlinearity of the metal and should be adopted in all applications of high-temperature nonlinear plasmonics, especially for refractory metals, for both CW and pulsed illumination.

  6. Nonlinear plasmonics at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Yonatan


    Full Text Available We solve the Maxwell and heat equations self-consistently for metal nanoparticles under intense continuous wave (CW illumination. Unlike previous studies, we rely on experimentally-measured data for metal permittivity for increasing temperature and for the visible spectral range. We show that the thermal nonlinearity of the metal can lead to substantial deviations from the predictions of the linear model for the temperature and field distribution and, thus, can explain qualitatively the strong nonlinear scattering from such configurations observed experimentally. We also show that the incompleteness of existing data of the temperature dependence of the thermal properties of the system prevents reaching a quantitative agreement between the measured and calculated scattering data. This modeling approach is essential for the identification of the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the thermo-optical nonlinearity of the metal and should be adopted in all applications of high-temperature nonlinear plasmonics, especially for refractory metals, for both CW and pulsed illumination.

  7. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server


    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  8. High temperature component life assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, G A


    The aim of this book is to investigate and explain the rapid advances in the characterization of high temperature crack growth behaviour which have been made in recent years, with reference to industrial applications. Complicated mathematics has been minimized with the emphasis placed instead on finding solutions using simplified procedures without the need for complex numerical analysis.

  9. Properties of high temperature SQUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falco, C. M.; Wu, C. T.


    A review is given of the present status of weak links and dc and rf biased SQUIDs made with high temperature superconductors. A method for producing reliable, reproducible devices using Nb/sub 3/Sn is outlined, and comments are made on directions future work should take.

  10. High-temperature flooding injury (United States)

    This problem, also called scald, is most serious in the hot desert valleys of the southwestern United States, subtropical regions in eastern Australia, and western Asia and northern Africa (Middle East) where fields are established and irrigated under high temperatures. The disorder also occurs to...

  11. Active and total microbial communities in forest soil are largely different and highly stratified during decomposition. (United States)

    Baldrian, Petr; Kolařík, Miroslav; Stursová, Martina; Kopecký, Jan; Valášková, Vendula; Větrovský, Tomáš; Zifčáková, Lucia; Snajdr, Jaroslav; Rídl, Jakub; Vlček, Cestmír; Voříšková, Jana


    Soils of coniferous forest ecosystems are important for the global carbon cycle, and the identification of active microbial decomposers is essential for understanding organic matter transformation in these ecosystems. By the independent analysis of DNA and RNA, whole communities of bacteria and fungi and its active members were compared in topsoil of a Picea abies forest during a period of organic matter decomposition. Fungi quantitatively dominate the microbial community in the litter horizon, while the organic horizon shows comparable amount of fungal and bacterial biomasses. Active microbial populations obtained by RNA analysis exhibit similar diversity as DNA-derived populations, but significantly differ in the composition of microbial taxa. Several highly active taxa, especially fungal ones, show low abundance or even absence in the DNA pool. Bacteria and especially fungi are often distinctly associated with a particular soil horizon. Fungal communities are less even than bacterial ones and show higher relative abundances of dominant species. While dominant bacterial species are distributed across the studied ecosystem, distribution of dominant fungi is often spatially restricted as they are only recovered at some locations. The sequences of cbhI gene encoding for cellobiohydrolase (exocellulase), an essential enzyme for cellulose decomposition, were compared in soil metagenome and metatranscriptome and assigned to their producers. Litter horizon exhibits higher diversity and higher proportion of expressed sequences than organic horizon. Cellulose decomposition is mediated by highly diverse fungal populations largely distinct between soil horizons. The results indicate that low-abundance species make an important contribution to decomposition processes in soils.

  12. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion (United States)

    Wood, Charles


    The theory and current status of materials research for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion are reviewed. Semiconductors are shown to be the preferred class of materials for this application. Optimization of the figure of merit of both broadband and narrow-band semiconductors is discussed as a function of temperature. Phonon scattering mechanisms are discussed, and basic material guidelines are given for reduction of thermal conductivity. Two general classes of materials show promise for high temperature figure of merit (Z) values, namely the rare earth chalcogenides and the boron-rich borides. The electronic transport properties of the rare earth chalcogenides are explicable on the basis of degenerate or partially degenerate n-type semiconductors. Boron and boron-rich borides exhibit p-type hopping conductivity, with detailed explanations proposed for the transport differing from compound to compound. Some discussion is presented on the reasons for the low thermal conductivities in these materials. Also, ZTs greater than one appear to have been realized at high temperature in many of these compounds.

  13. Litterfall and litter decomposition in chestnut high forest stands in northern Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricio, M. S.; Nunes, L. F.; Pereira, E. L.


    This research aimed to: estimate the inputs of litterfall; model the decomposition process and assess the rates of litter decay and turnover; study the litter decomposition process and dynamics of nutrients in old chestnut high forests. This study aimed to fill a gap in the knowledge of chestnut decomposition process as this type of ecosystems have never been modeled and studied from this point of view in Portugal. The study sites are located in the mountains of Marao, Padrela and Bornes in a west-to-east transect, across northern Portugal, from a more-Atlantic-to-lessmaritime influence. This research was developed on old chestnut high forests for quality timber production submitted to a silviculture management close-to-nature. We collected litterfall using littertraps and studied decomposition of leaf and bur litter by the nylon net bag technique. Simple and double exponential models were used to describe the decomposition of chestnut litterfall incubated in situ during 559 days. The results of the decomposition are discussed in relation to the initial litter quality (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and the decomposition rates. Annually, the mature chestnut high-forest stands (density 360-1,260 tree ha1, age 55-73 years old) restore 4.9 Mg DM ha–1 of litter and 2.6 Mg ha{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1 of carbon to the soil. The two-component litter decay model proved to be more biologically realistic, providing a decay rate for the fast initial stage (46-58 yr{sup -}1for the leaves and 38-42 yr{sup -}1for the burs) and a decay rate related to the recalcitrant pool (0.45-0.60 yr{sup -}1for the leaves and 0.22-0.36 yr{sup -}1for the burs). This study pointed to some decay patterns and release of bioelements by the litterfall which can be useful for calibrating existing models and indicators of sustainability to improve both silvicultural and environmental approaches for the management of chestnut forests. (Author) 45 refs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi


    The Vapor Liquid Equilibrium measurement setup of this work was first established several years ago. It is a flow type high temperature high pressure apparatus which was designed to operate below 500 C temperature and 2000 psia pressure. Compared with the static method, this method has three major advantages: the first is that large quantity of sample can be obtained from the system without disturbing the equilibrium state which was established before; the second is that the residence time of the sample in the equilibrium cell is greatly reduced, thus decomposition or contamination of the sample can be effectively prevented; the third is that the flow system allows the sample to degas as it heats up since any non condensable gas will exit in the vapor stream, accumulate in the vapor condenser, and not be recirculated. The first few runs were made with Quinoline-Tetralin system, the results were fairly in agreement with the literature data . The former graduate student Amad used the same apparatus acquired the Benzene-Ethylbenzene system VLE data. This work used basically the same setup (several modifications had been made) to get the VLE data of Ethylbenzene-Quinoline system.

  15. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers. (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart


    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  16. Analysis of the decomposition gases from α and β-Cd(BH4)2 synthesized by temperature controlled mechanical milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Didier; Zatti, Matteo; Vegge, Tejs


    We present a comprehensive study on the controlled phase synthesis and thermal decomposition of Cd(BH2)4, a material for solid state hydrogen storage obtained via the metathesis reaction of LiBH4 with CdCl2. By adjusting the stochiometry of the reactants and controlling the mechanical milling vial...... temperature, we have isolated the tetragonal (P42mn) low temperature phase and the cubic (View the MathML source) high temperature phase of the cadmium borohydride. Cd(BH2)4 has a low thermodynamic stability and decomposes with fast kinetic at 348 K, when heated at 1 K min−1 against a backpressure of 1 bar H2...

  17. High Temperature Composite Heat Exchangers (United States)

    Eckel, Andrew J.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.


    High temperature composite heat exchangers are an enabling technology for a number of aeropropulsion applications. They offer the potential for mass reductions of greater than fifty percent over traditional metallics designs and enable vehicle and engine designs. Since they offer the ability to operate at significantly higher operating temperatures, they facilitate operation at reduced coolant flows and make possible temporary uncooled operation in temperature regimes, such as experienced during vehicle reentry, where traditional heat exchangers require coolant flow. This reduction in coolant requirements can translate into enhanced range or system payload. A brief review of the approaches and challengers to exploiting this important technology are presented, along with a status of recent government-funded projects.

  18. Investigation of thermodynamic properties of magnesium chloride amines by HPDSC and TG. For application in a high-lift high-temperature chemical heat pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, E.R.T.; Oonk, H.A.J.; Haije, W.G.; Ekeren, P.J. van


    The formation as well as the decomposition of magnesium chloride ammonia complexes was studied by high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HPDSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). HPDSC runs were performed under constant ammonia pressure conditions to determine the transition temperatures

  19. Role of soil texture, clay mineralogy, location, and temperature in coarse wood decomposition - a mesocosm experiment (United States)

    Cinzia Fissore; Martin F. Jurgensen; James Pickens; Chris Miller; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Christian P. Giardina


    Of all the major pools of terrestrial carbon (C), the dynamics of coarse woody debris (CWD) are the least understood. In contrast to soils and living vegetation, the study of CWD has rarely relied on ex situ methods for elaborating controls on decomposition rates. In this study, we report on a mesocosm incubation experiment examining how clay amount (8%, 16%,...

  20. High-Temperature Adhesives for Thermally Stable Aero-Assist Technologies (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth; Ou, Runqing


    Aero-assist technologies are used to control the velocity of exploration vehicles (EVs) when entering Earth or other planetary atmospheres. Since entry of EVs in planetary atmospheres results in significant heating, thermally stable aero-assist technologies are required to avoid the high heating rates while maintaining low mass. Polymer adhesives are used in aero-assist structures because of the need for high flexibility and good bonding between layers of polymer films or fabrics. However, current polymer adhesives cannot withstand temperatures above 400 C. This innovation utilizes nanotechnology capabilities to address this need, leading to the development of high-temperature adhesives that exhibit high thermal conductivity in addition to increased thermal decomposition temperature. Enhanced thermal conductivity will help to dissipate heat quickly and effectively to avoid temperature rising to harmful levels. This, together with increased thermal decomposition temperature, will enable the adhesives to sustain transient high-temperature conditions.

  1. Adomian decomposition sumudu transform method for solving a solid and porous fin with temperature dependent internal heat generation. (United States)

    Patel, Trushit; Meher, Ramakanta


    In this paper, Adomian decomposition sumudu transform method is introduced and used to solve the temperature distribution in a solid and porous fin with the temperature dependent internal heat generation for a fractional order energy balance equation. In this study, we assume heat generation as a variable of fin temperature for solid and porous fin and the heat transfer through porous media is simulated by using Darcy's model. The results are presented for the temperature distribution for the range of values of parameters appeared in the mathematical formulation and also compared with numerical solutions in order to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. It is found that the proposed method is in good agreement with direct numerical solution.

  2. Summary: High Temperature Downhole Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Directional drilling can be used to enable multi-lateral completions from a single well pad to improve well productivity and decrease environmental impact. Downhole rotation is typically developed with a motor in the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that develops drilling power (speed and torque) necessary to drive rock reduction mechanisms (i.e., the bit) apart from the rotation developed by the surface rig. Historically, wellbore deviation has been introduced by a “bent-sub,” located in the BHA, that introduces a small angular deviation, typically less than 3 degrees, to allow the bit to drill off-axis with orientation of the BHA controlled at the surface. The development of a high temperature downhole motor would allow reliable use of bent subs for geothermal directional drilling. Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing the development of a high temperature motor that will operate on either drilling fluid (water-based mud) or compressed air to enable drilling high temperature, high strength, fractured rock. The project consists of designing a power section based upon geothermal drilling requirements; modeling and analysis of potential solutions; and design, development and testing of prototype hardware to validate the concept. Drilling costs contribute substantially to geothermal electricity production costs. The present development will result in more reliable access to deep, hot geothermal resources and allow preferential wellbore trajectories to be achieved. This will enable development of geothermal wells with multi-lateral completions resulting in improved geothermal resource recovery, decreased environmental impact and enhanced well construction economics.

  3. High temperature two component explosive (United States)

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles


    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of K. At temperatures on the order of K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  4. High temperature structural sandwich panels (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  5. Mode decomposition methods for flows in high-contrast porous media. A global approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi


    We apply dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) methods to flows in highly-heterogeneous porous media to extract the dominant coherent structures and derive reduced-order models via Galerkin projection. Permeability fields with high contrast are considered to investigate the capability of these techniques to capture the main flow features and forecast the flow evolution within a certain accuracy. A DMD-based approach shows a better predictive capability due to its ability to accurately extract the information relevant to long-time dynamics, in particular, the slowly-decaying eigenmodes corresponding to largest eigenvalues. Our study enables a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the applicability of these techniques for flows in high-contrast porous media. Furthermore, we discuss the robustness of DMD- and POD-based reduced-order models with respect to variations in initial conditions, permeability fields, and forcing terms. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Motor for High Temperature Applications (United States)

    Roopnarine (Inventor)


    A high temperature motor has a stator with poles formed by wire windings, and a rotor with magnetic poles on a rotor shaft positioned coaxially within the stator. The stator and rotor are built up from stacks of magnetic-alloy laminations. The stator windings are made of high temperature magnet wire insulated with a vitreous enamel film, and the wire windings are bonded together with ceramic binder. A thin-walled cylinder is positioned coaxially between the rotor and the stator to prevent debris from the stator windings from reaching the rotor. The stator windings are wound on wire spools made of ceramic, thereby avoiding need for mica insulation and epoxy/adhesive. The stator and rotor are encased in a stator housing with rear and front end caps, and rear and front bearings for the rotor shaft are mounted on external sides of the end caps to keep debris from the motor migrating into the bearings' races.

  7. Very High Temperature Sound Absorption Coating Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I demonstrated experimentally a very high temperature acoustically absorbing coating for ducted acoustics applications. High temperature survivability at 3500...

  8. Nanoscale high-temperature superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, P.; Wei, J.Y.T.; Ananth, V.; Morales, P.; Skocpol, W


    We discuss the exciting prospects of studying high-temperature superconductivity in the nanometer scale from the perspective of experiments, theory and simulation. In addition to enabling studies of novel quantum phases in an unexplored regime of system dimensions and parameters, nanoscale high-temperature superconducting structures will allow exploration of fundamental mechanisms with unprecedented insight. The prospects include, spin-charge separation, detection of electron fractionalization via novel excitations such as vison, stripe states and their dynamics, preformed cooper pairs or bose-condensation in the underdoped regime, and other quantum-ordered states. Towards this initiative, we present the successful development of a novel nanofabrication technique for the epitaxial growth of nanoscale cuprates. Combining the techniques of e-beam lithography and nanomachining, we have been able to fabricate the first generation of high-temperature superconducting nanoscale devices, including Y-junctions, four-probe wires and rings. Their initial transport characterization and scanning tunneling microscopy reveal the integrity of the crystal structure, grown on nanometer scale lateral dimensions. Here, we present atomic force micrographs and electrical characterization of a few nanoscale YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) samples.

  9. Metaproteome analysis of the microbial community during leaf litter decomposition - the impact of stoichiometry and temperature perturbations (United States)

    Keiblinger, K. M.; Schneider, T.; Leitner, S.; Hämmerle, I.; Riedel, K.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.


    Leaf litter decomposition is the breakdown of dead plant material, a terrestrial ecosystem process of paramount importance. Nutrients released during decomposition play a key role for microbial growth and plant productivity. These processes are controlled by abiotic factors, such as climate, and by biotic factors, such as litter nutrient concentration and stoichiometry (carbon:nutrient ratio) and activity of soil organisms. Future climate change scenarios predict temperature perturbations, therefore following changes of microbial community composition and possible feedbacks on ecosystem processes are of key interest; especially as our knowledge about the microbial regulation of these processes is still scarce. Our aim was to elucidate how temperature perturbations and leaf litter stoichiometry affect the composition of the microbial decomposer community. To this end a terrestrial microcosm experiment using beech (Fagus sylvatica) litter with different stoichiometry was conducted. In a semi-quantitative metaproteomics approach (1D-SDS PAGE combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; unique spectral counting) we used the intrinsic metabolic function of proteins to relate specific microbial activities to their phylogenetic origin in multispecies communities. Decomposer communities varied on litter with different stoichiometry so that microbial decomposers (fungi and bacteria) were favoured in litter with narrow C:nutrient ratios. The fungal community was dominated by Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes) and Basidiomycota (Agaricomycetes) and the bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The extracellular enzymes we detected belonged mainly to classes of xylanases, pectinases, cellulases and proteases and were almost exclusively of fungal origin (particularly Ascomycota). Temperature stress (heat and frost) evoked strong changes in community composition, enzyme activities, dissolved organic

  10. High temperature PEM fuel cells (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlu; Xie, Zhong; Zhang, Jiujun; Tang, Yanghua; Song, Chaojie; Navessin, Titichai; Shi, Zhiqing; Song, Datong; Wang, Haijiang; Wilkinson, David P.; Liu, Zhong-Sheng; Holdcroft, Steven

    There are several compelling technological and commercial reasons for operating H 2/air PEM fuel cells at temperatures above 100 °C. Rates of electrochemical kinetics are enhanced, water management and cooling is simplified, useful waste heat can be recovered, and lower quality reformed hydrogen may be used as the fuel. This review paper provides a concise review of high temperature PEM fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) from the perspective of HT-specific materials, designs, and testing/diagnostics. The review describes the motivation for HT-PEMFC development, the technology gaps, and recent advances. HT-membrane development accounts for ∼90% of the published research in the field of HT-PEMFCs. Despite this, the status of membrane development for high temperature/low humidity operation is less than satisfactory. A weakness in the development of HT-PEMFC technology is the deficiency in HT-specific fuel cell architectures, test station designs, and testing protocols, and an understanding of the underlying fundamental principles behind these areas. The development of HT-specific PEMFC designs is of key importance that may help mitigate issues of membrane dehydration and MEA degradation.

  11. Two-Level Domain Decomposition Methods for Highly Heterogeneous Darcy Equations. Connections with Multiscale Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolean Victorita


    Full Text Available Multiphase, compositional porous media flow models lead to the solution of highly heterogeneous systems of Partial Differential Equations (PDE. We focus on overlapping Schwarz type methods on parallel computers and on multiscale methods. We present a coarse space [Nataf F., Xiang H., Dolean V., Spillane N. (2011 SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 33, 4, 1623-1642] that is robust even when there are such heterogeneities. The two-level domain decomposition approach is compared to multiscale methods.

  12. Influence of a Liquid Metal Temperature on a Thermal Decomposition of a Phenolic Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtzer M.


    Full Text Available Due to the presence of harmful substances in resins those mould sands may be hazardous to the natural environment and workers. The general assessment of harmfulness of sands used for molds and cores encompasses 2 basic points: emission of hazardous substances during processes of preparing sands, pouring mold with liquid metals (high temperatures, cooling and shaking-out; possibility of washing out hazardous substances from used sands to the environment, during storage or economic use outside foundries. We present the results of research on the emission of BTEX compounds from mould sands with phenolic resins during pouring liquid metal of different temperature (cast iron and Al alloy. The research was conducted according to the original method prepared by the authors, which has been used for years in cooperation with various foundries (Poland, abroad.

  13. Temperature uniformity mapping in a high pressure high temperature reactor using a temperature sensitive indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauwet, T.; Plancken, van der I.; Vervoort, L.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.; Loey, van A.


    Recently, the first prototype ovomucoid-based pressure–temperature–time indicator (pTTI) for high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing was described. However, for temperature uniformity mapping of high pressure (HP) vessels under HPHT sterilization conditions, this prototype needs to be

  14. A process-based decomposition of decadal-scale surface temperature evolutions over East Asia (United States)

    Chen, Junwen; Deng, Yi; Lin, Wenshi; Yang, Song


    This study partitions the observed decadal evolution of surface temperature and surface temperature differences between two decades (early 2000s and early 1980s) over the East Asian continent into components associated with individual radiative and non-radiative (dynamical) processes in the context of the coupled atmosphere-surface climate feedback-response analysis method (CFRAM). Rapid warming in this region occurred in late 1980s and early 2000s with a transient pause of warming between the two periods. The rising CO2 concentration provides a sustained, region-wide warming contribution and surface albedo effect, largely related to snow cover change, is important for warming/cooling over high-latitude and high-elevation regions. Sensible hear flux and surface dynamics dominates the evolution of surface temperature, with latent heat flux and atmospheric dynamics working against them mostly through large-scale and convective/turbulent heat transport. Cloud via its shortwave effect provides positive contributions to warming over southern Siberia and South China. The longwave effect associated with water vapor change contributes significant warming over northern India, Tibetan Plateau, and central Siberia. Impacts of solar irradiance and ozone changes are relatively small. The strongest year-to-year temperature fluctuation occurred at a rapid warming (1987-1988) and a rapid cooling (1995-1996) period. The pattern of the rapid warming receives major positive contributions from sensible heat flux with changes in atmospheric dynamics, water vapor, clouds, and albedo providing secondary positive contributions, while surface dynamics and latent heat flux providing negative contributions. The signs of the contributions from individual processes to the rapid cooling are almost opposite to those to the rapid warming.

  15. A Novel Framework Based on FastICA for High Density Surface EMG Decomposition (United States)

    Chen, Maoqi; Zhou, Ping


    This study presents a progressive FastICA peel-off (PFP) framework for high density surface electromyogram (EMG) decomposition. The novel framework is based on a shift-invariant model for describing surface EMG. The decomposition process can be viewed as progressively expanding the set of motor unit spike trains, which is primarily based on FastICA. To overcome the local convergence of FastICA, a “peel off” strategy (i.e. removal of the estimated motor unit action potential (MUAP) trains from the previous step) is used to mitigate the effects of the already identified motor units, so more motor units can be extracted. Moreover, a constrained FastICA is applied to assess the extracted spike trains and correct possible erroneous or missed spikes. These procedures work together to improve the decomposition performance. The proposed framework was validated using simulated surface EMG signals with different motor unit numbers (30, 70, 91) and signal to noise ratios (SNRs) (20, 10, 0 dB). The results demonstrated relatively large numbers of extracted motor units and high accuracies (high F1-scores). The framework was also tested with 111 trials of 64-channel electrode array experimental surface EMG signals during the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle contraction at different intensities. On average 14.1 ± 5.0 motor units were identified from each trial of experimental surface EMG signals. PMID:25775496

  16. Mode decomposition methods for flows in high-contrast porous media. Global-local approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi


    In this paper, we combine concepts of the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) and mode decomposition methods to construct a robust global-local approach for model reduction of flows in high-contrast porous media. This is achieved by implementing Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) techniques on a coarse grid computed using GMsFEM. The resulting reduced-order approach enables a significant reduction in the flow problem size while accurately capturing the behavior of fully-resolved solutions. We consider a variety of high-contrast coefficients and present the corresponding numerical results to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. This paper is a continuation of our work presented in Ghommem et al. (2013) [1] where we examine the applicability of POD and DMD to derive simplified and reliable representations of flows in high-contrast porous media on fully resolved models. In the current paper, we discuss how these global model reduction approaches can be combined with local techniques to speed-up the simulations. The speed-up is due to inexpensive, while sufficiently accurate, computations of global snapshots. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  17. Mesoporous Silica Supported Pd-MnOx Catalysts with Excellent Catalytic Activity in Room-Temperature Formic Acid Decomposition


    Min-Ho Jin; Duckkyu Oh; Ju-Hyoung Park; Chun-Boo Lee; Sung-Wook Lee; Jong-Soo Park; Kwan-Young Lee; Dong-Wook Lee


    For the application of formic acid as a liquid organic hydrogen carrier, development of efficient catalysts for dehydrogenation of formic acid is a challenging topic, and most studies have so far focused on the composition of metals and supports, the size effect of metal nanoparticles, and surface chemistry of supports. Another influential factor is highly desired to overcome the current limitation of heterogeneous catalysis for formic acid decomposition. Here, we first investigated the effec...

  18. Facile, mild and fast thermal-decomposition reduction of graphene oxide in air and its application in high-performance lithium batteries. (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-li; Xu, Dan; Huang, Yun; Wu, Zhong; Wang, Li-min; Zhang, Xin-bo


    We firstly propose a facile, mild and effective thermal-decomposition strategy to prepare high-quality graphene at a low temperature of 300 °C in only 5 min under an ambient atmosphere. Applying the advantage of this strategy that provides an oxidizing atmosphere, pure V(2)O(5)/graphene composite is successfully synthesized and exerts excellent lithium storage properties. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  19. Phase formation of hexagonal wurtzite ZnO through decomposition of Zn(OH)2 at various growth temperatures using CBD method (United States)

    Molefe, Fokotsa V.; Koao, Lehlohonolo F.; Dejene, Birhanu F.; Swart, Hendrik C.


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanophosphors were fabricated from zinc acetate dehydrate, thiourea and ammonia via the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at various growth temperatures. TGA results showed the increase in thermal stability of ZnO with the increase in growth temperature. From DSC results we observed a decrease in melting temperatures due to the crystallization of the ZnO with the increase in growth temperature. The melting enthalpy values were too scattered to make definite conclusions. XRD indicated the decomposition of structure from Zn(OH)2 to hexagonal wurtzite ZnO. The estimated average particle sizes are in the range of 22 nm. The estimated average particle size fluctuated with an increase in the growth temperature. The SEM morphology showed the full formation of flakes-like at high growth temperature. At low growth temperature shows flakes-like morphology combined with some small spheres. The EDS results confirmed the presence of Zinc (Zn) and Oxygen (O) as the major products, and the ratio of the Zn to O increased with the increase in growth temperature. A red-shift in reflectance spectra was observed, which resulted in the decrease in the band gap energy of the ZnO with an increase in growth temperature. The temperature dependent PL spectra of the ZnO showed visible emission due to defects. The novelty in this study lies within the increase in the amount of weight loss observed from TGA and DSC analysis and another important aspect is the transformation of Zn(OH)2 to the well-known hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO with the increase in growth temperature. This study provides a simple and efficient approach for the synthesizing of the ZnO with flakes-like morphology.

  20. High Temperature Radio Frequency Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Grudiev, A; Montesinos, E; Syratchev, I


    In the context of energy saving and recovery requirements the design of reliable and robust RF power loads which permit a high outlet temperature and high pressure of the cooling water is desirable. Cooling water arriving at the outlet withmore than 150 ◦C and high pressure has a higher value than water with 50 ◦C under low pressure. Conventional RF power loads containing dielectric and magnetic materials as well as sensitive ceramic windows usually do not permit going much higher than 90 ◦C. Here we present and discuss several design concepts for "metal only" RF high power loads. One concept is the application of magnetic steel corrugated waveguides near cutoff – this concept could find practical use above several GHz. Another solution are resonant structures made of steel to be installed in large waveguides for frequencies of 500 MHz or lower. Similar resonant structures above 100 MHz taking advantage of the rather high losses of normal steel may also be used in coaxial line geometries with large di...

  1. Detection of Crossing White Matter Fibers with High-Order Tensors and Rank-k Decompositions

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Fangxiang


    Fundamental to high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), is the estimation of a positive-semidefinite orientation distribution function (ODF) and extracting the diffusion properties (e.g., fiber directions). In this work we show that these two goals can be achieved efficiently by using homogeneous polynomials to represent the ODF in the spherical deconvolution approach, as was proposed in the Cartesian Tensor-ODF (CT-ODF) formulation. Based on this formulation we first suggest an estimation method for positive-semidefinite ODF by solving a linear programming problem that does not require special parameterization of the ODF. We also propose a rank-k tensor decomposition, known as CP decomposition, to extract the fibers information from the estimated ODF. We show that this decomposition is superior to the fiber direction estimation via ODF maxima detection as it enables one to reach the full fiber separation resolution of the estimation technique. We assess the accuracy of this new framework by applying it to synthetic and experimentally obtained HARDI data. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Monitoring thermally induced structural deformation and framework decomposition of ZIF-8 through in situ temperature dependent measurements. (United States)

    Xu, Ben; Mei, Yingjie; Xiao, Zhenyu; Kang, Zixi; Wang, Rongming; Sun, Daofeng


    ZIF-8 is an easily synthesized porous material which is widely applied in gas storage/separation, catalysis, and nanoarchitecture fabrication. Thermally induced atomic displacements and the resultant framework deformation/collapse significantly influence the application of ZIF-8, and therefore, in situ temperature dependent FTIR spectroscopy was utilized to study the framework changes during heating in the oxidative environment. The results suggest that ZIF-8 undergoes three transition stages, which are the lattice expansion stage below 200 °C, the "reversible" structural deformation stage from 200 to 350 °C, and the decomposition/collapse stage over 350 °C. Our research indicates that the Zn-N bond breaks at a temperature of 350 °C in the oxidant environment, leading to a drastic deformation of the ZIF-8 structure.

  3. DOM composition and transformation in boreal forest soils: The effects of temperature and organic-horizon decomposition state (United States)

    O’Donnell, Jonathan A.; Aiken, George R.; Butler, Kenna D.; Guillemette, Francois; Podgorski, David C.; Spencer, Robert G. M.


    The boreal region stores large amounts of organic carbon (C) in organic-soil horizons, which are vulnerable to destabilization via warming and disturbance. Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) contributes to the production and turnover of dissolved organic matter (DOM). While temperature is a primary control on rates of SOM and DOM cycling, little is known about temperature effects on DOM composition in soil leachate. Here we conducted a 30 day incubation to examine the effects of temperature (20 versus 5°C) and SOM decomposition state (moss versus fibric versus amorphous horizons) on DOM composition in organic soils of interior Alaska. We characterized DOM using bulk dissolved organic C (DOC) concentration, chemical fractionation, optical properties, and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry. We observed an increase in DOC concentration and DOM aromaticity in the 20°C treatment compared to the 5°C treatment. Leachate from fibric horizons had higher DOC concentration than shallow moss or deep amorphous horizons. We also observed chemical shifts in DOM leachate over time, including increases in hydrophobic organic acids, polyphenols, and condensed aromatics and decreases in low-molecular weight hydrophilic compounds and aliphatics. We compared ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and optical data and observed strong correlations between polyphenols, condensed aromatics, SUVA254, and humic-like fluorescence intensities. These findings suggest that biolabile DOM was preferentially mineralized, and the magnitude of this transformation was determined by kinetics (i.e., temperature) and substrate quality (i.e., soil horizon). With future warming, our findings indicate that organic soils may release higher concentrations of aromatic DOM to aquatic ecosystems.

  4. DOM composition and transformation in boreal forest soils: The effects of temperature and organic-horizon decomposition state (United States)

    O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Aiken, George R.; Butler, Kenna D.; Guillemette, Francois; Podgorski, David C.; Spencer, Robert G. M.


    The boreal region stores large amounts of organic carbon (C) in organic-soil horizons, which are vulnerable to destabilization via warming and disturbance. Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) contributes to the production and turnover of dissolved organic matter (DOM). While temperature is a primary control on rates of SOM and DOM cycling, little is known about temperature effects on DOM composition in soil leachate. Here we conducted a 30 day incubation to examine the effects of temperature (20 versus 5°C) and SOM decomposition state (moss versus fibric versus amorphous horizons) on DOM composition in organic soils of interior Alaska. We characterized DOM using bulk dissolved organic C (DOC) concentration, chemical fractionation, optical properties, and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry. We observed an increase in DOC concentration and DOM aromaticity in the 20°C treatment compared to the 5°C treatment. Leachate from fibric horizons had higher DOC concentration than shallow moss or deep amorphous horizons. We also observed chemical shifts in DOM leachate over time, including increases in hydrophobic organic acids, polyphenols, and condensed aromatics and decreases in low-molecular weight hydrophilic compounds and aliphatics. We compared ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry and optical data and observed strong correlations between polyphenols, condensed aromatics, SUVA254, and humic-like fluorescence intensities. These findings suggest that biolabile DOM was preferentially mineralized, and the magnitude of this transformation was determined by kinetics (i.e., temperature) and substrate quality (i.e., soil horizon). With future warming, our findings indicate that organic soils may release higher concentrations of aromatic DOM to aquatic ecosystems.

  5. High Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079328; de Rijk, Gijs; Dhalle, Marc


    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding $20T$. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet is based on ReBCO coated conductor, which is assembled into a $10kA$ class Roebel cable. A new and optimized Aligned Block layout is used, which takes advantage of the anisotropy of the conductor. This is achieved by providing local alignment of the Roebel cable in the coil windings with the magnetic field lines. A new Network Model capable of analyzing transient electro-magnetic and thermal phenomena in coated conductor cables and coils is developed. This model is necessary to solve critical issues in coated conductor ac...

  6. Hybrid sulfur cycle operation for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (United States)

    Gorensek, Maximilian B


    A hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle process for the production of hydrogen is provided. The process uses a proton exchange membrane (PEM) SO.sub.2-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) for the low-temperature, electrochemical reaction step and a bayonet reactor for the high-temperature decomposition step The process can be operated at lower temperature and pressure ranges while still providing an overall energy efficient cycle process.

  7. Faraday imaging at high temperatures (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Reichert, Patrick


    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  8. Measurement of the Energy and High-Pressure Dependence of X-ray-Induced Decomposition of Crystalline Strontium Oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberger, David [High-Pressure; Evlyukhin, Egor [High-Pressure; Cifligu, Petrika [High-Pressure; Wang, Yonggang [HPCAT,; Pravica, Michael [High-Pressure


    We report measurements of the X-ray-induced decomposition of crystalline strontium oxalate (SrC2O4) as a function of energy and high pressure in two separate experiments. SrC2O4 at ambient conditions was irradiated with monochromatic synchrotron X-rays ranging in energy from 15 to 28 keV. A broad resonance of the decomposition yield was observed with a clear maximum when irradiating with ~20 keV X-rays and ambient pressure. Little or no decomposition was observed at 15 keV, which is below the Sr K-shell energy of 16.12 keV, suggesting that excitation of core electrons may play an important role in the destabilization of the C2O42– anion. A second experiment was performed to investigate the high-pressure dependence of the X-ray-induced decomposition of strontium oxalate at fixed energy. SrC2O4 was compressed in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) in the pressure range from 0 to 7.6 GPa with 1 GPa increments and irradiated in situ with 20 keV X-rays. A marked pressure dependence of the decomposition yield of SrC2O4 was observed with a decomposition yield maximum at around 1 GPa, suggesting that different crystal structures of the material play an important role in the decomposition process. This may be due in part to a phase transition observed near this pressure.

  9. Plasma-Induced Decomposition of Copper Complex Ink for the Formation of Highly Conductive Copper Tracks on Heat-Sensitive Substrates. (United States)

    Farraj, Yousef; Smooha, Ariel; Kamyshny, Alexander; Magdassi, Shlomo


    The use of Cu-formate-2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol ink and low-pressure plasma for the formation of highly conductive patterns on heat sensitive plastic substrates was studied. It was found that plasma results in decomposition of copper complex to form metallic copper without heating at high temperatures. Ink composition and plasma parameters (predrying conditions, plasma treatment duration, gas type, and flow rate) were optimized to obtain uniform conductive metallic films. The morphology and electrical characteristics of these films were evaluated. Exposing the printed copper metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) ink to 160 W plasma for 8 min yielded resistivity as low as 7.3 ± 0.2 μΩ cm, which corresponds to 23% bulk copper conductivity. These results demonstrate the applicability of MOD inks and plasma treatment to obtain highly conductive printed patterns on low-cost plastic substrates and 3D printed polymers.

  10. High temperature autoclave vacuum seals (United States)

    Hoffman, J. R.; Simpson, W. G.; Walker, H. M.


    Aluminum sheet forms effective sealing film at temperatures up to 728 K. Soft aluminum wire rings provide positive seal between foil and platen. For applications at temperatures above aluminum's service temperature, stainless steel is used as film material and copper wire as sealant.

