WorldWideScience

Sample records for high technology gems

  1. LHC collars - 12 million high technology gems

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Some 12 million steel collars will keep the LHC dipole magnet structures rigid. Their production has just begun. A huge job began last week: the high speed manufacturing of twelve million steel collars for the 1250 dipole magnets of the future Large Hadron Collider, LHC. The challenge is not only a matter of quantity: these collars are very high technology components because of the important role they play in the way the collider works. One of the main difficulties with the accelerator is that the magnetic field that keeps particles in orbit must have the same configuration and intensity in all the dipoles. But when the 8.33 tesla magnetic field is on -100.000 times the earth magnetic field - it produces a very strong force that can deform the 'soft' parts of the magnets, such as superconducting coils. The force loading one metre of dipole is almost comparable with the weight of a Boeing 747 - about 400 tonnes - so a huge deformation would occur without a mechanical component to keep the whole structure rigid...

  2. GEM applications outside high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge

    2013-01-01

    From its invention in 1997, the Gas Electron Multiplier has been applied in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. Over time however, other applications have also exploited the favorable properties of GEMs. The use of GEMs in these applications will be explained in principle and practice. This paper reviews applications in research, beam instrumentation and homeland security. The detectors described measure neutral radiations such as photons, x-rays, gamma rays and neutrons, as well as all kinds of charged radiation. This paper provides an overview of the still expanding range of possibilities of this versatile detector concept.

  3. Effects of High Charge Densities in Multi-GEM Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franchino, S.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Muller, H.; Oliveri, E.; Pfeiffer, D.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Van Stenis, M.; Streli, C.; Thuiner, P.; Veenhof, R.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive study, supported by systematic measurements and numerical computations, of the intrinsic limits of multi-GEM detectors when exposed to very high particle fluxes or operated at very large gains is presented. The observed variations of the gain, of the ion back-flow, and of the pulse height spectra are explained in terms of the effects of the spatial distribution of positive ions and their movement throughout the amplification structure. The intrinsic dynamic character of the processes involved imposes the use of a non-standard simulation tool for the interpretation of the measurements. Computations done with a Finite Element Analysis software reproduce the observed behaviour of the detector. The impact of this detailed description of the detector in extreme conditions is multiple: it clarifies some detector behaviours already observed, it helps in defining intrinsic limits of the GEM technology, and it suggests ways to extend them.

  4. Developments and the preliminary tests of Resistive GEMs manufactured by a screen printing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Agócs, G; Oliveira, R; Martinego, P; Peskov, Vladimir; Pietropaolo, P; Picchi, P

    2008-01-01

    We report promising initial results obtained with new resistive-electrode GEM (RETGEM) detectors manufactured, for the first time, using screen printing technology. These new detectors allow one to reach gas gains nearly as high as with ordinary GEM-like detectors with metallic electrodes; however, due to the high resistivity of its electrodes the RETGEM, in contrast to ordinary hole-type detectors, has the advantage of being fully spark protected. We discovered that RETGEMs can operate stably and at high gains in noble gases and in other badly quenched gases, such as mixtures of noble gases with air and in pure air; therefore, a wide range of practical applications, including dosimetry and detection of dangerous gases, is foreseeable. To promote a better understanding of RETGEM technology some comparative studies were completed with metallic-electrode thick GEMs. A primary benefit of these new RETGEMs is that the screen printing technology is easily accessible to many research laboratories. This accessibilit...

  5. Development of high gain GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, A; Sauli, Fabio; Mörmann, D

    2000-01-01

    We describe systematic measurements carried out with single and double GEM detectors with printed circuit readout. The maximum safe operating gain has been measured at increasing radiation flux and under exposure to heavily ionizing tracks. Detection efficiency, localization accuracy and cluster size have been measured in a minimum ionizing particle beam. With a suitably configured readout electrode, fast, two-dimensional localization of radiation is demonstrated. (15 refs).

  6. GEM detector performance with innovative micro-TPC readout in high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzia, I.; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bianchi, F.; Calcaterra, A.; Canale, N.; Capodiferro, M.; Cassariti, V.; Cerioni, S.; Chai, J. Y.; Chiozzi, S.; Cibinetto, G.; Cossio, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Dong, J.; Evangelisti, F.; Evangelisti, F.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Felici, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Gatta, M.; Greco, M.; Lavezzi, L.; Leng, C. Y.; Li, H.; Maggiora, M.; Malaguti, R.; Marcello, S.; Melchiorri, M.; Mezzadri, G.; Mignone, M.; Morello, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pellegrino, J.; Pelosi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Savrié, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Soldani, E.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Tskhadadze, E.; Verma, S.; Wheadon, R.; Yan, L.

    2018-01-01

    Gas detector development is one of the pillars of the research in fundamental physics. Since several years, a new concept of detectors, called Micro Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD), allowed to overcome several problems related to other types of commonly used detectors, like drift chamber and micro strips detectors, reducing the rate of discharges and providing better radiation tolerance. Among the most used MPGDs are the Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). Invented by Sauli in 1997, nowadays GEMs have become an important reality for particle detectors in high energy physics. Commonly deployed as fast timing detectors and triggers, their fast response, high rate capability and high radiation hardness make them also suitable as tracking detectors. The readout scheme is one of the most important features in tracking technology. Analog readout based on the calculation of the center of gravity technique allows to overcome the limit imposed by digital pads, whose spatial resolution is limited by the pitch dimensions. However, the presence of high external magnetic fields can distort the electronic cloud and affect the performance. The development of the micro-TPC reconstruction method brings GEM detectors into a new prospective, improving significantly the spatial resolutionin presence of high magnetic fields. This innovative technique allows to reconstruct the 3-dimensional particle position, as Time Projection Chamber, but within a drift gap of a few millimeters. In these report, the charge centroid and micro-TPC methods are described in details. We discuss the results of several test beams performed with planar chambers in magnetic field. These results are one of the first developments of micro-TPC technique for GEM detectors, which allows to reach unprecedented performance in a high magnetic field of 1 T.

  7. Development studies for the ILC: Measurements and simulations for a time projection chamber with GEM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Bernhard; Kaminski, Jochen; Kappler, Steffen; Müller, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology is well suited for usage as central tracker at the International Linear Collider (ILC). To study the high potential of this detector type a small prototype of 25 cm length was built in Karlsruhe and used in several experimental setups. In this publication the results of these measurements and of additional Monte Carlo simulations are presented. By introducing the so-called equivalent drift distance a combination of all results was possible leading to a recommended configuration of the multi-GEM tower for the ILC-TPC. It will be shown that for conditions considered in the TESLA-TDR the transverse spatial resolution will be able to reach 65 μm for 10 cm and 190 μm for 200 cm drift at the ILC. This as well as the expectations for longitudinal spatial resolution, for energy resolutions of the specific ionization, and for single pad row efficiency should be able to meet the requirements of a future ILC-TPC.

  8. Progress in the development of photosensitive GEMs with resistive electrodes manufactured by a screen printing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, V; Nappi, E; Oliveira, R; Paic, G; Pietropaolo, F; Picchi, P

    2009-01-01

    An innovative photosensitive gaseous detector, consisting of a GEM-like amplification structure with double-layered electrodes (instead of commonly used metallic ones) coated with a CsI reflective photocathode, is described. In one of our latest designs, the inner electrode consists of a metallic grid and the outer one is made of resistive strips; the latter are manufactured by a screen-printing technology on the top of the metallic strips's grid The inner metallic grid is used for 2-D position measurements whereas the resistive layer provides an efficient spark-protected operation at high gains close to the breakdown limit. Detectors with active areas of 10×10 and 10×20 cm2 were tested under various conditions including the operation in photosensitive gas mixtures containing ethylferrocene or TMAE vapors. The new technique could have many applications requiring robust and reliable large-area detectors for UV visualization, as for example, in Cherenkov imaging devices.

  9. A new design using GEM-based technology for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ressegotti, Martina

    2017-01-01

    The muon system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the LHC is currently not instrumented for pseudorapidity higher than abs(${\\eta}$)${ > 2.4}$. The main challenges to the installation of a detector in that position are the high particle flux to be sustained, a high level of radiation, and the ability to accomodate a multilevel detector into the small available space (less than 30 cm). A new back-to-back configuration of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is presented with the aim of developing a compact, multi-layer GEM detector. It is composed of two independent stacked triple-GEM detectors, positioned with the anodes toward the outside and sharing the same cathode plane, which is located at the center of the chamber, to reduce the total detector's thickness. A first prototype has been produced and tested with an X-Ray source and muon beam. First results on its performance are presented.

  10. The status of the GEM project for CMS high-$\\eta$ muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Armagnaud, C; Aspell, P; Assran, Y; Bally, S; Ban, Y; Barria, P; Benussi, L; Berzano, U; Bianco, S; Bos, J; Bunkowski, K; Cai, J; Chatelain, J.P; Christiansen, J; Colafranceschi, S; Colaleo, A; Conde Garcia, A; David, E; De Lentdecker, G; De Oliveira, R; De Robertis, G; Duarte Pinto, S; Ferry, S; Formenti, F; Franconi, L; Fruboes, T; Gutierrez, A; Hohlmann, M; Kamel, A.E; Karchin, P.E; Loddo, F; Maerschalk, T; Magazzù, G; Maggi, M; Marchioro, A; Marinov, A; Mehta, K; Merlin, J; Mohapatra, A; Moulik, T; Nemallapudi, M.V; Nuzzo, S; Oliveri, E; Piccolo, D; Postema, H; Radi, A; Raffone, G; Rodrigues, A; Ropelewski, L; Saviano, G; Sharma, A; Smilkjovic, N; Staib, M.J; Teng, H; Tupputi, S.A; Turini, N; Tytgat, M; Villa, M; Yang, Y; Zaganidis, N; Zenoni, F; Zientek, M

    2013-01-01

    The dedicated CMS R&D program was intended to study the feasibility of using micropattern detectors for the instrumentation of the vacant j η j 4 1 : 6 region in the present Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) endcap system. The proposed detector for CMS is a Triple-Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) trapezoidal chamber, equipped with 1D readout. While during 2010 – 2011 the Collaboration worked on the prototyping of the detector, during the fi rst part of 2012 a newly developed assembly technique to be used for the mass production was adopted. GEMs can provide precision tracking and fast trigger information, contributing on one hand to the improvement of the CMS muon Trigger and on the other hand to provide the missing redundancy in the high η region. In the view of the next LHC long shutdown (LS1) the CMS GEM Collaboration designed and built four full-size Triple GEM-based muon detectors

  11. Fast triggering of high-rate charged particles with a triple-GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M; Bonivento, W; Cardini, A; De Simone, P; Murtas, F; Pinci, D; Poli-Lener, M; Raspino, D

    2004-01-01

    A 3 year long R&D activity on triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors is reported. This activity was made in the framework of the LHCb experiment in order to find the technology to instrument the central region of the first muon station (M1R1) where a high particle rate is expected. Detector geometry, gas mixture and electric field configuration have been optimized in order to achieve the performance required by the experiment. The use of a very fast, CF//4 based, gas mixture provides a time resolution of about 4.5 ns (r.m.s.) with a single chamber with gain less than 10**4. In addition, an optimized gain sharing between the three GEMs allows to keep the discharge probability per incident hadron below $10^{-12}$. The average number of firing pads per crossing particle have been found to be lower than 1.2. In a global aging test two detectors were exposed to a dose rate of 16 Gy/h. Each detector integrated about 2 C/cm**2 equivalent to more than 10 years of operation at LHCb. Good aging properties w...

  12. High-resolution tracking in a GEM-emulsion detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertani, M.; Buonaura, A.; Capoccia, C.; Cibinetto, G.; De Lellis, G.; De Lucia, E.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Domenici, D.; Farinelli, R.; Felici, G.; Kitagawa, N.; Komatsu, M.; Morello, G.; Morishima, K.; Poli Lener, M.; Tioukov, V.

    2017-09-01

    SHiP (Search for Hidden Particles) is a beam dump experiment proposed at the CERN SPS aiming at the observation of long-lived particles very weakly coupled with ordinary matter mostly produced in the decay of charmed hadrons. The beam dump facility of SHiP is also a copious factory of neutrinos of all three kinds and therefore a dedicated neutrino detector is foreseen in the SHiP apparatus. The neutrino detector exploits the Emulsion Cloud Chamber technique with a modular structure, alternating walls of target units and planes of electronic detectors providing the time stamp to the event. GEM detectors are one of the possible choices for this task. This paper reports the results of the first exposure to a muon beam at CERN of a new hybrid chamber, obtained by coupling a GEM chamber and an emulsion detector. Thanks to a position accuracy of the emulsion detector of the order of the micrometer, the position resolution of the GEM chamber as a function of the particle inclination was evaluated in two configurations, with and without the magnetic field. It ranges from a minimum of 54 μm for normal incident tracks up to (320±40) μm for incoming tracks with θ = 45o and magnetic field strength of 1 T.

  13. High-rate particle triggering with triple-GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M; De Simone, P; Murtas, F; Poli-Lener, M; Bonivento, W; Cardini, A; Deplano, C; Raspino, D; Pinci, D

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of a systematic study of the time performance of triple-GEM detectors operated with Ar/CO//2/CF//4 and Ar/CF//4 /iso-C//4H//1//0 gas mixtures. This study and the detector development has been performed in the framework of an R&D activity on detectors for the innermost part (region R1) of the first muon station (M1) of the LHCb experiment. The use of fast gas mixtures allows to achieve a time resolution better than 5 ns (r.m.s.) and a single detector efficiency up to similar to 99% in a 20 ns time window. Discharge studies have been performed at the piM1 hadron beam facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute. Local aging properties were investigated exposing the detector to a collimated 5.9 keV X-rays beam. The whole R&D activity with different gas mixtures has been performed with small 10 multiplied by 10 cm**2 triple-GEM detector prototypes. A full size prototype (module-0) constituted by two 20 multiplied by 24 cm**2 triple-GEM detectors, equipped with front-end electronics based ...

  14. A triple GEM detector with pad readout for high rate charged particle triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Bonivento, W; Felici, G; Murtas, F; Valente, P; Cardini, A; Lai, A; Pinci, D; Saitta, B; Bosio, C

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, results of a time performance study of triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors are discussed. This study was driven by an R&D activity on detectors for the Level 0 LHCb muon trigger. However, the results presented in this paper are of more general interest, i.e. for experiments with high rate charged particle triggering. Little interest was given so far to time performance of GEM detectors. Only one group measured double GEM detector time resolution with the Ar/CO//2 (70/30) gas mixture. Our study aimed at triple GEM detector optimisation for good time performance through a detailed investigation of the role played by detector geometry, electric fields and gas mixture. The results reported here, in particular when using the gas mixture Ar/CO//2/CF //4 (60/20/20), considerably improve the time performance discussed in the above-mentioned paper and make the triple GEM detector a promising option for high rate charged particle triggering.

  15. Performance of a large size triple GEM detector at high particle rate for the CBM Experiment at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Rama Prasad; Kumar, Ajit; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Das, Supriya; Raha, Sibaji; Samanta, Subhasis; Saini, Jogender

    2017-02-01

    In CBM Experiment at FAIR, dimuons will be detected by a Muon Chamber (MUCH) consisting of segmented absorbers of varying widths and tracking chambers sandwiched between the absorber-pairs. In this fixed target heavy-ion collision experiment, operating at highest interaction rate of 10 MHz for Au+Au collision, the inner region of the 1st detector will face a particle rate of 1 MHz/cm2. To operate at such a high particle density, GEM technology based detectors have been selected for the first two stations of MUCH. We have reported earlier the performance of several small-size GEM detector prototypes built at VECC for use in MUCH. In this work, we report on a large GEM prototype tested with proton beam of momentum 2.36 GeV/c at COSY-Jülich Germany. The detector was read out using nXYTER operated in self-triggering mode. An efficiency higher than 96% at ΔVGEM = 375.2 V was achieved. The variation of efficiency with the rate of incoming protons has been found to vary within 2% when tested up to a maximum rate of 2.8 MHz/cm2. The gain was found to be stable at high particle rate with a maximum variation of ∼9%.

  16. A novel High-Voltage System for a triple GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Corradi, Giovanni; Tagnani, Diego; 10.1016/j.nima.2006.10.166

    2007-01-01

    A novel High-Voltage System for a triple GEM detector has been designed and realized in Frascati within the LHCb muon detector framework. The system is built with seven floating power supply, with a maximum of 1200 V each, and controlled via CANbus, for voltage settings and monitoring. Several HV modules can be installed in a nano-ammeter mainframe already developed in Frascati, realizing a HV crate able to supply up to 24 triple GEM chambers with a 1 nA resolution monitoring system.

  17. An efficient and general route to gem-difluoromethylenated alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactones: high enantioselective synthesis of gem-difluoromethylenated goniothalamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zheng-Wei; Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Wang, Bing-Lin; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2006-09-15

    An efficient and general strategy to gem-difluoromethylenated alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactones in high yields from various aldehydes (including aliphatic, aromatic, alpha,beta-unsaturated, and sterically hindered aldehydes) has been developed. This methodology was successfully applied for the preparation of two enantiomers of gem-difluoromethylenated goniothalamins (S)-1 and (R)-1. gem-Difluoropropargylation of cinnamaldehyde followed by the resolution of resulting homopropargylic alcohols mediated by lipase from Pseudomonas (AK) gave alcohols (R)-6 and (S)-6. Selective hydrogenation of the triple bond of (S)-6 and (R)-6 to double bond with Lindlar catalyst in the presence of quinoline afforded the expected product (S)-8 and (R)-8, respectively. Deprotection of (S)-8 and (R)-8 followed by oxidation of the resulting 1,5-diols with catalytic 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) and excess bis-acetoxyiodobenzene (BAIB) provided the target molecules gem-difluoromethylenated goniothalamins (S)-1 and (R)-1 in high yields, respectively.

  18. Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanvo, Kondo

    2017-09-01

    Gaseous detectors have played a pivotal role as tracking devices in the field of particle physics experiments for the last fifty years. Recent advances in photolithography and micro processing techniques have enabled the transition from Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) and Drift Chambers to a new family of gaseous detectors refer to as Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). MPGDs combine the basic gas amplification principle with micro-structure printed circuits to provide detectors with excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low material budget and high radiation tolerance. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEMs) is a well-established MPGD technology invented by F. Sauli at CERN in 1997 and deployed various high energy physics (HEP) and nuclear NP experiment for tracking systems of current and future NP experiments. GEM detector combines an exceptional high rate capability (1 MHz / mm2) and robustness against harsh radiation environment with excellent position and timing resolution performances. Recent breakthroughs over the past decade have allowed the possibility for large area GEMs, making them cost effective and high-performance detector candidates to play pivotal role in current and future particle physics experiments. After a brief introduction of the basic principle of GEM technology, I will give a brief overview of the GEM detectors used in particle physics experiments over the past decades and especially in the NP community at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). I will follow by a review of state of the art of the new GEM development for the next generation of colliders such as Electron Ion Collider (EIC) or High Luminosity LHC and future Nuclear Physics experiments. I will conclude with a presentation of the CERN-based RD51 collaboration established in 2008 and its major achievements regarding technological developments and applications of MPGDs.

  19. Detection and Imaging of High-Z Materials with a Muon Tomography Station Using GEM Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gnanvo, K; Bittner, W; Costa, F; Grasso, L; Hohlmann, M; Locke, J B; Martoiu, S; Muller, H; Staib, M; Tarazona, A; Toledo, J

    2010-01-01

    Muon tomography based on the measurement of multiple scattering of atmospheric cosmic ray muons is a promising technique for detecting and imaging heavily shielded high-Z nuclear materials such as enriched uranium. This technique could complement standard radiation detection portals currently deployed at international borders and ports, which are not very sensitive to heavily shielded nuclear materials. We image small targets in 3D using $2\\times 2 \\times 2$ mm^3 voxels with a minimal muon tomography station prototype that tracks muons with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors read out in 2D with x-y microstrips of 400 micron pitch. With preliminary electronics, the GEM detectors achieve a spatial resolution of 130 microns in both dimensions. With the next GEM-based prototype station we plan to probe an active volume of ~27 liters. We present first results on reading out all 1536 microstrips of a $30 \\times 30$ cm^2 GEM detector for the next muon tomography prototype with final frontend electronics and DAQ...

  20. A large area GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; de Oliveira, Rui; Pinchasik, Bat-El; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; van Stenis, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    A prototype triple GEM detector has been constructed with an area of similar to 2000 cm(2), based on foils of 66 cm x 66 cm. GEMS of such dimensions have not been made before, and innovations to the existing technology were made to build this detector. A single-mask technique overcomes the cumbersome practice of alignment of two masks, which limits the achievable lateral size. Refinement of this technique results in foils with performance similar to traditional GEMS, while lowering cost and complexity of production. In a splicing procedure, foils are glued over a narrow seam, thus obtaining a larger foil. This procedure was shown not to affect the performance of the GEMS. The seam can be as narrow as 2 mm, mechanically strong enough to withstand the necessary stretching tension, and sufficiently flat to maintain homogeneous electric fields in the gas volumes above and below the foil. These innovations should make the manufacture Of GEM foils of 1 m(2) and beyond possible. With the planned high luminosity upgr...

  1. Effects of high count rates on the signals from GEM-based detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenning, Konstantin; Ketzer, Bernhard; Ball, Markus [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Lippmann, Christian [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Future upgrades of accelerator-based particle physics experiments aim at drastically increased event rates and challenge both detector and readout performance. At high count rates in particle detectors effects like signal pileup, baseline shift and fluctuations become important. Large size GEM detectors as envisaged e.g. for the ongoing ALICE TPC upgrade have the advantage of delivering a fast signal without ion tail in comparison to wire chambers but the large capacitive coupling between channels via the GEM electrode facing the readout pads leads to significant baseline shift and fluctuations (common mode effect). The poster is presenting the work on quantifying the common mode effect as a function of rate and the result of application of different filters in the digital data path. The results are needed for the design finalization of the read out electronics to be used at ALICE and other experiments.

  2. First measurements with new high-resolution gadolinium-GEM neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Birch, Jens; Etxegarai, Maddi; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Höglund, Carina; Hultman, Lars; Llamas-Jansa, Isabel; Oliveri, Eraldo; Oksanen, Esko; Robinson, Linda; Ropelewski, Leszek; Schmidt, Susann; Streli, Christina; Thuiner, Patrik

    2016-05-17

    European Spallation Source instruments like the macromolecular diffractometer, NMX, require an excellent neutron detection efficiency, high-rate capabilities, time resolution, and an unprecedented spatial resolution in the order of a few hundred micrometers over a wide angular range of the incoming neutrons. For these instruments solid converters in combination with Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) are a promising option. A GEM detector with gadolinium converter was tested on a cold neutron beam at the IFE research reactor in Norway. The {\\mu}TPC analysis, proven to improve the spatial resolution in the case of $^{10}$B converters, is extended to gadolinium based detectors. For the first time, a Gd-GEM was successfully operated to detect neutrons with an estimated efficiency of 10% at a wavelength of 2 {\\AA} and a position resolution better than 350 {\\mu}m.

  3. A fast multi-GEM-based detector for high-rate charged-particle triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Bencivenni, G; Cardini, A; Deplano, C; De Simone, P; Felici, G; Marras, D; Murtas, F; Pinci, D; Poli-Lener, M; Raspino, D

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, results of a time performance study of gas electron multiplier (GEM)-based detectors are discussed. This study was driven by an R & D activity on detectors for the Level 0 LHCb muon trigger. Results presented in this paper are of more general interest, i.e., for experiments in which high-rate charged-particle triggering is needed. Little interest was given so far to time performance of GEM- based detectors, with the exception of one paper reporting the measurement of a double-GEM detector time resolution with an Ar/CO//2 (70/30) gas mixture where the authors quoted a time resolution such that high-efficiency muon triggering at LHCb would be impossible. The results reported here, obtained with the addition of CF//4 and isobutane to the Ar/CO//2 standard mixture, considerably improve the time performance discussed in the above-mentioned paper, allowing one to reach a time distribution root mean square of 5 ns with an isobutane-based mixture. In these conditions, a spark probability per incomi...

  4. Progress on the realization of a new GEM based neutron diagnostic concept for high flux neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, G.; Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano, Italy and INFN, Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Rebai, M.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy and INFN, Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Cazzaniga, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R.; Tollin, M. [Consorzio RFX - Associazione Euratom-Enea sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy); Grosso, G.; Muraro, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy); Murtas, F.; Claps, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy)

    2014-08-21

    Fusion reactors will need high flux neutron detectors to diagnose the deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium. A candidate detection technique is the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). New GEM based detectors are being developed for application to a neutral deuterium beam test facility. The proposed detection system is called Close-contact Neutron Emission Surface Mapping (CNESM). The diagnostic aims at providing the map of the neutron emission due to interaction of the deuterium beam with the deuterons implanted in the beam dump surface. This is done by placing a detector in close contact, right behind the dump. CNESM uses nGEM detectors, i.e. GEM detectors equipped with a cathode that also serves as neutron-proton converter foil. After the realization and test of several small area prototypes, a full size prototype has been realized and tested with laboratory sources. Test on neutron beams are foreseen for the next months.

  5. Gas scintillation glass GEM detector for high-resolution X-ray imaging and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, T., E-mail: fujiwara-t@aist.go.jp [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Mitsuya, Y. [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Fushie, T. [Radiment Lab. Inc., Setagaya, Tokyo 156-0044 (Japan); Murata, K.; Kawamura, A.; Koishikawa, A. [XIT Co., Naruse, Machida, Tokyo 194-0045 (Japan); Toyokawa, H. [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Institute of Engineering Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    A high-spatial-resolution X-ray-imaging gaseous detector has been developed with a single high-gas-gain glass gas electron multiplier (G-GEM), scintillation gas, and optical camera. High-resolution X-ray imaging of soft elements is performed with a spatial resolution of 281 µm rms and an effective area of 100×100 mm. In addition, high-resolution X-ray 3D computed tomography (CT) is successfully demonstrated with the gaseous detector. It shows high sensitivity to low-energy X-rays, which results in high-contrast radiographs of objects containing elements with low atomic numbers. In addition, the high yield of scintillation light enables fast X-ray imaging, which is an advantage for constructing CT images with low-energy X-rays.

  6. Gem Detectors For the Transverse Profile Measurement of Low Energy Antiprotons and High Energy Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Spanggaard, J; Duarte Pinto, S; Tranquille, G

    2013-01-01

    Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are finding more and more applications in beam instrumentation. Gas Electron Multiplication is a very similar physical phenomenon to that which occurs in Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC), but for small profile monitors GEMs are much more cost effective to produce and maintain. \

  7. Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations and mercury depositions at a high-altitude mountain peak in south China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Fu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available China is regarded as the largest contributor of mercury (Hg to the global atmospheric Hg budget. However, concentration levels and depositions of atmospheric Hg in China are poorly known. Continuous measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM were carried out from May 2008 to May 2009 at the summit of Mt. Leigong in south China. Simultaneously, deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg in precipitation, throughfall and litterfall were also studied. Atmospheric GEM concentrations averaged 2.80±1.51 ng m−3, which was highly elevated compared to global background values but much lower than semi-rural and industrial/urban areas in China. Sources identification indicates that both regional industrial emissions and long range transport of Hg from central, south and southwest China were corresponded to the elevated GEM level. Seasonal and diurnal variations of GEM were observed, which reflected variations in source intensity, deposition processes and meteorological factors. Precipitation and throughfall deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg in Mt. Leigong were comparable or lower compared to those reported in Europe and North America, whereas litterfall deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg were higher compared to Europe and North America. This highlights the importance of vegetation to Hg atmospheric cycling. In th remote forest ecosystem of China, deposition of GEM via uptake of foliage followed by litterfall was very important for the depletion of atmospheric Hg. Elevated GEM level in ambient air may accelerate the foliar uptake of Hg through air which may partly explain the elevated litterfall deposition fluxes of Hg observed in Mt. Leigong.

  8. Graphics gems

    CERN Document Server

    Glassner, Andrew S

    1993-01-01

    ""The GRAPHICS GEMS Series"" was started in 1990 by Andrew Glassner. The vision and purpose of the Series was - and still is - to provide tips, techniques, and algorithms for graphics programmers. All of the gems are written by programmers who work in the field and are motivated by a common desire to share interesting ideas and tools with their colleagues. Each volume provides a new set of innovative solutions to a variety of programming problems.

  9. Application of model output statistics to the GEM-AQ high resolution air quality forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J. W.; Jefimow, M.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the presented work was to analyse the impact of data stratification on the efficiency of the Model Output Statistics (MOS) methodology as applied to a high-resolution deterministic air quality forecast carried out with the GEM-AQ model. The following parameters forecasted by the GEM-AQ model were selected as predictors for the MOS equation: pollutant concentration, air temperature in the lowest model layer, wind speed in the lowest model layer, temperature inversion and the precipitation rate. A representative 2-year series were used to construct regression functions. Data series were divided into two subsets. Approximately 75% of the data (first 3 weeks of each month) were used to estimate the regression function parameters. Remaining 25% (last week of each month) were used to test the method (control period). The subsequent 12 months were used for method verification (verification period). A linear model fitted the function based on forecasted parameters to the observations. We have assumed four different temperature-based data stratification methods (for each method, separate equations were constructed). For PM10 and PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 the best correction results were obtained with the application of temperature thresholds in the cold season and seasonal distribution combined with temperature thresholds in the warm season. For the PM10, PM2.5 and SO2 the best results were obtained using a combination of two stratification methods separately for cold and warm seasons. For CO, the systematic bias of the forecasted concentrations was partly corrected. For ozone more sophisticated methods of data stratification did not bring a significant improvement.

  10. Gas electron multipliers. Development of large area GEMS and spherical GEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Serge Duarte

    2011-08-15

    Gaseous radiation detectors have been a crucial part of high-energy physics instrumentation since the 1960s, when the first multiwire proportional counters were built. In the 1990s the first micropattern gas detectors (MPGDS) saw the light; with sub-millimeter feature sizes these novel detectors were faster and more accurate than their predecessors. The gas electron multiplier (GEM) is one of the most successful of these technologies. It is a charge multiplication structure made from a copper clad polymer foil, pierced with a regular and dense pattern of holes. I describe the properties and the application of GEMs and GEM. detectors, and the research and development I have done on this technology. Two of the main objectives were the development of large area GEMs ({proportional_to}m{sup 2}) for particle physics experiments and GEMs with a spherical shape for X-ray or neutron diffraction detectors. Both have been realized, and the new techniques involved are finding their way to applications in research and industry. (orig.)

  11. Impact of urban parameterization on high resolution air quality forecast with the GEM – AQ model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Struzewska

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the impact of urban cover on high-resolution air quality forecast simulations with the GEM-AQ (Global Environmental Multiscale and Air Quality model. The impact of urban area on the ambient atmosphere is non-stationary, and short-term variability of meteorological conditions may result in significant changes of the observed intensity of urban heat island and pollutant concentrations. In this study we used the Town Energy Balance (TEB parameterization to represent urban effects on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters at the final nesting level with horizontal resolution of ~5 km over Southern Poland. Three one-day cases representing different meteorological conditions were selected and the model was run with and without the TEB parameterization. Three urban cover categories were used in the TEB parameterization: mid-high buildings, very low buildings and low density suburbs. Urban cover layers were constructed based on an area fraction of towns in a grid cell. To analyze the impact of urban parameterization on modelled meteorological and air quality parameters, anomalies in the lowest model layer for the air temperature, wind speed and pollutant concentrations were calculated. Anomalies of the specific humidity fields indicate that the use of the TEB parameterization leads to a systematic reduction of moisture content in the air. Comparison with temperature and wind speed measurements taken at urban background monitoring stations shows that application of urban parameterization improves model results. For primary pollutants the impact of urban areas is most significant in regions characterized with high emissions. In most cases the anomalies of NO2 and CO concentrations were negative. This reduction is most likely caused by an enhanced vertical mixing due to elevated surface temperature and modified vertical stability.

  12. GEM Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-31

    The GEM collaboration was formed in June 1991 to develop a major detector for the SSC. The primary physics objectives of GEM are those central to the motivation for the SSC, to study high p{sub T} physics - exemplified by the search for Higgs bosons - and to search for new physics beyond the standard model. The authors present in this Technical Design Report (TDR) a detector with broad capabilities for the discovery and subsequent study of electroweak symmetry breaking, the origin of mass and flavor, and other physics requiring precise measurements of gammas, electrons, and muons - hence the name, GEM. In addition, as a design goal, they have taken care to provide the robustness needed to do the physics that requires high luminosity. Finally, good coverage and hermeticity allow the detection of missing transverse energy, E{sub T}. The GEM design emphasizes clean identification and high resolution measurement of the primary physics signatures for high p{sub T} physics. The approach is to make precise energy measurements that maximize the sensitivity to rare narrow resonances, to detect the elementary interaction products (quarks, leptons, and photons), and to build in the features required to reduce backgrounds.

  13. LHCb: A fast triple-GEM detector for high-rate charged-particle triggering

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    - GEM: Principle of Operation - Time Performances - Detector Prototypes and Test Setup - Gas Mixtures - Fields Optimisation - Vgem Optimisation Ar/CO2 (70/30) - Vgem Optimisation Ar/CO2/CF4 (60/20/20) - Time Distributions - Future Tests and Developments

  14. Progress on large area GEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Pinto, S.; Villa, M.; Alfonsi, M.; Brock, I.; Croci, G.; David, E.; de Oliveira, R.; Ropelewski, L.; van Stenis, M.

    2009-12-01

    In 2008, a triple GEM detector prototype with an area of ~ 2000 cm2 has been constructed, based on foils of 66 × 66 cm. GEMs of such dimensions had not been made before, and innovations to the existing technology were introduced to build this detector. This paper discusses these innovations and presents further work on large area GEM development. A single-mask technique overcomes the cumbersome practice of alignment of two masks, which limits the achievable lateral size. The holes obtained with this technique are conical, and have a so-called rim, a small insulating clearance around the hole in the substrate. Further refinements of this technique allow greater control over the shape of holes and the size of rims. Also, an improvement in homogeneity over large areas is expected. Simulation studies have been done to examine the effect of hole shape on the behavior of GEMs. Such studies can help understanding how to use new enhancements of the technique to optimize performance. Many potential applications for large area GEMs foresee large production volumes. Production issues have been studied, and single-mask GEMs turn out to be much more suitable for large scale production than standard GEMs.

  15. Open source large-scale high-resolution environmental modelling with GEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarsma, Rein; Alberti, Koko; Marra, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Many environmental, topographic and climate data sets are freely available at a global scale, creating the opportunities to run environmental models for every location on Earth. Collection of the data necessary to do this and the consequent conversion into a useful format is very demanding however, not to mention the computational demand of a model itself. We developed GEMS (Global Environmental Modelling System), an online application to run environmental models on various scales directly in your browser and share the results with other researchers. GEMS is open-source and uses open-source platforms including Flask, Leaflet, GDAL, MapServer and the PCRaster-Python modelling framework to process spatio-temporal models in real time. With GEMS, users can write, run, and visualize the results of dynamic PCRaster-Python models in a browser. GEMS uses freely available global data to feed the models, and automatically converts the data to the relevant model extent and data format. Currently available data includes the SRTM elevation model, a selection of monthly vegetation data from MODIS, land use classifications from GlobCover, historical climate data from WorldClim, HWSD soil information from WorldGrids, population density from SEDAC and near real-time weather forecasts, most with a ±100m resolution. Furthermore, users can add other or their own datasets using a web coverage service or a custom data provider script. With easy access to a wide range of base datasets and without the data preparation that is usually necessary to run environmental models, building and running a model becomes a matter hours. Furthermore, it is easy to share the resulting maps, timeseries data or model scenarios with other researchers through a web mapping service (WMS). GEMS can be used to provide open access to model results. Additionally, environmental models in GEMS can be employed by users with no extensive experience with writing code, which is for example valuable for using models

  16. Graphics gems

    CERN Document Server

    Heckbert, Paul S

    1994-01-01

    Graphics Gems IV contains practical techniques for 2D and 3D modeling, animation, rendering, and image processing. The book presents articles on polygons and polyhedral; a mix of formulas, optimized algorithms, and tutorial information on the geometry of 2D, 3D, and n-D space; transformations; and parametric curves and surfaces. The text also includes articles on ray tracing; shading 3D models; and frame buffer techniques. Articles on image processing; algorithms for graphical layout; basic interpolation methods; and subroutine libraries for vector and matrix algebra are also demonstrated. Com

  17. A TPC-like readout method for high precision muon-tracking using GEM-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flierl, Bernhard; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Hertenberger, Ralf; Klitzner, Felix; Loesel, Philipp; Mueller, Ralph [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [Julius-Maximilians-Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors are well suited for tracking of charged particles. Three dimensional tracking in a single layer can be achieved by application of a time-projection-chamber like readout mode (μTPC), if the drift time of the electrons is measured and the position dependence of the arrival time is used to calculate the inclination angle of the track. To optimize the tracking capabilities for ion tracks drift gas mixtures with low drift velocity have been investigated by measuring tracks of cosmic muons in a compact setup of four GEM-detectors of 100 x 100 x 6 mm{sup 3} active volume each and an angular acceptance of -25 to 25 . The setup consists of three detectors with two-dimensional strip readout layers of 0.4 mm pitch and one detector with a single strip readout layer of 0.25 mm pitch. All strips are readout by APV25 frontend boards and the amplification stage in the detectors consists of three GEM-foils. Tracks are reconstructed by the μTPC-method in one of the detectors and are then compared to the prediction from the other three detectors defined by the center of charge in every detector. We report our study of Argon and Helium based noble gas mixtures with carbon-dioxide as quencher.

  18. A Continuously Running High-Rate GEM-TPC for P¯ANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmer, F. V.; Angerer, H.; Dørheim, S.; Höppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Zhang, X.; Berger, M.; Cusanno, F.; Fabbietti, L.; Lalik, R.; Beck, R.; Kaiser, D.; Lang, M.; Schmitz, R.; Walther, D.; Winnebeck, A.; Zenke, F.; Arora, R.; Averbeckt, R.; Hehner, J.; Herrmannt, N.; Kleipa, V.; Kunkel, J.; Leifelst, Y.; Mladen, K.; Schmidt, C.; Schwab, S.; Soyk, D.; Voss, B.; Voss, J.; Weinert, J.; Zmeskal, J.

    2011-06-01

    The P¯ANDA fixed target experiment planned at FAIR will investigate fundamental questions of non-perturbative QCD. It makes use of a cooled antiproton beam (momentum: 1.5 to 15 GeV/c) and will reach luminosities of up to 2ṡ10 cm s, yielding a p¯p-annihilation rate of 2ṡ10 s. One option for the central tracker of P¯ANDA is a cylindrical, ungated, continuously running TPC with GEM-based gas amplification stage.

  19. Design and characterization of the GEM detector for a digital radiographic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyo Sung; Kang, Sang Muk; Hong, Dae Kee [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    DR(digital radiography) system which makes the inner structure of an interesting object visible in two-dimensional digital image is a technology-intensive and high value-added device with a variety of applications. The GEM detector which is being developed in the mother project has advantages of low fabrication-cost, compared with semiconductor or scintillation detectors, and of radiation protection, compared with conventional film/screen system. In this study, simulation codes such MAXWELL, SHOWFIELD, and IMAGEQUAL were developed to analyze the GEM characteristics, and the optimal GEM design was discussed using the codes. 14 refs., 25 figs. (Author)

  20. GEM - A novel gaseous particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Meinschad, T

    2005-01-01

    The work carried out within the framework of this Ph.D. deals with the construction of gaseous prototype detectors using Gas Electron Multiplier electrodes for the amplification of charges released by ionizing particles. The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a thin metal-clad polymer foil, etched with a high density of narrow holes, typically 50-100mm-2. On the application of a potential difference between the conductive top and bottom sides each hole acts as independent proportional counter. This new fast device permits to reach large amplification factors at high rates with a strong photon and ion-mediated feedback suppression due to the avalanche confinement in the GEM-holes. Here, in particular studies have been performed, which should prove, that the GEM-technology is applicable for an efficient measurement of single Cherenkov photons. These UV-photons can be detected in different ways. An elegant solution to develop large area RICH-detectors is to evaporate a pad-segmented readout-cathode of a multi-wire...

  1. Beam Test Results for New Full-scale GEM Prototypes for a Future Upgrade of the CMS High-eta Muon System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067149; Armagnaud, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Ban, Y.; Bally, S.; Benussi, L.; Berzano, U.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bunkowski, K.; Cai, J.; Chatelain, J.P.; Christiansen, J.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; David, E.; de Robertis, G.; De Oliveira, R.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Ferry, S.; Formenti, F.; Franconi, L.; Fruboes, T.; Gutierrez, A.; Hohlmann, M.; Kamel, A.E.; Karchin, P.E.; Loddo, F.; Magazzu, G.; Maggi, M.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Mehta, K.; Merlin, J.; Mohapatra, A.; Moulik, T.; Nemallapudi, M.V.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Radi, A.; Raffone, G.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Staib, M.J.; Teng, H.; Tytgat, M.; Tupputi, S.A.; Turini, N.; Smilkjovic, N.; Villa, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Zientek, M.

    2012-01-01

    The CMS GEM collaboration is considering Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for upgrading the CMS forward muon system in the 1.5<|eta|<2.4 endcap region. GEM detectors can provide precision tracking and fast trigger information. They would improve the CMS muon trigger and muon momentum resolution and provide missing redundancy in the high-eta region. Employing a new faster construction and assembly technique, we built four full-scale Triple-GEM muon detectors for the inner ring of the first muon endcap station. We plan to install these or further improved versions in CMS during the first long LHC shutdown in 2013/14 for continued testing. These detectors are designed for the stringent rate and resolution requirements in the increasingly hostile environments expected at CMS after the second long LHC shutdown in 2018/19. The new prototypes were studied in muon/pion beams at the CERN SPS. We discuss our experience with constructing the new full-scale production prototypes and present preliminary performance r...

  2. Progress on large area GEMs

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Serge Duarte; Alfonsi, Matteo; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; De Oliveira, Rui; Ropelewski, Leszek; van Stenis, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, a triple GEM detector prototype with an area of ~2000 cm2 has been constructed, based on foils of 66*66 cm. GEMs of such dimensions had not been made before, and innovations to the existing technology were introduced to build this detector. This paper discusses these innovations and presents further work on large area GEM development. A single-mask technique overcomes the cumbersome practice of alignment of two masks, which limits the achievable lateral size. The holes obtained with this technique are conical, and have a so-called rim, a small insulating clearance around the hole in the substrate. Further refinements of this technique allow greater control over the shape of holes and the size of rims. Also, an improvement in homogeneity over large areas is expected. Simulation studies have been done to examine the effect of hole shape on the behavior of GEMs. Such studies can help understanding how to use new enhancements of the technique to optimize performance. Many potential applications for large...

  3. CMS Technical Design Report for the Muon Endcap GEM Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108476; Safonov, A; Sharma, A; Tytgat, M; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2015-01-01

    This report describes both the technical design and the expected performance of the Phase-II upgrade, using Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, of the first endcap station of the CMS muon system. The upgrade is targeted for the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC and is designed to improve the muon trigger and tracking performance at high luminosity. The GEM detectors will add redundancy to the muon system in the 1.6 < |η| < 2.2 pseudorapidity region, where the amount of detection layers is lowest while the background rates are highest and the bending of the muon trajectories due to the CMS magnetic field is small. GEM detectors have been identified as a suitable technology to operate in the high radiation environment present in that region. The first muon endcap station will be instrumented with a double layer of triple-GEM chambers in the 1.6 < |η| < 2.2 region. The detector front-end electronics uses the custom designed VFAT3 chip to provide both fast input for the level-1 muon trigger ...

  4. The gas electron multiplier (GEM)

    CERN Document Server

    Bouclier, Roger; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Labbé, J C; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1996-01-01

    We describe operating priciples and results obtained with a new detector component: the Gas Electrons Multiplier (GEM). Consisting of a thin composite sheet with two metal layers separated by a thin insulator, and pierced by a regular matrix of open channels, the GEM electrode, inserted on the path of electrons in a gas detector, allows to transfer the charge with an amplification factor approaching ten. Uniform response and high rate capability are demonstrated. Coupled to another device, multiwire or micro-strip chamber, the GEM electrode permit to obtain higher gains or less critical operation; separation of the sensitive (conversion) volume and the detection volume has other advantages, as a built-in delay (useful for triggering purposes) and the possibility of applying high fields on the photo-cathode of ring imaging detectors to improve efficiency. Multiple GEM grids in the same gas volume allow to obtain large amplification factors in a succession of steps, leading to the realization of an effective ga...

  5. Skywalking GEMS and UDF

    OpenAIRE

    Jahnke, K; Sanchez, S. F.; HaeUssler, B.

    2004-01-01

    The two large colour mosaics of the GEMS and UDF projects, both obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and ACS, consist of large amounts of data. We present two web application pages (the GEMS and UDF "Skywalker") that allow to pan around in these mosaics with downloading only small parts at a time.

  6. Progress in GEM-based gaseous photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Chechik, R; Breskin, Amos; Buzulutskov, A F; Guedes, G P; Mörmann, D; Singh, B K

    2003-01-01

    We discuss recent progress in gaseous photomultipliers (GPMTs) comprising UV-to-visible spectral range photocathodes (PCs) coupled to multiple Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM). The PCs may be either semitransparent or reflective ones directly deposited on the first-GEM surface. These detectors provide high gain, even in noble gases, are sensitive to single photons, have nanosecond time resolution, and offer good localization. The operation of CsI-based GPMTs in CF sub 4 opens new applications in Cherenkov detectors, where both the radiator and the photosensor operate in the same gas. The latest results on sealed visible-light detectors, combining bialkali PCs and Kapton-made GEMs are presented.

  7. GEM - The Global Earthquake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, A.

    2009-04-01

    coordinated global network of regional centers, with a high degree of interaction among the centers and the central secretariat. Broad acceptance of the models will be ensured by including local knowledge in all aspects of hazard and risk assessment and securing participation of local experts throughout development. All GEM efforts will be carried out using a common global software infrastructure and consensus standards. In accordance with principles of open-source development, and to ensure comprehensive global representation, contributions are welcomed and encouraged from a broad group of participants. To ensure uniformity and conformance with the highest scientific standards, all contributions, including models, tools, and data, will be rigorously vetted and independently tested. Recently the EUCENTRE in Pavia/Italy has been selected as the host institution of the GEM secretariat. The project will formally launch in early 2009 by creating the non-profit GEM foundation. While GEM serves a humanitarian imperative it is considered as offering a key to long-term economic development. GEM will enhance risk awareness at global, national and local scales. Greater risk awareness is a precondition for motivating public and private parties to investing into risk reduction and loss prevention, and to promote a greater use of financial risk transfer instruments.

  8. Detection and Imaging of High-Z Materials with a Muon Tomography Station Using GEM Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanvo, K; Benson, B.; Bittner, W.; Costa, F.; Grasso, L.; Hohlmann, M.; Locke, J. B.; Martoiu, S.; Muller, H.; Staib, M.; Tarazona, A.; Toledo, J.

    2010-01-01

    Muon tomography based on the measurement of multiple scattering of atmospheric cosmic ray muons is a promising technique for detecting and imaging heavily shielded high-Z nuclear materials such as enriched uranium. This technique could complement standard radiation detection portals currently deployed at international borders and ports, which are not very sensitive to heavily shielded nuclear materials. We image small targets in 3D using $2\\times 2 \\times 2 mm^3$ voxels with a minimal muon to...

  9. Optimal correction of distortion for high-angular-resolution images: Application to GeMS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, A.; Neichel, B.; Mugnier, L. M.; Fusco, T.

    2018-01-01

    Whether ground based or space based, any optical instrument suffers from some amount of optical geometric distortion. Recently, the diffraction-limited image quality afforded by space-based telescopes and by instruments corrected with adaptive optics on ground-based telescope has increased the relative importance of the error terms induced by optical distortions. In particular, the variable distortion in multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) data limits the astrometric and photometric accuracy of such high-resolution instruments. These phenomena have become a critical issue for high-precision studies. We present in this paper an optimal method of distortion correction for high-angular-resolution images. Based on prior knowledge of the static distortion, the method aims to correct the dynamic distortion for each observation set and each frame. The method follows an inverse problem approach based on the work by Gratadour, Mugnier & Rouan on image re-centring, and we aim to generalize this to any kind of distortion mode. The complete formalism of a weighted least-squares minimization as well as a detailed characterization of the error budget are presented. In particular, we study the influence of different parameters such as the number of frames, the density of the field (sparse or crowed images), the noise level and the aliasing effect. Finally, we show the first application of the method on real observations collected with the Gemini MCAO instrument, GeMS/GSAOI. The performance of as well as the gain brought by this method are presented.

  10. Gain limits of a Thick GEM in high-purity Ne, Ar and Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, J; Peskov, V

    2010-01-01

    The dependence of the avalanche charge gain in Thick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEM) on the purity of Ne, Ar and Xe filling gases was investigated. The gain, measured with alpha-particles in standard conditions (atmospheric pressure, room temperature), was found to considerably drop in gases purified by non-evaporable getters. On the other hand, small N2 admixtures to noble gases resulted in high reachable gains. The results are of general relevance in the operation of gas-avalanche detectors in noble gases, particularly that of two-phase cryogenic detectors for rare events.

  11. The gastrointestinal electrical mapping suite (GEMS): software for analyzing and visualizing high-resolution (multi-electrode) recordings in spatiotemporal detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassi, Rita; O'Grady, Gregory; Paskaranandavadivel, Nira; Du, Peng; Angeli, Timothy R; Pullan, Andrew J; Cheng, Leo K; Erickson, Jonathan C

    2012-06-06

    Gastrointestinal contractions are controlled by an underlying bioelectrical activity. High-resolution spatiotemporal electrical mapping has become an important advance for investigating gastrointestinal electrical behaviors in health and motility disorders. However, research progress has been constrained by the low efficiency of the data analysis tasks. This work introduces a new efficient software package: GEMS (Gastrointestinal Electrical Mapping Suite), for analyzing and visualizing high-resolution multi-electrode gastrointestinal mapping data in spatiotemporal detail. GEMS incorporates a number of new and previously validated automated analytical and visualization methods into a coherent framework coupled to an intuitive and user-friendly graphical user interface. GEMS is implemented using MATLAB®, which combines sophisticated mathematical operations and GUI compatibility. Recorded slow wave data can be filtered via a range of inbuilt techniques, efficiently analyzed via automated event-detection and cycle clustering algorithms, and high quality isochronal activation maps, velocity field maps, amplitude maps, frequency (time interval) maps and data animations can be rapidly generated. Normal and dysrhythmic activities can be analyzed, including initiation and conduction abnormalities. The software is distributed free to academics via a community user website and forum (http://sites.google.com/site/gimappingsuite). This software allows for the rapid analysis and generation of critical results from gastrointestinal high-resolution electrical mapping data, including quantitative analysis and graphical outputs for qualitative analysis. The software is designed to be used by non-experts in data and signal processing, and is intended to be used by clinical researchers as well as physiologists and bioengineers. The use and distribution of this software package will greatly accelerate efforts to improve the understanding of the causes and clinical consequences of

  12. The gastrointestinal electrical mapping suite (GEMS: software for analyzing and visualizing high-resolution (multi-electrode recordings in spatiotemporal detail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassi Rita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal contractions are controlled by an underlying bioelectrical activity. High-resolution spatiotemporal electrical mapping has become an important advance for investigating gastrointestinal electrical behaviors in health and motility disorders. However, research progress has been constrained by the low efficiency of the data analysis tasks. This work introduces a new efficient software package: GEMS (Gastrointestinal Electrical Mapping Suite, for analyzing and visualizing high-resolution multi-electrode gastrointestinal mapping data in spatiotemporal detail. Results GEMS incorporates a number of new and previously validated automated analytical and visualization methods into a coherent framework coupled to an intuitive and user-friendly graphical user interface. GEMS is implemented using MATLAB®, which combines sophisticated mathematical operations and GUI compatibility. Recorded slow wave data can be filtered via a range of inbuilt techniques, efficiently analyzed via automated event-detection and cycle clustering algorithms, and high quality isochronal activation maps, velocity field maps, amplitude maps, frequency (time interval maps and data animations can be rapidly generated. Normal and dysrhythmic activities can be analyzed, including initiation and conduction abnormalities. The software is distributed free to academics via a community user website and forum (http://sites.google.com/site/gimappingsuite. Conclusions This software allows for the rapid analysis and generation of critical results from gastrointestinal high-resolution electrical mapping data, including quantitative analysis and graphical outputs for qualitative analysis. The software is designed to be used by non-experts in data and signal processing, and is intended to be used by clinical researchers as well as physiologists and bioengineers. The use and distribution of this software package will greatly accelerate efforts to improve the

  13. The gem anvil cell: high-pressure behaviour of diamond and related materials

    CERN Document Server

    Xu Jian; Hemley, R J

    2002-01-01

    The moissanite anvil cell has been used to study the high-pressure behaviour of diamond. The first-order Raman shift of diamond shows a strong dependence on hydrostaticity, with very different pressure dependences observed under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic conditions. The shift of the second-order Raman band under hydrostatic pressures was determined for the first time. Sapphire has almost no peaks above 1000 cm sup - sup 1 in the Raman spectrum and no absorption in the ultraviolet range; it is therefore especially useful for studies in those spectral regions. A sapphire anvil cell was used in a study of graphite up to 24 GPa. A phase transition was found near 18 GPa, consistent with previous reports, and no peaks characteristic of diamond in the 1330 cm sup - sup 1 range were found, indicating that the phase is not diamond.