  11. Domain Decomposition Preconditioners for Multiscale Flows in High-Contrast Media

    KAUST Repository

    Galvis, Juan


    In this paper, we study domain decomposition preconditioners for multiscale flows in high-contrast media. We consider flow equations governed by elliptic equations in heterogeneous media with a large contrast in the coefficients. Our main goal is to develop domain decomposition preconditioners with the condition number that is independent of the contrast when there are variations within coarse regions. This is accomplished by designing coarse-scale spaces and interpolators that represent important features of the solution within each coarse region. The important features are characterized by the connectivities of high-conductivity regions. To detect these connectivities, we introduce an eigenvalue problem that automatically detects high-conductivity regions via a large gap in the spectrum. A main observation is that this eigenvalue problem has a few small, asymptotically vanishing eigenvalues. The number of these small eigenvalues is the same as the number of connected high-conductivity regions. The coarse spaces are constructed such that they span eigenfunctions corresponding to these small eigenvalues. These spaces are used within two-level additive Schwarz preconditioners as well as overlapping methods for the Schur complement to design preconditioners. We show that the condition number of the preconditioned systems is independent of the contrast. More detailed studies are performed for the case when the high-conductivity region is connected within coarse block neighborhoods. Our numerical experiments confirm the theoretical results presented in this paper. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  12. Photocatalytic decomposition of benzene by porous nanocrystalline ZnGa2O4 with a high surface area. (United States)

    Zhang, Xinnian; Huang, Jianhui; Ding, Kaining; Hou, Yidong; Wang, Xinchen; Fu, Xianzhi


    Porous nanocrystalline ZnGa2O4 catalysts were synthesized by a simple soft-chemical method at low temperature. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption, SEM, TEM, UV/ vis, and FT-IR spectroscopy. The activity of the photocatalysts was evaluated by decomposition of benzene and its derivatives in the gas phase. It was found that hydrothermal treatment resulted in the formation of spinel ZnGa2O4 with a large surface area of 43-201 m2 x g(-1) depending on the synthetic temperature. The optimum synthetic temperature was found to be 80 degrees C, at which the sample possessed a surface area of 201 m2 x g(-1) and had the highest photocatalytic activity for degrading benzene. A comparison with TiO2 and Pt/TiO2 showed that the ZnGa2O4 (synthesized at 80 degrees C) had improved photocatalytic activity and durability over the TiO2-based catalysts. No remarkable deactivation of the ZnGa2O4 catalyst was observed in 80 h photoreaction, whereas the TiO2 deactivated remarkably in 24 h reaction. The high photocatalytic performance of porous ZnGa2O4 catalysts can be explained by the large specific surface area, the accessible porous framework, and the high redox power.

  13. High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for High Temperature Wear Applications (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Edmonds, Brian J (Inventor)


    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite useful over a wide temperature range is described herein. The composite includes metal bonded chromium oxide dispersed in a metal binder having a substantial amount of nickel. The composite contains a fluoride of at least one Group I, Group II, or rare earth metal, and optionally a low temperature lubricant metal.

  14. First determination of volume changes and enthalpies of the high-pressure decomposition reaction of the structure H methane hydrate to the cubic structure I methane hydrate and fluid methane. (United States)

    Ogienko, Andrey G; Tkacz, Marek; Manakov, Andrey Yu; Lipkowski, Janusz


    Pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions of the decomposition reaction of the structure H high-pressure methane hydrate to the cubic structure I methane hydrate and fluid methane were studied with a piston-cylinder apparatus at room temperature. For the first time, volume changes accompanying this reaction were determined. With the use of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation the enthalpies of the decomposition reaction of the structure H high-pressure methane hydrate to the cubic structure I methane hydrate and fluid methane have been calculated.

  15. Decomposition of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus carcasses: temperature effects, nutrient dynamics, and implications for stream food webs (United States)

    Weaver, Daniel M.; Coghlan, Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Hogg, Robert S.; Canton, Michael


    Anadromous fishes serve as vectors of marine-derived nutrients into freshwaters that are incorporated into aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Pacific salmonines Oncorhynchus spp. exemplify the importance of migratory fish as links between marine and freshwater systems; however, little attention has been given to sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, 1758) in Atlantic coastal systems. A first step to understanding the role of sea lamprey in freshwater food webs is to characterize the composition and rate of nutrient inputs. We conducted laboratory and field studies characterizing the elemental composition and the decay rates and subsequent water enriching effects of sea lamprey carcasses. Proximate tissue analysis demonstrated lamprey carcass nitrogen:phosphorus ratios of 20.2:1 (±1.18 SE). In the laboratory, carcass decay resulted in liberation of phosphorus within 1 week and nitrogen within 3 weeks. Nutrient liberation was accelerated at higher temperatures. In a natural stream, carcass decomposition resulted in an exponential decline in biomass, and after 24 days, the proportion of initial biomass remaining was 27% (±3.0% SE). We provide quantitative results as to the temporal dynamics of sea lamprey carcass decomposition and subsequent nutrient liberation. These nutrient subsidies may arrive at a critical time to maximize enrichment of stream food webs.

  16. High-temperature behaviour of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (United States)

    Pardo, A.; Romero, J.; Ortiz, E.


    For over five decades, the high-temperature behaviour of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, NH4H2PO4, has been a controversial subject; while initial works associate ionic conductivity increase around Tt=153°C to a physical transformation (structural phase transition), later research supports the chemical nature of the transformation. However, currently, the origin of the ionic conductivity increase is still not clear. To provide a possible interpretation for this phenomenon, a careful high-temperature thermal examination of this acid salt was conducted by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Mass Spectroscopy (MS). The results show that when this acid salt is heated through Tt, a chemical decomposition into phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and ammonia (NH3) takes place. Considering that H3PO4 exhibits conductivity values around 10-3S·cm-1, our results suggest that the conductivity increase observed at around Tt is an exclusive consequence of the presence of this decomposition product.

  17. High-temperature borehole instrumentation (United States)

    Dennis, B. R.; Koczan, S. P.; Stephani, E. L.


    A new method of extracting natural heat from the Earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320(0)C (610(0)F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resources to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules.

  18. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.


    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  19. High Temperature Chemistry at NASA: Hot Topics (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.


    High Temperature issues in aircraft engines Hot section: Ni and Co based Superalloys Oxidation and Corrosion (Durability) at high temperatures. Thermal protection system (TPS) and RCC (Reinforced Carbon-Carbon) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. High temperatures in other worlds: Planets close to their stars.

  20. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John


    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  1. Hydrocarbon oxidation at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnatz, J.


    In this review it is described how, by suitable separation and elimination of unimportant reactions, a mechanism is developed with the aid of the present kinetic data for the elementary reactions involved. This mechanism explains, without fitting, the currently available experimental results for laminar premixed flames of alkanes, alkenes and acetylene. These experimental results are simulated by the solution of the corresponding conservation equations with suitable models describing diffusion and heat conduction in the multicomponent mixture considered. In lean and moderately rich flames the hydrocarbon is attacked by O, H, and OH in the first step. These radicals are produced by the chain-branching steps of the oxyhydrogen reaction. The alkyl radicals formed in this way always decompose to smaller alkyl radicals by fast thermal elimination of alkenes. Only the relatively slow thermal decomposition of the smallest alkyl radicals (CH/sub 3/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 5/) competes with recombination and with oxidation reactions by O atoms and O/sub 2/. This part of the mechanism is rate-controlling in the combustion of alkanes and alkenes, and is therefore the reason for the similarity of all alkane and alkene flames.

  2. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)


    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  3. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points (United States)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.


    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 "Radiation Thermometry". The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  4. (Krauss) at constant high temperatures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of opinions are held on the relative importance of the various physical ... optimum as well as extreme temperatures on vital functions such as survival, egg ..... solids on the biology of certain freshwater molluscs. D .Sc. thesis,. Potch.

  5. Decomposition of conditional probability for high-order symbolic Markov chains (United States)

    Melnik, S. S.; Usatenko, O. V.


    The main goal of this paper is to develop an estimate for the conditional probability function of random stationary ergodic symbolic sequences with elements belonging to a finite alphabet. We elaborate on a decomposition procedure for the conditional probability function of sequences considered to be high-order Markov chains. We represent the conditional probability function as the sum of multilinear memory function monomials of different orders (from zero up to the chain order). This allows us to introduce a family of Markov chain models and to construct artificial sequences via a method of successive iterations, taking into account at each step increasingly high correlations among random elements. At weak correlations, the memory functions are uniquely expressed in terms of the high-order symbolic correlation functions. The proposed method fills the gap between two approaches, namely the likelihood estimation and the additive Markov chains. The obtained results may have applications for sequential approximation of artificial neural network training.

  6. High-pressure high-temperature decomposition of CeCoGa to the Laves phases CeCo{sub 0.58}Ga{sub 1.42}, CeCo{sub 0.72}Ga{sub 1.28}, and CeCo{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niehaus, Oliver; Rodewald, Ute C.; Heying, Birgit; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Heymann, Gunter; Huppertz, Hubert [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie


    The monoclinic intermediate-valent gallide CeCoGa decomposes under high-pressure (HP) (9.5 GPa) high-temperature (HT) (1470 K) conditions into the Laves phases CeCo{sub 0.58}Ga{sub 1.42} (MgCu{sub 2} type), CeCo{sub 0.72}Ga{sub 1.28} (MgZn{sub 2} type; major product phase), and CeCo{sub 2} (MgCu{sub 2} type). The structures of the ternary Laves phases were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: Fd anti 3m, a=778.3(1) pm, wR2=0.0310, 63 F{sup 2} values, five variables for CeCo{sub 0.58(3)}Ga{sub 1.42(3)} and P6{sub 3}/mmc, a=547.24(5), c=858.76(7) pm, wR2=0.1009, 195 F{sup 2} values, 13 variables for CeCo{sub 0.72(1)}Ga{sub 1.28(1)}. Partial substitution of cobalt by gallium leads to a significant increase of the distances within the tetrahedral network: 253 pm Co-Co in CeCo{sub 2} as compared to 275 pm in CeCo{sub 0.58(3)}Ga{sub 1.42(3)} and 265-277 pm in CeCo{sub 0.72(1)}Ga{sub 1.28(1)}. The crystal chemical consequences are briefly discussed.

  7. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter (United States)

    Hull, John R.


    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  8. Technological Evolution of High Temperature Superconductors (United States)



  9. Leaf litter decomposition rates increase with rising mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests (United States)

    Lori D. Bothwell; Paul C. Selmants; Christian P. Giardina; Creighton M. Litton


    Decomposing litter in forest ecosystems supplies nutrients to plants, carbon to heterotrophic soil microorganisms and is a large source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Despite its essential role in carbon and nutrient cycling, the temperature sensitivityof leaf litter decay in tropical forest ecosystems remains poorly resolved, especially in tropical...

  10. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Ohme


    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  11. Long-term (13 Years) decomposition rates of forest floor organic matter on paired coniferous and deciduous watersheds with contrasting temperature regimes (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls


    Two sets of paired watersheds on north and South facing slopes were utilized to simulate the effects of temperature differences that are on the scale of those expected with near-term climatic warming on decomposition. Two watersheds were pine plantations (Pinus strobus L.) and two were mature deciduous forests established at similar elevation...

  12. Polymer nanocomposites for high-temperature composite repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Xia [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    A novel repair agent for resin-injection repair of advanced high temperature composites was developed and characterized. The repair agent was based on bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) and reinforced with alumina nanoparticles. To ensure good dispersion and compatibility with the BECy matrix in nanocomposites, the alumina nanoparticles were functionalized with silanes. The BECy nanocomposites, containing bare and functionalized alumina nanoparticles, were prepared and evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, rheological, and viscoelastic properties. The monomer of BECy has an extremely low viscosity at ambient temperature, which is good for processability. The cured BECy polymer is a highly cross-linked network with excellent thermal mechanical properties, with a high glass transition temperature (Tg) of 270 C and decomposition temperature above 350 C. The incorporation of alumina nanoparticles enhances the mechanical and rheological properties of the BECy nanocomposites. Additionally, the alumina nanoparticles are shown to catalyze the cure of BECy. Characterization of the nanocomposites included dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the BECy nanocomposite is a good candidate as repair agent for resin-injection repair applications.

  13. A Two-Dimensional Multiphysics Coupling Model of a Middle and Low Temperature Solar Receiver/Reactor for Methanol Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjuan Wang


    Full Text Available Abstract: In this paper, the endothermic methanol decomposition reaction is used to obtain syngas by transforming middle and low temperature solar energy into chemical energy. A two-dimensional multiphysics coupling model of a middle and low temperature of 150~300 °C solar receiver/reactor was developed, which couples momentum equation in porous catalyst bed, the governing mass conservation with chemical reaction, and energy conservation incorporating conduction/convection/radiation heat transfer. The complex thermochemical conversion process of the middle and low temperature solar receiver/reactor (MLTSRR system was analyzed. The numerical finite element method (FEM model was validated by comparing it with the experimental data and a good agreement was obtained, revealing that the numerical FEM model is reliable. The characteristics of chemical reaction, coupled heat transfer, the components of reaction products, and the temperature fields in the receiver/reactor were also revealed and discussed. The effects of the annulus vacuum space and the glass tube on the performance of the solar receiver/reactor were further studied. It was revealed that when the direct normal irradiation increases from 200 W/m2 to 800 W/m2, the theoretical efficiency of solar energy transformed into chemical energy can reach 0.14–0.75. When the methanol feeding rate is 13 kg/h, the solar flux increases from 500 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2, methanol conversion can fall by 6.8–8.9% with air in the annulus, and methanol conversion can decrease by 21.8–28.9% when the glass is removed from the receiver/reactor.

  14. Volatilization and Thermal Decomposition Mechanisms of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids (PRE-PRINT) (United States)


    Date: 20 Nov 2008. 14. ABSTRACT Recent interest in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) was based initially on the replacement of volatile...indicated that volatilization of these species occurs as a single ion pair. Recent ALS studies on the photoionization of other 1- alkyl-3...methylimidazolium based RTILs, show these systems can be more complex, with possible dissociative photoionization occurring at even the lowest detectable reservoir

  15. Sensitivity of decomposition rates of soil organic matter with respect to simultaneous changes in temperature and moisture


    Sierra, C.; Trumbore,S.; Davidson, E.; S. Vicca; I. Janssens


    © 2015. The Authors. The sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to global environmental change is a topic of prominent relevance for the global carbon cycle. Decomposition depends on multiple factors that are being altered simultaneously as a result of global environmental change; therefore, it is important to study the sensitivity of the rates of soil organic matter decomposition with respect to multiple and interacting drivers. In this manuscript, we present an analysis of the pot...

  16. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    under high temperatures and calculated the second-order elastic constant (Cij ) and bulk modulus. (KT) of the above minerals, in two cases first by taking Anderson–Gruneisen parameter (δT) as temperature-independent and then by treating δT as temperature-dependent parameter. The results obtained when δT is ...

  17. High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR program, TRS Technologies has developed several new dielectrics for high temperature applications including signal conditioning, filtering and energy...

  18. Advances in high temperature chemistry 1

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy


    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 1 describes the complexities and special and changing characteristics of high temperature chemistry. After providing a brief definition of high temperature chemistry, this nine-chapter book goes on describing the experiments and calculations of diatomic transition metal molecules, as well as the advances in applied wave mechanics that may contribute to an understanding of the bonding, structure, and spectra of the molecules of high temperature interest. The next chapter provides a summary of gaseous ternary compounds of the alkali metals used in

  19. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng


    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  20. High-Temperature Test Technology (United States)


    Do any of your facilities have vacuum test capability? YesO No~l If yes, What is the minimum vacuum chamber pressure? What is the maximum allowable...available? YesO N[-- If "yes," please Indicate the following: Vaporizer Superheater Capacity Capacity Max Temperature LH2 LN2 Are gaseous hydrogen...personnel safety? 5. Does the facility have radiant heating capability? YesO NoF- If "yes," please provide the following information: Lamp types Tungsten

  1. Thermodynamics of High Temperature Materials. (United States)


    temperatures In the present range have also been obtained by Krauss and Warncke [8] and by Vollmer et al. [9], using adiabatic calorimetry, and by Kollie [10...value for heat capacity. The electrical resistivity results reported by Kollie [10] and by Powell et al. [13] are respectively about 1 and 1.5% lower...extensive annealing of the specimens used in the measurements: the specimen (>99.89% pure) used by Kollie was annealed at 1100 K for 24 h and Laubitz et al

  2. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.


    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the

  3. High thermoelectric performance of n-type PbTe1-ySy due to deep lying states induced by indium doping and spinodal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qian; Chere, Eyob; Wang, Yumei; Kim, Hee; He, Ran; Cao, Feng; Dahal, Keshab; Broido, David; Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng


    Good thermoelectric materials should have high engineering figure-of-merit (ZT)eng, not peak ZT, to achieve high conversion efficiency. In this work, we achieved a good (ZT)eng by optimizing the carrier concentration to improve the room temperature ZT using deep lying dopant, indium, in PbTe1-ySy. It was found that a room temperature ZT as high as ~0.5 and a peak ZT ~1.1 at about 673 K were obtained in Pb0.98In0.02Te0.8S0.2 due to a lower thermal conductivity by alloy scattering and Spinodal decomposition. The calculated efficiency could be as high as ~12% at cold side 323 K and hot side 773 K. The approach is expected to work in other materials systems too.

  4. Highly Efficient and Scalable Compound Decomposition of Two-Electron Integral Tensor and Its Application in Coupled Cluster Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Bo [William R. Wiley Environmental; Kowalski, Karol [William R. Wiley Environmental


    The representation and storage of two-electron integral tensors are vital in large- scale applications of accurate electronic structure methods. Low-rank representation and efficient storage strategy of integral tensors can significantly reduce the numerical overhead and consequently time-to-solution of these methods. In this paper, by combining pivoted incomplete Cholesky decomposition (CD) with a follow-up truncated singular vector decomposition (SVD), we develop a decomposition strategy to approximately represent the two-electron integral tensor in terms of low-rank vectors. A systematic benchmark test on a series of 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D carbon-hydrogen systems demonstrates high efficiency and scalability of the compound two-step decomposition of the two-electron integral tensor in our implementation. For the size of atomic basis set N_b ranging from ~ 100 up to ~ 2, 000, the observed numerical scaling of our implementation shows O(N_b^{2.5~3}) versus O(N_b^{3~4}) of single CD in most of other implementations. More importantly, this decomposition strategy can significantly reduce the storage requirement of the atomic-orbital (AO) two-electron integral tensor from O(N_b^4) to O(N_b^2 log_{10}(N_b)) with moderate decomposition thresholds. The accuracy tests have been performed using ground- and excited-state formulations of coupled- cluster formalism employing single and double excitations (CCSD) on several bench- mark systems including the C_{60} molecule described by nearly 1,400 basis functions. The results show that the decomposition thresholds can be generally set to 10^{-4} to 10^{-3} to give acceptable compromise between efficiency and accuracy.

  5. Highly Efficient and Scalable Compound Decomposition of Two-Electron Integral Tensor and Its Application in Coupled Cluster Calculations. (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Kowalski, Karol


    The representation and storage of two-electron integral tensors are vital in large-scale applications of accurate electronic structure methods. Low-rank representation and efficient storage strategy of integral tensors can significantly reduce the numerical overhead and consequently time-to-solution of these methods. In this work, by combining pivoted incomplete Cholesky decomposition (CD) with a follow-up truncated singular vector decomposition (SVD), we develop a decomposition strategy to approximately represent the two-electron integral tensor in terms of low-rank vectors. A systematic benchmark test on a series of 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D carbon-hydrogen systems demonstrates high efficiency and scalability of the compound two-step decomposition of the two-electron integral tensor in our implementation. For the size of the atomic basis set, Nb, ranging from ∼100 up to ∼2,000, the observed numerical scaling of our implementation shows [Formula: see text] versus [Formula: see text] cost of performing single CD on the two-electron integral tensor in most of the other implementations. More importantly, this decomposition strategy can significantly reduce the storage requirement of the atomic orbital (AO) two-electron integral tensor from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] with moderate decomposition thresholds. The accuracy tests have been performed using ground- and excited-state formulations of coupled cluster formalism employing single and double excitations (CCSD) on several benchmark systems including the C60 molecule described by nearly 1,400 basis functions. The results show that the decomposition thresholds can be generally set to 10-4 to 10-3 to give acceptable compromise between efficiency and accuracy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick C. Collier


    Full Text Available Thermal analysis techniques provide the cement chemist with valuable tools to qualify and quantify the products formed during the hydration of cementitious materials. These techniques are commonly used alongside complimentary techniques such as X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy to confirm the composition of phases present and identify amorphous material unidentified by other techniques. The most common thermal analysis techniques used by cement chemists are thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. In order to provide a useful reference tool to the cement chemist, this paper provides a brief summary of the temperatures at which phase changes occur in the most common cement hydrates in the range 0-800°C in order to aid phase identification.

  7. High temperature skin friction measurement (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.


    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  8. Comparison of sugar molecule decomposition through glucose and fructose: a high-level quantum chemical study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)


    Efficient chemical conversion of biomass is essential to produce sustainable energy and industrial chemicals. Industrial level conversion of glucose to useful chemicals, such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid, is a major step in the biomass conversion but is difficult because of the formation of undesired products and side reactions. To understand the molecular level reaction mechanisms involved in the decomposition of glucose and fructose, we have carried out high-level quantum chemical calculations [Gaussian-4 (G4) theory]. Selective 1,2-dehydration, keto-enol tautomerization, isomerization, retro-aldol condensation, and hydride shifts of glucose and fructose molecules were investigated. Detailed kinetic and thermodynamic analyses indicate that, for acyclic glucose and fructose molecules, the dehydration and isomerization require larger activation barriers compared to the retro-aldol reaction at 298 K in neutral medium. The retro-aldol reaction results in the formation of C2 and C4 species from glucose and C3 species from fructose. The formation of the most stable C3 species, dihydroxyacetone from fructose, is thermodynamically downhill. The 1,3-hydride shift leads to the cleavage of the C-C bond in the acyclic species; however, the enthalpy of activation is significantly higher (50-55 kcal/mol) than that of the retro-aldol reaction (38 kcal/mol) mainly because of the sterically hindered distorted four-membered transition state compared to the hexa-membered transition state in the retro-aldol reaction. Both tautomerization and dehydration are catalyzed by a water molecule in aqueous medium; however, water has little effect on the retro-aldol reaction. Isomerization of glucose to fructose and glyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone proceeds through hydride shifts that require an activation enthalpy of about 40 kcal/mol at 298 K in water medium. This investigation maps out accurate energetics of the decomposition of glucose and fructose molecules

  9. High Temperature Solid State Lithium Battery Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable energy systems with high energy density capable of operating at high temperatures, pressures and radiation levels are needed for certain NASA missions....

  10. Copper Alloy For High-Temperature Uses (United States)

    Dreshfield, Robert L.; Ellis, David L.; Michal, Gary


    Alloy of Cu/8Cr/4Nb (numbers indicate parts by atom percent) improved over older high-temperature copper-based alloys in that it offers enhanced high temperature strength, resistance to creep, and ductility while retaining most of thermal conductivity of pure copper; in addition, alloy does not become embrittled upon exposure to hydrogen at temperatures as high as 705 degrees C. Designed for use in presence of high heat fluxes and active cooling; for example, in heat exchangers in advanced aircraft and spacecraft engines, and other high-temperature applications in which there is need for such material. High conductivity and hardness of alloy exploited in welding electrodes and in high-voltage and high-current switches and other applications in which wear poses design problem.

  11. Lightweight, High-Temperature Radiator Panels Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight, high-temperature radiators are needed for future, high-efficiency power conversion systems for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Creare has developed...

  12. High Temperature Rechargeable Battery Development Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop and proof the concept of a highly efficient, high temperature rechargeable battery for supporting...

  13. The flavoured BFSS model at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Yuhma; Filev, Veselin G. [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies,10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kováčik, Samuel [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies,10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics,Comenius University Bratislava, Mlynská dolina, Bratislava, 842 48 (Slovakia); O’Connor, Denjoe [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies,10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland)


    We study the high-temperature series expansion of the Berkooz-Douglas matrix model, which describes the D0/D4-brane system. At high temperature the model is weakly coupled and we develop the series to second order. We check our results against the high-temperature regime of the bosonic model (without fermions) and find excellent agreement. We track the temperature dependence of the bosonic model and find backreaction of the fundamental fields lifts the zero-temperature adjoint mass degeneracy. In the low-temperature phase the system is well described by a gaussian model with three masses m{sub A}{sup t}=1.964±0.003, m{sub A}{sup l}=2.001±0.003 and m{sub f}=1.463±0.001, the adjoint longitudinal and transverse masses and the mass of the fundamental fields respectively.

  14. Shock-tube study of the decomposition of tetramethylsilane using gas chromatography and high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Sela, P; Peukert, S; Herzler, J; Fikri, M; Schulz, C


    The decomposition of tetramethylsilane was studied in shock-tube experiments in a temperature range of 1270-1580 K and pressures ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 bar behind reflected shock waves combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HRR-TOF-MS). The main observed products were methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), ethane (C2H6), and acetylene (C2H2). In addition, the formation of a solid deposit was observed, which was identified to consist of silicon- and carbon-containing nanoparticles. A kinetics sub-mechanism with 13 silicon species and 20 silicon-containing reactions was developed. It was combined with the USC_MechII mechanism for hydrocarbons, which was able to simulate the experimental observations. The main decomposition channel of TMS is the Si-C bond scission forming methyl (CH3) and trimethylsilyl radicals (Si(CH3)3). The rate constant for TMS decomposition is represented by the Arrhenius expression ktotal[TMS → products] = 5.9 × 1012 exp(-267 kJ mol-1/RT) s-1.

  15. Motor unit number estimation based on high-density surface electromyography decomposition. (United States)

    Peng, Yun; He, Jinbao; Yao, Bo; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Yingchun


    To advance the motor unit number estimation (MUNE) technique using high density surface electromyography (EMG) decomposition. The K-means clustering convolution kernel compensation algorithm was employed to detect the single motor unit potentials (SMUPs) from high-density surface EMG recordings of the biceps brachii muscles in eight healthy subjects. Contraction forces were controlled at 10%, 20% and 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Achieved MUNE results and the representativeness of the SMUP pools were evaluated using a high-density weighted-average method. Mean numbers of motor units were estimated as 288±132, 155±87, 107±99 and 132±61 by using the developed new MUNE at 10%, 20%, 30% and 10-30% MVCs, respectively. Over 20 SMUPs were obtained at each contraction level, and the mean residual variances were lower than 10%. The new MUNE method allows a convenient and non-invasive collection of a large size of SMUP pool with great representativeness. It provides a useful tool for estimating the motor unit number of proximal muscles. The present new MUNE method successfully avoids the use of intramuscular electrodes or multiple electrical stimuli which is required in currently available MUNE techniques; as such the new MUNE method can minimize patient discomfort for MUNE tests. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality or decomposer efficiency – which is most important in the temperature response of litter decomposition? A modelling study using the GLUE methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Å. M. Wetterstedt


    Full Text Available We still lack full mechanistic understanding of how the temperature history affects the future decomposition rate of litter and soil organic matter. To explore that, we used the GLUE modelling framework together with the Q-model and data from a needle litter incubation experiment to compare a differential temperature response of litter qualities to a temperature-dependent decomposer efficiency. The needle litter incubation was a full factorial design with the initial and final temperatures 5, 15 and 25 °C. Samples were moved from the initial to the final temperature when approximately 12% of the initial carbon had been respired and the experiment terminated when an additional 12% had been lost. We used four variations of the Q-model; the litter was described as having one or two initial quality values and the decomposer efficiency was either fixed or allowed to vary with temperature. All variations were calibrated with good fits to the data subsets with equal initial and final temperatures. Evaluation against temperature shift subsets also showed good results, except just after the change in temperature where all variations predicted a smaller response than observed. The effects of having one or two initial litter quality values (fixed decomposer efficiency on end-of-experiment litter quality and respiration were marginal. Letting decomposer efficiency vary with temperature resulted in a decrease in efficiency between 5 and 15 °C but no change between 15 and 25 °C and in substantial differences in litter quality at the end of the initial incubation in response to incubation temperature. The temperature response of decomposition through temperature dependent decomposer efficiency proved, therefore, to be more important than the differential response to different substrate qualities. These results suggests that it may be important to consider other factors (e.g. microbial efficiency, changing substrate composition than the temperature

  17. Application of High Temperature Superconductors to Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A


    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductivity, a large effort has been made by the scientific community to investigate this field towards a possible application of the new oxide superconductors to different devices like SMES, magnetic bearings, flywheels energy storage, magnetic shielding, transmission cables, fault current limiters, etc. However, all present day large scale applications using superconductivity in accelerator technology are based on conventional materials operating at liquid helium temperatures. Poor mechanical properties, low critical current density and sensitivity to the magnetic field at high temperature are the key parameters whose improvement is essential for a large scale application of high temperature superconductors to such devices. Current leads, used for transferring currents from the power converters, working at room temperature, into the liquid helium environment, where the magnets are operating, represent an immediate application of the emerging technology of high t...

  18. Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen


    The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system consists of a prototype...... cathode air cooled 30 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack developed at the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University. This fuel cell stack uses PEMEAS Celtec P-1000 membranes, runs on pure hydrogen in a dead end anode configuration with a purge valve. The cooling of the stack is managed by running...... the stack at a high stoichiometric air flow. This is possible because of the PBI fuel cell membranes used, and the very low pressure drop in the stack. The model consists of a discrete thermal model dividing the stack into three parts: inlet, middle and end and predicting the temperatures in these three...

  19. High-temperature heat-pump fluids (United States)

    Bertinat, M. P.


    Heat pumps could be immensely useful in many industrial processes, but standard working fluids are unsuitable for the high temperatures involved. The ideal high-temperature heat-pump fluid should have a high (but not too high) critical temperature, a moderate critical pressure ( approximately=5.0 MPa) and a low (but not too low) boiling point. There are many organic fluids that do meet the above thermodynamic criteria The author's list of 250 contained dozens of them including many of the common laboratory solvents such as ethanol, ether and especially acetone. Unfortunately most of them are highly flammable. The ideal work fluid for high-temperature heat pumps will probably always remain elusive and water, despite its drawbacks will continue to be the best choice in most applications

  20. Active and total microbial communities in forest soil are largely different and highly stratified during decomposition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldrian, Petr; Kolařík, Miroslav; Stursová, Martina; Kopecký, Jan; Valášková, Vendula; Větrovský, Tomáš; Zifčáková, Lucia; Snajdr, Jaroslav; Rídl, Jakub; Vlček, Cestmír; Voříšková, Jana

    ...s. By the independent analysis of DNA and RNA, whole communities of bacteria and fungi and its active members were compared in topsoil of a Picea abies forest during a period of organic matter decomposition...

  1. Concurrent Probabilistic Simulation of High Temperature Composite Structural Response (United States)

    Abdi, Frank


    A computational structural/material analysis and design tool which would meet industry's future demand for expedience and reduced cost is presented. This unique software 'GENOA' is dedicated to parallel and high speed analysis to perform probabilistic evaluation of high temperature composite response of aerospace systems. The development is based on detailed integration and modification of diverse fields of specialized analysis techniques and mathematical models to combine their latest innovative capabilities into a commercially viable software package. The technique is specifically designed to exploit the availability of processors to perform computationally intense probabilistic analysis assessing uncertainties in structural reliability analysis and composite micromechanics. The primary objectives which were achieved in performing the development were: (1) Utilization of the power of parallel processing and static/dynamic load balancing optimization to make the complex simulation of structure, material and processing of high temperature composite affordable; (2) Computational integration and synchronization of probabilistic mathematics, structural/material mechanics and parallel computing; (3) Implementation of an innovative multi-level domain decomposition technique to identify the inherent parallelism, and increasing convergence rates through high- and low-level processor assignment; (4) Creating the framework for Portable Paralleled architecture for the machine independent Multi Instruction Multi Data, (MIMD), Single Instruction Multi Data (SIMD), hybrid and distributed workstation type of computers; and (5) Market evaluation. The results of Phase-2 effort provides a good basis for continuation and warrants Phase-3 government, and industry partnership.

  2. Sandia_HighTemperatureComponentEvaluation_2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashion, Avery T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The objective of this project is to perform independent evaluation of high temperature components to determine their suitability for use in high temperature geothermal tools. Development of high temperature components has been increasing rapidly due to demand from the high temperature oil and gas exploration and aerospace industries. Many of these new components are at the late prototype or first production stage of development and could benefit from third party evaluation of functionality and lifetime at elevated temperatures. In addition to independent testing of new components, this project recognizes that there is a paucity of commercial-off-the-shelf COTS components rated for geothermal temperatures. As such, high-temperature circuit designers often must dedicate considerable time and resources to determine if a component exists that they may be able to knead performance out of to meet their requirements. This project aids tool developers by characterization of select COTS component performances beyond published temperature specifications. The process for selecting components includes public announcements of project intent (e.g., FedBizOps), direct discussions with candidate manufacturers,and coordination with other DOE funded programs.

  3. Aeronautical applications of high-temperature superconductors (United States)

    Turney, George E.; Luidens, Roger W.; Uherka, Kenneth; Hull, John


    The successful development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. A preliminary examination of the potential application of HTS for aeronautics indicates that significant benefits may be realized through the development and implementation of these newly discovered materials. Applications of high-temperature superconductors (currently substantiated at 95 k) were envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft, and solar, microwave and laser powered aircraft. Introduced and described are the particular applications and potential benefits of high-temperature superconductors as related to aeronautics and/or aeronautical systems.

  4. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

  5. Silicon Carbide Nanotube Oxidation at High Temperatures (United States)

    Ahlborg, Nadia; Zhu, Dongming


    Silicon Carbide Nanotubes (SiCNTs) have high mechanical strength and also have many potential functional applications. In this study, SiCNTs were investigated for use in strengthening high temperature silicate and oxide materials for high performance ceramic nanocomposites and environmental barrier coating bond coats. The high · temperature oxidation behavior of the nanotubes was of particular interest. The SiCNTs were synthesized by a direct reactive conversion process of multiwall carbon nanotubes and silicon at high temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study the oxidation kinetics of SiCNTs at temperatures ranging from 800degC to1300degC. The specific oxidation mechanisms were also investigated.

  6. High temperature spectral gamma well logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, R.A.; Henfling, J.A.


    A high temperature spectral gamma tool has been designed and built for use in small-diameter geothermal exploration wells. Several engineering judgments are discussed regarding operating parameters, well model selection, and signal processing. An actual well log at elevated temperatures is given with spectral gamma reading showing repeatability.

  7. High temperature gas cleaning for pressurized gasification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alden, H.; Hagstroem, P.; Hallgren, A.; Waldheim, L. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    The purpose of the project was to build an apparatus to study pressurized, high temperature gas cleaning of raw gasification gas generated from biomass. A flexible and easy to operate pressurized apparatus was designed and installed for the investigations in high temperature gas cleaning by means of thermal, catalytic or chemical procedures. A semi continuos fuel feeding concept, at a maximum rate of 700 g/h, allowed a very constant formation of a gas product at 700 deg C. The gas product was subsequently introduced into a fixed bed secondary reactor where the actual gas cleanup or reformation was fulfilled. The installation work was divided into four work periods and apart from a few delays the work was carried out according to the time plan. During the first work period (January - June 1994) the technical design, drawings etc. of the reactor and additional parts were completed. All material for the construction was ordered and the installation work was started. The second work period (July - December 1994) was dedicated to the construction and the installation of the different components. Initial tests with the electrical heating elements, control system and gas supply were assigned to the third work period (January - June 1995). After the commissioning and the resulting modifications, initial pyrolysis and tar decomposition experiments were performed. During the fourth and final work period, (June - December 1995) encouraging results from first tests allowed the experimental part of the project work to commence, however in a slightly reduced program. The experimental part of the project work comparatively studied tar decomposition as a function of the process conditions as well as of the choice of catalyst. Two different catalysts, dolomite and a commercial Ni-based catalyst, were evaluated in the unit. Their tar cracking ability in the pressure interval 1 - 20 bar and at cracker bed temperatures between 800 - 900 deg C was compared. Long term tests to study

  8. Measuring myofiber orientations from high-frequency ultrasound images using multiscale decompositions (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Fei, Baowei


    High-frequency ultrasound (HFU) has the ability to image both skeletal and cardiac muscles. The quantitative assessment of these myofiber orientations has a number of applications in both research and clinical examinations; however, difficulties arise due to the severe speckle noise contained in the HFU images. Thus, for the purpose of automatically measuring myofiber orientations from two-dimensional HFU images, we propose a two-step multiscale image decomposition method. It combines a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter and a coherence enhancing diffusion filter to extract myofibers. This method has been verified by ultrasound data from simulated phantoms, excised fiber phantoms, specimens of porcine hearts, and human skeletal muscles in vivo. The quantitative evaluations of both phantoms indicated that the myofiber measurements of our proposed method were more accurate than other methods. The myofiber orientations extracted from different layers of the porcine hearts matched the prediction of an established cardiac mode and demonstrated the feasibility of extracting cardiac myofiber orientations from HFU images ex vivo. Moreover, HFU also demonstrated the ability to measure myofiber orientations in vivo.

  9. Novel High Temperature Strain Gauge Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced high-temperature sensor technology and bonding methods are of great interests in designing and developing advanced future aircraft. Current state-of-the-art...

  10. High Temperature Fiberoptic Thermal Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase 1 program will fabricate and demonstrate a small diameter single fiber endoscope that can perform high temperature thermal imaging in a jet engine...

  11. High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High temperature power electronics have become a vital aspect of future designs for power converters in spacecraft, battle zone electric power, satellite power...

  12. Ion Based High-Temperature Pressure Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zdenek, Jeffrey S; Anthenien, Ralph A


    .... The environment encountered in such engines necessitates high temperature and durable (vibration resistant) devices. Traditional pressure sensors can be used, however thermal insulating materials must be used to protect the diaphragm...

  13. NASA High Operating Temperature Technology Program Overview (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. V.; Hunter, G. W.


    NASA’s Planetary Science Division has begun the High Operating Temperature Technology (HOTTech) program to address Venus surface technology challenges by investing in new technology development. This presentation reviews this HOTTech program.

  14. Panel report on high temperature ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolet, T C [ed.


    Fundamental research is reported concerning high temperature ceramics for application in turbines, engines, batteries, gasifiers, MHD, fuel cells, heat exchangers, and hot wall combustors. Ceramics microstructure and behavior are included. (FS)

  15. Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yi [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    DOE-GTRC-05596 11/24/2104 Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate PI: Dr. Yi Deng (PI) School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology 404-385-1821, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Annular Modes (AMs) represent respectively the most important modes of low frequency variability in the tropical and extratropical circulations. The projection of future changes in the ENSO and AM variability, however, remains highly uncertain with the state-of-the-science climate models. This project conducted a process-resolving, quantitative evaluations of the ENSO and AM variability in the modern reanalysis observations and in climate model simulations. The goal is to identify and understand the sources of uncertainty and biases in models’ representation of ENSO and AM variability. Using a feedback analysis method originally formulated by one of the collaborative PIs, we partitioned the 3D atmospheric temperature anomalies and surface temperature anomalies associated with ENSO and AM variability into components linked to 1) radiation-related thermodynamic processes such as cloud and water vapor feedbacks, 2) local dynamical processes including convection and turbulent/diffusive energy transfer and 3) non-local dynamical processes such as the horizontal energy transport in the oceans and atmosphere. In the past 4 years, the research conducted at Georgia Tech under the support of this project has led to 15 peer-reviewed publications and 9 conference/workshop presentations. Two graduate students and one postdoctoral fellow also received research training through participating the project activities. This final technical report summarizes key scientific discoveries we made and provides also a list of all publications and conference presentations resulted from research activities at Georgia Tech. The main findings include

  16. The mechanism of ammonium bisulfate formation and decomposition over V/WTi catalysts for NH3-selective catalytic reduction at various temperatures. (United States)

    Li, Chenxu; Shen, Meiqing; Yu, Tie; Wang, Jianqiang; Wang, Jun; Zhai, Yanping


    In this study, the mechanism of ammonium bisulfate (ABS) formation and decomposition over V/WTi for the NH3-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) at various temperatures was deeply investigated. Bridged bidentate, chelating bidentate, and tridentate sulfates bound to TiO2 were formed as dominant intermediates at 200, 250, and 300 °C, respectively. These sulfates reacted with affinitive ammonium species to form ammonium (bi)sulfate species and also covered the active sites and embedded the VOSO4 intermediates, which resulted in an inferior intrinsic NH3-SCR conversion rate at 200 °C and 250 °C. At 300 °C, trace amounts of ABS on TiO2 presented no influence on the NH3-SCR performance. The electrons deviating towards sulfates through the bond between ABS and metal oxides (WO3 and TiO2) weakened the stability of ABS and lowered its decomposition temperature, whereas the vanadia species played the opposite role due to the sulfur species existing in an electron saturation state with the formation of the VOSO4 intermediate. The presence of NO + O2 could break the bonds inside ABS and it could react with the ammonium species originating from ABS, which pulls NH3 out of the ABS formation equilibrium and accelerates its decomposition and competitively inhibits its formation. Correspondingly, the faster NH3-SCR conversion rate and higher N2 selectivity improve the ABS poisoning resistance of the V/WTi catalyst at low temperatures.

  17. Mechanical Proprieties of Steel at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Diana Ancaş


    Full Text Available The experimental test results obtained in the study of steel mechanical proprieties variation in case of high temperatures (fire are presented. The proprieties are referring to: Young’s modulus, E, the elastic limit, σe, and the characteristic diagram of the material (the rotation stress-strain. Theoretical laws that the model the steel behaviour at high temperature have been elaborated based on the most significant studies presented in the literature.

  18. High temperature superconductors and other superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, A S


    Written by eminent researchers in the field, this text describes the theory of superconductivity and superfluidity starting from liquid helium and a charged Bose-gas. It also discusses the modern bipolaron theory of strongly coupled superconductors, which explains the basic physical properties of high-temperature superconductors. This book will be of interest to fourth year graduate and postgraduate students, specialist libraries, information centres and chemists working in high-temperature superconductivity.

  19. Laser Plasma Coupling for High Temperature Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruer, W.


    Simple scaling models indicate that quite high radiation temperatures can be achieved in hohlraums driven with the National Ignition Facility. A scaling estimate for the radiation temperature versus pulse duration for different size NIF hohlraums is shown in Figure 1. Note that a radiation temperature of about 650 ev is projected for a so-called scale 1 hohlraum (length 2.6mm, diameter 1.6mm). With such high temperature hohlraums, for example, opacity experiments could be carried out using more relevant high Z materials rather than low Z surrogates. These projections of high temperature hohlraums are uncertain, since the scaling model does not allow for the very strongly-driven laser plasma coupling physics. Lasnex calculations have been carried out to estimate the plasma and irradiation conditions in a scale 1 hohlraum driven by NIF. Linear instability gains as high as exp(100) have been found for stimulated Brillouin scattering, and other laser-driven instabilities are also far above their thresholds. More understanding of the very strongly-driven coupling physics is clearly needed in order to more realistically assess and improve the prospects for high temperature hohlraums. Not surprisingly, this regime has been avoided for inertial fusion applications and so is relatively unexplored.

  20. Electrons and Phonons in High Temperature Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Singh


    Full Text Available The defect-induced anharmonic phonon-electron problem in high-temperature superconductors has been investigated with the help of double time thermodynamic electron and phonon Green’s function theory using a comprehensive Hamiltonian which includes the contribution due to unperturbed electrons and phonons, anharmonic phonons, impurities, and interactions of electrons and phonons. This formulation enables one to resolve the problem of electronic heat transport and equilibrium phenomenon in high-temperature superconductors in an amicable way. The problem of electronic heat capacity and electron-phonon problem has been taken up with special reference to the anharmonicity, defect concentration electron-phonon coupling, and temperature dependence.

  1. Melt processed high-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server


    The achievement of large critical currents is critical to the applications of high-temperature superconductors. Recent developments have shown that melt processing is suitable for producing high J c oxide superconductors. Using magnetic forces between such high J c oxide superconductors and magnets, a person could be levitated.This book has grown largely out of research works on melt processing of high-temperature superconductors conducted at ISTEC Superconductivity Research Laboratory. The chapters build on melt processing, microstructural characterization, fundamentals of flux pinning, criti

  2. Neutron experiments on high-temperature superconductors (United States)

    Mook, H. A., Jr.


    This report details the trip to the ILL to perform neutron scattering research on high-temperature superconductivity. The trip was very successful because of the excellent users' facilities available at the ILL. The data we accumulated were of high quality and will make an impact on our understanding of high-temperature superconductivity. However, we cannot continue to run a research program in this field with the limited beam time available at the ILL. To make substantial progress in this field, we must restart the High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  3. High Temperature, Wireless Seismometer Sensor for Venus (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Taylor, Brandt; Beard, Steve; Meredith, Roger D.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter Gary W.; Kiefer, Walter S.


    Space agency mission plans state the need to measure the seismic activity on Venus. Because of the high temperature on Venus (462? C average surface temperature) and the difficulty in placing and wiring multiple sensors using robots, a high temperature, wireless sensor using a wide bandgap semiconductor is an attractive option. This paper presents the description and proof of concept measurements of a high temperature, wireless seismometer sensor for Venus. A variation in inductance of a coil caused by the movement of an aluminum probe held in the coil and attached to a balanced leaf-spring seismometer causes a variation of 700 Hz in the transmitted signal from the oscillator/sensor system at 426? C. This result indicates that the concept may be used on Venus.

  4. High-temperature granulites and supercontinents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.R. Touret


    Full Text Available The formation of continents involves a combination of magmatic and metamorphic processes. These processes become indistinguishable at the crust-mantle interface, where the pressure-temperature (P-T conditions of (ultra high-temperature granulites and magmatic rocks are similar. Continents grow laterally, by magmatic activity above oceanic subduction zones (high-pressure metamorphic setting, and vertically by accumulation of mantle-derived magmas at the base of the crust (high-temperature metamorphic setting. Both events are separated from each other in time; the vertical accretion postdating lateral growth by several tens of millions of years. Fluid inclusion data indicate that during the high-temperature metamorphic episode the granulite lower crust is invaded by large amounts of low H2O-activity fluids including high-density CO2 and concentrated saline solutions (brines. These fluids are expelled from the lower crust to higher crustal levels at the end of the high-grade metamorphic event. The final amalgamation of supercontinents corresponds to episodes of ultra-high temperature metamorphism involving large-scale accumulation of these low-water activity fluids in the lower crust. This accumulation causes tectonic instability, which together with the heat input from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, leads to the disruption of supercontinents. Thus, the fragmentation of a supercontinent is already programmed at the time of its amalgamation.

  5. In situ monitoring of the acetylene decomposition and gas temperature at reaction conditions for the deposition of carbon nanotubes using linear Raman scattering. (United States)

    Reinhold-López, Karla; Braeuer, Andreas; Popovska, Nadejda; Leipertz, Alfred


    To understand the reaction mechanisms taking place by growing carbon nanotubes via the catalytic chemical vapor deposition process, a strategy to monitor in situ the gas phase at reaction conditions was developed applying linear Raman spectroscopy. The simultaneous determination of the gas temperature and composition was possible by a new strategy of the evaluation of the Raman spectra. In agreement to the well-known exothermic decomposition of acetylene, a gas temperature increase was quantified when acetylene was added to the incident flow. Information about exhaust gas recirculation and location of the maximal acetylene conversion was derived from the composition measurements.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi


    It is well known that the fluid phase equilibria can be represented by a number of {gamma}-models , but unfortunately most of them do not function well under high temperature. In this calculation, we mainly investigate the performance of UNIQUAC and NRTL models under high temperature, using temperature dependent parameters rather than using the original formulas. the other feature of this calculation is that we try to relate the excess Gibbs energy G{sup E}and enthalpy of mixing H{sup E}simultaneously. In other words, we will use the high temperature and pressure G{sup E} and H{sup E}data to regress the temperature dependant parameters to find out which model and what kind of temperature dependant parameters should be used.

  7. Radiation-Induced High-Temperature Conversion of Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Ponomarev


    Full Text Available Thermal decomposition of cellulose can be upgraded by means of an electron-beam irradiation to produce valuable organic products via chain mechanisms. The samples being irradiated decompose effectively at temperatures below the threshold of pyrolysis inception. Cellulose decomposition resembles local “explosion” of the glucopyranose unit when fast elimination of carbon dioxide and water precede formation of residual carbonyl or carboxyl compounds. The dry distillation being performed during an irradiation gives a liquid condensate where furfural and its derivatives are dominant components. Excessively fast heating is adverse, as it results in a decrease of the yield of key organic products because pyrolysis predominates over the radiolytic-controlled decomposition of feedstock. Most likely, conversion of cellulose starts via radiolytic formation of macroradicals do not conform with each other, resulting in instability of the macroradical. As a consequence, glucosidic bond cleavage, elimination of light fragments (water, carbon oxides, formaldehyde, etc. and formation of furfural take place.

  8. Laser-Doppler vibrating tube densimeter for measurements at high temperatures and pressures. (United States)

    Aida, Tsutomu; Yamazaki, Ai; Akutsu, Makoto; Ono, Takumi; Kanno, Akihiro; Hoshina, Taka-aki; Ota, Masaki; Watanabe, Masaru; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Richard L; Inomata, Hiroshi


    A laser-Doppler vibrometer was used to measure the vibration of a vibrating tube densimeter for measuring P-V-T data at high temperatures and pressures. The apparatus developed allowed the control of the residence time of the sample so that decomposition at high temperatures could be minimized. A function generator and piezoelectric crystal was used to excite the U-shaped tube in one of its normal modes of vibration. Densities of methanol-water mixtures are reported for at 673 K and 40 MPa with an uncertainty of 0.009 g/cm3.

  9. Low Temperature Heating and High Temperature Cooling in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    , a single-family house designed for plus-energy targets and equipped with a radiant water-based floor heating and cooling system was studied by means of full-scale measurements, dynamic building simulations and thermodynamic evaluation tools. Thermal indoor environment and energy performance of the house......A heating and cooling system could be divided into three parts: terminal units (emission system), distribution system, and heating and cooling plant (generation system). The choice of terminal unit directly affects the energy performance, and the indoor environment in that space. Therefore......, a holistic system evaluation is necessary to ensure an optimal indoor environment for the occupants and to achieve energy efficiency simultaneously. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling systems are one of the possible approaches to heat or cool indoor spaces in buildings. In this thesis...

  10. Spinodal decomposition of tungsten-containing phases in functional coatings obtained via high-energy implantation processes (United States)

    Davydov, S. V.; Petrov, E. V.


    We have studied structural and phase transformations in tungsten-containing functional coatings of carbon steels obtained during the high-energy processes of implanting tungsten carbide micropowders by the method of complex pulse electromechanical processing and micropowders of tungsten by technology of directed energy of explosion based on the effect of superdeep penetration of solid particles (Usherenko effect). It has been shown that, during thermomechanical action, intensive steel austenization occurs in the deformation zone with the dissolution of tungsten carbide powder, the carbidization of tungsten powder, and the subsequent formation of composite gradient structures as a result of the decay of supercooled austenite supersaturated by tungsten according to the diffusion mechanism and the mechanism of spinodal decomposition. Separate zones of tungsten-containing phases of the alloy are in the liquid-phase state, as well as undergo spinodal decomposition with the formation of highly disperse carbide phases of globular morphology.

  11. Highly consistent effects of plant litter identity and functional traits on decomposition across a latitudinal gradient.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkonen, M.A.; Berg, M.P.; Handa, T.; Hattenschwiler, S.; van Ruijven, J.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Aerts, R.


    Plant litter decomposition is a key process in terrestrial carbon cycling, yet the relative importance of various control factors remains ambiguous at a global scale. A full reciprocal litter transplant study with 16 litter species that varied widely in traits and originated from four forest sites

  12. Highly consistent effects of plant litter identity and functional traits on decomposition across a latitudinal gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkonen, M.; Berg, M.P.; Handa, I.T.; Hättenschwiler, S.; Ruijven, van J.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Aerts, M.A.P.A.


    Plant litter decomposition is a key process in terrestrial carbon cycling, yet the relative importance of various control factors remains ambiguous at a global scale. A full reciprocal litter transplant study with 16 litter species that varied widely in traits and originated from four forest sites

  13. High temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft (United States)

    Chazen, Melvin L. (Inventor); Mueller, Thomas J. (Inventor); Kruse, William D. (Inventor)


    A high temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft (20) is provided herein. The high temperature thrust chamber comprises a hollow body member (12) having an outer surface and an internal surface (16) defining the high temperature chamber (10). The body member (12) is made substantially of rhenium. An alloy (18) consisting of iridium and at least alloying metal selected of the group consisting of rhodium, platinum and palladium is deposited on at least a portion of the internal surface (16) of the body member (12). The iridium and the alloying metal are electrodeposited onto the body member (12). A HIP cycle is performed upon the body member (12) to cause the coating of iridium and the alloying metal to form the alloy (18) which protects the body member (12) from oxidation.

  14. Stability projections for high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laquer, H.L.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Wipf, S.L.


    The stability of the new high temperature superconducting oxides has been analyzed, using the methodology developed over the last 25 years for conventional Type II superconductors. The results are presented in graphical form for the temperature range from 4 to 100 K. For a 90 K superconductor the first flux jump field peaks above 7 T at 60 K, ( and for a 120 k superconductor it peaks above 12 T at 75 K). The maximum adiabatically stable thickness increases dramatically. The linear dimension of the minimum propagating zone increases by a factor of 3 to 5, and the quench propagation velocity drops by 4 orders of magnitude. The high temperature superconducting materials will, therefore, have much higher stability than conventional Type II superconductors; their high flux jump fields will make ultra-fine multifilamentary conductors unnecessary and improve the outlook for tape conductors; the energy to create a propagating zone is increased; however, methods of coil protection will have to be modified.

  15. High-energy coordination polymers (CPs) exhibiting good catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition of ammonium dinitramide (United States)

    Li, Xin; Han, Jing; Zhang, Sheng; Zhai, Lianjie; Wang, Bozhou; Yang, Qi; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping; Gao, Shengli


    High-energy coordination polymers (CPs) not only exhibit good energetic performances but also have a good catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition of energetic materials. In this contribution, two high-energy CPs Cu2(DNBT)2(CH3OH)(H2O)3·3H2O (1) and [Cu3(DDT)2(H2O)2]n (2) (H2DNBT = 3,3‧-dinitro-5,5‧-bis(1H-1,2,4-triazole and H3DDT = 4,5-bis(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole) were synthesized and structurally characterized. Furthermore, 1 was thermos-dehydrated to produce Cu2(DNBT)2(CH3OH)(H2O)3 (1a). The thermal decomposition kinetics of 1, 1a and 2 were studied by Kissinger's method and Ozawa's method. Thermal analyses and sensitivity tests show that all compounds exhibit high thermal stability and low sensitivity for external stimuli. Meanwhile, all compounds have large positive enthalpy of formation, which are calculated as being (1067.67 ± 2.62) kJ mol-1 (1), (1464.12 ± 3.12) kJ mol-1 (1a) and (3877.82 ± 2.75) kJ mol-1 (2), respectively. The catalytic effects of 1a and 2 on the thermal decomposition of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) were also investigated.

  16. High temperature superconductivity the road to higher critical temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, Shin-ichi


    This book presents an overview of material-specific factors that influence Tc and give rise to diverse Tc values for copper oxides and iron-based high- Tc superconductors on the basis of more than 25 years of experimental data, to most of which the author has made important contributions. The book then explains why both compounds are distinct from others with similar crystal structure and whether or not one can enhance Tc, which in turn gives a hint on the unresolved pairing mechanism. This is an unprecedented new approach to the problem of high-temperature superconductivity and thus will be inspiring to both specialists and non-specialists interested in this field.   Readers will receive in-depth information on the past, present, and future of high-temperature superconductors, along with special, updated information on what the real highest Tc values are and particularly on the possibility of enhancing Tc for each member material, which is important for application. At this time, the highest Tc has not been...

  17. Microbial decomposition is highly sensitive to leaf litter emersion in a permanent temperate stream. (United States)

    Mora-Gómez, Juanita; Duarte, Sofia; Cássio, Fernanda; Pascoal, Cláudia; Romaní, Anna M


    Drought frequency and intensity in some temperate regions are forecasted to increase under the ongoing global change, which might expose permanent streams to intermittence and have severe repercussions on stream communities and ecosystem processes. In this study, we investigated the effect of drought duration on microbial decomposition of Populus nigra leaf litter in a temperate permanent stream (Oliveira, NW Portugal). Specifically, we measured the response of the structural (assemblage composition, bacterial and fungal biomass) and functional (leaf litter decomposition, extracellular enzyme activities (EEA), and fungal sporulation) parameters of fungal and bacterial communities on leaf litter exposed to emersion during different time periods (7, 14 and 21d). Emersion time affected microbial assemblages and litter decomposition, but the response differed among variables. Leaf decomposition rates and the activity of β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase and phosphatase were gradually reduced with increasing emersion time, while β-xylosidase reduction was similar when emersion last for 7 or more days, and the phenol oxidase reduction was similar at 14 and 21days of leaf emersion. Microbial biomass and fungal sporulation were reduced after 21days of emersion. The structure of microbial assemblages was affected by the duration of the emersion period. The shifts in fungal assemblages were correlated with a decreased microbial capacity to degrade lignin and hemicellulose in leaf litter exposed to emersion. Additionally, some resilience was observed in leaf litter mass loss, bacterial biomass, some enzyme activities and structure of fungal assemblages. Our study shows that drought can strongly alter structural and functional aspects of microbial decomposers. Therefore, the exposure of leaf litter to increasing emersion periods in temperate streams is expected to affect decomposer communities and overall decomposition of plant material by decelerating carbon cycling in

  18. Temperature measurements of high power LEDs (United States)

    Badalan (Draghici), Niculina; Svasta, Paul; Drumea, Andrei


    Measurement of a LED junction temperature is very important in designing a LED lighting system. Depending on the junction temperature we will be able to determine the type of cooling system and the size of the lighting system. There are several indirect methods for junction temperature measurement. The method used in this paper is based on the thermal resistance model. The aim of this study is to identify the best device that would allow measuring the solder point temperature and the temperature on the lens of power LEDs. For this purpose four devices for measuring temperature on a high-power LED are presented and compared according to the acquired measurements: an infrared thermal camera from FLIR Systems, a multimeter with K type thermocouple (Velleman DVM4200), an infrared-spot based noncontact thermometer (Raynger ST) and a measurement system based on a digital temperature sensor (DS1821 type) connected to a PC. The measurements were conducted on an 18W COB (chip-on-board) LED. The measurement points are the supply terminals and the lens of the LED.

  19. Fiber Bragg Grating Filter High Temperature Sensors (United States)

    Lyons, Donald R.; Brass, Eric D.; Pencil, Eric (Technical Monitor)


    We present a scaled-down method for determining high temperatures using fiber-based Bragg gratings. Bragg gratings are distributed along the length of the optical fiber, and have high reflectivities whenever the optical wavelength is twice the grating spacing. These spatially distinct Bragg regions (located in the core of a fiber) are sensitive to local temperature changes. Since these fibers are silica-based they are easily affected by localized changes in temperature, which results in changes to both the grating spacing and the wavelength reflectivity. We exploit the shift in wavelength reflectivity to measure the change in the local temperature. Note that the Bragg region (sensing area) is some distance away from where the temperature is being measured. This is done so that we can measure temperatures that are much higher than the damage threshold of the fiber. We do this by affixing the fiber with the Bragg sensor to a material with a well-known coefficient of thermal expansion, and model the heat gradient from the region of interest to the actual sensor. The research described in this paper will culminate in a working device as well as be the second portion of a publication pending submission to Optics Letters.

  20. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max


    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  1. High temperature and pressure electrochemical test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Allebrod, Frank; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    An electrochemical test station capable of operating at pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures up to 400 ◦C has been established. It enables control of the partial pressures and mass flow of O2, N2, H2, CO2, and H2O in a single or dual environment arrangement, measurements with highly corrosive......, to the electrochemical characterization of high temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis cells and the use of pseudo-reference electrodes for the separation of each electrode contribution. A future perspective of various electrochemical processes and devices that can be developed with the use of the established...

  2. High temperature reactors for cogeneration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, Karl [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IEK-6; Allelein, Hans-Josef [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IEK-6; RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorsicherheit und -technik (LRST)


    There is a large potential for nuclear energy also in the non-electric heat market. Many industrial sectors have a high demand for process heat and steam at various levels of temperature and pressure to be provided for desalination of seawater, district heating, or chemical processes. The future generation of nuclear plants will be capable to enter the wide field of cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), to reduce waste heat and to increase efficiency. This requires an adjustment to multiple needs of the customers in terms of size and application. All Generation-IV concepts proposed are designed for coolant outlet temperatures above 500 C, which allow applications in the low and medium temperature range. A VHTR would even be able to cover the whole temperature range up to approx. 1 000 C.

  3. On-wafer high temperature characterization system (United States)

    Teodorescu, L.; ǎghici, F., Dr; Rusu, I.; Brezeanu, G.


    In this work a on-wafer high temperature characterization system for wide bandgap semiconductor devices and circuits has been designed, implemented and tested. The proposed system can perform the wafer temperature adjustment in a large domain, from the room temperature up to 3000C with a resolution better than +/-0.50C. In order to obtain both low-noise measurements and low EMI, the heating element of the wafer chuck is supplied in two ways: one is from a DC linear power supply connected to the mains electricity, another one is from a second DC unit powered by batteries. An original temperature control algorithm, different from classical PID, is used to modify the power applied to the chuck.

  4. High Temperature Mechanisms for Venus Exploration (United States)

    Ji, Jerri; Narine, Roop; Kumar, Nishant; Singh, Sase; Gorevan, Steven

    Future Venus missions, including New Frontiers Venus In-Situ Explorer and three Flagship Missions - Venus Geophysical Network, Venus Mobile Explorer and Venus Surface Sample Return all focus on searching for evidence of past climate change both on the surface and in the atmospheric composition as well as in the interior dynamics of the planet. In order to achieve these goals and objectives, many key technologies need to be developed for the Venus extreme environment. These key technologies include sample acquisition systems and other high-temperature mechanisms and mobility systems capable of extended operation when directly exposed to the Venus surface or lower atmosphere environment. Honeybee Robotics has developed two types of high temperature motors, the materials and components in both motors were selected based on the requirement to survive temperatures above a minimum of 460° C, at earth atmosphere. The prototype Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) has been operated non-continuously for over 20 hours at Venus-like conditions (460° C temperature, mostly CO2 gas environment) and it remains functional. A drilling system, actuated by two SRMs was tested in Venus-like conditions, 460° C temperature and mostly CO2 gas environment, for more than 15 hours. The drill successfully completed three tests by drilling into chalk up to 6 inches deep in each test. A first generation Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor and high temperature resolver were also tested and the feasibility of the designs was demonstrated by the extended operation of both devices under Venus-like condition. Further development of the BLDC motor and resolver continues and these devices will, ultimately, be integrated into the development of a high temperature sample acquisition scoop and high temperature joint (awarded SBIR Phase II in October, 2007). Both the SR and BLDC motors will undergo extensive testing at Venus temperature and pressure (TRL6) and are expected to be mission ready before the next New

  5. High-Temperature Shape Memory Polymers (United States)

    Yoonessi, Mitra; Weiss, Robert A.


    physical conformation changes when exposed to an external stimulus, such as a change in temperature. Such materials have a permanent shape, but can be reshaped above a critical temperature and fixed into a temporary shape when cooled under stress to below the critical temperature. When reheated above the critical temperature (Tc, also sometimes called the triggering or switching temperature), the materials revert to the permanent shape. The current innovation involves a chemically treated (sulfonated, carboxylated, phosphonated, or other polar function group), high-temperature, semicrystalline thermoplastic poly(ether ether ketone) (Tg .140 C, Tm = 340 C) mix containing organometallic complexes (Zn++, Li+, or other metal, ammonium, or phosphonium salts), or high-temperature ionic liquids (e.g. hexafluorosilicate salt with 1-propyl-3- methyl imidazolium, Tm = 210 C) to form a network where dipolar or ionic interactions between the polymer and the low-molecular-weight or inorganic compound forms a complex that provides a physical crosslink. Hereafter, these compounds will be referred to as "additives". The polymer is semicrystalline, and the high-melt-point crystals provide a temporary crosslink that acts as a permanent crosslink just so long as the melting temperature is not exceeded. In this example case, the melting point is .340 C, and the shape memory critical temperature is between 150 and 250 C. PEEK is an engineering thermoplastic with a high Young fs modulus, nominally 3.6 GPa. An important aspect of the invention is the control of the PEEK functionalization (in this example, the sulfonation degree), and the thermal properties (i.e. melting point) of the additive, which determines the switching temperature. Because the compound is thermoplastic, it can be formed into the "permanent" shape by conventional plastics processing operations. In addition, the compound may be covalently cross - linked after forming the permanent shape by S-PEEK by applying ionizing

  6. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oudin Åström

    Full Text Available On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events-such as heat waves-throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia.We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia.We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement.We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed.

  7. Measuring nanowire thermal conductivity at high temperatures (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomeng; Yang, Juekuan; Xiong, Yucheng; Huang, Baoling; Xu, Terry T.; Li, Deyu; Xu, Dongyan


    This work extends the micro-thermal-bridge method for thermal conductivity measurements of nanowires to high temperatures. The thermal-bridge method, based on a microfabricated device with two side-by-side suspended membranes with integrated platinum resistance heaters/thermometers, has been used to determine thermal conductivity of various nanowires/nanotubes/nanoribbons at relatively low temperatures. However, to date, thermal conductivity characterization of nanowires at temperatures above 600 K has seldom been reported presumably due to several technical difficulties including the instability of the microfabricated thermometers, radiation heat loss, and the effect of the background conductance on the measurement. Here we report on our attempt to address the aforementioned challenges and demonstrate thermal conductivity measurement of boron nanoribbons up to 740 K. To eliminate high temperature resistance instability, the device is first annealed at 1023 K for 5 min in an argon atmosphere. Two radiation shields are installed in the measurement chamber to minimize radiation heat loss from the measurement device to the surroundings; and the temperature of the device at each set point is calibrated by an additional thermocouple directly mounted on the chip carrier. The effect of the background conductance is eliminated by adopting a differential measurement scheme. With all these modifications, we successfully measured the thermal conductivity of boron nanoribbons over a wide temperature range from 27 K to 740 K. The measured thermal conductivity increases monotonically with temperature and reaches a plateau of ~2.5 W m‑1 K‑1 at approximately 400 K, with no clear signature of Umklapp scattering observed in the whole measurement temperature range.

  8. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia. (United States)

    Oudin Åström, Daniel; Åström, Christofer; Rekker, Kaidi; Indermitte, Ene; Orru, Hans


    On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events-such as heat waves-throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia. We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia. We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement. We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed.

  9. Thermal decomposition of lead titanyl oxalate tetrahydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Velde, G.M.H.; Oranje, P.J.D.


    The thermal behaviour of PbTiO(C2O4)2·4H2O (PTO) has been investigated, employing TG, quantitative DTA, infrared spectroscopy and (high temperature) X-ray powder diffraction. The decomposition involves four main steps. The first is the dehydration of the tetrahydrate (30–180°C), followed by a small

  10. Gravimeter using high-temperature superconductor bearing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J. R.


    We have developed a sensitive gravimeter concept that uses an extremely low-friction bearing based on a permanent magnet (PM) levitated over a high-temperature superconductor (HTS). A mass is attached to the PM by means of a cantilevered beam, and the combination of PM and HTS forms a bearing platform that has low resistance to rotational motion but high resistance to horizontal, vertical, or tilting motion. The combination acts as a low-loss torsional pendulum that can be operated in any orientation. Gravity acts on the cantilevered beam and attached mass, accelerating them. Variations in gravity can be detected by time-of-flight acceleration, or by a control coil or electrode that would keep the mass stationary. Calculations suggest that the HTS gravimeter would be as sensitive as present-day superconducting gravimeters that need cooling to liquid helium temperatures, but the HTS gravimeter needs cooling only to liquid nitrogen temperatures.

  11. High Accuracy, Miniature Pressure Sensor for Very High Temperatures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SiWave proposes to develop a compact, low-cost MEMS-based pressure sensor for very high temperatures and low pressures in hypersonic wind tunnels. Most currently...

  12. Research at Very High Pressures and High Temperatures (United States)

    Bundy, Francis P.


    Reviews research and apparatus utilized in the study of the states and characteristics of materials at very high temperatures and pressures. Includes three examples of the research being conducted. (SL)

  13. Small angle neutron diffraction studies of vortex structures in high temperature superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cubitt, R.; Forgan, E.M.; Wylie, M.T.


    We have used neutron scattering to provide direct information about flux structures in the bulk of crystals of the superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. Its extremely high effective mass anisotropy, makes the flux lattice susceptable to melting and also to decomposition into 'pancake' vortices, which would...... give a more two-dimensional vortex structure. At low temperatures and fields the scattered intensity is consistent with a three dimensional flux-line structure. At higher fields and temperatures, the scattering from the flux lattice dissapears well below T-c. We can associate this dissappearance...

  14. Lightweight High-Temperature Thermal Insulation (United States)

    Wagner, W. R.; Fasheh, J. I.


    Fine Ni/Cr fibers sintered into corrosion-resistant, fireproof batt. Possible applications include stoves, furnaces, safes, fire clothing, draperies in public buildings, wall firebreaks, airplane walls, and jetengine components. New insulation takes advantage of some of same properties of nickel/chromium alloy useful in heating elements in toasters, namely, corrosion and oxidation resistance even at high temperatures.

  15. High temperatures influence sexual development differentially in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although sex determination in amphibians is believed to be a genetic process, environmental factors such as temperatureare known to influence the sex differentiation and development. Extremely low and high temperatures influence gonadaldevelopment and sex ratio in amphibians but the mechanism of action is not ...

  16. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.


    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...

  17. High Temperature Resistant Exhaust Valve Spindle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe Ditlev

    of the engine, new high temperature alloys are required for a specific engine component, the exhaust valve spindle. Two alloys are used for an exhaust valve spindle; one for the bottom of the spindle, and one for the spindle seat. Being placed in the exhaust gas stream, combustion products such as V2O5 and Na2...

  18. Helium-cooled high temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D.B.


    Experience with several helium cooled reactors has been favorable, and two commercial plants are now operating. Both of these units are of the High Temperature Graphite Gas Cooled concept, one in the United States and the other in the Federal Republic of Germany. The initial helium charge for a reactor of the 1000 MW(e) size is modest, approx.15,000 kg.

  19. Complex performance during exposure to high temperatures. (United States)


    The effects of high temperature on psychomotor performance and physiological function were studied on male pilots (age 30-51) holding a current medical certificate. A total of 41 runs were made at neutral (23.8C (75F), or hot (60.0C (140F), 71.1C (16...

  20. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The knowledge of elasticity of the minerals is useful for interpreting the structure and composition of the lower mantle and also in seismic studies. The purpose of the present study is to discuss a simple and straightforward method for evaluating thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperatures. We have extended ...

  1. High temperature fatigue behaviour of intermetallics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There would be considerable benefits in developing new structural materials where high use temperatures and strength coupled with low density are minimum capabilities. Nickel and titanium aluminides exhibit considerable potential for near-term application in various branches of modern industry due to the number of ...

  2. High pressure and high temperature behaviour of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Nilesh A. [K. K. Shah Jarodwala Maninagar Science College, Rambaug, Maninagar, Ahmedabad-380008 (India); Bhatt, Apoorva D. [Department of Physics, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-380009 (India); Pandya, Tushar C., E-mail: [St. Xavier' s College, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad-380009 (India)


    The thermodynamic properties with the wurtzite (B4) and rocksalt (B1) phases of ZnO under high pressures and high temperatures have been investigated using Tait's Equation of state (EOS). The effects of pressures and temperatures on thermodynamic properties such as bulk modulus, thermal expansivity and thermal pressure are explored for both two structures. It is found that ZnO material gradually softens with increase of temperature while it hardens with the increment of the pressure. Our predicted results of thermodynamics properties for both the phases of ZnO are in overall agreement with the available data in the literature.

  3. High-pressure-high-temperature treatment of natural diamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Royen, J V


    The results are reported of high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) treatment experiments on natural diamonds of different origins and with different impurity contents. The diamonds are annealed in a temperature range up to 2000 sup o C at stabilizing pressures up to 7 GPa. The evolution is studied of different defects in the diamond crystal lattice. The influence of substitutional nitrogen atoms, plastic deformation and the combination of these is discussed. Diamonds are characterized at room and liquid nitrogen temperature using UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectrometry. The economic implications of diamond HPHT treatments are discussed.

  4. Hierarchical Decompositions for the Computation of High-Dimensional Multivariate Normal Probabilities

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.


    We present a hierarchical decomposition scheme for computing the n-dimensional integral of multivariate normal probabilities that appear frequently in statistics. The scheme exploits the fact that the formally dense covariance matrix can be approximated by a matrix with a hierarchical low rank structure. It allows the reduction of the computational complexity per Monte Carlo sample from O(n2) to O(mn+knlog(n/m)), where k is the numerical rank of off-diagonal matrix blocks and m is the size of small diagonal blocks in the matrix that are not well-approximated by low rank factorizations and treated as dense submatrices. This hierarchical decomposition leads to substantial efficiencies in multivariate normal probability computations and allows integrations in thousands of dimensions to be practical on modern workstations.