  14. High resolution surface scanning of Thick-GEM for single photo-electron detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, G.; Varga, D.

    2012-12-01

    An optical system for high resolution scanning of TGEM UV photon detection systems is introduced. The structure exploits the combination of a single Au-coated TGEM under study, and an asymmetric MWPC (Close Cathode Chamber) as post-amplification stage. A pulsed UV LED source with emission down to 240 nm has been focused to a spot of 0.07 mm on the TGEM surface, and single photo-electron charge spectra has been recorded over selected two dimensional regions. This way, the TGEM gain (order of 10-100) and TGEM photo-electron detection efficiency is clearly separated, unlike in case of continuous illumination. The surface structure connected to the TGEM photon detection is well observable, including inefficiencies in the holes and at the symmetry points between holes. The detection efficiency as well as the gas gain are fluctuating from hole to hole. The gain is constant in the hexagon around any hole, pointing to the fact that the gain depends on hole geometry, and less on the position where the electron enters. The detection probability map strongly changes with the field strength above the TGEM surface, in relation to the change of the actual surface field configuration. The results can be confronted with position-dependent simulations of TGEM electron transfer and gas multiplication.

  15. Study of etching processes in the GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Zavazieva, Darina

    2016-01-01

    Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors are known to operate stably at high gains and high particle fluxes. Though, at very high gains and fluxes it was observed that the insulating polyimide layer between the GEM electrodes gets etched, changing the original shape of the hole, and therefore varying the gain and the energy resolution of the detector. The idea of the project to observe degradation effect of the GEM foils during the Triple GEM detector operation in extreme conditions under X-ray radiation.

  16. Photometric techniques, performance and PSF characterization of GeMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, Paolo; McConnachie, Alan W.; Stetson, Peter B.; Andersen, David R.; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Massari, Davide

    2016-07-01

    GeMS is the multi-conjugate adaptive optics instrument at the Gemini South telescope in Chile, the first facility-class MCAO system and the first to use laser guide stars. During its science verification period we have observed the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 and here we discuss the optimization of the analysis techniques that we adopt to extract science-ready photometric measurements. We use the large number of stars in the field of view to determine with high accuracy the PSF model for the profile fitting photometry. Understanding the correct techniques not only has proven useful with GeMS data but will be valuable on the next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes, where MCAO will be a central technology.

  17. OSG-GEM: Gene Expression Matrix Construction Using the Open Science Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlman, William L; Rynge, Mats; Branton, Chris; Balamurugan, D; Feltus, Frank A

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing technology has revolutionized the study of gene expression while introducing significant computational challenges for biologists. These computational challenges include access to sufficient computer hardware and functional data processing workflows. Both these challenges are addressed with our scalable, open-source Pegasus workflow for processing high-throughput DNA sequence datasets into a gene expression matrix (GEM) using computational resources available to U.S.-based researchers on the Open Science Grid (OSG). We describe the usage of the workflow (OSG-GEM), discuss workflow design, inspect performance data, and assess accuracy in mapping paired-end sequencing reads to a reference genome. A target OSG-GEM user is proficient with the Linux command line and possesses basic bioinformatics experience. The user may run this workflow directly on the OSG or adapt it to novel computing environments.

  18. GEM luminosity monitors for the OLYMPUS experiment to determine the effect of two-photon exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ozgur

    The OLYMPUS experiment at DESY acquired its data in two distinct periods between 2012-2013 to measure the ratio of positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections. In light of those measurements, OLYMPUS will be able to quantify the effect of two-photon exchange, which is widely considered to be responsible for the discrepancy between measurements of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio with the Rosenbluth separation and polarization transfer methods. In order to control the systematic uncertainties to the sub-percent level, the luminosities were monitored redundantly and with high precision. This was done by measuring the rates for symmetric Moller and Bhabha scattering and by measuring the ep-elastic count rates at forward angles and low momentum transfer with tracking telescopes based on GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) and MWPC (Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber technology. A total of nine GEM detectors were constructed for the OLYMPUS experiment. Within the scope of this thesis, every single step of construction, testing and installation of the GEM OLYMPUS luminosity monitors are explained in the hardware part of this thesis. Moreover, based on the analysis of the data taken with the GEM luminosity monitors at the OLYMPUS experiment, individual GEM detector performance and preliminary results on the positron/electron luminosity ratio measured with elastic scattering at forward angles are discussed in the analysis part of the thesis.

  19. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  20. A GEM Detector System for an Upgrade of the High-eta Muon Endcap Stations GE1/1 + ME1/1 in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Aspell, P.; Bianco, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Maggi, M.; De Lentdecker, G.; Safonov, A.; Sharma, A.; Tytgat, M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the CMS Upgrade R&D Proposal RD10.02, we describe the motivation and main features of the CMS GEM Project for LS2 and propose the addition of a full GE1/12 detector station comprising Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers to the forward muon system of CMS. The limitations of the currently existing forward muon detector when operating at increasingly high luminosity expected after LS1 are laid out followed by a brief description of the anticipated performance improvements achievable with a GE1/1 station. The second part describes the detector system followed by an overview of electronics and associated services including a discussion of the schedule and cost of the project. Plans for a precursor demonstrator installation in LS1 are presented. This proposal is intended as a concise follow-up of the detailed document CMS-IN-2012-023. If approved, this is to be followed by a detailed Technical Design Report.

  1. Simulation of the CMS GEM System

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Archie

    2015-01-01

    The new GE1/1 system of Gas Electron Multipiers (GEM) is going to be installed in the CMS detector in the forward region with $\\eta$ between 1.6 and 2.2 after the second long LHC shutdown. 36 super-chambers are planned to be installed in order to ensure the redundancy and robustness of the muon system in high-luminosity conditions at the LHC. A further extension to the GEM system is also considered. The simulation of the entire GEM system integrated in the common CMS reconstruction chain is a necessary part of the performed Monte Carlo studies. A dedicated parametric model based on the exhaustive standalone MC studies and experimental test beam results has been developed in order to simulate the response of the GEM system. The simulated digital readout signals are used to build the reconstructed hits in the detector planes. They have been included in the common CMS muon reconstruction algorithms. This contribution will present the developed simulation model and the importance of the gem system for the improve...

  2. CMS Muon System Phase 2 Upgrade with triple-GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Salva Diblen, Sinem

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has an extensive muon system which provides information simultaneously for identification, track reconstruction and triggering of muons. As a consequence of the extreme particle rate and high integrated charge, the essentiality to upgrade the LHC has given rise to the High Luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) project so that the CMS muon system will be upgraded with superior technological challenges. The CMS GEM collaboration offers a solution to equip the high-eta region of the muon system for Phase 2 (after the year 2017) with large-area triple-layer Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, since GEMs have the ability to provide robust and redundant tracking and triggering functions with an excellent spatial resolution of order 100 micron and a high particle rate capability, with a close to 100pct detection efficiency. In this contribution, the present status of the triple-GEM project will be reviewed, and the signifi...

  3. Neutron beam imaging with GEM detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, G.; Croci, G.; Cazzaniga, C.; Cavenago, M.; Claps, G.; Muraro, A.; Murtas, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    2015-04-01

    Neutron GEM-based detectors represent a new frontier of devices in neutron physics applications where a very high neutron flux must be measured such as future fusion experiments (e.g. ITER Neutral beam Injector) and spallation sources (e.g. the European Spallation source). This kind of detectors can be properly adapted to be used both as beam monitors but also as neutron diffraction detectors that could represent a valid alternative for the 3He detectors replacement. Fast neutron GEM detectors (nGEM) feature a cathode composed by one layer of polyethylene and one of aluminium (neutron scattering on hydrogen generates protons that are detected in the gas) while thermal neutron GEM detectors (bGEM) are equipped with a borated aluminium cathode (charged particles are generated through the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction). GEM detectors can be realized in large area (1 m2) and their readout can be pixelated. Three different prototypes of nGEM and one prototype of bGEM detectors of different areas and equipped with different types of readout have been built and tested. All the detectors have been used to measure the fast and thermal neutron 2D beam image at the ISIS-VESUVIO beamline. The different kinds of readout patterns (different areas of the pixels) have been compared in similar conditions. All the detectors measured a width of the beam profile consitent with the expected one. The imaging property of each detector was then tested by inserting samples of different material and shape in the beam. All the samples were correctly reconstructed and the definition of the reconstruction depends on the type of readout anode. The fast neutron beam profile reconstruction was then compared to the one obtained by diamond detectors positioned on the same beamline while the thermal neutron one was compared to the imaged obtained by cadmium-coupled x-rays films. Also efficiency and the gamma background rejection have been determined. These prototypes represent the first step towards the

  4. Graphics gems V (Macintosh version)

    CERN Document Server

    Paeth, Alan W

    1995-01-01

    Graphics Gems V is the newest volume in The Graphics Gems Series. It is intended to provide the graphics community with a set of practical tools for implementing new ideas and techniques, and to offer working solutions to real programming problems. These tools are written by a wide variety of graphics programmers from industry, academia, and research. The books in the series have become essential, time-saving tools for many programmers.Latest collection of graphics tips in The Graphics Gems Series written by the leading programmers in the field.Contains over 50 new gems displaying some of t

  5. Graphics Gems III IBM version

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, David

    1994-01-01

    This sequel to Graphics Gems (Academic Press, 1990), and Graphics Gems II (Academic Press, 1991) is a practical collection of computer graphics programming tools and techniques. Graphics Gems III contains a larger percentage of gems related to modeling and rendering, particularly lighting and shading. This new edition also covers image processing, numerical and programming techniques, modeling and transformations, 2D and 3D geometry and algorithms,ray tracing and radiosity, rendering, and more clever new tools and tricks for graphics programming. Volume III also includes a

  6. Graphics gems II

    CERN Document Server

    Arvo, James

    1991-01-01

    Graphics Gems II is a collection of articles shared by a diverse group of people that reflect ideas and approaches in graphics programming which can benefit other computer graphics programmers.This volume presents techniques for doing well-known graphics operations faster or easier. The book contains chapters devoted to topics on two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry and algorithms, image processing, frame buffer techniques, and ray tracing techniques. The radiosity approach, matrix techniques, and numerical and programming techniques are likewise discussed.Graphics artists and comput

  7. Characterizations of GEM detector prototype

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00522505; Rudra, Sharmili; Bhattacharya, P.; Sahoo, Sumanya Sekhar; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, T.K.; Sahu, P.K.; Sahu, S.

    2016-01-01

    At NISER-IoP detector laboratory an initiative is taken to build and test Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for ALICE experiment. The optimisation of the gas flow rate and the long-term stability test of the GEM detector are performed. The method and test results are presented.

  8. Characterisations of GEM detector prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Rajendra Nath [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, West Bengal (India); Nanda, Amit [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Rudra, Sharmili [Department of Applied Physics, CU, 92, APC Road, Kolkata 700009, West Bengal (India); Bhattacharya, P.; Sahoo, Sumanya Sekhar [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Biswas, S., E-mail: saikat.ino@gmail.com [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Mohanty, B. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Nayak, T.K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, West Bengal (India); Sahu, P.K.; Sahu, S. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, P.O.: Sainik School, Bhubaneswar 751005, Odisha (India)

    2016-07-11

    At NISER-IoP detector laboratory an initiative is taken to build and test Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for ALICE experiment. The optimisation of the gas flow rate and the long-term stability test of the GEM detector are performed. The method and test results are presented.

  9. Commercial and cost effective production of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crary, David

    2010-05-05

    The nuclear and high energy physics research community is constantly searching for new and improved tracking and radiation detectors. The introduction of micropattern detectors has opened new opportunities for improving the rate capabilities, as well as the spatial and time resolution of particle detectors in these applications. GEM detectors in particular have received enormous interest for use in detectors planned for a number of new and upgraded experiments at many different research facilities. These include both the STAR and PHENIX experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, experiments at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and at the future electron-positron Linear Collider. At the present time, CERN is not able to supply foils in sufficient quantities to accommodate the needs of these experiments. Compounding this problem, there is a strong interest in GEM foils for numerous other applications, such as in astrophysics, medical imaging and detectors for homeland security. It would therefore be of significant benefit to the research community to develop a commercial source of GEM foils for all of these applications. Tech-Etch is in a unique position to develop this technology for commercial use. Tech-Etch has not only experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products, but it also has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven, Yale and MIT) that can help develop and evaluate the performance of the GEM foils produced at Tech-Etch. Additionally, since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, as well as the flexibility to shift production methods, equipment, and chemistry to optimize the GEM foil manufacturing process without being constrained by existing work running on high volume continuous coil equipment.

  10. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, Craig

    2009-03-31

    The nuclear and high energy physics research community is constantly searching for new and improved tracking and radiation detectors. The introduction of micropattern detectors has opened new opportunities for improving the rate capabilities, as well as the spatial and time resolution of particle detectors in these applications. GEM detectors in particular have received enormous interest for use in detectors planned for a number of new and upgraded experiments at many different research facilities. These include both the STAR and PHENIX experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, experiments at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and at the future electron-positron Linear Collider. At the present time, CERN is not able to supply foils in sufficient quantities to accommodate the needs of these experiments. Compounding this problem, there is a strong interest in GEM foils for numerous other applications, such as in astrophysics, medical imaging and detectors for homeland security. It would therefore be of significant benefit to the research community to develop a commercial source of GEM foils for all of these applications. Tech-Etch is in a unique position to develop this technology for commercial use. Tech-Etch has not only experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products, but it also has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven, Yale and MIT) that can help develop and evaluate the performance of the GEM foils produced at Tech-Etch. Additionally, since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, as well as the flexibility to shift production methods, equipment, and chemistry to optimize the GEM foil manufacturing process without being constrained by existing work running on high volume continuous coil equipment.

  11. Game programming gems

    CERN Document Server

    DeLoura, Mark

    2000-01-01

    For the countless tasks involved in creating a game engine there are an equal number of possible solutions. But instead of spending hours and hours trying to develop your own answers, now you can find out how the pros do it! Game Programming Gems is a hands-on, comprehensive resource packed with a variety of game programming algorithms written by experts from the game industry and edited by Mark DeLoura, former software engineering lead for Nintendo of America, Inc. and now the newly appointed editor-in-chief of Game Developer magazine. From animation and artificial intelligence to Z-buffering, lighting calculations, weather effects, curved surfaces, mutliple layer Internet gaming, to music and sound effects, all of the major techniques needed to develop a competitive game engine are covered. Game Programming Gems is written in a style accessible to individuals with a range of expertise levels. All of the source code for each algorithm is included and can be used by advanced programmers immediately. For aspir...

  12. Complete Tem-Tomography: 3D Structure of Gems Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, J.; Miyake, A.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.

    2015-01-01

    GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfide) grains in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are considered to be one of the ubiquitous and fundamental building blocks of solids in the Solar System. They have been considered to be interstellar silicate dust that survived various metamorphism or alteration processes in the protoplanetary disk but the elemental and isotopic composition measurements suggest that most of them have been formed in the protoplanetary disk as condensates from high temperature gas. This formation model is also supported by the formation of GEMS-like grains with respect to the size, mineral assemblage, texture and infrared spectrum by condensation experiments from mean GEMS composition materials. Previous GEMS studies were performed only with 2D observation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or scanning TEM (STEM). However, the 3D shape and structure of GEMS grains and the spatial distribution of Fe/FeS's has critical information about their formation and origin. Recently, the 3D structure of GEMS grains in ultrathin sections of cluster IDPs was revealed by electron tomography using a TEM/STEM (JEM-2100F, JEOL). However, CT images of thin sections mounted on Cu grids acquired by conventional TEM-tomography are limited to low tilt angles (e. g., less than absolute value of 75 deg. In fact, previous 3D TEM observations of GEMS were affected by some artifacts related to the limited tilt range in the TEM used. Complete tomographic images should be acquired by rotating the sample tilt angle over a range of more than absolute value of 80 deg otherwise the CT images lose their correct structures. In order to constrain the origin and formation process of GEMS grains more clearly, we performed complete electron tomography for GEMS grains. Here we report the sample preparation method we have developed for this study, and the preliminary results.

  13. GEMs with Double Layred Micropattern Electrodes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mauro, A; Nappi, E; Oliveira, R; Peskov, V; Pietropaolo, F; Picchi, P

    2009-01-01

    We have developed and tested several new designs of GEM detectors with micropattern electrodes manufactured by microelectronic technology. In one design, the inner layer of the detector electrode consists of thin metallic strips and the outer layer is made of a resistive grid manufactured by a screen printing technology. In other designs, the electrodes were made of metallic strips fed by HV via micro-resistors manufactured by a screen printing technology. Due to these features, the new detectors have several important advantages over conventional GEMs or ordinary thick GEMs. For example, the resistive grid (in the first design) and the screen printed resistors (in other designs) limited the current in case of discharges, making these detectors intrinsically spark-protected. We will here describe our tests with the photosensitive versions of these detectors (coated with CsI layers) and the efforts of implementing them in several applications. In particular, we will focus on our activity towards the ALICE RICH...

  14. Management and high technology

    OpenAIRE

    Burlaud, Alain

    1998-01-01

    Communication au congrès de l'International Federation of Scholarly Associations of Management; 1- A NEW, HIGHTECH-INSPIRED MANAGEMENT STYLE• The paradoxical relation existing between management and the technological environment • The technological environment modifies the nature of management methods2- MANAGING INNOVATING STRUCTURES• Innovation is a factor of production as well as a collective commodity• Management turns innovation into collective knowledge• Management may stimulate innovati...

  15. Advances in Trace Element “Fingerprinting” of Gem Corundum, Ruby and Sapphire, Mogok Area, Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, F.; Zaw, Khin; Meffre, Sebastien; Yui, Tzen-Fui; Thu, Kyaw

    2014-01-01

    Mogok gem corundum samples from twelve localities were analyzed for trace element signatures (LA-ICP-MS method) and oxygen isotope values (δ18O, by laser fluorination). The study augmented earlier findings on Mogok gem suites that suggested the Mogok tract forms a high vanadium gem corundum area and also identified rare alluvial ruby and sapphire grains characterised by unusually high silicon, calcium and gallium, presence of noticeable boron, tin and niobium and very low iron, titanium and ...

  16. X-Ray Polarimetry with GEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2011-01-01

    The polarization properties of cosmic X-ray sources are still largely unexplored. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) will carry out the first sensitive X-ray polarization survey of a wide range of sources including; accreting compact objects (black holes and neutron stars), AGN, supernova remnants, magnetars and rotation-powered pulsars. GEMS employs grazing-incidence foil mirrors and novel time-projection chamber (TPC) polarimeters leveraging the photoelectric effect to achieve high polarization sensitivity in the 2 - 10 keV band. I will provide an update of the project status, illustrate the expected performance with several science examples, and provide a brief overview of the data analysis challenges

  17. GEM photomultiplier operation in CF sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Breskin, Amos; Chechik, R

    2002-01-01

    The properties of a 3-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) element photomultiplier, with a semitransparent CsI photocathode and CF sub 4 gas filling, are presented. Compared to other gas mixtures, such as CH sub 4 , Ar/CH sub 4 , Ar/N sub 2 and He/Ar/N sub 2 , CF sub 4 has superior performance: the highest gain, approaching 10 sup 7 , the fastest, 8 ns wide signal and the lowest photoelectron backscattering; the latter allows to reach photocathode quantum efficiency values approaching that in vacuum. The time resolution of the multi-GEM photomultiplier for single photoelectrons was measured to be 2 ns. These properties are of high relevance for applications in Cherenkov detectors and in tracking devices.

  18. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thrustor Concept and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design of a new type of two-stage pulsed electromagnetic accelerator, the gallium electromagnetic (GEM) thruster. A schematic illustration of the GEM thruster concept is given in Fig. 1. In this concept, liquid gallium propellant is pumped into the first stage through a porous metal electrode using an electromagneticpump[l]. At a designated time, a pulsed discharge (approx.10-50 J) is initiated in the first stage, ablating the liquid gallium from the porous electrode surface and ejecting a dense thermal gallium plasma into the second state. The presence of the gallium plasma in the second stage serves to trigger the high-energy (approx.500 I), send-stage puke which provides the primary electromagnetic (j x B) acceleration.

  19. 3D Observation of GEMS by Electron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Junya; Miyake, Akira; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Messenger, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous silicates in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) coming from comets are dominated by glass with embedded metal and sulfides (GEMS). GEMS grains are submicron-sized rounded objects (typically 100-500) nm in diameter) with anaometer-sized (10-50 nm) Fe-Ni metal and sulfide grains embedded in an amorphous silicate matrix. Several formation processes for GEMS grains have been proposed so far, but these models are still being debated [2-5]. Bradley et al. proposed that GEMS grains are interstellar silicate dust that survived various metamorphism or alteration processes in the protoplanetary disk and that they are amorphiation products of crystalline silicates in the interstellar medium by sputter-deposition of cosmic ray irradiation, similar to space weathering [2,4]. This consideration is based on the observation of nano-sized crystals (approximately 10 nm) called relict grains in GEMS grains and their shapes are pseudomorphs to the host GEMS grains. On the other hand, Keller and Messenger proposed that most GEMS formed in the protoplanetary disk as condensates from high temperature gas [3,5]. This model is based on the fact that most GEMS grains have solar isotopic compositions and have extremely heterogeneous and non-solar elemental compositions. Keller and Messenger (2011) also reported that amorphous silicates in GEMS grains are surrounded by sulfide grains, which formed as sulfidization of metallic iron grains located on the GEMS surface. The previous studies were performed with 2D observation by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or scanning TEM (STEM). In order to understand the structure of GEMS grains described above more clearly, we observed 3D structure of GEMS grains by electron tomography using a TEM/STEM (JEM-2100F, JEOL) at Kyoto University. Electron tomography gives not only 3D structures but also gives higher spatial resolution (approximately a few nm) than that in conventional 2D image, which is restricted by

  20. Characterization of gaseous detectors at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility: GEM performance in presence of high background radiation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2097588

    Muon detection is an efficient tool to recognize interesting physics events over the high background rate expected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The muon systems of the LHC experiments are based on gaseous ionization detectors. In view of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade program, the increasing of background radiation could affect the gaseous detector performance, especially decreasing the efficiency and shortening the lifetime through ageing processes. The effects of charge multiplication, materials and gas composition on the ageing of gaseous detectors have been studied for decades, but the future upgrade of LHC requires additional studies on this topic. At the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++), a radioactive source of cesium-137 with an activity of 14 TBq is used to reproduce reasonably well the expected background radiation at HL-LHC. A muon beam has been made available to study detector performance. The characterization of the beam trigger will be discussed in the present w...

  1. Performance of a Large-Area GEM Detector Prototype for the Upgrade of the CMS Muon Endcap System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00317764; Abbas, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abi Akl, M.; Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, W.; Altieri, P.; Aly, R.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ashfaq, A.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Awan, I.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barria, P.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Braibant, S.; Buontempo, S.; Calabria, C.; Caponero, M.; Caputo, C.; Cassese, F.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Cavallo, F.R.; Celik, A.; Choi, M.; Choi, K.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Cimmino, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Dabrowski, M.M.; De Lentdecker, G.; de Oliveira, R.; De Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Dorney, B.; Elmetenawee, W.; Fabrice, G.; Ferrini, M.; Ferry, S.; Giacomelli, P.; Gilmore, J.; Guiducci, L.; Gutierrez, A.; Hadjiiska, R.M.; Hassan, A.; Hauser, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Hoorani, H.; Jeng, Y.G.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.E.; Kim, H.S.; Krutelyov, S.; Kumar, A.; Lee, J.; Lenzi, T.; Litov, L.; Loddo, F.; Maerschalk, T.; Magazzu, G.; Maggi, M.; Maghrbi, Y.; Magnani, A.; Majumdar, N.; Mal, P.K.; Mandal, K.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Merlin, J.A.; Mohanty, A.K.; Mohapatra, A.; Muhammad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Pant, L.M.; Paolucci, P.; Park, I.; Passeggio, G.; Pavlov, B.; Philipps, B.; Phipps, M.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Pugliese, G.; Baranac, A.Puig; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ramkrishna, S.; Ranieri, A.; Riccardi, C.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; RoyChowdhury, S.; Ryu, M.S.; Ryu, G.; Safonov, A.; Sakharov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Swain, S.K.; Talvitie, J.P.; Tamma, C.; Tatarinov, A.; Turini, N.; Tuuva, T.; Twigger, J.; Tytgat, M.; Vai, I.; van Stenis, M.; Venditi, R.; Verhagen, E.; Verwilligen, P.; Vitulo, P.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Yang, U.; Yang, Y.; Yonamine, R.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, A.

    2016-03-14

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology is being considered for the forward muon upgrade of the CMS experiment in Phase 2 of the CERN LHC. Its first implementation is planned for the GE1/1 system in the $1.5 < \\mid\\eta\\mid < 2.2$ region of the muon endcap mainly to control muon level-1 trigger rates after the second long LHC shutdown. A GE1/1 triple-GEM detector is read out by 3,072 radial strips with 455 $\\mu$rad pitch arranged in eight $\\eta$-sectors. We assembled a full-size GE1/1 prototype of 1m length at Florida Tech and tested it in 20-120 GeV hadron beams at Fermilab using Ar/CO$_{2}$ 70:30 and the RD51 scalable readout system. Four small GEM detectors with 2-D readout and an average measured azimuthal resolution of 36 $\\mu$rad provided precise reference tracks. Construction of this largest GEM detector built to-date is described. Strip cluster parameters, detection efficiency, and spatial resolution are studied with position and high voltage scans. The plateau detection efficiency is [97.1 $\\pm...

  2. Development of the DAQ System of Triple-GEM Detectors for the CMS Muon Spectrometer Upgrade at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00387583

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) upgrade project aims at improving the performance of the muon spectrometer of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment which will suffer from the increase in luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). After a long technical stop in 2019-2020, the LHC will restart and run at a luminosity of 2 × 1034 cm−2 s−1, twice its nominal value. This will in turn increase the rate of particles to which detectors in CMS will be exposed and affect their performance. The muon spectrometer in particular will suffer from a degraded detection efficiency due to the lack of redundancy in its most forward region. To solve this issue, the GEM collaboration proposes to instrument the first muon station with Triple-GEM detectors, a technology which has proven to be resistant to high fluxes of particles. Within the GEM collaboration, the Data Acquisition (DAQ) subgroup is in charge of the development of the electronics and software of the DAQ system of the detectors. This thesis presents th...

  3. The Triple-GEM Project for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the CMS Muon System

    CERN Document Server

    Tytgat, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In view of the high-luminosity phase of the LHC, the CMS Collaboration is considering the use of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector technology for the upgrade of its muon system in the forward region. With their ability to handle the extreme particle rates expected in that area, such micro-pattern gas detectors can sustain a high performance and redundant muon trigger system. At the same time, with their excellent spatial resolution, they can improve the muon track reconstruction and identification capabilities of the forward detector, effectively combining tracking and triggering functions in one single device. The present status of the CMS GEM project will be reviewed, highlighting importants steps and achievements since the start of the R and D activities in 2009. The baseline design of the triple-GEM detectors proposed for installation in different stations of the CMS muon endcap system will be described, along with the associated frontend electronics and data-acquisition system. The expected impact o...

  4. Europa Imaging Highlights during GEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    During the two year Galileo Europa Mission (GEM), NASA's Galileo spacecraft will focus intensively on Jupiter's intriguing moon, Europa. This montage shows samples of some of the features that will be imaged during eight successive orbits. The images in this montage are in order of increasing orbit from the upper left (orbit 11) to the lower right (orbit 19).DESCRIPTIONS AND APPROXIMATE RESOLUTIONSTriple bands and dark spots1.6 kilometers/pixelConamara Chaos1.6 kilometers/pixelMannan'an Crater1.6 kilometers/ pixelCilix1.6 kilometers/pixelAgenor Linea and Thrace Macula2 kilometers/pixelSouth polar terrain2 kilometers/pixelRhadamanthys Linea1.6 kilometers/pixelEuropa plume search7 kilometers/pixel1. Triple bands and dark spots were the focus of some images from Galileo's eleventh orbit of Jupiter. Triple bands are multiple ridges with dark deposits along the outer margins. Some extend for thousands of kilometers across Europa's icy surface. They are cracks in the ice sheet and indicate the great stresses imposed on Europa by tides raised by Jupiter, as well as Europa's neighboring moons, Ganymede and Io. The dark spots or 'lenticulae' are spots of localized disruption.2. The Conamara Chaos region reveals icy plates which have broken up, moved, and rafted into new positions. This terrain suggests that liquid water or ductile ice was present near the surface. On Galileo's twelfth orbit of Jupiter, sections of this region with resolutions as high as 10 meters per picture element will be obtained.3. Mannann'an Crater is a feature newly discovered by Galileo in June 1996. Color and high resolution images (to 40 meters per picture element) from Galileo's fourteenth orbit of Jupiter will offer a close look at the crater and help characterize how impacts affect the icy surface of this moon.4. Cilix, a large mound about 1.5 kilometers high, is the center of Europa's coordinate system. Its concave top and what may be flow like features to the southwest of the mound are

  5. Some G Pólya Gems from Complex Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Some G Polya Gems from Complex Analysis. Shobha Madan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 323-337 ... Author Affiliations. Shobha Madan1. Department of Mathematics Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 208 016, India.

  6. The PANDA GEM-based TPC prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbietti, L., E-mail: laura.fabbietti@ph.tum.d [Excellence Cluster ' Universe' , Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltztmannstr. 2, Garching bei Muenchen 85748 (Germany); Angerer, H. [Physik Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Muenchen (Germany); Arora, R. [Detektor Labor des GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Beck, R. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Berger, M. [Excellence Cluster ' Universe' , Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltztmannstr. 2, Garching bei Muenchen 85748 (Germany); Buehler, P.; Cargnelli, M. [Stefan-Meyer Institute fuer subatomare Physik, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Doerheim, S. [Physik Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Muenchen (Germany); Hehner, J. [Detektor Labor des GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Herrmann, N. [FOPI Collaboration, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Hoeppner, C. [Physik Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Muenchen (Germany); Kaiser, D. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Ketzer, B. [Physik Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Muenchen (Germany); Mladen, K. [FOPI Collaboration, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kleipa, V. [Detektor Labor des GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Konorov, I. [Physik Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Muenchen (Germany); Kunkel, J. [Detektor Labor des GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lalik, R. [Excellence Cluster ' Universe' , Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltztmannstr. 2, Garching bei Muenchen 85748 (Germany); Lang, M. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    We report on the development of a GEM-based TPC detector prototype for the PANDA experiment. The design and requirements of this device will be illustrated, with particular emphasis on the properties of the recently tested GEM-detector, the characterization of the read-out electronics and the development of the tracking software that allows to evaluate the GEM-TPC data.

  7. The PANDA GEM-based TPC Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbietti, L; Beck, R; Berger, M; Böhmer, F; Brinkmann, K T; Bühler, P; Danner, M; D\\orheim, S; Funke, C; Cusanno, F; Hehner, J; Heinz, A; Henske, M; Höppner, C; Kaiser, D; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I; Kunkel, J; Lang, M; Marton, J; Neubert, S; Paul, S; Schmah, A; Schmidt, C; Schmitz, R; Schwab, S; Soyk, D; Suzuki, K; Thoma, U; Vandenbroucke, M; Voss, B; Walter, D; Weitzel, Q; Widmann, E; Winnebeck, A; Wörner, L; Zaunick, H G; Zhang, X; Zmeskal, J

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a GEM-based TPC prototype for the PANDA experiment. The design and requirements of this device will be illustrated, with particular emphasis on the properties of the recently tested GEM-detector, the characterization of the read-out electronics and the development of the tracking software that allows to evaluate the GEM-TPC data.

  8. Characterization of GEM foils and materials simulation, measurements and interferometric monitoring tools

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The GE1/1 CMS project consists of 144 GEM chambers of about 0.5 qm active area each, based on the triple GEMs technology, to be installed in the very forward region of the CMS endcap during the long shutdown of LHC in 2108-2019. GE1/1 chambers will be operated for decades in harsh environment, and are expected to perform consistently providing good space and time resolution and excellent rate capabilities. An extensive material science simulation and measurement campaign is in progress to characterize GEM materials, with main focus on the GEM foils. Results are presented on full Finite Element Analysis simulations, measurement of tensile properties and humidity absorption coefficients, both for unused and irradiated samples. Preliminary results are shown on interferometric methods based on Moirè fringes for the monitoring of GEM foils mechanical properties during chamber construction.

  9. EDITORIAL: Gems in nanoscience Gems in nanoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-04-01

    In 1902 R M Wood published the paper 'On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum' [1]. As was true of so much of his work, interest in his observations took flight, inspiring extensive research into associated new optical phenomena. What is now known as Wood's anomaly has been described as the result of excitations of oscillations in the conducting electron plasma, or 'plasmons'. These quasiparticles have become increasingly attractive to researchers, perhaps less for the dazzling colours they impart to glitzy gemstones over their potential to facilitate medical imaging, as well as integrated optics [2] and the transfer of information and energy at dimensions below the diffraction limit. Excitation of surface plasmons provides a means of enhancing optical near fields, thus empowering a range of signal detecting applications. A range of innovative techniques have been implemented to probe surface plasmon resonances. The evolution of plasmon resonance energy and mean free path as particle dimensions increase from nanostructures to bulk matter has been monitored through ellipsometry, thus providing an insight into the plasmon polariton coupling [3]. Electron energy loss experiments have also proved a valuable tool for mapping surface plasmons with a spatial resolution an order of magnitude better than can be achieved with scanning near-field optical microscopes [4]. The exploitation of surface plasmons is primed to aid advances in medical imaging, diagnosis and therapy. Researchers in the US have developed a protein-enabled strategy to fabricate quantum dot nanoarrays where an increase in surface-plasmon-enhanced fluorescence of up to a factor of 15 has been achieved [5]. Understanding and dexterity in manipulating these enhancements has reached a high level of sophistication, and researchers in London have demonstrated the ability to increase the fluorescence enhancement by a factor of 4 and the decay rate by a factor of

  10. Testbeam results for full-size triple GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Ram Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide exceptional instantaneous and integrated luminosities. The forward region $\\mid \\eta \\mid \\ge 1.5$ of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector will face extremely high particle rates in tens of $KHz/cm^2$ and hence it will affect the momentum resolution and longevity of the muon detectors. To overcome these issues the CMS-GEM collaboration has proposed to install new large size rate capable Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors in the forward region of CMS muon system. The first set of Triple GEM detectors will be installed in the GE1/1 region $(1.5 \\le \\eta \\le 2.2)$ of muon endcap during the long shutdown 2 of the LHC. Towards this goal, full size CMS Triple GEM prototype chambers have been fabricated and put under the test beam at the CERN SPS test beam facility. The GEM detectors were operated with two gas mixtures $Ar/CO_2$ (70/30) and $Ar/CO_2/CF_4$ (40/15/45). In 2014, good quality data was collected during test beam campaigns. In this paper, th...

  11. First results of spherical GEMs

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Serge Duarte; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; de Oliveira, Rui; Ropelewski, Leszek; van Stenis, Miranda; Taureg, Hans; Villa, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We developed a method to make GEM foils with a spherical geometry. Tests of this procedure and with the resulting spherical GEMs are presented. Together with a spherical drift electrode, a spherical conversion gap can be formed. This eliminates the parallax error for detection of x-rays, neutrons or UV photons when a gaseous converter is used. This parallax error limits the spatial resolution at wide scattering angles. Besides spherical GEMs, we have developed curved spacers to maintain accurate spacing, and a conical field cage to prevent edge distortion of the radial drift field up to the limit of the angular acceptance of the detector. With these components first tests are done in a setup with a spherical entrance window but a planar readout structure; results will be presented and discussed. A flat readout structure poses difficulties, however. Therefore we will show advanced plans to make a prototype of an entirely spherical double-GEM detector, including a spherical 2D readout structure. This detector w...

  12. Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM), foil holes deformation studies

    CERN Document Server

    Suhaj, Adam; CERN. Geneva. PH Department

    2015-01-01

    GEM detectors play an important role in the upcoming high-luminosity LHC upgrade in 2018 where they will be exposed to high doses of radiation in the muon endcap region. A series of tensile tests were performed on neutron irradiated and non-irradiated GEM foils where the shape of the holes was thoroughly examined. It was found that the GEM foil does not deform much at lower loads but the deformation gets exponentially bigger after applying more than a 60 N force. Both sets of samples behaved similarly at lower loads up to 40 N after which the holes of the irradiated samples started to deform more rapidly than the non-irradiated ones. The failure point of the non-irradiated samples occurred consistently at around 135 N while the irradiated samples experienced failure at around 85 N with two outliers failing at 120 and 135 N.

  13. GEM operation in pure noble gases and the avalanche confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Buzulutskov, A F; Bressan, A; Mauro, A D; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Biagi, S F

    1999-01-01

    We study the operation of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) in pure Ar and almost pure Xe. Rather high gas gains obtained in pure Ar, of the order of 1000, are explained by the effect of the avalanche confinement to a GEM micro-hole. Applications to the development of non-ageing sealed photon detector filled with pure noble gases are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the photoelectron collection efficiency deteriorated in pure Ar due to electron backscattering, can be recovered by operation at a higher electric field.

  14. Investigations on Important Properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Kulasri, Kittipong; Ritthirong, Anawat

    2015-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is one of promising particle and radiation detectors that has been improved greatly from previous gas detectors. The improvement includes better spatial resolutions, higher detection rate capabilities, and flexibilities in designs. In particular, the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM prototype is designed and provided by the Gas Detectors Development group (GDD) at CERN, Switzerland. With its simplicity in operations and designs, while still maintaining high qualities, the GEM prototype is suitable for both start-up and advanced researches. This article aims to report the investigations on some important properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM detector using current measurement and signal counting. Results have shown that gains of the GEM prototype exponentially increase as voltage supplied to the detector increases, while the detector reaches full efficiency (plateau region) when the voltage is greater than 4100 V. In terms of signal sharing between X and Y strips of the readout, X str...

  15. High Performance Tools And Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collette, M R; Corey, I R; Johnson, J R

    2005-01-24

    This goal of this project was to evaluate the capability and limits of current scientific simulation development tools and technologies with specific focus on their suitability for use with the next generation of scientific parallel applications and High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms. The opinions expressed in this document are those of the authors, and reflect the authors' current understanding and functionality of the many tools investigated. As a deliverable for this effort, we are presenting this report describing our findings along with an associated spreadsheet outlining current capabilities and characteristics of leading and emerging tools in the high performance computing arena. This first chapter summarizes our findings (which are detailed in the other chapters) and presents our conclusions, remarks, and anticipations for the future. In the second chapter, we detail how various teams in our local high performance community utilize HPC tools and technologies, and mention some common concerns they have about them. In the third chapter, we review the platforms currently or potentially available to utilize these tools and technologies on to help in software development. Subsequent chapters attempt to provide an exhaustive overview of the available parallel software development tools and technologies, including their strong and weak points and future concerns. We categorize them as debuggers, memory checkers, performance analysis tools, communication libraries, data visualization programs, and other parallel development aides. The last chapter contains our closing information. Included with this paper at the end is a table of the discussed development tools and their operational environment.

  16. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes over canopy of two typical subtropical forests in south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Luo, Yao; Wang, Shuxiao; Wang, Zhiqi; Hao, Jiming; Duan, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) exchange between forests and the atmosphere plays an important role in global Hg cycling. The present estimate of global emission of Hg from natural source has large uncertainty, partly due to the lack of chronical and valid field data, particularly for terrestrial surfaces in China, the most important contributor to global atmospheric Hg. In this study, the micrometeorological method (MM) was used to continuously observe gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes over forest canopy at a mildly polluted site (Qianyanzhou, QYZ) and a moderately polluted site (Huitong, HT, near a large Hg mine) in subtropical south China for a full year from January to December in 2014. The GEM flux measurements over forest canopy in QYZ and HT showed net emission with annual average values of 6.67 and 0.30 ng m-2 h-1, respectively. Daily variations of GEM fluxes showed an increasing emission with the increasing air temperature and solar radiation in the daytime to a peak at 13:00, and decreasing emission thereafter, even as a GEM sink or balance at night. High temperature and low air Hg concentration resulted in the high Hg emission in summer. Low temperature in winter and Hg absorption by plant in spring resulted in low Hg emission, or even adsorption in the two seasons. GEM fluxes were positively correlated with air temperature, soil temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation, while it is negatively correlated with air humidity and atmospheric GEM concentration. The lower emission fluxes of GEM at the moderately polluted site (HT) when compared with that in the mildly polluted site (QYZ) may result from a much higher adsorption fluxes at night in spite of a similar or higher emission fluxes during daytime. This shows that the higher atmospheric GEM concentration at HT restricted the forest GEM emission. Great attention should be paid to forests as a crucial increasing Hg emission source with the decreasing atmospheric GEM concentration in polluted areas because of Hg

  17. Progress on large area GEMs (VCI 2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Marco; Alfonsi, Matteo; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; de Oliveira, Rui; Ropelewski, Leszek; Taureg, Hans; van Stenis, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) manufacturing technique has recently evolved to allow the production of large area GEMs. A novel approach based on single mask photolithography eliminates the mask alignment issue, which limits the dimensions in the traditional double mask process. Moreover, a splicing technique overcomes the limited width of the raw material. Stretching and handling issues in large area GEMs have also been addressed. Using the new improvements it was possible to build a prototype triple-GEM detector of ~ 2000 cm2 active area, aimed at an application for the TOTEM T1 upgrade. Further refinements of the single mask technique give great control over the shape of the GEM holes and the size of the rims, which can be tuned as needed. In this framework, simulation studies can help to understand the GEM behavior depending on the hole shape.

  18. A micro-TCA based data acquisition system for the Triple-GEM detectors for the upgrade of the CMS forward muon spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, T.

    2017-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) upgrade project aims at improving the performance of the muon spectrometer of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment which will suffer from the increase in luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The GEM collaboration proposes to instrument the first muon station with Triple-GEM detectors, a technology which has proven to be resistant to high fluxes of particles. The architecture of the readout system is based on the use of the microTCA standard hosting FPGA-based Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC) and of the Versatile Link with the GBT chipset to link the on-detector electronics to the micro-TCA boards. For the front-end electronics a new ASIC, called VFAT3, is being developed. On the detector, a Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA mezzanine board, called the OptoHybrid, has to collect the data from 24 VFAT3s and to transmit the data optically to the off-detector micro-TCA electronics, as well as to transmit the trigger data at 40 MHz to the CMS Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) trigger. The microTCA electronics provides the interfaces from the detector (and front-end electronics) to the CMS DAQ, TTC (Timing, Trigger and Control) and Trigger systems. In this paper, we will describe the DAQ system of the Triple-GEM project and provide results from the latest test beam campaigns done at CERN.

  19. GEM*STAR: Time for an Alternative Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2011-10-01

    The presumption that nuclear reactors will retain their role in global energy production is constantly being challenged - even more so following recent events at Fukushima. Nuclear energy, despite being ``green,'' has inexorably been coupled in the public mind with three paramount concerns: safety, weapons proliferation, and waste (and then ultimately cost). Over the past four decades, the safety of deployed fleets has greatly improved, yet the capital and political costs of a ``nuclear energy option'' appear insurmountable in several countries. The US approach to civilian nuclear energy has become deeply entrenched, first through choices made by the military, and then by the deployed nuclear reactor fleet. This extends to the research agencies as well, to the point where basic sciences and nuclear energy operate in separate spheres. But technologies and priorities have changed, and the time has arrived where a transformative re-think of nuclear energy is not only possible, but urgent. And nuclear physicists are uniquely positioned to accomplish this. This talk will show that by asking, and answering,``what would an accelerator-driven civilian nuclear energy program look like,'' ADNA Corporation's GEM*STAR design directly addresses all three fundamental concerns: safety, proliferation, and waste - and also the final hurdle: cost. GEM*STAR is not an ``add-on'' (to either Project-X, or GEN III+), but rather a base-line energy production capacity, for either electricity or transport fuel production. It integrates and advances the molten-salt reactor technology developed at ORNL, the MW beam accelerator technologies developed by basic sciences, and a reactor/target design optimized for accelerator driven-systems. The results include: the ability to use LWR spent fuel without reprocessing or additional waste; the ability to use natural uranium; no critical mass ever present; orders-of-magnitude less volatile radioactivity in the core; more efficient use of, and deeper

  20. GEMs With Double Layered Micropattern Electrodes and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, Antonio; Martinengo, Paolo; Nappi, Eugenio; Oliveira, R.; Peskov, V.; Pietropaolo, F.; Picchi, P.

    2009-06-01

    We have developed and tested several new designs of GEM detectors with micropattern electrodes manufactured by microelectronic technology. In one design, the inner layer of the detector's electrode consists of thin metallic strips and the outer layer is made of a resistive grid manufactured by a screen printing technology. In other designs, the electrodes were made of metallic strips fed by HV via micro-resistors manufactured by a screen printing technology. Due to these features, the new detectors have several important advantages over conventional GEMs or ordinary thick GEMs. For example, the resistive grid (in the first design) and the screen printed resistors (in other designs) limited the current in case of discharges thus making these detectors intrinsically spark- protected. We will here describe our tests with the photosensitive versions of these detectors (coated with Csl layers) and the efforts of implementing them in several applications. In particular, we will focus on our activity towards the ALICE RICH detector upgrade and on tests of simplified prototypes of cryogenic dark matter detectors.

  1. GPU Computing Gems Emerald Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Wen-mei W

    2011-01-01

    ".the perfect companion to Programming Massively Parallel Processors by Hwu & Kirk." -Nicolas Pinto, Research Scientist at Harvard & MIT, NVIDIA Fellow 2009-2010 Graphics processing units (GPUs) can do much more than render graphics. Scientists and researchers increasingly look to GPUs to improve the efficiency and performance of computationally-intensive experiments across a range of disciplines. GPU Computing Gems: Emerald Edition brings their techniques to you, showcasing GPU-based solutions including: Black hole simulations with CUDA GPU-accelerated computation and interactive display of

  2. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, T. R.

    2011-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) was selected by NASA for flight in 2014 to make a sensitive search for X-ray polarization from a wide set of source classes, including stellar black holes, Seyfert galaxies and quasars, blazars, rotation and accretion-powered pulsars, magnetars, shell supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae. Among the primary scientific objectives are determining the effects of the spin of black holes and the geometry of supermassive black hole accretion, determining the configurations of the magnetic fields and the X-ray emission of magnetars, and determining the magnetic structure of the supernova shocks in which cosmic rays are accelerated. GEMS will observe 23 targets during a 16 month prime mission, in observations that will be able to reach predicted levels of polarization. The mission can be extended to provide a guest observer phase. The GEMS instrument has time projection chamber polarimeters with high 2-10 keV efficiency at the focus of thin foil mirrors. The 4.5 m focal length mirrors will be deployed on an extended boom. The spacecraft with the instrument is rotated with a period of about 10 minutes to enable measurement and correction of systematic errors. A small Bragg reflection soft X-ray experiment takes advantage of this rotation to obtain a measurement at 0.5 keV. The design of the GEMS instrument and the mission, the expected performance and the planned science program will be discussed.

  3. Design approach for granular emulsion mixes (GEMS)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, JE

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Granular Emulsion Mixes (GEMS) are used in a wide range or road applications, ranging from low volume roads in developing areas to freeways in developing urban areas. In this paper a dual design approach for granular emulsion mixes (GEMS...

  4. High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries presented at the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video (HHV) Workshop are compiled. HHV system is intended for future use on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The Workshop was held for the dual purpose of: (1) allowing potential scientific users to assess the utility of the proposed system for monitoring microgravity science experiments; and (2) letting technical experts from industry recommend improvements to the proposed near-term HHV system. The following topics are covered: (1) State of the art in the video system performance; (2) Development plan for the HHV system; (3) Advanced technology for image gathering, coding, and processing; (4) Data compression applied to HHV; (5) Data transmission networks; and (6) Results of the users' requirements survey conducted by NASA.

  5. NASA High Operating Temperature Technology Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. V.; Hunter, G. W.

    2017-11-01

    NASA’s Planetary Science Division has begun the High Operating Temperature Technology (HOTTech) program to address Venus surface technology challenges by investing in new technology development. This presentation reviews this HOTTech program.

  6. GEM scintillation readout with avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Conceição, A S; Fernandes, L M P; Monteiro, C M B; Coelho, L C C; Azevedo, C D R; Veloso, J F C A; Lopesac, J A M; dos Santosa, J M F

    2007-01-01

    The use of the scintillation produced in the charge avalanches in GEM holes as signal amplification and readout is investigated for xenon. A VUV-sensitive avalanche photodiode has been used as photosensor. Detector gains of about 4 × 104 are achieved in scintillation readout mode, for GEM voltages of 490 V and for a photosensor gain of 150. Those gains are more than one order of magnitude larger than what is obtained using charge readout. In addition, the energy resolutions achieved with the scintillation readout are lower than those achieved with charge readout. The GEM scintillation yield in xenon was measured as a function of GEM voltage, presenting values that are about a half of those achieved for the charge yield, and reach about 730 photons per primary electron at GEM voltages of 490 V.

  7. Measurement of spark probability of GEM detector for CBM muon chamber (MUCH)

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, S.; Frankenfeld, U.; Garabatos, C.; Hehner, J.; Kleipa, V.; Morhardt, T.; Schmidt, C.J.; Schmidt, H.R.; Wiechula, J.

    2015-11-11

    The stability of triple GEM detector setups in an environment of high energetic showers is studied. To this end the spark probability in a shower environment is compared to the spark probability in a pion beam.