  5. Development of ceramic membrane reactors for high temperature gas cleanup. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.L.; Abraham, I.C.; Blum, Y.; Gottschlich, D.E.; Hirschon, A.; Way, J.D.; Collins, J.


    The objective of this project was to develop high temperature, high pressure catalytic ceramic membrane reactors and to demonstrate the feasibility of using these membrane reactors to control gaseous contaminants (hydrogen sulfide and ammonia) in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. Our strategy was to first develop catalysts and membranes suitable for the IGCC application and then combine these two components as a complete membrane reactor system. We also developed a computer model of the membrane reactor and used it, along with experimental data, to perform an economic analysis of the IGCC application. Our results have demonstrated the concept of using a membrane reactor to remove trace contaminants from an IGCC process. Experiments showed that NH{sub 3} decomposition efficiencies of 95% can be achieved. Our economic evaluation predicts ammonia decomposition costs of less than 1% of the total cost of electricity; improved membranes would give even higher conversions and lower costs.

  6. How nitric oxide affects the decomposition of supported nickel nitrate to arrive at highly dispersed catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, J.R.A.; Friedrich, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837350; Broersma, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311437532; Versluijs-Helder, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311472699; van Dillen, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/111157625; de Jongh, P.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372; de Jong, K.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X


    An explanation is put forward for the beneficial effect of thermal decomposition of supported Ni3(NO3)2(OH)4 in NO/He flow (0.1–1 vol%) that enables preparation of well-dispersed (3–5 nm particles) 24 wt% Ni-catalysts via impregnation and drying using aqueous [Ni(OH2)6](NO3)2 precursor solution.

  7. Active and total microbial communities in forest soil are largely different and highly stratified during decomposition


    Baldrian, Petr; Kolařík, Miroslav; Štursová, Martina; Kopecký, Jan; Valášková, Vendula; Větrovský, Tomáš; Žifčáková, Lucia; Šnajdr, Jaroslav; Rídl, Jakub; Vlček, Čestmír; Voříšková, Jana


    Soils of coniferous forest ecosystems are important for the global carbon cycle, and the identification of active microbial decomposers is essential for understanding organic matter transformation in these ecosystems. By the independent analysis of DNA and RNA, whole communities of bacteria and fungi and its active members were compared in topsoil of a Picea abies forest during a period of organic matter decomposition. Fungi quantitatively dominate the microbial community in the litter horizo...

  8. High temperature superconductors applications in telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.A.; Li, J.; Zhang, M.F. [Prairie View A& M Univ., Texas (United States)


    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to discuss high temperature superconductors with specific reference to their employment in telecommunications applications; and to discuss a few of the limitations of the normally employed two-fluid model. While the debate on the actual usage of high temperature superconductors in the design of electronic and telecommunications devices-obvious advantages versus practical difficulties-needs to be settled in the near future, it is of great interest to investigate the parameters and the assumptions that will be employed in such designs. This paper deals with the issue of providing the microwave design engineer with performance data for such superconducting waveguides. The values of conductivity and surface resistance, which are the primary determining factors of a waveguide performance, are computed based on the two-fluid model. A comparison between two models-a theoretical one in terms of microscopic parameters (termed Model A) and an experimental fit in terms of macroscopic parameters (termed Model B)-shows the limitations and the resulting ambiguities of the two-fluid model at high frequencies and at temperatures close to the transition temperature. The validity of the two-fluid model is then discussed. Our preliminary results show that the electrical transport description in the normal and superconducting phases as they are formulated in the two-fluid model needs to be modified to incorporate the new and special features of high temperature superconductors. Parameters describing the waveguide performance-conductivity, surface resistance and attenuation constant-will be computed. Potential applications in communications networks and large scale integrated circuits will be discussed. Some of the ongoing work will be reported. In particular, a brief proposal is made to investigate of the effects of electromagnetic interference and the concomitant notion of electromagnetic compatibility (EMI/EMC) of high T{sub c} superconductors.

  9. Sorbents Remove Oxygen At High Temperatures (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.


    Cobalt-exchanged, platinized zeolites 13X and L found conveniently reducible in hot gaseous mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen and thereafter useful as sorbents of trace amounts of oxygen at high temperatures. Aided by catalytic action of platinum, sorbents exhibit rapid oxygen-sorption kinetics and, according to thermodynamic properties of O2/CoO system, capable of lowering level of oxygen in otherwise inert gaseous atmosphere to less than 1 part per trillion in temperature range of 400 to 800 degrees C. Inert atmospheres with these oxygen levels required for processing of certain materials in semiconductor industry.

  10. A review of high-temperature adhesives (United States)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.


    The development of high temperature adhesives and polyphenylquinoxalines (PPQ) is reported. Thermoplastic polyimides and linear PPQ adhesive are shown to have potential for bonding both metals and composite structures. A nadic terminated addition polyimide adhesive, LARC-13, and an acetylene terminated phenylquinoxaline (ATPQ) were developed. Both of the addition type adhesives are shown to be more readily processable than linear materials but less thermooxidatively stable and more brittle. It is found that the addition type adhesives are able to perform, at elevated temperatures up to 595 C where linear systems fail thermoplastically.

  11. High temperature dynamic engine seal technology development (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dellacorte, Christopher; Machinchick, Michael; Mutharasan, Rajakkannu; Du, Guang-Wu; Ko, Frank; Sirocky, Paul J.; Miller, Jeffrey H.


    Combined cycle ramjet/scramjet engines being designed for advanced hypersonic vehicles, including the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), require innovative high temperature dynamic seals to seal the sliding interfaces of the articulated engine panels. New seals are required that will operate hot (1200 to 2000 F), seal pressures ranging from 0 to 100 psi, remain flexible to accommodate significant sidewall distortions, and resist abrasion over the engine's operational life. This report reviews the recent high temperature durability screening assessments of a new braided rope seal concept, braided of emerging high temperature materials, that shows promise of meeting many of the seal demands of hypersonic engines. The paper presents durability data for: (1) the fundamental seal building blocks, a range of candidate ceramic fiber tows; and for (2) braided rope seal subelements scrubbed under engine simulated sliding, temperature, and preload conditions. Seal material/architecture attributes and limitations are identified through the investigations performed. The paper summarizes the current seal technology development status and presents areas in which future work will be performed.

  12. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities (United States)

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.


    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  13. High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningstorp, Henrik


    One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

  14. The temperature effect on the glycine decomposition induced by 2 keV electron bombardment in space analog conditions (United States)

    Pilling, Sergio; Nair, Binu G.; Escobar, Antonio; Fraser, Helen; Mason, Nigel


    Glycine is the simplest proteinaceous amino acid that has been extensively detected in carbonaceous meteorites and was recently observed in the cometary samples returned to Earth by NASA's Stardust spacecraft. In space, such species is exposed to several radiation fields at different temperatures. In aqueous solutions, this species appears mainly as zwitterionic glycine (+NH3CH2COO-) however, in solid phase, it may be found in amorphous or crystalline forms. Here, we present an experimental study on the destruction of two zwitterionic glycine crystals ( α- and β-form) at two different temperatures (300 K and 14 K) by 2 keV electrons in an attempt to test the behavior and stability of this molecular species in different space environments. The samples were analyzed in situ by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry at electron fluences. The experiments were carried out under ultra-high vacuum conditions at the Molecular Physics Laboratory at the Open University at Milton Keynes, UK. The dissociation cross section of glycine is approximately 5 times higher for the 14 K samples when compared to the 300 K samples. In contrast, no significant differences emerged between the dissociation cross sections of α- and β-forms of glycine for fixed temperature experiments. We therefore conclude that the destruction cross section is more heavily dependent on temperature than the phase of the condensed glycine material. This may be associated with the opening of additional reaction routes in the frozen samples involving the trapped daughter species (e.g. CO2 and CO). The half-life of studied samples extrapolated to space conditions shows that glycine molecules on the surface of interstellar grains has less survivability and they are highly sensitive to ambient radiations, however, they can survive extended period of time in the solar system like environments. Survivability increases by a factor of 5 if the samples are at 300 K when compared to low temperature experiments at 14

  15. Graph Decompositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merker, Martin

    The topic of this PhD thesis is graph decompositions. While there exist various kinds of decompositions, this thesis focuses on three problems concerning edgedecompositions. Given a family of graphs H we ask the following question: When can the edge-set of a graph be partitioned so that each part...... induces a subgraph isomorphic to a member of H? Such a decomposition is called an H-decomposition. Apart from the existence of an H-decomposition, we are also interested in the number of parts needed in an H-decomposition. Firstly, we show that for every tree T there exists a constant k(T) such that every...... k(T)-edge-connected graph whose size is divisible by the size of T admits a T-decomposition. This proves a conjecture by Barát and Thomassen from 2006. Moreover, we introduce a new arboricity notion where we restrict the diameter of the trees in a decomposition into forests. We conjecture...

  16. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleige, Michael

    This thesis presents the development and application of electrochemical half-cell setups to study the catalytic reactions taking place in High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (HTPEM-FCs): (i) a pressurized electrochemical cell with integrated magnetically coupled rotating disk electrode...... to 140 ºC and oxygen pressures up to ~100 bar at room temperature. The GDE cell is successfully tested at 130 ºC by means of direct oxidation of methanol and ethanol, respectively. In the second part of the thesis, the emphasis is put on the ORR in H3PO4 with particular focus on the mass transport...... oxidation of ethanol is in principle a promising concept to supply HTPEM-FCs with a sustainable and on large scale available fuel (ethanol from biomass). However, the intermediate temperature tests in the GDE setup show that even on Pt-based catalysts the reaction rates become first significant...

  17. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  18. Water, Rather than Temperature, Dominantly Impacts How Soil Fauna Affect Dissolved Carbon and Nitrogen Release from Fresh Litter during Early Litter Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Liao


    Full Text Available Longstanding observations suggest that dissolved materials are lost from fresh litter through leaching, but the role of soil fauna in controlling this process has been poorly documented. In this study, a litterbag experiment employing litterbags with different mesh sizes (3 mm to permit soil fauna access and 0.04 mm to exclude fauna access was conducted in three habitats (arid valley, ecotone and subalpine forest with changes in climate and vegetation types to evaluate the effects of soil fauna on the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN during the first year of decomposition. The results showed that the individual density and community abundance of soil fauna greatly varied among these habitats, but Prostigmata, Isotomidae and Oribatida were the dominant soil invertebrates. At the end of the experiment, the mass remaining of foliar litter ranged from 58% for shrub litter to 77% for birch litter, and the DOC and TDN concentrations decreased to 54%–85% and increased to 34%–269%, respectively, when soil fauna were not present. The effects of soil fauna on the concentrations of both DOC and TDN in foliar litter were greater in the subalpine forest (wetter but colder during the winter and in the arid valley (warmer but drier during the growing season, and this effect was positively correlated with water content. Moreover, the effects of fauna on DOC and TDN concentrations were greater for high-quality litter and were related to the C/N ratio. These results suggest that water, rather than temperature, dominates how fauna affect the release of dissolved substances from fresh litter.

  19. Quench in high temperature superconductor magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, J.


    High field superconducting magnets using high temperature superconductors are being developed for high energy physics, nuclear magnetic resonance and energy storage applications. Although the conductor technology has progressed to the point where such large magnets can be readily envisioned, quench protection remains a key challenge. It is well-established that quench propagation in HTS magnets is very slow and this brings new challenges that must be addressed. In this paper, these challenges are discussed and potential solutions, driven by new technologies such as optical fiber based sensors and thermally conducting electrical insulators, are reviewed.

  20. Energy storage via high temperature superconductivity (SMES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkonen, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)


    The technology concerning high temperature superconductors (HTS) is matured to enabling different kind of prototype applications including SMES. Nowadays when speaking about HTS systems, attention is focused on the operating temperature of 20-30 K, where the critical current and flux density are fairly close to 4.2 K values. In addition by defining the ratio of the energy content of a novel HTS magnetic system and the required power to keep the system at the desired temperature, the optimum settles to the above mentioned temperature range. In the frame of these viewpoints a 5 kJ HTS SMES system has been designed and tested at Tampere University of Technology with a coil manufactured by American Superconductor (AMSC). The HTS magnet has inside and outside diameters of 252 mm and 317 mm, respectively and axial length of 66 mm. It operates at 160 A and carries a total of 160 kA-turns to store the required amount of energy. The effective magnetic inductance is 0.4 H and the peak axial field is 1.7 T. The magnet is cooled to the operating temperature of 20 K with a two stage Gifford-McMahon type cryocooler with a cooling power of 60 W at 77 K and 8 W at 20 K. The magnetic system has been demonstrated to compensate a short term loss of power of a sensitive consumer

  1. High temperature deformation of silicon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Calvillo, Pablo, E-mail: [CTM - Technologic Centre, Materials Technology Area, Manresa, Cataluna (Spain); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain); Houbaert, Yvan, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium); Petrov, Roumen, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium); Kestens, Leo, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium); Colas, Rafael, E-mail: [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)


    The microstructure and texture development during high temperature plane strain compression of 2% in weight silicon steel was studied. The tests were carried out at a constant strain rate of 5 s{sup -1} with reductions of 25, 35 and 75% at temperatures varying from 800 to 1100 Degree-Sign C. The changes in microstructure and texture were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction. The microstructure close to the surface of the samples was equiaxed, which is attributed to the shear caused by friction, whereas that at the centre of the specimens was made of a mixture of elongated and fine equiaxed grains, the last ones attributed to the action of dynamic recovery followed by recrystallization. It was found that the volume fraction of these equiaxed grains augmented as reduction and temperature increased; a 0.7 volume fraction was accomplished with a 75% reduction at 1100 Degree-Sign C. The texture of the equiaxed and elongated grains was found to vary with the increase of deformation and temperature, as the {gamma}-fibre tends to disappear and the {alpha}-fibre to increase towards the higher temperature range. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The plastic deformation of a silicon containing steel is studied by plane strain compression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Equiaxed and elongated grains develop in different regions of the sample due to recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Texture, by EBSD, is revealed to be similar in either type of grains.

  2. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang


    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in C. to C. range as well as in excess of C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  3. Electrochemical high-temperature gas sensors (United States)

    Saruhan, B.; Stranzenbach, M.; Yüce, A.; Gönüllü, Y.


    Combustion produced common air pollutant, NOx associates with greenhouse effects. Its high temperature detection is essential for protection of nature. Component-integration capable high-temperature sensors enable the control of combustion products. The requirements are quantitative detection of total NOx and high selectivity at temperatures above 500°C. This study reports various approaches to detect NO and NO2 selectively under lean and humid conditions at temperatures from 300°C to 800°C. All tested electrochemical sensors were fabricated in planar design to enable componentintegration. We suggest first an impedance-metric gas sensor for total NOx-detection consisting of NiO- or NiCr2O4-SE and PYSZ-electrolyte. The electrolyte-layer is about 200μm thickness and constructed of quasi-single crystalline columns. The sensing-electrode (SE) is magnetron sputtered thin-layers of NiO or NiCr2O4. Sensor sensitivity for detection of total NOx has been measured by applying impedance analysis. The cross-sensitivity to other emission gases such as CO, CO2, CH4 and oxygen (5 vol.%) has been determined under 0-1000ppm NO. Sensor maintains its high sensitivity at temperatures up to 550°C and 600°C, depending on the sensing-electrode. NiO-SE yields better selectivity to NO in the presence of oxygen and have shorter response times comparing to NiCr2O4-SE. For higher temperature NO2-sensing capability, a resistive DC-sensor having Al-doped TiO2-sensing layers has been employed. Sensor-sensitivity towards NO2 and cross-sensitivity to CO has been determined in the presence of H2O at temperatures 600°C and 800°C. NO2 concentrations varying from 25 to 100ppm and CO concentrations from 25 to 75ppm can be detected. By nano-tubular structuring of TiO2, NO2 sensitivity of the sensor was increased.

  4. Vapor phase lubrication of high temperature alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyaloglu, B.F.; Graham, E.E.; Oreskovic, T.; Hajj, C.G. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)


    In a previous study, it was found that when a nickel-based superalloy IN750 was heated to high temperatures, a passive layer of aluminum oxide formed on the surface, preventing vapor phase lubrication. In this study, two nickel-chrome-iron alloys and a nickel-copper alloy were studied for high temperature lubrication to see if these alloys, which contained small amounts of aluminum, would exhibit similar behavior. It was found that under static conditions, all three alloys formed a lubricious nodular coating when exposed to a vapor of aryl phosphate. Under dynamic sliding conditions at 500{degrees}C, these alloys were successfully lubricated with a coefficient of friction of 0.1 and no detectable wear. In order to explain these results, a direct correlation between successful vapor phase lubrication and the composition of the alloys containing aluminum has been proposed. If the ratio of copper/aluminum or iron/aluminum is greater that 100 vapor phase, lubrication will be successful. If the ratio is less than 10, a passive aluminum oxide layer will prevent vapor phase lubrication. By selecting alloys with a high iron or copper content, vapor phase lubrication can provide excellent lubrication at high temperatures. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Medium Deep High Temperature Heat Storage (United States)

    Bär, Kristian; Rühaak, Wolfram; Schulte, Daniel; Welsch, Bastian; Chauhan, Swarup; Homuth, Sebastian; Sass, Ingo


    Heating of buildings requires more than 25 % of the total end energy consumption in Germany. Shallow geothermal systems for indirect use as well as shallow geothermal heat storage systems like aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) or borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) typically provide low exergy heat. The temperature levels and ranges typically require a coupling with heat pumps. By storing hot water from solar panels or thermal power stations with temperatures of up to 110 °C a medium deep high temperature heat storage (MDHTS) can be operated on relatively high temperature levels of more than 45 °C. Storage depths of 500 m to 1,500 m below surface avoid conflicts with groundwater use for drinking water or other purposes. Permeability is typically also decreasing with greater depth; especially in the crystalline basement therefore conduction becomes the dominant heat transport process. Solar-thermal charging of a MDHTS is a very beneficial option for supplying heat in urban and rural systems. Feasibility and design criteria of different system configurations (depth, distance and number of BHE) are discussed. One system is designed to store and supply heat (300 kW) for an office building. The required boreholes are located in granodioritic bedrock. Resulting from this setup several challenges have to be addressed. The drilling and completion has to be planned carefully under consideration of the geological and tectonical situation at the specific site.

  6. High temperature superconductors for magnetic suspension applications (United States)

    Mcmichael, C. K.; Cooley, R. S.; Chen, Q. Y.; Ma, K. B.; Lamb, M. A.; Meng, R. L.; Chu, C. W.; Chu, W. K.


    High temperature superconductors (HTS) hold the promise for applications in magnetic levitation bearings, vibration damping, and torque coupling. Traditional magnetic suspension systems require active feedback and vibration controls in which power consumption and low frequency vibration are among the major engineering concerns. HTS materials have been demonstrated to be an enabling approach towards such problems due to their flux trapping properties. In our laboratory at TCSUH, we have been conducting a series of experiments to explore various mechanical applications using HTS. We have constructed a 30 lb. model flywheel levitated by a hybrid superconducting magnetic bearing (HSMB). We are also developing a levitated and vibration-dampled platform for high precision instrumentation. These applications would be ideal for space usages where ambient temperature is adequate for HTS to operate properly under greatly reduced cryogenic requirements. We will give a general overview of these potential applications and discuss the operating principles of the HTS devices we have developed.

  7. Metallic Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Y.H.; Catalano, Jacopo; Guazzone, Federico


    Composite palladium membranes have extensively been studied in laboratories and, more recently, in small pilot industrial applications for the high temperature separation of hydrogen from reactant mixtures such as water-gas shift (WGS) reaction or methane steam reforming (MSR). Composite Pd...... membrane fabrication methods have matured over the last decades, and the deposition of very thin films (1–5 µm) of Pd over porous ceramics or modified porous metal supports is quite common. The H2 permeances and the selectivities achieved at 400–500 °C were in the order of 50–100 Nm3/m/h/bar0.5 and greater...... than 1000, respectively. This chapter describes in detail composite Pd-based membrane preparation methods, which consist of the grading of the support and the deposition of the dense metal layer, their performances, and their applications in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) at high temperatures (400...

  8. High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server


    The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows an...

  9. Trends in Surface Temperature at High Latitudes (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.


    The earliest signal of a climate change is expected to be found in the polar regions where warming is expected to be amplified on account of ice-albedo feedbacks associated with the high reflectivity of snow and ice. Because of general inaccessibility, there is a general paucity of in situ data and hence the need to use satellite data to observe the large-scale variability and trends in surface temperature in the region. Among the most important sensors for monitoring surface temperature has been the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) which was first launched in 1978 and has provided continuous thermal infrared data since 1981. The top of the atmosphere data are converted to surface temperature data through various schemes that accounts for the unique atmospheric and surface conditions in the polar regions. Among the highest source of error in the data is cloud masking which is made more difficult in the polar region because of similar Signatures of clouds and snow lice covered areas. The availability of many more channels in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) launched on board Terra satellite in December 1999 and on board Aqua in May 2002 (e.g., 36 visible and infrared channels compared to 5 for AVHRR) made it possible to minimize the error. Further capabilities were introduced with the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) which has the appropriate frequency channels for the retrieval of sea surface temperature (SST). The results of analysis of the data show an amplified warming in the Arctic region, compared with global warming. The spatial distribution of warming is, however, not uniform and during the last 3 decades, positive temperature anomalies have been most pronounced in North America, Greenland and the Arctic basin. Some regions of the Arctic such as Siberia and the Bering Sea surprisingly show moderate cooling but this may be because these regions were anomalously warm in the 1980s when the satellite record

  10. Novel High Temperature Magnetic Bearings for Space Vehicle Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous high temperature magnetic bearings employed only electromagnets. The work proposed in this SBIR program seeks to utilize High Temperature Permanent Magnets...

  11. Novel High Temperature Magnetic Bearings for Space Vehicle Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous high temperature magnetic bearings employed electromagnets only. The work proposed in this SBIR program seeks to utilize High Temperature Permanent Magnets...

  12. High temperature impedance spectroscopy of barium stannate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Polycrystalline powder of BaSnO3 was prepared at 1300 ◦C using a high-temperature solid-state reac- tion technique. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of a single-phase cubic structure with lattice parameter: a = (4·1158 ± 0·0003) Å. The synthesized powder was characterized using X-ray diffraction ...

  13. High temperature mechanical properties of iron aluminides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris, D. G.


    Full Text Available Considerable attention has been given to the iron aluminide family of intermetallics over the past years since they offer considerable potential as engineering materials for intermediate to high temperature applications, particularly in cases where extreme oxidation or corrosion resistance is required. Despite efforts at alloy development, however, high temperature strength remains low and creep resistance poor. Reasons for the poor high-temperature strength of iron aluminides will be discussed, based on the ordered crystal structure, the dislocation structure found in the material, and the mechanisms of dislocation pinning operating. Alternative ways of improving high temperature strength by microstructural modification and the inclusion of second phase particles will also be considered.

    Durante los últimos años se ha prestado mucha atención a la familia de intermetálicos Fe-Al, puesto que estos constituyen un considerable potencial como materiales de ingeniería en aplicaciones a temperaturas intermedias o altas, sobre todo en casos donde se necesita alta resistencia a la oxidación o corrosión. A pesar del considerable esfuerzo desarrollado para obtener aleaciones con mejores propiedades, su resistencia mecánica a alta temperatura no es muy elevada. Se discutirán los aspectos que contribuyen a la baja resistencia mecánica a temperatura elevada en función de la estructura de dislocaciones y los mecanismos de anclaje que operan en este intermetálico. Se considerarán, también, maneras alternativas para mejorar la resistencia a temperatura elevada mediante la modificación de la microestructura y la incorporación de partículas de segunda fase.

  14. Fundamental aspects of high-temperature corrosion


    Rapp, Robert


    Some recent considerations in three widely different aspects of high-temperature corrosion are summarized: 1) reactions at the metal/scale interface in support of scale growth; 2) mass transfer effects in the control of evaporation of volatile reaction products; and 3) the codeposition of multiple elements for diffusion coatings using halide-activated cementation packs. The climb of misfit edge dislocations from the metal/scale interface can achieve the annihilation of vacancies associated wi...

  15. Thermal fuse for high-temperature batteries (United States)

    Jungst, Rudolph G.; Armijo, James R.; Frear, Darrel R.


    A thermal fuse, preferably for a high-temperature battery, comprising leads and a body therebetween having a melting point between approximately C. and C. The body is preferably an alloy of Ag--Mg, Ag--Sb, Al--Ge, Au--In, Bi--Te, Cd--Sb, Cu--Mg, In--Sb, Mg--Pb, Pb--Pd, Sb--Zn, Sn--Te, or Mg--Al.

  16. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Energy Conversion (United States)

    Wood, C.


    Theory of thermoelectric energy conversion at high temperatures and status of research on conversion materials reviewed in report. Shows highest values of thermoelectric figure of merit, Z, found in semiconductor materials. Semiconductors keep wide choice of elements and compounds. Electrical properties tailored to particular application by impurity doping and control of stoichiometry. Report develops definition of Z useful for comparing materials and uses it to evaluate potentials of different classes of materialsmetals, semiconductors, and insulators.

  17. High Temperature Perforating System for Geothermal Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Moises E. [Schlumberger Technology Corporation, Sugar Land, TX (United States)


    The objective of this project is to develop a perforating system consisting of all the explosive components and hardware, capable of reliable performance in high temperatures geothermal wells (>200 ºC). In this light we will focused on engineering development of these components, characterization of the explosive raw powder and developing the internal infrastructure to increase the production of the explosive from laboratory scale to industrial scale.

  18. High-temperature technological processes: Thermophysical principles (United States)

    Rykalin, N. N.; Uglov, A. A.; Anishchenko, L. M.

    The book is concerned with the principles of thermodynamics and heat transfer theory underlying high-temperature technological processes. Some characteristics of electromagnetic radiation and heat transfer in solids, liquids, and gases are reviewed, and boundary layer theory, surface phenomena, and phase transitions are examined. The discussion includes an analysis of a number of specific processes, such as treatment by concentrated energy fluxes (electron-beam and laser processing) and plasma machining.

  19. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine (United States)


    Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio were determined by sonic techniques: thermal expansion values were measured on a differential dilatometer and thermal...accumulation of potentially explosive gases. 4. Thermal conductivity of the nitriding atmosphere is important for production of high quality RBSN...of varying MgO content. Measurements were conducted on a differential dilatometer from room temperatures up to 900°C, and are shown in Figure 3.2.3

  20. High temperature inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)


    Effort has continued to accumulate data on the transport of gases over the temperature range from room temperature to 275{degrees}C with inorganic membranes having a range of pore radii from approximately 0.25 nm to 3 mn. An experimental alumina membrane having an estimated mean pore radius of 0.25 nm has been fabricated and tested. Extensive testing of this membrane indicated that the separation factor for helium and carbon tetrafluoride at 250{degrees}C was 59 and the extrapolated high temperature separation factor was 1,193. For safety reasons, earlier flow measurements concentrated on helium, carbon dioxide, and carbon tetrafluoride. New data have been acquired with hydrogen to verify the agreement with the other gases. During the measurements with hydrogen, it was noted that a considerable amount of moisture was present in the test gas. The source of this moisture and its effect on permeance was examined. Improvements were implemented to the flow test system to minimize the water content of the hydrogen test gas, and subsequent flow measurements have shown excellent results with hydrogen. The extrapolation of separation factors as a function of temperature continues to show promise as a means of using the hard sphere model to determine the pore size of membranes. The temperature dependence of helium transport through membranes appears to be considerably greater than other gases for the smallest pore sizes. The effort to extend temperature dependence to the hard sphere model continues to be delayed, primarily because of a lack of adequate adsorption data.

  1. New fluid for high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, M.; Flohr, F. [Solvay Fluor GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Froeba, A.P. [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik (LTT), Univ. Erlangen (Germany)


    As a result of the worldwide increased consumption of energy, energy saving measures come more and more in the focus of commercial acting. Besides the efficiency enhancement of energy consuming systems the utilization of waste heat is an additional possibility of saving energy. Areas where this might be feasible are geothermal power plants, local combined heat and power plants, solar-thermal-systems and high temperature heat pumps (HTHP). All these applications need a transfer fluid which secures the transport of the energy from it's source to the place where it is needed at high temperatures. The paper will start with a description or overview of promising energy sources and their utilization. The thermophysical properties of an azeotropic binary mixture of HFC-365mfc and a per-fluoro-poly-ether (PFPE) which fulfils the requirements on a high temperature working fluid are introduced in the second part of the paper. First results and practical experiences in an ORC process are shown in this context followed by an estimation regarding the saved energy or the improved efficiency respectively for other applications The paper will end with a brief outlook on possible new applications e.g. autarkic systems or immersion cooling of electrical parts. (orig.)

  2. High temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    for immobilization of aqueous KOH solutions. Electrolysis cells with this electrolyte and metal foam based gas diffusion electrodes were successfully demonstrated at temperatures up to 250 °C at 40 bar. Different electro-catalysts were tested in order to reduce the oxygen and hydrogen overpotentials. Current...... the operational temperature and pressure to produce pressurized hydrogen at high rate (m3 H2·h-1·m-2 cell area) and high electrical efficiency. This work describes an exploratory technical study of the possibility to produce hydrogen and oxygen with a new type of alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperatures...... densities of 1.1 A cm-2 and 2.3 A cm-2 have been measured at a cell voltage of 1.5 V and 1.75 V, respectively, without noble metal catalysts. Electrical efficiencies of almost 99 % at 1.1 A cm-2 and 85 % at 2.3 A cm-2 were obtained....

  3. High temperature superconducting digital circuits and subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, J.S.; Pance, A.; Whiteley, S.R.; Char, K.; Johansson, M.F.; Lee, L. [Conductus, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Hietala, V.M.; Wendt, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)


    The advances in the fabrication of high temperature superconducting devices have enabled the demonstration of high performance and useful digital circuits and subsystems. The yield and uniformity of the devices is sufficient for circuit fabrication at the medium scale integration (MSI) level with performance not seen before at 77 K. The circuits demonstrated to date include simple gates, counters, analog to digital converters, and shift registers. All of these are mid-sized building blocks for potential applications in commercial and military systems. The processes used for these circuits and blocks will be discussed along with observed performance data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Truba


    Full Text Available First, the complexes MCl2*HTMA*xH2O/SiO2 (M = Cu(II, Co(II, Mn(II with hexa-methylenetetramine (HMTA molecule weakly bound with a central M atom (CM ranging from 5.010-7 to 5.010-6 mol/g have been found to catalyse the ozone decomposition. Their activity and turnover number exceeded much those for MCl2*хН2О/ SiO2 acido complexes

  5. High-temperature alloys for high-power thermionic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang S.; Jacobson, D.L.; D' cruz, L.; Luo, Anhua; Chen, Bor-Ling.


    The need for structural materials with useful strength above 1600 k has stimulated interest in refractory-metal alloys. Tungsten possesses an extreme high modulus of elasticity as well as the highest melting temperature among metals, and hence is being considered as one of the most promising candidate materials for high temperature structural applications such as space nuclear power systems. This report is divided into three chapters covering the following: (1) the processing of tungsten base alloys; (2) the tensile properties of tungsten base alloys; and (3) creep behavior of tungsten base alloys. Separate abstracts were prepared for each chapter. (SC)

  6. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of High Temperature Solders: Effects of High Temperature Aging (United States)

    Hasnine, M.; Tolla, B.; Vahora, N.


    This paper explores the effects of aging on the mechanical behavior, microstructure evolution and IMC formation on different surface finishes of two high temperature solders, Sn-5 wt.% Ag and Sn-5 wt.% Sb. High temperature aging showed significant degradation of Sn-5 wt.% Ag solder hardness (34%) while aging has little effect on Sn-5 wt.% Sb solder. Sn-5 wt.% Ag experienced rapid grain growth as well as the coarsening of particles during aging. Sn-5 wt.% Sb showed a stable microstructure due to solid solution strengthening and the stable nature of SnSb precipitates. The increase of intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness during aging follows a parabolic relationship with time. Regression analysis (time exponent, n) indicated that IMC growth kinetics is controlled by a diffusion mechanism. The results have important implications in the selection of high temperature solders used in high temperature applications.

  7. High-temperature brushless DC motor controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslewski, Crzegorz; Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Eckert, Michael Nathan


    A motor control system for deployment in high temperature environments includes a controller; a first half-bridge circuit that includes a first high-side switching element and a first low-side switching element; a second half-bridge circuit that includes a second high-side switching element and a second low-side switching element; and a third half-bridge circuit that includes a third high-side switching element and a third; low-side switching element. The motor controller is arranged to apply a pulse width modulation (PWM) scheme to switch the first half-bridge circuit, second half-bridge circuit, and third half-bridge circuit to power a motor.

  8. High Pressure and Temperature Effects in Polymers (United States)

    Bucknall, David; Arrighi, Valeria; Johnston, Kim; Condie, Iain

    Elastomers are widely exploited as the basis for seals in gas and fluid pipelines. The underlying behaviour of these elastomer at the high pressure, elevated temperatures they experience in operation is poorly understood. Consequently, the duty cycle of these materials is often deliberately limited to a few hours, and in order to prevent failure, production is stopped in order to change the seals in critical joints. The result is significant time lost due to bringing down production to change the seals as well as knock on financial costs. In order to address the fundamental nature of the elastomers at their intended operating conditions, we are studying the gas permeation behaviour of hydrogenated natural butyl rubber (HNBR) and fluorinated elastomers (FKM) at a high pressure and elevated temperature. We have developed a pressure system that permits gas permeation studies at gas pressures of up to 5000 psi and operating temperatures up to 150° C. In this paper, we will discuss the nature of the permeation behaviour at these extreme operating conditions, and how this relates to the changes in the polymer structure. We will also discuss the use of graphene-polymer thin layer coatings to modify the gas permeation behaviour of the elastomers.

  9. Conformal Properties in High Temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, K -I; Nakayama, Yu; Yoshie, T


    We investigate the properties of quarks and gluons above the chiral phase transition temperature $T_c,$ using the RG improved gauge action and the Wilson quark action with two degenerate quarks mainly on a $32^3\\times 16$ lattice. In the one-loop perturbation theory, the thermal ensemble is dominated by the gauge configurations with effectively $Z(3)$ center twisted boundary conditions, making the thermal expectation value of the spatial Polyakov loop take a non-trivial $Z(3)$ center. This is in agreement with our lattice simulation of high temperature QCD. We further observe that the temporal propagator of massless quarks at extremely high temperature $\\beta=100.0 \\, (T \\simeq10^{58} T_c)$ remarkably agrees with the temporal propagator of free quarks with the $Z(3)$ twisted boundary condition for $t/L_t \\geq 0.2$, but differs from that with the $Z(3)$ trivial boundary condition. As we increase the mass of quarks $m_q$, we find that the thermal ensemble continues to be dominated by the $Z(3)$ twisted gauge fi...

  10. High temperature heterogeneous reaction kinetics and mechanisms of tungsten oxidation (United States)

    Sabourin, Justin L.

    energy systems. The primary application for this research topic is the migration of erosion processes in solid rocket motor nozzles. Since oxidation is the primary erosion mechanism of tungsten based nozzles, mitigation of this process through improved comprehension of the chemical mechanisms will increase performance of future rocket systems. In this dissertation, results of the high temperature reaction rates of bulk tungsten are studied using TG analysis in oxidizing atmospheres of O2, CO2, and H2O using helium (He) as an inert carrier gas. Isothermal reaction rates were determined at temperatures up to 1970 K, and oxidizing species partial pressures up to 64.6 torr. Kinetic parameters such as activation energies, frequency factors, and pressure exponents were determined for each reactive system. An important contribution of this work was quantifying the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) on the CO2 reaction, and hydrogen (H2) on the H2O reaction. In both cases the non-oxidizing species significantly reduced oxidation rates. Results have led to new interpretations and thought processes for limiting nozzle erosion in rocket motors. Combined with the TG analysis, as well as recent theoretical interpretations of reaction thermodynamics and kinetics, a new mechanism for tungsten and O2 oxidation has been developed using a one-dimensional numerical model of the TG flow reactor. Important chemical processes and species are also identified for reaction systems involving H2O and CO2. In the future, additional studies are needed to improve our understanding of these chemical species and processes so that more advanced kinetic mechanisms may be developed. In addition to a detailed analysis of high temperature tungsten corrosion processes, synthetic graphite corrosion processes are studied in detail as well. Details of these studies are presented in an attached appendix of this dissertation. These studies considered not only oxidation processes, but decomposition of synthetic

  11. Hydrogen production from formic acid decomposition at room temperature using a Ag-Pd core-shell nanocatalyst (United States)

    Tedsree, Karaked; Li, Tong; Jones, Simon; Chan, Chun Wong Aaron; Yu, Kai Man Kerry; Bagot, Paul A. J.; Marquis, Emmanuelle A.; Smith, George D. W.; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman


    Formic acid (HCOOH) has great potential as an in situ source of hydrogen for fuel cells, because it offers high energy density, is non-toxic and can be safely handled in aqueous solution. So far, there has been a lack of solid catalysts that are sufficiently active and/or selective for hydrogen production from formic acid at room temperature. Here, we report that Ag nanoparticles coated with a thin layer of Pd atoms can significantly enhance the production of H2 from formic acid at ambient temperature. Atom probe tomography confirmed that the nanoparticles have a core-shell configuration, with the shell containing between 1 and 10 layers of Pd atoms. The Pd shell contains terrace sites and is electronically promoted by the Ag core, leading to significantly enhanced catalytic properties. Our nanocatalysts could be used in the development of micro polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells for portable devices and could also be applied in the promotion of other catalytic reactions under mild conditions.

  12. Computational study of decomposition mechanisms and thermodynamic properties of molecular-type cracking patterns for the highly energetic molecule GZT. (United States)

    Cheng, Sou-Ro; Cheng, Ken-Fa; Liu, Min-Hsien; Hong, Yaw-Shun; Chen, Cheng


    This study uses the Gaussian 03 program and density functional theory B3LYP with three basis set methods-[B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(2d,p), and B3LYP/6-31G(d,p)]-to model the highly energetic ionic compound diguanidinium 5,5'-azotetrazolate (GZT) to research its decomposition mechanisms and thermodynamic properties. Molecular-type cracking patterns are proposed, which were initiated by heterocyclic ring opening, sequential cracking of the two five-membered rings of GZT, and simultaneous release of N2 molecules; whereas proton transfer, bond-breaking, and atomic rearrangements were performed subsequently. Finally, 15 reaction paths and five transition states were obtained. All possible decomposition species and transition states, including intermediates and products, were identified, and their corresponding enthalpy and Gibbs free energy values were obtained. The results revealed that (1) the maximum activation energy required is 187.8 kJ mol(-1), and the enthalpy change (ΔH) and Gibbs free-energy change (ΔG) of the net reaction are -525.1 kJ mol(-1) and -935.6 kJ mol(-1), respectively; (2) GZT can release large amounts of energy, the main contribution being from the disintegration of the 5,5'-azotetrazolate anion (ZT(2-)) skeleton (ΔH = -598.3 kJ mol(-1)); and (3) the final products contained major amounts of N2 gas, but remaining gas molecules such as HCN and NH3 were obtained, which are in agreement with experimental results. The detailed decomposition simulation results demonstrated the feasibility of this method to calculate the energies of the thermodynamic reactions for the highly energetic GZT and predict the most feasible pathways and the final products.

  13. Combination of biochemical and high-throughput-sequencing approaches to study the role of Antinobacteria and fungi in the decomposition of plant biomass


    Větrovský, Tomáš


    Dead plant biomass is a key pool of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Its decomposition in soil environments is thus an essential process of the carbon cycle. Fungi are considered to be the primary decomposers in soil ecosystems because of their physiological adaptations and enzymatic apparatus composed from highly effective oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes. Many recent works show that in addition to fungi, bacteria may also play a significant role in lignocellulose decomposition and among ba...

  14. Fast pyrolysis of biomass at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna

    . Different particle shapes of beechwood and leached wheat straw chars produced in the drop tube reactor which have similar potassium content suggested a stronger influence of the major biomass cell wall compounds (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and extractives) and silicates on the char morphology than...... multi core structures compared to pinewood soot generated at 1400°C, combining both single and multi core particles.Beechwood and wheat straw soot samples had multi and single core particles at both temperatures.In thermogravimetric analysis, the maximal reaction rate of pinewood soot was shifted...... pyrolysis at high temperatures plays a significant role in the overall combustion process since the biomass type, the reaction kinetics and heat transfer rates during pyrolysis influence the volatile gas release. The solid residue yield and its properties in suspension firing, including particle size...

  15. High Temperature Battery for Drilling Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josip Caja


    In this project rechargeable cells based on the high temperature electrochemical system Na/beta''-alumina/S(IV) in AlCl3/NaCl were developed for application as an autonomous power source in oil/gas deep drilling wells. The cells operate in the temperature range from 150 C to 250 C. A prototype DD size cell was designed and built based on the results of finite element analysis and vibration testing. The cell consisted of stainless steel case serving as anode compartment with cathode compartment installed in it and a seal closing the cell. Critical element in cell design and fabrication was hermetically sealing the cell. The seal had to be leak tight, thermally and vibration stable and compatible with electrode materials. Cathode compartment was built of beta''-alumina tube which served as an electrolyte, separator and cathode compartment.

  16. Creep resistant high temperature martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Cowen, Christopher J.


    The disclosure provides a creep resistant alloy having an overall composition comprised of iron, chromium, molybdenum, carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, vanadium, niobium, nitrogen, tungsten, cobalt, tantalum, boron, and potentially additional elements. In an embodiment, the creep resistant alloy has a molybdenum equivalent Mo(eq) from 1.475 to 1.700 wt. % and a quantity (C+N) from 0.145 to 0.205. The overall composition ameliorates sources of microstructural instability such as coarsening of M.sub.23C.sub.6 carbides and MX precipitates, and mitigates or eliminates Laves and Z-phase formation. A creep resistant martensitic steel may be fabricated by preparing a melt comprised of the overall composition followed by at least austenizing and tempering. The creep resistant alloy exhibits improved high-temperature creep strength in the temperature environment of around C.

  17. Creep resistant high temperature martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Cowen, Christopher J.


    The disclosure provides a creep resistant alloy having an overall composition comprised of iron, chromium, molybdenum, carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, vanadium, niobium, nitrogen, tungsten, cobalt, tantalum, boron, copper, and potentially additional elements. In an embodiment, the creep resistant alloy has a molybdenum equivalent Mo(eq) from 1.475 to 1.700 wt. % and a quantity (C+N) from 0.145 to 0.205. The overall composition ameliorates sources of microstructural instability such as coarsening of M.sub.23C.sub.6carbides and MX precipitates, and mitigates or eliminates Laves and Z-phase formation. A creep resistant martensitic steel may be fabricated by preparing a melt comprised of the overall composition followed by at least austenizing and tempering. The creep resistant alloy exhibits improved high-temperature creep strength in the temperature environment of around C.

  18. FY16 ASME High Temperature Code Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, M. J. [Chromtech Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jetter, R. I. [R. I Jetter Consulting, Pebble Beach, CA (United States); Sham, T. -L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    One of the objectives of the ASME high temperature Code activities is to develop and validate both improvements and the basic features of Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). The overall scope of this task is to develop a computer program to be used to assess whether or not a specific component under specified loading conditions will satisfy the elevated temperature design requirements for Class A components in Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). There are many features and alternative paths of varying complexity in HBB. The initial focus of this task is a basic path through the various options for a single reference material, 316H stainless steel. However, the program will be structured for eventual incorporation all the features and permitted materials of HBB. Since this task has recently been initiated, this report focuses on the description of the initial path forward and an overall description of the approach to computer program development.

  19. Diamond switches for high temperature electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, R.R.; Rondeau, G.; Qi, Niansheng [Alameda Applied Sciences Corp., San Leandro, CA (United States)] [and others


    Diamond switches are well suited for use in high temperature electronics. Laboratory feasibility of diamond switching at 1 kV and 18 A was demonstrated. DC blocking voltages up to 1 kV were demonstrated. A 50 {Omega} load line was switched using a diamond switch, with switch on-state resistivity {approx}7 {Omega}-cm. An electron beam, {approx}150 keV energy, {approx}2 {mu}s full width at half maximum was used to control the 5 mm x 5 mm x 100 {mu}m thick diamond switch. The conduction current temporal history mimics that of the electron beam. These data were taken at room temperature.

  20. High temperature electrolysis for syngas production (United States)

    Stoots, Carl M [Idaho Falls, ID; O'Brien, James E [Idaho Falls, ID; Herring, James Stephen [Idaho Falls, ID; Lessing, Paul A [Idaho Falls, ID; Hawkes, Grant L [Sugar City, ID; Hartvigsen, Joseph J [Kaysville, UT


    Syngas components hydrogen and carbon monoxide may be formed by the decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by a solid-oxide electrolysis cell to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen, a portion of which may be reacted with carbon dioxide to form carbon monoxide. One or more of the components for the process, such as steam, energy, or electricity, may be provided using a nuclear power source.

  1. Electrical Conductivity of Micas at High Temperatures (United States)

    Watanabe, T.


    Electrical conductivity, along with seismic velocity, gives us clues to infer constituent materials and temperatures in the Earth's interior. Dry rocks have been considered to be electrically insulating at crustal temperatures. Observed high conductivity has been ascribed to the existence of fluids. However, Fuji-ta et al. (2007) recently reported that a dry gneiss shows relatively high conductivity (10-4-10-3 S/m) at the temperature of 300-400°C, and that it is strongly anisotropic in conductivity. They suggested that the alignment of biotite grains governs conductivity of the gneiss sample. Electrical properties of rock forming minerals are still poorly understood. We thus have measured electrical properties of biotite single crystals up to 700°C. In order to get a good understanding of conduction mechanisms, measurements have been also made on phlogopite and muscovite, which are common micas with similar crystallographic structures. Thin plates parallel to cleavages (thickness~0.1mm) were prepared from mica single crystals. Electrical impedance was measured by 2-electrode method. The specimen was kept in nitrogen or argon atmosphere. The conductivity measured parallel to cleavages is higher than that measured perpendicular to cleavages by 3-4 orders of magnitude. However, no significant difference in the activation energy of conductivity was observed between two directions. The activation energy of conductivity is ~50 kJ/mol for biotite and ~100 kJ/mol for phlogopite and muscovite. The conductivity of biotite is higher than those of phlogopite and muscovite by several orders of magnitude at the same temperature. The conductivity of biotite parallel to cleavages is ~10-1 S/m at 400°C. The conductivity of biotite increases irreversibly by heating. The irreversible change was not significant below 450°C. Remarkable increase is observed at the temperature of 450-550°C. No significant change was observed in the second heating. Such an increase in conductivity

  2. Temperature Prediction for High Pressure High Temperature Condensate Gas Flow Through Chokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Li


    Full Text Available This study developed a theoretical model for predicting the downstream temperatures of high pressure high temperature condensate gas flowing through chokes. The model is composed of three parts: the iso-enthalpy choke model derived from continuity equation and energy conservation equation; the liquid-vapor equilibrium model based on the SRK equation of state (EoS; and the enthalpy model based on the Lee-Kesler EoS. Pseudocritical properties of mixtures, which are obtained by mixing rules, are very important in the enthalpy model, so the Lee-Kesler, Plocker-Knapp, Wong-Sandler and Prausnitz-Gunn mixing rules were all researched, and the combination mixing rules with satisfactory accuracy for high pressure high temperature condensate gases were proposed. The temperature prediction model is valid for both the critical and subcritical flows through different kinds of choke valves. The applications show the model is reliable for predicting the downstream temperatures of condensate gases with upstream pressures up to 85.54 MPa and temperatures up to 93.23 °C. The average absolute errors between the measured and calculated temperatures are expected for less than 2 °C by using the model.

  3. Highly efficient decomposition of Remazol Brilliant Blue R using tubular reactor coated with thin layer of PdO. (United States)

    Javaid, Rahat; Qazi, Umair Yaqub; Kawasaki, Shin-Ichiro


    In this work, we propose a novel approach to dye decomposition under subcritical water conditions using a continuous-flow tubular reactor coated with thin layer of PdO as a catalyst. Remazole Brilliant Blue R was used as an example of synthetic dyes. Hydrogen peroxide was used as an environmental-friendly oxidant as it leaves no residues after treatment. The effect of temperature, pressure and dye concentration on total organic carbon (TOC) removal were studied. 99.9% of TOC removal was achieved at 300 °C and 10 MPa pressure within a short residence time of 3.2 s. This method provided an efficient and rapid process that has a potential for treating a wide range of textile wastewaters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnquist, Norman [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Qi, Xuele [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Raminosoa, Tsarafidy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Salas, Ken [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Samudrala, Omprakash [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Shah, Manoj [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Van Dam, Jeremy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Yin, Weijun [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany)


    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  5. Diamond based detectors for high temperature, high radiation environments (United States)

    Metcalfe, A.; Fern, G. R.; Hobson, P. R.; Smith, D. R.; Lefeuvre, G.; Saenger, R.


    Single crystal CVD diamond has many desirable properties as a radiation detector; exceptional radiation hardness and physical hardness, chemical inertness, low Z (close to human tissue, good for dosimetry and transmission mode applications), wide bandgap (high temperature operation with low noise and solar blind), an intrinsic pathway to fast neutron detection through the 12C(n,α)9Be reaction. This combination of radiation hardness, temperature tolerance and ability to detect mixed radiation types with a single sensor makes diamond particularly attractive as a detector material for harsh environments such as nuclear power station monitoring (fission and fusion) and oil well logging. Effective exploitation of these properties requires the development of a metallisation scheme to give contacts that remain stable over extended periods at elevated temperatures (up to 250°C in this instance). Due to the cost of the primary detector material, computational modelling is essential to best utilise the available processing methods for optimising sensor response through geometry and conversion media configurations and to fully interpret experimental data. Monte Carlo simulations of our diamond based sensor have been developed, using MCNP6 and FLUKA2011, assessing the sensor performance in terms of spectral response and overall efficiency as a function of the detector and converter geometry. Sensors with varying metallisation schemes for high temperature operation have been fabricated at Brunel University London and by Micron Semiconductor Limited. These sensors have been tested under a varied set of conditions including irradiation with fast neutrons and alpha particles at high temperatures. The presented study indicates that viable metallisation schemes for high temperature contacts have been successfully developed and the modelling results, supported by preliminary experimental data from partners, indicate that the simulations provide a reasonable representation of

  6. Methane decomposition over high-loaded Ni-Cu-SiO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiamao; Zhao, Linjie; He, Jianchao; Dong, Liang; Xiong, Liangping; Du, Yang; Yang, Yong; Wang, Heyi, E-mail:; Peng, Shuming, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: Methane decomposition-regeneration with air cycles over 65%Ni-20%Cu-10%SiO{sub 2} catalysts. - Highlights: • Methane decomposition over Ni-Cu-SiO{sub 2} was studied. • The deactivated catalysts were regenerated by air. • Introduction of Cu could enhance the catalytic performance of Ni-SiO{sub 2}. • The increase of the Ni-Cu particle influences the performance of the catalysts. - Abstract: The performance of Ni-SiO{sub 2} and Ni-Cu-SiO{sub 2} during repeated catalytic decomposition of methane (CDM) reactions and subsequent regeneration of the deactivated catalysts with air has been studied. The catalytic activity of the 75%Ni-25%SiO{sub 2} catalyst in the second and third CDM was lower than that during the first, while the lifetime of the catalyst did not change significantly. Both the lifetime and the catalytic activity of 65%Ni-10%Cu-25%SiO{sub 2} in the second and third CDM reactions decreased significantly. 55%Ni-20%Cu-25%SiO{sub 2} showed better performance than the other two catalysts, and its activity and lifetime did not change significantly until the third CDM reaction. The hydrogen yields of 55%Ni-20%Cu-25%SiO{sub 2} were 56.8 gH{sub 2}/gcat., 42.8 gH{sub 2}/gcat., and 2.4 gH{sub 2}/gcat. for the first, second, and third CDM reactions, respectively. Spherical carbon structures were observed on the catalysts following all three CDM reactions over 75%Ni-25%SiO{sub 2}. However, similar carbon structures were only observed following the second and third CDM over 65%Ni-10%Cu-25%SiO{sub 2}, and only following the third cycle with 55%Ni-20%Cu-25%SiO{sub 2}. The formation of spherical carbon during the repeated CDM reactions strongly influenced the performance of the catalysts.

  7. Modeling Study of High Pressure and High Temperature Reservoir Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varzandeh, Farhad

    With dwindling easily accessible oil and gas resources, more and more exploration and production activities in the oil industry are driven to technically challenging environments such as unconventional resources and deeper formations. The temperature and pressure can become extremely high, e.g., up...

  8. Assessment of high-temperature filtering elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monica Lupion; Francisco J. Gutierrez Ortiz; Benito Navarrete; Vicente J. Cortes [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). E.T.S. Ingenieros


    A complete experimental campaign has been carried out in a hot gas filtration test facility so as to test several filtering elements and configurations, particularly, three different types of bag filters and one ceramic candle. The facility was designed to operate under a wide range of conditions, thus providing an excellent tool for the investigation of hot gas filtration applications for the advanced electrical power generation industry such as IGCC, PFBC or fuel cell technologies. Relevant parameters for the characterization and optimization of the performance of the filters have been studied for a variety of operation conditions such as filtration velocity, particle concentration, pressure and temperature among others. Pressure drop across the filter, cleaning pulse interval, baseline pressure drop, filtration efficiency and durability of the filter have been investigated for each type considered and dependences on parameters have been established. On top of that, optimal operating conditions and cleaning strategies were determined. The tests results show that bag filters are a suitable alternative for the hot gas filtration due to the better performance and the high efficiency observed, which makes them suitable for industrial applications operating under high temperature high pressure conditions considered within the study (200-370{degree}C and 4-7.5 barg respectively). 7 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. High-temperature superconductors make major progress

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    This month's Nature Materials featured an important breakthrough for high-temperature superconductors. A new method has been found for processing Bi-2212 high-temperature superconducting round wire in order to drastically increase its critical current density. The result confirms that this conductor is a serious candidate for future very-high-field magnets.   This image shows the cross-section of two Bi-2212 wires. The bottom wire has less leakage and void porosity due to a heat treatment done at an overpressure of 100 bar - about 100 times the pressure used to produce the top wire (image from [Nature Materials, Vol. 13 (2014), 10.1038/nmat3887]). The workhorse for building superconducting accelerator magnets has been, so far, the Niobium-Titanium (Nb-Ti) alloy superconductor. But with Nb-Ti having reached its full potential, other conductors must be used to operate in higher magnetic fields beyond those reached with the LHC magnets. Today, the intermetallic Niobium-Tin (Nb3Sn) is th...

  10. Pulse Radiolysis at High Temperatures and High Pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Sehested, Knud


    A set-up enabling pulse radiolysis measurements at high temperatures (up to 320°C) and high pressures (up to 140 bar) has been constructed in collaboration between Risö National Laboratory and Studsvik Energiteknik. The cell has been used for experiments with aqueous solutions with the purpose.......2 kcal.mol−1) and OH+OH (tentatively 8 kJ·mol−1, 1.9 kcal·mol−1) have been determined. The absorption spectrum of the OH radical has been determined up to temperatures of 200°C. The absorption maximum is found at 230 nm at all temperatures. The reaction between Fe2+ and OH radicals has been studied up...... to a temperature of 220°C. An activation energy of 9 kJ·mol−1 (2.2 kcal·mol−1) has been determined and the spectrum of the transient formed in the reaction has been determined at different temperatures....

  11. Hadron shower decomposition in the highly granular CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Eigen, G.; Watson, N.K.; Marshall, J.S.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H.L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schröder, S.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Doren, B.van; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Wing, M.; Bonnevaux, A.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Steen, A.; Antequera, J.Berenguer; Alamillo, E.Calvo; Fouz, M.C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Markin, O.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Ilyin, A.; Mironov, D.; Mizuk, R.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; der Kolk, N.van; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Pöschl, R.; Richard, F.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.C.; Cizel, J.B.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Magniette, F.; de Freitas, P.Mora; Musat, G.; Pavy, S.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Taille, la; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.


    The spatial development of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam data collected at CERN and FNAL for single positive pions and protons with initial momenta in the range from 10 to 80 GeV/c. Both longitudinal and radial development of hadron showers are parametrised with two-component functions. The parametrisation is fit to test beam data and simulations using the QGSP_BERT and FTFP_BERT physics lists from Geant4 version 9.6. The parameters extracted from data and simulated samples are compared for the two types of hadrons. The response to pions and the ratio of the non-electromagnetic to the electromagnetic calorimeter response, h/e, are estimated using the extrapolation and decomposition of the longitudinal profiles.

  12. High temperature behaviour of a zircon ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonneau, X.; Olagnon, C.; Fantozzi, G. [INSA, Villeurbanne (France). GEMMPM; Hamidouche, M. [Lab. Science des Materiaux, Univ. de Setif (Algeria); Torrecillas, R. [Inst. Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain)


    The high temperature properties of a sintered zircon material has been tested up to 1200 C. A significant creep rate is observed, mainly attributed to the presence of glassy phase. The sub-critical crack growth measured in double torsion showed that above 1000 C, the crack velocity is reduced either by stress relaxation or by crack healing. The thermal shock analysis under a heat exchange coefficient of 600 W/m{sup 2}/K showed a regular decrease rather that a sudden fall off of properties. (orig.) 3 refs.

  13. Encapsulation of high temperature molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxley, James D.; Mathur, Anoop Kumar


    The present disclosure relates to a method of encapsulating microcapsules containing relatively high temperature phase change materials and the microcapsules so produced. The microcapsules are coated with an inorganic binder, film former and an inorganic filler. The microcapsules may include a sacrificial layer that is disposed between the particle and the coating. The microcapsules may also include an inner coating layer, sacrificial layer and outer coating layer. The microcapsules are particularly useful for thermal energy storage in connection with, e.g., heat collected from concentrating solar collectors.

  14. High Temperature Materials Laboratory third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.


    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its third year of operation as a designated DOE User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 88 nonproprietary agreements (40 university and 48 industry) and 20 proprietary agreements (1 university, 19 industry) are now in effect. Sixty-eight nonproprietary research proposals (39 from university, 28 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and 8 proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1990 are summarized.

  15. Thermal Decomposition of Hydrocalumite over a Temperature Range of 400–1500°C and Its Structure Reconstruction in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Tian


    Full Text Available The thermal decomposition process and structure memory effect of hydrocalumite were investigated systematically for the first time over a wide temperature range of 400–1500°C. The calcined hydrocalumite samples and their rehydrated products were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, and SEM-EDX. The results show that the calcination products at temperatures ranging from 500 to 900°C are basically mayenite and lime, while one of the final products obtained by calcination at and above 1000°C is probably tricalcium aluminate (Ca3Al2O6. For the hydrocalumite samples calcined at temperatures below 1000°C, their lamellar structure can be completely recovered in deionized water at room temperature. However, the further increase of calcination temperature could impair the regeneration ability of hydrocalumite via contact with water. Upon calcination of hydrocalumite at 1000–1500°C followed by reaction with water, a stable compound tricalcium aluminate hexahydrate (Ca3Al2O6·6H2O was produced, which is the reason why less hydrocalumite could be regenerated.

  16. High point for CERN and high-temperature superconductors

    CERN Multimedia


    Amalia Ballarino is named the Superconductor Industry Person of the year 2006. Amalia Ballarino showing a tape of high-superconducting material used for the LHC current leads.The CERN project leader for the high-temperature superconducting current leads for the LHC, Amalia Ballarino, has received the award for "Superconductor Industry Person of the Year". This award, the most prestigious international award in the development and commercialization of superconductors, is presented by the leading industry newsletter "Superconductor Week". Amalia Ballarino was selected from dozens of nominations from around the world by a panel of recognized leading experts in superconductivity. "It is a great honour for me," says Amalia Ballarino. "It has been many years of hard work, and it’s a great satisfaction to see that the work has been completed successfully." Amalia Ballarino has been working on high-temperature superconducting materials sin...

  17. Ozone Decomposition on the Surface of Metal Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor Todorov


    Full Text Available The catalytic decomposition of ozone to molecular oxygen over catalytic mixture containing manganese, copper and nickel oxides was investigated in the present work. The catalytic activity was evaluated on the basis of the decomposition coefficient which is proportional to ozone decomposition rate, and it has been already used in other studies for catalytic activity estimation. The reaction was studied in the presence of thermally modified catalytic samples operating at different temperatures and ozone flow rates. The catalyst changes were followed by kinetic methods, surface measurements, temperature programmed reduction and IR-spectroscopy. The phase composition of the metal oxide catalyst was determined by X-ray diffraction. The catalyst mixture has shown high activity in ozone decomposition at wet and dry O3/O2 gas mixtures. The mechanism of catalytic ozone degradation was suggested.

  18. High temperature deformation of 6061 Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyungtae Park; Lavernia, E.J.; Mohamed, F.A. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)


    The creep behavior of powder metallurgy (PM) 6061 Al, which has been used as a metal matrix alloy in the development of discontinuous silicon carbide reinforced aluminum (SiC-Al) composites, has been studied over six orders of magnitude of strain rate. The experimental data show that the steady-state stage of the creep curve is of short duration; that the stress dependence of creep rate is high and variable; and that the temperature dependence of creep rate is much higher than that for self-diffusion in aluminum. The above creep characteristics are different from those documented for aluminum based solid-solution alloys but are similar to those reported for discontinuous SiC-Al composites and dispersion-strengthened (DS) alloys. Analysis of the experimental data shows that while the high stress dependence of creep rate in 6061 Al, like that in DS alloys, can be explained in terms of a threshold stress for creep, the strong temperature dependence of creep rate in the alloy is incompatible with the predictions of available threshold stress models and theoretical treatments proposed for DS alloys.

  19. Development of High Temperature Gas Sensor Technology (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai; Zhou, Huan-Jun


    The measurement of engine emissions is important for their monitoring and control. However, the ability to measure these emissions in-situ is limited. We are developing a family of high temperature gas sensors which are intended to operate in harsh environments such as those in an engine. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: (1) The development of SiC-based semiconductor technology; and (2) Improvements in micromachining and microfabrication technology. These technologies are being used to develop point-contact sensors to measure gases which are important in emission control especially hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of this point-contact sensor technology. The detection of each type of gas involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. Of particular importance is sensor sensitivity, selectivity, and stability in long-term, high temperature operation. An overview is presented of each sensor type with an evaluation of its stage of development. It is concluded that this technology has significant potential for use in engine applications but further development is necessary.

  20. Hole-doped cuprate high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, C.W.; Deng, L.Z.; Lv, B.


    Highlights: • Historical discoveries of hole-doped cuprates and representative milestone work. • Several simple and universal scaling laws of the hole-doped cuprates. • A comprehensive classification list with references for hole-doped cuprates. • Representative physical parameters for selected hole-doped cuprates. - Abstract: Hole-doped cuprate high temperature superconductors have ushered in the modern era of high temperature superconductivity (HTS) and have continued to be at center stage in the field. Extensive studies have been made, many compounds discovered, voluminous data compiled, numerous models proposed, many review articles written, and various prototype devices made and tested with better performance than their nonsuperconducting counterparts. The field is indeed vast. We have therefore decided to focus on the major cuprate materials systems that have laid the foundation of HTS science and technology and present several simple scaling laws that show the systematic and universal simplicity amid the complexity of these material systems, while referring readers interested in the HTS physics and devices to the review articles. Developments in the field are mostly presented in chronological order, sometimes with anecdotes, in an attempt to share some of the moments of excitement and despair in the history of HTS with readers, especially the younger ones.

  1. High-temperature ordered intermetallic alloys V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, I. (ed.) (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering); Darolia, R. (ed.) (GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Whittenberger, J.D. (ed.) (NASA, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center); Yoo, M.H. (ed.) (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    These proceedings represent the written record of the High-Temperature Ordered Intermetallic Alloys 5 Symposium which was held in conjunction with the 1992 Fall Materials Research Society meeting in Boston, Massachusetts. This symposium, which was the fifth in the series originated by C.C Koch, C.T. Liu and N.S. Stoloff in 1984, was very successful with 86 oral presentations over four days, and approximately 140 posters given during two lively evening sessions. Such a response, in view of the increasing number of conferences being held on intermetallics each year, reveals the continued high regard for this series of symposia. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  2. Thermomechanics of composite structures under high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yu I


    This pioneering book presents new models for the thermomechanical behavior of composite materials and structures taking into account internal physico-chemical transformations such as thermodecomposition, sublimation and melting at high temperatures (up to 3000 K). It is of great importance for the design of new thermostable materials and for the investigation of reliability and fire safety of composite structures. It also supports the investigation of interaction of composites with laser irradiation and the design of heat-shield systems. Structural methods are presented for calculating the effective mechanical and thermal properties of matrices, fibres and unidirectional, reinforced by dispersed particles and textile composites, in terms of properties of their constituent phases. Useful calculation methods are developed for characteristics such as the rate of thermomechanical erosion of composites under high-speed flow and the heat deformation of composites with account of chemical shrinkage. The author expan...

  3. Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.


    Originally developed by NASA as high performance piston alloys to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low exhaust emission, the novel NASA alloys now offer dramatic increase in tensile strength for many other applications at elevated temperatures from 450 F (232 C) to about 750 F (400 C). It is an ideal low cost material for cast automotive components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. It can be very economically produced from conventional permanent mold, sand casting or investment casting, with silicon content ranging from 6% to 18%. At high silicon levels, the alloy exhibits excellent dimensional stability, surface hardness and wear resistant properties.

  4. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures (United States)

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  5. Decomposition techniques (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.


    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  6. Comparative analysis of low- and high-swirl confined flames and jets by proper orthogonal and dynamic mode decompositions (United States)

    Markovich, D. M.; Abdurakipov, S. S.; Chikishev, L. M.; Dulin, V. M.; Hanjalić, K.


    Low-order coherent structures of non-reacting and combusting low- and high-swirl (swirl rates S = 0.41 and S = 1.0) jet flows in an open-ended cylindrical model combustor have been studied using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) of high-repetition stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) velocity measurements. Lean methane-air mixture with the equivalence ratio of 0.6 was chosen for the reacting case as lean flames are generally less stable and more receptive to active control. The nonreacting and reacting flows at the same swirl rates exhibit qualitatively similar overall features characterized by highly turbulent annular jets enveloping the central retarding zone (for S = 0.41) or a recirculating bubble (for S = 1.0). At low swirl the dominant coherent structures appeared in the form of tilted ring vortices, evolving into helices as the swirl rate increases. The high-swirl flows are characterized by a pair of well-organized counter-rotating co-winding helical vortices originating in the inner and outer jet shear layers. Vortex cores were detected in both cases, but at low swirl it was less energetic and not associated with a distinct precession frequency. The core region of the low-swirl flame shows intermittent mild flow reversal without permanent central recirculation zone. The thermal expansion enhances the spreading of the reacting flow, especially at the high swirl number. Here the helices pitch is smaller and some neighbouring vortices merge into vortical sheets that act as shear shield confining the flame within the inner shear layer. Despite the significant effects of combustion on the time-averaged characteristics for the high-swirl, the dynamics of both flows were dominated by the global inviscid helical instability mode with a DMD detected conspicuous frequencies of 223 Hz for the nonreacting jet and 257 Hz for the flame.

  7. Phase separation of metastable CoCrFeNi high entropy alloy at intermediate temperatures


    He, Feng; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Qingfeng; Li, Junjie; Wang, Jincheng; Liu, C T


    The CoCrFeNi alloy is widely accepted as an exemplary stable base for high entropy alloys (HEAs). Although various investigations prove it to be stable solid solution, its phase stability is still suspicious. Here, we identified that the CoCrFeNi HEA was thermally metastable at intermediate temperatures, and composition decomposition occurred after annealed at 750oC for 800 hrs. The increased lattice distortion induced by minor addition of Al into the CoCrFeNi base accelerated the composition...

  8. Non-cooperative target recognition by means of singular value decomposition applied to radar high resolution range profiles. (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Patricia; Escot-Bocanegra, David; Fernández-Recio, Raúl; Bravo, Ignacio


    Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising.

  9. Non-Cooperative Target Recognition by Means of Singular Value Decomposition Applied to Radar High Resolution Range Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia López-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising.

  10. A Generalized Image Scene Decomposition-Based System for Supervised Classification of Very High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhiYong Lv


    Full Text Available Very high resolution (VHR remote sensing images are widely used for land cover classification. However, to the best of our knowledge, few approaches have been shown to improve classification accuracies through image scene decomposition. In this paper, a simple yet powerful observational scene scale decomposition (OSSD-based system is proposed for the classification of VHR images. Different from the traditional methods, the OSSD-based system aims to improve the classification performance by decomposing the complexity of an image’s content. First, an image scene is divided into sub-image blocks through segmentation to decompose the image content. Subsequently, each sub-image block is classified respectively, or each block is processed firstly through an image filter or spectral–spatial feature extraction method, and then each processed segment is taken as the feature input of a classifier. Finally, classified sub-maps are fused together for accuracy evaluation. The effectiveness of our proposed approach was investigated through experiments performed on different images with different supervised classifiers, namely, support vector machine, k-nearest neighbor, naive Bayes classifier, and maximum likelihood classifier. Compared with the accuracy achieved without OSSD processing, the accuracy of each classifier improved significantly, and our proposed approach shows outstanding performance in terms of classification accuracy.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M.


    Two hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle process flowsheets intended for use with high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are presented. The flowsheets were developed for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program, and couple a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer for the SO2-depolarized electrolysis step with a silicon carbide bayonet reactor for the high-temperature decomposition step. One presumes an HTGR reactor outlet temperature (ROT) of 950 C, the other 750 C. Performance was improved (over earlier flowsheets) by assuming that use of a more acid-tolerant PEM, like acid-doped poly[2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole] (PBI), instead of Nafion{reg_sign}, would allow higher anolyte acid concentrations. Lower ROT was accommodated by adding a direct contact exchange/quench column upstream from the bayonet reactor and dropping the decomposition pressure. Aspen Plus was used to develop material and energy balances. A net thermal efficiency of 44.0% to 47.6%, higher heating value basis is projected for the 950 C case, dropping to 39.9% for the 750 C case.

  12. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders


    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  13. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)


    Ceramic gas separation membranes can provide very high separation factors if the pore size is sufficiently small to separate gas molecules by molecular sieving and if oversized pores are adequately limited. Ceramic membranes typically have some pores that are substantially larger than the mean pore size and that should be regarded as defects. To assess the effects of such defects on the performance of ceramic membranes, a simple mathematical model has been developed to describe flow through a gas separation membrane that has a primary mode of flow through very small pores but that has a secondary mode of flow through undesirably large pores. This model permits separation factors to be calculated for a specified gas pair as a function of the molecular weights and molecular diameters of the gases, the membrane pore diameter, and the diameter and number of defects. This model will be described, and key results from the model will be presented. The separation factors of the authors membranes continue to be determined using a permeance test system that measures flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275{degrees}C. A primary goal of this project for FY 1996 is to develop a mixed gas separation system for measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at higher temperatures. Performance criteria have been established for the planned mixed gas separation system and design of the system has been completed. The test system is designed to measure the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600{degrees}C and pressures up to 100 psi by separating the constituents of a gas mixture containing hydrogen. The system will accommodate the authors typical experimental membrane that is tubular and has a diameter of about 9 mm and a length of about 23 cm. The design of the new test system and its expected performance will be discussed.

  14. Economically attractive route for the preparation of high quality magnetic nanoparticles by the thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate (United States)

    Effenberger, Fernando B.; Couto, Ricardo A.; Kiyohara, Pedro K.; Machado, Giovanna; Masunaga, Sueli H.; Jardim, Renato F.; Rossi, Liane M.


    The thermal decomposition (TD) methods are among the most successful in obtaining magnetic nanoparticles with a high degree of control of size and narrow particle size distribution. Here we investigated the TD of iron(III) acetylacetonate in the presence of oleic acid, oleylamine, and a series of alcohols in order to disclose their role and also investigate economically attractive alternatives for the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles without compromising their size and shape control. We have found that some affordable and reasonably less priced alcohols, such as 1,2-octanediol and cyclohexanol, may replace the commonly used and expensive 1,2-hexadecanediol, providing an economically attractive route for the synthesis of high quality magnetic nanoparticles. The relative cost for the preparation of Fe3O4 NPs is reduced to only 21% and 9% of the original cost when using 1,2-octanediol and cyclohexanol, respectively.