  8. Continuous health monitoring of Graphite Epoxy Motorcases (GEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Richard D.; Schaafsma, David T.; Shen, H. Warren; Carlos, Mark F.; Miller, Ronnie K.; Shepherd, Brent

    2001-07-01

    Following the explosion of Delta 241 (IIR-1) on January 17th, 1997, the failure investigation board concluded that the Graphite Epoxy Motorcases (GEM's) should be inspected for damage just prior to launch. Subsequent investigations and feedback from industry led to an Aerospace Corporation proposal to instrument the entire fleet of GEM's with a continuous health monitoring system. The period of monitoring would extend from the initial acceptance testing through final erection on the launch pad. As this proposal demonstrates, (along with the increasing use of advanced composite materials in aircraft, automobiles, military hardware, and aerospace components such as rocket motorcases) a sizable need for composite health assessment measures exist. Particularly where continuous monitoring is required for the detection of damage from impacts and other sources of high mechanical and thermal stresses. Even low-momentum impacts can lead to barely visible impact damage (BVID), corresponding to a significant weakening of the composite. This damage, undetectable by visual inspection, can in turn lead to sudden and catastrophic failure when the material is subjected to a normal operating load. There is perhaps no system with as much potential for truly catastrophic failure as a rocket motor. We will present an update on our ongoing efforts with the United States Air Force Delta II Program Office, and The Aerospace Corporation. This will cover the development of a local, portable, surface-mounted, fiberoptic sensor based impact damage monitor designed to operate on a Delta II GEM during transport, storage, and handling. This system is designed to continuously monitor the GEMs, to communicate wirelessly with base stations and maintenance personnel, to operate autonomously for extended periods, and to fit unobtrusively on the GEM itself.

  9. Public release of the ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storchak, Dmitry A.; Di Giacomo, Domenico; Bondára, István; Engdahl, E. Robert; Harris, James; Lee, William H.K.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Bormann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The International Seismological Centre–Global Earthquake Model (ISC–GEM) Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900–2009) is the result of a special effort to substantially extend and improve currently existing global catalogs to serve the requirements of specific user groups who assess and model seismic hazard and risk. The data from the ISC–GEM Catalogue would be used worldwide yet will prove absolutely essential in those regions where a high seismicity level strongly correlates with a high population density.

  10. Quality control for the first large areas of triple GEM chambers for the CMS endcaps

    CERN Document Server

    Tytgat, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The CMS GEM collaboration plans to equip the very forward muon system with triple GEM detectors that can withstand the environment of the high-luminosity LHC. This project is at the final stages of R and D and moving to production. An unprecedented large area of several 100m2 are to be instrumented with GEM detectors which will be produced in six different sites around the world. A common construction and quality control procedure is required to ensure the performance of each detector. The quality control steps will include optical inspection, cleaning and baking of all materials and parts used to build the detector, leakage current tests of the GEM foils, high voltage tests, gas leak tests of the chambers and monitoring pressure drop vs. time, gain calibration to know the optimal operation region of the detector, gain uniformity tests, and studying the efficiency, noise and tracking performance of the detectors in a cosmic stand using scintillators.

  11. Fast drift CRID with GEM

    CERN Document Server

    Vavra, J; McCulloch, M; Stiles, P; Sauli, Fabio

    1999-01-01

    The only available technique at the present time, to perform particle identification up to 40-50 GeV/c in a 4 pi solenoidal geometry using the Cherenkov ring imaging method is the use of gaseous detectors filled with either TMAE or TEA photocathodes, and a combination of the gaseous, and solid or liquid radiators. If one would consider building such a device, one may want to investigate alternative methods of building a single-electron detector. This paper investigates the feasibility of using the GEM together with a simple MWPC detector employing 33 mu m diameter carbon wires to obtain a second coordinate. The results are compared to the CRID single-electron detector.

  12. Study of the GEM chamber for the upgrade of the LHCb muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Pinci, D

    2016-01-01

    Triple-GEM chambers, so far used in the inner region of the first muon station at LHCb, are the ideal candidates to replace the MWPCs in the regions where, after the upgrade in 2018, the particle rate will be as high as 2MHz/cm2. In this work, the results of a study on the GEM efficiency and time performances are shown.

  13. Genetics Education Materials (GEM) Database and Website

    OpenAIRE

    Silvey, Kerry; Livingston, Judith; Boyd, Patricia; Therrell, Bradford; Mann, Marie

    2002-01-01

    The Genetics Education Materials (GEM) database, accessible through http://genes-r-us.uthscsa.edu, provides a searchable listing of genetics public policy documents, clinical genetics education materials, and other peer-reviewed genetics publications. This new online database is designed to aid public health policy-makers, state genetics program planners, and health care professionals in locating relevant genetics materials. The GEM database is a project of the National Newborn Screening and ...

  14. GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the development and applications of the Building Taxonomy for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The purpose of the GEM Building Taxonomy is to describe and classify buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their seismic risk, Criteria for development of the GEM Building Taxonomy were that the Taxonomy be relevant to seismic performance of different construction types; be comprehensive yet simple; be collapsible; adhere to principles that are familiar to the range of users; and ultimately be extensible to non-buildings and other hazards. The taxonomy was developed in conjunction with other GEM researchers and builds on the knowledge base from other taxonomies, including the EERI and IAEE World Housing Encyclopedia, PAGER-STR, and HAZUS. The taxonomy is organized as a series of expandable tables, which contain information pertaining to various building attributes. Each attribute describes a specific characteristic of an individual building or a class of buildings that could potentially affect their seismic performance. The following 13 attributes have been included in the GEM Building Taxonomy Version 2.0 (v2.0): 1.) direction, 2.)material of the lateral load-resisting system, 3.) lateral load-resisting system, 4.) height, 5.) date of construction of retrofit, 6.) occupancy, 7.) building position within a block, 8.) shape of the building plan, 9.) structural irregularity, 10.) exterior walls, 11.) roof, 12.) floor, 13.) foundation system. The report illustrates the pratical use of the GEM Building Taxonomy by discussing example case studies, in which the building-specific characteristics are mapped directly using GEM taxonomic attributes and the corresponding taxonomic string is constructed for that building, with "/" slash marks separating attributes. For example, for the building shown to the right, the GEM Taxonomy string is: DX1/MUR+CLBRS+MOCL2/LWAL3/

  15. Study of relevant parameters of GEM-based detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Croci, Gabriele; Sauli, Fabio; Ragazzi, S

    2007-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier consist of a thin Kapton insulating (50 $\\mu$m) foil copper-clad on both sides and perforated by a high density, regular matrix of holes (around 100 per square millimeter). Typically the distance between holes (pitch) is 140 $\\mu$m and diameters of about 70 $\\mu$m. The mesh is realised by conventional photolitographic methods as used for the fabrication of multi-layer board. Upon application of a potential difference between the GEM electrodes, a high dipole field develops in the holes focusing the field lines between the drift electrode and the readout element. Electron drift along the channel and the charge is amplified by a factor that depends on the field density and the length of the channel. Owing to their excellent position resolution and rate capability GEM-based detector are very suitable to be used in different applications: from the high energy physics to the medical field. The GEM temporal and rate gain stability was studied and it was discovered that the gain variation...

  16. Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (gems) Over the Korea Peninsula and Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasnik, J.; Stephens, M.; Baker, B.; Randall, C.; Ko, D. H.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, E. S.; Chang, S.; Park, J. M.; SEO, S. B.; Youk, Y.; Kong, J. P.; Lee, D.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction: The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is one of two instruments manifested aboard the South Korean Geostationary Earth Orbit KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-2B (GEO-KOMPSAT-2B or GK2B), which is scheduled to launch in 2018. Jointly developed/built by KARI and Ball Aerospace, GEMS is a geostationary UV-Vis hyperspectral imager designed to monitor trans-boundary tropospheric pollution events over the Korean peninsula and Asia-Pacific region. The spectrometer provides high temporal and spatial resolution (3.5 km N/S by 7.2 km E/W) measurements of ozone, its precursors, and aerosols. Over the short-term, hourly measurements by GEMS will improve early warnings for potentially dangerous pollution events and monitor population exposure. Over the 10-year mission-life, GEMS will serve to enhance our understanding of long-term climate change and broader air quality issues on both a regional and global scale. The GEMS sensor design and performance are discussed, which includes an overview of measurement capabilities and the on-orbit concept of operations. GEMS Sensor Overview: The GEMS hyperspectral imaging system consists of a telescope and Offner grating spectrometer that feeds a single CCD detector array. A spectral range of 300-500 nm and sampling of 0.2 nm enables NO2, SO2, HCHO, O3, and aerosol retrieval. The GEMS field of regard (FOR), which extends from 5°S to 45°N in latitude and 75°E to 145°E in longitude, is operationally achieved using an onboard two-axis scan mirror. On-orbit, the radiometric calibration is maintained using solar measurements, which are performed using two onboard diffusers: a working diffuser that is deployed routinely for the purpose of solar calibration, and a reference diffuser that is deployed sparingly for the purpose of monitoring working diffuser performance degradation.

  17. High Technology in School Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertscher, David

    1988-01-01

    Describes technological advances in hardware and software used for managing school library media centers. Topics discussed include library management systems; system enhancements in microcomputers; library-specific software; CD ROMs; local area networks; online services; administrative applications; and a brief review of criteria for automating…

  18. Evaluation of ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from GEMS and OMI spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available South Korea is planning to launch the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer instrument into the GeoKOMPSAT (Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose SATellite platform in 2018 to monitor tropospheric air pollutants on an hourly basis over East Asia. GEMS will measure backscattered UV radiances covering the 300–500 nm wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 0.6 nm. The main objective of this study is to evaluate ozone profiles and stratospheric column ozone amounts retrieved from simulated GEMS measurements. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI Level 1B radiances, which have the spectral range 270–500 nm at spectral resolution of 0.42–0.63 nm, are used to simulate the GEMS radiances. An optimal estimation-based ozone profile algorithm is used to retrieve ozone profiles from simulated GEMS radiances. Firstly, we compare the retrieval characteristics (including averaging kernels, degrees of freedom for signal, and retrieval error derived from the 270–330 nm (OMI and 300–330 nm (GEMS wavelength ranges. This comparison shows that the effect of not using measurements below 300 nm on retrieval characteristics in the troposphere is insignificant. However, the stratospheric ozone information in terms of DFS decreases greatly from OMI to GEMS, by a factor of ∼2. The number of the independent pieces of information available from GEMS measurements is estimated to 3 on average in the stratosphere, with associated retrieval errors of ~1% in stratospheric column ozone. The difference between OMI and GEMS retrieval characteristics is apparent for retrieving ozone layers above ~20 km, with a reduction in the sensitivity and an increase in the retrieval errors for GEMS. We further investigate whether GEMS can resolve the stratospheric ozone variation observed from high vertical resolution Earth Observing System (EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS. The differences in stratospheric ozone profiles between GEMS and MLS are comparable to those

  19. Development of near infrared spectrometer for gem materials study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindata, W.; Meesiri, W.; Wongkokua, W.

    2015-07-01

    Most of gem materials can be characterized by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Normally, mid infrared absorption technique has been applied for investigating fundamental vibrational modes. However, for some gem materials, such as tourmaline, NIR is a better choice due to differentiation. Most commercial NIR spectrometers employ complicated dispersive grating or Fourier transform techniques. In this work, we developed a filter type NIR spectrometer with the availability of high efficiency and low-cost narrow bandpass NIR interference filters to be taught in a physics laboratory. The instrument was designed for transmission-mode configuration. A 50W halogen lamp was used as NIR source. There were fourteen NIR filters mounted on a rotatory wheel for wavelength selection ranging from 1000-1650 nm with steps of 50 nm. A 1.0 mm diameter of InGaAs photodiode was used as the detector for the spectrometer. Hence, transparent gem materials can be used as samples for experiment. Student can learn vibrational absorption spectroscopy as well as Beer-Lambert law from the development of this instrument.

  20. Study of the GEM detector for the LHCb experiment upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Santimaria, Marco

    Triple-GEM chambers, so far used in the inner region of the M1 muon station, are the ideal candidates to replace the MWPCs in the regions where, after the upgrade, the particle rate will be as high as 2 MHz/cm$^2$. Testing the triple-GEM efficiency and time resolution with different gaseous mixtures is therefore a significant step in evaluating the expected performance of the muon system after the upgrade scheduled in 2018, when the luminosity in LHCb will reach $2\\times10^{33} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$. In this thesis, a study of the GEM efficiency and time performance is conducted using a cosmic rays station at the Emilio Segrè laboratory, in the Sapienza university of Rome. Two gas mixtures are used for the measurements: Ar/CO$_2$/CF$_4$ 40:55:5 and 45:15:40. A preliminar simulation of the gas mixtures properties is performed using the software GARFIELD, focusing on electron drift velocity and specific ionization. Using 2 plastic scintillator as a muon trigger system, several measurements of efficiency and time perf...

  1. High technology revisited: definition and position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to defining high technology by distinguishing two different aspects. First, complexity, which is a more or less a `static' view on high technology and is applied to both the final product as well as the production process. Second, the newness, relates to a

  2. Muon Chamber Endcap Upgrade of the CMS Experiment with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detectors and their Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gola, Mohit

    2017-01-01

    As the CERN LHC is heading towards a high luminosity phase a very high flux is expected in the endcaps of the CMS Detector. The presence of muons in collision events can be due to rare or new physics so it is important to maintain the high trigger efficiency of the CMS muon system. The CMS Collaboration has proposed to instrument the high-eta region (1.6 lt IetaI lt 2.2) of the muon endcaps with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, referred to as GE1/1 chambers, during the LS2. This technology will help in maintaining optimum trigger performance with maximum selection efficiency of muons even in a high flux environment. We describe plans for a Slice Test to installa few GE1/1 chambers covering 50 degrees in azimuthal angle within the CMS detector in 2017, with subsequent operation during the current Run 2 of the LHC. We show the performance of the GE1/1 chambers to be installed during the slice test, specifically GEM foil leakage currents, chamber gas volume integrity, high voltage circuit performanc...

  3. PREFACE: Science's gem: diamond science 2009 Science's gem: diamond science 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwood, Alison; Newton, Mark E.; Stoneham, Marshall

    2009-09-01

    Natural diamond has been valued for its appearance and mechanical properties for at least two thousand years. As a gem stone diamond is unsurpassed. However, scientific work, especially in the last 20 years, has demonstrated that diamond has numerous surprising properties and many unique ones. Some of the extreme properties have been known for many years, but the true scale of diamond's other highly desirable features is still only coming to light as control in the synthesis of diamond, and hence material perfection, improves. The ultimate prize for man-made diamond is surely not in the synthesis of gem stones, but in delivering technological solutions enabled by diamond to the challenges facing our society today. If the special properties are to be exploited to their full potential, at least four crucial factors must be considered. First, there must be sufficient scientific understanding of diamond to make applications effective, efficient and economical. Secondly, the means of fabrication and control of properties have to be achieved so that diamond's role can be optimised. Thirdly, it is not enough that its properties are superior to existing materials: they must be so much better that it is worth initiating new technologies to exploit them. Finally, any substantial applications will have to address the society's major needs worldwide. The clear technology drivers for the 21st century come from the biomedical technologies, the demand for energy subject to global constraints, and the information technologies, where perhaps diamond will provide the major enabling technology [1]. The papers in this volume concern the solid state physics of diamond, and primarily concern the first two factors: understanding, and control of properties. They address many of the outstanding basic problems, such as the identification of existing defects, which affect the material's properties, both desirable and less so. Regarding future substantial applications, one paper discusses

  4. Development of Large-Area GEM Detectors for the Forward Muon Endcap Upgrade of the CMS Experiment and Search for SM Higgs Boson Decay in the $H\\to\\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}\\to\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}\\bar{\

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00366476; Gallo, Elisabetta; Raspereza, Alexei

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology is being considered for the forward muon upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment in \\mbox{Phase II} of the CERN LHC. The first GEM Endcap (GE1/1) is going to be installed in the $1.5 < \\mid\\eta\\mid < 2.2$ region of the muon endcapˆ’ mainly to control muon level-1 trigger rates after the second long LHC shutdown. A GE1/1 triple-GEM detector is read out by 3,072 radial strips with 453 $\\mu$rad pitch arranged in eight $\\eta$-sectors. A meter-long GE1/1 prototype-III was assembled at Florida Tech and tested in 20-120 GeV hadron beams at Fermilab using Ar/CO$_{2}$ 70:30 and the RD51 Scalable Readout System (SRS). Four GEM detectors with 2-D readout and an average measured azimuthal resolution of 36$\\mu$rad provided precise reference tracks. Construction of this GE1/1 prototype-III detector and its performance in the test beam are described. Strip cluster parameters, detection efficiency, and spatial resolution are studied with position and high voltag...

  5. Geothermal elastometric materials (GEM) program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasuna, A.R.; Bilyeu, G.D.; Davis, D.L.; Sedwick, R.A.; Stephens, C.A.; Veal, G.R.

    1979-07-01

    The primary program objective, to develop a geothermal packer elastomer to withstand 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) geothermal brine with 300 ppM H/sub 2/S, 1000 ppM CO/sub 2/, 25,000 ppM NaCl in aqueous solution for 24 hours, was successfully accomplished. In fact the requirement for one elastomer was exceeded, compounds from four elastomeric polymer systems were successfully developed to meet the GEM requirements providing good flexibility for various situations. Several secondary spin-offs also resulted. The compounds were developed for the casing packer seal application and it was demonstrated that these compounds are directly applicable to the static O-ring and other elastomer applications in similarly unusually severe environments. There is also indication based on drill bits seal tests that the basic compounds will be adaptable to high-temperature dynamic seal applications. Another secondary spin-off is a different conceptual approach to the thermal casing packer problem. This approach concentrates on minimizing the stresses subjected on the sealing element. Since it is fundamentally different, it has a good chance of advancing thermal packer capability in a revolutionary manner as opposed to an evolutionary manner.

  6. High Power Betavoltaic Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will dramatically improve the performance of tritium-powered betavoltaic batteries through the development of a high-aspect ratio, expanded...

  7. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  8. Imaging of high-Z material for nuclear contraband detection with a minimal prototype of a Muon Tomography station based on GEM detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanvo, Kondo; Grasso III, Leonard V.; Hohlmann, Marcus; Locke, Judson B.; Quintero, Amilkar S.; Mitra, Debasis

    2010-01-01

    Muon Tomography based on the measurement of multiple scattering of atmospheric cosmic ray muons in matter is a promising technique for detecting heavily shielded high-Z radioactive materials (U, Pu) in cargo or vehicles. The technique uses the deflection of cosmic ray muons in matter to perform tomographic imaging of high-Z material inside a probed volume. A Muon Tomography Station (MTS) requires position-sensitive detectors with high spatial resolution for optimal tracking of incoming and ou...

  9. MOOCs, High Technology, and Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    In "MOOCs, High Technology, and Higher Learning," Robert A. Rhoads places the OpenCourseWare (OCW) movement into the larger context of a revolution in educational technology. In doing so, he seeks to bring greater balance to increasingly polarized discussions of massively open online courses (MOOCs) and show their ongoing relevance to…

  10. Technology Leadership in Malaysia's High Performance School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yieng, Wong Ai; Daud, Khadijah Binti

    2017-01-01

    Headmaster as leader of the school also plays a role as a technology leader. This applies to the high performance schools (HPS) headmaster as well. The HPS excel in all aspects of education. In this study, researcher is interested in examining the role of the headmaster as a technology leader through interviews with three headmasters of high…

  11. Silicates materials of high vacuum technology

    CERN Document Server

    Espe, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Materials of High Vacuum Technology, Volume 2: Silicates covers silicate insulators of special importance to vacuum technology. The book discusses the manufacture, composition, and physical and chemical properties of technical glasses, quartz glass, quartzware, vycor glass, ceramic materials, mica, and asbestos.

  12. GEM Detectors in the Experiments at e+e- Colliders in BINP

    CERN Document Server

    Maltsev, T V

    2017-01-01

    Micro-pattern gaseous detectors possess a high spatial resolution in tens micron scale together with high rate capability up to 107 cm-2s-1. In addition, they have all advantages of gaseous detectors, such as relatively low costs per unit area, the possibility to equip a large area as well as a high uniformity. Cascaded Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based detectors are used in the collider experiments at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), and they are being developed for a number of new projects. In this article the review of GEM based detectors for the tagging system of the KEDR experiment at the VEPP-4M collider and for the DEUTERON facility at the VEPP-3 storage ring is presented. The GEM detector application of the CMD-3 detector upgrade at the VEPP-2000 collider and the Super τ Factory detector are discussed.

  13. 3D simulation of electron and ion transmission of GEM-based detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Purba; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Majumdar, Nayana; da Luz, Hugo Natal

    2017-10-01

    Time Projection Chamber (TPC) has been chosen as the main tracking system in several high-flux and high repetition rate experiments. These include on-going experiments such as ALICE and future experiments such as PANDA at FAIR and ILC. Different R&D activities were carried out on the adoption of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) as the gas amplification stage of the ALICE-TPC upgrade version. The requirement of low ion feedback has been established through these activities. Low ion feedback minimizes distortions due to space charge and maintains the necessary values of detector gain and energy resolution. In the present work, Garfield simulation framework has been used to study the related physical processes occurring within single, triple and quadruple GEM detectors. Ion backflow and electron transmission of quadruple GEMs, made up of foils with different hole pitch under different electromagnetic field configurations (the projected solutions for the ALICE TPC) have been studied. Finally a new triple GEM detector configuration with low ion backflow fraction and good electron transmission properties has been proposed as a simpler GEM-based alternative suitable for TPCs for future collider experiments.

  14. Today's Training in the High Technology Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, William T.

    1995-01-01

    To keep in tune with the rapidly changing 'Hardware' technology, it is imperative that all of the supporting components of a program's efforts reflect these increases in technology. To maintain a work force that keeps in tune with the ever increasing technology base, training needs to remain a major consideration in all types of organizations. This paper focuses on the area of training and education and suggests a reasonable, cost effective alternative to carrying the entire burden of developing, training and maintaining a workforce in a rapidly changing, highly technological environment.

  15. Advances in Trace Element “Fingerprinting” of Gem Corundum, Ruby and Sapphire, Mogok Area, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lin Sutherland

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mogok gem corundum samples from twelve localities were analyzed for trace element signatures (LA-ICP-MS method and oxygen isotope values (δ18O, by laser fluorination. The study augmented earlier findings on Mogok gem suites that suggested the Mogok tract forms a high vanadium gem corundum area and also identified rare alluvial ruby and sapphire grains characterised by unusually high silicon, calcium and gallium, presence of noticeable boron, tin and niobium and very low iron, titanium and magnesium contents. Oxygen isotope values (δ18O for the ruby and high Si-Ca-Ga corundum (20‰–25‰ and for sapphire (10‰–20‰ indicate typical crustal values, with values >20‰ being typical of carbonate genesis. The high Si-Ca-Ga ruby has high chromium (up to 3.2 wt % Cr and gallium (up to 0. 08 wt % Ga compared to most Mogok ruby (<2 wt % Cr; <0.02 wt % Ga. In trace element ratio plots the Si-Ca-Ga-rich corundum falls into separate fields from the typical Mogok metamorphic fields. The high Ga/Mg ratios (46–521 lie well within the magmatic range (>6, and with other features suggest a potential skarn-like, carbonate-related genesis with a high degree of magmatic fluid input The overall trace element results widen the range of different signatures identified within Mogok gem corundum suites and indicate complex genesis. The expanded geochemical platform, related to a variety of metamorphic, metasomatic and magmatic sources, now provides a wider base for geographic typing of Mogok gem corundum suites. It allows more detailed comparisons with suites from other deposits and will assist identification of Mogok gem corundum sources used in jewelry.

  16. High-efficiency crystalline silicon technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    The rationale for pursuing high efficiency crystalline silicon technology research is discussed. Photovoltaic energy systems are reviewed as to their cost effectiveness and their competitiveness with other energy systems. The parameters of energy system life are listed and briefly reviewed.

  17. Marketing mix for consumer high technology products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes an analysis upon the variables of marketing mix for high technology products used for individual consumption. There are exposed the essential aspects related to marketing policies and strategies used by high technology companies for providing consumers the best solutions tailored to their needs. A special attention is given to the necessity for inclusion in the marketing mix of the fifth element – the assistance and informational support for customers.

  18. Investigations of the long-term stability of a GEM-TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorchuk, Oleksiy [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: LCTPC-Deutschland-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    For the International Large Detector (ILD) at the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking detector. The gas amplification will be done by Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD). One option is to use Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM).While the applicability of GEMs for the gas amplification in a TPC readout has been shown, the focus of the current research is to improve the high voltage stability and reliability of the readout modules. This is a crucial requirement for the operation in the final ILD TPC. The main focus of the research presented in this talk is on studies of the discharge stability and operational features of large area 22 x 18 cm{sup 2} GEM foils. We present systematic studies of the stability of GEM foils under different operation conditions. These studies include measurements and calculations of the dynamic behavior of charges in the GEM foils after a trip. The results will be used to develop methods to avoid destructive discharges in the final readout module.

  19. Optimization of the gas flow in a GEM chamber and development of the GEM foil stretcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noto Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The gas electron multiplier technology has been proven to tolerate rat e larger than 50 MHz/cm2 without noticeable aging and to provide sub resolution on working chambers up to 45 cm x 45 cm. A new gas electron multiplier-based tracker is under development for the Hall A upgrade at Jefferson Lab. The chambers of the tracker have been designed in a modular way: each chamber consists of 3 adjacent gas electron multiplier modules, with an active area of 40 cm x 50 cm each. We optimized the gas flow inside the gas electron multiplier module volume, using the COMSOL physics simulator framework; the COMSOL-based analysis includes the design of the inlet and outlet pipes and the maximization of the uniformity of the gas flow. We have defined the procedures for the assembling of the gas electron multiplier modules and designed a mechanical system (TENDIGEM that will be used to stretch the GEM foils at the proper tension (few kg/cm; the TENDIGEM is based on the original design developed at LNF.

  20. High Power Diode Lasers Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2007-01-01

    In a very comprehensive way this book covers all aspects of high power diode laser technology for materials processing. Basics as well as new application oriented results obtained in a government funded national German research project are described in detail. Along the technological chain after a short introduction in the second chapter diode laser bar technology is discussed regarding structure, manufacturing technology and metrology. The third chapter illuminates all aspects of mounting and cooling, whereas chapter four gives wide spanning details on beam forming, beam guiding and beam combination, which are essential topics for incoherently coupled multi-emitter based high power diode lasers. Metrology, standards and safety aspects are the theme of chapter five. As an outcome of all the knowledge from chapter two to four various system configurations of high power diode lasers are described in chapter six; not only systems focussed on best available beam quality but especially also so called "modular" set...

  1. GEM in the marine atmosphere and air-sea exchange of Hg during late autumn and winter cruise campaigns over the marginal seas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Ruhai; Li, Yanping; Cui, Xueqing; Zhou, Jianping; Liu, Shixuan; Zhang, Yuqing

    2017-07-01

    East Asia is one of the primary sources of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) among the world. In this study, GEM concentrations were measured during two cruises in late autumn and winter of 2012 and 2013 which passed through the marginal seas of China. The results show that the mean GEM concentration was 1.65 ng/m3 from the South China Sea to the Yellow Sea during the 2012 cruise. While the mean GEM concentration was 2.38 ng/m3 in the South Yellow Sea, and 1.75 ng/m3 in the North Yellow and Bohai Seas during the 2013 cruise. High GEM contents were detected when the steering wind was offshore. There is a significant positive relationship between GEM and air temperature for these two cruises. Low GEM content was presented when the cold northerly monsoon prevailed while air masses mainly came from the clean northern oceanic region. Dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) concentration in the surface water of the south Yellow and Bohai seas were 74.4 ± 28 pg/L. DGM concentrations were correlated with water temperature (r = 0.244, p polluted air and low wind speed. High flux values were caused by the northerly monsoon which carried remote clean air to the sea, with large wind speeds. The northerly monsoon is an important factor affecting the GEM transport offshore to marginal sea and the cycle of mercury in the sea in late autumn and winter.

  2. Gas amplification properties of GEM foils; Gasverstaerkungseigenschaften von GEM-Folien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Jeannine

    2009-01-15

    In the framework of the detector concept International Linear Detector for the future accelerator project International Linear Collider, in which electrons and positrons at c. m. energies of 500 GeV are brought to collision, a time projection chamber shall be applied as central track detector. By the application of such a chamber as track detector a three-dimensional reconstruction of the track points is possible. If a particle passes the gas volume within the chamber it ionizises single gas atoms and the arising electrons move after the amplification in the GEM arrangement to the anode, so that a two-dimensional projection of the particle track is possible. The third dimension is calculated from the drift time of the electrons. The advances of this readout system consist therein that a better position resolution than by a multiwire proportional chamber is reached and the back-drifting ions can be strongly suppressed. Aim of this thesis are studies for a GEM module, which shall be used in a large TPC prototype. Concerning different requirements it is valid to compare different GEMs in order to can meet an optimal choice. In a small prototype present at DESY measurements for the acquisition of GEM-describing parameters were performed. The taking into operation of the test TPC was part of this thesis. Tracks were generated by a radioactive source, by means of which the gas amplification was determined. With the measurement arrangement gas-amplifier foils of different kind were compared in view of their amplification properties and their energy resolution power and systematically studied. Five different GEM performances were studied in the test TPC. These foils differ in their geometrical classification parameters, the fabrication process, or the materials. The GEMs produced at CERN possess in comparison with GEMs of the Japanese firm SciEnergy and a GEM of the US-American firm Tech-Etch the best amplification and resolution properties. Furthermore a new GEM framing

  3. Development of High Temperature Gas Sensor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai; Zhou, Huan-Jun

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of engine emissions is important for their monitoring and control. However, the ability to measure these emissions in-situ is limited. We are developing a family of high temperature gas sensors which are intended to operate in harsh environments such as those in an engine. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: (1) The development of SiC-based semiconductor technology; and (2) Improvements in micromachining and microfabrication technology. These technologies are being used to develop point-contact sensors to measure gases which are important in emission control especially hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of this point-contact sensor technology. The detection of each type of gas involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. Of particular importance is sensor sensitivity, selectivity, and stability in long-term, high temperature operation. An overview is presented of each sensor type with an evaluation of its stage of development. It is concluded that this technology has significant potential for use in engine applications but further development is necessary.

  4. Technological Evolution of High Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS by Jordan R. White December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Clifford Whitcomb Co-Advisor: Fotis Papoulias THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY...AND SUBTITLE TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jordan R. White 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...trends. 14. SUBJECT TERMS electric ships, high temperature superconductor , HTS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 111 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  5. Resolution studies of a GEM-based TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killenberg, M.

    2006-12-15

    Currently there are four different concept studies trying to optimise the detector for the requirements at the ILC. In three of these detector concepts a time projection chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking device. To achieve the intended spatial resolution of 100 {mu}m, micro pattern gas detectors (MPGD) are considered for gas amplification. The two different MPGDs discussed for the ILC TPC are Micro-Mesh Gaseous Detectors (Micromegas) and Gas Electron Multiplier foils (GEMs). The current thesis shows resolution studies with a TPC prototype equipped with a triple GEM readout structure. A hodoscope made up of silicon strip sensors gives a precision reference track, allowing an unbiased measurement of the spatial resolution. High statistics measurements have been conducted at the DESY test beam facility, which provides positrons with a tunable energy between 1 GeV and 6 GeV. Using the independent measurement of the hodoscope allows systematic studies of the homogeneity of the TPC's electric field. The fluctuations of the field in the chamber's central region were found to be {delta}E/E=8.10{sup -3}. Field distortions have been determined and corrected, reducing the remaining deviations to a level well below the spatial resolution of the TPC. One important task is to reduce the number of ions drifting back into the sensitive volume. Special GEM settings with minimised ion backdrift have been examined with respect to their influence on the spatial resolution and it was found that the spatial resolution is not degraded using these special settings. The TPC prototype has been operated in a 4 T magnetic field, provided by a superconducting solenoid located at DESY Hamburg. Again the spatial resolution measured with the ion backdrift optimised settings is compared to that achieved with nonoptimised settings. In both cases the measured resolution is approximately 130 {mu}m. (orig.)

  6. Experimental and simulation study of the behaviour and operation modes of MSGC+GEM detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, M.; Albert, A.; Barvich, T.; Beaumont, W.; Beckers, T.; Bernier, K.; Bluem, P.; Boulogne, I.; Bouvet, D.; Brom, J.M.; Charles, F.; Coffin, J.; Contardo, D.; Daubie, E.; Didierjean, F.; De Lentdecker, G. E-mail: delentdecker@hep.iihe.ac.be; De Troy, J.; Devroede, O.; Erdmann, M.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Fahrer, M.; Fluegge, G.; Fontaine, J.C.; Geist, W.; Goerlach, U.; Gottschalk, M.; Helleboid, J.M.; Huss, D.; Iacopi, F.; Juillot, P.; Kaercher, K.; Kuehn, F.; Lounis, A.; Maazouzi, C.; Macke, D.; Martin, C.; Mirabito, L.; Moreau, S.; Mueller, T.; Neuberger, D.; Nowack, A.; Perries, S.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Roederer, F.; Schulte, R.; Shekhtman, L.; Simonis, H.J.; Struczinski, W.; Tatarinov, A.; Thuemmel, W.H.; Udo, F.; Vander Velde, C.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Dyck, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Van Lancker, L.; Weiler, T.; Zander, A.; Zghiche, A.; Zhukov, V

    2002-08-21

    A small series production of detector modules made of MicroStrip Gas Counters (MSGC) and a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foil has been exposed to a high-intensity hadron beam. We report about the reproductibility and stability of the detector responses and about the occurrence and consequences of discharges in the detector. The interdependence of the four voltage differences used in the detector has been studied by simulation and with X-ray measurements. Rate dependence of the signal amplitude is observed. The behaviour of the MSGC+GEM is compared to that of a state-of-the-art MSGC. Influence of various parameters on the detector response is investigated.

  7. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H

    2000-02-01

    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  8. Single electron multiplication distribution in GEM avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, András; Hamar, Gergő; Kiss, Gábor; Varga, Dezső

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, measurement results and experimental methodology are presented on the determination of multiplication distributions of avalanches initiated by single electron in GEM foils. The measurement relies on the amplification of photoelectrons by the GEM under study, which is subsequently amplified in an MWPC for signal enhancement and readout. The intrinsic detector resolution, namely the sigma-over-mean ratio of the multiplication distribution is also elaborated. Small gain dependence of the shape of the avalanche response distribution is observed in the range of net effective gain of 15 to 100. The distribution has an exponentially decaying tail at large amplitudes. At small amplitudes, the applied working gas is seen to have a well visible effect on the shape of the multiplication distribution. Equivalently, the working gas has an influence on the intrinsic detector resolution of GEMs via suppression of the low amplitude responses. A sigma-over-mean ratio of 0.75 was reached using a neon based mixture, whereas other gases provided an intrinsic detector resolution closer to 1, meaning a multiplication distribution closer to the low-field limit exponential case.

  9. Study of reconstruction methods for a time projection chamber with GEM gas amplification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diener, R.

    2006-12-15

    A new e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with an energy range up to 1TeV is planned in an international collaboration: the International Linear Collider (ILC). This collider will be able to do precision measurements of the Higgs particle and of physics beyond the Standard Model. In the Large Detector Concept (LDC) - which is one proposal for a detector at the ILC - a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is foreseen as the main tracking device. To meet the requirements on the resolution and to be able to work in the environment at the ILC, the application of new gas amplification technologies in the TPC is necessary. One option is an amplification system based on Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs). Due to the - in comparison with older technologies - small spatial width of the signals, this technology poses new requirements on the readout structures and the reconstruction methods. In this work, the performance and the systematics of different reconstruction methods have been studied, based on data measured with a TPC prototype in high magnetic fields of up to 4T and data from a Monte Carlo simulation. The latest results of the achievable point resolution are presented and their limitations have been investigated. (orig.)

  10. Modular, Reconfigurable, High-Energy Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe

    2006-01-01

    The Modular, Reconfigurable High-Energy (MRHE) Technology Demonstrator project was to have been a series of ground-based demonstrations to mature critical technologies needed for in-space assembly of a highpower high-voltage modular spacecraft in low Earth orbit, enabling the development of future modular solar-powered exploration cargo-transport vehicles and infrastructure. MRHE was a project in the High Energy Space Systems (HESS) Program, within NASA's Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) Program. NASA participants included Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Glenn Research Center (GRC). Contractor participants were the Boeing Phantom Works in Huntsville, AL, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto, CA, ENTECH, Inc. in Keller, TX, and the University of AL Huntsville (UAH). MRHE's technical objectives were to mature: (a) lightweight, efficient, high-voltage, radiation-resistant solar power generation (SPG) technologies; (b) innovative, lightweight, efficient thermal management systems; (c) efficient, 100kW-class, high-voltage power delivery systems from an SPG to an electric thruster system; (d) autonomous rendezvous and docking technology for in-space assembly of modular, reconfigurable spacecraft; (e) robotic assembly of modular space systems; and (f) modular, reconfigurable distributed avionics technologies. Maturation of these technologies was to be implemented through a series of increasingly-inclusive laboratory demonstrations that would have integrated and demonstrated two systems-of-systems: (a) the autonomous rendezvous and docking of modular spacecraft with deployable structures, robotic assembly, reconfiguration both during assembly and (b) the development and integration of an advanced thermal heat pipe and a high-voltage power delivery system with a representative lightweight high-voltage SPG array. In addition, an integrated simulation testbed would have been developed

  11. High Spectral Density Optical Communication Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Miyazaki, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    The latest hot topics of high-spectral density optical communication systems using digital coherent optical fibre communication technologies are covered by this book. History and meaning of a "renaissance" of the technology, requirements to the Peta-bit/s class "new generation network" are also covered in the first part of this book. The main topics treated are electronic and optical devices, digital signal processing including forward error correction, modulation formats as well as transmission and application systems. The book serves as a reference to researchers and engineers.

  12. Technology Development for High Efficiency Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Deep space optical communications is a significantly more challenging operational domain than near Earth space optical communications, primarily due to effects resulting from the vastly increased range between transmitter and receiver. The NASA Game Changing Development Program Deep Space Optical Communications Project is developing four key technologies for the implementation of a high efficiency telecommunications system that will enable greater than 10X the data rate of a state-of-the-art deep space RF system (Ka-band) for similar transceiver mass and power burden on the spacecraft. These technologies are a low mass spacecraft disturbance isolation assembly, a flight qualified photon counting detector array, a high efficiency flight laser amplifier and a high efficiency photon counting detector array for the ground-based receiver.

  13. Elsevier Overview of large area triple-GEM detectors for the CMS forward muon upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Abbrescia, M; Abi Akl, M; Aboamer, O; Acosta, D; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, W; Aleksandrov, A; Altieri, P; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Aspell, P; Assran, Y; Awan, I; Bally, S; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barashko, V; Barria, P; Bencze, G; Beni, N; Benussi, L; Bhopatkar, V; Bianco, S; Bos, J; Bouhali, O; Braghieri, A; Braibant, S; Buontempo, S; Calabria, C; Caponero, M; Caputo, C; Cassese, F; Castaneda, A; Cauwenbergh, S; Cavallo, F R; Celik, A; Choi, M; Choi, S; Christiansen, J; Cimmino, A; Colafranceschi, S; Colaleo, A; Conde Garcia, A; Czellar, S; Dabrowski, M M; De Lentdecker, G; De Oliveira, R; de Robertis, G; Dildick, S; Dorney, B; Endroczi, G; Errico, F; Fenyvesi, A; Ferry, S; Furic, I; Giacomelli, P; Gilmore, J; Golovtsov, V; Guiducci, L; Guilloux, F; Gutierrez, A; Hadjiiska, R M; Hauser, J; Hoepfner, K; Hohlmann, M; Hoorani, H; Iaydjiev, P; Jeng, Y G; Kamon, T; Karchin, P; Korytov, A; Krutelyov, S; Kumar, A; Kim, H; Lee, J; Lenzi, T; Litov, L; Loddo, F; Madorsky, A; Maerschalk, T; Maggi, M; Magnani, A; Mal, P K; Mandal, K; Marchioro, A; Marinov, A; Majumdar, N; Merlin, J A; Mitselmakher, G; Mohanty, A K; Mohapatra, A; Molnar, J; Muhammad, S; Mukhopadhyay, S; Naimuddin, M; Nuzzo, S; Oliveri, E; Pant, L M; Paolucci, P; Park, I; Passeggio, G; Pavlov, B; Philipps, B; Piccolo, D; Postema, H; Puig Baranac, A; Radi, A; Radogna, R; Raffone, G; Ranieri, A; Rashevski, G; Riccardi, C; Rodozov, M; Rodrigues, A; Ropelewski, L; RoyChowdhury, S; Ryu, G; Ryu, M S; Safonov, A; Salva, S; Saviano, G; Sharma, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, R; Shah, A H; Shopova, M; Sturdy, J; Sultanov, G; Swain, S K; Szillasi, Z; Talvitie, J; Tatarinov, A; Tuuva, T; Tytgat, M; Vai, I; Van Stenis, M; Venditti, R; Verhagen, E; Verwilligen, P; Vitulo, P; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Wang, D; Wang, M; Yang, U; Yang, Y; Yonamine, R; Zaganidis, N; Zenoni, F; Zhang, A

    2017-01-01

    We report on the status of the project to install large-area triple-foil gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors in the end-cap muon system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the LHC operating at the high luminosity planned after the current period of data-taking (run 2). In the pseudo-rapidity region $1.6 < \\lvert\\eta\\rvert < 2.4$, the GEM detectors will suppress the rate of background triggers while maintaining high trigger efficiency for low transverse momentum muons, and enhancing the robustness of muon detection in the high-flux environment of the end-cap region. GEM detectors will also be used to extend the range of muon identification up to about $\\lvert\\eta\\rvert = 3.0$. We describe the design of the GEM chambers, readout electronics, and data acquisition system for the three stations in each endcap, located at increasing distances from the interaction point. For the intermediate station, the design is fixed and we describe plans to install several of the intermediate station dete...

  14. Discharge probability studies in GEM structures for the ALICE TPC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasik, Piotr [TU Muenchen, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device for tracking and charged particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2018, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate of about 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 100 above the present readout rate of the TPC. In order to make full use of this luminosity, a major upgrade of the TPC is required. It is foreseen to replace the existing MWPC-based readout with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils. The GEM foils are commonly known structures used as proportional counters, which permits to obtain high gains at very high radiation rates. However, highly ionizing particles, which may be produced during heavy ion collisions, may trigger an electrical breakdown which may result in damage of the foils or readout electronics. The key parameter for a long-term operation of the GEM-based TPC is the stability against electrical discharges. We performed discharge probability studies in triple and quadruple GEM structures in Ne- and Ar-based gas mixtures to find operational conditions for the upgraded ALICE TPC. Preliminary results from these measurements are discussed in this contribution.

  15. Trace elements in Gem-Quality Diamonds - Origin and evolution of diamond-forming fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Graham; Krebs, Mandy; Stachel, Thomas; Woodland, Sarah; Chinn, Ingrid; Kong, Julie

    2017-04-01

    In the same way that melt inclusions in phenocrysts have expanded our idea of melt formation and evolution in basalts, studying fluids trapped in diamonds is providing important new constraints on the nature of diamond-forming fluids. Fibrous and cloudy diamonds trap a high but variable density of fluid inclusions and so have been extensively studied using major and trace element compositions. In contrast, constraining the nature of the diamond-forming fluid for high purity gem-quality diamonds has been restricted by the rarity of available high quality trace element data. This is due to the extremely low concentrations of impurities that gem diamonds contain - often in the ppt range. The recent discovery of fluids in gem diamonds showing similar major element chemistry to fluid-rich diamonds suggest that many diamonds may share a common spectrum of parental fluids. Here we test this idea further. Recent advances in analytical techniques, in particular the development of the "off-line" laser ablation pre-concentration approach, have allowed fully quantitative trace element data to be recovered from "fluid-poor", high quality gem diamonds. We present trace element data for gem diamonds from a variety of locations from Canada, S. Africa and Russia, containing either silicate or sulphide inclusions to examine possible paragenetic or genetic differences between fluids. REE abundance in the "gem" diamonds vary from 0.1 to 0.0001 x chondrite. To a first order, we observe the same spectrum of trace element compositions in the gem diamonds as that seen in fluid-rich "fibrous" diamonds, supporting a common origin for the fluids. REE patterns range from extremely flat (Ce/Yb)n 2.5 to 5 (commonly in sulphide-bearing diamonds) to >70, the latter having significantly greater inter-element HFSE/LILE fractionation. In general, the fluids from the sulphide-bearing diamonds are less REE-enriched than the silicate-bearing diamonds, but the ranges overlap significantly. The very

  16. {sup 188}Re-labelled gemcitabine/bisphosphonate (Gem/BP): a multi-functional, bone-specific agent as a potential treatment for bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Mabhouh, Amal A. [University of Alberta, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mercer, John R. [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    This study investigated the bone-binding affinity and biodistribution of a {sup 188}Re-labelled gemcitabine/bisphosphonate (Gem/BP) conjugate, a multi-functional drug designed to deliver tumour-specific combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy to the bone using the high bone-binding affinity of the bisphosphonate group. The Gem/BP conjugate was labelled at high radiochemical purity with {sup 188}Re. The bone-binding affinity of the {sup 188}Re-Gem/BP was studied in vitro in purified hydroxyapatite emulsion and powdered bovine bone. In vivo biodistribution studies were carried out in normal BALB/c mice. {sup 188}Re-Gem/BP demonstrated strong and stable binding in both in vitro systems. In vivo {sup 188}Re-Gem/BP showed bone uptake, rapid blood clearance and rapid elimination of unbound activity. The bone tissue demonstrated the highest concentration of bound radioactivity exempting the kidneys. Approximately 67% of retained whole-body activity was bound to the bone at 8 h after {sup 188}Re-Gem/BP administration. {sup 188}Re-Gem/BP demonstrated high, selective and persistent bone binding and can be considered as a model compound for multi-functional bone-specific therapy for bone metastases. (orig.)

  17. Simulation of space-charge effects in an ungated GEM-based TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böhmer, F.V., E-mail: felix.boehmer@tum.de; Ball, M.; Dørheim, S.; Höppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Rauch, J.; Vandenbroucke, M.

    2013-08-11

    A fundamental limit to the application of Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) in high-rate experiments is the accumulation of slowly drifting ions in the active gas volume, which compromises the homogeneity of the drift field and hence the detector resolution. Conventionally, this problem is overcome by the use of ion-gating structures. This method, however, introduces large dead times and restricts trigger rates to a few hundred per second. The ion gate can be eliminated from the setup by the use of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils for gas amplification, which intrinsically suppress the backflow of ions. This makes the continuous operation of a TPC at high rates feasible. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations of the buildup of ion space charge in a GEM-based TPC and the correction of the resulting drift distortions are discussed, based on realistic numbers for the ion backflow in a triple-GEM amplification stack. A TPC in the future P{sup ¯}ANDA experiment at FAIR serves as an example for the experimental environment. The simulations show that space charge densities up to 65 fC cm{sup −3} are reached, leading to electron drift distortions of up to 10 mm. The application of a laser calibration system to correct these distortions is investigated. Based on full simulations of the detector physics and response, we show that it is possible to correct for the drift distortions and to maintain the good momentum resolution of the GEM-TPC.

  18. Status of the Triple-GEM Project for the Upgrade of the CMS Muon System

    CERN Document Server

    Tytgat, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The GEMs for CMS collaboration is performing a feasibility study to install triple-GEM detectors in the forward region of the muon system ($1.6<\\eta<2.4$) of the CMS detector at the LHC. Such micro-pattern gas detectors are able to cope with the extreme particle rates that are expected in that region during the High Luminosity phase of the LHC. With their spatial resolution of order 100 micron GEMs would not only provide additional benefits in the CMS muon High Level Trigger, but also in the muon identification and track reconstruction, effectively combining tracking and triggering capabilities in one single device. The present status of the full project will be reviewed, highlighting all importants steps and achievements since the start of the R and D in 2009. Several small and full-size prototypes were constructed with different geometries and techniques. The baseline design of the triple-GEM detectorfor CMS will be described, along with the results from extensive test measurements of all prototypes ...

  19. GEM detector performance and efficiency in Proton Charge Radius (PRad) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xinzhan; PRad Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The PRad experiment (E12-11-106) was performed in 2016 at Jefferson Lab in Hall B. It aims to investigate the proton charge radius puzzle through electron proton elastic scattering process. The experiment used a non-magnetic spectrometer method, and reached a very small ep scattering angle and thus an unprecedented small four-momentum transfer squared region, Q2 from 2 ×10-4 to 0.06(GeV / c) 2 . PRad experiment was designed to measure the proton charge radius within a sub-percent precision. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors have contributed to reach the experimental goal. A pair of large area GEM detectors, and a large acceptance, high resolution calorimeter(HyCal) were utilized in the experiment to detect the scattered electrons. The precision requirements of the experiment demands a highly accurate understanding of efficiency and stability of GEM detectors. In this talk, we will present the preliminary results on the performance and efficiency of GEM detectors. This work is supported in part by NSF MRI award PHY-1229153, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-07ER41528, No. DE-FG02-03ER41240 and Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory.

  20. Physics motivations and expected performance of the CMS muon system upgrade with triple-GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbrescia, Marcello; Aleksandrov, Andrey B; Benussi, Luigi; Beni, Noemi; Bianco, Stefano; Calabria, Cesare; Caponero, Michele; Hernandez, Alfredo Martin Castaneda; Cavallo, Francesca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Lentdecker, Gilles De; Oliveira, R; Guiducci, Luigi; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Iaydjiev, P S; Korytov, Andrey; Krutelyov, Slava; Kumar, A; Lee, Jason; Litov, L; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marchioro, Alessandro; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Molnar, J; Naimuddin, Md; Nuzzo, S; Pant, Lalit; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Pavlov, Borislav; Piccolo, Davide; Postema, Hans; Raffaella, Radogna; Ranieri, A; Riccardi, C; Rodozov, Mircho; Safonov, Alexei; Saviano, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Tytgat, Michael; Vitulo, Paolo; Colaleo, Anna; Caputo, Claudio; Errico, Filippo; Dildick, Sven; Vai, Ilaria; Magnani, Alice; Verwilligen, Piet; Altieri, Palma; Aspell, Paul; Giacomelli, Paolo; Braibant, Sylvie; Buontempo, S; Kamon, Teruki; Tatarinov, A; Celik, Ali; Gilmore, Jason; Flanagan, Will; Khotilovich, Vadim; Czellar, S; Fenyvesi, A; Jozsef Molnar@Cern Ch, Jozsef; Barria, P; Korntheuer, Michael; Lenzi, T; Maerschalk, T; Verhagen, E; Yang, Yifan; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Merlin, J; Dorney, B; Garcia, A Conde; Dabrowski, M; Marinov, A; Oliveri, E; Baranac, A Puig; Ropelewski, Leszek; Bos, J; Bally, S; Stenis, M Van; Ferry, S; Rodrigues, A; Robertis, G De; Christiansen, J; Hohlmann, M; Bhopatkar, V; Mohapatra, A; Zhang, A; Hauser, J; Tuuva, Tuure; Talvitie, J; Passeggio, G; Cassese, F; Banerjee, S; Majumdar, N; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roychowdhur, S; Salva, S; Zaganidis, N; Cimmino, A; Cauwenbergh, S; Bouhali, O; Akl, M Abi; Sturdy, J; Karchin, P; Gutierrez, A; Hadjiiska, R; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Rashevski, G; Rodozov, M; Shopova, M; Sultanov, G; Acosta, D; Barashko, V; Furic, I; Madorsky, A; Korytov, A; Mitselmakher, G; Raffone, G; Radi, A; Assran, Y; Aboamer, O; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, W; Awan, I; Hoorani, H; Muhammad, S; Sharma, R; Geonmo, R; Ryu, M S; Park, I; Jeng, Y C; Choi, M; Golovtsov, V; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Choi, S; Guilloux, F; Philipps, B

    2015-01-01

    For the LHC High Luminosity phase (HL-LHC) the CMS GEM Collaboration is planning to in- stall new large size triple-GEM detectors in the forward region of the muon system (1.5< j h |<2.2) of the CMS detector. The muon reconstruction with triple-GEM chambers information included have been successfully integrated in the official CMS software, allowing physics studies to be carried out. The new sub-detector will be able to cope the extreme particle rates expected in this region along with a high spatial resolution. The resulting benefit in terms of triggering and tracking capabilities has been studied: the expected improvement in the performance of the muon identification and track reconstruction as well as the expected improvement coming from the low- ering of the muon p T trigger tresholds will be presented. The contribution will review the status of the CMS upgrade project with the usage of GEM detector, discussing the trigger, the muon reconstruction performance and the impact on the physics analyses.

  1. High-temperature technological processes: Thermophysical principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykalin, N. N.; Uglov, A. A.; Anishchenko, L. M.

    The book is concerned with the principles of thermodynamics and heat transfer theory underlying high-temperature technological processes. Some characteristics of electromagnetic radiation and heat transfer in solids, liquids, and gases are reviewed, and boundary layer theory, surface phenomena, and phase transitions are examined. The discussion includes an analysis of a number of specific processes, such as treatment by concentrated energy fluxes (electron-beam and laser processing) and plasma machining.

  2. Design of a Constant Fraction Discriminator for the VFAT3 front-end ASIC of the CMS GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069646; Abbas, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abi Akl, M.; Aboamer, O.; Acosta, D.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Aly, R.; Altieri, P.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Awan, I.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Banerjee, S.; Barashko, V.; Barria, P.; Bencze, G.; Beni, N.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Braghieri, A.; Braibant, S.; Buontempo, S.; Calabria, C.; Caponero, M.; Caputo, C.; Cassese, F.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Cavallo, F.R.; Celik, A.; Choi, M.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Cimmino, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; Czellar, S.; Dabrowski, M.M.; De Lentdecker, G.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Dorney, B.; Elmetenawee, W.; Endroczi, G.; Errico, F.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ferry, S.; Furic, I.; Giacomelli, P.; Gilmore, J.; Golovtsov, V.; Guiducci, L.; Guilloux, F.; Gutierrez, A.; Hadjiiska, R.M.; Hassan, A.; Hauser, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Hoorani, H.; Iaydjiev, P.; Jeng, Y.G.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.; Korytov, A.; Krutelyov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Lenzi, T.; Litov, L.; Madorsky, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Maggi, M.; Magnani, A.; Mal, P.K.; Mandal, K.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Masod, R.; Majumdar, N.; Merlin, J.A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mohanty, A.K.; Mohamed, S.; Mohapatra, A.; Molnar, J.; Muhammad, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Pant, L.M.; Paolucci, P.; Park, I.; Passeggio,G.; Pavlov, B.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Puig Baranac, A.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rashevski, G.; Riccardi, C.; Rodozov, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; RoyChowdhury, S.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M.S.; Safonov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, R.; Shah, A.H.; Shopova, M.; Sturdy, J.; Sultanov, G.; Swain, S.K.; Szillasi, Z.; Talvitie, J.; Tamma, C.; Tatarinov, A.; Tuuva, T.; Tytgat, M.; Vai, I.; Van Stenis, M.; Venditti, R.; Verhagen, E.; Verwilligen, P.; Vitulo, P.; Volkov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Yang, U.; Yang, Y.; Yonamine, R.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work the design of a Constant Fraction Discriminator (CFD) to be used in the VFAT3 chip, currently under design for the read-out of the Triple-Gem detectors of the CMS experiment, is described. Simulations show that it is possible to extend the front-end shaping time in order to fully integrate the GEM detector signal charge whilst maintaining optimal timing resolution using the CFD technique. A prototype chip containing 8 CFDs was implemented in 130 nm CMOS technology to prove the effectiveness of the proposed architecture before its integration in the VFAT3 chip. The CFD design and test results will be shown.

  3. Analysis of Mechanical Properties for GEM Foil

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Yuk Ming

    2016-01-01

    In view of new assembly technique of the GEM detector; in which three foils stack is stretched to get the uniform gaps among the foils. We studied the mechanical properties of the foil material. We conditioned the samples in different environments to make them extra dry and wet. As holes are the major source of the charge amplification their deformation can effect the detector performance. Therefore in our studies we also studied at which level of the stress the holes deformation is seen. These tensile and holes deformation studies can help to optimize the stress during detector assembly.

  4. Analysis of the performance of GEM chambers for the upgrade of the LHCb muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Pinci, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Triple-GEM chambers, so far used in the inner region of the M1 muon station, are the ideal candidates to replace the MWPCs in the regions where, after the upgrade, the particle rate will be as high as 2 MHz/cm$^2$. Testing the triple-GEM efficiency and time resolution with different gaseous mixtures is therefore a significant step in evaluating the expected performance of the muon system after the upgrade scheduled in 2018, when the luminosity in LHCb will reach $2 \\times 10^{33}$ cm$^2$ s$^{-1}$. In this note, the study of the GEM efficiency and time performance is presented. Two gas mixtures are used for the measurements: Ar/CO$_2$/CF$_4$ 40:55:5 and 45:15:40. A preliminar simulation of the gas mixture properties is performed by means of the software GARFIELD, focusing on the electron drift velocity and the specific ionization. Several measurements of efficiency and time performance of the triple GEM were thus made by means of cosmic rays by changing the detector electric fields and the voltages across the ...

  5. The Gated Electrostatic Mass Spectrometer (GEMS): Definition and Preliminary Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrero, Federico A; Jones, Hollis H; Lee, Jeffrey G

    2008-01-01

    ... for the GEMS idea among other approaches to TOF spectrometry. Since GEMS is based on electrostatic energy analyzers (ESAs), a detailed description of the small deflection energy analyzer (SDEA) is given in the next section. The earth's upper atmosphere and the atmospheres of other planets have been investigated with different types of mass spectrometers for mo...

  6. Some Interesting Mathematical Gems -R-ES-ONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. Some Interesting Mathematical Gems. V G Tikekar. As the title of the article indicates, I am going to point out certain bright and beautiful pieces of mathematical work which can be treated as gems. Of course, choice of these pearl-like items is subjective depending on my understanding and.

  7. Development of lactococcal GEM-based pneumococcal vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audouy, Sandrine A. L.; van Selm, Saskia; van Roosmalen, Maarten L.; Post, Eduard; Kanninga, Rolf; Neef, Jolanda; Estevao, Silvia; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.; Adrian, Peter V.; Leenhouts, Kees; Hermans, Peter W. M.

    2007-01-01

    We report the development of a novel protein-based nasal vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which three pneumococcal proteins were displayed on the surface of a non-recombinant, killed Lactococcus lactis-derived delivery system, called Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix (GEM). The GEM particles

  8. The Grief Evaluation Measure (GEM): An Initial Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, John R.; Baker, John; Matteis, Margherite; Rosenthal, Saul; Ware, Eugenia S.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Grief Evaluation Measure (GEM), a new instrument designed to screen for the development of a complicated mourning response in a bereaved adult. The GEM provides a quantitative and qualitative assessment of risk factors, including the mourner's loss and medical history, coping resources before and after…

  9. The Burden of Cryptosporidium Diarrheal Disease among Children < 24 Months of Age in Moderate/High Mortality Regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, Utilizing Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samba O Sow

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Cryptosporidium as a pediatric enteropathogen in developing countries is recognized.Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS, a 3-year, 7-site, case-control study of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD and GEMS-1A (1-year study of MSD and less-severe diarrhea [LSD] were analyzed. Stools from 12,110 MSD and 3,174 LSD cases among children aged <60 months and from 21,527 randomly-selected controls matched by age, sex and community were immunoassay-tested for Cryptosporidium. Species of a subset of Cryptosporidium-positive specimens were identified by PCR; GP60 sequencing identified anthroponotic C. parvum. Combined annual Cryptosporidium-attributable diarrhea incidences among children aged <24 months for African and Asian GEMS sites were extrapolated to sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian regions to estimate region-wide MSD and LSD burdens. Attributable and excess mortality due to Cryptosporidium diarrhea were estimated.Cryptosporidium was significantly associated with MSD and LSD below age 24 months. Among Cryptosporidium-positive MSD cases, C. hominis was detected in 77.8% (95% CI, 73.0%-81.9% and C. parvum in 9.9% (95% CI, 7.1%-13.6%; 92% of C. parvum tested were anthroponotic genotypes. Annual Cryptosporidium-attributable MSD incidence was 3.48 (95% CI, 2.27-4.67 and 3.18 (95% CI, 1.85-4.52 per 100 child-years in African and Asian infants, respectively, and 1.41 (95% CI, 0.73-2.08 and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.66-2.05 per 100 child-years in toddlers. Corresponding Cryptosporidium-attributable LSD incidences per 100 child-years were 2.52 (95% CI, 0.33-5.01 and 4.88 (95% CI, 0.82-8.92 in infants and 4.04 (95% CI, 0.56-7.51 and 4.71 (95% CI, 0.24-9.18 in toddlers. We estimate 2.9 and 4.7 million Cryptosporidium-attributable cases annually in children aged <24 months in the sub-Saharan Africa and India/Pakistan/Bangladesh/Nepal/Afghanistan regions, respectively, and ~202,000 Cryptosporidium-attributable deaths (regions combined. ~59

  10. High Speed Digital Camera Technology Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Sandra D.

    2009-01-01

    A High Speed Digital Camera Technology Review (HSD Review) is being conducted to evaluate the state-of-the-shelf in this rapidly progressing industry. Five HSD cameras supplied by four camera manufacturers participated in a Field Test during the Space Shuttle Discovery STS-128 launch. Each camera was also subjected to Bench Tests in the ASRC Imaging Development Laboratory. Evaluation of the data from the Field and Bench Tests is underway. Representatives from the imaging communities at NASA / KSC and the Optical Systems Group are participating as reviewers. A High Speed Digital Video Camera Draft Specification was updated to address Shuttle engineering imagery requirements based on findings from this HSD Review. This draft specification will serve as the template for a High Speed Digital Video Camera Specification to be developed for the wider OSG imaging community under OSG Task OS-33.

  11. The gated electrostatic mass spectrometer (GEMS): definition and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico A; Jones, Hollis H; Lee, Jeffrey G

    2008-10-01

    GEMS is a new type of time-of-flight mass spectrometer based on an electrostatic energy analyzer. Mass resolution equals the energy analyzer kinetic energy resolution, which is set by its slit size. In GEMS, monochromatic ions enter the entrance slit at random times, and the gated ion deflection produced by the electrostatic field in the analyzer rejects ions that are inside the analyzer at gate onset, detecting those entering the analyzer after gate onset. This provides mass separation while overcoming the temporal and spatial spread problems typical of TOF applications. Paradoxically, GEMS works because all ion masses follow identical trajectories. GEMS is easily multiplied into two-dimensional arrays to increase sensitivity in space applications, requires relatively low voltages, and uses only a few electrical connections. Thus, it is easy to package GEMS as a small, low-power instrument for applications in harsh environments. A disadvantage of GEMS is that its output is the integral of the TOF spectrum and the derivative of the raw data must be taken, a procedure that is likely to add noise. A version of GEMS detecting un-deflected ions (u-GEMS) has been tested to demonstrate the time-integrated feature of the raw data but without the benefit of energy analysis. This paper describes GEMS implemented with the small deflection energy analyzer (SDEA), a compact version of the parallel plate energy analyzer. SDEA is described both analytically and with ion trajectory simulations using the ion trajectory simulation software SIMION; the results are then used to describe GEMS and compute its performance.

  12. High magnetic fields science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    This three-volume book provides a comprehensive review of experiments in very strong magnetic fields that can only be generated with very special magnets. The first volume is entirely devoted to the technology of laboratory magnets: permanent, superconducting, high-power water-cooled and hybrid; pulsed magnets, both nondestructive and destructive (megagauss fields). Volumes 2 and 3 contain reviews of the different areas of research where strong magnetic fields are an essential research tool. These volumes deal primarily with solid-state physics; other research areas covered are biological syst

  13. Technology Management within Product Lines in High Technology Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangee, Kumar R.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the nuances of product line management has been of great interest to business scholars and practitioners. This assumes greater significance for firms conducting business in technologically dynamic industries, where they face certain challenges regarding the management of multiple, overlapping technologies within their product lines.…

  14. Development of GEM-based Read-Out Chambers for the upgrade of the ALICE TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasik, P.

    2014-04-01

    ALICE at the LHC at CERN is planning a major upgrade of the central barrel detectors, including the TPC, to cope with an increase of the LHC luminosity after 2018. A prototype of an ALICE TPC Inner Read-Out Chamber (IROC) was equipped with three large-size Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils as amplification stage to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing the current readout by Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) with such technology. The GEM IROC was installed within a test field cage with a drift length of 115 mm and commissioned with radioactive sources. The dE/dx resolution of the prototype was evaluated in a test beam campaign at the CERN PS and is comparable to the resolution of the MWPC IROC. Stability under LHC conditions was tested during the ALICE p-Pb beam time, when the prototype was mounted underneath LHC beam pipe, close to the interaction point.

  15. Green technology foresight of high technology: a social shaping of technology approach to the analysis of hopes and hypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    , technology options, innovation dynamics and environmental impacts. The approach involved studying actor-networks, laboratory programs and technology trajectories as well as deconstructing different stakeholders’ high tech visions. The identified environmental potentials and risks related to the three areas......High tech visions play an important part in public technology policy and are often promoted through technology foresights. The article presents and analyses results from a green technology foresight of nano-, bio- and information- and communication technologies initiated by the Danish Environmental...

  16. GEM Detectors for the DarkLight Phase-1 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Prem Nazeer, Sahara Jesmin; DarkLight Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The DarkLight experiment has been proposed to search for a heavy photon A' in the mass range of 10-100 MeV/c2 produced in electron-proton collisions. Phase-I of DarkLight has started to take place in 2016 at the Low Energy Recirculator Facility (LERF) at Jefferson Lab. LERF delivered a 100 MeV electron beam onto a windowless hydrogen gas target. The phase-I detector tracks leptons inside the DarkLight solenoid with a set of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, combined with segmented scintillators for triggering. The GEM telescope consists of four 10 × 10 cm2 triple layer GEM chambers with 2D readout strips, mounted in a slightly angled fixed frame about 12 cm tall. The GEM data are read out with analog pipeline front-end cards (APV-25) each of which can process 128 readout channels. Each GEM chamber has 250 channels for each coordinate axis, read out with two APVs on each side, resulting in 2000 readout channels for the GEM stack, processed by 16 APVs. One Multi Purpose Digitizer (MPD) module is used to read out all of the 16 APV-25 cards. Details of the design and the readout of the GEM detectors will be presented, as well as discussion of their performance in the August run. This work has been supported by NSF PHY-1436680 and PHY-1505934.

  17. Netzwerk im Ökologischen Gemüsebau

    OpenAIRE

    Billmann, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    Im Jahr 2004 wurde im Rahmen des Bundesprogramms Ökologischer Landbau das Projekt "Netzwerk im Ökologischen Gemüsebau" initiiert. Ziel war es, die Kommunikation zwischen Versuchswesen, Wissenschaft und Beratung im ökologischen Gemüsebau zu verbessern und dadurch der Praxis uneingeschränkten Zugang zu Versuchsergebnissen zu ermöglichen. Ergebnisse Im Teilprojekt 'Leitlinien' entstand das 260-seitige Handbuch 'Planung, Anlage und Auswertung von Versuchen im Ökologischen Gemüsebau', das al...

  18. Gems of combinatorial optimization and graph algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Skutella, Martin; Stiller, Sebastian; Wagner, Dorothea

    2015-01-01

    Are you looking for new lectures for your course on algorithms, combinatorial optimization, or algorithmic game theory?  Maybe you need a convenient source of relevant, current topics for a graduate student or advanced undergraduate student seminar?  Or perhaps you just want an enjoyable look at some beautiful mathematical and algorithmic results, ideas, proofs, concepts, and techniques in discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science?   Gems of Combinatorial Optimization and Graph Algorithms is a handpicked collection of up-to-date articles, carefully prepared by a select group of international experts, who have contributed some of their most mathematically or algorithmically elegant ideas.  Topics include longest tours and Steiner trees in geometric spaces, cartograms, resource buying games, congestion games, selfish routing, revenue equivalence and shortest paths, scheduling, linear structures in graphs, contraction hierarchies, budgeted matching problems, and motifs in networks.   This ...

  19. High temperature dynamic engine seal technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dellacorte, Christopher; Machinchick, Michael; Mutharasan, Rajakkannu; Du, Guang-Wu; Ko, Frank; Sirocky, Paul J.; Miller, Jeffrey H.

    1992-01-01

    Combined cycle ramjet/scramjet engines being designed for advanced hypersonic vehicles, including the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), require innovative high temperature dynamic seals to seal the sliding interfaces of the articulated engine panels. New seals are required that will operate hot (1200 to 2000 F), seal pressures ranging from 0 to 100 psi, remain flexible to accommodate significant sidewall distortions, and resist abrasion over the engine's operational life. This report reviews the recent high temperature durability screening assessments of a new braided rope seal concept, braided of emerging high temperature materials, that shows promise of meeting many of the seal demands of hypersonic engines. The paper presents durability data for: (1) the fundamental seal building blocks, a range of candidate ceramic fiber tows; and for (2) braided rope seal subelements scrubbed under engine simulated sliding, temperature, and preload conditions. Seal material/architecture attributes and limitations are identified through the investigations performed. The paper summarizes the current seal technology development status and presents areas in which future work will be performed.

  20. Novel High Pressure Pump-on-a-Chip Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HJ Science & Technology, Inc. proposes to develop a novel high pressure "pump-on-a-chip" (HPPOC) technology capable of generating high pressure and flow rate on...

  1. Building a large-area GEM-based readout chamber for the upgrade of the ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Gasik, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device for tracking and charged-particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2019-2020, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate up to 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 100 above the present read-out rate of the TPC. To fully exploit the LHC potential the TPC will be upgraded based on the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology. A prototype of an ALICE TPC Outer Read-Out Chamber (OROC) was equipped with twelve large-size GEM foils as amplification stage to demonstrate the feasibility of replacing the current Multi Wire Proportional Chambers with the new technology. With a total area of $\\sim$0.76 m$^2$ it is the largest GEM-based detector built to date. The GEM OROC was installed within a test field cage and commissioned with radioactive sources.

  2. The GEM detectors for the innermost region of the forward muon station of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M

    The LHCb experiment will take place at the LHC accelerator at CERN and will start in 2008. It is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays in the b quark sec- tor. The apparatus is a single arm spectrometer and it is designed with a robust and flexible trigger in order to extensively gain access to a wide spread of differ ent physical processes involving beauty particles. This will allow to over-constrain the Standard M odel predictions about CP violation, and to discover any possible inconsistency, whi ch would reveal the presence of “New Physics” beyond the Standard Model. This thesis reports the work performed on two aspects of the L HCb experiment: the main contribution is the development and the construction of a de tector based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology for the instrumentation of the high irradiated region around the beam pipe of the forward Muon Station; in the second part t he possibility of the search of the rare D 0 → + − decay at the LHCb exper...

  3. Development and performance of large-scale triple GEM detectors for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bouhali, Othmane; Abi Akl, M.; Argamaingaud, C.; Aspell, P.; Assran, Y.; Bally, S.; Ban, Y.; Barria, P.; Benussi, L.; Bhopatkar, V.; Bianco, S.; Bos, J.; Bouhali, O.; Cai, J.; Calabria, C.; Castaneda, A.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Celik, A.; Christiansen, J.; Colafranceschi, S.; Colaleo, A.; Conde Garcia, A.; De Lentdecker, G.; De Oliveira, R.; de Robertis, G.; Dildick, S.; Ferry, S.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Gutierrez, A.; Hoepfner, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.E.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, S.; Loddo, F.; Maerschalk, T.; Magazzu, G.; Maggi, M.; Maghrbi, Y.; Marchioro, A.; Marinov, A.; Merlin, J.A.; Nuzzo, S.; Oliveri, E.; Philipps, B.; Piccolo, D.; Postema, H.; Radi, A.; Radogna, R.; Raffone, G.; Ranieri, A.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Safonov, A.; Sakharov, A.; Salva, S.; Saviano, G.; Sharma, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Teng, H.; Turini, N.; Twigger, J.; Tytgat, M.; van Stenis, M.; Verhagen, E.; Yang, Y.; Zaganidis, N.; Zenoni, F.

    2013-01-01

    The international CMS GEM collaboration is studying the feasibility of upgrading the CMS forward muon system by adding layers of triple GEM based detectors. After successful tests of small size tripe-GEM chambers in the period of 2010-2011, the collaboration has designed, built and tested full size GEM chambers for the upgrade purpose. We report on results from test beam and simulation that were conducted to study the performance of the GEM chambers.

  4. A simulation study on angular and micro pattern effects in GEM detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H G; Jamil, M; Rhee, J T; Ahmad, Farzana; Jeon, Y J

    2016-04-01

    A useful approach for the enhancement of thermal neutrons detection has been reported here. This technique, based on the angular and micro pattern effects, has been developed and applied to the boron-coated ((10)B) Gas Electron multiplier (GEM) detector. In the angular effect case, as a general rule, the detector device is turned at an angle which improves the device response per unit area of the detector. While for the latter case, a regular pattern in the form of micrometer deep grooves is fabricated onto the converter coating, consequently it enhances the capture probability of the detector. For the current study, both of these techniques using a (10)B-coated GEM detector have been simulated for low energy neutrons. For the evaluation of detector response thermal neutrons in the energy ranges from 25meV to 100meV were transported onto the detector surface. For this work, FLUKA MC code has been utilized. The output in both cases has been estimated as a function of incident thermal neutron energies. By employing both techniques, the angle and the micro pattern dependent efficiencies for (10)B-coated GEM detectors are presented, which indicate an improved efficiency response of the device. We anticipate that by using these modifications can lead a further forward step in the development and improvement of thermal neutron detection technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Technology characterization: high Btu gas transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-04-01

    A technology characterization for high Btu gas transmission was prepared. The scope of work was confined to a literature review. The work was divided into four specific areas as follows: (1) a summary of pertinent information from the environmental report of the Great Lakes Gas Company for a 365-mile high pressure pipeline serving American Natural Gas Company's proposed lignite gasification plant in North Dakota; (2) statistical information concerning the operation of the existing United States natural gas transmission pipeline network; (3) a summary of pertinent information from the environmental impact statement of the United States Department of Interior for the proposed 1,619-mile Northern Border Pipeline from Morgan, Montana to Delmont, Pennsylvania; and (4) a summary of pertinent information from the environmental impact statement of the Federal Power Commission for a proposed El Paso Natural Gas Company 418-mile pipeline within the State of Texas which was to be constructed in response to the displacement of natural gas by Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) importation on the East Coast.

  6. Scientific Advancements and Technological Developments of High P-T Neutron Diffraction at LANSCE, Los Alamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Daemen, L. L.; Zhang, J.

    2003-12-01

    In-situ high P-T neutron diffraction experiments provide unique opportunities to study the crystal structure, hydrogen bonding, magnetism, and thermal parameters of light elements (eg. H, Li, B) and heavy elements (eg. Ta, U, Pu,), that are virtually impossible to determine with x-ray diffraction techniques. For example, thermoelasticity and Debye-Waller factor as function of pressure and temperature can be derived using in-situ high P-T neutron diffraction techniques. These applications can also be extended to a much broader spectrum of scientific problems. For instance, puzzles in Earth science such as the carbon cycle and the role of hydrous minerals for water exchange between lithosphere and biosphere can be directly addressed. Moreover, by introducing in-situ shear, texture of metals and minerals accompanied with phase transitions at high P-T conditions can also be studied by high P-T neutron diffraction. We have successfully conducted high P-T neutron diffraction experiments at LANSCE and achieved simultaneous high pressures and temperatures of 10 GPa and 1500 K. With an average 3-6 hours of data collection, the diffraction data are of sufficiently high quality for the determination of structural parameters and thermal vibrations. We have studied hydrous mineral (MgOD), perovskite (K.15,Na.85)MgF3, clathrate hydrates (CH4-, CO2-, and H2-), metals (Mo, Al, Zr), and amorphous materials (carbon black, BMG). The aim of our research is to accurately map bond lengths, bond angles, neighboring atomic environments, and phase stability in P-T-X space. Studies based on high-pressure neutron diffraction are important for multi-disciplinary science and we welcome researchers from all fields to use this advanced technique. We have developed a 500-ton toroidal press, TAP-98, to conduct simultaneous high P-T neutron diffraction experiments inside of HIPPO (High-Pressure and Preferred-Orientation diffractometer). We have also developed a large gem-crystal anvil cell, ZAP-01

  7. Caylus, Winckelmann, and the art of “Persian” gems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Eppihimer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although early modern European travellers and antiquarians frequently engaged with the ruins of Persepolis when contemplating Persian antiquity, the pioneering art historians of the eighteenth century turned to engraved gems for their studies of ancient Persian art. In the major published works of Anne-Claude-Phillipe, comte de Caylus and Johann Joachim Winckelmann, the so-called ‘Persian’ gems provided empirical evidence of the art of this lesser known corner of the ancient world. Unlike the Persepolis reliefs, which were known only through engravings, the gems were accessible in European collections, and hence they appealed to the working methods of these two men. The results of Caylus’ and Winckelmann’s studies of ‘Persian’ gems established Persia’s place in art history’s fundamental cultural hierarchy.

  8. Wits Post Graduate Symposium Poster - iGEM

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Millroy, L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This document is a poster providing details of the 2010 International Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM) competition. The origins of the competition, as well as criteria, judging, sponsors, topic and team, are briefly described....

  9. Investigation of the Ageing of a Double GEM Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Sann, H; CERN. Geneva; Schmidt, H R

    2000-01-01

    Abstract A double GEM structure was irradiated with a strong 55Fe-source. An integrated charge corresponding to about 102 years of ALICE heavy-ion operation was accumulated. Within the accuracy of the measurement, no significant drop in gain was observed. Inspection of the GEM foils under an electron microscope shows no deposits from polymerization; the occurrence of Newton rings, however, indicates the build up of a thin (=µm) polymer film.

  10. CCD readout of GEM-based neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, F A F; Fetal, S T G; Fraga, M; Guérard, B; Manzini, G; Margato, L M S; Oed, A; Policarpo, Armando; Vuure, T V

    2002-01-01

    We report on the optical readout of the gas electron multiplier (GEM) operated with a gaseous mixture suitable for the detection of thermal neutrons: sup 3 He-CF sub 4. A CCD system operating in the 400-1000 nm band was used to collect the light. Spectroscopic data on the visible and NIR scintillation of He-CF sub 4 are presented. Images of the tracks of the proton and triton recorded with a triple GEM detector are also shown.

  11. PLC-controlled cryostats for the BlackGEM and MeerLICHT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Gert; Morren, Johan; Pessemier, Wim; Bloemen, Steven; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Roelfsema, Ronald; Groot, Paul; Aerts, Conny

    2016-08-01

    BlackGEM is an array of telescopes, currently under development at the Radboud University Nijmegen and at NOVA (Netherlands Research School for Astronomy). It targets the detection of the optical counterparts of gravitational waves. The first three BlackGEM telescopes are planned to be installed in 2018 at the La Silla observatory (Chile). A single prototype telescope, named MeerLICHT, will already be commissioned early 2017 in Sutherland (South Africa) to provide an optical complement for the MeerKAT radio array. The BlackGEM array consists of, initially, a set of three robotic 65-cm wide-field telescopes. Each telescope is equipped with a single STA1600 CCD detector with 10.5k x 10.5k 9-micron pixels that covers a 2.7 square degrees field of view. The cryostats for housing these detectors are developed and built at the KU Leuven University (Belgium). The operational model of BlackGEM requires long periods of reliable hands-off operation. Therefore, we designed the cryostats for long vacuum hold time and we make use of a closed-cycle cooling system, based on Polycold PCC Joule-Thomson coolers. A single programmable logic controller (PLC) controls the cryogenic systems of several BlackGEM telescopes simultaneously, resulting in a highly reliable, cost-efficient and maintenance-friendly system. PLC-based cryostat control offers some distinct advantages, especially for a robotic facility. Apart of temperature monitoring and control, the PLC also monitors the vacuum quality, the power supply and the status of the PCC coolers (compressor power consumption and temperature, pressure in the gas lines, etc.). Furthermore, it provides an alarming system and safe and reproducible procedures for automatic cool down and warm up. The communication between PLC and higher-level software takes place via the OPC-UA protocol, offering a simple to implement, yet very powerful interface. Finally, a touch-panel display on the PLC provides the operator with a user-friendly and robust

  12. 2-D imaging with cascaded GEM/MHSP multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, J M; Breskin, Amos; Chechik, R; Veloso, J F C A; Dos Santos, J M F

    2007-01-01

    The imaging properties of cascaded-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) and cascaded-GEM/MHSP (Micro-Hole and Strip Plate) gaseous electron multipliers, equipped with 2-D Wedge & Strip (W&S) readout electrodes, are presented. The W&S electrode was capacitively coupled to the electron multiplier through a resistive electrode, to adapt the charge-cloud size to the 1.6 mm readout pitch. The studies were carried out with soft X-rays and single UV-photons in Ar/5%CH4 gas mixture at atmospheric pressure. Spatial resolutions of ~225μm and ~250μm (FWHM) were reached, with 5.9 keV X-rays, in 3-GEM and 2-GEM/MHSP based detectors, respectively. Single photoelectrons, emitted from a CsI photocathode deposited on the top electrode of the first GEM in the cascade, were localized with resolution of ~ 170μm (FWHM) in a 4-GEM gaseous photomultiplier.

  13. Personalized Learning in High Technology Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Andrea J.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the popularity of personalized learning (PL) and educational technology in American K-12 schools. In particular, school models that use technology to deliver personalized learning experiences for students have proliferated. Still, few studies have investigated these phenomena in K-12 contexts, with no…

  14. Studies on GEM modules for a Large Prototype TPC for the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsionou, Dimitra, E-mail: dimitra.tsionou@desy.de

    2017-02-11

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future electron–positron collider with centre of mass energy of 500–1000 GeV. The International Large Detector (ILD) is one of two detector concepts at the ILC. Its high precision tracking system consists of Silicon sub-detectors and a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) equipped with micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGDs). Within the framework of the LCTPC collaboration, a Large Prototype (LP) TPC has been built as a demonstrator. This prototype has been equipped with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) modules and studied with electron beams of energies 1–6 GeV at the DESY test beam facility. The performance of the prototype detector and the extrapolation to the ILD TPC is presented here. In addition, ongoing optimisation studies and R&D activities in order to prepare the next GEM module iteration are discussed.

  15. Studies on GEM modules for a large prototype TPC for the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsionou, Dimitra; Collaboration: LCTPC collaboration

    2016-12-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future electron-positron collider with centre of mass energy of 500-1000 GeV. The International Large Detector (ILD) is one of two detector concepts at the ILC. Its high precision tracking system consists of Silicon sub-detectors and a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) equipped with micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGDs). Within the framework of the LCTPC collaboration, a Large Prototype (LP) TPC has been built as a demonstrator. This prototype has been equipped with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) modules and studied with electron beams of energies 1-6 GeV at the DESY test beam facility. The performance of the prototype detector and the extrapolation to the ILD TPC is presented here. In addition, ongoing optimisation studies and R and D; activities in order to prepare the next GEM module iteration are discussed.

  16. Optical readout of a triple-GEM detector by means of a CMOS sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafini, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); Patera, V. [INFN Sezione di Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Pinci, D., E-mail: davide.pinci@roma1.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Roma (Italy); Sarti, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per Ingegneria, Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy); Sciubba, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per Ingegneria, Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy); Spiriti, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    In last years, the development of optical sensors has produced objects able to provide very interesting performance. Large granularity is offered along with a very high sensitivity. CMOS sensors with millions of pixels able to detect as few as two or three photons per pixel are commercially available and can be used to read-out the optical signals provided by tracking particle detectors. In this work the results obtained by optically reading-out a triple-GEM detector by a commercial CMOS sensor will be presented. A standard detector was assembled with a transparent window below the third GEM allowing the light to get out. The detector is supplied with an Ar/CF{sub 4} based gas mixture producing 650 nm wavelength photons matching the maximum quantum efficiency of the sensor.

  17. R\\&D results on a CsI-coated triple thick GEM-based photodetector

    CERN Document Server

    Martinengo, P; Paic, G; Paras, D M; Di Mauro, A; van Hoorne, J; Molnar, L; Peskov, V; Breskin, A

    2011-01-01

    The very high momentum particle identification detector proposed for the ALICE upgrade is a focusing RICH using a C(4)F(10) gaseous radiator. For the detection of Cherenkov photons, one of the options currently under investigation is to use a CsI-coated triple thick GEM with metallic or resistive electrodes. We will present results from the laboratory studies as well as preliminary results of beam tests of a RICH detector prototype consisting of a CaF(2) radiator coupled to a 10 x 10 cm(2) CsI-coated triple thick GEM equipped with a pad readout and GASSIPLEX-based front-end electronics. With such a prototype the detection of Cherenkov photons simultaneously with minimum ionizing particles has been achieved for the first time in a stable operation mode. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of GEM-like detectors with resistive electrodes for RICH applications

    CERN Document Server

    Agocs, A G; David, A Ben; Clark, B; Martinengo, P; Nappi, E; Peskov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    We have developed prototypes of GEM-like detectors with resistive electrodes to be used as RICH photodetectors equipped with CsI photocathodes. The main advantages of these detectors are their intrinsic spark protection and possibility to operate at high gain (~10E5) in many gases including poorly quenched ones, allowing for the adoption of windowless configurations in which the radiator gas is also used in the chamber. Results of systematic studies of the resistive GEMs combined with CsI photocathodes are presented: its quantum efficiency, rate characteristics, long-term stability, etc. On the basis of the obtained results, we believe that the new detector will be a promising candidate for upgrading the ALICE RICH detector

  19. Commissioning and integration testing of the DAQ system for the CMS GEM upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin

    2017-01-01

    The CMS muon system will undergo a series of upgrades in the coming years to preserve and extend its muon detection capabilities during the High Luminosity LHC.The first of these will be the installation of triple-foil GEM detectors in the CMS forward region with the goal of maintaining trigger rates and preserving good muon reconstruction, even in the expected harsh environment.In 2017 the CMS GEM project is looking to achieve a major milestone in the project with the installation of 5 super-chambers in CMS; this exercise will allow for the study of services installation and commissioning, and integration with the rest of the subsystems for the first time. An overview of the DAQ system will be given with emphasis on the usage during chamber quality control testing, commissioning in CMS, and integration with the central CMS system.

  20. Study of space-charge dependence on IBF for GEM and Micromegas detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Kentaro; Hamagaki, Hideki; Gunji, Taku; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Terasaki, Kohei

    2014-09-01

    The MWPC is widely used in a Time Projection Chamber (TPC). To prevent ions created around amplification region from back drifting into the drift space, gating grid system is widely used in the TPC. However, the data taking rate is limited by the operation of the gating grid and the TPC with gating grid system cannot be suitable for the high rate experiments. Micor-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) are the possible solutions to overcome the high rate limitations. GEM and Micromegas can absorb positive ions on its electrode or mesh and can reduce the ion backflow into the drift space. In this study, we aim to evaluate performance of ion back flow suppression of GEM and Micromegas detector as a function of space-charge density. We also did the simulation studies using Garfield + + to assess the reproducibility of the space-charge density dependence of the ion back flow obtained in the measurement. In this talk, we will report the overall performances (space-charge density and field dependences of the ion backflow) of GEM and micromegas detectors studied in the measurements and simulations.

  1. Novel High Pressure Pump-on-a-Chip Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HJ Science & Technology, Inc proposes to develop a novel high pressure "pump-on-a-chip" and "valve-on-a-chip" microfluidic technology for NASA planetary science...

  2. High technology in developing countries: Analysis of technology strategy, technology transfer, and success factors in the aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Economical development is highly related to technological development. It is therefore not surprising that many of the industrially developing nations follow explicit strategies to increase their technological competence level. Industrially developing countries may even pursue a strategy of

  3. GEM-E3: A computable general equilibrium model applied for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Frei, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Paul Scherrer Inst. (Switzerland)

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the European Research Project GEM-E3-ELITE, funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Centre for European Economic Research (Germany), were to further develop the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 (Capros et al., 1995, 1997) and to conduct policy analysis through case studies. GEM-E3 is an applied general equilibrium model that analyses the macro-economy and its interaction with the energy system and the environment through the balancing of energy supply and demand, atmospheric emissions and pollution control, together with the fulfillment of overall equilibrium conditions. PSI's research objectives within GEM-E3-ELITE were to implement and apply GEM-E3 for Switzerland. The first objective required in particular the development of a Swiss database for each of GEM-E3 modules (economic module and environmental module). For the second objective, strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated for Switzerland. In order to develop the economic, PSI collaborated with the Laboratory of Applied Economics (LEA) of the University of Geneva and the Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN) of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The Swiss Federal Statistical Office (SFSO) and the Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) contributed also data. The Swiss environmental database consists mainly of an Energy Balance Table and of an Emission Coefficients Table. Both were designed using national and international official statistics. The Emission Coefficients Table is furthermore based on know-how of the PSI GaBE Project. Using GEM-E3 Switzerland, two strategies to reduce the Swiss CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated: a carbon tax ('tax only' strategy), and the combination of a carbon tax with the buying of CO{sub 2} emission permits ('permits and tax' strategy). In the first strategy, Switzerland would impose the necessary carbon tax to achieve

  4. Test beam studies of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for the upgrade of CMS endcap muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Ram Krishna

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide exceptional high instantaneous and integrated luminosity. The forward region $\\mid \\eta \\mid \\geq 1.5$ of the CMS detector will face extremely high particle rates in tens of $KHz/cm^{2}$ and hence it will affect the momentum resolution and longevity of the muon detectors. To overcome these issues the CMS collaboration has decided to install new large size rate capable Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors in the forward region of CMS muon system. The first set of Triple GEM detectors will be installed in the GE1/1 region $(1.5 \\leq \\eta \\leq 2.2)$ of muon endcap during the LS2 of the LHC and the next one will be installed in the GE2/1 region $(1.6 \\leq \\eta \\leq 2.5)$, during the LS3. Towards this goal, full-size CMS Triple GEM prototype chambers have been fabricated and put under the test beam at the CERN SPS test beam facility. The GEM detectors were operated with two gas mixtures $Ar/CO_{2}$ (70/30) and $Ar/CO_{2}/CF_{4}$ (40/15/45). In 2014 and 2016, ...

  5. Synthetic SXR diagnostic using GEM detectors on WEST: development in the prospect of tungsten monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Jardin, A; O'Mullane, M; Chernyshova, M; Czarski, T; Malinowski, K; Kasprowicz, G; Wojenski, A; Pozniak, K; Malard, P; Bourdelle, C

    2016-01-01

    WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady-State Tokamak) will be operating by the end of 2016 as a test bed for the ITER divertor components in long pulse operation. In this context, radiative cooling of highly ionized impurities like tungsten (W) sputtered from Plasma Facing Components (PFC) into the plasma core is a critical issue since even small impurity concentrations below 10-4 degrade significantly plasma performances and can lead to radiative collapse. In the plasma core, tungsten emission is dominant in the Soft X-ray (SXR) range 0.1 keV -- 15 keV with complex contributions from line transition, radiative recombination and Bremsstrahlung emission.This paper presents the recent development of a synthetic SXR diagnostic using GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detectors. This diagnostic will be used on WEST for W transport studies and will be equipped with two new GEM based poloidal cameras allowing 2D tomographic reconstructions with spectral resolution in energy bands. Thus once GEM response to plasma emissivi...

  6. Performance of a Large-Area Triple-GEM Detector in a Particle Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Karchin, Paul E

    2012-01-01

    A multi-institutional collaboration is investigating the possibility of enhancing muon tracking and triggering capabilities in the small-angle region $1.6 < \\rm{abs}(\\eta) < 2.1$ of the CMS experiment at the LHC by instrumenting the end-cap muon system with large-area gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors. A first trapezoidal prototype triple-GEM detector of size 1 m by 0.5 m was built and operated successfully in a test beam at CERN in October 2010. Front-end readout boards utilizing the ``VFAT" chip are mounted in a regular array directly on the chambers. High voltage is provided by a compact divider board implemented with surface mount components. A tracker equipped with small GEM detectors was used to precisely measure the hit position in the large-area detector. A spatial resolution of 0.29 mm was measured in a region with average strip pitch of 1.1 mm, and $\\sim$98\\% hit efficiency was achieved at full operating voltage. An additional prototype chamber is constructed and will undergo beam tests...

  7. Emerging technologies for high performance infrared detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Chee Leong; Mohseni Hooman

    2018-01-01

    Infrared photodetectors (IRPDs) have become important devices in various applications such as night vision, military missile tracking, medical imaging, industry defect imaging, environmental sensing, and exoplanet exploration. Mature semiconductor technologies such as mercury cadmium telluride and III–V material-based photodetectors have been dominating the industry. However, in the last few decades, significant funding and research has been focused to improve the performance of IRPDs such as...

  8. How Innovative is Singapore in High Technology Industry Cluster? An Empirical Study of Annual Reports of High Technology Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Yau Kiu Ruby

    2006-01-01

    As a small country lacking of natural resources, Singapore has been developing innovation-based industry, which is highly associated with high technology. High technology sector has become an important pillar of today's Singapore economy. This paper is to evaluate how innovative Singapore is. The evaluation is conducted through empirical study of Singapore technology firms' annual reports, discussion of Singapore national innovation policy and the world recognition of Singapore's economic pe...

  9. Data Management and Other Logistical Challenges for the GEMS: The Data Coordinating Center Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Kousick; Carty, Christina; Horney, Rebecca; Nasrin, Dilruba; Farag, Tamer H.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.

    2012-01-01

    The Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center provided the data management, administrative, and statistical support to the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). The GEMS study, the largest epidemiological study in the diarrheal disease area among children

  10. The GEMS X-Ray Polarlimeter: Instrument Concpet and Calibration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The instrument and detector concepts for the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) X-ray polarimetry mission will be presented. The calibration requirements for astrophysical X-ray polarimeters in general and GEMS in particular will be discussed.

  11. Design and Construction of a First Prototype Muon Tomography System with GEM Detectors for the Detection of Nuclear Contraband

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074269; Grasso, L; Locke, J B; Quintero, A; Mitra, D

    2009-01-01

    Current radiation portal monitors at sea ports and international borders that employ standard radiation detection techniques are not very sensitive to nuclear contraband that is well shielded to absorb emanating radiation. Muon Tomography (MT) based on the measurement of multiple scattering of atmospheric cosmic ray muons traversing cargo or vehicles that contain high-Z material is a promising passive interrogation technique for solving this problem. We report on the design and construction of compact Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors for a small prototype MT station. This station will employ 10 tracking stations based on 30cm x 30cm low-mass triple-GEM detectors with 2D readout. Due to the excellent spatial resolution of GEMs it is sufficient to use a gap of only a few cm between tracking stations. Together with the compact size of the GEM detectors this allows the GEM MT station to be an order of magnitude more compact than MT stations using traditional drift tubes. We present details of the production and assemb...

  12. CMS GEM detector material study for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Muhammad, Saleh

    2017-01-01

    A study on the Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) foil material is performed to determine the moisture diffusion rate and saturation level and the moisture effects on its mechanical properties. The study is focused on the foil contact with ambient air and moisture to determine the value of the diffusion coefficient of water in the detector polyimide. The presence of water inside the detector foil can determine the changes in its mechanical and electrical properties. A simulated model is developed by taking into account the real GEM foil (hole dimensions, shapes and material), which describes the adsorption on a sample. This work describes the model, its experimental verification, the water diffusion within the entire sheet geometry of the GEM foil, thus gaining concentration profiles and the time required to saturate the system and the effects on the mechanical properties.

  13. Readout of TPC Tracking Chambers with GEMs and Pixel Chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadyk, John; Kim, T.; Freytsis, M.; Button-Shafer, J.; Kadyk, J.; Vahsen, S.E.; Wenzel, W.A.

    2007-12-21

    Two layers of GEMs and the ATLAS Pixel Chip, FEI3, have been combined and tested as a prototype for Time Projection Chamber (TPC) readout at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The double-layer GEM system amplifies charge with gain sufficient to detect all track ionization. The suitability of three gas mixtures for this application was investigated, and gain measurements are presented. A large sample of cosmic ray tracks was reconstructed in 3D by using the simultaneous timing and 2D spatial information from the pixel chip. The chip provides pixel charge measurement as well as timing. These results demonstrate that a double GEM and pixel combination, with a suitably modified pixel ASIC, could meet the stringent readout requirements of the ILC.

  14. Global climate change: Mitigation opportunities high efficiency large chiller technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanga, M.V.

    1997-12-31

    This paper, comprised of presentation viewgraphs, examines the impact of high efficiency large chiller technology on world electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Background data are summarized, and sample calculations are presented. Calculations show that presently available high energy efficiency chiller technology has the ability to substantially reduce energy consumption from large chillers. If this technology is widely implemented on a global basis, it could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 65 million tons by 2010.

  15. Artificial Intelligence Applications to High-Technology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Christopher

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of artificial intelligence to improve occupational instruction in complex subjects with high performance goals, such as those required for high-technology jobs. Highlights include intelligent computer assisted instruction, examples in space technology training, intelligent simulation environments, and the need for adult training…

  16. High efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on high efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology are presented. Topics covered include: high efficiency, low cost GaAs/Ge solar cells; advantages of Ge; comparison of typical production cells for space applications; panel level comparisons; and solar cell technology trends.

  17. Simulation of the GEM detector for BM@N experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov Dmitriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM detector is one of the basic parts of the BM@N experiment included in the NICA project. The simulation model that takes into account features of signal generation process in an ionization GEM chamber is presented in this article. Proper parameters for the simulation were extracted from data retrieved with the help of Garfield++ (a toolkit for the detailed simulation of particle detectors. Due to this, we are able to generate clusters in layers of the micro-strip readout that correspond to clusters retrieved from a real physics experiment.

  18. Simulation of the GEM detector for BM@N experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov Dmitriy; Rogachevsky Oleg

    2017-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is one of the basic parts of the BM@N experiment included in the NICA project. The simulation model that takes into account features of signal generation process in an ionization GEM chamber is presented in this article. Proper parameters for the simulation were extracted from data retrieved with the help of Garfield++ (a toolkit for the detailed simulation of particle detectors). Due to this, we are able to generate clusters in layers of the micro-s...

  19. Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS): principles and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwynne, M.D.; Sella, F.; Wallen, C.C.

    1980-01-01

    The place occupied by GEMS in the United Nations Environment Program is defined. A distinction is made between activities falling under GEMS by virtue of their international nature and those supported by the Environment Fund. The monitoring activities currently supported include climate related monitoring, monitoring of long range transport of pollutants, health related monitoring, terrestrial renewable resources monitoring, and ocean monitoring. Most activities have integral evaluation, review and training mechanisms. The programs are summarized, outlining operational goals and progress realized to date. The World Glacier Inventory and the Mediterranean pollution monitoring and research program are mentioned.

  20. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Glycosidase Inhibitors: gem-Difluoromethylenated Nojirimycin Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bols, Mikael; Wang, Ruo-Wen; Qiu, Xiao-Long

    2006-01-01

    In our ongoing program aimed at the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel gem-difluoromethylenated glycosidase inhibitors, gem-4,4-difluoromethylenated iminosugars (5-9) were synthesized. The biological evaluation of these synthetic iminosugars showed that the gem...

  1. CSTI high capacity power. [Civil Space Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jerry M.

    1989-01-01

    In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Converrsion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems.

  2. AlgaGEM--a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of algae based on the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal'Molin, Cristiana Gomes de Oliveira; Quek, Lake-Ee; Palfreyman, Robin W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2011-12-22

    Microalgae have the potential to deliver biofuels without the associated competition for land resources. In order to realise the rates and titres necessary for commercial production, however, system-level metabolic engineering will be required. Genome scale metabolic reconstructions have revolutionized microbial metabolic engineering and are used routinely for in silico analysis and design. While genome scale metabolic reconstructions have been developed for many prokaryotes and model eukaryotes, the application to less well characterized eukaryotes such as algae is challenging not at least due to a lack of compartmentalization data. We have developed a genome-scale metabolic network model (named AlgaGEM) covering the metabolism for a compartmentalized algae cell based on the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome. AlgaGEM is a comprehensive literature-based genome scale metabolic reconstruction that accounts for the functions of 866 unique ORFs, 1862 metabolites, 2249 gene-enzyme-reaction-association entries, and 1725 unique reactions. The reconstruction was compartmentalized into the cytoplasm, mitochondrion, plastid and microbody using available data for algae complemented with compartmentalisation data for Arabidopsis thaliana. AlgaGEM describes a functional primary metabolism of Chlamydomonas and significantly predicts distinct algal behaviours such as the catabolism or secretion rather than recycling of phosphoglycolate in photorespiration. AlgaGEM was validated through the simulation of growth and algae metabolic functions inferred from literature. Using efficient resource utilisation as the optimality criterion, AlgaGEM predicted observed metabolic effects under autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. AlgaGEM predicts increased hydrogen production when cyclic electron flow is disrupted as seen in a high producing mutant derived from mutational studies. The model also predicted the physiological pathway for H2 production and identified new targets

  3. Design of soft-X-ray tomographic system in WEST using GEM detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon, Didier, E-mail: Didier.Mazon@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chernyshova, Maryna [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Street, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Jiolat, Guillaume [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Czarski, Tomasz [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Street, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Malard, Philippe [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Ewa; Jablonski, Slawomir; Figacz, Waldemar; Zagorski, Roman; Kubkowska, Monika [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Street, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Zabolotny, Wojciech [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Larroque, Sébastien; Verger, Jean-Marc [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); O’Mullane, Martin [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Mlynar, Jan [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Association EURATOM-IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Byszuk, Adrian; Wojenski, Andrzej [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Interplay between particle transport and MHD in tokamaks might lead to disruption. • Studying such phenomena is essential to achieve stationary discharges. • SXR measurement provides valuable information on particle transport and MHD. • New SXR GEM diagnostic design for the WEST project is presented. • Preliminary simulations performed to size and position the detector are presented. - Abstract: In metallic tokamaks, the interplay between particle transport and MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) activity might lead to impurities accumulation and finally to disruption. Studying such phenomena is thus essential if stationary discharges are to be achieved. Measuring the soft X-ray (SXR) radiation ([0.1 keV; 20 keV]) of magnetic fusion plasmas is a standard way of accessing valuable information on particle transport and MHD. Generally, like at Tore Supra (TS), the analysis is performed with a 2D tomographic system composed of several cameras equipped with silicon barrier diodes (SBD). On WEST the installation of an upper divertor masks many of the actual TS vertical diodes so that no proper tomography is possible. This paper presents the design of a new SXR diagnostic for the WEST project developed in collaboration with IPPLM (Poland) and the Warsaw University of Technology, based on a triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector. Preliminary simulations performed to size and position the detector and its electronics inside the vertical thimble are also presented, in particular estimation of magnetic field and temperature variation affecting GEM spatial resolution and signal quality. As a conclusion, perspectives about tomographic capabilities of the new system for studying impurity transport are given.