  15. High-temperature enzymatic breakdown of cellulose. (United States)

    Wang, Hongliang; Squina, Fabio; Segato, Fernando; Mort, Andrew; Lee, David; Pappan, Kirk; Prade, Rolf


    Cellulose is an abundant and renewable biopolymer that can be used for biofuel generation; however, structural entrapment with other cell wall components hinders enzyme-substrate interactions, a key bottleneck for ethanol production. Biomass is routinely subjected to treatments that facilitate cellulase-cellulose contacts. Cellulases and glucosidases act by hydrolyzing glycosidic bonds of linear glucose β-1,4-linked polymers, producing glucose. Here we describe eight high-temperature-operating cellulases (TCel enzymes) identified from a survey of thermobacterial and archaeal genomes. Three TCel enzymes preferentially hydrolyzed soluble cellulose, while two preferred insoluble cellulose such as cotton linters and filter paper. TCel enzymes had temperature optima ranging from 85°C to 102°C. TCel enzymes were stable, retaining 80% of initial activity after 120 h at 85°C. Two modes of cellulose breakdown, i.e., with endo- and exo-acting glucanases, were detected, and with two-enzyme combinations at 85°C, synergistic cellulase activity was observed for some enzyme combinations.

  16. The use of a very high temperature nuclear reactor in the manufacture of synthetic fuels (United States)

    Farbman, G. H.; Brecher, L. E.


    The three parts of a program directed toward creating a cost-effective nuclear hydrogen production system are described. The discussion covers the development of a very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) as a nuclear heat and power source capable of producing the high temperature needed for hydrogen production and other processes; the development of a hydrogen generation process based on water decomposition, which can utilize the outputs of the VHTR and be integrated with many different ultimate hydrogen consuming processes; and the evaluation of the process applications of the nuclear hydrogen systems to assess the merits and potential payoffs. It is shown that the use of VHTR for the manufacture of synthetic fuels appears to have a very high probability of making a positive contribution to meeting the nation's energy needs in the future.

  17. Development of an apparatus to study chemical reactions at high temperature - a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturzenegger, M.; Schelling, Th.; Steiner, E.; Wuillemin, D. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    TREMPER is an apparatus that was devised to study kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of high-temperature reactions under concentrated solar irradiation. The design allows investigations on solid or liquid samples under inert or reactive atmospheres. The working temperature is adjustable; the upper limit that has yet been reached is about 1900 K. TREMPER will facilitate chemical reactivity studies on a temperature level that is difficult to access by other means. First experiments were conducted to study the decomposition of manganese oxide MnO{sub 2}. Chemical analysis of exposed samples confirmed that the parent MnO{sub 2} was decomposed to mixtures of Mn O and Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The amount of Mn O ranged from 60 mol-% in air to 86 mol-% under inert atmosphere. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  18. High temperature chemically resistant polymer concrete (United States)

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    High temperature chemically resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites consist of about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder. The binder is polymerized in situ from a liquid vinyl-type monomer or mixture of vinyl containing monomers such as triallylcyanurate, styrene, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, methacrylamide, methyl-methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene. About 5 to 40% by weight of a reactive inorganic filler selected from the group consisting of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate and mixtures containing less than 2% free lime, and about 48 to 83% by weight of silica sand/ and a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other orgaic peroxides and combinations to initiate polymerization of the monomer in the presence of the inorganic filers are used.

  19. Robust high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders

    reaction kinetics. At oxygen partial pressures below 10-6 bar at 700 C, the mass transport processes dominated the response time. The response time increased with decreasing oxygen partial pressure and inlet gas flow rate. A series of porous platinum electrodes were impregnated with the ionically...... conducting gadolinium-doped cerium oxide (CGO). The addition of CGO was found to decrease the polarisation resistance of the oxygen reaction by up to an order of magnitude compared with a single phase platinum electrode by increasing the effective triple phase boundary (TPB) length. It did not have any......Platinum is the most widely used material in high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes. However, platinum is expensive and the platinum electrode may, under certain conditions, suffer from poisoning, which is detrimental for an oxygen sensor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate electrode...

  20. Filter unit for use at high temperatures (United States)

    Ciliberti, David F.; Lippert, Thomas E.


    A filtering unit for filtering particulates from high temperature gases uses a spiral ceramic spring to bias a ceramic, tubular filter element into sealing contact with a flange about an aperture of a metallic tube sheet. The ceramic spiral spring may contact the upper edge of the filter element and be restrained by a stop member spaced from one end of the tube sheet, or the spring may contact the bottom of the filter element and be restrained by a support member spaced from the opposite end of the tube sheet. The stop member and support member are adjustably secured to the tube sheet. A filtering system uses the ceramic spiral spring to bias a plurality of ceramic, tubular filter elements in a respective plurality of apertures in a tube sheet which divides a vessel into upper and lower enclosed sections.

  1. Toroidal high temperature superconducting coils for ISTTOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, H., E-mail: [Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Goemoery, F. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Corte, A. della; Celentano, G. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Souc, J. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Silva, C.; Carvalho, I.; Gomes, R. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Di Zenobio, A.; Messina, G. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy)


    High temperature superconductors (HTS) are very attractive to be used in fusion devices mainly due to lower operations costs. The HTS technology has reached a point where the construction of toroidal field coils for a tokamak is possible. The feasibility of a tokamak operating with HTS is extremely relevant and ISTTOK is the ideal candidate for a meaningful test due to its small size (and consequently lower cost) and the possibility to operate in a steady-state inductive regime. In this paper, a conceptual study of the ISTTOK upgrade to a superconducting device is presented, along with the relevant boundary conditions to achieve a permanent toroidal field with HTS. It is shown that the actual state of the art in HTS allows the design of a toroidal field coil capable of generating the appropriate field on plasma axis while respecting the structural specification of the machine.

  2. The influence of high temperatures on the tribological properties of automotive friction materials (United States)

    Savage, Luke

    Temperatures of over 800C can be generated at the frictional interface within the brake systems of large vehicles, such high temperatures result in severe wear at the frictional interface, and can also lead to a very dangerous condition known as brake fade, characterised by a sharp fall in the coefficient of friction between the pad and disc, resulting in a catastrophic loss of braking efficiency. Common friction materials are very specialised composites often containing up to 15 components bound together within a phenolic resin matrix. The high temperature behaviour of the various constituents of friction materials were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis, focusing in particular on the thermal decomposition of the phenolic resin matrix material, where it has been firmly established that the thermal decomposition products of phenolic resin are the primary cause of brake fade. This has lead to the development of a novel approach for reducing fade in conventional resin based friction materials, involving a partial carbonisation to 400C. The high temperature wear characteristics of both modified and conventional friction materials were examined using standard dynamometer tests, as well as a 'continuous drag' type test machine, equipped with a heating facility. During this study a number of factors were identified as the main influences on the overall wear behaviour of friction materials. These included test temperature, sample test history, and the various effects of friction films, which were the subject of a detailed analysis. The formation of friction films was found to be an important facet of a successful friction material, producing a reduction in wear at the frictional interface. Films were examined and analysed using EDX, SEM, and X-ray diffraction techniques, which revealed the presence of a high proportion of magnetite (Fe3O4), containing iron which originated from the disc surface. It was established that the incorporation of iron in friction

  3. High temperature triaxial tests on Rochester shale (United States)

    Bruijn, Rolf; Burlini, Luigi; Misra, Santanu


    Phyllosilicates are one of the major components of the crust, responsible for strength weakening during deformation. High pressure and temperature experiments of natural samples rich in phyllosilicates are needed to test the relevance of proposed weakening mechanisms induced by phyllosilicates, derived from lab experiments on single phase and synthetic polyphase rocks and single crystals. Here, we present the preliminary results of a series of high temperature triaxial tests performed on the illite-rich Rochester Shale (USA - New York) using a Paterson type gas-medium HPT testing machine. Cylindrical samples with homogeneous microstructure and 12-14% porosity were fabricated by cold and hot-isostatically pressing, hot-pressed samples were deformed up to a total shortening of 7.5 to 13%. To study the significance of mica dehydration, iron or copper jackets were used in combination with non-porous or porous spacers. Water content was measured before and after experiments using Karl Fischer Titration (KFT). All experiments show, after yielding at 0.6% strain, rapid hardening in nearly linear fashion until about 4-5% strain, from where stress increases at reducing rates to values at 10% strain, between 400 and 675 MPa, depending on experimental conditions. Neither failure nor steady state however, is achieved within the maximum strain of 13%. Experiments performed under 500 °C and 300 MPa confining pressure show weak strain rate dependence. In addition, iron-jacketed samples appear harder than copper-jacketed ones. At 700 °C samples are 17 to 37% weaker and more sensitive to strain rate than during 500 °C experiments. Although, iron-jacketed samples behave stronger than copper-jacketed ones. By visual inspection, samples appear homogeneously shortened. Preliminary analysis suggests that deformation is mostly accommodated by pore collapse. Although, with finite strain, pore collapse becomes less significant. A temperature, strain rate and jacket material dependent

  4. High Molecular Weight Polybenzimidazole Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Steenberg, T.


    High temperature operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells under ambient pressure has been achieved by using phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes. To optimize the membrane and fuel cells, high performance polymers were synthesized of molecular weights from 30 to 94 k......Da with good solubility in organic solvents. Membranes fabricated from the polymers were systematically characterized in terms of oxidative stability, acid doping and swelling, conductivity, mechanical strength and fuel cell performance and durability. With increased molecular weights the polymer membranes...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi


    The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for this project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique, addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature and pressure inside the VLE cell, and a new technique for remote sensing of the liquid level in the cell. VLE data measurements for three binary systems, tetralin-quinoline, benzene--ethylbenzene and ethylbenzene--quinoline, have been completed. The temperature ranges of data measurements were 325 C to 370 C for the first system, 180 C to 300 C for the second system, and 225 C to 380 C for the third system. The smoothed data were found to be fairly well behaved when subjected to thermodynamic consistency tests. SETARAM C-80 calorimeter was used for incremental enthalpy and heat capacity measurements for benzene--ethylbenzene binary liquid mixtures. Data were measured from 30 C to 285 C for liquid mixtures covering the entire composition range. An apparatus has been designed for simultaneous measurement of excess volume and incremental enthalpy of liquid mixtures at temperatures from 30 C to 300 C. The apparatus has been tested and is ready for data measurements. A flow apparatus for measurement of heat of mixing of liquid mixtures at high temperatures has also been designed, and is currently being tested and calibrated.

  6. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike S. H. Chu


    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits

  7. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor Insert for High Temperature Environments (United States)

    Black, Richard James (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Zarnescu, Livia (Inventor)


    A thermal protection system (TPS) test plug has optical fibers with FBGs embedded in the optical fiber arranged in a helix, an axial fiber, and a combination of the two. Optionally, one of the optical fibers is a sapphire FBG for measurement of the highest temperatures in the TPS plug. The test plug may include an ablating surface and a non-ablating surface, with an engagement surface with threads formed, the threads having a groove for placement of the optical fiber. The test plug may also include an optical connector positioned at the non-ablating surface for protection of the optical fiber during insertion and removal.

  8. Thermoset recycling via high-pressure high-temperature sintering: Revisiting the effect of interchange chemistry (United States)

    Morin, Jeremy Edward

    In 1844 Charles Goodyear obtained U.S. Patent #3,633 for his "Gum Elastic Composition". In a published circular, which describes his patent for the sulfur vulcanization of gum elastic composition, he stated: "No degree of heat, without blaze, can melt it (rubber)... It resists the most powerful chemical reagents. Aquafortis (nitric acid), sulphuric acid, essential and common oils, turpentine and other solvents... ..." Goodyear's sulfur vulcanization of rubber fueled much of the industrial revolution and made transportation possible, as it exists today. In doing so, Goodyear created one of the most difficult materials to recycle. Rubber will not melt, dissolve, or lend itself to the usual methods of chemical decomposition. Ironically, Goodyear recognized this problem and in 1853 he patented the process of adding ground rubber to virgin material, now currently known as regrind blending. Today, scrap tires represent one of the most serious sources of pollution in the world. Studies estimate that there are roughly 2 billion scrap tires in U.S. landfills and more are being added at a rate of over 273 million tires per year. Current methods of recycling waste tires are crude, ineffective, and use rubber powder as a low cost filler instead of a new rubber. The groundwork for a very simple and effective method of producing high-quality rubber goods using 100% scrap rubber was discovered in 1944 by A. V. Tobolsky et al. This application, however, was not recognized until recently in our laboratory. The process as studied to date represents a method of creating quality, high-value added rubber goods with nothing other than heat and pressure. High pressure is required to obtain a void-free compaction of the rubber particles by forcing all of the free surfaces into intimate contact. High temperature then activates the chemical rearrangement, scission, and reformation of the chemical bonds thus providing new bridges between the once fractured interfaces. This occurs both within

  9. Study Progress of Physiological Responses in High Temperature Environment (United States)

    Li, K.; Zheng, G. Z.; Bu, W. T.; Wang, Y. J.; Lu, Y. Z.


    Certain workers are exposed to high temperatures for a long time. Heat stress will result in a series of physiological responses, and cause adverse effects on the health and safety of workers. This paper summarizes the physiological changes of cardiovascular system, core temperature, skin temperature, water-electrolyte metabolism, alimentary system, neuroendocrine system, reaction time and thermal fatigue in high temperature environments. It can provide a theoretical guidance for labor safety in high temperature environment.

  10. High Temperature High Pressure Thermodynamic Measurements for Coal Model Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Chen; Vinayak N. Kabadi


    The overall objective of this project is to develop a better thermodynamic model for predicting properties of high-boiling coal derived liquids, especially the phase equilibria of different fractions at elevated temperatures and pressures. The development of such a model requires data on vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), enthalpy, and heat capacity which would be experimentally determined for binary systems of coal model compounds and compiled into a database. The data will be used to refine existing models such as UNIQUAC and UNIFAC. The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for thk project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique and addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature, pressure and liquid level inside the VLE cell. VLE data measurements for system benzene-ethylbenzene have been completed. The vapor and liquid samples were analysed using the Perkin-Elmer Autosystem gas chromatography.

  11. Rapid sulfur capture studies at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, G.A.; Lawson, W.F.; Maloney, D.J.; Shaw, D.W.


    Determine conditions that would reproduce optimum sulfur capture ( super-equilibrium'') behavior. No attempt was made to extract kinetic data for calcination or sulfur capture, as might be done in a comprehensive study of sorbent behavior. While some interesting anomalies are present in the calcination data and in the limited surface area data, no attempt was made to pursue those issues. Since little sulfur capture was observed at operating conditions where super-equilibrium'' might be expected to occur, tests were stopped when the wide range of parameters that were studied failed to produce significant sulfur capture via the super-equilibrium mechanism. Considerable space in this report is devoted to a description of the experiment, including details of the GTRC construction. This description is included because we have received requests for a detailed description of the GTRC itself, as well as the pressurized dry powder feed system. In addition, many questions about accurately sampling the sulfur species from a high-temperature, high-pressure reactor were raised during the course of this investigation. A full account of the development of the gas and particulate sampling train in thus provided. 8 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. High temperature superconductors in electromagnetic applications

    CERN Document Server

    Richens, P E


    powder-in-tube and dip-coated, have been made using a novel single loop tensometer that enables the insertion of a reasonably long length of conductor into the bore of a high-field magnet. The design, construction, and characterization of a High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) magnet is described. The design stage has involved the development of computer software for the calculation of the critical current of a solenoid wound from anisotropic HTS conductor. This calculation can be performed for a variety of problems including those involving magnetic materials such as iron by the incorporation of finite element electromagnetic analysis software. This has enabled the optimization of the magnet's performance. The HTS magnet is wound from 190 m of silver-matrix Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 Ca sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 1 sub 0 powder-in-tube tape conductor supplied by Intermagnetics General Corporation. The dimensions are 70 mm bore and 70 mm length, and it consists of 728 turns. Iron end-plates were utilized in order to reduc...

  13. High temperature superconductors at optimal doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Pickett


    Full Text Available   Intensive study of the high temperature superconductors has been ongoing for two decades. A great deal of this effort has been devoted to the underdoped regime, where the new and difficult physics of the doped Mott insulator has met extra complications including bilayer coupling/splitting, shadow bands, and hot spots. While these complications continue to unfold, in this short overview the focus is moved to the region of actual high-Tc, that of optimal doping. The focus here also is not on the superconducting state itself, but primarily on the characteristics of the normal state from which the superconducting instability arises, and even these can be given only a broad-brush description. A reminder is given of two issues,(i why the “optimal Tc” varies,for n-layered systems it increases for n up to 3, then decreases for a given n, Tc increases according to the ‘basis’ atom in the order Bi, Tl, Hg (ii how does pressure, or a particular uniaxial strain, increase Tc when the zero-strain system is already optimally doped?

  14. Composition decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyson, Mark


    . Not only have design tools changed character, but also the processes associated with them. Today, the composition of problems and their decomposition into parcels of information, calls for a new paradigm. This paradigm builds on the networking of agents and specialisations, and the paths of communication...

  15. Assessment of microelectronics packaging for high temperature, high reliability applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe, F.


    This report details characterization and development activities in electronic packaging for high temperature applications. This project was conducted through a Department of Energy sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors. Even though the target application of this collaborative effort is an automotive electronic throttle control system which would be located in the engine compartment, results of this work are directly applicable to Sandia`s national security mission. The component count associated with the throttle control dictates the use of high density packaging not offered by conventional surface mount. An enabling packaging technology was selected and thermal models defined which characterized the thermal and mechanical response of the throttle control module. These models were used to optimize thick film multichip module design, characterize the thermal signatures of the electronic components inside the module, and to determine the temperature field and resulting thermal stresses under conditions that may be encountered during the operational life of the throttle control module. Because the need to use unpackaged devices limits the level of testing that can be performed either at the wafer level or as individual dice, an approach to assure a high level of reliability of the unpackaged components was formulated. Component assembly and interconnect technologies were also evaluated and characterized for high temperature applications. Electrical, mechanical and chemical characterizations of enabling die and component attach technologies were performed. Additionally, studies were conducted to assess the performance and reliability of gold and aluminum wire bonding to thick film conductor inks. Kinetic models were developed and validated to estimate wire bond reliability.

  16. High pressure study of high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souliou, Sofia-Michaela


    The current thesis studies experimentally the effect of high external pressure on high-T{sub c} superconductors. The structure and lattice dynamics of several members of the high-T{sub c} cuprate and Fe-based superconductors families were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction under well-controlled, hydrostatic high pressure and low temperature conditions. The lattice dynamics of the high-T{sub c} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} have been investigated systematically by Raman spectroscopy as a function of doping (x = 0.95, 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.45) and external pressure. Under ambient pressure conditions, in addition to the Raman modes expected from group theory, we observe new Raman active phonons upon cooling the underdoped samples, at temperatures well above the superconducting transition temperature. The doping dependence and the onset temperatures of the new Raman features suggest that they are associated with the incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) state recently discovered in underdoped cuprates using synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques. Under high pressure conditions (from 2 to 12 GPa), our Raman measurements on highly ordered underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.55} samples do not show any of the new Raman phonons seen at ambient pressure. High pressure and low temperature Raman measurements have been performed on the underdoped superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}. A clear renormalization of some of the Raman phonons is seen below T{sub c} as a result of the changes in the phonon self-energy upon the opening of the superconducting gap, with the most prominent one being that of the B{sub 1g}-like buckling phonon mode. The amplitude of this renormalization strongly increases with pressure, resembling the effect of hole doping in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. At ∝ 10 GPa, the system undergoes a reversible pressure-induced structural phase transition to a non-centrosymmmetric structure (space group

  17. Analytic Models of High-Temperature Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stygar, W.A.; Olson, R.E.; Spielman, R.B.; Leeper, R.J.


    A unified set of high-temperature-hohlraum models has been developed. For a simple hohlraum, P{sub s} = [A{sub s}+(1{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}]{sigma}T{sub R}{sup 4} + (4V{sigma}/c)(dT{sub R}{sup r}/dt) where P{sub S} is the total power radiated by the source, A{sub s} is the source area, A{sub W} is the area of the cavity wall excluding the source and holes in the wall, A{sub H} is the area of the holes, {sigma} is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, T{sub R} is the radiation brightness temperature, V is the hohlraum volume, and c is the speed of light. The wall albedo {alpha}{sub W} {triple_bond} (T{sub W}/T{sub R}){sup 4} where T{sub W} is the brightness temperature of area A{sub W}. The net power radiated by the source P{sub N} = P{sub S}-A{sub S}{sigma}T{sub R}{sup 4}, which suggests that for laser-driven hohlraums the conversion efficiency {eta}{sub CE} be defined as P{sub N}/P{sub LASER}. The characteristic time required to change T{sub R}{sup 4} in response to a change in P{sub N} is 4V/C[(l{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}]. Using this model, T{sub R}, {alpha}{sub W}, and {eta}{sub CE} can be expressed in terms of quantities directly measurable in a hohlraum experiment. For a steady-state hohlraum that encloses a convex capsule, P{sub N} = {l_brace}(1{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}+[(1{minus}{alpha}{sub C})(A{sub S}+A{sub W}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub C}/A{sub T}]{r_brace}{sigma}T{sub RC}{sup 4} where {alpha}{sub C} is the capsule albedo, A{sub C} is the capsule area, A{sub T} {triple_bond} (A{sub S}+A{sub W}+A{sub H}), and T{sub RC} is the brightness temperature of the radiation that drives the capsule. According to this relation, the capsule-coupling efficiency of the baseline National-Ignition-Facility (NIF) hohlraum is 15% higher than predicted by previous analytic expressions. A model of a hohlraum that encloses a z pinch is also presented.

  18. High Temperature Electrical Insulation Materials for Space Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art high temperature insulation materials of which higher working temperature, high...

  19. High Temperature Fatigue Life Evaluation Using Small Specimen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NOGAMI, Shuhei; HISAKA, Chiaki; FUJIWARA, Masaharu; WAKAI, Eichi; HASEGAWA, Akira


    For developing the high temperature fatigue life evaluation method using small specimen, the effect of specimen size and test environment on the high temperature fatigue life of the reduced activation...

  20. Laser Brazing of High Temperature Braze Alloy (United States)

    Gao, Y. P.; Seaman, R. F.; McQuillan, T. J.; Martiens, R. F.


    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) consists of 1080 conical tubes, which are furnace brazed themselves, manifolds, and surrounding structural jacket making almost four miles of braze joints. Subsequent furnace braze cycles are performed due to localized braze voids between the coolant tubes. SSME nozzle experiences extremely high heat flux (180 mW/sq m) during hot fire. Braze voids between coolant tubes may result in hot combustion gas escape causing jacket bulges. The nozzle can be disqualified for flight or result in mission failure if the braze voids exceed the limits. Localized braze processes were considered to eliminate braze voids, however, damage to the parent materials often prohibited use of such process. Being the only manned flight reusable rocket engine, it has stringent requirement on the braze process. Poor braze quality or damage to the parent materials limits the nozzle service life. The objective of this study was to develop a laser brazing process to provide quality, localized braze joints without adverse affect on the parent materials. Gold (Au-Cu-Ni-Pd-Mn) based high temperature braze alloys were used in both powder and wire form. Thin section iron base superalloy A286 tube was used as substrate materials. Different Laser Systems including CO2 (10.6 micrometers, 1kW), ND:YAG (1.06 micrometers, 4kW). and direct diode laser (808nm. 150W) were investigated for brazing process. The laser process variables including wavelength. laser power, travel speed and angle of inclination were optimized according to bead geometry and braze alloy wetting at minimum heat input level, The properties of laser brazing were compared to that of furnace brazing. Microhardness profiles were used for braze joint property comparison between laser and furnace brazing. The cooling rate of laser brazing was compared to furnace brazing based on secondary dendritic arm spacing, Both optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to evaluate the microstructures of

  1. Measuring Specific Heats at High Temperatures (United States)

    Vandersande, Jan W.; Zoltan, Andrew; Wood, Charles


    Flash apparatus for measuring thermal diffusivities at temperatures from 300 to 1,000 degrees C modified; measures specific heats of samples to accuracy of 4 to 5 percent. Specific heat and thermal diffusivity of sample measured. Xenon flash emits pulse of radiation, absorbed by sputtered graphite coating on sample. Sample temperature measured with thermocouple, and temperature rise due to pulse measured by InSb detector.

  2. Thermoelectric Powered High Temperature Wireless Sensing (United States)

    Kucukkomurler, Ahmet

    This study describes use of a thermoelectric power converter to transform waste heat into electrical energy to power an RF receiver and transmitter, for use in harsh environment wireless temperature sensing and telemetry. The sensing and transmitting module employs a DS-1820 low power digital temperature sensor to perform temperature to voltage conversion, an ATX-34 RF transmitter, an ARX-34 RF receiver module, and a PIC16f84A microcontroller to synchronize data communication between them. The unit has been tested in a laboratory environment, and promising results have been obtained for an actual automotive wireless under hood temperature sensing and telemetry implementation.

  3. Multi-species time-history measurements during high-temperature acetone and 2-butanone pyrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Lam, Kingyiu


    High-temperature acetone and 2-butanone pyrolysis studies were conducted behind reflected shock waves using five species time-history measurements (ketone, CO, CH3, CH4 and C2H4). Experimental conditions covered temperatures of 1100-1600 Kat 1.6 atm, for mixtures of 0.25-1.5% ketone in argon. During acetone pyrolysis, the CO concentration time-history was found to be strongly sensitive to the acetone dissociation rate constant κ1 (CH3COCH3 → CH3 + CH3CO), and this could be directly determined from the CO time-histories, yielding κ1(1.6 atm) = 2.46 × 1014 exp(-69.3 [kcal/mol]/RT) s-1 with an uncertainty of ±25%. This rate constant is in good agreement with previous shock tube studies from Sato and Hidaka (2000) [3] and Saxena et al. (2009) [4] (within 30%) at temperatures above 1450 K, but is at least three times faster than the evaluation from Sato and Hidaka at temperatures below 1250 K. Using this revised κ1 value with the recent mechanism of Pichon et al. (2009) [5], the simulated profiles during acetone pyrolysis show excellent agreement with all five species time-history measurements. Similarly, the overall 2-butanone decomposition rate constant κtot was inferred from measured 2-butanone time-histories, yielding κ tot(1.5 atm) = 6.08 × 1013 exp(-63.1 [kcal/mol]/RT) s -1 with an uncertainty of ±35%. This rate constant is approximately 30% faster than that proposed by Serinyel et al. (2010) [11] at 1119 K, and approximately 100% faster at 1412 K. Using the measured 2-butanone and CO time-histories and an O-atom balance analysis, a missing removal pathway for methyl ketene was identified. The rate constant for the decomposition of methyl ketene was assumed to be the same as the value for the ketene decomposition reaction. Using the revised κtot value and adding the methyl ketene decomposition reaction to the Serinyel et al. mechanism, the simulated profiles during 2-butanone pyrolysis show good agreement with the measurements for all five species.

  4. Thermal decomposition of expanded polystyrene in a pebble bed reactor to get higher liquid fraction yield at low temperatures. (United States)

    Chauhan, R S; Gopinath, S; Razdan, P; Delattre, C; Nirmala, G S; Natarajan, R


    Expanded polystyrene is one of the polymers produced in large quantities due to its versatile application in different fields. This polymer is one of the most intractable components in municipal solid waste. Disposal of polymeric material by pyrolysis or catalytic cracking yields valuable hydrocarbon fuels or monomers. Literature reports different types of reactors and arrangements that have uniform temperatures during pyrolysis and catalytic cracking. The present study focuses on reducing the temperature to maximize the quantity of styrene monomer in the liquid product. A bench scale reactor has been developed to recover the styrene monomer and other valuable chemicals. Experiments were carried under partial oxidation and vacuum conditions in the temperature range of 300-500 degrees C. In the pyrolysis optimization studies, the best atmospheric condition was determined to be vacuum, the pyrolysis temperature should be 500 degrees C, yield of liquid product obtained was 91.7% and yield of styrene obtained was 85.5%. In the characterization studies, distillation and IR spectroscopy experiments were carried out. The remaining of the liquid product comprises of benzene, ethyl benzene, and styrene dimers and trimers.

  5. Pressure Dependent Decomposition Kinetics of the Energetic Material HMX up to 3.6 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E A; Zaug, J M; Burnham, A K


    The effect of pressure on the thermal decomposition rate of the energetic material HMX was studied. HMX was precompressed in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) and heated at various rates. The parent species population was monitored as a function of time and temperature using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Decomposition rates were determined by fitting the fraction reacted to the extended-Prout-Tompkins nucleation-growth model and the Friedman isoconversional method. The results of these experiments and analysis indicate that pressure accelerates the decomposition at low to moderate pressures (i.e. between ambient pressure and 1 GPa) and decelerates the decomposition at higher pressures. The decomposition acceleration is attributed to pressure enhanced autocatalysis whereas the deceleration at high pressures is attributed pressure inhibiting bond homolysis step(s), which would result in an increase in volume. These results indicate that both {beta} and {delta} phase HMX are sensitive to pressure in the thermally induced decomposition kinetics.

  6. High-temperature archeointensity measurements from Mesopotamia (United States)

    Gallet, Yves; Le Goff, Maxime


    We present new archeointensity results obtained from 127 potsherds and baked brick fragments dated from the last four millennia BC which were collected from different Syrian archeological excavations. High temperature magnetization measurements were carried out using a laboratory-built triaxial vibrating sample magnetometer (Triaxe), and ancient field intensity determinations were derived from the experimental procedure described by Le Goff and Gallet [Le Goff and Gallet. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 229 (2004) 31-43]. As some of the studied samples were previously analyzed using the classical Thellier and Thellier [Thellier and Thellier . Ann. Geophys. 15 (1959) 285-376] method revised by Coe [Coe. J. Geophys. Res. 72 (1967) 3247-3262], a comparison of the results is made from the two methods. The differences both at the fragment and site levels are mostly within ± 5%, which strengthens the validity of the experimental procedure developed for the Triaxe. The new data help to better constrain the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Mesopotamia during archeological times, with the probable occurrence of an archeomagnetic jerk around 2800-2600 BC.

  7. Electronic phase separation and high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivelson, S.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Emery, V.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    The authors review the extensive evidence from model calculations that neutral holes in an antiferromagnet separate into hole-rich and hole-poor phases. All known solvable limits of models of holes in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet exhibit this behavior. The authors show that when the phase separation is frustrated by the introduction of long-range Coulomb interactions, the typical consequence is either a modulated (charge density wave) state or a superconducting phase. The authors then review some of the strong experimental evidence supporting an electronically-driven phase separation of the holes in the cuprate superconductors and the related Ni oxides. Finally, the authors argue that frustrated phase separation in these materials can account for many of the anomalous normal state properties of the high temperature superconductors and provide the mechanism of superconductivity. In particular, it is shown that the T-linear resistivity of the normal state is a paraconductivity associated with a novel composite pairing, although the ordered superconducting state is more conventional.

  8. High-temperature spreading kinetics of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, N.


    In this PhD work a drop transfer setup combined with high speed photography has been used to analyze the spreading of Ag on polished polycrystalline Mo and single crystalline Mo (110) and (100) substrates. The objective of this work was to unveil the basic phenomena controlling spreading in metal-metal systems. The observed spreading kinetics were compared with current theories of low and high temperature spreading such as a molecular kinetic model and a fluid flow model. Analyses of the data reveal that the molecular model does describe the fastest velocity data well for all the investigated systems. Therefore, the energy which is dissipated during the spreading process is a dissipation at the triple line rather than dissipation due to the viscosity in the liquid. A comparison of the determined free activation energy for wetting of {delta}G95{approx}145kJ/mol with literature values allows the statement that the rate determining step seems to be a surface diffusion of the Ag atoms along the triple line. In order to investigate possible ridge formation, due to local atomic diffusion of atoms of the substrate at the triple during the spreading process, grooving experiments of the polycrystalline Mo were performed to calculate the surface diffusities that will control ridge evolution. The analyses of this work showed that a ridge formation at the fastest reported wetting velocities was not possible if there is no initial perturbation for a ridge. If there was an initial perturbation for a ridge the ridge had to be much smaller than 1 nm in order to be able to move with the liquid font. Therefore ridge formation does not influence the spreading kinetics for the studied system and the chosen conditions. SEM, AFM and TEM investigations of the triple line showed that ridge formation does also not occur at the end of the wetting experiment when the drop is close to equilibrium and the wetting velocity is slow. (orig.)

  9. Singular value decomposition analysis for examining the impact of Siberian High on winter precipitation variability over South Asia (United States)

    Riaz, Syed Muhammad Fahad; Iqbal, Muhammad Jawed


    The relationship and linkage of Siberian High (SH) with winter climate over central Asia, East Asia, and Eurasia have been focused in the available literature. The effect of Siberian High over the South Asian region has received little attention. Thus, this article examines the possible teleconnection of SH pressure on winter precipitation variability over the region of South Asia. Moreover, the recent research studies focused on large-scale circulation phenomena: El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and regarded them as responsible for variability of winter rainfall. This paper gives the evidence that the winter rainfall variability is strongly influenced by Siberian High pressure. The effect of Siberian High pressure on winter precipitation over the South Asian region (65-76° E, 33-40° N) has been investigated using singular value decomposition analysis (SVDA) that is performed on gridded datasets of NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis and Climate Research Unit (CRU) of University of East Anglia, UK. SVDA isolates the leading pairs of the coupled signals that mainly explain the relationship between the coupled fields. By employing SVDA, it is found that the Siberian High has dominant impact on precipitation variability during winter season over Northern areas of South Asia.

  10. Thermal decomposition of illite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo José Humberto de


    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment on illite in air at temperatures ranging from 750 to 1150 °C was studied using the Mössbauer effect in 57Fe. The dependence of the Mössbauer parameters and relative percentage of the radiation absorption area was measured as a function of the firing temperature. The onset of thermal structural decomposition occurred at 800 °C. With rising temperature, the formation of hematite (Fe2O3 increased at the expense of the silicate mineral.

  11. High temperature impedance spectroscopy of barium stannate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared techniques. Electrical properties were studied using a.c. impedance spectroscopy technique in the temperature range of 50–650 °C and frequency range of 10 Hz–13 MHz. The complex impedance plots at temperature ≥ 300 °C show ...

  12. High temperatures influence sexual development differentially in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samadhan Krushna Phuge


    Jun 20, 2017 ... temperatures on gonadal development, sex ratio and metamorphosis was studied in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis ..... Table 1. Effect of rearing water temperature on gonadal differentiation and sex ratio of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis .... tures (28, 30 and 32°C) induced female to male sex reversal.

  13. Problem aspects of high temperature referral metrology (United States)

    Khodunkov, V. P.


    The main problematic aspects of the reproduction and transmission of a unit of temperature by a direct method are considered. The methodology and hardware for its implementation are considered. An estimate of the expected uncertainty in the measurement of the thermodynamic temperature is given.

  14. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwen [Sandy Hook, CT; Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan [New Milford, CT; Novacco, Lawrence J [Brookfield, CT


    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  15. Vortices in high-performance high-temperature superconductors (United States)

    Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Welp, Ulrich; Glatz, Andreas; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Kihlstrom, Karen J.; Crabtree, George W.


    The behavior of vortex matter in high-temperature superconductors (HTS) controls the entire electromagnetic response of the material, including its current carrying capacity. Here, we review the basic concepts of vortex pinning and its application to a complex mixed pinning landscape to enhance the critical current and to reduce its anisotropy. We focus on recent scientific advances that have resulted in large enhancements of the in-field critical current in state-of-the-art second generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors and on the prospect of an isotropic, high-critical current superconductor in the iron-based superconductors. Lastly, we discuss an emerging new paradigm of critical current by design—a drive to achieve a quantitative correlation between the observed critical current density and mesoscale mixed pinning landscapes by using realistic input parameters in an innovative and powerful large-scale time dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach to simulating vortex dynamics.

  16. High Growth Rate Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy at Low Temperature through Use of Uncracked Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Kevin L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simon, John D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ptak, Aaron J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Braun, Anna [Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology


    We demonstrate hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) of GaAs with unusually high growth rates (RG) at low temperature and atmospheric pressure by employing a hydride-enhanced growth mechanism. Under traditional HVPE growth conditions that involve growth from Asx species, RG exhibits a strong temperature dependence due to slow kinetics at the surface, and growth temperatures >750 degrees C are required to obtain RG > 60 um/h. We demonstrate that when the group V element reaches the surface in a hydride, the kinetic barrier is dramatically reduced and surface kinetics no longer limit RG. In this regime, RG is dependent on mass transport of uncracked AsH3 to the surface. By controlling the AsH3 velocity and temperature profile of the reactor, which both affect the degree of AsH3 decomposition, we demonstrate tuning of RG. We achieve RG above 60 um/h at temperatures as low as 560 degrees C and up to 110 um/h at 650 degrees C. We incorporate high-RG GaAs into solar cell devices to verify that the electronic quality does not deteriorate as RG is increased. The open circuit voltage (VOC), which is a strong function of non-radiative recombination in the bulk material, exhibits negligible variance in a series of devices grown at 650 degrees C with RG = 55-110 um/h. The implications of low temperature growth for the formation of complex heterostructure devices by HVPE are discussed.

  17. Spectral emissivity of candidate alloys for very high temperature reactors in high temperature air environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, G., E-mail:; Weber, S.J.; Martin, S.O.; Sridharan, K.; Anderson, M.H.; Allen, T.R.


    Emissivity measurements for candidate alloys for very high temperature reactors were carried out in a custom-built experimental facility, capable of both efficient and reliable measurements of spectral emissivities of multiple samples at high temperatures. The alloys studied include 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels, Alloy 617, and SA508 ferritic steel. The oxidation of alloys plays an important role in dictating emissivity values. The higher chromium content of 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels, and Alloy 617 results in an oxide layer only of sub-micron thickness even at 700 °C and consequently the emissivity of these alloys remains low. In contrast, the low alloy SA508 ferritic steel which contains no chromium develops a thicker oxide layer, and consequently exhibits higher emissivity values.

  18. Spectral emissivity of candidate alloys for very high temperature reactors in high temperature air environment (United States)

    Cao, G.; Weber, S. J.; Martin, S. O.; Sridharan, K.; Anderson, M. H.; Allen, T. R.


    Emissivity measurements for candidate alloys for very high temperature reactors were carried out in a custom-built experimental facility, capable of both efficient and reliable measurements of spectral emissivities of multiple samples at high temperatures. The alloys studied include 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels, Alloy 617, and SA508 ferritic steel. The oxidation of alloys plays an important role in dictating emissivity values. The higher chromium content of 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels, and Alloy 617 results in an oxide layer only of sub-micron thickness even at 700 °C and consequently the emissivity of these alloys remains low. In contrast, the low alloy SA508 ferritic steel which contains no chromium develops a thicker oxide layer, and consequently exhibits higher emissivity values.

  19. Ultra-High Temperature Distributed Wireless Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Russell; Rumpf, Raymond; Coggin, John; Davis, Williams; Yang, Taeyoung; O' Donnell, Alan; Bresnahan, Peter


    Research was conducted towards the development of a passive wireless sensor for measurement of temperature in coal gasifiers and coal-fired boiler plants. Approaches investigated included metamaterial sensors based on guided mode resonance filters, and temperature-sensitive antennas that modulate the frequency of incident radio waves as they are re-radiated by the antenna. In the guided mode resonant filter metamaterial approach, temperature is encoded as changes in the sharpness of the filter response, which changes with temperature because the dielectric loss of the guided mode resonance filter is temperature-dependent. In the mechanically modulated antenna approach, the resonant frequency of a vibrating cantilever beam attached to the antenna changes with temperature. The vibration of the beam perturbs the electrical impedance of the antenna, so that incident radio waves are phase modulated at a frequency equal to the resonant frequency of the vibrating beam. Since the beam resonant frequency depends on temperature, a Doppler radar can be used to remotely measure the temperature of the antenna. Laboratory testing of the guided mode resonance filter failed to produce the spectral response predicted by simulations. It was concluded that the spectral response was dominated by spectral reflections of radio waves incident on the filter. Laboratory testing of the mechanically modulated antenna demonstrated that the device frequency shifted incident radio waves, and that the frequency of the re-radiated waves varied linearly with temperature. Radio wave propagation tests in the convection pass of a small research boiler plant identified a spectral window between 10 and 13 GHz for low loss propagation of radio waves in the interior of the boiler.

  20. Packaging Technology for SiC High Temperature Electronics (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Nakley, Leah M.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.


    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for long-term exploration of Venus and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500 C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors in relevant environments. This talk will discuss a ceramic packaging system developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC integrated circuits at 500 C facilitated by this high temperature packaging system, including the most recent progress.

  1. Modeling aerobic decomposition of rice straw during the off-rice season in an Andisol paddy soil in a cold temperate region of Japan: Effects of soil temperature and moisture


    Nakajima, Miyuki; Cheng, Weiguo; Tang, Shuirong; Hori, Yasuaki; Yaginuma, Eiko; Hattori, Satoshi; Hanayama, Susumu; Tawaraya, Keitaro; Xu, Xingkai


    Submerged rice paddies are a major source of methane (CH4) which is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2). Accelerating rice straw decomposition during the off-rice season could help to reduce CH4 emission from rice paddies during the single rice-growth season in cold temperate regions. For understanding how both temperature and moisture can affect the rate of rice straw decomposition during the off-rice season in the cold temperate region of Tohoku district, Jap...

  2. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim


    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  3. Extreme Environment High Temperature Communication Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a communications system capable of operation at extreme temperatures and pressures in hostile and corrosive...

  4. High Temperature Characterization of Ceramic Pressure Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fonseca, Michael A; English, Jennifer M; Von Arx, Martin; Allen, Mark G


    This work reports functional wireless ceramic micromachined pressure sensors operating at 450 C, with demonstrated materials and readout capability indicating potential extension to temperatures in excess of 600 C...

  5. High Temperature Acoustic Noise Reduction Materials Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is to use combustion synthesis techniques to manufacture ceramic-based acoustic liners capable of withstanding temperatures up to 2500?C....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin


    Full Text Available The results of investigations of physical-mechanical characteristics of cast iron slugs, received by semicontinuos way of casting, at temperatures from 850 up to 1100^ С are given. 

  7. NOvel Refractory Materials for High Alkali, High Temperature Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, J.G.; Griffin, R. (MINTEQ International, Inc.)


    Refractory materials can be limited in their application by many factors including chemical reactions between the service environment and the refractory material, mechanical degradation of the refractory material by the service environment, temperature limitations on the use of a particular refractory material, and the inability to install or repair the refractory material in a cost effective manner or while the vessel was in service. The objective of this project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al2O3 spinel or other similar magnesia/alumina containing unshaped refractory composition (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, highalkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. A research team was formed to carry out the proposed work led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and was comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The two goals of this project were to produce novel refractory compositions which will allow for improved energy efficiency and to develop new refractory application techniques which would improve the speed of installation. Also methods of hot installation were sought which would allow for hot repairs and on-line maintenance leading to reduced process downtimes and eliminating the need to cool and reheat process vessels.

  8. Assessment of the Harmfulness of Moulding Sands with Alkyd Resin Subjected to the High Temperature Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtzer M.


    Full Text Available Out of moulding sands used in the foundry industry, sands with organic binders deserve a special attention. These binders are based on synthetic resins, which ensure obtaining the proper technological properties and sound castings, however, they negatively influence the environment. These resins in their initial state these resins are not very dangerous for people and for the environment, thus under an influence of high temperatures they generate very harmful products, being the result of their thermal decomposition. Depending on the kind of the applied resin, under an influence of a temperature such compounds as: furfuryl alcohol, formaldehyde, phenol, BTEX group (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and also polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs can be formed and released.

  9. High Temperature Air/Steam Gasification (HTAG). Technical report no. 2: High Temperature Air/Steam Gasification of biomass and wastes - Stage 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasiak, W.; Kalisz, S.; Szewczyk, D.; Lucas, C.; Abeyweera, R. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dep of Materials Science and Engineering


    This report aims to provide information on activity of Division of Energy and Furnace Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology in the field of solid biomass conversion into fuel gas within year 2003. Contrary to the conventional gasification, in this work highly preheated air and steam is used as a gasifying agent and supplied to newly designed continuous gasifier. Preheating of air and steam is realised by means of the modern high-cycle regenerative Air/steam preheater. Maximum temperature of preheated air or steam is raised up to 1600 deg C. In this work the laboratory test facility called High Temperature Air/steam Gasification (HTAG) plant with flow rate of preheated air or steam up to 110 Nm{sup 3}/h is used. Use of highly preheated gasifying media provides additional energy into the gasification, which enhances the thermal decomposition of solids being gasified. Together with continuous operation mode of the new gasifier, a stable process producing relatively clean fuel gas is reported. High Temperature Air/steam Gasification has very clear economical and environmental benefits. It will increase consumption of biomass (like wood pellets) thus decreases CO{sub 2} emissions from energy intensive industries. Apart from CO{sub 2} reduction possibility, the new process, High Temperature Gasification of wastes, fulfils all new regulations proposed by European Commission on wastes incineration since: no landfilling of ash residues is required, no need to treat ashes from gasification since there is no ash produced but slag which is non leachable and can be used as building material, clean gas for combustion and production of heat or electricity. In this work only gasification of wood pellets is reported but all efforts are targeted on later continuous gasification of other kinds of biomass and wastes.

  10. High heating rate decomposition dynamics of copper oxide by nanocalorimetry-coupled time-of-flight mass spectrometry (United States)

    Yi, Feng; DeLisio, Jeffery B.; Nguyen, Nam; Zachariah, Michael R.; LaVan, David A.


    The thermodynamics and evolved gases were measured during the rapid decomposition of copper oxide (CuO) thin film at rates exceeding 100,000 K/s. CuO decomposes to release oxygen when heated and serves as an oxidizer in reactive composites and chemical looping combustion. Other instruments have shown either one or two decomposition steps during heating. We have confirmed that CuO decomposes by two steps at both slower and higher heating rates. The decomposition path influences the reaction course in reactive Al/CuO/Al composites, and full understanding is important in designing reactive mixtures and other new reactive materials.

  11. Design of High Field Solenoids made of High Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalesi, Antonio; /Pisa U.


    This thesis starts from the analytical mechanical analysis of a superconducting solenoid, loaded by self generated Lorentz forces. Also, a finite element model is proposed and verified with the analytical results. To study the anisotropic behavior of a coil made by layers of superconductor and insulation, a finite element meso-mechanic model is proposed and designed. The resulting material properties are then used in the main solenoid analysis. In parallel, design work is performed as well: an existing Insert Test Facility (ITF) is adapted and structurally verified to support a coil made of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS). Finally, a technological winding process was proposed and the required tooling is designed.

  12. Effect of microstructure on the high temperature strength of nitride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of these parameters on room temperature and high temperature strength of the composite up to 1300°C in ambient condition were studied. The high temperature flexural strength of the composite of all compositions increased at 1200 and 1300°C because of oxidation of Si3N4 phase and blunting crack front.

  13. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications). (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2.A.) Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 775 °F (412 °C), the carbide phase of plain carbon...

  14. The impact of high temperatures on foraging behaviour and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High temperatures can pose significant thermoregulation challenges for endotherms, and determining how individual species respond to high temperatures will be important for predicting the impact of global warming on wild populations. Animals can adjust their behaviour or physiology to cope with higher temperatures, ...

  15. Preparation of a highly active Fe-ZSM-5 catalyst through solid-state ion exchange for the catalytic decomposition of N{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, M.; Kesore, K.; Moennig, R.; Schwieger, W. [Institut fuer Technische Chemie und Makromolekulare Chemie, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Schlossberg 2, D-06108 Halle/S (Germany); Tissler, A. [ALSI-PENTA Zeolithe GmbH, Alustrasse 50-52, D-92421 Schwandorf (Germany); Turek, T. [Institut fuer Chemische Verfahrenstechnik, Universitaet Karlsruhe TH, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)


    This work describes a new and simple preparation method for Fe-ZSM-5 pentasil-zeolites through solid-state ion exchange process. The zeolite catalysts thus prepared exhibit high activity during the catalytic decomposition of N{sub 2}O in the absence of reducing agents. The aimed choice of using FeSO{sub 4}x7H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}-ZSM-5 as starting materials consisted of forming such products (ammonium salts) after the ion exchange process that can be completely removed through thermal treatment. The complete preparation process leading to the formation of catalytically active iron species inside the zeolite takes place in two steps at two distinguished temperatures, respectively. The first step during which the solid-state ion exchange takes place has been carried out through two different routes, in air and in vacuum, in search for an enhanced catalytic activity. The second step has to be necessarily done under anaerobic conditions. XRD measurements have revealed the presence of hematite in samples with a Fe(II)/Al ratio above 0.5. The different numbers of Broensted sites occupied by the iron species in the catalysts with different Fe contents have also been determined

  16. Pargasite at high pressure and temperature (United States)

    Comboni, Davide; Lotti, Paolo; Gatta, G. Diego; Merlini, Marco; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Frost, Daniel J.


    The P-T phase stability field, the thermoelastic behavior and the P-induced deformation mechanisms at the atomic scale of pargasite crystals, from the "phlogopite peridotite unit" of the Finero mafic-ultramafic complex (Ivrea-Verbano Formation, Italy), have been investigated by a series of in situ experiments: (a) at high pressure (up to 20.1 GPa), by single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction with a diamond anvil cell, (b) at high temperature (up to 823 K), by powder synchrotron X-ray diffraction using a hot air blower device, and (c) at simultaneous HP-HT conditions, by single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction with a resistive-heated diamond anvil cell (P max = 16.5 GPa, T max = 1200 K). No phase transition has been observed within the P-T range investigated. At ambient T, the refined compressional parameters, calculated by fitting a second-order Birch-Murnaghan Equation of State (BM-EoS), are: V 0 = 915.2(8) Å3 and K P0,T0 = 95(2) GPa (β P0,T0 = 0.0121(2) GPa-1) for the unit-cell volume; a 0 = 9.909(4) Å and K(a) P0,T0 = 76(2) GPa for the a-axis; b 0 = 18.066(7) Å and K(b) P0,T0 = 111(2) GPa for the b-axis; c 0 = 5.299(5) Å and K(c) P0,T0 = 122(12) GPa for the c-axis [K(c) P0,T0 K(b) P0,T0 > K(a) P0,T0]. The high-pressure structure refinements (at ambient T) show a moderate contraction of the TO4 double chain and a decrease of its bending in response to the hydrostatic compression, along with a pronounced compressibility of the A- and M(4)-polyhedra [K P0, T0(A) = 38(2) GPa, K P0, T0(M4) = 79(5) GPa] if compared to the M(1)-, M(2)-, M(3)-octahedra [K P0, T0(M1,2,3) ≤ 120 GPa] and to the rigid tetrahedra [K P0, T0(T1,T2) 300 GPa]. The thermal behavior, at ambient pressure up to 823 K, was modelled with Berman's formalism, which gives: V 0 = 909.1(2) Å3, α0 = 2.7(2)·10-5 K-1 and α1 = 1.4(6)·10-9 K-2 [with α0(a) = 0.47(6)·10-5 K-1, α0(b) = 1.07(4)·10-5 K-1, and α0(c) = 0.97(7)·10-5 K-1]. The petrological implications for the experimental

  17. Transport Processes in High Temperature QCD Plasmas (United States)

    Hong, Juhee

    The transport properties of high temperature QCD plasmas can be described by kinetic theory based on the Boltzmann equation. At a leading-log approximation, the Boltzmann equation is reformulated as a Fokker-Planck equation. First, we compute the spectral densities of Tµν and Jµ by perturbing the system with weak gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The spectral densities exhibit a smooth transition from free-streaming quasi-particles to hydrodynamics. This transition is analyzed with hydrodynamics and diffusion equation up to second order. We determine all of the first and second order transport coefficients which characterize the linear response in the hydrodynamic regime. Second, we simulate the wake of a heavy quark moving through the plasmas. At long distances, the energy density and flux distributions show sound waves and a diffusion wake. The kinetic theory calculations based on the Boltzmann equation at weak coupling are compared to the strong coupling results given by the AdS/CFT correspondence. By using the hard-thermal-loop effective theory, we determine the photon emission rate at next-to-leading order (NLO), i.e., at order g2mD /T. There are three mechanisms which contribute to the leading-order photon emission: (2 ↔ 2) elastic scatterings, (1 ↔ 2) collinear bremsstrahlung, and (1 ↔ 1) quark-photon conversion due to soft fermion exchange. At NLO, these three mechanisms are not completely independent. When the transverse momentum between quark and photon becomes soft, the Compton scattering with a soft gluon reduces to wide-angle bremsstrahlung. Similarly, bremsstrahlung reduces to the quark-photon conversion process when the photon carries most of the incoming momentum. Therefore, the rates should be matched to determine the wide-angle NLO correction. Collinear bremsstrahlung can be accounted for by solving an integral equation which corresponds to summing ladder diagrams. With O(g) corrections in the collision kernel and the asymptotic

  18. Magnesium Diecasting Alloys for High Temperature Applications (United States)

    Pekguleryuz, Mihriban O.; Kaya, A. Arslan

    New growth area for automotive use of magnesium is powertrain applications such as the transmission case and engine block. These applications see service conditions in the temperature range of 150-200C under 50-70 MPa of tensile and compressive loads. In addition, metallurgical stability, fatigue resistance, corrosion resistance and castability requirements need to be met. A decade of research and development has resulted in a number of creep- resistant magnesium alloys that are potential candidates for elevated-temperature automotive applications. These alloys are mostly based on rare-earth and alkaline earth element additions to magnesium. This paper gives an overview of the various magnesium alloy systems for use in elevated-temperature applications.

  19. High Temperature and Pressure Alkaline Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank

    temperatures and pressures. Aqueous potassium hydroxide immobilized electrolyte in porous SrTiO3 was used in those cells. Electrolysis cells with metal foam based gas diffusion electrodes and the immobilized electrolyte were successfully demonstrated at temperatures up to 250 °C and 40 bar. Different electro-catalysts...... were tested in order to reduce the oxygen and hydrogen overpotentials. Current densities of 1.1 A cm-2 and 2.3 A cm-2 have been measured at a cell voltage of 1.5 V and 1.75 V, respectively, without using expensive noble metal catalysts. Electrical efficiencies of almost 99 % at 1.1 A cm-2 and 85 % at 2...... against conventional technologies for hydrogen production, such as natural gas reforming, the production and investment costs have to be reduced. A reduction of the investment costs may be achieved by increasing the operational pressure and temperature of the electrolyzer, as this will result in: 1...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.


    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  1. High-Precision Spectral Decomposition Method Based on VMD/CWT/FWEO for Hydrocarbon Detection in Tight Sandstone Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen


    Full Text Available Seismic time-frequency analysis methods can be used for hydrocarbon detection because of the phenomena of energy and abnormal attenuation of frequency when the seismic waves travel across reservoirs. A high-resolution method based on variational mode decomposition (VMD, continuous-wavelet transform (CWT and frequency-weighted energy operator (FWEO is proposed for hydrocarbon detection in tight sandstone gas reservoirs. VMD can decompose seismic signals into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMF in the frequency domain. In order to avoid meaningful frequency loss, the CWT method is used to obtain the time-frequency spectra of the selected IMFs. The energy separation algorithm based on FWEO can improve the resolution of time-frequency spectra and highlight abnormal energy, which is applied to track the instantaneous energy in the time-frequency spectra. The difference between the high-frequency section and low-frequency section acquired by applying the proposed method is utilized to detect hydrocarbons. Applications using the model and field data further demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively detect hydrocarbons in tight sandstone reservoirs, with good anti-noise performance. The newly-proposed method can be used as an analysis tool to detect hydrocarbons.

  2. Study of the Laser-Induced Decomposition of HNO3/2-NITROPROPANE Mixture at Static High Pressure (United States)

    Bouyer, V.; Hébert, P.; Doucet, M.


    The objective of the work presented here is to study the laser-induced decomposition of a condensed HNO3/2-nitropropane mixture containing 58% nitric acid. On the macroscopic scale, this energetic material detonates. Under static high pressure, the formation of an H-bonded complex with that particular composition was demonstrated in a previous study. The high pressure behavior of the complex showed the presence of a solid-solid phase transition around 18 GPa. The combustion front propagation velocity was recorded between 6 and 31 GPa. The analysis of the optical properties of the reaction products as well as the recording of their Raman spectra showed two different combustion regimes. Below 18 GPa, total combustion takes place in the sample and a black residue only composed of soot remains in the cell. Above 18 GPa, the combustion leads to a clear residue with little carbon present. However, the Raman spectra of the remaining sample show new features indicating the presence of species which are not yet clearly identified. The pressure limit between these two behaviors corresponds to the phase transition pressure measured for the complex.

  3. High incubation temperatures enhance mitochondrial energy metabolism in reptile embryos. (United States)

    Sun, Bao-Jun; Li, Teng; Gao, Jing; Ma, Liang; Du, Wei-Guo


    Developmental rate increases exponentially with increasing temperature in ectothermic animals, but the biochemical basis underlying this thermal dependence is largely unexplored. We measured mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities of turtle embryos (Pelodiscus sinensis) incubated at different temperatures to identify the metabolic basis of the rapid development occurring at high temperatures in reptile embryos. Developmental rate increased with increasing incubation temperatures in the embryos of P. sinensis. Correspondingly, in addition to the thermal dependence of mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities, high-temperature incubation further enhanced mitochondrial respiration and COX activities in the embryos. This suggests that embryos may adjust mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities in response to developmental temperature to achieve high developmental rates at high temperatures. Our study highlights the importance of biochemical investigations in understanding the proximate mechanisms by which temperature affects embryonic development.

  4. Effect of tempering temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of high boron white cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhongli


    Full Text Available The effect of different tempering temperatures on the microstructure and mechanical properties of air-quenched high boron white cast iron was studied. The results indicate that the high boron white cast iron comprises dendritic matrix and inter-dendritic M2B boride; and the matrix comprises martensite and pearlite. After quenching in the air, the matrix is changed into lath martensite; but only 1-μm-size second phase exists in the matrix. After tempering, another second phase of several tens of nanometers is found in the matrix, and the size and quantity increase with an increase in tempering temperature. The two kinds of second precipitation phase with different sizes in the matrix have the same chemical formula, but their forming stages are different. The precipitation phase with larger size forms during the austenitizing process, while the precipitation phase with smaller size forms during the tempering process. When tempered at different temperatures after quenching, the hardness decreases with an increase in the tempering temperature, but it increases a little at 450 ℃ due to the precipitation strengthening effect of the second phase, and it decreases greatly due to the martensite decomposition above 450 ℃. The impact toughness increases a little when tempered below 300 ℃, but it then decreases continuously owing to the increase in size and quantity of the secondary precipitate above 300 ℃. Considered comprehensively, the optimum tempering temperature is suggested at 300 ℃ to obtain a good combination of hardness and toughness.

  5. Temperature response functions introduce high uncertainty in modelled carbon stocks in cold temperature regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Portner


    Full Text Available Models of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems contain formulations for the dependence of respiration on temperature, but the sensitivity of predicted carbon pools and fluxes to these formulations and their parameterization is not well understood. Thus, we performed an uncertainty analysis of soil organic matter decomposition with respect to its temperature dependency using the ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS.

    We used five temperature response functions (Exponential, Arrhenius, Lloyd-Taylor, Gaussian, Van't Hoff. We determined the parameter confidence ranges of the formulations by nonlinear regression analysis based on eight experimental datasets from Northern Hemisphere ecosystems. We sampled over the confidence ranges of the parameters and ran simulations for each pair of temperature response function and calibration site. We analyzed both the long-term and the short-term heterotrophic soil carbon dynamics over a virtual elevation gradient in southern Switzerland.

    The temperature relationship of Lloyd-Taylor fitted the overall data set best as the other functions either resulted in poor fits (Exponential, Arrhenius or were not applicable for all datasets (Gaussian, Van't Hoff. There were two main sources of uncertainty for model simulations: (1 the lack of confidence in the parameter estimates of the temperature response, which increased with increasing temperature, and (2 the size of the simulated soil carbon pools, which increased with elevation, as slower turn-over times lead to higher carbon stocks and higher associated uncertainties. Our results therefore indicate that such projections are more uncertain for higher elevations and hence also higher latitudes, which are of key importance for the global terrestrial carbon budget.

  6. High temperature superconductor cable concepts for fusion magnets

    CERN Document Server



    Three concepts of high temperature superconductor cables carrying kA currents (RACC, CORC and TSTC) are investigated, optimized and evaluated in the scope of their applicability as conductor in fusion magnets. The magnetic field and temperature dependence of the cables is measured; the thermal expansion and conductivity of structure, insulation and filling materials are investigated. High temperature superconductor winding packs for fusion magnets are calculated and compared with corresponding low temperature superconductor cases.

  7. Maintenance in Service of High Temperature Parts (United States)


    program activities. io4 6-1 DEFECTS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF GAS TIURBNE DISCS Robert H Jeal Head of Materials Engineering Rolls-Royce Limited...temperature sulphidatien and hot forrosal. m 5.• ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author wishes to thank N. Swindells of the University of Livernool for his efforts in

  8. Micromechanics of high temperature hydrogen attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlögl, Sabine M.; Giessen, Erik van der


    Hydrogen attack is a material degradation process that occurs at elevated temperatures in hydrogen-rich environments, such as found in petro-chemical installations. Weldments in components such as reactor vessels are particularly susceptible to hydrogen attack. This paper discusses a multi-scale

  9. Improving the high performance concrete (HPC behaviour in high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattelan Antocheves De Lima, R.


    Full Text Available High performance concrete (HPC is an interesting material that has been long attracting the interest from the scientific and technical community, due to the clear advantages obtained in terms of mechanical strength and durability. Given these better characteristics, HFC, in its various forms, has been gradually replacing normal strength concrete, especially in structures exposed to severe environments. However, the veiy dense microstructure and low permeability typical of HPC can result in explosive spalling under certain thermal and mechanical conditions, such as when concrete is subject to rapid temperature rises, during a f¡re. This behaviour is caused by the build-up of internal water pressure, in the pore structure, during heating, and by stresses originating from thermal deformation gradients. Although there are still a limited number of experimental programs in this area, some researchers have reported that the addition of polypropylene fibers to HPC is a suitable way to avoid explosive spalling under f re conditions. This change in behavior is derived from the fact that polypropylene fibers melt in high temperatures and leave a pathway for heated gas to escape the concrete matrix, therefore allowing the outward migration of water vapor and resulting in the reduction of interned pore pressure. The present research investigates the behavior of high performance concrete on high temperatures, especially when polypropylene fibers are added to the mix.

    El hormigón de alta resistencia (HAR es un material de gran interés para la comunidad científica y técnica, debido a las claras ventajas obtenidas en término de resistencia mecánica y durabilidad. A causa de estas características, el HAR, en sus diversas formas, en algunas aplicaciones está reemplazando gradualmente al hormigón de resistencia normal, especialmente en estructuras expuestas a ambientes severos. Sin embargo, la microestructura muy densa y la baja permeabilidad t

  10. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, K.D.; Fain, D.E.; James, D.L.; Powell, L.E.; Raj, T.; Roettger, G.E.; Sutton, T.G. [East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The separative performance of the authors` ceramic membranes has been determined in the past using a permeance test system that measured flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275 C. From these data, the separation factor was determined for a particular gas pair from the ratio of the pure gas specific flows. An important project goal this year has been to build a Mixed Gas Separation System (MGSS) for measuring the separation efficiencies of membranes at higher temperatures and using mixed gases. The MGSS test system has been built, and initial operation has been achieved. The MGSS is capable of measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600 C and pressures up to 100 psi using a binary gas mixture such as hydrogen/methane. The mixed gas is fed into a tubular membrane at pressures up to 100 psi, and the membrane separates the feed gas mixture into a permeate stream and a raffinate stream. The test membrane is sealed in a stainless steel holder that is mounted in a split tube furnace to permit membrane separations to be evaluated at temperatures up to 600 C. The compositions of the three gas streams are measured by a gas chromatograph equipped with thermal conductivity detectors. The test system also measures the temperatures and pressures of all three gas streams as well as the flow rate of the feed stream. These data taken over a range of flows and pressures permit the separation efficiency to be determined as a function of the operating conditions. A mathematical model of the separation has been developed that permits the data to be reduced and the separation factor for the membrane to be determined.

  11. High temperature structural, polymeric foams from high internal emulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoisington, M.A.; Duke, J.R.; Apen, P.G.


    In 1982, a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization process to manufacture microcellular, polymeric foam systems was patented by Unilever. This patent discloses a polymerization process that occurs in a water-in-oil emulsion in which the water represents at least 76% of the emulsion by volume. The oil phase consists of vinyl monomers such as styrene and acrylates that are crosslinked by divinyl monomers during polymerization. After polymerization and drying to remove the water phase, the result is a crosslinked polymer foam with an open cell microstructure that is homogeneous throughout in terms of morphology, density, and mechanical properties. Since 1982, numerous patents have examined various HIPE polymerized foam processing techniques and applications that include absorbents for body fluids, cleaning materials, and ion exchange systems. All the published HIPE polymerized foams have concentrated on materials for low temperature applications. Copolymerization of styrene with maleic anhydride and N-substituted maleimides to produce heat resistant thermoplastics has been studied extensively. These investigations have shown that styrene will free radically copolymerize with N-substituted maleimides to create an alternating thermoplastic copolymer with a Tg of approximately 200{degrees}C. However, there are many difficulties in attempting the maleimide styrene copolymerization in a HIPE such as lower polymerization temperatures, maleimide solubility difficulties in both styrene and water, and difficulty obtaining a stable HIPE with a styrene/maleimide oil phase. This work describes the preparation of copolymer foams from N-ethylmaleimide and Bis(3-ethyl-5-methyl-4-maleimide-phenyl)methane with styrene based monomers and crosslinking agents.

  12. AE Geomagnetic Index Predictability for High Speed Solar Wind Streams: A Wavelet Decomposition Technique (United States)

    Guarnieri, Fernando L.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Hajra, Rajkumar; Echer, Ezequiel; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Mannucci, Anthony J.


    High speed solar wind streams cause geomagnetic activity at Earth. In this study we have applied a wavelet interactive filtering and reconstruction technique on the solar wind magnetic field components and AE index series to allowed us to investigate the relationship between the two. The IMF Bz component was found as the most significant solar wind parameter responsible by the control of the AE activity. Assuming magnetic reconnection associated to southward directed Bz is the main mechanism transferring energy into the magnetosphere, we adjust parameters to forecast the AE index. The adjusted routine is able to forecast AE, based only on the Bz measured at the L1 Lagrangian point. This gives a prediction approximately 30-70 minutes in advance of the actual geomagnetic activity. The correlation coefficient between the observed AE data and the forecasted series reached values higher than 0.90. In some cases the forecast reproduced particularities observed in the signal very well.The high correlation values observed and the high efficacy of the forecasting can be taken as a confirmation that reconnection is the main physical mechanism responsible for the energy transfer during HILDCAAs. The study also shows that the IMF Bz component low frequencies are most important for AE prediction.

  13. Monitoring temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon decomposition under maize-wheat cropping systems in semi-arid India. (United States)

    Sandeep, S; Manjaiah, K M; Mayadevi, M R; Singh, A K


    Long-term storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) is essential for sustainability of agricultural ecosystems and maintaining overall environment quality as soils contain a significant part of global carbon stocks. In this study, we attempted to explain the carbon mineralization and temperature sensitivity of SOC in maize-wheat systems, a common cropping system in the semi-arid regions of India. Soil samples(0-0.15 m) from long-term experimental plots laid in split plot design with two tillage systems (conventional tillage and bed planting) and six nutrient management treatments (T 1 = control, T 2 = 120 kg urea-N/ha, T 3 = T2 (25 % N substituted by farmyard manure (FYM)), T 4 = T 2 (25 % N substituted by sewage sludge), T 5 = T 2 + crop residue, T 6 = 100 % recommended doses of N through organic source - 50 % FYM + 25 % biofertilizer + 25 % crop residue) were incubated at different temperatures (25, 30, 35, and 40 °C) to determine the thermal sensitivity parameters associated with carbon mineralization. Earlier reports suggest a selective preservation of C3-derived carbon fractions over C4 in the SOC pool, and this is the first instance where δ (13)C signatures (C4-derived carbon) were used as a qualitative measure to assess thermal sensitivity of SOC pools in the maize-wheat crop rotation systems of semi-arid India. Among the nutrient management treatments, mineral fertilizers were found to add more C4-derived carbon to the SOC pool in both the tillage systems but shows less promise in SOC stability as indicated by their lower activation energies (Ea) (14.25 kJ mol(-1)). Conventional tillage was found to mineralize 18.80 % (T 1-control at 25 °C) to 29.93 % carbon (T 3-mineral fertilizer + FYM at 40 °C) during the 150 days of incubation which was significantly higher than bed planting system (14.90 % in T 1-control at 25 °C and 21.99 % in T 6-100% organic sources at 40 °C). Organic manures, especially FYM (19

  14. Probing thermodynamic fluctuations in high temperature superconductors (United States)

    Vidal, Felix; Veira, J. A.; Maza, J.; Miguélez, F.; Morán, E.; Alario, M. A.


    We probe thermodynamic fluctuations in HTSC by measuring the excess electrical conductivity, Δσ, abovr T c in single-phase (within 4%) Ba 2LnCu 3O 7-δ compounds, with LnY, Ho and Sm. As expected, the measured relative effect, Δσ / σ (300 K), is much more important in HTSC than for low-temperature superconductors (at least one order of magnitude). In the reduced temperature region -5=-0.47 ± 0.06. This result confirms an universal critical behaviour of Δσ in HTSC, and the value of agrees with that predicted by the Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) theory for three-dimensional BCS superconductivity. However, A shows a normal conductivity dependence which is not accounted for by the AL theory.

  15. Decomposition Polypropylene Plastic Waste with Pyrolysis Methode


    Naimah, Siti; Nuraeni, Chicha; Rumondang, Irma; Jati, Bumiarto Nugroho; Ermawati, Rahyani


    Various attempts have been made to reduce plastic waste. One of the attempts is to convert plastic waste into energy sources. The process of converting waste plastics involves several stages of the process, one of which is the pyrolysis (thermal cracking). Pyrolysis is the decomposition process of plastic waste and distillation process without O2 at high temperatures (500-1000 °C). Results of pyrolysis process is solids and liquids forms. With the reactor temperature at 500 °C, pyrolysis equi...

  16. Elastic properties and stress-temperature phase diagrams of high-temperature phases with low-temperature lattice instabilities (United States)

    Thomas, John C.; Van der Ven, Anton


    The crystal structures of many technologically important high-temperature phases are predicted to have lattice instabilities at low temperature, making their thermodynamic and mechanical properties inaccessible to standard first principles approaches that rely on the (quasi) harmonic approximation. Here, we use the recently developed anharmonic potential cluster expansion within Monte Carlo simulations to predict the effect of temperature and anisotropic stress on the elastic properties of ZrH2, a material that undergoes diffusionless transitions among cubic, tetragonal, and orthorhombic phases. Our analysis shows that the mechanical properties of high-temperature phases with low-temperature vibrational instabilities are very sensitive to temperature and stress state. These findings have important implications for materials characterization and multi-scale simulations and suggest opportunities for enhanced strain engineering of high-temperature phases exhibiting soft-mode instabilities.

  17. Ultra-High-Speed Travelling Wave Protection of Transmission Line Using Polarity Comparison Principle Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang


    Full Text Available The traditional polarity comparison based travelling wave protection, using the initial wave information, is affected by initial fault angle, bus structure, and external fault. And the relationship between the magnitude and polarity of travelling wave is ignored. Because of the protection tripping and malfunction, the further application of this protection principle is affected. Therefore, this paper presents an ultra-high-speed travelling wave protection using integral based polarity comparison principle. After empirical mode decomposition of the original travelling wave, the first-order intrinsic mode function is used as protection object. Based on the relationship between the magnitude and polarity of travelling wave, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of using travelling wave magnitude which contains polar information as direction criterion. And the paper integrates the direction criterion in a period after fault to avoid wave head detection failure. Through PSCAD simulation with the typical 500 kV transmission system, the reliability and sensitivity of travelling wave protection were verified under different factors’ affection.

  18. Double Bag VARTM for High Temperature Composites Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cost and size are limiting factors in efforts to produce high strength, high stiffness, and high temperature composite parts. To address these issues, new processes...

  19. Confinement Studies in High Temperature Spheromak Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D N; Mclean, H S; Wood, R D; Casper, T A; Cohen, B I; Hooper, E B; LoDestro, L L; Pearlstein, L D; Romero-Talamas, C


    Recent results from the SSPX spheromak experiment demonstrate the potential for obtaining good energy confinement (Te > 350eV and radial electron thermal diffusivity comparable to tokamak L-mode values) in a completely self-organized toroidal plasma. A strong decrease in thermal conductivity with temperature is observed and at the highest temperatures, transport is well below that expected from the Rechester-Rosenbluth model. Addition of a new capacitor bank has produced 60% higher magnetic fields and almost tripled the pulse length to 11ms. For plasmas with T{sub e} > 300eV, it becomes feasible to use modest (1.8MW) neutral beam injection (NBI) heating to significantly change the power balance in the core plasma, making it an effective tool for improving transport analysis. We are now developing detailed designs for adding NBI to SSPX and have developed a new module for the CORSICA transport code to compute the correct fast-ion orbits in SSPX so that we can simulate the effect of adding NBI; initial results predict that such heating can raise the electron temperature and total plasma pressure in the core by a factor of two.