  4. Emerging technologies for high performance infrared detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chee Leong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared photodetectors (IRPDs have become important devices in various applications such as night vision, military missile tracking, medical imaging, industry defect imaging, environmental sensing, and exoplanet exploration. Mature semiconductor technologies such as mercury cadmium telluride and III–V material-based photodetectors have been dominating the industry. However, in the last few decades, significant funding and research has been focused to improve the performance of IRPDs such as lowering the fabrication cost, simplifying the fabrication processes, increasing the production yield, and increasing the operating temperature by making use of advances in nanofabrication and nanotechnology. We will first review the nanomaterial with suitable electronic and mechanical properties, such as two-dimensional material, graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and metal oxides. We compare these with more traditional low-dimensional material such as quantum well, quantum dot, quantum dot in well, semiconductor superlattice, nanowires, nanotube, and colloid quantum dot. We will also review the nanostructures used for enhanced light-matter interaction to boost the IRPD sensitivity. These include nanostructured antireflection coatings, optical antennas, plasmonic, and metamaterials.

  5. Emerging technologies for high performance infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Leong; Mohseni, Hooman

    2018-01-01

    Infrared photodetectors (IRPDs) have become important devices in various applications such as night vision, military missile tracking, medical imaging, industry defect imaging, environmental sensing, and exoplanet exploration. Mature semiconductor technologies such as mercury cadmium telluride and III-V material-based photodetectors have been dominating the industry. However, in the last few decades, significant funding and research has been focused to improve the performance of IRPDs such as lowering the fabrication cost, simplifying the fabrication processes, increasing the production yield, and increasing the operating temperature by making use of advances in nanofabrication and nanotechnology. We will first review the nanomaterial with suitable electronic and mechanical properties, such as two-dimensional material, graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and metal oxides. We compare these with more traditional low-dimensional material such as quantum well, quantum dot, quantum dot in well, semiconductor superlattice, nanowires, nanotube, and colloid quantum dot. We will also review the nanostructures used for enhanced light-matter interaction to boost the IRPD sensitivity. These include nanostructured antireflection coatings, optical antennas, plasmonic, and metamaterials.

  6. High resolution technology for FPD lithography tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabu, Nobuhiko; Nagai, Yoshiyuki; Tomura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro

    2013-06-01

    As the resolution of LCD panels adapted for Smartphone and Tablet PC rapidly becomes higher, the performance needed for lithography tools to produce them also becomes higher than ever. To respond to such needs, we have developed new lithography tools for mass production of high resolution LCD panels. We have executed various exposure tests to evaluate their performance. In this paper, we present the results of these tests. By employing higher NA projection optics, high resolution (2.0μm and under) has been achieved. We also present the effect of special illumination and the difference in profile between kinds of photoresist. Furthermore, we also refer what will be needed for masks and blanks in the next generation. To achieve even higher resolution, it is necessary for masks and blanks to have high flatness, low level of defects and small linewidth error.

  7. Technologies for highly miniaturized autonomous sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, K.; Gyselinckx, B.; Torfs, T.; Leonov, V.; Yazicioglu, F.; Brebels, S.; Donnay, S.; Vanfleteren, J.; Beyne, E.; Hoof, C. van

    2006-01-01

    Recent results of the autonomous sensor research program HUMAN++ will be summarized in this paper. The research program aims to achieve highly miniaturized and (nearly) autonomous sensor systems that assist our health and comfort. Although the application examples are dedicated to human

  8. Gems: Obiects of Aesthetic Beauty and Scientific Curiosity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Gems: Obiects of Aesthetic Beauty and Scientific Curiosity. A K Ramdas. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 39-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/12/0039-0041 ...

  9. First results from the ALICE GEM TPC prototype test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasik, Piotr [TU Muenchen, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE TPC-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    A large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main device for tracking and charged particle identification in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. After the second long shutdown in 2018, the LHC will deliver Pb beams colliding at an interaction rate of about 50 kHz, which is about a factor of 100 above the present readout rate of the TPC. In order to make full use of this luminosity, a major upgrade of the TPC is required. It is foreseen to replace the existing MWPC-based readout with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils. A GEM TPC can exploit the intrinsic suppression of back-drifting ions from the amplification stage to reduce the problem of drift-field distortions in an ungated operation. The latter is essential for a continuous readout required for all central detectors of ALICE after the upgrade. A prototype of an ALICE Inner Read-Out Chamber (IROC) was equipped with three large-size GEM foils as amplification stage to demonstrate the feasibility of this solution. The GEM IROC was installed within a test field cage with a drift length of 115 mm and commissioned with radioactive sources. The dE/dx resolution of the prototype was evaluated in a test beam campaign using protons, pions and electrons (1 to 6 GeV/c) at the CERN PS. Preliminary results from these measurements are discussed in this contribution.

  10. Quality of the spare triple-GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lenci, Rosario; Paoletti, Emiliano; Pasquali, Luigi; Pinci, Davide; Piscitelli, Carmelo; Poli Lener, Marco; Sciubba, Adalberto; Tskhadadze, Edisher

    2017-01-01

    Triple-GEM chambers equip the inner region of the M1 muon station. In order to provide spare detectors in case of problems in the operating ones, new chambers have been assembled at the Frascati National Laboratories of the INFN. This note summarizes the results of the quality tests performed at the end of the production procedure.

  11. The Greenhouse Gases. UNEP/GEMS Environment Library No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    Since the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) was created, more than a dozen years ago, public understanding of the environmental issues confronting our planet has increased enormously. The Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) has provided several environmental assessments including urban air pollution, climate modification,…

  12. Dijk- en oeverval aan den cal. Willem Annapolder (Gem. Kapelle)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    1936-01-01

    Foto's van de aanleg van de dijk- en oeverval aan den cal. Willem Annapolder (Gem. Kapelle) 3. Linkerhelft dijkval Willem Annapolder. 30 Dec. 1936 4. Rechtehelft dijkval Willem Annapolder. 30 Dec. 1936 5. Overzicht dijkval Willem Annaolder. 30 Dec. 1936 6. Kleikisting binnendijks aangebacht. 14/15

  13. Hard assets : The return of rare diamonds and gems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc; Spaenjers, Christophe; Grynberg, Roman; Mbayi, Letsema

    This note examines the investment performance of diamonds and other gems (sapphires, rubies, and emeralds) over the period 1999–2010, using a novel data set of auction transactions. Over our time frame, the annualized real USD returns for white and colored diamonds equaled 6.4% and 2.9%,

  14. Photometric techniques, performance and PSF characterization of GeMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turri, Paolo; McConnachie, Alan W.; Stetson, Peter B.; Andersen, David R.; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Massari, Davide

    2016-01-01

    GeMS is the multi-conjugate adaptive optics instrument at the Gemini South telescope in Chile, the first facility-class MCAO system and the first to use laser guide stars. During its science verification period we have observed the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 and here we discuss the

  15. Hard Assets : The Returns on Rare Diamonds and Gems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the investment performance of diamonds and other gems (sapphires, rubies, and emeralds) over the period 1999-2010, using a novel data set of auction transactions. Between 1999 and 2010, the annualized real USD returns for white and colored diamonds equaled 6.4% and 2.9%,

  16. HITECHCLO (High Technologies for Protective Military Clothing)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    microfiber materials are not typical synthetics like a polyester fiberfill, nor are they natural fibers such as down. Webril R is a nonwoven cotton...its biological isolation garment (BIG) for the astronaut provide a three to five micron filter which may have appli- cation for chemical warfare...high (Elk Grove, In.) performance foams * -43- Kendall Webril R nonwoven (Boston, Ma.) cotton fabric Kenyon, Corp. Klimate (Kenyon, R.I.) Life Support

  17. Hybrid orientation technology and strain engineering for ultra-high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid orientation technology and strain engineering for ultra-high speed MOSFETs. T K MAITI and C K MAITI. ∗. Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,. Kharagpur 721 302, India. MS received 27 March 2012. Abstract. We report here RF MOSFET performance ...

  18. Ultra-high vacuum technology for accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Hilleret, Noël; Strubin, Pierre M

    2002-01-01

    The lectures will start with a review of the basics of vacuum physics required to build Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) systems, such as static and dynamic outgassing. Before reviewing the various pumping and measurement devices, including the most modern one like Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) coatings, an overview of adequate materials to be used in UHV systems will be given together with their treatment (e.g. cleaning procedures and bake out). Practical examples based on existing or future accelerators will be used to illustrate the topics. Finally, a short overview of modern vacuum controls and interlocks will be given.

  19. High density circuit technology, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, T. E.

    The metal (or dielectric) lift-off processes used in the semiconductor industry to fabricate high density very large scale integration (VLSI) systems were reviewed. The lift-off process consists of depositing the light-sensitive material onto the wafer and patterning first in such a manner as to form a stencil for the interconnection material. Then the interconnection layer is deposited and unwanted areas are lifted off by removing the underlying stencil. Several of these lift-off techniques were examined experimentally. The use of an auxiliary layer of polyimide to form a lift-off stencil offers considerable promise.

  20. Studies of aging and HV break down problems during development and operation of MSGC and GEM detectors for the Inner Tracking System of HERA-B

    CERN Document Server

    Bagaturia, Yu S; Dreis, H B; Eisele, Franz; Gorbunov, I V; Gradl, S; Gradl, W; Hausmann, S A; Hildebrandt, M; Hott, T; Keller, S; Krauss, C; Lomonosov, B N; Negodaev, M A; Richter, C; Robmann, P; Schmidt, B; Straumann, U; Truöl, P; Visbeck, S; Walter, T; Werner, C; Werthenbach, U; Zech, G; Zeuner, T; Ziegler, M

    2002-01-01

    The results of five years of development of the inner tracking system of the HERA-B experiment and first experience from the data taking period of the year 2000 are reported. The system contains 184 chambers, covering a sensitive area of about 20 * 20 cm2 each. The detector is based on microstrip gas counters (MSGCs) with diamond like coated (DLC) glass wafers and gas electron multipliers (GEMs). The main problems in the development phase were gas discharges in intense hadron beams and aging in a high radiation dose environment. The observation of gas discharges which damage the electrode structure of the MSGC led to the addition of the GEM as a first amplification step. Spurious sparking at the GEM cannot be avoided completely. It does not affect the GEM itself but can produce secondary damage of the MSGC if the electric field between the GEM and the MSGC is above a threshold depending on operation conditions. We observed that aging does not only depend on the dose but also on the spot size of the irradiated...

  1. High Conductive CFRP Sandwich Technologies for Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Alexander; Hartmann, D.; Wurfl, T.; Reichmann, O.; Liedtke, V.; Tschepe, C.; Berrill, M.

    2014-06-01

    A general trend in the design of Satellites structures is to use more and more extensively CFRP materials. These materials are lighter, stiffer and have a better dimensional stability than their metallic counterparts. However, the usually used CFRP materials have a low thermal conductivity, which makes the use of these materials difficult if not impossible for all parts that must conduct and distribute heat.For such applications, aluminium skin/core panels are often used for e.g. radiative structure panels. The goal of the study was to design, manufacture and test a CFRP spacecraft sandwich panel structure (based on a shear web supporting dissipative equipments) using high conductive CFRP in order to substitute common aluminium panels.

  2. Materials for high vacuum technology, an overview

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    In modern accelerators stringent requirements are placed on materials of vacuum systems. Their physical and mechanical properties, machinability, weldability or brazeability are key parameters. Adequate strength, ductility, magnetic properties at room as well as low temperatures are important factors for vacuum systems of accelerators working at cryogenic temperatures, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN. In addition, baking or activation of Non-Evaporable Getters (NEG) at high temperatures impose specific choices of material grades of suitable tensile and creep properties in a large temperature range. Today, stainless steels are the dominant materials of vacuum constructions. Their metallurgy is extensively treated. The reasons for specific requirements in terms of metallurgical processes are detailed, in view of obtaining adequate purity, inclusion cleanliness, and fineness of the microstructure. In many cases these requirements are crucial to guarantee the final leak tightnes...

  3. High performance nano-composite technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J. [KRICT, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M. [KIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chea, Y. B. [KIGAM, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D. [ATS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H. [HGREC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  4. The role of technology in high-energy research

    CERN Document Server

    Carreras, Rafel

    1974-01-01

    A brief survey of the activities of CERN is presented, and examples of technological problems occurring in the performance of high-energy physics experiments are given. The main fields discussed are: acceleration, production of particles, detectors, and data handling.

  5. Ultrasonic assisted synthesis of gem-dichloroaziridine derivatives using Mg/CCl4 under neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Khadijeh; Naeimi, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    A novel and convenient method for synthesis of gem-dichloroaziridine derivatives was reported in that was utilized Mg powder with CCl4 for dichlorocarbene generation under ultrasonic irradiation. In this clean and efficient reaction procedure, the desired products were purely obtained in excellent yields. The other advantages of this method are availability of reagents, very short reaction times, simplicity of the method, easily work up, neutral reaction medium and high purity of products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The High Technology Industry and Education in Canada. New Technologies in Canadian Education Series. Paper 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Judith

    This paper reports the results of a survey of a number of high technology companies in Canada who were asked to provide information about their relationship with the educational system, the application of their products in education, and their views on the implications for education in general of the new technology in information and…

  7. Technology Knowledge: High School Science Teachers' Conceptions of the Nature of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waight, Noemi

    2014-01-01

    In-depth interviews guided by video elicitations examined 30 high school science teachers' conceptions of technology and by extension how these conceptions reflected dimensions of nature of technology. Altogether, 64% of the teachers characterized their schools and departments as aggressive-moderate adopters with generous access and support…

  8. The evolution of high-technology in China after 1978: Towards technological entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Greeven (Mark)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this paper is to describe the development of China’s science and technology, their related institutions and use in the business world since the reforms started in 1978. Special attention will be given to the re-integration of high-technology into the private sector and

  9. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1985: High Efficiency, Space Environment, and Array Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The seventh NASA Conference on Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology was held at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, from 30 April until 2 May 1985. Its purpose was to assess the progress made, the problems remaining, and future strategy for space photovoltaic research. Particular emphasis was placed on high efficiency, space environment, and array technology.

  10. Depth of Response in Multiple Myeloma: A Pooled Analysis of Three PETHEMA/GEM Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuerta, Juan-Jose; Paiva, Bruno; Vidriales, Maria-Belen; Cordón, Lourdes; Cedena, Maria-Teresa; Puig, Noemi; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Rosiñol, Laura; Gutierrez, Norma C; Martín-Ramos, María-Luisa; Oriol, Albert; Teruel, Ana-Isabel; Echeveste, María-Asunción; de Paz, Raquel; de Arriba, Felipe; Hernandez, Miguel T; Palomera, Luis; Martinez, Rafael; Martin, Alejandro; Alegre, Adrian; De la Rubia, Javier; Orfao, Alberto; Mateos, María-Victoria; Blade, Joan; San-Miguel, Jesus F

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To perform a critical analysis on the impact of depth of response in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). Patients and Methods Data were analyzed from 609 patients who were enrolled in the GEM (Grupo Español de Mieloma) 2000 and GEM2005MENOS65 studies for transplant-eligible MM and the GEM2010MAS65 clinical trial for elderly patients with MM who had minimal residual disease (MRD) assessments 9 months after study enrollment. Median follow-up of the series was 71 months. Results Achievement of complete remission (CR) in the absence of MRD negativity was not associated with prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with near-CR or partial response (median PFS, 27, 27, and 29 months, respectively; median OS, 59, 64, and 65 months, respectively). MRD-negative status was strongly associated with prolonged PFS (median, 63 months; P < .001) and OS (median not reached; P < .001) overall and in subgroups defined by prior transplantation, disease stage, and cytogenetics, with prognostic superiority of MRD negativity versus CR particularly evident in patients with high-risk cytogenetics. Accordingly, Harrell C statistics showed higher discrimination for both PFS and OS in Cox models that included MRD (as opposed to CR) for response assessment. Superior MRD-negative rates after different induction regimens anticipated prolonged PFS. Among 34 MRD-negative patients with MM and a phenotypic pattern of bone marrow involvement similar to monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance at diagnosis, the probability of "operational cure" was high; median PFS was 12 years, and the 10-year OS rate was 94%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that MRD-negative status surpasses the prognostic value of CR achievement for PFS and OS across the disease spectrum, regardless of the type of treatment or patient risk group. MRD negativity should be considered as one of the most relevant end points for transplant-eligible and elderly fit patients

  11. Applications of Mapping and Tomographic Techniques in Gem Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Gem Sciences are scientific studies of gemstones - their genesis, provenance, synthesis, enhancement, treatment and identification. As high quality forms of specific minerals, the gemstones exhibit unusual physical properties that are usually unseen in the regular counterparts. Most gemstones are colored by trace elements incorporated in the crystal lattice during various growth stages; forming coloration zones of various scales. Studying the spectral and chemical contrast across color zones helps elucidating the origins of colors. These are done by UV-visible spectrometers with microscope and LA-ICPMS in modern gemological laboratories. In the case of diamonds, their colored zones arise from various structural defects incorporated in different growth zones and are studied with FTIR spectrometers with IR microscope and laser photoluminescence spectrometers. Advancement in modern synthetic techniques such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has created some problem for identification. Some exploratory experiments in carbon isotope mapping were done on diamonds using SIMS. The most important issue in pearls is to identify one particular pearl being a cultured one or a natural pearl. The price difference can be enormous. Classical way of such identification is done by x-ray radiographs, which clearly show the bead and the nacre. Modern cultured pearl advancement has eliminated the need for an artificial bead, but a small piece of tissue instead. Nowadays, computer x-ray tomography (CT) scanning devices are used to depict the clear image of the interior of a pearl. In the Chinese jade market, filling fissures with epoxy and/or wax are very commonly seen. We are currently exploring Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique to map the distribution of artificial resin within a polycrystalline aggregates.

  12. Strategic alliances and product development in high technology new firms: The moderating effect of technological capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeussler, C.; Patzelt, H.; Zahra, Shaker

    2012-01-01

    High technology new firms have extensively used strategic alliances to gain access to knowledge, resources and capabilities. However, given their inexperience and limited resources, these firms are vulnerable to their more established partners' potential opportunism. This raises the question: How

  13. Analysis of GEM properties and development of a GEM support structure for the ILD time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallermann, Lea

    2010-04-15

    In the concept of the International Large Detector (ILD), developed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is envisaged as main tracking detector. Such gaseous detectors have to be equipped with amplification devices in order to enlarge the amount of charge, which is set free by ionization caused by traversing charged particles. Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs) will be used in the ILD TPC as amplification stage. In this thesis, Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) - one specific MPGD species - are analyzed concerning various properties. Effective gains and energy resolutions are compared for GEM foils produced by different manufacturers. A good understanding of these observables is obtained by interpretation of the results with the help of geometrical parameters. Height profile measurements of GEM foils have been performed for the first time and the impact of non perfect flat GEMs is analyzed, especially on dE/dx determination and drift field quality. The results emphasize the need of a flat installation of GEMs in TPCs. As a consequence, a new mounting device has been developed to ensure flatness and to provide a method to cover large readout areas, as in the ILD TPC, by introducing the least possible amount of dead material into the detector. The developed structure has been tested in a TPC protoype, taking cosmic muon data. The influence of the mounting on track reconstruction, single point resolution, tracking efficiency and dE/dx measurements is quantified. The developed mounting is applicable in a large scale TPC, if some design considerations are taken into account. (orig.)

  14. High Pressure Processing Technology and Equipment Evolution: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Elamin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High pressure processing (HPP is an interesting non-thermal technology that involves the sterilization of food by the mean of ultra-high pressures, which lead to extending the shelf life of processed food, as well as maintaining nutritional value and quality of food products. The consumers’ increasing demand for this new products graped the interest of several already-existing high pressure equipment manufacturers around the globe. The successful of this technology encouraged them to enter the field of food processing and adjust their existing technologies to adapt to the new process. This review spots the major discoveries in HPP equipment history, describes the current applications of HHP in processing and provides comprehensive information about HPP equipment technology used in commercial and research applications. In addition, this paper presents the major manufacturers in HPP equipment industry around the world.

  15. Cesium nitrate: As an efficient catalyst for synthesis of gem-dihydroperoxides from aldehydes and ketones using aqueous 30% H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Khosravi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gem-dihydroperoxides (DHPs, as key intermediates of aldehydes and ketones, are important precursors in synthesis of anti-malaria drugs and have been used as a solid and powerful oxidant in many oxidation organic reactions. For the importance of gem-DHPs, in this work, cesium nitrate has been used as an efficient and commercially available solid catalyst for catalysis peroxidation of aldehydes and ketones to corresponding gem-DHPs by 30% aqueous hydrogen peroxide at room temperature. The reactions carry on with short time and the products were obtained in excellent yields and high purity. In all reaction, no by-product was observed. This methodology is new, easy, effective, and usable.

  16. Application of GEM-based detectors in full-field XRF imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, W.; Fiutowski, T.; Frączek, P.; Koperny, S.; Lankosz, M.; Mendys, A.; Mindur, B.; Świentek, K.; Wiącek, P.; Wróbel, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) is a commonly used technique for non-destructive elemental analysis of cultural heritage objects. It can be applied to investigations of provenance of historical objects as well as to studies of art techniques. While the XRF analysis can be easily performed locally using standard available equipment there is a growing interest in imaging of spatial distribution of specific elements. Spatial imaging of elemental distrbutions is usually realised by scanning an object with a narrow focused X-ray excitation beam and measuring characteristic fluorescence radiation using a high energy resolution detector, usually a silicon drift detector. Such a technique, called macro-XRF imaging, is suitable for investigation of flat surfaces but it is time consuming because the spatial resolution is basically determined by the spot size of the beam. Another approach is the full-field XRF, which is based on simultaneous irradiation and imaging of large area of an object. The image of the investigated area is projected by a pinhole camera on a position-sensitive and energy dispersive detector. The infinite depth of field of the pinhole camera allows one, in principle, investigation of non-flat surfaces. One of possible detectors to be employed in full-field XRF imaging is a GEM based detector with 2-dimensional readout. In the paper we report on development of an imaging system equipped with a standard 3-stage GEM detector of 10 × 10 cm2 equipped with readout electronics based on dedicated full-custom ASICs and DAQ system. With a demonstrator system we have obtained 2-D spatial resolution of the order of 100 μm and energy resolution at a level of 20% FWHM for 5.9 keV . Limitations of such a detector due to copper fluorescence radiation excited in the copper-clad drift electrode and GEM foils is discussed and performance of the detector using chromium-clad electrodes is reported.

  17. High Endoatmospheric Defense Interceptor (HEDI) technology testing program environmental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrineau, Dru

    1989-05-01

    The High Endoatmospheric Defense Interceptor (HEDI) is one of the many technologies being considered in the strategic defense initiative (SDI) technology research program and has the potential to support the requirements for the strategic defense system. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to analyze the environmental consequences of testing activities for the HEDI technology test program in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act. The HEDI is a technology that would employ ground-based missiles to intercept and destroy hostile submarine-launched ballistic missiles and intercontinental ballistic missiles during that portion of flight that puts the target in the high endoatmosphere (the terminal portion of an attacking missile trajectory). The HEDI vehicle would consist of a two-stage launch vehicle (booster) and kill vehicle with a conventional warhead. The basic thrust of the efforts already accomplished has been to assess the operational utility of HEDI in the context of a complete strategic defense system.

  18. Full custom VLSI - A technology for high performance computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Gary K.; Whitaker, Sterling R.

    1990-01-01

    Full custom VLSI is presented as a viable technology for addressing the need for the computing capabilities required for the real-time health monitoring of spacecraft systems. This technology presents solutions that cannot be realized with stored program computers or semicustom VLSI; also, it is not dependent on current IC processes. It is argued that, while design time is longer, full custom VLSI produces the fastest and densest VLSI solution and that high density normally also yields low manufacturing costs.

  19. Overview on the high power excimer laser technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingru

    2013-05-01

    High power excimer laser has essential applications in the fields of high energy density physics, inertial fusion energy and industry owing to its advantages such as short wavelength, high gain, wide bandwidth, energy scalable and repetition operating ability. This overview is aimed at an introduction and evaluation of enormous endeavor of the international high power excimer laser community in the last 30 years. The main technologies of high power excimer laser are reviewed, which include the pumping source technology, angular multiplexing and pulse compressing, beam-smoothing and homogenous irradiation, high efficiency and repetitive operation et al. A high power XeCl laser system developed in NINT of China is described in detail.

  20. Characteristics Contributing to High-Technology Start-Up Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goslin, L.; Brown, W.; Palm, T.

    1993-01-01

    The factors contributing to the success of high technology start-up firms have received much discussion in current business literature. The discussion of the characteristics of success has been based on increasing substantiation by empirical research. The available information suggests that the p......The factors contributing to the success of high technology start-up firms have received much discussion in current business literature. The discussion of the characteristics of success has been based on increasing substantiation by empirical research. The available information suggests...... across national borders and how, if at all, national origin may influence the successful high technology firm. This paper discusses the results of a limited study, which compared the management/organizational characteristics of a small sample of firms. Some of the firms were venture capital funded high...... technology start-up firms. For each country set an information base was developed on characteristics of the high technology start-up situation. The information relates to an expanding common data base (U.S.: Goslin, Kiehi; Canadian: Doutriaux) which is being developed. Additional information was obtained...

  1. GEM1: First-year modeling and IT activities for the Global Earthquake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Giardini, D.; Wiemer, S.

    2009-04-01

    GEM is a public-private partnership initiated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to build an independent standard for modeling and communicating earthquake risk worldwide. GEM is aimed at providing authoritative, open information about seismic risk and decision tools to support mitigation. GEM will also raise risk awareness and help post-disaster economic development, with the ultimate goal of reducing the toll of future earthquakes. GEM will provide a unified set of seismic hazard, risk, and loss modeling tools based on a common global IT infrastructure and consensus standards. These tools, systems, and standards will be developed in partnership with organizations around the world, with coordination by the GEM Secretariat and its Secretary General. GEM partners will develop a variety of global components, including a unified earthquake catalog, fault database, and ground motion prediction equations. To ensure broad representation and community acceptance, GEM will include local knowledge in all modeling activities, incorporate existing detailed models where possible, and independently test all resulting tools and models. When completed in five years, GEM will have a versatile, penly accessible modeling environment that can be updated as necessary, and will provide the global standard for seismic hazard, risk, and loss models to government ministers, scientists and engineers, financial institutions, and the public worldwide. GEM is now underway with key support provided by private sponsors (Munich Reinsurance Company, Zurich Financial Services, AIR Worldwide Corporation, and Willis Group Holdings); countries including Belgium, Germany, Italy, Singapore, Switzerland, and Turkey; and groups such as the European Commission. The GEM Secretariat has been selected by the OECD and will be hosted at the Eucentre at the University of Pavia in Italy; the Secretariat is now formalizing the creation of the GEM Foundation. Some of GEM's global

  2. Ion space-charge effects in multi-GEM detectors: challenges and possible solutions for future applications

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079251; Streli, Christina

    Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors are well known both for stable operation under irradiation with high particle fluxes and high achievable effective gains. The aim of this thesis is two-fold: to investigate the limits of GEM detector operation due to space-charge effects, and to develop a means to reduce the magnitude of the observed effects and thus extend those limitations. The first part of the thesis presents a comprehensive study of the intrinsic limits of triple-GEM detectors under exposure to very high fluxes of soft X-rays or operation at very large effective gains. The behaviour of the effective gain, ion back-flow and the pulse-height spectra is explained in terms of the movement and accumulation of positive ions throughout the detector volume, resulting in distortions of the transfer and amplification fields. Numerical computations, and measurements on double-stage and single-stage detectors confirm the model describing the observed effects. Discussions on ways to extend the limits of gas...

  3. GEM-based beam profile monitors for the antiproton decelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Pinto, S.; Jones, R.; Ropelewski, L.; Spanggaard, J.; Tranquille, G.

    2012-03-01

    The new beam profile measurement for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN is based on a single Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) with a 2D readout structure. This detector is very light, ~ 0.4% X0, as required by the low energy of the antiprotons, 5.3 MeV. This overcomes the problems previously encountered with multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) for the same purpose, where beam interactions with the detector severely affect the obtained profiles. A prototype was installed and successfully tested in late 2010, with another five detectors now installed in the ASACUSA and AEGIS beam lines. We will provide a detailed description of the detector and discuss the results obtained. The success of these detectors in the AD makes GEM-based detectors likely candidates for upgrade of the beam profile monitors in all experimental areas at CERN. The various types of MWPC currently in use are aging and becoming increasingly difficult to maintain.

  4. GEM-based beam profile monitors for the antiproton decelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, S.; Ropelewski, L.; Spanggaard, J.; Tranquille, G.

    2012-01-01

    The new beam profile measurement for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN is based on a single Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) with a 2D readout structure. This detector is very light, ~0.4% X0, as required by the low energy of the antiprotons, 5.3 MeV. This overcomes the problems previously encountered with multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) for the same purpose, where beam interactions with the detector severely affect the obtained profiles. A prototype was installed and successfully tested in late 2010, with another five detectors now installed in the ASACUSA and AEGIS beam lines. We will provide a detailed description of the detector and discuss the results obtained. The success of these detectors in the AD makes GEM-based detectors likely candidates for upgrade of the beam profile monitors in all experimental areas at CERN. The various types of MWPC currently in use are aging and becoming increasingly difficult to maintain.

  5. Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over a coastal/rural site downwind of East China: Temporal variation and long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei; Niu, Zhenchuan

    2011-05-01

    Although much attention has been paid to the mercury pollution in China, limited field studies have been conducted to explore the atmospheric behavior of mercury. To investigate the temporal variation and long-range transport of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM or Hg(0)), the GEM measurements covering four different seasons were performed at a coastal/rural site of the Yellow Sea downwind of East China. Hourly mean concentrations of GEM measured by RA-915+ mercury analyzer over the entire study (four different time periods between July 2007 and May 2009) were 2.31 ± 0.74 ng m -3 with a range of 1.12-7.01 ng m -3. The results showed moderate seasonal variations with high levels in cold seasons (winter: 2.53 ± 0.77 ng m -3 and spring: 2.34 ± 0.54 ng m -3) and low levels in warm seasons (summer: 2.28 ± 0.82 ng m -3 and fall: 2.16 ± 0.84 ng m -3). Over the each campaign a diurnal variation of GEM was observed consistently with peak levels in daytime and low levels in late night and early morning. The pollution rose and NOAA-HYSPLIT back-trajectory model analyses indicated that the elevated GEM was transported to the sampling site from the regional sources of East China and Korea peninsula-Japan. Air masses originated from the East China Sea and the regions of Continental East Asia with low emission strengths of atmospheric mercury (e.g., the east Russia, the north Inner Mongolia and the Bohai Sea) showed the decreased GEM levels.

  6. Characterization of a glass GEM for sealed detectors application and reduction of charging-up effects

    CERN Document Server

    Erdal, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Apart from high energy physics experiments, there has been a great effort in recent years to incorporate MPGDs in many other applications i.e. medical treatments and imaging and home land security. However, MPGDs (as most gaseous detectors) are normally operated under a constant flushing of the gas. Their use thus turns them expensive since they rely on a constant gas supply and a suitable infrastructure, but most important is the loss of their portability. These reasons have pushed the community to search for other solutions, aiming for the development of sealed detectors. The demands for such is to be made out of low outgassing rate materials and possibly the use of only noble gas to avoid aging due to chemical activity of the ionized gas of the avalanche. The default material for GEM detectors - Polyimide (Kapton), is not suitable for a sealed detector because of its high outgassing rate, thus calling for new solutions. Moreover, GEMs, being essentially made out of an insulating material, pose a problem in...

  7. The Shape of Long Outbursts in U Gem Type Dwarf Novae from AAVSO Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzo, John K.

    2012-01-01

    We search the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) archives of the two best studied dwarf novae in an attempt to find light curves for long out bursts that are extremely well-characterized. The systems are U Gem and S8 Cyg. Our goal is to search for embedded precursors such as those that have been found recently in the high fidelity Kepler data for superoutbursts of some members of the 8U UMa subclass of dwarf novae. For the vast majority of AAV80 data, the combination of low data cadence and large errors associated with individual measurements precludes one from making any strong statement about the shape of the long outbursts. However, for a small number of outbursts, extensive long term monitoring with digital photometry yields high fidelity light curves. We report the finding of embedded precursors in two of three candidate long outbursts. This reinforces van Paradijs' finding that long outbursts in dwarf novae above the period gap and superoutbursts in systems below the period gap constitute a unified class. The thermal-tidal instability to account for superoutbursts in the SU UMa stars predicts embedded precursors only for short orbital period dwarf novae, therefore the presence of embedded precursors in long orbital period systems - U Gem and SS Cyg - argues for a more general mechanism to explain long outbursts.

  8. Reactions of gem-Difluorinated Phosphonium Salts Induced by Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panferova, Liubov I; Tsymbal, Artem V; Levin, Vitalij V; Struchkova, Marina I; Dilman, Alexander D

    2016-03-04

    gem-Difluorinated phosphonium salts, which are readily obtained from aldehydes and difluoromethylene phosphobetaine, can serve as a source of radicals under reductive conditions. An iridium complex or Hantzsch ester was used as a one-electron reducing agent when irradiated with visible light. The fluorinated radicals were trapped with various alkenes, leading to products either via a photoredox cycle (for the iridium catalyst) or via a hydrogen atom transfer (for the Hantzsch ester).

  9. Utilizing HPC Network Technologies in High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2088631; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Because of their performance characteristics high-performance fabrics like Infiniband or OmniPath are interesting technologies for many local area network applications, including data acquisition systems for high-energy physics experiments like the ATLAS experiment at CERN. This paper analyzes existing APIs for high-performance fabrics and evaluates their suitability for data acquisition systems in terms of performance and domain applicability. The study finds that existing software APIs for high-performance interconnects are focused on applications in high-performance computing with specific workloads and are not compatible with the requirements of data acquisition systems. To evaluate the use of high-performance interconnects in data acquisition systems a custom library, NetIO, is presented and compared against existing technologies. NetIO has a message queue-like interface which matches the ATLAS use case better than traditional HPC APIs like MPI. The architecture of NetIO is based on a interchangeable bac...

  10. High density data storage principle, technology, and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Daoben

    2009-01-01

    The explosive increase in information and the miniaturization of electronic devices demand new recording technologies and materials that combine high density, fast response, long retention time and rewriting capability. As predicted, the current silicon-based computer circuits are reaching their physical limits. Further miniaturization of the electronic components and increase in data storage density are vital for the next generation of IT equipment such as ultra high-speed mobile computing, communication devices and sophisticated sensors. This original book presents a comprehensive introduction to the significant research achievements on high-density data storage from the aspects of recording mechanisms, materials and fabrication technologies, which are promising for overcoming the physical limits of current data storage systems. The book serves as an useful guide for the development of optimized materials, technologies and device structures for future information storage, and will lead readers to the fascin...

  11. Construction and Performance of Large-Area Triple-GEM Prototypes for Future Upgrades of the CMS Forward Muon System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068936; Marinov, A.; Zaganidis, N.; Ban, Y.; Cai, J.; Teng, H.; Mohapatra, A.; Moulik, T.; Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; de Robertis, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Tupputi, S.A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Piccolo, D.; Raffone, G.; Saviano, G.; Bagliesi, M.G.; Cecchi, R.; Magazzu, G.; Oliveri, E.; Turini, N.; Fruboes, T.; Abbaneo, D.; Armagnaud, C.; Aspell, P.; Bally, S.; Berzano, U.; Bos, J.; Bunkowski, K.; Chatelain, J.P.; Christiansen, J.; Conde Garcia, A.; David, E.; De Oliveira, R.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Ferry, S.; Formenti, F.; Franconi, L.; Marchioro, A.; Mehta, K.; Merlin, J.; Nemallapudi, M.V.; Postema, H.; Rodrigues, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Sharma, A.; Smilkjovic, N.; Villa, M.; Zientek, M.; Gutierrez, A.; Karchin, P.E.; Gnanvo, K.; Hohlmann, M.; Staib, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    At present, part of the forward RPC muon system of the CMS detector at the CERN LHC remains uninstrumented in the high-\\eta region. An international collaboration is investigating the possibility of covering the 1.6 < |\\eta| < 2.4 region of the muon endcaps with large-area triple-GEM detectors. Given their good spatial resolution, high rate capability, and radiation hardness, these micro-pattern gas detectors are an appealing option for simultaneously enhancing muon tracking and triggering capabilities in a future upgrade of the CMS detector. A general overview of this feasibility study will be presented. The design and construction of small (10\\times10 cm2) and full-size trapezoidal (1\\times0.5 m2) triple-GEM prototypes will be described. During detector assembly, different techniques for stretching the GEM foils were tested. Results from measurements with x-rays and from test beam campaigns at the CERN SPS will be shown for the small and large prototypes. Preliminary simulation studies on the expected...

  12. Conceptual design and development of GEM based detecting system for tomographic tungsten focused transport monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Malinowski, K.; Kowalska-Strzęciwilk, E.; Poźniak, K.; Kasprowicz, G.; Zabołotny, W.; Wojeński, A.; Kolasiński, P.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2015-10-01

    Implementing tungsten as a plasma facing material in ITER and future fusion reactors will require effective monitoring of not just its level in the plasma but also its distribution. That can be successfully achieved using detectors based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology. This work presents the conceptual design of the detecting unit for poloidal tomography to be tested at the WEST project tokamak. The current stage of the development is discussed covering aspects which include detector's spatial dimensions, gas mixtures, window materials and arrangements inside and outside the tokamak ports, details of detector's structure itself and details of the detecting module electronics. It is expected that the detecting unit under development, when implemented, will add to the safe operation of tokamak bringing the creation of sustainable nuclear fusion reactors a step closer. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  13. High-performance holographic technologies for fluid-dynamics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Sergei S.; Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Oh, Se Baek; Barbastathis, George; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2010-01-01

    Modern technologies offer new opportunities for experimentalists in a variety of research areas of fluid dynamics. Improvements are now possible in the state-of-the-art in precision, dynamic range, reproducibility, motion-control accuracy, data-acquisition rate and information capacity. These improvements are required for understanding complex turbulent flows under realistic conditions, and for allowing unambiguous comparisons to be made with new theoretical approaches and large-scale numerical simulations. One of the new technologies is high-performance digital holography. State-of-the-art motion control, electronics and optical imaging allow for the realization of turbulent flows with very high Reynolds number (more than 107) on a relatively small laboratory scale, and quantification of their properties with high space–time resolutions and bandwidth. In-line digital holographic technology can provide complete three-dimensional mapping of the flow velocity and density fields at high data rates (over 1000 frames per second) over a relatively large spatial area with high spatial (1–10 μm) and temporal (better than a few nanoseconds) resolution, and can give accurate quantitative description of the fluid flows, including those of multi-phase and unsteady conditions. This technology can be applied in a variety of problems to study fundamental properties of flow–particle interactions, rotating flows, non-canonical boundary layers and Rayleigh–Taylor mixing. Some of these examples are discussed briefly. PMID:20211881

  14. The current status of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) research at Kasetsart University, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiranon, P.; Kulasri, K.; Rittirong, A.; Saenboonruang, K.

    2017-06-01

    During the past decade, Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors have been greatly developed and utilized in numbers of applications including advanced nuclear and particle researches, medical imaging, astrophysics, and neutron detection for national security. Our GEM research group at the Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Thailand, realized in its excellent properties/potentials and started extensive researches on GEM detectors. To build a strong foundation on our research group, two 10 cm × 10 cm triple GEM detectors were characterized on their important properties including absolute gains and detection uniformity. Moreover, to widen applications of the GEM detector, our group had modified the GEM detector by introducing either solid or gaseous neutron converters to the detector so that the detector could effectively detect neutrons. These modifications included coating a thin film of 10B and natB to the GEM drift cathode for thermal neutron detection and flowing a gas mixture of He/CO2 (80:20 and 70:30) and C4H10/He/CO2 (7:70:23) for fast neutron detection. Results showed that the modified GEM-based neutron detector could detect both types of neutrons with different relative efficiencies and gains depending on thicknesses and types of neutron converters. This article discusses basic knowledge of the GEM detector, construction and testing procedures, results, and discussion.

  15. Glycemic load, exercise, and monitoring blood glucose (GEM): A paradigm shift in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel J; Taylor, Ann G; Singh, Harsimran; Moncrief, Matthew; Diamond, Anne; Yancy, William S; Hegde, Shefali; McCall, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary RCT investigated whether an integrated lifestyle modification program that focuses on reducing postprandial blood glucose through replacing high with low glycemic load foods and increasing routine physical activities guided by systematic self-monitoring of blood glucose (GEM) could improve metabolic control of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, without compromising other physiological parameters. Forty-seven adults (mean age 55.3 years) who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus for less than 5 years (mean 2.1 years), had HbA1c ≥ 7% (mean 8.4%) and were not taking blood glucose lowering medications, were randomized to routine care or five 1-h instructional sessions of GEM. Assessments at baseline and 6 months included a physical exam, metabolic and lipid panels, and psychological questionnaires. The GEM intervention led to significant improvements in HbA1c (decreasing from 8.4 to 7.4% [69-57 mmol/mol] compared with 8.3 to 8.3% [68-68 mmol/mol] for routine care; Interaction ptype 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High frequency MOSFET gate drivers technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    This book describes high frequency power MOSFET gate driver technologies, including gate drivers for GaN HEMTs, which have great potential in the next generation of switching power converters. Gate drivers serve as a critical role between control and power devices.

  17. New Technologies in Portugal: Regular Middle and High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentino, Teresa; Sanchez, Lucas; Joyanes, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to elaborate upon the relation between information and communication technologies (ICT), particularly web-based resources, and their use, programs and learning in Portuguese middle and high regular public schools. Design/methodology/approach: Adding collected documentation on curriculum, laws and other related…

  18. You and Technology, A High School Case Study Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaskos, Nickander J., Ed.; Smyth, Michael P., Ed.

    This second draft of a manuscript for a high school engineering and technology course uses case studies as its format. The principles associated with various engineering problems are presented along with their effects on daily life. Topics include the computer, the automotive power system, satellite communications, the petroleum industry, water…

  19. High power electron and ion beam research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nation, J.A.; Sudan, R.N. (eds.)

    1977-01-01

    Topics covered in volume II include: collective accelerators; microwaves and unneutralized E-beams; technology of high-current E-beam accelerators and laser applications of charged-particle beams. Abstracts of twenty-nine papers from the conference were prepared for the data base in addition to six which appeared previously. (GHT)

  20. Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Peter

    Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

  1. Rapid single flux quantum logic in high temperature superconductor technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shunmugavel, K.

    2006-01-01

    A Josephson junction is the basic element of rapid single flux quantum logic (RSFQ) circuits. A high operating speed and low power consumption are the main advantages of RSFQ logic over semiconductor electronic circuits. To realize complex RSFQ circuits in HTS technology one needs a reproducible

  2. High-speed photodiodes in standard CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radovanovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes high-speed photodiodes in standard CMOS technology which allow monolithic integration of optical receivers for short-haul communication. The electronics for (multiple users) long-haul communication is very expensive (InP, GaAs), but the usage is justified by the large number of

  3. SAFT Li-ion Technology for High Rate Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nechev, Kamen; Deveney, Bridget; Guseynov, Teymur; Erbacher, John; Vukson, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    SAFT will present an update of its state-of-the art Very High Power (VHP) Lithium-ion (Li-ion) technology. The VHP cells are currently being qualified for use in military aircraft applications as well as in future military hybrid vehicles...

  4. High School Science Technology Additions, Midland Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses design goals, space requirements, and need for mobile furniture and "imagination stations" at Michigan's Midland Public High School science technology addition. Describes the architectural design, costs, and specifications. Includes floor plans, general description, photos and a list of consultants, manufacturers, and suppliers…

  5. Application of Principles of Organizational Structure to High Technology Activites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this paper is to provide information about principles of organizational structure as they apply to high technology activities. To...principles of organizational structure . Additionally, it discusses human behaviroal and systems concepts of organization and, where possible, expresses...these concepts as principles. Three major conclusions come from the analysis that was conducted. The first is that principles of organizational

  6. High-level waste management technology program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Highly Polluted Wastewaters Treatment by Improved Dissolved Air Flotation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, I. C.; Covaliu, C. I.; Matache, M. G.; Doroftei, B. I.

    2017-06-01

    Numerous investigations are oriented towards the development of new wastewater treatment technologies, having high efficiencies for removing even low concentrations of pollutants found in water. These efforts were determined by the destroyer impact of the pollutants to the environment and human’s health. For this reason this paper presents our study concerning an improved dissolved air flotation technology for wastewater treatment. There is described a dissolved air flotation (DAF) installation composed by two equipments: pressurized capsule and lamellar settling. Also, there are presented some advantages of using nanoparticles as flotation collectors.

  8. Italian high technology shows its wares at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Italian industry held an exhibition at CERN on 14-17 November with 26 firms displaying innovative technological developments. In particular it featured categories such as mechanics, high-vacuum technologies, electronics for detectors, and electric and civil engineering. The exhibition was inaugurated in the presence of Guido Possa, vice-minister for education, universities and research. The event was organized by Sandro Centro, INFN researcher and Industrial Liaison Officer at CERN, along with Federico Ferrini, scientific officer for International Organizations of Geneva and the Italian Chamber of Commerce in Switzerland

  9. Photonic Technologies for Ultra-High-Speed Information Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchoule, S; Lèfevre, R.; Legros, E.

    1999-01-01

    The ACTS project HIGHWAY (AC067) addresses promising ultra-high speed optoelectronic components and system technologies for 40 Gbit/s time-division-multiplexed (TDM) transport systems. Advanced 40 Gbit/s TDM system lab demonstrators are to be realized and tested over installed field fiber testbeds....... This paper reviews the current status of 40 Gbit/s TDM components and subsystem technologies achieved in HIGHWAY. The results of HIGHWAY 40 Gbit/s TDM systems and field tests will be reported in a subsequent paper. (C) 1999 Academic Press....

  10. Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Industrial production in high-wage countries like Germany is still at risk. Yet, there are many counter-examples in which producing companies dominate their competitors by not only compensating for their specific disadvantages in terms of factor costs (e.g. wages, energy, duties and taxes) but rather by minimising waste using synchronising integrativity as well as by obtaining superior adaptivity on alternating conditions. In order to respond to the issue of economic sustainability of industrial production in high-wage countries, the leading production engineering and material research scientists of RWTH Aachen University together with renowned companies have established the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”. This compendium comprises the cluster’s scientific results as well as a selection of business and technology cases, in which these results have been successfully implemented into industrial practice in close cooperation with more than 30 companies of ...

  11. Optimal welding technology of high strength steel S690QL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Arsic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the detailed procedure for defining the optimal technology for welding the structures made of the high strength steel S690QL. That steel belongs into a group of steels with exceptional mechanical properties. The most prominent properties are the high tensile strength and impact toughness, at room and at elevated temperatures, as well. However, this steel has a negative characteristic - proneness to appearance of cold cracks.  That impedes welding and makes as an imperative to study different aspects of this steel's properties as well as those of eventual filler metal. Selection and defining of the optimal welding technology of this high strength steel is done for the purpose of preserving the favorable mechanical properties once the welded joint is realized; properties of the welded metal and the melting zone, as well as in the heat affected zone, which is the most critical zone of the welded joint.

  12. Toward a sustainable biorefinery using high-gravity technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiros, Charilaos; Janssen, Matty; Bystrom, Roberth

    2017-01-01

    The realization of process solutions for a sustainable bioeconomy depends on the efficient processing of biomass. High-gravity technology is one important alternative to realizing such solutions. The aims of this work were to expand the knowledge-base on lignocellulosic bioconversion processes...... at high solids content, to advance the current technologies for production of second-generation liquid biofuels, to evaluate the environmental impact of the proposed process by using life cycle assessment (LCA), and to develop and present a technically, economically, and environmentally sound process...... at high gravity, i.e., a process operating at the highest possible concentrations of raw material. The results and opinions presented here are the result of a Nordic collaborative study within the framework of the HG Biofuels project. Processes with bioethanol or biobutanol as target products were studied...

  13. Patent Strategy at the Age of High Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Hirokazu

    This paper is a summary of the lecture which the author presented at the 5th Hokuriku Workshop for Study of Scientific and Technological Information Activities on the 17th of January in 1986. The author analyzed the present situation and made some suggestions on them ; (1) the role of patent system has shifted from introduction of foreign technologies to independent technological development at the age of high technology, (2) circumstances of rapidly increasing international patent war, particularly patent conflict between U.S. and Japan concerning U.S. ITC, (3) as the service of soft aspects of economy has been closed up, the new business has come to the fore front, and the move to consider technology as a good has been activated, (4) how patent specification should be written, the way of obtaining and protecting patent successfully, (5) basic pattern of patent strategy and what the strategy should be to respond to the enterprises level, (6) present situation of patent information service, effective use of patent maps and information strategy.

  14. The development of advanced robotics technology in high radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jaiwan; Lee, Nam Ho; Choi, Young Soo; Park, Soon Yong; Lee, Jong Min; Park, Jin Suk; Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Moon, Byung Soo

    1997-07-01

    In the tele-operation technology using tele-presence in high radiation environment, stereo vision target tracking by centroid method, vergence control of stereo camera by moving vector method, stereo observing system by correlation method, horizontal moving axis stereo camera, and 3 dimensional information acquisition by stereo image is developed. Also, gesture image acquisition by computer vision and construction of virtual environment for remote work in nuclear power plant. In the development of intelligent control and monitoring technology for tele-robot in hazardous environment, the characteristics and principle of robot operation. And, robot end-effector tracking algorithm by centroid method and neural network method are developed for the observation and survey in hazardous environment. 3-dimensional information acquisition algorithm by structured light is developed. In the development of radiation hardened sensor technology, radiation-hardened camera module is designed and tested. And radiation characteristics of electric components is robot system is evaluated. Also 2-dimensional radiation monitoring system is developed. These advanced critical robot technology and telepresence techniques developed in this project can be applied to nozzle-dam installation /removal robot system, can be used to realize unmanned remotelization of nozzle-dam installation / removal task in steam generator of nuclear power plant, which can be contributed for people involved in extremely hazardous high radioactivity area to eliminate their exposure to radiation, enhance their task safety, and raise their working efficiency. (author). 75 refs., 21 tabs., 15 figs.

  15. STUDY ON A HIGH PERFORMANCE INTEGRATED BEEKEEPING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to make an economic evaluation of a high performance modern beekeeping technology leading to an increased bee family capacity. The new technology removes the disadvantages of the traditional one utilising just natural picking based on Robinia, Lime, sunflower and wild flora, most of times deeply affected by unfavourable climate conditions (drought, rainfalls and conducting to important bee losses during the winter season and mainly during the critical period till the next picking. The modern technology assures 75 % more bees per family, an increased queen laying capacity by 33 %,, a 50 % reduction of bee loss in winter season, by 20 % more honey , by 50 % more propolis, by 33 % more pollen, by 50 % more swarms, by 60 % more royal jelly and by 50 % more bee venom. The modern technology is based on a scientific feeding management applying a stimulating, completing and proteinic feeding (pollen cake and/or pollen substitutes such as: degreased powder milk 30 % and soya bean cake, involving peculiar costs ranking between USD 9.73-10.06 per family/year. The total bee rearing costs have been estimated at USD 17.83 in average per family/year, of which: 55.5 % feeding costs, 6.8 % queen replacement cost, 3.2 % treatments cost, 13.5 % costs for supplying new frames and combs,17.4 % transportation costs for moving of bee families and the remaining of 3.6 % labour costs. Taking into account a standard apiary (100 bee families of an increased power, a beekeeper can obtain an USD 12,100.4 annual income, by 55.9 % higher than in case of the traditional beekeeping technology. As a conclusion, the new technology assures a higher biological and economical efficiency, USD 3,350 profit gain that is a profit by 48 % higher than in case of the classic technology. For this reason, we recommend this modern technology to be implemented by beekeepers if they would like to transform their apiaries into high performance commercial farms.

  16. Life with quintuplets: transitioning GeMS into regular operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrel, Vincent; Van Dam, Marcos A.; Neichel, Benoît; Vidal, Fabrice; Sivo, Gaetano; Marin, Eduardo; Montes, Vanessa; Serio, Andrew; Arriagada, Gustavo; Trujillo, Chadwick; Rambold, William N.; Gigoux, Pedro; Galvez, Ramon; Moreno, Cristian; Araujo Hauck, Constanza; Vucina Parga, Tomislav; Donahue, Jeff; Marchant, Claudio; Gausachs, Gaston; Collao, Fabian; Carrasco Damele, Eleazar R.; Pessev, Peter; Lopez, Ariel

    2014-08-01

    The Gemini Multi-conjugate adaptive optics System (GeMS) at the Gemini South telescope in Cerro Pachon is the first sodium Laser Guide Star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) system with multiple guide stars. It uses five LGSs and two deformable mirrors (DMs) to measure and compensate for distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence. After its 2012 commissioning phase, it is now transitioning into regular operations. Although GeMS has unique scientific capabilities, it remains a challenging instrument to maintain, operate and upgrade. In this paper, we summarize the latest news and results. First, we describe the engineering work done this past year, mostly during our last instrument shutdown in 2013 austral winter, covering many subsystems: an erroneous reconjugation of the Laser guide star wavefront sensor, the correction of focus field distortion for the natural guide star wavefront sensor and engineering changes dealing with our laser and its beam transfer optics. We also describe our revamped software, developed to integrate the instrument into the Gemini operational model, and the new optimization procedures aiming to reduce GeMS time overheads. Significant software improvements were achieved on the acquisition of natural guide stars by our natural guide star wavefront sensor, on the automation of tip-tilt and higher-order loop optimization, and on the tomographic non-common path aberration compensation. We then go through the current operational scheme and present the plan for the next years. We offered 38 nights in our last semester. We review the current system efficiency in term of raw performance, completed programs and time overheads. We also present our current efforts to merge GeMS into the Gemini base facility project, where night operations are all reliably driven from our La Serena headquarter, without the need for any spotter. Finally we present the plan for the future upgrades, mostly dedicated toward improving the performance and reliability of the

  17. A time projection chamber with GEM-based readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attié, David; Behnke, Ties; Bellerive, Alain; Bezshyyko, Oleg; Bhattacharya, Deb Sankar; Bhattacharya, Purba; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Caiazza, Stefano; Colas, Paul; Lentdecker, Gilles De; Dehmelt, Klaus; Desch, Klaus; Diener, Ralf; Dixit, Madhu; Fleck, Ivor; Fujii, Keisuke; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Ganjour, Serguei; Gao, Yuanning; Gros, Philippe; Hayman, Peter; Hedberg, Vincent; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Jönsson, Leif; Kaminski, Jochen; Kato, Yukihiro; Kawada, Shin-ichi; Killenberg, Martin; Kleinwort, Claus; Kobayashi, Makoto; Krylov, Vladyslav; Li, Bo; Li, Yulan; Lundberg, Björn; Lupberger, Michael; Majumdar, Nayana; Matsuda, Takeshi; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mjörnmark, Ulf; Müller, Felix; Münnich, Astrid; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Oskarsson, Anders; Österman, Lennart; Peterson, Daniel; Riallot, Marc; Rosemann, Christoph; Roth, Stefan; Schade, Peter; Schäfer, Oliver; Settles, Ronald Dean; Shirazi, Amir Noori; Smirnova, Oxana; Sugiyama, Akira; Takahashi, Tohru; Tian, Junping; Timmermans, Jan; Titov, Maksym; Tsionou, Dimitra; Vauth, Annika; Wang, Wenxin; Watanabe, Takashi; Werthenbach, Ulrich; Yang, Yifan; Yang, Zhenwei; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenker, Klaus; Zhang, Fan

    2017-06-01

    For the International Large Detector concept at the planned International Linear Collider, the use of time projection chambers (TPC) with micro-pattern gas detector readout as the main tracking detector is investigated. In this paper, results from a prototype TPC, placed in a 1 T solenoidal field and read out with three independent Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based readout modules, are reported. The TPC was exposed to a 6 GeV electron beam at the DESY II synchrotron. The efficiency for reconstructing hits, the measurement of the drift velocity, the space point resolution and the control of field inhomogeneities are presented.

  18. GEMS Project: A Platform to Investigate Multiple Sclerosis Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zongqi; White, Charles C.; Owen, Emily K.; Von Korff, Alina; Clarkson, Sarah R.; McCabe, Cristin A.; Cimpean, Maria; Winn, Phoebe A.; Hoesing, Ashley; Steele, Sonya U.; Cortese, Irene C. M.; Chitnis, Tanuja; Weiner, Howard L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Chibnik, Lori B.; De Jager, Philip L.

    2015-01-01

    The Genes and Environment in Multiple Sclerosis (GEMS) project establishes a platform to investigate the events leading to MS in at-risk individuals. It has recruited 2,632 first-degree relatives from across the USA. Using an integrated genetic and environmental risk score, we identified subjects with twice the MS risk when compared to the average family member, and we report an initial incidence rate in these subjects that is 30 times greater than that of sporadic MS. We discuss the feasibility of large-scale studies of asymptomatic at-risk subjects that leverage modern tools of subject recruitment to execute collaborative projects. PMID:26583565

  19. Fiber Bragg Grating sensors for deformation monitoring of GEM foils in HEP detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071648; Bianco, S; Caponero, M; Muhammad, S; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Raffone, G; Russo, A; Saviano, G

    2015-01-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have been so far mainly used in high energy physics (HEP) as high precision positioning and re-positioning sensors and as low cost, easy to mount, radiation hard and low space- consuming temperature and humidity devices. FBGs are also commonly used for very precise strain measurements. In this work we present a novel use of FBGs as flatness and mechanical tensioning sensors applied to the wide Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foils of the GE1/1 chambers of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN. A network of FBG sensors has been used to determine the optimal mechanical tension applied and to characterize the mechanical stress applied to the foils. The preliminary results of the test performed on a full size GE1/1 final prototype and possible future developments will be discussed.

  20. The GEMS X-Ray Polarimeter: Instrument Concept and Calibration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The instrument and detector concepts for the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) X-ray polarimetry mission will be presente d. The calibration requirements for astrophysical X-ray polarimeters in general and GEMS in particular will be discussed.

  1. Progress Toward Demonstrating a High Performance Optical Tape Recording Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, W. S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the technology developments achieved during the first year of a program to develop a high performance digital optical tape recording device using a solid state, diode pumped, frequency doubled green laser source. The goal is to demonstrate, within two years, useful read/write data transfer rates to at least 100 megabytes per second and a user capacity of up to one terabyte per cartridge implemented in a system using a '3480' style mono-reel tape cartridge.

  2. Recent Advances in Food Processing Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Hsu, Chiao-Ping; Yang, Binghuei Barry

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an emerging non-thermal technology that can achieve the same standards of food safety as those of heat pasteurization and meet consumer requirements for fresher tasting, minimally processed foods. Applying high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and enzymes, as well as modify structures with little or no effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved the use of high-pressure processing (HPP), which is a reliable technological alternative to conventional heat pasteurization in food-processing procedures. This paper presents the current applications of HPP in processing fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy, and egg products; such applications include the combination of pressure and biopreservation to generate specific characteristics in certain products. In addition, this paper describes recent findings on the microbiological, chemical, and molecular aspects of HPP technology used in commercial and research applications.

  3. High quality image oriented telemedicine with multimedia technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, H; Minato, K; Takahasi, T

    1999-07-01

    Researchers at Osaka and Kyoto University hospital performed three experiments, beginning in 1995, which looked at high quality-oriented telemedicine. This paper describes the system design for the three projects. Experiment 1 applied high-definition TV images and B-ISDN for distance learning and medical information exchange. Experiment 2 developed a super high-definition medical image filing system and the images were transmitted via B-ISDN for teleconferences and experiment 3 utilized digital, high-definition, TV images and communication satellites for teleconferences. Multimedia and communication technologies were considered to be fundamental components of telemedicine. The three projects were evaluated initially for quality of images, operability and utility. The experimental design and its implementation showed that it was possible to provide high quality image-oriented telemedicine in the health care environment. Obstacles to establishing practical telemedicine are also discussed.

  4. A compilation of field surveys on gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from contrasting environmental settings in Europe, South America, South Africa and China: separating fads from facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Pablo; Oyarzun, Roberto; Kotnik, Joze; Esbrí, José María; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Horvat, Milena; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; Llanos, Willians; Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Ryzov, Vladimir; Spiric, Zdravko; Panichev, Nikolay; McCrindle, Rob; Feng, Xinbin; Fu, Xuewu; Lillo, Javier; Loredo, Jorge; García, María Eugenia; Alfonso, Pura; Villegas, Karla; Palacios, Silvia; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Contreras, Felicia; Adams, Melitón; Ribeiro-Guevara, Sergio; Niecenski, Luise Felipe; Giammanco, Salvatore; Huremović, Jasna

    2014-08-01

    Mercury is transported globally in the atmosphere mostly in gaseous elemental form (GEM, [Formula: see text]), but still few worldwide studies taking into account different and contrasted environmental settings are available in a single publication. This work presents and discusses data from Argentina, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Finland, Italy, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Slovenia and Venezuela. We classified the information in four groups: (1) mining districts where this contaminant poses or has posed a risk for human populations and/or ecosystems; (2) cities, where the concentration of atmospheric mercury could be higher than normal due to the burning of fossil fuels and industrial activities; (3) areas with natural emissions from volcanoes; and (4) pristine areas where no anthropogenic influence was apparent. All the surveys were performed using portable LUMEX RA-915 series atomic absorption spectrometers. The results for cities fall within a low GEM concentration range that rarely exceeds 30 ng m(-3), that is, 6.6 times lower than the restrictive ATSDR threshold (200 ng m(-3)) for chronic exposure to this pollutant. We also observed this behavior in the former mercury mining districts, where few data were above 200 ng m(-3). We noted that high concentrations of GEM are localized phenomena that fade away in short distances. However, this does not imply that they do not pose a risk for those working in close proximity to the source. This is the case of the artisanal gold miners that heat the Au-Hg amalgam to vaporize mercury. In this respect, while GEM can be truly regarded as a hazard, because of possible physical-chemical transformations into other species, it is only under these localized conditions, implying exposure to high GEM concentrations, which it becomes a direct risk for humans.

  5. Gas electron multiplier (GEM) operation with tissue-equivalent gases at various pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmand, M. E-mail: m.farahmand@iri.tudelft.nl; Bos, A.J.J.; Eijk, C.W.E. van

    2003-06-21

    We have studied the operation of two different Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) structures in both methane and propane based Tissue-Equivalent (TE) gases at different pressures varying from 0.1 to 1 atm. This work was motivated to explore the possibility of using a GEM for a new type of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter. In methane based TE gas, a maximum safe GEM gain of 1.5x10{sup 3} has been reached while in propane based TE gas this is 6x10{sup 3}. These maxima have been reached at different gas pressures depending on GEM structure and TE gas. Furthermore, we observed a decrease of the GEM gain in time before it becomes stable. Charge up/polarisation effects can explain this.

  6. Screening and synthesis: high throughput technologies applied to parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R E; Westwood, N J

    2004-01-01

    High throughput technologies continue to develop in response to the challenges set by the genome projects. This article discusses how the techniques of both high throughput screening (HTS) and synthesis can influence research in parasitology. Examples of the use of targeted and phenotype-based HTS using unbiased compound collections are provided. The important issue of identifying the protein target(s) of bioactive compounds is discussed from the synthetic chemist's perspective. This article concludes by reviewing recent examples of successful target identification studies in parasitology.

  7. Great Explorations in Math and Science[R] (GEMS[R]) Space Science. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Great Explorations in Math and Science[R] (GEMS[R]) Space Science" is an instructional sequence for grades 3-5 that covers fundamental concepts, including planetary sizes and distance, the Earth's shape and movement, gravity, and moon phases and eclipses. Part of the "GEMS"[R] core curriculum, "GEMS[R] Space Science"…

  8. One high performance technology of infrared scene projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-jie; Qian, Li-xun; Cao, Chun; Li, Zhuo

    2014-11-01

    Infrared scenes generation technologies are used to simulate the infrared radiation characteristics of target and background in the laboratory. They provide synthetic infrared imagery for thermal imager test and evaluation application in the infrared imaging systems. At present, many Infrared scenes generation technologies have been widely used, and they make a lot of achievements. In this paper, we design and manufacture one high performance IR scene generation technology, and the whole thin film type transducer is the key, which is fabricated based on micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). The specific MEMS technological process parameters are obtained from a large number of experiments. The properties of infrared scene generation chip are investigated experimentally. It achieves high resolution, high frame, and reliable performance, which can meet the requirements of most simulation system. The radiation coefficient of the thin film transducer is measured to be 0.86. The frame rate is 160 Hz. The emission spectrum is from 2μm to 12μm in infrared band. Illuminated by the visible light with different intensities the equivalent black body temperature of transducer could be varied in the range of 290K to 440K. The spatial resolution is more than 256×256.The geometric distortion and the uniformity of the generated infrared scene is 5 percent. The infrared scene generator based on the infrared scene generation chip include three parts, which are visual image projector, visual to thermal transducer and the infrared scene projector. The experimental results show that this thin film type infrared scene generation chip meets the requirements of most of hardware-in-the-loop scene simulation systems for IR sensors testing.

  9. Impaired clinical utility of sequential patient GEM blood gas measurements associated with calibration schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrowski, George S; Xu, Qian; Cembrowski, Adam R; Mei, Junyi; Sadrzadeh, Hossein

    2017-11-01

    Within- and/or between-instrument variation may falsely indicate patient trends or obscure real trends. We employ a methodology that transforms sequential intra-patient results into estimates of biologic and analytic variation. We previously derived realistic biologic variation (sb) of blood gas (BG) and hematology analytes. We extend this methodology to derive the imprecision of two GEM 4000 BG analyzers. A laboratory data repository provided arterial BG, electrolyte and metabolite results generated by two GEM 4000s on ICU patients in 2012-2013. We tabulated consecutive pairs of intra-patient results separated by increasing time interval between consecutive tests. The average between pair variations were regressed against time with the y-intercept representing the sum of the biologic variation and short term analytic variation: yo(2)=sb(2)+sa(2). Using an equivalent equation for the Radiometer ABL, the imprecision of the two GEMs was calculated: saGEM=(yoGEM(2)-yoABL(2)+saABL(2))(1/2). This analysis was performed for nearly all measurements, regardless of time as well for values obtained over two 12h mutually exclusive periods, starting either at 2am or 2pm. Regression graphs were derived from 1800 patients' blood gas results with least 10,000 data pairs grouped into 2h intervals. The calculated saGEM exceed the directly measured saABL with many GEM sigma ratios of biologic variation/analytic variation being close to unity. All of the afternoon saGEM exceeded their morning counterparts with pH, pCO2, K and bicarbonate being statistically significant. For many analytes, the average analytical variation of tandem GEMs approximates the biologic variation, indicating impaired clinical usefulness of tandem sequential measurements. A significant component of this variation is due to increased variation of the GEMs between 2pm and 2am. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Muon drift chamber physics and engineering R and D activities for the L* and GEM Detectors in FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.; Britt, H.C.; Capell, M.; Chargin, A.K.; Deis, G.A.; Fackler, O.D.; Johnson, C.V. III; Lowry, M.E.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Masquelier, D.A.; McCammon, K.; McConaghy, C.F.; Olson, H.E.; Schmitt, E.H.; Skulina, K.M.; Vital, R.L.; Wenaus, T.; Wuest, C.R.

    1991-09-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined the multi- national L* Detector collaboration in early 1990. The L* Detector has been described in great detail in a number of documents submitted to the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory. LLNL's participation in the L* collaboration consisted of a multi- disciplinary effort involving a number of physicists, engineers and technologists from different areas of the laboratory who came together to identify areas of research, development and engineering on the L* Detector where LLNL's expertise and technological capabilities could best be utilized. Among these capabilities, superconducting magnet technology, chemistry and materials science, and design of new types of physics detectors were deemed areas of LLNL expertise best suited to the R D effort needed for L*. This paper will describe the work carried out at LLNL on muon chamber R D for the L* detector in FY 1991. Because of the L* proposal rejection in May 1991, and the subsequent restructuring to form the GEM detector collaboration in July 1991, the work described in this paper will also be seen to the applicable to the envisioned muon chamber subsystem for GEM.

  11. Muon drift chamber physics and engineering R and D activities for the L* and GEM Detectors in FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.; Britt, H.C.; Capell, M.; Chargin, A.K.; Deis, G.A.; Fackler, O.D.; Johnson, C.V. III; Lowry, M.E.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Masquelier, D.A.; McCammon, K.; McConaghy, C.F.; Olson, H.E.; Schmitt, E.H.; Skulina, K.M.; Vital, R.L.; Wenaus, T.; Wuest, C.R.

    1991-09-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined the multi- national L* Detector collaboration in early 1990. The L* Detector has been described in great detail in a number of documents submitted to the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory. LLNL`s participation in the L* collaboration consisted of a multi- disciplinary effort involving a number of physicists, engineers and technologists from different areas of the laboratory who came together to identify areas of research, development and engineering on the L* Detector where LLNL`s expertise and technological capabilities could best be utilized. Among these capabilities, superconducting magnet technology, chemistry and materials science, and design of new types of physics detectors were deemed areas of LLNL expertise best suited to the R&D effort needed for L*. This paper will describe the work carried out at LLNL on muon chamber R&D for the L* detector in FY 1991. Because of the L* proposal rejection in May 1991, and the subsequent restructuring to form the GEM detector collaboration in July 1991, the work described in this paper will also be seen to the applicable to the envisioned muon chamber subsystem for GEM.

  12. Spatial resolution measurement of triple-GEM detector and diffraction imaging test at synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Qi, H. R.; Wen, Z. W.; Wang, H. Y.; Ouyang, Q.; Chen, Y. B.; Zhang, J.; Hu, B. T.

    2017-04-01

    A triple-GEM detector with two-dimensional readout is developed. The detector provides high position resolution for powder diffraction experiments at synchrotron radiation. Spatial resolution of the detector is measured in the lab using a 55Fe X-ray source. A resolution of about 110 μm FWHM is achieved. The energy resolution is better than 27% for 5.9 keV X-rays. The detector's validity under illumination of photons in particular energy range is verified using a Cu X-ray tube. Imaging of the head of a wire stripper with X-ray tube demonstrates its imaging ability. A diffraction imaging experiment using the sample of powder SiO2 is successfully carried out at 1W2B laboratory of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Different diffraction rings are clearly seen under various X-ray energies.

  13. Development and first tests of GEM-like detectors with resistive electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir; Centro, Sandro; Di Mauro, A; Lund-Jensen, B; Martinengo, P; Nappi, E; Oliveira, R; Pietropaolo, F; Picchi, P; Periale, L; Rodionov, I; Ventura, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    We have developed and tested several prototypes of GEM-like detectors with electrodes coated with resistive layers or completely made of resistive materials. These detectors can operate stably at gains close to 105. The resistive layers limit the energy of discharges appearing at higher gains thus making the detectors very robust. We demonstrated that the cathodes of some of these detectors could be coated by CsI or SbCs layers to enhance the detection efficiency for the UV and visible photons. We also discovered that such detectors can operate stably in the cascade mode and high overall gains ($~10^{6}$) are reachable. Applications in several areas, for example in RICH or in noble liquid TPCs are therefore possible. The first results from the detection of UV photons at room and cryogenic temperatures will be given.

  14. Examining the Relationship among High-School Teachers' Technology Self-Efficacy, Attitudes towards Technology Integration, and Quality of Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study explored the relationships among high-school teachers' (n = 74) technology self-efficacy, teachers' attitudes towards technology integration, and quality of teachers' technology integration into instruction. This study offered the unique perspectives of in-service high-school teachers as they have first-hand experience…

  15. High-Altitude Platforms - Present Situation and Technology Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Araripe D'Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude platforms (HAPs are aircraft, usually unmanned airships or airplanes positioned above 20 km, in the stratosphere, in order to compose a telecommunications network or perform remote sensing. In the 1990 and 2000 decades, several projects were launched, but very few had continued. In 2014, 2 major Internet companies (Google and Facebook announced investments in new HAP projects to provide Internet access in regions without communication infrastructure (terrestrial or satellite, bringing back attention to the development of HAP. This article aims to survey the history of HAPs, the current state-of-the-art (April 2016, technology trends and challenges. The main focus of this review will be on technologies directly related to the aerial platform, inserted in the aeronautical engineering field of knowledge, not detailing aspects of the telecommunications area.

  16. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; and others

    2012-04-15

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  17. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il

    2010-04-15

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  18. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology, 1988. High Efficiency, Space Environment, and Array Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The 9th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology conference was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center from April 19 to 21, 1988. The papers and workshop summaries report remarkable progress on a wide variety of approaches in space photovoltaics, for both near and far term applications. Among the former is the recently developed high efficiency GaAs/Ge cell, which formed the focus of a workshop discussion on heteroepitaxial cells. Still aimed at the long term, but with a significant payoff in a new mission capability, are InP cells, with their potentially dramatic improvement in radiation resistance. Approaches to near term, array specific powers exceeding 130 W/kg are also reported, and advanced concentrator panel technology with the potential to achieve over 250 W/sq m is beginning to take shape.

  19. Test beam results of the GE1/1 prototype for a future upgrade of the CMS high-$\\eta$ muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Armagnaud, C; Aspell, P; Ban, Y; Bally, S; Benussi, L; Berzano, U; Bianco, S; Bos, J; Bunkowski, K; Cai, J; Chatelain, J P; Christiansen, J; Colafranceschi, S; Colaleo, A; Conde Garcia, A; David, E; de Robertis, G; De Oliveira, R; Duarte Pinto, S; Ferry, S; Formenti, F; Franconi, L; Gnanvo, K; Gutierrez, A; Hohlmann, M; Karchin, P E; Loddo, F; Magazzú, G; Maggi, M; Marchioro, A; Marinov, A; Mehta, K; Merlin, J; Mohapatra, A; Moulik, T; Nemallapudi, M V; Nuzzo, S; Oliveri, E; Piccolo, D; Postema, H; Raffone, G; Rodrigues, A; Ropelewski, L; Saviano, G; Sharma, A; Staib, M J; Teng, H; Tytgat, M; Tupputi, S A; Turini, N; Smilkjovic, N; Villa, M; Zaganidis, N; Zientek, M

    2011-01-01

    Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are an interesting technology under consideration for the future upgrade of the forward region of the CMS muon system, specifically in the $1.6<| \\eta |<2.4$ endcap region. With a sufficiently fine segmentation GEMs can provide precision tracking as well as fast trigger information. The main objective is to contribute to the improvement of the CMS muon trigger. The construction of large-area GEM detectors is challenging both from the technological and production aspects. In view of the CMS upgrade we have designed and built the largest full-size Triple-GEM muon detector, which is able to meet the stringent requirements given the hostile environment at the high-luminosity LHC. Measurements were performed during several test beam campaigns at the CERN SPS in 2010 and 2011. The main issues under study are efficiency, spatial resolution and timing performance with different inter-electrode gap configurations and gas mixtures. In this paper results of the performance of the pro...

  20. Internationalization of high-technology ventures from emerging economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    This paper aims to contribute towards filling in the gap in the international entrepreneurhsip literature by exploring how and why new high-technology ventures internationalize from an emerging economy, namely Moldova. To address the above research questions, a multiple-case study strategy...... was adopted for the purpose of theory building, relying on purposeful sampling the logic and power of which lie in selecting information-rich cases for study in depth. Six international new ventures were identified through the Moldovan Association of Private ICT Companies. Data were collected using two...

  1. Technological Challenges for High-Brightness Photo-Injectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Suberlucq, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Many applications, from linear colliders to free-electron lasers, passing through light sources and many other electron sources, require high brightness electron beams, usually produced by photo-injectors. Because certain parameters of these applications differ by several orders of magnitude, various solutions were implemented for the design and construction of the three main parts of the photo-injectors: lasers, photocathodes and guns. This paper summarizes the different requirements, how they lead to technological challenges and how R&D programs try to overcome these challenges. Some examples of state-of-the-art parts are presented.

  2. High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Koji; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Nishi, Hidetaka; Kou, Rai; Hiraki, Tatsurou; Takeda, Kotaro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Wada, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2014-04-01

    By way of a brief review of Si photonics technology, we show that significant improvements in device performance are necessary for practical telecommunications applications. In order to improve device performance in Si photonics, we have developed a Si-Ge-silica monolithic integration platform, on which compact Si-Ge-based modulators/detectors and silica-based high-performance wavelength filters are monolithically integrated. The platform features low-temperature silica film deposition, which cannot damage Si-Ge-based active devices. Using this platform, we have developed various integrated photonic devices for broadband telecommunications applications.

  3. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the

  4. Bedeutung des Gemüsebaus für die Landwirtschaft von Wielkopolska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jąder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In dem Artikel wurde die Bedeutung des Gemüsebaus für die Landwirtschaft der Region Wielkopolska präsentiert. Diese Bedeutung wurde mit Hilfe von einigen Kriterien bestimmt. Es wurden dargestellt: der Anteil der Gemüsefläche an der gesamten landwirtschaftlichen Nutzfläche von Wielkopolska und der Gemüseanteil in der Brutto- und Warenproduktion der regionalen Landwirtschaft und der Pflanzenabteilung. Der Anteil der Freilandgemüsefläche an der landwirtschaftlichen Nutzfläche lag bei 1,36 bis 1,56 Prozent und der Anteil der Gewächshausgemüsefläche an der landwirtschaftlichen Nutzfläche oszillierte von 0,017 bis 0,050 Prozent. Die Gemüseproduktion lag bei 4,67 Prozent der Bruttoproduktion der Landwirtschaft von Wielkopolska, und der Anteil der Gemüseproduktion an der Warenproduktion der Landwirtschaft war in der Zeit auf einem ähnlichen Niveau – 4,66 Prozent. In der Pflanzenabteilung war die Bedeutung des Gemüsebaus noch größer als in der ganzen Landwirtschaft. Der Anteil von Gemüse an der Warenproduktion der Pflanzenabteilung lag durchschnittlich in den untersuchten Jahren bei 28, 54 Prozent.

  5. Performance of GEM Detectors in the DarkLight Experiment at LERF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Prem Nazeer, Sahara Jesmin; DarkLight Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The DarkLight experiment has been proposed to search for a heavy photon A' in the mass range of 10-100 MeV/c2 produced in electron-proton collisions. Phase-I of DarkLight has started to take place in 2016 at the Low Energy Recirculator Facility (LERF) at Jefferson Lab. LERF delivered a 100 MeV electron beam onto a windowless hydrogen gas target. The phase-I detector tracks leptons inside the DarkLight solenoid with a set of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, combined with segmented scintillators for triggering. The GEM telescope consists of four 10 × 10 cm2 triple layer GEM chambers with 2D readout strips, mounted in a slightly angled fixed frame about 12 cm tall. The GEM data are read out with analog pipeline front-end cards (APV-25) each of which can process 128 readout channels. Each GEM chamber has 250 channels for each coordinate axis, read out with two APVs on each side, resulting in 2000 readout channels for the GEM stack, processed by 16 APVs. One Multi Purpose Digitizer (MPD) module is used to read out all of the 16 APV-25 cards. The current run status of DarkLight experiment and the performance of GEMs in the experiment will be discussed. This work has been supported by NSF PHY-1436680 and PHY-1505934.

  6. The Australian bush fires of February 2009: MIPAS observations and GEM-AQ model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatthor, N.; Höpfner, M.; Semeniuk, K.; Lupu, A.; Palmer, P. I.; McConnell, J. C.; Kaminski, J. W.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Kellmann, S.; Linden, A.; Wiegele, A.

    2012-06-01

    On 7 February 2009, and the following days Southeast Australia was devastated by large bush fires, which burned an area of about 3000 km2. This event was extraordinary, because a large number of combustion products was transported into the uppermost troposphere and lower stratosphere within a few days. Various biomass burning products released by the fire were observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on the ENVISAT satellite. We track the plume using MIPAS C2H2, HCN and HCOOH single-scan measurements on a day-to-day basis. The measurements are compared with a high-resolution model run of the Global Environmental Multiscale-Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model. Generally there is very good agreement between the spatial distribution of measured and modelled pollutants during the first two weeks after the outbreak of the fire even over intercontinental distances. Both MIPAS and GEM-AQ show a fast south-eastward transport of the pollutants to New Zealand within one day. During the following 3-4 days the plume was located north and eastward of New Zealand and centered at altitudes of 15 to 18 km. Thereafter its eastern part was transported eastward at altitudes of 15-16 km, followed by westward transport of its western part at somewhat higher altitudes. On 17 February the eastern part had reached Southern South America and on 20 February the South African west coast. On the latter day a second relic of the plume was observed moving eastward above the Southern Pacific, whereas the westward transported pollutants were located above Australia at altitudes of 18-20 km. First evidence for entry of the pollutants into the stratosphere was found in MIPAS data of 11 February, followed by larger amounts on 17 February and the days thereafter. Between 20 February and the first week of March the stratospheric pollutants above Australia were transported further westward over the Indian Ocean towards Southern Africa.

  7. Hybrid Cooling Loop Technology for Robust High Heat Flux Cooling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a hybrid cooling loop technology for space thermal control. The proposed technology combines the high heat...

  8. Large size GEM for Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) polarimeter for Hall A 12 GeV program at JLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanvo, Kondo; Liyanage, Nilanga; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Sacher, Seth; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2015-05-01

    We report on the R&D effort in the design and construction of a large size Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for the Proton Polarimeter Back Tracker (BT) of the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab). The SBS BT GEM trackers consist of two sets of five large GEM chambers of size 60×200 cm2. The GEM chamber is a vertical stack of four GEM modules, each with an active area of 60×50 cm2. We have built and tested several prototypes and the construction of GEM modules for SBS BT is ongoing. We describe in this paper the design and construction of the GEM module prototype as well as the preliminary results on performance from tests carried out in our detector lab and during test beam at Fermi National Laboratory (Fermilab).

  9. Large size GEM for Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) polarimeter for Hall A 12 GeV program at JLab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanvo, Kondo, E-mail: kgnanvo@virginia.edu [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Liyanage, Nilanga; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Sacher, Seth [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2015-05-11

    We report on the R&D effort in the design and construction of a large size Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for the Proton Polarimeter Back Tracker (BT) of the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab). The SBS BT GEM trackers consist of two sets of five large GEM chambers of size 60×200 cm{sup 2}. The GEM chamber is a vertical stack of four GEM modules, each with an active area of 60×50 cm{sup 2}. We have built and tested several prototypes and the construction of GEM modules for SBS BT is ongoing. We describe in this paper the design and construction of the GEM module prototype as well as the preliminary results on performance from tests carried out in our detector lab and during test beam at Fermi National Laboratory (Fermilab)

  10. Technologies for the exploration of highly mineralized geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    The prospects of the integrated processing of the high-parameter geothermal resources of the East Ciscaucasia of artesian basin (ECAB) with the conversion of their heat energy into electric energy at a binary geoPP and the subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds from thermal waters are evaluated. The most promising areas for the exploration such resources are overviewed. The integrated exploration of hightemperature hydrogeothermal brines is a new trend in geothermal power engineering, which can make it possible to significantly increase the production volume of hydrogeothermal resources and develop the geothermal field at a higher level with the realization of the energy-efficient advanced technologies. The large-scale exploration of brines can solve the regional problems of energy supply and import substitution and fulfill the need of Russia in food and technical salt and rare elements. The necessity of the primary integrated exploration of the oil-field highly mineralized brines of the South Sukhokumskii group of gas-oil wells of Northern Dagestan was shown in view of the exacerbated environmental problems. Currently, the oil-field brines with the radioactive background exceeding the allowable levels are discharged at disposal fields. The technological solutions for their deactivation and integrated exploration are proposed. The realization of the proposed technological solutions provides 300 t of lithium carbonate, 1650 t of caustic magnesite powder, 27300 t of chemically precipitated chalk, 116100 t of food salt, and up to 1.4 mln m3 of desalinated water from oil-field brines yearly. Desalinated water at the output of a geotechnological complex can be used for different economic needs, which is important for the arid North Caucasus region, where the fresh water deficiency is acute, especially in its plain part within the ECAB.

  11. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  12. Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Technology for High-Altitude Airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Elliott, James R.; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon

    2011-01-01

    The High Altitude Airship (HAA) has various application potential and mission scenarios that require onboard energy harvesting and power distribution systems. The power technology for HAA maneuverability and mission-oriented applications must come from its surroundings, e.g. solar power. The energy harvesting system considered for HAA is based on the advanced thermoelectric (ATE) materials being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The materials selected for ATE are silicon germanium (SiGe) and bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3), in multiple layers. The layered structure of the advanced TE materials is specifically engineered to provide maximum efficiency for the corresponding range of operational temperatures. For three layers of the advanced TE materials that operate at high, medium, and low temperatures, correspondingly in a tandem mode, the cascaded efficiency is estimated to be greater than 60 percent.

  13. High-Speed, Three Dimensional Object Composition Mapping Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, M Y

    2001-02-14

    This document overviews an entirely new approach to determining the composition--the chemical-elemental, isotopic and molecular make-up--of complex, highly structured objects, moreover with microscopic spatial resolution in all 3 dimensions. The front cover depicts the new type of pulsed laser system at the heart of this novel technology under adjustment by Alexis Wynne, and schematically indicates two of its early uses: swiftly analyzing the 3-D composition governed structure of a transistor circuit with both optical and mass-spectrometric detectors, and of fossilized dinosaur and turtle bones high-speed probed by optical detection means. Studying the composition-cued 3-D micro-structures of advanced composite materials and the microscopic scale composition-texture of biological tissues are two near-term examples of the rich spectrum of novel applications enabled by this field-opening analytic tool-set.

  14. The separation of natural from synthetic gem-quality diamonds on the basis of crystal growth criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, E. (GIA Research, Gemological Inst. of America, Santa Monica, CA (United States)); Shigley, J.E. (GIA Research, Gemological Inst. of America, Santa Monica, CA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The commercial availability of gem-quality synthetic diamond products, and the renewed research interest in large crystals produced by high-pressure diamond synthesis, have made it necessry for the tem diamond trade to find simple ways to identify faceted synthetic diamonds. Using magnification, and various more sophisticated spectroscopic and ultraviolet or cathodoluminescence techniques, a number of gemological properties that are characteristic of synthetic diamonds have been found. These distinctive properties result from difference in growth processes between natural and synthetic diamonds. In particular, the presence of cubic growth sectors and absence of nitrogen aggregation in synthetic diamonds provide for some of their most characteristic features. (orig.)

  15. Technology for High Pure Aluminum Oxide Production from Aluminum Scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambaryan, G. N.; Vlaskin, M. S.; Shkolnikov, E. I.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2017-10-01

    In this study a simple ecologically benign technology of high purity alumina production is presented. The synthesis process consists of three steps) oxidation of aluminum in water at temperature of 90 °C) calcinations of Al hydroxide in atmosphere at 1100 °C) high temperature vacuum processing of aluminum alpha oxide at 1750 °C. Oxidation of aluminum scrap was carried out under intensive mixing in water with small addition of KOH as a catalyst. It was shown that under implemented experimental conditions alkali was continuously regenerated during oxidation reaction and synergistic effect of low content alkali aqueous solution and intensive mixing worked. The product of oxidation of aluminum scrap is the powder of Al(OH)3. Then it can be preliminary granulated or directly subjected to thermal treatment deleting the impurities from the product (aluminum oxide). It was shown the possibility to produce the high-purity aluminum oxide of 5N grade (99.999 %). Aluminum oxide, synthesized by means of the proposed method, meets the requirements of industrial manufacturers of synthetic sapphire (aluminum oxide monocrystals). Obtained high pure aluminum oxide can be also used for the manufacture of implants, artificial joints, microscalpels, high-purity ceramics and other refractory shapes for manufacture of ultra-pure products.

  16. ENTREPRENEURIAL STRATEGIC INNOVATION MODEL FOR ATTAINING PREMIUM VALUE FOR THE SRI LANKAN GEM AND JEWELLERY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamalie Ekanayake

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial innovative action is a four-pronged strategic integration; it mitigates financial risk in knowledge transfer and technology transfer, it integrates manufacturing and business strategy, and it provides policy remedy to transform the assets and capabilities of the value system. The innovation process utilises market innovations to establish a competitive advantage, gathers intellectual assets, attains proprietary rights and fosters the ability to implement appropriate strategies and sustain a competitive advantage, thus generating premium value. The entrepreneur's commitment uncovers market opportunities and exploits the inventiveness of value-system technologies to result in market innovation. The integration of the above-mentioned four forces with changing market needs transforms the capabilities of the value system to allow it to sustain business value regeneration and thus generate premium value. The failure of either one or all four forces of entrepreneurs' innovative strategies will lead to a reduction in the market value of the products and disintegrate the industry value system. This phenomena was observed in the gem and jewellery industry in Sri Lanka, where the industry has been capable enough to develop a competitive product base but has been positioned to experience a reduction in market value. This reduction has resulted in the disintegration of the industry value system, forcing firms to work in isolation.

  17. Design and creating model and interactive presentation of GEM for Microcosm Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Lakdee, Natthaphop

    2017-01-01

    GEM or Gas Electron Multiplier is the newer and easier way to amplify electron signal than conventional CSS. It was first created by Fabio Sauli at CERN in 1997 and was developed to get better efficiency over time. Right now, it was brought to use in many detector stations at CERN. To make GEM more publicly known, one of the ways is show in Microcosm Exhibition which is always visited by people from around the world everyday, so my main project as summer student is to design and create the model and interactive presentation which make GEM interesting and easy to understand by ordinary people.

  18. Operation of a GEM-TPC with pixel readout

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, C; Kaminski, J; Killenberg, M; Krautscheid, T

    2012-01-01

    A prototype time projection chamber with 26 cm drift length was operated with a short-spaced triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) stack in a setup triggering on cosmic muon tracks. A small part of the anode plane is read out with a CMOS pixel application-specified integrated circuit (ASIC) named Timepix, which provides ultimate readout granularity. Pixel clusters of charge depositions corresponding to single primary electrons are observed and analyzed to reconstruct charged particle tracks. A dataset of several weeks of cosmic ray data is analyzed. The number of clusters per track length is well described by simulation. The obtained single point resolution approaches 50 m at short drift distances and is well reproduced by a simple model of single-electron diffusion.

  19. Performance simulation studies for the ALICE TPC GEM upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljunggren, M.; Alice Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    To be able to exploit the anticipated interaction rate of 50 kHz in Pb-Pb collisions during run 3 of the LHC (beyond 2019), the ALICE TPC will be upgraded to allow continuous readout. As this is not possible with the current Multi Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) based amplification, the readout will be replaced with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) readout chambers that can suppress 99% of the ion back flow. The space charge of the remaining 1% ion back flow, however, will cause significant distortions to the measured tracks of order cm. Simulation studies to characterize the distortions and test correction strategies have been performed, which show that the intrinsic momentum resolution, without these distortions, can be recovered.

  20. Comparison of the HadGEM2 climate-chemistry model against in situ and SCIAMACHY atmospheric methane data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Hayman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are a major emission source of methane (CH4 globally. In this study, we evaluate wetland emission estimates derived using the UK community land surface model (JULES, the Joint UK Land Earth Simulator against atmospheric observations of methane, including, for the first time, total methane columns derived from the SCIAMACHY instrument on board the ENVISAT satellite. Two JULES wetland emission estimates are investigated: (a from an offline run driven with Climatic Research Unit–National Centers for Environmental Prediction (CRU-NCEP meteorological data and (b from the same offline run in which the modelled wetland fractions are replaced with those derived from the Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellites (GIEMS remote sensing product. The mean annual emission assumed for each inventory (181 Tg CH4 per annum over the period 1999–2007 is in line with other recently published estimates. There are regional differences as the unconstrained JULES inventory gives significantly higher emissions in the Amazon (by ~36 Tg CH4 yr−1 and lower emissions in other regions (by up to 10 Tg CH4 yr−1 compared to the JULES estimates constrained with the GIEMS product. Using the UK Hadley Centre's Earth System model with atmospheric chemistry (HadGEM2, we evaluate these JULES wetland emissions against atmospheric observations of methane. We obtain improved agreement with the surface concentration measurements, especially at high northern latitudes, compared to previous HadGEM2 runs using the wetland emission data set of Fung et al. (1991. Although the modelled monthly atmospheric methane columns reproduce the large-scale patterns in the SCIAMACHY observations, they are biased low by 50 part per billion by volume (ppb. Replacing the HadGEM2 modelled concentrations above 300 hPa with HALOE–ACE assimilated TOMCAT output results in a significantly better agreement with the SCIAMACHY observations. The use of the GIEMS product to constrain the JULES

  1. Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangyu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500degC silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chiplevel packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550degC. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500degC for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500degC are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

  2. Experiences with a pre-series of Micro Strip Gas Counters with Gas Electron Multipliers for high rate applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zander, Anette

    2001-01-01

    Micro strip gas chambers (MSGCs) are promising candidates for large scale applications. They combine a good spatial resolution with high granularity and low cost. As a possible extension of the plain MSGC, a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) foil may be implemented into the detector in order to increase the safety of operation. It was planned to equip the outer part of the tracking system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the Centre de Recherche Nucleaire (CERN) with MSGCs. In the barrel part of the tracker, plain MSGCs were to be used. For the forward part, the MSGC+GEM technology was envisaged. This thesis describes the assembly and test of a pre-series of 18 fully functional MSGC+GEM forward detector modules to determine their radiation hardness and their readiness for mass production. Five of the modules were built at Aachen, thirteen more at the 'Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik' in Karlsruhe. For the pre-series, two different types of GEM foils...

  3. Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-05-15

    The goal of the Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability program was to mature a production-ready supply chain for reliable 250°C FPE (fluorinated polyester) film capacitors by 2011. These high-temperature film capacitors enable both the down hole drilling and aerospace industries by enabling a variety of benefits including: - Deeper oil exploration in higher temperature and pressure environments - Enabling power electronic and control equipment to operate in higher temperature environments - Enabling reduced cooling requirements of electronics - Increasing reliability and life of capacitors operating below rated temperature - Enabling capacitors to handle higher electrical losses without overheating. The key challenges to bringing the FPE film capacitors to market have been manufacturing challenges including: - FPE Film is difficult to handle and wind, resulting in poor yields - Voltage breakdown strength decreases when the film is wound into capacitors (~70% decrease) - Encapsulation technologies must be improved to enable higher perature operation - Manufacturing and test cycle time is very long As a direct result of this program most of the manufacturing challenges have been met. The FPE film production metalization and winding yield has increased to over 82% from 70%, and the voltage breakdown strength of the wound capacitors has increased 270% to 189 V/μm. The high temperature packaging concepts are showing significant progress including promising results for lead attachments and hermetic packages at 200°C and non-hermetic packages at 250°C. Manufacturing and test cycle time will decrease as the market for FPE capacitors develops.

  4. Intelligent technologies in process of highly-precise products manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhidova, K. L.; Khakimov, Z. L.; Isaeva, M. R.; Shukhin, V. V.; Labazanov, M. A.; Ignatiev, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    One of the main control methods of the surface layer of bearing parts is the eddy current testing method. Surface layer defects of bearing parts, like burns, cracks and some others, are reflected in the results of the rolling surfaces scan. The previously developed method for detecting defects from the image of the raceway was quite effective, but the processing algorithm is complicated and lasts for about 12 ... 16 s. The real non-stationary signals from an eddy current transducer (ECT) consist of short-time high-frequency and long-time low-frequency components, therefore a transformation is used for their analysis, which provides different windows for different frequencies. The wavelet transform meets these conditions. Based on aforesaid, a methodology for automatically detecting and recognizing local defects in bearing parts surface layer has been developed on the basis of wavelet analysis using integral estimates. Some of the defects are recognized by the amplitude component, otherwise an automatic transition to recognition by the phase component of information signals (IS) is carried out. The use of intelligent technologies in the manufacture of bearing parts will, firstly, significantly improve the quality of bearings, and secondly, significantly improve production efficiency by reducing (eliminating) rejections in the manufacture of products, increasing the period of normal operation of the technological equipment (inter-adjustment period), the implementation of the system of Flexible facilities maintenance, as well as reducing production costs.

  5. 75 FR 81284 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... such as Hurricanes Katrina and Rita of 2005; established security areas around high-value vessels... appropriate location for inspection would be at a water depth that would preclude seafloor disturbance. As... technology during times of extreme weather, such as hurricanes, could be required for onshore areas that...

  6. New trends in high-technology health care support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, D F

    1998-01-01

    To understand clearly the economic dynamics of high-technology service and support in hospitals, the author used results of recent studies carried out by D. F. Blumberg & Associates, utilizing a variety of sources, to identify existing cost components of the typical 300- to 400-bed general hospital located in a major metropolitan area in the United States. The largest single functional component of cost is direct labor and benefits. Other major cost items include direct overhead administration and infrastructure costs and outside material equipment and supply purchases. This evaluation, based on extensive benchmarking comparison and market estimates, suggests that the issues of make, buy, or outsource are neither trivial nor easy to resolve in the health care field.

  7. Technological aspects of high-$T_{c}$ superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Mamalis, A G

    2000-01-01

    The applications of the dynamic or shock-wave compaction in the area of processing of high-T/sub c/ superconducting materials are presented and discussed. The basic aspects of explosive technology and also the various features of the related experimental techniques are reported. On the other hand, the influence of the shock-wave phenomena on macro-/microstructure and physico-chemical properties of the compacted ceramic, and the quality-performance of the final superconducting component are overviewed for certain industrial applications. Finally, some basic theoretical and empirical models describing the dynamic state of the material under shock and the stress-wave propagation are also included, in order to understand the dominant compaction mechanisms. (44 refs).

  8. Success in large high-technology projects: What really works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, P.

    2014-08-01

    Despite a plethora of tools, technologies and management systems, successful execution of big science and engineering projects remains problematic. The sheer scale of globally funded projects such as the Large Hadron Collider and the Square Kilometre Array telescope means that lack of project success can impact both on national budgets, and collaborative reputations. In this paper, I explore data from contemporary literature alongside field research from several current high-technology projects in Europe and Australia, and reveal common `pressure points' that are shown to be key influencers of project control and success. I discuss the how mega-science projects sit between being merely complicated, and chaotic, and explain the importance of understanding multiple dimensions of project complexity. Project manager/leader traits are briefly discussed, including capability to govern and control such enterprises. Project structures are examined, including the challenge of collaborations. I show that early attention to building project resilience, curbing optimism, and risk alertness can help prepare large high-tech projects against threats, and why project managers need to understand aspects of `the silent power of time'. Mission assurance is advanced as a critical success function, alongside the deployment of task forces and new combinations of contingency plans. I argue for increased project control through industrial-style project reviews, and show how post-project reviews are an under-used, yet invaluable avenue of personal and organisational improvement. Lastly, I discuss the avoidance of project amnesia through effective capture of project knowledge, and transfer of lessons-learned to subsequent programs and projects.

  9. Discriminating cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time using a GEM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Yin; Zhao, Sheng-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Qi, Hui-Rong; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Ke-Yan; Hu, Bi-Tao; Zhang, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors have been used in cosmic muon scattering tomography and neutron imaging over the last decade. In this work, a triple GEM device with an effective readout area of 10 cm × 10 cm is developed, and a method of discriminating between cosmic muons and X-rays based on rise time is tested. The energy resolution of the GEM detector is tested by 55Fe ray source to prove the GEM detector has a good performance. Analysis of the complete signal-cycles allows us to get the rise time and pulse heights. The experiment result indicates that cosmic muons and X-rays can be discriminated with an appropriate rise time threshold. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11135002, 11275235, 11405077, 11575073)

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) is a free, desktop computer application that estimates the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel efficiency performance of specific aspects of heavy-duty vehicles.

  11. The gain in Thick GEM multipliers and its time-evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, M; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Buechele, M; Chiosso, M; Ciliberti, P; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O; Duic, V; Finger, M; Finger Jr, M; Fischer, H; Gobbo, B; Gregori, M; Herrmann, F; Koenigsmann, K; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Makke, N; Martin, A; Menon, G; Novakova, K; Novy, J; Panzieri, D; Pereira, F A; Santos, C A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schopferer, S; Slunecka, M; Sozzi, F; Steiger, L; Sulc, M; Takekawa, S; Tessarotto, F; Veloso, J F C A

    2016-01-01

    In the context of a project to upgrade the gas photon detectors of COMPASS RICH-1, we have performed an R&D programme aimed to develop photon detectors based on multi-layer arrangements of thick GEM electron multipliers coupled to a CsI photoconverter. For this purpose, thick GEMs have been characterised in detail including the gain performance, its dependance on the geometrical parameters and its time-evolution, a feature exhibited by the gas detectors with open insulator surfaces. The variation due to this evolution drammatically depends on the parameters themselves. In the present article we summarise the outcomes of the studies dedicated to the thick GEM gain and its evolution versus time. We also include a qualitative model which accounts for the peculiar details of the observed thick GEM gain time-evolution.

  12. Hybrid orientation technology and strain engineering for ultra-high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report here RF MOSFET performance in sub-45-nm hybrid orientation CMOS technology. Based on the combination of hybrid orientation technology (HOT) and process-induced local strain engineering,MOSFET RF performance is investigated using CAD (TCAD) technology. Transistor optimization on (100) substrate ...

  13. Teaching and technology: the traits and attitudes of highly rated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergence of Information and Communications Technology in education, which includes online learning, leads to a 'technological imperative' for institutions of higher learning. A barrier to the successful adoption of online learning is the willingness of lecturers to utilise such technology for learning. In this article we ...

  14. BoNuS: Development and Use of a Radial TPC using Cylindrical GEMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard Fenker; Nathan Baillie; Peter Bradshaw; S. Bultmann; Stephen Bueltmann; Volker Burkert; Michael Christy; Gail Dodge; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Josh Evans; Robert Fersch; Kevin Giovanetti; Keith Griffioen; Mikayel Ispiryan; Chandana Jayalath; Narbe Kalantarians; Cynthia Keppel; Sebastian Kuhn; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Svyatoslav Tkachenko; Vladas Tvaskis; Jixie Zhang

    2007-11-28

    To provide new access to information about nucleon structure from electron-neutron interactions, a specialized aystem of target and detector was developed at Jefferson Lab. It allows identification and measurement of spectator protons produced in e X scattering events. The detector is a radial time-projection chamber optimized for the acceptance of low-momentum protons. Gas gain is provided by three cascaded curved Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs), the first application of GEMs in any configuration other than flat.