  20. Scaling Studies for High Temperature Test Facility and Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schult; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; James R. Wolf; Brian Woods


    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5-year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. Because the NRC's interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC).

  1. Facile and large-scale synthesis of high quality few-layered graphene nano-platelets via methane decomposition over unsupported iron family catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awadallah, Ahmed E., E-mail: [Process Development Division, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, 11727 Cairo (Egypt); Aboul-Enein, Ateyya A. [Process Development Division, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, 11727 Cairo (Egypt); Kandil, Usama F. [Petroleum Application Department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, 11727 Cairo (Egypt); Taha, Mahmoud Reda [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)


    High quality few-layered graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) were successfully prepared via catalytic chemical vapor deposition of methane under ambient pressure using substrate-free unsupported iron, cobalt, and nickel metallic sheets as catalysts. The bulk catalysts were prepared via combustion method using citric acid as a fuel. Various analytical techniques, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to characterize the fresh and reduced catalysts and to identify the morphological structure of the as-grown GNPs. TEM images of the reduced metal catalysts showed that polycrystalline metallic sheets were easily produced after complete reduction of unsupported metal oxides. The data demonstrated that the formation of zero-valent metallic sheets could effectively promote the growth of GNPs on their surfaces. The unsupported Ni catalyst exhibits higher catalytic growth activity in terms of GNPs yield (254 wt%) compared with all other catalysts. Raman spectra and TEM results established that a few layers of GNPs with high crystallinity and good graphitization were produced. TGA results further demonstrated that the as-grown GNPs exhibit significantly higher thermal stability in air atmosphere compared with other synthesis methods. - Highlights: • Few-layered graphene nanoplatelets were prepared via methane catalytic decomposition. • Metallic sheets of iron group metals were used as novel catalysts. • The surfaces of metallic sheets were found to be very effective for GNPs growth. • The number of layers is dependent on the morphological structure of the catalysts. • The unsupported metallic Ni catalyst exhibited higher catalytic growth activity.

  2. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy Allen


    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  3. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griscom, D.L.; Merzbacher, C.I.


    'The objective of this research is to use the sensitive technique of electron spin resonance (ESR) to look for evidence of radiation-induced chemical decomposition of vitreous forms contemplated for immobilization of plutonium and/or high-level nuclear wastes, to interpret this evidence in terms of existing knowledge of glass structure, and to recommend certain materials for further study by other techniques, particularly electron microscopy and measurements of gas evolution by high-vacuum mass spectroscopy. Previous ESR studies had demonstrated that an effect of y rays on a simple binary potassium silicate glass was to induce superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}) and ozonide (O{sub 3}{sup -}) as relatively stable product of long-term irradiation Accordingly, some of the first experiments performed as a part of the present effort involved repeating this work. A glass of composition 44 K{sub 2}O: 56 SiO{sub 2} was prepared from reagent grade K{sub 2}CO3 and SiO{sub 2} powders melted in a Pt crucible in air at 1,200 C for 1.5 hr. A sample irradiated to a dose of 1 MGy (1 MGy = 10{sup 8} rad) indeed yielded the same ESR results as before. To test the notion that the complex oxygen ions detected may be harbingers of radiation-induced phase separation or bubble formation, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment was performed. SANS is theoretically capable of detecting voids or bubbles as small as 10 \\305 in diameter. A preliminary experiment was carried out with the collaboration of Dr. John Barker (NIST). The SANS spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples were indistiguishable. A relatively high incoherent background (probably due to the presence of protons) may obscure scattering from small gas bubbles and therefore decrease the effective resolution of this technique. No further SANS experiments are planned at this time.'

  4. Thermal-decomposition studies of HMX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, J.R.; Garza, R.G.


    We have investigated the rates of decomposition as functions of time and temperature on a combined thermogravimetric analyzer-residual gas analyzer (TGA-RGA). This technique also allows us to identify decomposition products generated as the original HMX begins to decompose. The temperature range studied was 50 to 200/sup 0/C. The decomposition process and the nature of decomposition products as functions of HMX polymorphs and conformations of the organic ring systems and possible reactive intermediates are discussed. 7 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Toluene pyrolysis studies and high temperature reactions of propargyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, R.D.; Chen, H.; Qin, Z. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)


    The main focus of this program is to investigate the thermal decompositions of fuels that play an important role in the pre-particle soot formation process. It has been demonstrated that the condition of maximum soot yield is established when the reaction conditions of temperature and pressure are sufficient to establish a radical pool to support the production of polyaromatic hydrocarbon species and the subsequent formation of soot particles. However, elevated temperatures result in lower soot yields which are attributed to thermolyses of aromatic ring structures and result in the bell-shaped dependence of soot yield on temperature. The authors have selected several acyclic hydrocarbons to evaluate the chemical thermodynamic and kinetic effects attendant to benzene formation. To assess the thermal stability of the aromatic ring, the authors have studied the pyrolyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene and pyridine. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF) is employed to analyze the reaction zone behind reflected shock waves. Reaction time histories of the reactants, products, and intermediates are constructed and mechanisms are formulated to model the experimental data. The TOF work is often performed with use of laser schlieren densitometry (LS) to measure density gradients resulting from the heats of various reactions involved in a particular pyrolytic system. The two techniques, TOF and LS, provide independent and complementary information about ring formation and ring rupture reactions.

  6. A model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have presented a model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high temperature superconductors using paraconductivity approach. The theoretical analysis is based on the crossing point technique of the conductivity expressions. The pseudogap temperature T ∗ is found to depend on dimension and is ...

  7. Predicting High Temperature Dislocation Physics in HCP Crystal Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Abigail [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carpenter, John S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez Saez, Enrique [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report applies models and experiments to answer key questions about the way materials deform; specifics regarding phase field dislocations dynamics; as well as high temperature rolling experiments.

  8. Gallium Oxide Nanostructures for High Temperature Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintalapalle, Ramana V. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)


    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films were produced by sputter deposition by varying the substrate temperature (Ts) in a wide range (Ts=25-800 °C). The structural characteristics and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and spectrophotometric measurements. The effect of growth temperature is significant on the chemistry, crystal structure and morphology of Ga2O3 films. XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the Ga2O3 films grown at lower temperatures were amorphous while those grown at Ts≥500 oC were nanocrystalline. RBS measurements indicate the well-maintained stoichiometry of Ga2O3 films at Ts=300-800 °C. The electronic structure determination indicated that the nanocrystalline Ga2O3films exhibit a band gap of ~5 eV. Tungsten (W) incorporated Ga2O3 films were produced by co-sputter deposition. W-concentration was varied by the applied sputtering-power. No secondary phase formation was observed in W-incorporated Ga2O3 films. W-induced effects were significant on the structure and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films. The band gap of Ga2O3 films without W-incorporation was ~5 eV. Oxygen sensor characteristics evaluated using optical and electrical methods indicate a faster response in W-doped Ga2O3 films compared to intrinsic Ga2O3 films. The results demonstrate the applicability of both intrinsic and W-doped Ga-oxide films for oxygen sensor application at temperatures ≥700 °C.

  9. Thermal decomposition of hydroxylamine: Isoperibolic calorimetric measurements at different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamopoulou, Theodora [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Western Greece (formerly of University of Ioannina), Seferi 2, Agrinio GR30100 (Greece); Papadaki, Maria I., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Western Greece (formerly of University of Ioannina), Seferi 2, Agrinio GR30100 (Greece); Kounalakis, Manolis [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Western Greece (formerly of University of Ioannina), Seferi 2, Agrinio GR30100 (Greece); Vazquez-Carreto, Victor; Pineda-Solano, Alba [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Wang, Qingsheng [Department of Fire Protection and Safety and Department of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, 494 Cordell South, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Mannan, M.Sam [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)


    Highlights: • Hydroxylamine thermal decomposition enthalpy was measured using larger quantities. • The rate at which heat is evolved depends on hydroxylamine concentration. • Decomposition heat is strongly affected by the conditions and the selected baseline. • The need for enthalpy measurements using a larger reactant mass is pinpointed. • Hydroxylamine decomposition in the presence of argon is much faster than in air. -- Abstract: Thermal decomposition of hydroxylamine, NH{sub 2}OH, was responsible for two serious accidents. However, its reactive behavior and the synergy of factors affecting its decomposition are not being understood. In this work, the global enthalpy of hydroxylamine decomposition has been measured in the temperature range of 130–150 °C employing isoperibolic calorimetry. Measurements were performed in a metal reactor, employing 30–80 ml solutions containing 1.4–20 g of pure hydroxylamine (2.8–40 g of the supplied reagent). The measurements showed that increased concentration or temperature, results in higher global enthalpies of reaction per unit mass of reactant. At 150 °C, specific enthalpies as high as 8 kJ per gram of hydroxylamine were measured, although in general they were in the range of 3−5 kJ g{sup −1}. The accurate measurement of the generated heat was proven to be a cumbersome task as (a) it is difficult to identify the end of decomposition, which after a fast initial stage, proceeds very slowly, especially at lower temperatures and (b) the environment of gases affects the reaction rate.

  10. High temperature lithium cells with solid polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Singh, Mohit


    Electrochemical cells that use electrolytes made from new polymer compositions based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and other high-softening-temperature polymers are disclosed. These materials have a microphase domain structure that has an ionically-conductive phase and a phase with good mechanical strength and a high softening temperature. In one arrangement, the structural block has a softening temperature of about C. These materials can be made with either homopolymers or with block copolymers. Such electrochemical cells can operate safely at higher temperatures than have been possible before, especially in lithium cells. The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes increases with increasing temperature.

  11. High Work Output Ni-Ti-Pt High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys and Associated Processing Methods (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Draper, Susan L. (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Garg, Anita (Inventor)


    According to the invention, compositions of Ni-Ti-Pt high temperature, high force, shape memory alloys are disclosed that have transition temperatures above 100 C.; have narrow hysteresis; and produce a high specific work output.

  12. Spectroscopic diagnostics of high temperature plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moos, W.


    A three-year research program for the development of novel XUV spectroscopic diagnostics for magnetically confined fusion plasmas is proposed. The new diagnostic system will use layered synthetic microstructures (LSM) coated, flat and curved surfaces as dispersive elements in spectrometers and narrow band XUV filter arrays. In the framework of the proposed program we will develop impurity monitors for poloidal and toroidal resolved measurements on PBX-M and Alcator C-Mod, imaging XUV spectrometers for electron density and temperature fluctuation measurements in the hot plasma core in TEXT or other similar tokamaks and plasma imaging devices in soft x-ray light for impurity behavior studies during RF heating on Phaedrus T and carbon pellet ablation in Alcator C-Mod. Recent results related to use of multilayer in XUV plasma spectroscopy are presented. We also discuss the latest results reviewed to q{sub o} and local poloidal field measurements using Zeeman polarimetry.

  13. High Temperature Processable Flexible Polymer Films (United States)

    Sundar, D. Shanmuga; Raja, A. Sivanantha; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Jeyakumar, D.

    Recent developments in the field of flexible electronics motivated the researchers to start working in verdict of new flexible substrate for replacing the existing rigid glass and flexible plastics. Flexible substrates offer significant rewards in terms of being able to fabricate flexible electronic devices that are robust, thinner, conformable, lighter and can be rolled away when needed. In this work, a new flexible and transparent substrate with the help of organic materials such as Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and tetra ethoxy orthosilicate (TEOS) is synthesized. Transmittance of about 90-95% is acquired in the visible region (400-700nm) and the synthesized substrate shows better thermal characteristics and withstands temperature up to 200∘C without any significant degradation. Characteristics such as transmittance (T), absorption (A), reflectance (R), refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) are also reported.

  14. High Temperature Superconductivity in Cuprates: a model

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, P R


    A model is proposed such that quasi-particles (electrons or holes) residing in the CuO2 planes of cuprates may interact leading to metallic or superconducting behaviors. The metallic phase is obtained when the quasi-particles are treated as having classical kinetic energies and the superconducting phase occurs when the quasi-particles are taken as extremely relativistic objects. The interaction between both kinds of particles is provided by a force dependent-on-velocity. In the case of the superconducting behavior, the motion of apical oxygen ions provides the glue to establish the Cooper pair. The model furnishes explicit relations for the Fermi velocity, the perpendicular and the in-plane coherence lengths, the zero-temperature energy gap, the critical current density, the critical parallel and perpendicular magnetic fields. All these mentioned quantities are expressed in terms of fundamental physical constants as: charge and mass of the electron, light velocity in vacuum, Planck constant, electric permitti...

  15. Study of High Temperature Insulation Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Mentlik


    Full Text Available One of current objectives of the electro insulating technology is the development of the material for extreme conditions. There is a need to operate some devices in extreme temperatures, for example the propulsion of the nuclear fuel bars. In these cases there is necessary to provide not just insulating property, but also the thermal endurance with the required durability of the insulating materials. Critical is the determination of the limit stress for the irreversible structure modification with relation to material property changes. For this purpose there is necessary to conduct lot of test on chosen materials to determine the limits mentioned above. Content of this article is the definition of diagnostic mode, including the definition of the exposure factors, definitions of the diagnostic system for data acquisition and first result of examinations.

  16. High temperature performance of polymer composites

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Thomas


    The authors explain the changes in the thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of polymer composites under elevated temperatures and fire conditions. Using microscale physical and chemical concepts they allow researchers to find reliable solutions to their engineering needs on the macroscale. In a unique combination of experimental results and quantitative models, a framework is developed to realistically predict the behavior of a variety of polymer composite materials over a wide range of thermal and mechanical loads. In addition, the authors treat extreme fire scenarios up to more than 1000°C for two hours, presenting heat-protection methods to improve the fire resistance of composite materials and full-scale structural members, and discuss their performance after fire exposure. Thanks to the microscopic approach, the developed models are valid for a variety of polymer composites and structural members, making this work applicable to a wide audience, including materials scientists, polymer chemist...

  17. High-Temperature Coatings Offer Energy Savings (United States)


    The U.S. X-Plane Program included the first-of-its-kind research in aerodynamics and astronautics with experimental vehicles, including the first aircraft to break the sound barrier; the first aircraft to fly in excess of 100,000, then 200,000, and then 300,000 feet; and the first aircraft to fly at three, four, five, and then six times the speed of sound. During the 1990s, NASA started developing a new thermal protection material to test on the X-33 and X-34 supersonic aircraft. The X-33 was intended to demonstrate the technologies needed for a new reusable launch vehicle and was projected to reach an altitude of approximately 50 miles and speeds of more than Mach 11. The X-34, a small, reusable technology demonstrator for a launch vehicle, was intended to reach an altitude of 250,000 feet and fly at speeds of Mach 8. As a result of its research and development efforts, NASA s Ames Research Center invented the Protective Ceramic Coating Material (PCCM). Applied to a surface, the thin, lightweight coating could protect the material underneath from extreme temperatures. The capability of the technology came from its emissivity, which radiated heat away from the surface it covered, thereby decreasing the amount of heat transferred to the underlying material. PCCM not only increased the capability of materials to withstand higher temperatures, it also exhibited impressive thermal shock, vibration, and acoustic performance. In addition, it proved to be resistant to abrasion and mechanical damage and was also environmentally safe, due to it being water-based and containing no solvents. Even though funding for the X-33 and X-34 ended in 2001, PCCM continued on a path of innovation.

  18. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal


    . Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and air/coal ratios. Testing with a higher-ash, high-moisture, low-rank coal from the Red Hills Mine of the Mississippi Lignite Mining Company has recently been completed. Testing with the lignite coal generated a fuel gas with acceptable heating value and a high carbon conversion, although some drying of the high-moisture lignite was required before coal-feeding problems were resolved. No ash deposition or bed material agglomeration issues were encountered with this fuel. In order to better understand the coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry occurring in the riser of the transport reactor, gas and solid sampling directly from the riser and the filter outlet has been accomplished. This was done using a baseline Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming.

  19. Photochemistry at high temperatures - potential of ZnO as a high temperature photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubnell, M.; Beaud, P.; Kamber, I. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Direct conversion of solar radiation into useful, storeable and transportable chemical products is the primary goal of solar chemistry. In this paper we discuss some fundamental aspects of photochemistry at elevated temperatures. We show that luminescence can serve as an indicator of the potential use of a system as a photoconverter. As an example we present experimental data on the chemical potential and on the lifetime of the excited states of ZnO. The low luminescence quantum yield together with a lifetime of about 200 ps indicate that an efficient photochemical conversion on ZnO is highly improbable. We believe this to be a general feature of chemical systems based on a semiconductor photocatalyst, in particular of photoreactions at a solid/gas interface. (author) 3 figs., 6 refs

  20. High Temperature Superconductor Resonator Detectors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a well-established need for more sensitive detectors in the 10 - 200 um wavelength range with high detectivity, D*>1010 cm-Hz1/2/W to increase the...

  1. High pressure-temperature polymorphism of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (United States)

    Bishop, M. M.; Chellappa, R. S.; Liu, Z.; Preston, D. N.; Sandstrom, M. M.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Vohra, Y. K.; Velisavljevic, N.


    1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7) is a low sensitivity energetic material with performance comparable to commonly used secondary explosives such as RDX and HMX. At ambient pressure, FOX-7 exhibits complex polymorphism with at least three structurally distinct phases (α, β, and γ). In this study, we have investigated the high pressure-temperature stability of FOX-7 polymorphs using synchrotron mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. At ambient pressure, our MIR spectra and corresponding differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements confirmed the known α → β (~110 °C) and α → β (~160 °C) structural phase transitions; as well as, indicated an additional transition γ → (~210 °C), with the δ phase being stable up to ~251 °C prior to decomposition. In situ MIR spectra obtained during isobaric heating at 0.9 GPa, revealed a potential α → β transition that could occur as early as 180 °C, while β → β+δ phase transition shifted to ~300 °C with suppression of γ phase. Decomposition was observed slightly above 325 °C at 0.9 GPa.

  2. Kinetics of the high-temperature combustion reactions of dibutylether using composite computational methods

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El


    This paper investigates the high-temperature combustion kinetics of n-dibutyl ether (n-DBE), including unimolecular decomposition, H-abstraction by H, H-migration, and C{single bond}C/C{single bond}O β-scission reactions of the DBE radicals. The energetics of H-abstraction by OH radicals is also studied. All rates are determined computationally using the CBS-QB3 and G4 composite methods in conjunction with conventional transition state theory. The B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2pd) method is used to optimize the geometries and calculate the frequencies of all reactive species and transition states for use in ChemRate. Some of the rates calculated in this study vary markedly from those obtained for similar reactions of alcohols or alkanes, particularly those pertaining to unimolecular decomposition and β-scission at the α-β C{single bond}C bond. These variations show that analogies to alkanes and alcohols are, in some cases, inappropriate means of estimating the reaction rates of ethers. This emphasizes the need to establish valid rates through computation or experimentation. Such studies are especially important given that ethers exhibit promising biofuel and fuel additive characteristics. © 2014.

  3. Dynamic mechanical response and a constitutive model of Fe-based high temperature alloy at high temperatures and strain rates. (United States)

    Su, Xiang; Wang, Gang; Li, Jianfeng; Rong, Yiming


    The effects of strain rate and temperature on the dynamic behavior of Fe-based high temperature alloy was studied. The strain rates were 0.001-12,000 s(-1), at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800 °C. A phenomenological constitutive model (Power-Law constitutive model) was proposed considering adiabatic temperature rise and accurate material thermal physical properties. During which, the effects of the specific heat capacity on the adiabatic temperature rise was studied. The constitutive model was verified to be accurate by comparison between predicted and experimental results.

  4. SiC device development for high temperature sensor applications (United States)

    Shor, J. S.; Goldstein, David; Kurtz, A. D.; Osgood, R. M.


    Progress made in the processing and characterization of 3C-SiC for high temperature sensor applications is reviewed. Piezoresistance properties of silicon carbide and the temperature coefficient of resistivity of n-type beta-SiC are presented. In addition, photoelectrical etching and dopant selective etch-stops in SiC and high temperature Ohmic contacts for n-type beta-SiC sensors are discussed.

  5. Dynamic high-temperature Kolsky tension bar techniques


    Song Bo; Nelson Kevin; Lipinski Ronald; Bignell John; Ulrich G.B.; George E.P.


    Kolsky tension bar techniques were modified for dynamic high-temperature tensile characterization of thin-sheet alloys. An induction coil heater was used to heat the specimen while a cooling system was applied to keep the bars at room temperature during heating. A preload system was developed to generate a small pretension load in the bar system during heating in order to compensate for the effect of thermal expansion generated in the high-temperature tensile specimen. A laser system was appl...

  6. Zirconium diboride thin films for use in high temperature sensors and MEMS devices (United States)

    Stewart, David M.; Bernhardt, George P.; Lad, Robert J.


    Sensors and MEMS devices operating in high temperature environments require stable thin films with high electrical conductivity for use as electrodes, bond pads, and other components. Metal films are unreliable because of thermodynamically driven morphological instability and agglomeration over long times. Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is an ultra-high temperature conducting ceramic with a melting point of 3245°C, with low atomic diffusion rates compared to other materials. To evaluate ZrB2 as a high temperature film, 200 nm thick ZrB2 films were synthesized on r-sapphire substrates using e-beam co-evaporation of elemental Zr and B sources. Film stability was characterized after post-deposition thermal treatments from 600-1000°C in both reducing (vacuum) and oxidizing (air) environments. ZrB2 films deposited at room temperature are amorphous, but have short-range order characteristic of ZrB2 bonding. ZrB2 films grown at 600°C are polycrystalline with preferred changes occur after annealing at 850°C for 55 hours in vacuum, and film electrical conductivity remains leads to ZrB2 film decomposition into ZrO2 and B2O3 phases, the latter of which is volatile. X-ray diffraction indicates that a 50 nm thick hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) capping layer grown on top of ZrB2 via magnetron sputtering hinders oxidation, but the ZrB2 eventually transforms to ZrO2. These results indicate that ZrB2 films are attractive for potential use in sensors and MEMS devices in high temperature reducing environments, and for short times in oxidizing environments when covered with a h-BN capping layer.

  7. Extruded Self-Lubricating Solid For High-Temperature Use (United States)

    Sliney, H. E.; Waters, W. J.; Soltis, R. F.; Bemis, K.


    "EX-212" denotes high-density extruded form of composite solid material self-lubricating over wide range of temperatures. Properties equal or exceed those of powder-metallurgy version of this material. Developed for use in advanced engines at high temperatures at which ordinary lubricants destroyed.

  8. High temperature heat exchange: nuclear process heat applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrable, D.L.


    The unique element of the HTGR system is the high-temperature operation and the need for heat exchanger equipment to transfer nuclear heat from the reactor to the process application. This paper discusses the potential applications of the HTGR in both synthetic fuel production and nuclear steel making and presents the design considerations for the high-temperature heat exchanger equipment.

  9. Electron beam damage in high temperature polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. (Dayton Univ., OH (USA). Research Inst.); Adams, W.W. (Air Force Materials Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (USA))


    Electron microscopic studies of polymers are limited due to beam damage. Two concerns are the damage mechanism in a particular material, and the maximum dose for a material before damage effects are observed. From the knowledge of the dose required for damage to the polymer structure, optimum parameters for electron microscopy imaging can be determined. In the present study, electron beam damage of polymers has been quantified by monitoring changes in the diffraction intensity as a function of electron dose. The beam damage characteristics of the following polymers were studied: poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (PBZT); poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO); poly(benzoxazole) (ABPBO); poly(benzimidazole) (ABPBI); poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA); and poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (PEEK). Previously published literature results on polyethylene (PE), polyoxymethylene (POM), nylon-6, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), PBZT, PPTA, PPX, iPS, poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), and poly(phenylene sulphide) (PPS) were reviewed. This study demonstrates the strong dependence of the electron beam resistivity of a polymer on its thermal stability/melt temperature. (author).

  10. InGaN High Temperature Photovoltaic Cells Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objectives of this Phase II project are to develop InGaN photovoltaic cells for high temperature and/or high radiation environments to TRL 4 and to define the...

  11. Effects of temperature on stress corrosion cracking behavior of stainless steel and outer oxide distribution in cracks due to exposure to high-temperature water containing hydrogen peroxide (United States)

    Nakano, Junichi; Sato, Tomonori; Kato, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tsukada, Takashi; Kaji, Yoshiyuki


    Cracking growth tests were conducted in high-temperature water containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at 561-423 K to evaluate the effects of H2O2 on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steel (SS) at temperature lower than the boiling water reactor (BWR) operating temperature. Small compact tension (CT) specimens were prepared from thermally sensitized type 304 SS. Despite the observation of only a small portion intergranular SCC (IGSCC) near the side groove of the CT specimen at 561 K in high-temperature water containing 100 ppb H2O2, the IGSCC area expanded to the central region of the CT specimens at 423 and 453 K. Effects of H2O2 on SCC appeared intensely at temperature lower than the BWR operating temperature because of a reduction in the thermal decomposition of H2O2. To estimate the environment in the cracks, outer oxide distribution on the fracture surface and the fatigue pre-crack were examined by laser Raman spectroscopy and thermal equilibrium calculation was performed.

  12. Mechanical Fault Diagnosis of High Voltage Circuit Breakers Based on Variational Mode Decomposition and Multi-Layer Classifier. (United States)

    Huang, Nantian; Chen, Huaijin; Cai, Guowei; Fang, Lihua; Wang, Yuqiang


    Mechanical fault diagnosis of high-voltage circuit breakers (HVCBs) based on vibration signal analysis is one of the most significant issues in improving the reliability and reducing the outage cost for power systems. The limitation of training samples and types of machine faults in HVCBs causes the existing mechanical fault diagnostic methods to recognize new types of machine faults easily without training samples as either a normal condition or a wrong fault type. A new mechanical fault diagnosis method for HVCBs based on variational mode decomposition (VMD) and multi-layer classifier (MLC) is proposed to improve the accuracy of fault diagnosis. First, HVCB vibration signals during operation are measured using an acceleration sensor. Second, a VMD algorithm is used to decompose the vibration signals into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The IMF matrix is divided into submatrices to compute the local singular values (LSV). The maximum singular values of each submatrix are selected as the feature vectors for fault diagnosis. Finally, a MLC composed of two one-class support vector machines (OCSVMs) and a support vector machine (SVM) is constructed to identify the fault type. Two layers of independent OCSVM are adopted to distinguish normal or fault conditions with known or unknown fault types, respectively. On this basis, SVM recognizes the specific fault type. Real diagnostic experiments are conducted with a real SF₆ HVCB with normal and fault states. Three different faults (i.e., jam fault of the iron core, looseness of the base screw, and poor lubrication of the connecting lever) are simulated in a field experiment on a real HVCB to test the feasibility of the proposed method. Results show that the classification accuracy of the new method is superior to other traditional methods.

  13. Mechanical Fault Diagnosis of High Voltage Circuit Breakers Based on Variational Mode Decomposition and Multi-Layer Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang


    Full Text Available Mechanical fault diagnosis of high-voltage circuit breakers (HVCBs based on vibration signal analysis is one of the most significant issues in improving the reliability and reducing the outage cost for power systems. The limitation of training samples and types of machine faults in HVCBs causes the existing mechanical fault diagnostic methods to recognize new types of machine faults easily without training samples as either a normal condition or a wrong fault type. A new mechanical fault diagnosis method for HVCBs based on variational mode decomposition (VMD and multi-layer classifier (MLC is proposed to improve the accuracy of fault diagnosis. First, HVCB vibration signals during operation are measured using an acceleration sensor. Second, a VMD algorithm is used to decompose the vibration signals into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. The IMF matrix is divided into submatrices to compute the local singular values (LSV. The maximum singular values of each submatrix are selected as the feature vectors for fault diagnosis. Finally, a MLC composed of two one-class support vector machines (OCSVMs and a support vector machine (SVM is constructed to identify the fault type. Two layers of independent OCSVM are adopted to distinguish normal or fault conditions with known or unknown fault types, respectively. On this basis, SVM recognizes the specific fault type. Real diagnostic experiments are conducted with a real SF6 HVCB with normal and fault states. Three different faults (i.e., jam fault of the iron core, looseness of the base screw, and poor lubrication of the connecting lever are simulated in a field experiment on a real HVCB to test the feasibility of the proposed method. Results show that the classification accuracy of the new method is superior to other traditional methods.

  14. Full wavefield decomposition of high-frequency secondary microseisms reveals distinct arrival azimuths for Rayleigh and Love waves (United States)

    Gal, M.; Reading, A. M.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, R.


    In the secondary microseism band (0.1-1.0 Hz) the theoretical excitation of Rayleigh waves (Rg/LR), through oceanic wave-wave interaction, is well understood. For Love waves (LQ), the excitation mechanism in the secondary microseism band is less clear. We explore high-frequency secondary microseism excitation between 0.35 and 1 Hz by analyzing a full year (2013) of records from a three-component seismic array in Pilbara (PSAR), Australia. Our recently developed three-component waveform decomposition algorithm (CLEAN-3C) fully decomposes the beam power in slowness space into multiple point sources. This method allows for a directionally dependent power estimation for all separable wave phases. In this contribution, we compare quantitatively microseismic energy recorded on vertical and transverse components. We find the mean power representation of Rayleigh and Love waves to have differing azimuthal distributions, which are likely a result of their respective generation mechanisms. Rayleigh waves show correlation with convex coastlines, while Love waves correlate with seafloor sedimentary basins. The observations are compared to the WAVEWATCH III ocean model, implemented at the Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), which describes the spatial and temporal characteristics of microseismic source excitation. We find Love wave energy to originate from raypaths coinciding with seafloor sedimentary basins where strong Rayleigh wave excitation is predicted by the ocean model. The total power of Rg waves is found to dominate at 0.35-0.6 Hz, and the Rayleigh/Love wave power ratio strongly varies with direction and frequency.

  15. Contrasting above- and belowground organic matter decomposition and carbon and nitrogen dynamics in response to warming in High Arctic tundra. (United States)

    Blok, Daan; Faucherre, Samuel; Banyasz, Imre; Rinnan, Riikka; Michelsen, Anders; Elberling, Bo


    Tundra regions are projected to warm rapidly during the coming decades. The tundra biome holds the largest terrestrial carbon pool, largely contained in frozen permafrost soils. With warming, these permafrost soils may thaw and become available for microbial decomposition, potentially providing a positive feedback to global warming. Warming may directly stimulate microbial metabolism but may also indirectly stimulate organic matter turnover through increased plant productivity by soil priming from root exudates and accelerated litter turnover rates. Here, we assess the impacts of experimental warming on turnover rates of leaf litter, active layer soil and thawed permafrost sediment in two high-arctic tundra heath sites in NE-Greenland, either dominated by evergreen or deciduous shrubs. We incubated shrub leaf litter on the surface of control and warmed plots for 1 and 2 years. Active layer soil was collected from the plots to assess the effects of 8 years of field warming on soil carbon stocks. Finally, we incubated open cores filled with newly thawed permafrost soil for 2 years in the active layer of the same plots. After field incubation, we measured basal respiration rates of recovered thawed permafrost cores in the lab. Warming significantly reduced litter mass loss by 26% after 1 year incubation, but differences in litter mass loss among treatments disappeared after 2 years incubation. Warming also reduced litter nitrogen mineralization and decreased the litter carbon to nitrogen ratio. Active layer soil carbon stocks were reduced 15% by warming, while soil dissolved nitrogen was reduced by half in warmed plots. Warming had a positive legacy effect on carbon turnover rates in thawed permafrost cores, with 10% higher respiration rates measured in cores from warmed plots. These results demonstrate that warming may have contrasting effects on above- and belowground tundra carbon turnover, possibly governed by microbial resource availability. © 2017 John

  16. Large scale production of highly-qualified graphene by ultrasonic exfoliation of expanded graphite under the promotion of (NH4)2CO3 decomposition. (United States)

    Wang, Yunwei; Tong, Xili; Guo, Xiaoning; Wang, Yingyong; Jin, Guoqiang; Guo, Xiangyun


    Highly-qualified graphene was prepared by the ultrasonic exfoliation of commercial expanded graphite (EG) under the promotion of (NH4)2CO3 decomposition. The yield of graphene from the first exfoliation is 7 wt%, and it can be increased to more than 65 wt% by repeated exfoliations. Atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman analysis show that the as-prepared graphene only has a few defects or oxides, and more than 95% of the graphene flakes have a thickness of ~1 nm. The electrochemical performance of the as-prepared graphene is comparable to reduced graphene oxide in the determination of dopamine (DA) from the mixed solution of ascorbic acid, uric acid and DA. These results show that the decomposition of (NH4)2CO3 molecules in the EG layers under ultrasonication promotes the exfoliation of graphite and provides a low-priced route for large scale production of highly-quality graphene.

  17. Grain boundaries in high temperature superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.; Mannhart, J.


    Since the first days of high-Tc superconductivity, the materials science and the physics of grain boundaries in superconducting compounds have developed into fascinating fields of research. Unique electronic properties, different from those of the grain boundaries in conventional metallic

  18. High-temperature temporal stability of selected oxidizers as solids and in aqueous solutions. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellenbarg, R.E.; Smiroldo


    Various potential decontamination agents were examined as solids and in aqueous solutions for long-term stability at high temperatures. The following oxidizers were assayed iodometrically: the hypochlorite salts of calcium and lithium, sodium dischloroisocyanurate (PACE) and the preoxygen compounds sodium perborate, sodium peroxydisulfate, sodium percarbonate, and magnesium monoperoxyphthalate (H-48). The inorganic peroxide solids and the solid sodium dischloroisoyanurate were stable at 80 C, while the organic peroxide solids and the hypochlorite salts deteriorated markedly within 72 hours. In freshwater solutions of 0.01 N or less, the inorganic hypochlorite and peroxide salts decomposed slowly at 60 c. Conversely, the sodium dischloroisocyanurate, magnesium monoperoxyphthalate, and sodium percarbonate solutions exhibited near complete decomposition in 24 hours.

  19. Dynamic High-Temperature Characterization of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High Strain Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Environment Simulation Dept.; Nelson, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials Dept.; Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Dept.; Bignell, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis Dept.; Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program; George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program


    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-temperature high-strain-rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe elevated-temperature environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain-rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. Current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques are not capable of obtaining satisfactory high-temperature high-strain-rate stress-strain response of thin iridium specimens investigated in this study. We analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky compression bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens. Appropriate modifications were made to the current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar technique to obtain reliable compressive stress-strain response of an iridium alloy at high strain rates (300 – 10000 s-1) and temperatures (750°C and 1030°C). Uncertainties in such high-temperature high-strain-rate experiments on thin iridium specimens were also analyzed. The compressive stress-strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to strain rate and temperature.

  20. Low temperature superconductor and aligned high temperature superconductor magnetic dipole system and method for producing high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ramesh; Scanlan, Ronald; Ghosh, Arup K.; Weggel, Robert J.; Palmer, Robert; Anerella, Michael D.; Schmalzle, Jesse


    A dipole-magnet system and method for producing high-magnetic-fields, including an open-region located in a radially-central-region to allow particle-beam transport and other uses, low-temperature-superconducting-coils comprised of low-temperature-superconducting-wire located in radially-outward-regions to generate high magnetic-fields, high-temperature-superconducting-coils comprised of high-temperature-superconducting-tape located in radially-inward-regions to generate even higher magnetic-fields and to reduce erroneous fields, support-structures to support the coils against large Lorentz-forces, a liquid-helium-system to cool the coils, and electrical-contacts to allow electric-current into and out of the coils. The high-temperature-superconducting-tape may be comprised of bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper-oxide or rare-earth-metal, barium-copper-oxide (ReBCO) where the rare-earth-metal may be yttrium, samarium, neodymium, or gadolinium. Advantageously, alignment of the large-dimension of the rectangular-cross-section or curved-cross-section of the high-temperature-superconducting-tape with the high-magnetic-field minimizes unwanted erroneous magnetic fields. Alignment may be accomplished by proper positioning, tilting the high-temperature-superconducting-coils, forming the high-temperature-superconducting-coils into a curved-cross-section, placing nonconducting wedge-shaped-material between windings, placing nonconducting curved-and-wedge-shaped-material between windings, or by a combination of these techniques.