  15. Using simulated maps to interpret the geochemistry, formation and quality of the Blue Gem Coal Bed, Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Engle, Mark A.; Martin-Fernandez, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study presents geostatistical simulations of coal-quality parameters, major oxides and trace metals for an area covering roughly 812 km2 of the Blue Gem coal bed in southeastern Kentucky, USA. The Blue Gem, characterized by low ash yield and low sulfur content, is an important economic resource. Past studies have characterized the Blue Gem's geochemistry, palynology and petrography and inferred a depositional setting of a planar peat deposit that transitioned to slightly domed later in its development. These studies have focused primarily on vertical geochemical trends within the coal bed. Simulated maps of chemical elements derived from 45 measured sample locations across the study area provide an opportunity to observe changes in the horizontal direction within the coal bed. As the Blue Gem coal bed shows significant vertical chemical trends, care was taken in this study to try to select samples from a single, middle portion of the coal. By revealing spatial distribution patterns of elements across the middle of the bed, associations between different components of the coal can be seen. The maps therefore help to provide a picture of the coal-forming peat bog at an instant in geologic time and allow interpretation of a depositional setting in the horizontal direction. Results from this middle portion of the coal suggest an association of SiO2 with both K2O and TiO2 in different parts of the study area. Further, a pocket in the southeast of the study area shows elevated concentrations of elements attributable to observed carbonate-phase minerals (MgO, CaO, Ba and Sr) as well as elements commonly associated with sulfide-phase minerals (Cu, Mo and Ni). Areas of relatively high ash yield are observed in the north and south of the mapped area, in contrast to the low ash yields seen towards the east. Additionally, we present joint probability maps where multiple coal-quality parameters are plotted simultaneously on one figure. This application allows researchers

  16. Data compression techniques applied to high resolution high frame rate video technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, William G.; Alexovich, Robert E.; Neustadter, Marc S.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation is presented of video data compression applied to microgravity space experiments using High Resolution High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT). An extensive survey of methods of video data compression, described in the open literature, was conducted. The survey examines compression methods employing digital computing. The results of the survey are presented. They include a description of each method and assessment of image degradation and video data parameters. An assessment is made of present and near term future technology for implementation of video data compression in high speed imaging system. Results of the assessment are discussed and summarized. The results of a study of a baseline HHVT video system, and approaches for implementation of video data compression, are presented. Case studies of three microgravity experiments are presented and specific compression techniques and implementations are recommended.

  17. Technology trends in high temperature pressure transducers: The impact of micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Joseph R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the implications of micromachining technology on the development of high temperature pressure transducers. The introduction puts forth the thesis that micromachining will be the technology of choice for the next generation of extended temperature range pressure transducers. The term micromachining is defined, the technology is discussed and examples are presented. Several technologies for high temperature pressure transducers are discussed, including silicon on insulator, capacitive, optical, and vibrating element. Specific conclusions are presented along with recommendations for development of the technology.

  18. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1986. High Efficiency, Space Environment, and Array Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The conference provided a forum to assess the progress made, the problems remaining, and the strategy for the future of photovoltaic research. Cell research and technology, space environmental effects, array technology and applications were discussed.

  19. Characterization of the allergen Sol gem 2 from the fire ant venom, Solenopsis geminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sukprasert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sol i 2 is a potent allergen in Solenopsis invicta venom, and most humans exhibit reactivity to it. The Sol gem 2 allergen found in the venom of the Thai tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata was analysed in the present study. The protein was present in higher amounts than other proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, and presumably has allergenic properties similar to those of Sol i 2. Sol gem 2 molecular weight is 28 and 15 kDa, respectively, under non-reducing and reducing conditions, indicating that its native form is a dimer. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed its similarity to Sol i 2. The mono/dimeric form of Sol gem 2 was determined to be relevant by proteomic approach and immunoblotting. An anti-Sol gem 2 antibody was produced in mice, with a titer greater than 1:800 according to the Western blotting analysis. The Sol gem 2-neutralising activity of this antibody was determined in crickets. The paralytic dose 50 (PD50 of crude S. geminata venom was elevated from 0.18 mg/g of body weight to more than 0.90 mg/g of body weight after preincubation with antibody at a ratio of 1:1. These results suggest that Sol gem 2 plays an important role in mediating the effects of the piperidine derivatives in the venom.

  20. Properties of the Flight Model Gas Electron Multiplier for the GEMS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoko; Kitaguchi, Takao; Hayato, Asami; Tamagawa, Toru; Iwakiri, Wataru; Asami, Fumi; Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Kaneko, Kenta; Enoto, Teruaki; Black, Kevin; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present the gain properties of the gas electron multiplier (GEM) foil in pure dimethyl ether (DME) at 190 Torr. The GEM is one of the micro pattern gas detectors and it is adopted as a key part of the X-ray polarimeter for the GEMS mission. The X-ray polarimeter is a time projection chamber operating in pure DME gas at 190 Torr. We describe experimental results of (1) the maximum gain the GEM can achieve without any discharges, (2) the linearity of the energy scale for the GEM operation, and (3) the two-dimensional gain variation of the active area. First, our experiment with 6.4 keV X-ray irradiation of the whole GEM area demonstrates that the maximum effective gain is 2 x 10(exp 4) with the applied voltage of 580 V. Second, the measured energy scale is linear among three energies of 4.5, 6.4, and 8.0 keV. Third, the two-dimensional gain mapping test derives the standard deviation of the gain variability of 7% across the active area.

  1. High-throughput technology for novel SO2 oxidation catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Loskyll, Klaus Stoewe and Wilhelm F Maier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the state of the art and explain the need for better SO2 oxidation catalysts for the production of sulfuric acid. A high-throughput technology has been developed for the study of potential catalysts in the oxidation of SO2 to SO3. High-throughput methods are reviewed and the problems encountered with their adaptation to the corrosive conditions of SO2 oxidation are described. We show that while emissivity-corrected infrared thermography (ecIRT can be used for primary screening, it is prone to errors because of the large variations in the emissivity of the catalyst surface. UV-visible (UV-Vis spectrometry was selected instead as a reliable analysis method of monitoring the SO2 conversion. Installing plain sugar absorbents at reactor outlets proved valuable for the detection and quantitative removal of SO3 from the product gas before the UV-Vis analysis. We also overview some elements used for prescreening and those remaining after the screening of the first catalyst generations.

  2. 3-D MAPPING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzolf, A.; Folsom, M.

    2010-08-31

    This research investigated four techniques that could be applicable for mapping of solids remaining in radioactive waste tanks at the Savannah River Site: stereo vision, LIDAR, flash LIDAR, and Structure from Motion (SfM). Stereo vision is the least appropriate technique for the solids mapping application. Although the equipment cost is low and repackaging would be fairly simple, the algorithms to create a 3D image from stereo vision would require significant further development and may not even be applicable since stereo vision works by finding disparity in feature point locations from the images taken by the cameras. When minimal variation in visual texture exists for an area of interest, it becomes difficult for the software to detect correspondences for that object. SfM appears to be appropriate for solids mapping in waste tanks. However, equipment development would be required for positioning and movement of the camera in the tank space to enable capturing a sequence of images of the scene. Since SfM requires the identification of distinctive features and associates those features to their corresponding instantiations in the other image frames, mockup testing would be required to determine the applicability of SfM technology for mapping of waste in tanks. There may be too few features to track between image frame sequences to employ the SfM technology since uniform appearance may exist when viewing the remaining solids in the interior of the waste tanks. Although scanning LIDAR appears to be an adequate solution, the expense of the equipment ($80,000-$120,000) and the need for further development to allow tank deployment may prohibit utilizing this technology. The development would include repackaging of equipment to permit deployment through the 4-inch access ports and to keep the equipment relatively uncontaminated to allow use in additional tanks. 3D flash LIDAR has a number of advantages over stereo vision, scanning LIDAR, and SfM, including full frame

  3. A 32-channel front-end ASIC for GEM detectors used in beam monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciriello, F.; Altieri, P. R.; Corsi, F.; De Robertis, G.; Felici, G.; Loddo, F.; Lorusso, L.; Marzocca, C.; Matarrese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Stamerra, A.

    2017-11-01

    A multichannel, mixed-signal, front-end ASIC for GEM detectors, intended for beam monitoring in hadron therapy applications, has been designed and prototyped in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The analog channels are based on the classic CSA + shaper processing chain, followed by a peak detector which can work as an analog memory, to simplifiy the analog-to-digital conversion of the peak voltage of the output pulse, proportional to the energy of the detected event. The available hardware resources include an 8-bit A/D converter and a standard-cell digital part, which manages the read-out procedure, in sparse or serial mode. The ASIC is self-triggered and transfers energy and address data to the external DAQ via a fast 100 MHz LVDS link. Preliminary characterization results show that the non-linearity error is limited to 5% for a maximum input charge of about 70 fC, the measured ENC is about 1400e‑ and the time jitter of the trigger signal generated in response to an injected charge of 60 fC is close to 200 ps.

  4. Applied Technology Proficiency of High School Students in Applied and Traditional Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Dennis W.

    2003-01-01

    This investigation compares applied technology skill levels of high school students enrolled in various applied and comparable traditional courses, particularly Principles of Technology and physics courses respectively. Outcomes from ACT's Applied Technology Work Keys[R] assessment test were used as a measure of applied technology skill levels.…

  5. High Reliability, High Mix, Ultralow Volume Surface Mount Technology for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barela, P.; Bonner, K.; Cornford, S.; Wen, A.

    1995-01-01

    For the past two years, JPL has been working to introduce surface mount technology (SMT) for high reliability space applications. The thrust has centered around four research and development projects, the aim of which is to facilitate the use of SMT for designing, producing, inspecting, and quantifying surface mount printed wiring assemblies for ultralow volume, long life space applications. This paper explores the current approach being pursued at JPL and some of the problems peculiar to applying SMT to spacecraft applications.

  6. High-Performance Secure Database Access Technologies for HEP Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Vranicar; John Weicher

    2006-04-17

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN Laboratory will become the largest scientific instrument in the world when it starts operations in 2007. Large Scale Analysis Computer Systems (computational grids) are required to extract rare signals of new physics from petabytes of LHC detector data. In addition to file-based event data, LHC data processing applications require access to large amounts of data in relational databases: detector conditions, calibrations, etc. U.S. high energy physicists demand efficient performance of grid computing applications in LHC physics research where world-wide remote participation is vital to their success. To empower physicists with data-intensive analysis capabilities a whole hyperinfrastructure of distributed databases cross-cuts a multi-tier hierarchy of computational grids. The crosscutting allows separation of concerns across both the global environment of a federation of computational grids and the local environment of a physicist’s computer used for analysis. Very few efforts are on-going in the area of database and grid integration research. Most of these are outside of the U.S. and rely on traditional approaches to secure database access via an extraneous security layer separate from the database system core, preventing efficient data transfers. Our findings are shared by the Database Access and Integration Services Working Group of the Global Grid Forum, who states that "Research and development activities relating to the Grid have generally focused on applications where data is stored in files. However, in many scientific and commercial domains, database management systems have a central role in data storage, access, organization, authorization, etc, for numerous applications.” There is a clear opportunity for a technological breakthrough, requiring innovative steps to provide high-performance secure database access technologies for grid computing. We believe that an innovative database architecture where the

  7. Energy Efficient High-Pressure Turbine Leakage Technology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    The leakage test program was one of such supporting technology programs structured to provide guidance to the Energy Efficient Engine High Pressure Turbine Component Design Effort. Leakage reduction techniques were identified and evaluated. Test models were used to simulate component leak paths and to evaluate leakage reduction techniques. These models simulated the blade/disk attachment, the vane inner platform attachment, and the vane outer platform attachment combined with the blade outer airseal. Disk blade attachment testing indicated that leakage in this area could be reduced to very low levels by paying careful attention to the tolerances along the contact surface between the blade vibration damper and the blade platform contact surface. The aim of feather seal testing was to achieve a goal for an effective leakage gap of one mil (.001 inch) per inch of feather seal length. Results indicated that effective gaps even below the goal level were achievable by (1) maintaining close tolerances between feather seals and their slots to minimize end gaps and limit seal rotation, (2) avoiding feather seal overlap, and (3) minimizing feather seal intersections. W seals were shown to be effective leakage control devices. Wire rope, in its present state of development, was shown not to be an effective sealing concept for application to the component design.

  8. GREEN TECHNOLOGY FORESIGHT OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY: HYPE OR POTENTIALS - THE CHALLENGES FROM NANOTECHNOLOGY, BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ICT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the theoretical and methodological approach in an ongoing Danish technology foresight project focusing on the environmental potentials and risks of nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and communication technology (ICT). The paper gives a short overview of some...... environmental aspects of the three technological areas and discusses the challenges, when assessing the environmental aspects related to long term development of technologies, which often are described with very promising words. The approach to assessment of the environmental aspects is based on identification...... and analysis of emerging applications of the technologies, research processes and their dynamics, and future techno-economic networks which the future technologies might need or enable. The environmental assessment is based on the following principles: life cycle thinking, systems approach, open discussion...

  9. Educational Technology Integration and High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Tracy Demetrie

    2012-01-01

    Determining if the investment in educational technology will improve student achievement is complicated and multifarious. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of teacher technology integration on student achievement as measured by the Mississippi Subject Area Testing Program (SATP) and to explore the relationship between…

  10. Personal and Interpersonal Development of Humans in High Technology Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Konrad; Morgan, Madeleine; Hall, John

    This paper discusses psychological effects associated with the latest technology in computer interfaces. Emphasis is given to issues involved with multi-media systems and the development of the self on emotional, intellectual, and social levels. A review of technology attitudes and individual differences is presented in relation to the voluntary…

  11. High School Administrators? Perceptions of Their Technology Leadership Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beytekin, Osman Ferda

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between schools and technology forges the school leaders to transform their practices to support 21st century paradigm skills. Schools have the complicated mission of incorporating technologies to enhance effective management practices in their schools. A project known as FATIH was launched to enhance the opportunities and to…

  12. Performance simulation studies for the ALICE TPC GEM upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljunggren, M., E-mail: martin.ljunggren@hep.lu.se

    2016-07-11

    To be able to exploit the anticipated interaction rate of 50 kHz in Pb–Pb collisions during run 3 of the LHC (beyond 2019), the ALICE TPC will be upgraded to allow continuous readout. As this is not possible with the current Multi Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) based amplification, the readout will be replaced with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) readout chambers that can suppress ~ 99% of the ion back flow. The space charge of the remaining 1% ion back flow, however, will cause significant distortions to the measured tracks of order cm. Simulation studies to characterize the distortions and test correction strategies have been performed, which show that the intrinsic momentum resolution, without these distortions, can be recovered. - Highlights: • The ALICE experiment is going to upgrade its detectors to accommodate a collision frequency of 50 kHz. • The Time Projection Chamber (TPC), which is the main tracking detector of the experiment, needs to be upgraded to allow continuous readout. • Continuous readout means that a gating grid can no longer be used to prevent positive ions from the amplification stage to reach the drift volume of the TPC (ion back flow). • In this paper, studies are presented that show that it is possible to correct for the space pointdistortions caused by the accumulated space charge from the ion back flow.

  13. Technological Leadership Behavior of High School Headteachers in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkrdem, Mofareh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the technological leadership behaviors of Saudi Arabian high school regarding the supply and use of educational technologies based on the educational technology standards developed and approved for school headteachers in many countries. The study was carried out with 135 high school headteachers. In the…

  14. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  15. Mice deficient in GEM GTPase show abnormal glucose homeostasis due to defects in beta-cell calcium handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny E Gunton

    Full Text Available Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta-cells is a tightly regulated process that requires calcium flux to trigger exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Regulation of calcium handling in beta-cells remains incompletely understood. Gem, a member of the RGK (Rad/Gem/Kir family regulates calcium channel handling in other cell types, and Gem over-expression inhibits insulin release in insulin-secreting Min6 cells. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gem in insulin secretion. We hypothesised that Gem may regulate insulin secretion and thus affect glucose tolerance in vivo.Gem-deficient mice were generated and their metabolic phenotype characterised by in vivo testing of glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and insulin secretion. Calcium flux was measured in isolated islets.Gem-deficient mice were glucose intolerant and had impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, the islets of Gem-deficient mice exhibited decreased free calcium responses to glucose and the calcium oscillations seen upon glucose stimulation were smaller in amplitude and had a reduced frequency.These results suggest that Gem plays an important role in normal beta-cell function by regulation of calcium signalling.

  16. ESTADO DE LA EDUCACIÓN Y FORMACIÓN EMPRESARIAL EN LOS PAÍSES Y REGIONES ESPAÑOLAS DEL GEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernández Laviada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Specialised literature presents education and training as a determining factor for entrepreneurship. However, time and time again experts at the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM have stated that it’s one lowest, and sometimes the least, valued elements in this area. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyse the state of entrepreneurship education and training in its different stages within the countries and regions that participated in GEM 2012. Specifically, what is sought is, based on the opinion of the experts, the state of entrepreneurship training and education in each level analysed in GEM, generically as well as by country, while looking at the possible differences (strengths and weaknesses that appear in each one. Furthermore, this is paired with a national analysis that examines the situation of the different participating regions in the study. In order to carry out the analysis, the 2012 NES database is used. In that edition, a total of 69 countries participated and, in the case of Spain, there were 14 regions all with 36 experts in each. The data processing is carried out using the Rasch model for measurement. The preliminary results show that, in general, university level education geared towards entrepreneurship is more highly developed than at the lower levels of education, such as in secondary and primary education. Nevertheless, the individual analysis makes it possible to detect differences between countries and regions.

  17. Auto-Ignition of Iso-Stoichiometric Blends of Gasoline-Ethanol-Methanol (GEM) in SI, HCCI and CI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad

    2017-03-28

    Gasoline-ethanol-methanol (GEM) blends, with constant stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio (iso-stoichiometric blending rule) and equivalent to binary gasoline-ethanol blends (E2, E5, E10 and E15 in % vol.), were defined to investigate the effect of methanol and combined mixtures of ethanol and methanol when blended with three FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) Gasolines, I, J and A corresponding to RON 70.2, 73.8 and 83.9, respectively, and their corresponding Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs). A Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine was used under Spark Ignition and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited modes. An ignition quality tester was utilized in the Compression Ignition mode. One of the promising properties of GEM blends, which are derived using the iso-stoichiometric blending rule, is that they maintain a constant octane number, which has led to the introduction of methanol as a drop-in fuel to supplement bio-derived ethanol. A constant RON/HCCI fuel number/derived Research octane number property was observed in all three combustion modes for high RON fuels, but for low RON fuels, the iso-stoichiometric blending rule for constant octane number did not appear to be valid. The chemical composition and octane number of the base fuel also influenced the behavior of the GEM blends under different conditions.

  18. The Technological Input-output Efficiency of High-technology Enterprises in China Based on the DEA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-technology enterprises play the leader role in the regional economic progress, but nowadays technological resources have many problems such as division, separation and dispersing. It’s an urgent problem to be solved that how to evaluate input-output productivity of technological resources towards industries and regions scientifically and efficiently. Firstly the article analyzes the input-output efficiency status of technological resources at home and abroad. Then high-technology enterprises in 29 provinces, as the subject of evaluation, are analyzed for their operation efficiency by DEA. The article states the suggestions like balanced development among regions and reasonable structure of input and output by comparing the differences among regions. And the article estimates the technological resources configuration efficiency of 5 leader industries and explains the developmental characteristics and direction among industries. And on these bases the article conducts hypothesis testing for inner elements which might have an influence on the operational efficiency by Tobit model. Finally, the paper proposes many suggestions to the benefits of promoting the productivity of high-technology enterprise according to the comprehensive analysis.

  19. The Australian bushfires of February 2009: MIPAS observations and GEM-AQ model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Glatthor

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting on 7 February 2009, southeast Australia was devastated by large bushfires, which burned an area of about 3000 km2 on this day alone. This event was extraordinary, because a large number of combustion products were transported into the uppermost troposphere and lower stratosphere within a few days. Various biomass burning products released by the fire were observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on the Envisat satellite. We tracked the plume using MIPAS C2H2, HCN and HCOOH single-scan measurements on a day-to-day basis. The measurements were compared with a high-resolution model run of the Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality (GEM-AQ model. Generally there is good agreement between the spatial distribution of measured and modelled pollutants. Both MIPAS and GEM-AQ show a fast southeastward transport of the pollutants to New Zealand within one day. During the following 3–4 days, the plume remained northeastward of New Zealand and was located at altitudes of 15 to 18 km. Thereafter its lower part was transported eastward, followed by westward transport of its upper part. On 17 February the eastern part had reached southern South America and on 20 February the central South Atlantic. On the latter day a second relic of the plume was observed moving eastward above the South Pacific. Between 20 February and the first week of March, the upper part of the plume was transported westward over Australia and the Indian Ocean towards southern Africa. First evidence for entry of the pollutants into the stratosphere was found in MIPAS data of 11 February, followed by larger amounts on 17 February and the days thereafter. From MIPAS data, C2H2/HCN and HCOOH/HCN enhancement ratios of 0.76 and 2.16 were calculated for the first days after the outbreak of the fires, which are considerably higher than the emission ratios assumed for the model run and at

  20. Optimal Estimation-Based Algorithm to Retrieve Aerosol Optical Properties for GEMS Measurements over Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS is scheduled to be in orbit in 2019 onboard the GEO-KOMPSAT 2B satellite and will continuously monitor air quality over Asia. The GEMS will make measurements in the UV spectrum (300–500 nm with 0.6 nm resolution. In this study, an algorithm is developed to retrieve aerosol optical properties from UV-visible measurements for the future satellite instrument and is tested using 3 years of existing OMI L1B data. This algorithm provides aerosol optical depth (AOD, single scattering albedo (SSA and aerosol layer height (ALH using an optimized estimation method. The retrieved AOD shows good correlation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET AOD with correlation coefficients of 0.83, 0.73 and 0.80 for heavy-absorbing fine (HAF particles, dust and non-absorbing (NA particles, respectively. However, regression tests indicate underestimation and overestimation of HAF and NA AOD, respectively. In comparison with AOD from the OMI/Aura Near-UV Aerosol Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo 1-orbit L2 Swath 13 km × 24 km V003 (OMAERUV algorithm, the retrieved AOD has a correlation coefficient of 0.86 and linear regression equation, AODGEMS = 1.18AODOMAERUV + 0.09. An uncertainty test based on a reference method, which estimates retrieval error by applying the algorithm to simulated radiance data, revealed that assumptions in the spectral dependency of aerosol absorptivity in the UV cause significant errors in aerosol property retrieval, particularly the SSA retrieval. Consequently, retrieved SSAs did not show good correlation with AERONET values. The ALH results were qualitatively compared with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP products and were found to be well correlated for highly absorbing aerosols. The difference between the attenuated-backscatter-weighted height from CALIOP and retrieved ALH were mostly closed to zero when the retrieved AOD is higher than 0.8 and

  1. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1980. High Efficiency, Radiation Damage and Blanket Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The application of silicon solar cells are discussed with respect to their importance in the exploration of space. Several aspects of the technology associated with the development of photovoltaic devices are reported.

  2. High-performance technology for indexing of high volumes of Earth remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotov, Valery V.; Taganov, Alexander I.; Kolesenkov, Aleksandr N.; Kostrov, Boris V.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper has suggested a technology for search, indexing, cataloging and distribution of aerospace images on the basis of geo-information approach, cluster and spectral analysis. It has considered information and algorithmic support of the system. Functional circuit of the system and structure of the geographical data base have been developed on the basis of the geographical online portal technology. Taking into account heterogeneity of information obtained from various sources it is reasonable to apply a geoinformation platform that allows analyzing space location of objects and territories and executing complex processing of information. Geoinformation platform is based on cartographic fundamentals with the uniform coordinate system, the geographical data base, a set of algorithms and program modules for execution of various tasks. The technology for adding by particular users and companies of images taken by means of professional and amateur devices and also processed by various software tools to the array system has been suggested. Complex usage of visual and instrumental approaches allows significantly expanding an application area of Earth remote sensing data. Development and implementation of new algorithms based on the complex usage of new methods for processing of structured and unstructured data of high volumes will increase periodicity and rate of data updating. The paper has shown that application of original algorithms for search, indexing and cataloging of aerospace images will provide an easy access to information spread by hundreds of suppliers and allow increasing an access rate to aerospace images up to 5 times in comparison with current analogues.

  3. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1983. High Efficiency, Radiation Damage, and Blanket Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    This three day conference, sixth in a series that began in 1974, was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on October 18-20, 1983. The conference provided a forum for the discussion of space photovoltaic systems, their research status, and program goals. Papers were presented and workshops were held in a variety of technology areas, including basic cell research, advanced blanket technology, and radiation damage.

  4. Review of GEM Radiation Belt Dropout and Buildup Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Weichao; Li, Wen; Morley, Steve; Albert, Jay

    2017-04-01

    In Summer 2015 the US NSF GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) focus group named "Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling" started the "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges, focused on quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts. This is a community effort which includes selecting challenge events, gathering model inputs that are required to model the radiation belt dynamics during these events (e.g., various magnetospheric waves, plasmapause and density models, electron phase space density data), simulating the challenge events using different types of radiation belt models, and validating the model results by comparison to in situ observations of radiation belt electrons (from Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, LANL/GEO, etc). The goal is to quantitatively assess the relative importance of various acceleration, transport, and loss processes in the observed radiation belt dropouts and buildups. Since 2015, the community has selected four "challenge" events under four different categories: "storm-time enhancements", "non-storm enhancements", "storm-time dropouts", and "non-storm dropouts". Model inputs and data for each selected event have been coordinated and shared within the community to establish a common basis for simulations and testing. Modelers within and outside US with different types of radiation belt models (diffusion-type, diffusion-convection-type, test particle codes, etc.) have participated in our challenge and shared their simulation results and comparison with spacecraft measurements. Significant progress has been made in quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts as well as accessing the modeling with new measures of model performance. In this presentation, I will review the activities from our "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges and the progresses achieved in understanding radiation belt physics and improving model validation and verification.

  5. High resolution, high frame rate video technology development plan and the near-term system conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) development effort is to provide technology advancements to remove constraints on the amount of high speed, detailed optical data recorded and transmitted for microgravity science and application experiments. These advancements will enable the development of video systems capable of high resolution, high frame rate video data recording, processing, and transmission. Techniques such as multichannel image scan, video parameter tradeoff, and the use of dual recording media were identified as methods of making the most efficient use of the near-term technology.

  6. Top-down/bottom-up description of electricity sector for Switzerland using the GEM-E3 computable general equilibrium model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R. A

    2006-06-15

    Participation of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in the advancement and extension of the multi-region, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model GEM-E3 (CES/KUL, 2002) focused primarily on two top-level facets: a) extension of the model database and model calibration, particularly as related to the second component of this study, which is; b) advancement of the dynamics of innovation and investment, primarily through the incorporation of Exogenous Technical Learning (ETL) into he Bottom-Up (BU, technology-based) part of the dynamic upgrade; this latter activity also included the completion of the dynamic coupling of the BU description of the electricity sector with the 'Top-Down' (TD, econometric) description of the economy inherent to the GEM-E3 CGE model. The results of this two- component study are described in two parts that have been combined in this single summary report: Part I describes the methodology and gives illustrative results from the BUTD integration, as well as describing the approach to and giving preliminary results from incorporating an ETL description into the BU component of the overall model; Part II reports on the calibration component of task in terms of: a) formulating a BU technology database for Switzerland based on previous work; incorporation of that database into the GEM-E3 model; and calibrating the BU database with the TD database embodied in the (Swiss) Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). The BUTD coupling along with the ETL incorporation described in Part I represent the major effort embodied in this investigation, but this effort could not be completed without the calibration preamble reported herein as Part II. A brief summary of the scope of each of these key study components is given. (author)

  7. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology.

  8. High Thrust-to-Power Annular Engine Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Thomas, Robert E.; Crofton, Mark W.; Young, Jason A.; Foster, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Gridded ion engines have the highest efficiency and total impulse of any mature electric propulsion technology, and have been successfully implemented for primary propulsion in both geocentric and heliocentric environments with excellent ground/in-space correlation of performance. However, they have not been optimized to maximize thrust-to-power, an important parameter for Earth orbit transfer applications. This publication discusses technology development work intended to maximize this parameter. These activities include investigating the capabilities of a non-conventional design approach, the annular engine, which has the potential of exceeding the thrust-to-power of other EP technologies. This publication discusses the status of this work, including the fabrication and initial tests of a large-area annular engine. This work is being conducted in collaboration among NASA Glenn Research Center, The Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Michigan.

  9. Toward high-performance digital logic technology with carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulevski, George S; Franklin, Aaron D; Frank, David; Lobez, Jose M; Cao, Qing; Park, Hongsik; Afzali, Ali; Han, Shu-Jen; Hannon, James B; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-09-23

    The slow-down in traditional silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) scaling (Moore's law) has created an opportunity for a disruptive innovation to bring the semiconductor industry into a postsilicon era. Due to their ultrathin body and ballistic transport, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the intrinsic transport and scaling properties to usher in this new era. The remaining challenges are largely materials-related and include obtaining purity levels suitable for logic technology, placement of CNTs at very tight (∼5 nm) pitch to allow for density scaling and source/drain contact scaling. This review examines the potential performance advantages of a CNT-based computing technology, outlines the remaining challenges, and describes the recent progress on these fronts. Although overcoming these issues will be challenging and will require a large, sustained effort from both industry and academia, the recent progress in the field is a cause for optimism that these materials can have an impact on future technologies.

  10. Silk materials--a road to sustainable high technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hu; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2012-06-05

    This review addresses the use of silk protein as a sustainable material in optics and photonics, electronics and optoelectronic applications. These options represent additional developments for this technology platform that compound the broad utility and impact of this material for medical needs that have been recently described in the literature. The favorable properties of the material certainly make a favorable case for the use of silk, yet serve as a broad inspiration to further develop biological foundries for both the synthesis and processing of Nature's materials for technological applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Kepler Observations of V447 Lyr: an Eclipsing U Gem Cataclysmic Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Gavin; Cannizzo, John K.; Howell, Steve B.; Wood, Matt A.; Still, Martin; Barclay, Thomas; Smale, Alan

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of an analysis of Kepler data covering 1.5 yr of the dwarf nova V447 Lyr. We detect eclipses of the accretion disc by the mass donating secondary star every 3.74 h which is the binary orbital period. V447 Lyr is therefore the first dwarf nova in the Kepler field to show eclipses.We also detect five long outbursts and six short outbursts showing V447 Lyr is a U Gem-type dwarf nova. We show that the orbital phase of the mid-eclipse occurs earlier during outbursts compared to quiescence and that the width of the eclipse is greater during outburst. This suggests that the bright spot is more prominent during quiescence and that the disc is larger during outburst than quiescence. This is consistent with an expansion of the outer disc radius due to the presence of high viscosity material associated with the outburst, followed by a contraction in quiescence due to the accretion of low angular momentum material. We note that the long outbursts appear to be triggered by a short outburst, which is also observed in the super-outbursts of SU UMa dwarf novae as observed using Kepler.

  12. Spectroscopic study of inclusions in gem corundum from Mercaderes, Cauca, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeug, Manuela; Rodríguez Vargas, Andrés Ignacio; Nasdala, Lutz

    2017-03-01

    Mineral inclusions in gem corundum from Mercaderes, Cauca, Colombia, were investigated non-destructively using Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy, with special focus lying on phases containing radioactive elements. Besides abundant rutile, the minerals zircon, apatite, feldspar, and an epidote-group species, most probably allanite-(Ce), were found. The latter is detected easily from its characteristic Nd3+ emission pattern, which may prove useful in future provenance studies. Zircon inclusions range from well crystalline to moderately radiation damaged [FWHM (full width at half band maximum) of the ν 3(SiO4) Raman band 1.8-10.9 cm-1]. Both the zircon inclusions and their neighbouring host corundum are affected by compressive stress, which is assigned to (1) heterogeneous volume expansion of the host-inclusion couple upon pressure release during the uplift following primary growth and (2) volume expansion of the zircon inclusion due to the accumulation of self-irradiation damage. Internal stress of zircon inclusions averages 1.1 GPa. Heat treatment of corundum leads to structural reconstitution of zircon (narrowed zircon Raman bands with FWHMs in the range 1.8-2.7 cm-1) and accompanying stress release in the adjacent corundum (indicated by downshifts of the R 1 emission of Cr3+). The observation of broadened Raman band of zircon inclusions therefore allows one to exclude high-temperature enhancement of the host corundum.

  13. Assessing New Zealand High School Science Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Kofi Acheaw; Conner, Lindsey; Astall, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) is the knowledge required for effective technology integration in teaching. In this study, New Zealand high school science teachers' TPACK was assessed through an online survey. The data and its analysis revealed that New Zealand's high school science teachers in general had a high perception of…

  14. Business cycle and innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzikowski Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines differences in an impact of business cycle phases on innovation activity in medium-high and high technology industry in Poland. It is assumed that each business cycle phase influences innovation activity in the same fashion, but its impact varies and it depends on the firm’s innovation activity. The higher innovation activity the less impact of business cycle. The scope of the survey relates to innovation in MHT and HT industry in Poland. The data concerns the innovation at the firm level and the diffusion “new for the company”. Innovation activity is defined by the following activities: (1 expenditure on research and development and investments in fixed assets not used so far such as: abuildings, premises and land; b machinery and equipment, c computer software; (2 implementation of new products and technological processes and (3 innovation cooperation. The methodological part of the analysis includes a logit modeling. The survey includes 1355 companies. Business cycle has a great influence on innovation activity in MTH and HT industry in Poland. The influence of recovery phase is positive whereas both stagnation and recession phases decrease the probability of innovation activity. The character of influence depends on the propensity to take innovation activity. The higher level of innovation activity the enterprises present the less influence of business cycle they get.

  15. Measuring the Influences That Affect Technological Literacy in Rhode Island High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study sampled the current state of technological literacy in Rhode Island high schools using a new instrument, the Technological Literacy Assessment, which was developed for this study. Gender inequalities in technological literacy were discovered, and possible causes and solutions are presented. This study suggests possible next steps for…

  16. A Survey of Technology-Based Music Classes in New Jersey High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammers, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    As music technology has developed and advanced, music classes that use technology as the primary means for instruction have emerged. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which New Jersey public high schools offer music classes that are technology-based and to describe the nature of these classes. In the first phase of the…

  17. Developing the Principal Technology Leadership Competency Indicators for Technical High Schools in K-12 in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyr, Wen-Jye

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop principal technology leadership competency indicators for technical high schools in K-12 in Taiwan in order to improve the effectiveness of school administration and teaching. In the first part of the study, five experts in the technology leadership field are interviewed to explore the technology leadership…

  18. Technology Education & the Felon (Teaching High School behind Prison Walls).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert A.

    A 1-year voluntary program in technology education has been offered for 4 years at the New Hampshire State Prison. To date, the inmates who have completed the program and been retested on the Test of Adult Basic Education have improved their initial scores as much as four grade levels. An associated drop in disciplinary problems in some inmates…

  19. Detection Rats Technology for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUA-APOPO TB detection rats' technology is most promising and increases TB case detection by over 40% in hospitals in Dar es Salaam Tanzania and Maputo Mozambique. This paper reports on improved TB detection in a selected prison in Tanzania using TB detection rats. Sputum samples (n = 11,424) were collected ...

  20. Using Technology to Facilitate Differentiated High School Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative investigation explored the beliefs and practices of one secondary science teacher, Diane, who differentiated instruction and studied how technology facilitated her differentiation. Diane was selected based on the results of a previous study, in which data indicated that Diane understood how to design and implement proactively…

  1. Italian high technology shows its wares at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Italian industry held an exhibition at CERN on 14-17 November with 26 firms displaying innovative technological developments.The exhibition was inaugurated in the presence of Guido Possa, vice-minister for education, universities and research. The event was organized by Sandro Centro, INFN researcher and Industrial Liaison Officer at CERN.

  2. Using Technology to Facilitate Differentiated High School Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.

    2017-10-01

    This qualitative investigation explored the beliefs and practices of one secondary science teacher, Diane, who differentiated instruction and studied how technology facilitated her differentiation. Diane was selected based on the results of a previous study, in which data indicated that Diane understood how to design and implement proactively planned, flexible, engaging instructional activities in response to students' learning needs better than the other study participants. Data for the present study included 3 h of semi-structured interview responses, 37.5 h of observations of science instruction, and other artifacts such as instructional materials. This variety of data allowed for triangulation of the evidence. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results indicated that technology played an integral role in Diane's planning and implementation of differentiated science lessons. The technology-enhanced differentiated lessons employed by Diane typically attended to students' different learning profiles or interest through modification of process or product. This study provides practical strategies for science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction, and recommendations for science teacher educators and school and district administrators. Future research should explore student outcomes, supports for effective formative assessment, and technology-enhanced readiness differentiation among secondary science teachers.

  3. Study of gain variation as a function of physical parameters of GEM foil

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC has planned to upgrade the TPC by replacing the MWPC with GEM based detecting elements to restrict the IBF to a tolerable value. However the variation of the gain as a function of physical parameters of industrially produced large size GEM foils is needed to be studied as a part of the QA procedure for the detector. The size of the electron avalanche and consequently the gain for GEM based detectors depend on the electric field distribution inside the holes. Geometry of a hole plays an important role in defining the electric field inside it. In this work we have studied the variation of the gain as a function of the hole diameters using Garfield++ simulation package.

  4. Study of gain variation as a function of physical parameters of GEM foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Supriya, E-mail: Supriya.Das@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    The ALICE experiment at LHC has planned to upgrade the TPC by replacing the MWPC with GEM based detecting elements to restrict the IBF to a tolerable value. However the variation of the gain as a function of physical parameters of industrially produced large size GEM foils is needed to be studied as a part of the QA procedure for the detector. The size of the electron avalanche and consequently the gain for GEM based detectors depend on the electric field distribution inside the holes. Geometry of a hole plays an important role in defining the electric field inside it. In this work we have studied the variation of the gain as a function of the hole diameters using Garfield++ simulation package.

  5. Study of gain variation as a function of physical parameters of GEM foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Supriya; Alice Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC has planned to upgrade the TPC by replacing the MWPC with GEM based detecting elements to restrict the IBF to a tolerable value. However the variation of the gain as a function of physical parameters of industrially produced large size GEM foils is needed to be studied as a part of the QA procedure for the detector. The size of the electron avalanche and consequently the gain for GEM based detectors depend on the electric field distribution inside the holes. Geometry of a hole plays an important role in defining the electric field inside it. In this work we have studied the variation of the gain as a function of the hole diameters using Garfield++ simulation package.

  6. An aging study of triple GEMs in Ar-CO sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Guirl, L; May, J; Miyamoto, J; Shipsey, I

    2002-01-01

    An aging study was performed using triple GEMs and a print circuit board (PCB) with an intense X-ray radiation source. The GEM chamber consists of three identical GEMs and a large gas gain (6000) was shared by them. The chamber and its gas circulation line was carefully cleaned and constructed with stainless steel materials. The detector was irradiated continuously about 750 h without interruption until a large amount of charge was accumulated. A single-wire counter served as a monitoring device to check the beam and ambient conditions. The quality of the Ar-CO sub 2 gas was checked by gas chromatography and no measurable amount of hydrocarbons were found. 27 mC/mm sup 2 was accumulated with no noticeable degradation and no deposit or discoloration was found in an optical check.

  7. GEM System: automatic prototyping of cell-wide metabolic pathway models from genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Yoichi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful realization of a "systems biology" approach to analyzing cells is a grand challenge for our understanding of life. However, current modeling approaches to cell simulation are labor-intensive, manual affairs, and therefore constitute a major bottleneck in the evolution of computational cell biology. Results We developed the Genome-based Modeling (GEM System for the purpose of automatically prototyping simulation models of cell-wide metabolic pathways from genome sequences and other public biological information. Models generated by the GEM System include an entire Escherichia coli metabolism model comprising 968 reactions of 1195 metabolites, achieving 100% coverage when compared with the KEGG database, 92.38% with the EcoCyc database, and 95.06% with iJR904 genome-scale model. Conclusion The GEM System prototypes qualitative models to reduce the labor-intensive tasks required for systems biology research. Models of over 90 bacterial genomes are available at our web site.

  8. La Gemäldegalerie di Dresda. Evoluzione dal Settecento a fine Ottocento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisia Marzotto Caotorta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its foundation, the Gemäldegalerie (Old Masters Picture Gallery in Dresden has been considered one of the most magnificent picture galleries in Europe. Not only during the Augustan Age there was a keen interest in the arts, but also a strong understanding of the arts as a means of political power claims. In this context, the Gemäldegalerie was the most representative display of this phenomenon. This article aims to explore the complex role played by the galleries of royal and aristocratic residences in Saxony, concentrating on the Gemäldegalerie between the 18th and 19th centuries as a case study, as well as focusing on its impact on contemporary German literature.

  9. The game-based learning evaluation model (GEM): measuring the effectiveness of serious games using a standardised method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Visschedijk, G.C.; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Dankbaar, M.; Trooster, W.; Schuit, S.C.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the background, design, and practical application of the game-based evaluation model (GEM). The aim of this evaluation model is to measure the effectiveness of serious games in a practical way. GEM contains the methodology and indicators to be measured in validation research.

  10. Use of quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to identify causes of diarrhoea in children: a reanalysis of the GEMS case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Platts-Mills, James A; Juma, Jane; Kabir, Furqan; Nkeze, Joseph; Okoi, Catherine; Operario, Darwin J; Uddin, Jashim; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Alonso, Pedro L; Antonio, Martin; Becker, Stephen M; Blackwelder, William C; Breiman, Robert F; Faruque, Abu S G; Fields, Barry; Gratz, Jean; Haque, Rashidul; Hossain, Anowar; Hossain, M Jahangir; Jarju, Sheikh; Qamar, Farah; Iqbal, Najeeha Talat; Kwambana, Brenda; Mandomando, Inacio; McMurry, Timothy L; Ochieng, Caroline; Ochieng, John B; Ochieng, Melvin; Onyango, Clayton; Panchalingam, Sandra; Kalam, Adil; Aziz, Fatima; Qureshi, Shahida; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Roberts, James H; Saha, Debasish; Sow, Samba O; Stroup, Suzanne E; Sur, Dipika; Tamboura, Boubou; Taniuchi, Mami; Tennant, Sharon M; Toema, Deanna; Wu, Yukun; Zaidi, Anita; Nataro, James P; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Myron M; Houpt, Eric R

    2016-09-24

    Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of mortality in children worldwide, but establishing the cause can be complicated by diverse diagnostic approaches and varying test characteristics. We used quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to reassess causes of diarrhoea in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). GEMS was a study of moderate to severe diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years in Africa and Asia. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to test for 32 enteropathogens in stool samples from cases and matched asymptomatic controls from GEMS, and compared pathogen-specific attributable incidences with those found with the original GEMS microbiological methods, including culture, EIA, and reverse-transcriptase PCR. We calculated revised pathogen-specific burdens of disease and assessed causes in individual children. We analysed 5304 sample pairs. For most pathogens, incidence was greater with qPCR than with the original methods, particularly for adenovirus 40/41 (around five times), Shigella spp or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and Campylobactor jejuni o C coli (around two times), and heat-stable enterotoxin-producing E coli ([ST-ETEC] around 1·5 times). The six most attributable pathogens became, in descending order, Shigella spp, rotavirus, adenovirus 40/41, ST-ETEC, Cryptosporidium spp, and Campylobacter spp. Pathogen-attributable diarrhoeal burden was 89·3% (95% CI 83·2-96·0) at the population level, compared with 51·5% (48·0-55·0) in the original GEMS analysis. The top six pathogens accounted for 77·8% (74·6-80·9) of all attributable diarrhoea. With use of model-derived quantitative cutoffs to assess individual diarrhoeal cases, 2254 (42·5%) of 5304 cases had one diarrhoea-associated pathogen detected and 2063 (38·9%) had two or more, with Shigella spp and rotavirus being the pathogens most strongly associated with diarrhoea in children with mixed infections. A quantitative molecular diagnostic approach improved population

  11. A hydrological prediction system based on the SVS land-surface scheme: efficient calibration of GEM-Hydro for streamflow simulation over the Lake Ontario basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Fortin, Vincent; Xu, Xiaoyong; Seglenieks, Frank; Tolson, Bryan; Fry, Lauren M.; Hunter, Tim; Anctil, François; Gronewold, Andrew D.

    2017-09-01

    This work explores the potential of the distributed GEM-Hydro runoff modeling platform, developed at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) over the last decade. More precisely, the aim is to develop a robust implementation methodology to perform reliable streamflow simulations with a distributed model over large and partly ungauged basins, in an efficient manner. The latest version of GEM-Hydro combines the SVS (Soil, Vegetation and Snow) land-surface scheme and the WATROUTE routing scheme. SVS has never been evaluated from a hydrological point of view, which is done here for all major rivers flowing into Lake Ontario. Two established hydrological models are confronted to GEM-Hydro, namely MESH and WATFLOOD, which share the same routing scheme (WATROUTE) but rely on different land-surface schemes. All models are calibrated using the same meteorological forcings, objective function, calibration algorithm, and basin delineation. GEM-Hydro is shown to be competitive with MESH and WATFLOOD: the NSE √ (Nash-Sutcliffe criterion computed on the square root of the flows) is for example equal to 0.83 for MESH and GEM-Hydro in validation on the Moira River basin, and to 0.68 for WATFLOOD. A computationally efficient strategy is proposed to calibrate SVS: a simple unit hydrograph is used for routing instead of WATROUTE. Global and local calibration strategies are compared in order to estimate runoff for ungauged portions of the Lake Ontario basin. Overall, streamflow predictions obtained using a global calibration strategy, in which a single parameter set is identified for the whole basin of Lake Ontario, show accuracy comparable to the predictions based on local calibration: the average NSE √ in validation and over seven subbasins is 0.73 and 0.61, respectively for local and global calibrations. Hence, global calibration provides spatially consistent parameter values, robust performance at gauged locations, and reduces the complexity and computation burden of the

  12. A hydrological prediction system based on the SVS land-surface scheme: efficient calibration of GEM-Hydro for streamflow simulation over the Lake Ontario basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    É. Gaborit

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the potential of the distributed GEM-Hydro runoff modeling platform, developed at Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC over the last decade. More precisely, the aim is to develop a robust implementation methodology to perform reliable streamflow simulations with a distributed model over large and partly ungauged basins, in an efficient manner. The latest version of GEM-Hydro combines the SVS (Soil, Vegetation and Snow land-surface scheme and the WATROUTE routing scheme. SVS has never been evaluated from a hydrological point of view, which is done here for all major rivers flowing into Lake Ontario. Two established hydrological models are confronted to GEM-Hydro, namely MESH and WATFLOOD, which share the same routing scheme (WATROUTE but rely on different land-surface schemes. All models are calibrated using the same meteorological forcings, objective function, calibration algorithm, and basin delineation. GEM-Hydro is shown to be competitive with MESH and WATFLOOD: the NSE  √  (Nash–Sutcliffe criterion computed on the square root of the flows is for example equal to 0.83 for MESH and GEM-Hydro in validation on the Moira River basin, and to 0.68 for WATFLOOD. A computationally efficient strategy is proposed to calibrate SVS: a simple unit hydrograph is used for routing instead of WATROUTE. Global and local calibration strategies are compared in order to estimate runoff for ungauged portions of the Lake Ontario basin. Overall, streamflow predictions obtained using a global calibration strategy, in which a single parameter set is identified for the whole basin of Lake Ontario, show accuracy comparable to the predictions based on local calibration: the average NSE  √  in validation and over seven subbasins is 0.73 and 0.61, respectively for local and global calibrations. Hence, global calibration provides spatially consistent parameter values, robust performance at gauged locations, and reduces the

  13. Formation of GEMS from shock-accelerated crystalline dust in Superbubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, A; Bradley, J P

    2004-12-08

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) contain enigmatic sub-micron components called GEMS (Glass with Embedded Metal and Sulfides). The compositions and structures of GEMS indicate that they have been processed by exposure to ionizing radiation but details of the actual irradiation environment(s) have remained elusive. Here we propose a mechanism and astrophysical site for GEMS formation that explains for the first time the following key properties of GEMS; they are stoichiometrically enriched in oxygen and systematically depleted in S, Mg, Ca and Fe (relative to solar abundances), most have normal (solar) oxygen isotopic compositions, they exhibit a strikingly narrow size distribution (0.1-0.5 {micro}m diameter), and some of them contain ''relict'' crystals within their silicate glass matrices. We show that the compositions, size distribution, and survival of relict crystals are inconsistent with amorphization by particles accelerated by diffusive shock acceleration. Instead, we propose that GEMS are formed from crystalline grains that condense in stellar outflows from massive stars in OB associations, are accelerated in encounters with frequent supernova shocks inside the associated superbubble, and are implanted with atoms from the hot gas in the SB interior. We thus reverse the usual roles of target and projectile. Rather than being bombarded at rest by energetic ions, grains are accelerated and bombarded by a nearly monovelocity beam of atoms as viewed in their rest frame. Meyer, Drury and Ellison have proposed that galactic cosmic rays originate from ions sputtered from such accelerated dust grains. We suggest that GEMS are surviving members of a population of fast grains that constitute the long-sought source material for galactic cosmic rays. Thus, representatives of the GCR source material may have been awaiting discovery in cosmic dust labs for the last thirty years.

  14. Sensors and management support in high-technology milking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, H.; Ouweltjes, W.

    2003-01-01

    Two directions can be distinguished in the development of high-tech milking equipment: 1) high-capacity milking parlors with a high throughput of cows per person per hour and 2) automatic milking systems in which manual labor is replaced by a milking robot. High-capacity milking parlors are

  15. Adaptive Optics Technology for High-Resolution Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Serrao, Sebastiano; Devaney, Nicholas; Parravano, Mariacristina; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effects of optical aberrations. The direct visualization of the photoreceptor cells, capillaries and nerve fiber bundles represents the major benefit of adding AO to retinal imaging. Adaptive optics is opening a new frontier for clinical research in ophthalmology, providing new information on the early pathological changes of the retinal microstructures in various retinal diseases. We have reviewed AO technology for retinal imaging, providing information on the core components of an AO retinal camera. The most commonly used wavefront sensing and correcting elements are discussed. Furthermore, we discuss current applications of AO imaging to a population of healthy adults and to the most frequent causes of blindness, including diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. We conclude our work with a discussion on future clinical prospects for AO retinal imaging. PMID:23271600

  16. Optics in the Great Exploration in Math and Science (GEMS) program: a summary of effective pedagogical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Gek, Tan K.

    2002-05-01

    This paper examines how optics is treated in instructional materials developed for the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) Program at the Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley. The GEMS program is a prominent resource for teachers in the United States and in many other countries. It represents a widely acknowledged, innovative approach to science and mathematics education. GEMS teacher's guides and handbooks offer a wide range of supplementary learning experiences for preschool through 8th grade (about age 13). Two guides already developed (Color Analyzers and More than Magnifiers) and one under development (working title: Invisible Universe) have a strong emphasis on fundamentals of optics. The organization and approaches of the guides will be described, with particular emphasis on the pedagogical approach represented. GEMS activities engage students in direct experience and experimentation in order to introduce essential, standards- based principles and concepts. Overwhelming educational evidence that students learn best by doing is the basis for the GEMS approach.

  17. Study of gem materials by neutron irradiation: characterization of impurities and color centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Alexandre S.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Brito, Walter de; D' Urco, Ana F.A.; Felix, Marcia C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: asleal@cdtn.br; Krambrock, Klaus [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: klaus@fisica.ufmg.br; Ferreira, Ana F. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: lapislazulli@uol.com.br

    2005-07-01

    Since one-century laboratory irradiation techniques are applied to the color enhancement of gem minerals. Its actual status and applications are discussed. Many different colors in a variety of gem minerals can be produced by gamma, electron and neutron irradiation combined with thermal treatments, however, many color centers and coloration processes are not known in detail. In this work we present examples of neutron irradiation applied to colorless topaz, spodumene and diamond. Topaz and diamond turned blue, spodumene orange. All color centers produced by neutron irradiation are stable to elevated temperatures and can be considered as color enhancing processes. (author)

  18. Shifting technology from the universities to a high performance business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Neely

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this study is to identify the external and internal factors that have shaped the performance of Technology-Based Start-up Firms (TBSF in the US. The second goal is to compare this study with a previous study conducted in Brazil, to identify incubator best practices that may increase the performance of incubated firms. The US study focuses on graduated firms from the Indiana University incubator located in Indianapolis. The main partners of three technology-based start-up firms were interviewed, based on a semi-structured questionnaire. The outcomes from our analysis indicated that the TBSF have both internal and external factors that affect their performance. The analysis showed that as an external factor, the incubator’s connection with university was helpful for obtaining capital. As internal factors, the technical expertise and entrepreneur managerial competence was identified as fundamental factors for TBSF success. The analysis also indicated that some of those factors are different between Brazilian firms and American firms. In Brazil, the management training offered by the incubator is considered very important for the performance of the incubated firms. This was not confirmed in the American study. Knowing what affects the performance of technology-based start-up firms will help incubators offer improved, and more comprehensive services enabling firms to develop and expand.

  19. A Novel Assembly Procedure of GE1\\slash1 Detectors for CMS High Luminosity Phase of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Aashaq

    2017-01-01

    A CMS muon group is investigating the possibility of enhancing muon tracking and triggering capabilities in the region 1.6$\\textless$$\\eta$$\\textless$2.18 of the CMS experiment at the LHC by instrumenting the end-cap muon system with large-area tipple GEM detectors. These GE1/1 detectors are considered as an important technology for High-Luminosity phase of LHC and contain a triple-GEM with a 3\\slash1\\slash2\\slash1 mm drift\\slash transfer-1\\slash transfer-2\\slash induction field gap configuration and the active readout area of 0.345\\slash0.409m$^{2}$ for the short/long chambers. We describe a novel assembly procedure of such detectors at LHC.

  20. Development of a tracker based on GEM optically readout

    CERN Document Server

    Torchia, Natalia

    The high-resolution tracking of low energy release particles had a remarkable development in recent years and will give a crucial contribution in different sectors, from medical applications to those in dark matter search. Thanks to their characteristics (high space and time resolution, low material budget, large volumes, low costs) the gas detectors have shown to be ideal candidates for this type of trackers. In particular, a very promising technique regards the optical reading of the light produced by the de-excitation of gas molecules during the processes of electron multiplication. This type of detector has been made possible thanks to the great progresses achieved in last years in the performance in micro pattern gas detector and in the evolution of the CMOS technology which led to the production of sensors able of offering high sensitivity and granularity combined with a very low noise level. In this thesis I studied the performance of a two prototypes where the light is produced through the multiplicat...

  1. Predicting nitrate discharge dynamics in mesoscale catchments using the lumped StreamGEM model and Bayesian parameter inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Simon James Roy; Wöhling, Thomas; Rode, Michael; Stenger, Roland

    2017-09-01

    The common practice of infrequent (e.g., monthly) stream water quality sampling for state of the environment monitoring may, when combined with high resolution stream flow data, provide sufficient information to accurately characterise the dominant nutrient transfer pathways and predict annual catchment yields. In the proposed approach, we use the spatially lumped catchment model StreamGEM to predict daily stream flow and nitrate concentration (mg L-1 NO3-N) in four contrasting mesoscale headwater catchments based on four years of daily rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, and stream flow measurements, and monthly or daily nitrate concentrations. Posterior model parameter distributions were estimated using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling code DREAMZS and a log-likelihood function assuming heteroscedastic, t-distributed residuals. Despite high uncertainty in some model parameters, the flow and nitrate calibration data was well reproduced across all catchments (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency against Log transformed data, NSL, in the range 0.62-0.83 for daily flow and 0.17-0.88 for nitrate concentration). The slight increase in the size of the residuals for a separate validation period was considered acceptable (NSL in the range 0.60-0.89 for daily flow and 0.10-0.74 for nitrate concentration, excluding one data set with limited validation data). Proportions of flow and nitrate discharge attributed to near-surface, fast seasonal groundwater and slow deeper groundwater were consistent with expectations based on catchment geology. The results for the Weida Stream in Thuringia, Germany, using monthly as opposed to daily nitrate data were, for all intents and purposes, identical, suggesting that four years of monthly nitrate sampling provides sufficient information for calibration of the StreamGEM model and prediction of catchment dynamics. This study highlights the remarkable effectiveness of process based, spatially lumped modelling with commonly available monthly

  2. Next Generation Modeling Technology for High Speed Rotorcraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a new generation of high speed rotorcraft has been hampered by both an absence of strong predictive methods for rotors operating at very high advance...

  3. Packaging Technology for SiC High Temperature Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Nakley, Leah M.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2017-01-01

    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for long-term exploration of Venus and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500 C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors in relevant environments. This talk will discuss a ceramic packaging system developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC integrated circuits at 500 C facilitated by this high temperature packaging system, including the most recent progress.

  4. LIQUIDARMOR CM Flashing and Sealant, High Impact Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E [ORNL; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2016-12-01

    Air leakage is responsible for about 1.1 quads of energy or 6% of the total energy used by commercial buildings in the US. Consequently, infiltration and exfiltration are among the largest envelope-related contributors to the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning loads in commercial buildings. New air sealing technologies have recently emerged that aim to improve the performance of air barrier systems by simplifying their installation procedure. LIQUIDARMORTM CM Flashing and Sealant is an example of these new advanced material technologies. This technology is a spray-applied sealant and liquid flashing and can span gaps that are up to ¼ in. wide without a supporting material. ORNL verified the performance of LIQUIDARMORTM CM with field tests and energy simulations from a building in which LIQUIDARMORTM CM was one of components of the air barrier system. The Homeland Security Training Center (HTC) at the College of DuPage in Glen Ellyn, IL, served as the demonstration site. Blower door test results show the average air leakage rate in the demonstration site to be 0.15 cfm/ft2 at 1.57 psf, or 63% lower than the 0.4 cfm at 1.57 psf specified in the 2015 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). According to simulation results, HTC lowered its annual heating and cooling cost by about $3,000 or 9% compared to a similar building that lacked an air barrier system. This demonstration project serves as an example of the level of building envelope airtightness that can be achieved by using air barrier materials that are properly installed, and illustrates the energy and financial savings that such an airtight envelope could attain.

  5. Normal accidents living with high-risk technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Perrow, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Normal Accidents analyzes the social side of technological risk. Charles Perrow argues that the conventional engineering approach to ensuring safety--building in more warnings and safeguards--fails because systems complexity makes failures inevitable. He asserts that typical precautions, by adding to complexity, may help create new categories of accidents. (At Chernobyl, tests of a new safety system helped produce the meltdown and subsequent fire.) By recognizing two dimensions of risk--complex versus linear interactions, and tight versus loose coupling--this book provides a powerful framework for analyzing risks and the organizations that insist we run them.

  6. The rise and decay of new high-technology ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Busuncian, Elena

    This study is positioned at the intersection of legitimation and entrepreneurship theories with the aim to uncover the relationship between the process of legitimation and the process of emergence and discontinuous of a new venture. From the legitimation theory perspective, the paper is trying...... strategies. From the entrepreneurship theory perspective, the paper aims to explore the process of emergence (identification/creation of new business opportunity and its pursuit) of the new venture, and uncover the relationship between the legitimation of new technology and the new venture on one hand...

  7. Brisk walking to improve quality of life of high technology industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short periods of brisk walking on the quality of life (QOL) of workers in high technology industries. 86 workers were recruited from a high technology company in northern Taiwan who had not participated in regular physical activity within the last three months. They were ...

  8. Barriers to Systemic, Effective, and Sustainable Technology Use in High School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jason Scott; Jacobsen, Michele; Varnhagen, Stanley; Friesen, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Technology and High School Success (THSS) initiative was to encourage innovative strategies focused on improving provincial high school completion rates, using technology and student-centered learning to engage student interest. The primary purpose of this paper is to report on barriers that impede systemic, effective and…

  9. Developing Musical Creativity: Student and Teacher Perceptions of a High School Music Technology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lance D.

    2013-01-01

    Music technology classes designed to use the latest in music software to develop music compositional skills within high school students are becoming more prominent in K-12 education. The purpose of this case study was to describe the development of creativity in high school students through their participation in a music technology course at one…

  10. Spotlight on Schools. AMAL Aleph Arts and Sciences Technological High School, Petach Tikva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Dina

    1998-01-01

    Israel's AMAL Aleph High School combines advanced technology with regular high school academic studies. This article describes how one English-as-a-Second-Language teacher joined a project to develop an online English student magazine for the Center for Educational Technology Internet site, then used to the project to improve students' English…

  11. FY 1995 Blue Book: High Performance Computing and Communications: Technology for the National Information Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The Federal High Performance Computing and Communications HPCC Program was created to accelerate the development of future generations of high performance computers...

  12. High-flux/high-temperature solar thermal conversion: technology development and advanced applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar Thermal Power Plants have generated in the last 10 years a dynamic market for renewable energy industry and a pro-active networking within R&D community worldwide. By end 2015, there are about 5 GW installed in the world, most of them still concentrated in only two countries, Spain and the US, though a rapid process of globalization is taking place in the last few years and now ambitious market deployment is starting in countries like South Africa, Chile, Saudi Arabia, India, United Arab Emirates or Morocco. Prices for electricity produced by today's plants fill the range from 12 to 16 c€/kWh and they are capital intensive with investments above 4000 €/kW, depending on the number of hours of thermal storage. The urgent need to speed up the learning curve, by moving forward to LCOE below 10 c€/kWh and the promotion of sun-to-fuel applications, is driving the R&D programmes. Both, industry and R&D community are accelerating the transformation by approaching high-flux/high-temperature technologies and promoting the integration with high-efficiency conversion systems.

  13. Time-Valued-Technology: A Light-Emitting Diode Case Study for Determining Replacement Strategy for High Technology Infrastructure Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    viii I. Introduction .....................................................................................................................1...DIODE CASE STUDY FOR DETERMINING REPLACEMENT STRATEGY FOR HIGH TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE ITEMS I. Introduction In an effort to support cost... MCDM Models, Algorithms, Theory, and Applications. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Norwell, Ma. GE Commercial Lighting Products. Retrieved 11/2/2011

  14. High magnetic field ohmically decoupled non-contact technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgen, John [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard [Oak Ridge, TN; Ludtka, Gail [Oak Ridge, TN; Jaramillo, Roger [Knoxville, TN

    2009-05-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for high magnetic field ohmically decoupled non-contact treatment of conductive materials in a high magnetic field. A method includes applying a high magnetic field to at least a portion of a conductive material; and applying an inductive magnetic field to at least a fraction of the conductive material to induce a surface current within the fraction of the conductive material, the surface current generating a substantially bi-directional force that defines a vibration. The high magnetic field and the inductive magnetic field are substantially confocal, the fraction of the conductive material is located within the portion of the conductive material and ohmic heating from the surface current is ohmically decoupled from the vibration. An apparatus includes a high magnetic field coil defining an applied high magnetic field; an inductive magnetic field coil coupled to the high magnetic field coil, the inductive magnetic field coil defining an applied inductive magnetic field; and a processing zone located within both the applied high magnetic field and the applied inductive magnetic field. The high magnetic field and the inductive magnetic field are substantially confocal, and ohmic heating of a conductive material located in the processing zone is ohmically decoupled from a vibration of the conductive material.

  15. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Management of High-Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    Moisture management of high-R walls is important to ensure optimal performance. This case study, developed by Building America team Building Science Corporation, focuses on how eight high-R walls handle the three main sources of moisture—construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leaks.

  16. High pressure gas laser technology for atmospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan, A.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a fixed frequency chirp-free and highly stable intense pulsed laser made for Doppler wind velocity measurements with accurate ranging is described. Energy extraction from a high pressure CO2 laser at a tunable single mode frequency is also examined.

  17. High-R window technology development. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arasteh, D.

    1991-01-01

    Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 ``super`` windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.

  18. The role of high technology in maintaining esthetic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, R E; Miller, M C

    1996-01-01

    Computer technology has revolutionized the way the world does business, allowing us to work faster, smarter, and more efficiently than ever before. Within dentistry, that translates to x-rays that use significantly smaller amounts of ionizing radiation, automated periodontal charting and storage devices, and imaging systems. Perhaps the greatest bottom-line benefit, especially in esthetic dentistry, is that these state-of-the-art developments enable dentists and hygienists to more effectively communicate with patients. The future of any restoration is based on the patient's motivation and ability to maintain an efficient oral hygiene routine. Esthetic restorations demand more vigorous home care programs to maximize their esthetic and functional life expectancy. With computerized images on screen, patients can better visualize the treatment that has been done and come to a realization that the restoration's success rests squarely on their shoulders.

  19. Latest Technologies and Equipment to Obtain High Quality Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharuk, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A principally new concept of providing the Ukrainian population with quality drinking water have been proposed. It is based on a system of autonomous complexes for water purification in places of direct consumption. Water treatment autonomous complexes for collective and individual use with biotesting and analytical quality control of drinking water have been developed. The choice of the cleaning methods of tap and other waters up to the quality of genetic safe is performed in accordance with its composition and is based on a block concept that provides the possibility of varying the number of units depending on the composition of the source water. The proposed technology and equipment at cost and complex problems to be solved have no analogues in the world. Over thousand of modular installations «Vega» and disinfecting vehicles «Promin» are implemented in many settlement in all regions of Ukraine.

  20. MeerLICHT and BlackGEM: custom-built telescopes to detect faint optical transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Steven; Groot, Paul; Woudt, Patrick; Klein Wolt, Marc; McBride, Vanessa; Nelemans, Gijs; Körding, Elmar; Pretorius, Margaretha L.; Roelfsema, Ronald; Bettonvil, Felix; Balster, Harry; Bakker, Roy; Dolron, Peter; van Elteren, Arjen; Elswijk, Eddy; Engels, Arno; Fender, Rob; Fokker, Marc; de Haan, Menno; Hagoort, Klaas; de Hoog, Jasper; ter Horst, Rik; van der Kevie, Giel; Kozłowski, Stanisław; Kragt, Jan; Lech, Grzegorz; Le Poole, Rudolf; Lesman, Dirk; Morren, Johan; Navarro, Ramon; Paalberends, Willem-Jelle; Paterson, Kerry; Pawłaszek, Rafal; Pessemier, Wim; Raskin, Gert; Rutten, Harrie; Scheers, Bart; Schuil, Menno; Sybilski, Piotr W.

    2016-07-01

    We present the MeerLICHT and BlackGEM telescopes, which are wide-field optical telescopes that are currently being built to study transient phenomena, gravitational wave counterparts and variable stars. The telescopes have 65 cm primary mirrors and a 2.7 square degree field-of-view. The MeerLICHT and BlackGEM projects have different science goals, but will use identical telescopes. The first telescope, MeerLICHT, will be commissioned at Sutherland (South Africa) in the first quarter of 2017. It will co-point with MeerKAT to collect optical data commensurate with the radio observations. After careful analysis of MeerLICHT's performance, three telescopes of the same type will be commissioned in La Silla (Chile) in 2018 to form phase I of the BlackGEM array. BlackGEM aims at detecting and characterizing optical counterparts of gravitational wave events detected by Advanced LIGO and Virgo. In this contribution we present an overview of the science goals, the design and the status of the two projects.

  1. Development of GEM-based readout chambers for the upgrade of the ALICE TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deisting, Alexander [Universitaet Heidelberg/Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The ALICE experiment at the LHC is designed to examine lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions in order to probe genuine multi-particle aspects of QCD. Its main tracking detector is a time projection chamber (TPC), being equipped with a multi wire proportional chamber (MWPC) based readout. Since the rate in Pb-Pb collisions will increase to up to 50 kHz in LHC Run3 it is necessary to adapt the TPC to this new environment. A change from the current measurement mode with a gating grid and MWPCs to a continuous readout with new readout chambers is hence foreseen. To match the requirements for Run3 the new chambers should be able to cope with the higher rates and thereby preserve the momentum and dE/dx resolution of the current chambers. In addition the ion back flow (IBF) from the amplification stage into the drift volume should be less then 1%. A solution has been found based on 4 gas electron multiplier foils (GEMs) stacked onto each other. Extensive R and D studies of 4 GEM stacks were performed. In this talk different experimental setups to examine the performance of quadruple GEM stacks in terms of IBF, energy resolution and dE/dx are presented. Emphasis is put on the simultaneous optimisation of the energy resolution and the IBF while studying different kinds of GEM foils in a stack.

  2. Energy resolution studies of an IROC GEM prototype for the ALICE TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathis, Andreas [TU Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Excellence Cluster ' ' Universe' ' , D-85748, Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The ALICE collaboration (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is planning an upgrade of its central barrel detectors, to be able to cope with the increased LHC luminosity beyond 2018. In order to fully exploit the increase in collision rate to about 50 kHz in Pb-Pb, the TPC is foreseen to be operated in an ungated mode with continuous readout. This demands for a replacement of the currently used, gated MWPC by GEM-based readout chambers, while retaining the present tracking and particle identification capabilities of the TPC via measurement of the specific energy loss (dE/dx). The present baseline solution for the TPC upgrade consists of a stack of four large-sized GEM foils as amplification stage, containing both Standard (S, 140 μm) and Large Pitch (LP, 280 μm) GEM foils arranged in the order S-LP-LP-S. This arrangement has been proven as advantageous in terms of ion backflow and energy resolution. A prototype of an ALICE IROC (Inner Readout Chamber) was equipped with such a quadruple GEM stack, installed inside a field cage and exposed to a beam of electrons and pions from the CERN PS. The performance of the prototype in terms of energy resolution has been evaluated and is presented.

  3. Development and Test of a GEM-Based TEPC System for In-Phantom Dose Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C-K Chris Wang

    2007-03-13

    The objectives of this project include: (1) to construct a minature tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) using a gas-electron-multiplier (GEM) foil, and (2) to conduct neutron and gamma-ray dose measurements with the detector embedded in a phantom

  4. Modeling radiation belt electron dynamics during GEM challenge intervals with the DREAM3D diffusion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Tu (Weichao); G.S. Cunningham; Y. Chen; M.G. Henderson; E. Camporeale (Enrico); G.D. Reeves (Geoffrey)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAs a response to the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) “Global Radiation Belt Modeling Challenge,” a 3D diffusion model is used to simulate the radiation belt electron dynamics during two intervals of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) mission, 15 August to 15

  5. 16 CFR 23.25 - Misuse of the word “gem.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other industry product that does not possess the beauty, symmetry, rarity, and value necessary for... JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.25 Misuse of the word “gem.” (a) It is unfair or... industry product unless the product meets the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section and unless such...

  6. The triple GEM detector as beam monitor for relativistic hadron beams

    CERN Document Server

    Aza, E; Murtas, F; Puddu, S; Silari, M

    2014-01-01

    triple GEM detector was tested at the CERF facility at CERN as an on-line beam imaging monitor and as a counting reference device. It was exposed to a 120 GeV/c positively charged hadron beam (approximately 2/3 pions and 1/3 protons), which hits a copper target gen- erating a wide spectrum of different kinds of particles used for various experiments. The flux of beam particles ranged over three orders of magnitude, from 8 10 4 s 1 to 8 10 7 s 1 . The profile of the beam acquired with the GEM was compared to the one measured with a MWPC and no satu- ration was observed. In addition, the count rate measured with the GEM was compared to the one measured with an Ionization Chamber, which is routinely used for monitoring the beam intensity. Another way of monitoring the intensity of the beam was also explored, which is based on the total current driven from the GEM foils. The digital readout allows making a 2D online image of the beam for the alignment with the copper target in the CERF facility. A low residual ac...

  7. The triple GEM detector as beam monitor for relativistic hadron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aza, E.; Magistris, M.; Murtas, F.; Puddu, S.; Silari, M.

    2014-06-01

    A triple GEM detector was tested at the CERF facility at CERN as an on-line beam imaging monitor and as a counting reference device. It was exposed to a 120 GeV/c positively charged hadron beam (approximately 2/3 pions and 1/3 protons), which hits a copper target generating a wide spectrum of different kinds of particles used for various experiments. The flux of beam particles ranged over three orders of magnitude, from 8·104 s-1 to 8·107 s-1. The profile of the beam acquired with the GEM was compared to the one measured with a MWPC and no saturation was observed. In addition, the count rate measured with the GEM was compared to the one measured with an Ionization Chamber, which is routinely used for monitoring the beam intensity. Another way of monitoring the intensity of the beam was also explored, which is based on the total current driven from the GEM foils. The digital readout allows making a 2D online image of the beam for the alignment with the copper target in the CERF facility. A low residual activation of the detector was observed shortly after irradiation.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVRI differential photometry of GW Gem (Lee+, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. W.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Kim, H.-I.; Park, J.-H.; Park, S.-R.; Koch, R. H.

    2009-04-01

    Our CCD photometry of GW Gem was performed on 13 nights during the period 2007 December 20-2008 March 1 in order to obtain multicolor light curves. The observations were taken with a SITe 2K CCD camera and a BVRI filter set attached to the 61-cm reflector at Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) in Korea. (1 data file).

  9. Extending the GEM model to support knowledge extraction from textual guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg, Gersende; Séroussi, Brigitte; Bouaud, Jacques

    2005-03-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) are being developed as a tool to promote best practice in medicine. However, the diffusion of paper guidelines has been shown to only have a limited impact. This is why computerization of CPGs has recently been suggested as a means to improve their dissemination as well as physicians' compliance. The Guideline Elements Model (GEM) has been proposed to facilitate the encoding of CPGs and support the automatic processing of marked-up documents. In this paper, we explore the automatic generation of a rule base from a textual guideline using GEM. In this study, we propose an extension of the GEM model that introduces additional levels of structuring centered on decision variables. This allows a more efficient representation of the decision processes, which supports the automatic generation of decision rules from textual guidelines. The 1999 Canadian recommendations for the management of hypertension have been marked-up as a GEM-encoded instance of our extended DTD. We derived a rule base using an XML parser to extract the relevant elements to instantiate the IF and THEN clauses of decision rules. The rule base automatically generated compares favourably with the manual generation of decision rules in the ASTI project. This approach is an interesting case study in the computerization of CPGs, as it illustrates processing steps that are relevant to the various aspects of CPGs life-cycle, from production to consultation and use.

  10. Detection of structural varieties of red gem spinels from Ratnapura, Sabaragamuwa province of Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerwey, A.A.F.

    1974-01-01

    A new instrumental method for spectrographical detection of particularities of crystal fields around optically active ions, such as the trivalent chromium ion, was applied to an investigation of red magnesium-spinels from the Ratnapura gem gravels; also from Kangaiyam in India and some other sources

  11. Promoting microbiology education through the iGEM synthetic biology competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelwick, Richard; Bowater, Laura; Yeoman, Kay H; Bowater, Richard P

    2015-08-01

    Synthetic biology has developed rapidly in the 21st century. It covers a range of scientific disciplines that incorporate principles from engineering to take advantage of and improve biological systems, often applied to specific problems. Methods important in this subject area include the systematic design and testing of biological systems and, here, we describe how synthetic biology projects frequently develop microbiology skills and education. Synthetic biology research has huge potential in biotechnology and medicine, which brings important ethical and moral issues to address, offering learning opportunities about the wider impact of microbiological research. Synthetic biology projects have developed into wide-ranging training and educational experiences through iGEM, the International Genetically Engineered Machines competition. Elements of the competition are judged against specific criteria and teams can win medals and prizes across several categories. Collaboration is an important element of iGEM, and all DNA constructs synthesized by iGEM teams are made available to all researchers through the Registry for Standard Biological Parts. An overview of microbiological developments in the iGEM competition is provided. This review is targeted at educators that focus on microbiology and synthetic biology, but will also be of value to undergraduate and postgraduate students with an interest in this exciting subject area. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Structured Innovation of High-Performance Wave Energy Converter Technology: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jochem W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laird, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-25

    Wave energy converter (WEC) technology development has not yet delivered the desired commercial maturity nor, and more importantly, the techno-economic performance. The reasons for this have been recognized and fundamental requirements for successful WEC technology development have been identified. This paper describes a multi-year project pursued in collaboration by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories to innovate and develop new WEC technology. It specifies the project strategy, shows how this differs from the state-of-the-art approach and presents some early project results. Based on the specification of fundamental functional requirements of WEC technology, structured innovation and systemic problem solving methodologies are applied to invent and identify new WEC technology concepts. Using Technology Performance Levels (TPL) as an assessment metric of the techno-economic performance potential, high performance technology concepts are identified and selected for further development. System performance is numerically modelled and optimized and key performance aspects are empirically validated. The project deliverables are WEC technology specifications of high techno-economic performance technologies of TPL 7 or higher at TRL 3 with some key technology challenges investigated at higher TRL. These wave energy converter technology specifications will be made available to industry for further, full development and commercialisation (TRL 4 - TRL 9).

  13. Next Generation Modeling Technology for High Speed Rotorcraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent R&D associated with designing high speed rotorcraft has been greatly hampered by a lack of test data and confidence in predictions for rotors operating...

  14. Space weather effects on radio propagation: study of the CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Blagoveshchensky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 14 geomagnetic storms from a list of CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storms, that occurred during 1997–1999, on radio propagation conditions has been investigated. The propagation conditions were estimated through variations of the MOF and LOF (the maximum and lowest operation frequencies on three high-latitude HF radio paths in north-west Russia. Geophysical data of Dst, Bz, AE as well as some riometer data from Sodankyla observatory, Finland, were used for the analysis. It was shown that the storm impact on the ionosphere and radio propagation for each storm has an individual character. Nevertheless, there are common patterns in variation of the propagation parameters for all storms. Thus, the frequency range Δ=MOF−LOF increases several hours before a storm, then it narrows sharply during the storm, and expands again several hours after the end of the storm. This regular behaviour should be useful for the HF radio propagation predictions and frequency management at high latitudes. On the trans-auroral radio path, the time interval when the signal is lost through a storm (tdes depends on the local time. For the day-time storms an average value tdes is 6 h, but for night storms tdes is only 2 h. The ionization increase in the F2 layer before storm onset is 3.5 h during the day-time and 2.4 h at night. Mechanisms to explain the observed variations are discussed including some novel possibilities involving energy input through the cusp.

  15. Space weather effects on radio propagation: study of the CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Blagoveshchensky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 14 geomagnetic storms from a list of CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storms, that occurred during 1997–1999, on radio propagation conditions has been investigated. The propagation conditions were estimated through variations of the MOF and LOF (the maximum and lowest operation frequencies on three high-latitude HF radio paths in north-west Russia. Geophysical data of Dst, Bz, AE as well as some riometer data from Sodankyla observatory, Finland, were used for the analysis. It was shown that the storm impact on the ionosphere and radio propagation for each storm has an individual character. Nevertheless, there are common patterns in variation of the propagation parameters for all storms. Thus, the frequency range Δ=MOF−LOF increases several hours before a storm, then it narrows sharply during the storm, and expands again several hours after the end of the storm. This regular behaviour should be useful for the HF radio propagation predictions and frequency management at high latitudes. On the trans-auroral radio path, the time interval when the signal is lost through a storm (tdes depends on the local time. For the day-time storms an average value tdes is 6 h, but for night storms tdes is only 2 h. The ionization increase in the F2 layer before storm onset is 3.5 h during the day-time and 2.4 h at night. Mechanisms to explain the observed variations are discussed including some novel possibilities involving energy input through the cusp.

  16. Analysis of the lack of scientific and technological talents of high-level women in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang

    2017-08-01

    The growth and development of high-level female scientific and technological talents has become a global problem, facing severe challenges. The lack of high-level women in science and technology has become a global problem. How to recruit and help female scientists and technological talents grow raises awareness from the industry. To find out the main reasons for the lack of high-level female scientific and technological talent. This paper analyses the impact of gender discrimination on the lack of high-level female scientific and technological talents, the impact of disciplinary differences on female roles. The main reasons are: women’s natural disadvantage of mathematical thinking; female birth, the traditional culture on the role of women and the impact of values.

  17. The GEM-Mars general circulation model for Mars: Description and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, L.; Daerden, F.

    2018-01-01

    GEM-Mars is a gridpoint-based three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM) of the Mars atmosphere extending from the surface to approximately 150 km based on the GEM (Global Environmental Multiscale) model, part of the operational weather forecasting and data assimilation system for Canada. After the initial modification for Mars, the model has undergone considerable changes. GEM-Mars is now based on GEM 4.2.0 and many physical parameterizations have been added for Mars-specific atmospheric processes and surface-atmosphere exchange. The model simulates interactive carbon dioxide-, dust-, water- and atmospheric chemistry cycles. Dust and water ice clouds are radiatively active. Size distributed dust is lifted by saltation and dust devils. The model includes 16 chemical species (CO2, Argon, N2, O2, CO, H2O, CH4, O3, O(1D), O, H, H2, OH, HO2, H2O2 and O2(a1Δg)) and has fully interactive photochemistry (15 reactions) and gas-phase chemistry (31 reactions). GEM-Mars provides a good simulation of the water and ozone cycles. A variety of other passive tracers can be included for dedicated studies, such as the emission of methane. The model has both a hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic formulation, and together with a flexible grid definition provides a single platform for simulations on a variety of horizontal scales. The model code is fully parallelized using OMP and MPI. Model results are evaluated by comparison to a selection of observations from instruments on the surface and in orbit, relating to atmosphere and surface temperature and pressure, dust and ice content, polar ice mass, polar argon, and global water and ozone vertical columns. GEM-Mars will play an integral part in the analysis and interpretation of data that is received by the NOMAD spectrometer on the ESA-Roskosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. The present paper provides an overview of the current status and capabilities of the GEM-Mars model and lays the foundations for more in-depth studies in support

  18. Extremely high-speed imaging based on tubeless technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingzhen

    2008-11-01

    This contribution focuses on the tubeless imaging, the extreme-high speed imaging. A detail discussion is presented on how and why to make them, which would be the most important in the high speed imaging field in the future. Tubeless extreme-high speed imaging can not only be used to observe the transient processes like collision, detonating, and high voltage discharge, but also to research the processes like disintegration and transfer of phonon and exacton in solid, photosynthesis primitive reaction, and electron dynamics inside atom shell. Its imaging frequency is about 107~1015fps. For this kind of imaging, the mechanism of how forming both high speed and framing would better make fine use of the light speed, the light parallelism, the parameters of light wave such as its amplitude, phase, polarization and wave length, and even quantum characteristics of photons. In the cascade connection system of electromagnetic wave and particle wave, it is able to simultaneously realize high level both the temporal resolution and the spatial resolution, and it would be possible to break through the limit of the Heisenberg uncertainty correlation of the optical frequency band.

  19. Results and performances of X-ray imaging GEM cameras on FTU (1-D), KSTAR (2-D) and progresses of future experimental set up on W7-X and EAST Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordella, F.; Choe, W.; Claps, G.; Gabellieri, L.; Jang, J.; Jeon, T.; Lee, S. H.; Li, E.; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Song, I.

    2017-10-01

    The triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a good candidate for the observation of the plasma volume emitting X-rays photons in the energy band up to 30 keV . The GEM camera system can be simply installed outside the port of a fusion device and it's a micropattern proportional gas detector which consists of an ionization gap, where X-rays photon conversion occurs, three consecutive foils working as amplification stage and finally a dedicated printed circuit board. Its simple experimental setup can be made in different configurations with 1D or 2D imaging possibilities: perpendicular GEM camera allows a 1D emissivity profile reconstruction instead a tangential GEM camera allows a poloidal cross-section image. Moreover, they offer high sensitivity, noise free, optical flexibility (zooming and tilting, magnification 10× up to 30×), high contrast, high dynamic range (6 orders of magnitude) and good time resolution (submillisecond). In this work several experimental results already observed on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) and the Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) devices will be presented. The perpendicular installation on FTU allows a 1D radial profile with 128 lines of sight, while thanks to the 2D tangential view of the plasma, the reconstruction of the cross section has been done on KSTAR. Between them there are dynamic and precursors of sawtooth, effects of Edge Localized Mode (ELM) in the core and possible interplay between core and edge in ELMs (high m modes), effects of plasma rotation in the core, dynamic of injected impurities in the outer part of the plasma or also impurity accumulation and localized effects of additional heating. Installation of GEM systems is planned on Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) also for their robustness and flexibility X-rays detection in presence of high radiative environments (neutrons and gammas). In future applications on the above mentioned

  20. Development of high level radwaste treatment and conversion technology. Transmutation technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Suk; Song, T. Y.; Kim, Y. H

    2001-03-01

    The final disposition of spent fuel has been, and continues to be, an important issue of nuclear industry. The conceptual design for the accelerator driven transmutation system HYPER is scheduled to be completed by the year of 2006. As the first step for the conceptual design, a study to determine 1. sub-critical core characteristics, 2. fuel concept, 3. coolant system concept, 4. spallation target concept for the HYPER was performed from 1997 to 2000. Most of concept studies were done on the literature basis. The major objectives of the study is to give a guid-line for the second stage research which will be performed during 2001-2003. In addition, the technologies related with TRU-Zr fuel and Pb-Bi coolant can be utilized for the future nuclear reactor development such as generation 4.

  1. Processing technology for high efficiency silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, M. B.; Keavney, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances in silicon solar cell processing have led to attainment of conversion efficiency approaching 20%. The basic cell design is investigated and features of greatest importance to achievement of 20% efficiency are indicated. Experiments to separately optimize high efficiency design features in test structures are discussed. The integration of these features in a high efficiency cell is examined. Ion implantation has been used to achieve optimal concentrations of emitter dopant and junction depth. The optimization reflects the trade-off between high sheet conductivity, necessary for high fill factor, and heavy doping effects, which must be minimized for high open circuit voltage. A second important aspect of the design experiments is the development of a passivation process to minimize front surface recombination velocity. The manner in which a thin SiO2 layer may be used for this purpose is indicated without increasing reflection losses, if the antireflection coating is properly designed. Details are presented of processing intended to reduce recombination at the contact/Si interface. Data on cell performance (including CZ and ribbon) and analysis of loss mechanisms are also presented.

  2. High-R Window Technology Development : Phase II Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arasteh, Dariush

    1991-01-01

    Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 super'' windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.

  3. High Performance Low Cost Digitally Controlled Power Conversion Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes

    2008-01-01

    suited for digital control schemes involving multiple control loops such as digital control of a switch-mode power supply with several converter stages. Customised digital control solutions implemented in application specific integrated circuits are the best solution for high bandwidth digital control......Digital control of switch-mode power supplies and converters has within the last decade evolved from being an academic subject to an emerging market in the power electronics industry. This development has been pushed mainly by the computer industry that is looking towards digital power management...... of non-isolated DC-DC converters. A customised digital control solution for a voltage mode control scheme should include a digital pulse width modulator which can generate a pulse width modulated signal with high switching frequency and high resolution, a digital compensator with a short execution time...

  4. Modelling present and future African climate using CMIP5scenarios in HadGEM2-ES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M. H.; Diallo, M.; Dike, V. N.

    2014-12-01

    The present precipitation and temperature patterns and expected future changes (2073-2098) in Africa are investigated using the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 2-Earth System (HadGEM2-ES) under the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) protocols for historical and future emission scenarios simulations.In a CMIP5 multimodel analysis, the annual cycles of temperature and precipitation simulated by HadGEM2-ES were very close to the multimodel ensemble mean. HadGEM2-ES temperature simulation compares well with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis over the 1979-2004 periods, except for a summer overestimation in Central Africa, and a winter underestimation in tropical West Africa. The precipitation simulation compared well with the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data from 1979 to 2004 over the entire Africa, except in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), where the model fails to capture adequately the transition phase of the monsoon circulation. The dry regimes over Northern Africa as well as the wetter regime occurring over Central Africa, which is mainly regulated by the ITCZ displacement, and during the austral summer of Southern Africa, are also fairly reproduced by the HadGEM2-ES model. The model projects for the end of the 21st century a rainy South Africa, a change of the flood/drought cycle in the Tropics and a warming over the whole continent, varying from 3 to 7 ∘ C. HadGEM2-ES performance for Nigeria shows good reproduction of precipitation seasonal cycles for some locations, outside the ITCZ. However, the comparison with in situ measurement in Ilorin and Lagos shows the model is not being able to reproduce the precipitation annual cycle. Future projections for Nigeria exhibit warming everywhere and an enhancement of precipitation, especially in the northern part of the country.

  5. Production technology for high efficiency ion implanted solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.; Minnucci, J. A.; Greenwald, A. C.; Josephs, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Ion implantation is being developed for high volume automated production of silicon solar cells. An implanter designed for solar cell processing and able to properly implant up to 300 4-inch wafers per hour is now operational. A machine to implant 180 sq m/hr of solar cell material has been designed. Implanted silicon solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 16% AM1 are now being produced and higher efficiencies are expected. Ion implantation and transient processing by pulsed electron beams are being integrated with electrostatic bonding to accomplish a simple method for large scale, low cost production of high efficiency solar cell arrays.

  6. Managing Projects with Strong Technological Rupture - Case of High-Speed Ground Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    de Tilière, Guillaume

    2002-01-01

    Managing the launch of new technological trajectories is a complex task, especially in the case of High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT) Systems. For instance, Maglev systems are now developed since 40 years, and none of these technologies has been implemented until the first Transrapid contract for Shanghai (which could lead to a 1250 km track between Beijing and Shanghai). What are the future challenges for cutting-edge technologies such as a Swissmetro or the Japanese MLX-01? Be...

  7. Construction technology of high-rise pile cap foundation of offshore wind power in Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. Y.; Chi, Y.; Sun, X. Q.; Han, Y. P.; Chen, X.; Zhao, L. C.; Zhang, H.

    2017-11-01

    Offshore wind farms promise to become an important source of energy in the near future. The high-rise pile cap foundation is one of the typical foundation types for offshore wind turbine. This paper introduces the structural characteristics and construction technology of high-rise pile cap foundation, aiming at the characteristics of the sea area of Taiwan Strait and combining with engineering examples. The construction technology of high-rise pile cap foundation is expounded emphatically from the manufacture and transportation of steel pipe piles, pile foundation construction and bearing platform construction. Compared with the traditional construction technology, the construction technologies used in this project are safer and more reliable. The construction period of piles cap foundation is shortened by 10 ∼ 48 days. The construction technology provides reference for offshore wind power foundation construction.

  8. Analysis and design technology for high-speed aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Camarda, Charles J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent high-speed aircraft structures research activities at NASA Langley Research Center are described. The following topics are covered: the development of analytical and numerical solutions to global and local thermal and structural problems, experimental verification of analysis methods, identification of failure mechanisms, and the incorporation of analysis methods into design and optimization strategies. The paper describes recent NASA Langley advances in analysis and design methods, structural and thermal concepts, and test methods.

  9. Technology Transfer Challenges for High-Assurance Software Engineering Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Penix, John; Markosian, Lawrence Z.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience with the challenges thar we are currently facing in our effort to develop advanced software verification and validation tools. We categorize these challenges into several areas: cost benefits modeling, tool usability, customer application domain, and organizational issues. We provide examples of challenges in each area and identrfj, open research issues in areas which limit our ability to transfer high-assurance software engineering tools into practice.

  10. Kajian Teknologi High Altitude Platform (HAP [Study of High Altitude Platform (HAP Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amry Daulat Gultom

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High Altitude Platform (HAP merupakan solusi alternatif untuk mengatasi keterbatasan infrastruktur terestrial maupun satelit. HAP merupakan pesawat ataupun balon udara yang ditempatkan pada ketinggian 20-50 km di atas permukaan bumi. Kelebihan yang utama dari HAP adalah kemudahan dalam penempatan, fleksibilitas, biaya operasionalnya rendah, delay  propagasi rendah, sudut elevasi lebar, cakupan yang luas. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui potensi HAP untuk komunikasi pita lebar dan perkembangannya di Indonesia. Analisis dilakukan secara deskriptif dengan mengolah data literatur yang didapat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di Indonesia terdapat potensi teknologi HAP untuk komunikasi pita lebar dengan lebar pita 2x300 MHz di band 27,9-28,2 GHz dan 31-31,3 GHz. Namun, belum ada peraturan yang mengatur alokasi frekuensi untuk HAP secara khusus di Indonesia.*****High Altitude Platform (HAP has been developed as an alternative solution in order to overcome limitation of terrestrial and satellite communication system. HAP is an aircraft or balloon situated on 20-50 km above the earth. Main advantages of HAP are flexibility in deployment, low propagation delay, wide elevation angle and broad coverage. The research is conducted to gather HAP potential for broadband communication and its development in Indonesia. Analysis is conducted by descriptive analysis from literature study gather. The research result shows that in Indonesia, there is potential of HAP technology for broadband communication with 2x300 MHz bandwidth within 27,9-28,2 GHz and 31-31,3 GHz. Yet, there are no specific regulations managing frequency allocation for HAP in Indonesia.

  11. Using Mobile Communication Technology in High School Education: Motivation, Pressure, and Learning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Gao, Qin; Wu, Li-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Motivation and pressure are considered two factors impacting vocational senior high school student learning. New communication technology, especially mobile communication technology, is supposed to be effective in encouraging interaction between the student and the instructor and improving learning efficiency. Social presence and information…

  12. Technology alternatives towards low-cost and high-speed interconnect manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Kniknie, B.; Lankhorst, A.M.; Winands, G.; Poodt, P.; Dingemans, G.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bullema, J.E.; Bressers, P.M.M.C.; Oosterhuis, G.; Mueller, M.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In this work we will review our recent work on novel alternative and disruptive technology concepts with industrial potential for cost-effective and high-speed interconnect manufacturing, in particular on the creation (drilling and filling) of advanced interconnects like TSVs. These technologies are

  13. VATE: VAlidation of high TEchnology based on large database analysis by learning machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meldolesi, E; Van Soest, J; Alitto, A R; Autorino, R; Dinapoli, N; Dekker, A; Gambacorta, M A; Gatta, R; Tagliaferri, L; Damiani, A; Valentini, V

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between implementation of new technologies and different outcomes can allow a broad range of researches to be expanded. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the VAlidation of high TEchnology based on large database analysis by learning machine (VATE) project that aims to combine

  14. High-Speed EMU TCMS Design and LCC Technology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Zhao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the high-speed electrical multiple unit (EMU life cycle, including the design, manufacturing, testing, and maintenance stages. It also presents the train control and monitoring system (TCMS software development platform, the TCMS testing and verification bench, the EMU driving simulation platform, and the EMU remote data transmittal and maintenance platform. All these platforms and benches combined together make up the EMU life cycle cost (LCC system. Each platform facilitates EMU LCC management and is an important part of the system.

  15. Toward a sustainable biorefinery using high-gravity technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiros, Charilaos; Janssen, Matty; Bystrom, Roberth

    2017-01-01

    using wheat straw and spruce as interesting Nordic raw materials. During the project, the main scientific, economic, and technical challenges of such a process were identified. Integrated solutions to these challenges were proposed and tested experimentally, using wheat straw and spruce wood at a dry...... at high gravity, i.e., a process operating at the highest possible concentrations of raw material. The results and opinions presented here are the result of a Nordic collaborative study within the framework of the HG Biofuels project. Processes with bioethanol or biobutanol as target products were studied...

  16. Study of long-term sustained operation of gaseous detectors for the high rate environment in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00366989; Sharma, Archana

    The muon system of CMS aims to provide an efficient and fast identification of the muons produced in the proton-proton collisions. However, the forward region of the end-caps is only instrumented with Cathode Strip Chambers. This lack of redundancy will be problematic after the high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), for which the increase of the background rate would degrade the Level-1 trigger performance and thus the selection of interesting physics channels. The goal of the CMS muon upgrade is to maintain the L1 trigger rate with maximum selection efficiency in order to fully exploit the HL-LHC. The CMS GEM Collaboration has proposed to instrument the vacant high-eta region of the muon end-caps with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, called GE1/1 chambers. The Ph.D. subject proposed by the CMS GEM Collaboration aims to demonstrate that the GE1/1 technology is the most suitable choice for the upgrade of the muon end-caps. Three main research projects were conducted in this context. The first pro...

  17. Investigating Technology-Enhanced Teacher Professional Development in Rural, High-Poverty Middle Schools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Margaret R; LePrevost, Catherine E; Tolin, A. Dell; Gutierrez, Kristie S

    2016-01-01

    ...’ beliefs and practices. Teachers in two middle schools located in neighboring rural, high-poverty districts in the southeastern United States participated in reform-based lessons and learned how to integrate technologies...

  18. Advanced Distributed Simulation Technology II (ADST II) High Level Architecture Support Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the High Level Architecture (HLA) Support Experiments (HSE) project was to perform experimentation and research in HLA technology to support the evolution and further implementation of the HLA specifications...

  19. Santa Clara Computer And High Technology Law Journal; Vol. 11, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    SINCE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION MOVES PEOPLE & GOODS ALONG PUBLIC ROADS & TRANSIT SYSTEMS, IT MAY SEEM ODD TO BE CONCERNED ABOUT PRIVACY IN SUCH A HIGHLY PUBLIC CONTEXT. AND YET, RESPECTING PRIVACY WILL BE IMPORTANT, AS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES IMPROVE HIG...

  20. Recent progress using high-throughput sequencing technologies in plant molecular breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Yue, Guidong; Li, Wenqi; Wang, Junyi; Xu, Jiaohui; Yin, Ye

    2012-04-01

    High-throughput sequencing is a revolutionary technological innovation in DNA sequencing. This technology has an ultra-low cost per base of sequencing and an overwhelmingly high data output. High-throughput sequencing has brought novel research methods and solutions to the research fields of genomics and post-genomics. Furthermore, this technology is leading to a new molecular breeding revolution that has landmark significance for scientific research and enables us to launch multi-level, multi-faceted, and multi-extent studies in the fields of crop genetics, genomics, and crop breeding. In this paper, we review progress in the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies to plant molecular breeding studies. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Evaluation and Selection of Technology Concepts for a Hypersonic High Speed Standoff Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roth, Bryce

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a method for technology concept selection to the design of a hypersonic high-speed standoff missile capable of achieving pin-point strike of long-range targets...

  2. FY 1997 Blue Book: High Performance Computing and Communications: Advancing the Frontiers of Information Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The Federal High Performance Computing and Communications HPCC Program will celebrate its fifth anniversary in October 1996 with an impressive array of...

  3. Expanding the classroom with educational technology: A case study of a Cuban polytechnic high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Leftwich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polytechnic instruction has a common place in the Cuban education system (Gasperini, 2000. In polytechnic institutions, teachers leverage technological tools to prepare students for labor market competences. This case study examined a polytechnic institution in Cuba to consider how teachers defined educational technology. Based on teacher questionnaire responses, site-based teacher interviews, and field observations, technology was primarily viewed as a method for student preparation. In other words, teachers used technology to prepare students for their future careers and the technology they will need to be successful in that career. The study found that teachers highly valued their technical pedagogical training, believed that the growing spaces were an integral part of their technology based instruction, and claimed that the limited resources was their greatest barrier to integrating ICT in the classroom.

  4. Methods and results for calibration and track separation of a GEM based TPC using an UV-laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Markus

    2008-12-15

    In the last 30 years high energy physics could write an impressive story of success. Since the introduction of the Standard Model (SM), it has met every experimental test. However the final confirmation has to prove the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, which could not be confirmed yet. The most favored theory, which includes the introduction of a Higgs field, could not be verified experimentally. Furthermore there is clear evidence, that the SM is only a low energy description of nature and its principles, as the SM describes only 4 % of the known matter in the universe. There are two different approaches in accelerator driven high energy physics to clarify the open questions. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have a good opportunity to measure some of the missing pieces with its high center of mass energy. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will then measure their parameters with high precision. To guarantee this high precision the detectors have to be able to identify every single particle and determine its properties with high accuracy. These high requirements to the single detectors as well as the interconnectivity between all detectors are summarised by the concept of particle flow (PFLOW). This means that all particles must be separable, which includes in particular the main tracking device. A possible candidate for the central tracking device is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC). In this work a TPC with Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) as gas amplification system was used. The GEMs replace the conventional wire amplification system of the TPC. In this PhD work a method to determine the drift velocity of a TPC was developed and tested using an ultraviolet laser. To ensure a high accuracy of the method all relevant gas parameters were measured with a slow control system. Furthermore the laser was used to investigate the separation capability of nearby tracks. Therefore an existing TPC prototype, which was developed to operate in a 5 T magnet facility

  5. Empty substrate integrated waveguide technology for E plane high-frequency and high-performance circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenguer, Angel; Cano, Juan Luis; Esteban, Héctor; Artal, Eduardo; Boria, Vicente E.

    2017-01-01

    Substrate integrated circuits (SIC) have attracted much attention in the last years because of their great potential of low cost, easy manufacturing, integration in a circuit board, and higher-quality factor than planar circuits. A first suite of SIC where the waves propagate through dielectric have been first developed, based on the well-known substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) and related technological implementations. One step further has been made with a new suite of empty substrate integrated waveguides, where the waves propagate through air, thus reducing the associated losses. This is the case of the empty substrate integrated waveguide (ESIW) or the air-filled substrate integrated waveguide (air-filled SIW). However, all these SIC are H plane structures, so classical H plane solutions in rectangular waveguides have already been mapped to most of these new SIC. In this paper a novel E plane empty substrate integrated waveguide (ESIW-E) is presented. This structure allows to easily map classical E plane solutions in rectangular waveguide to this new substrate integrated solution. It is similar to the ESIW, although more layers are needed to build the structure. A wideband transition (covering the frequency range between 33 GHz and 50 GHz) from microstrip to ESIW-E is designed and manufactured. Measurements are successfully compared with simulation, proving the validity of this new SIC. A broadband high-frequency phase shifter (for operation from 35 GHz to 47 GHz) is successfully implemented in ESIW-E, thus proving the good performance of this new SIC in a practical application.

  6. High Technology Service Value Maximization through an MCDM-Based Innovative e-Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Yo; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung; Ho, Wen-Rong; Chuang, Hsiu-Tyan; Lue, Yeou-Feng

    The emergence of the Internet has changed the high technology marketing channels thoroughly in the past decade while E-commerce has already become one of the most efficient channels which high technology firms may skip the intermediaries and reach end customers directly. However, defining appropriate e-business models for commercializing new high technology products or services through Internet are not that easy. To overcome the above mentioned problems, a novel analytic framework based on the concept of high technology customers’ competence set expansion by leveraging high technology service firms’ capabilities and resources as well as novel multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques, will be proposed in order to define an appropriate e-business model. An empirical example study of a silicon intellectual property (SIP) commercialization e-business model based on MCDM techniques will be provided for verifying the effectiveness of this novel analytic framework. The analysis successful assisted a Taiwanese IC design service firm to define an e-business model for maximizing its customer’s SIP transactions. In the future, the novel MCDM framework can be applied successful to novel business model definitions in the high technology industry.

  7. High Cost/High Risk Components to Chalcogenide Molded Lens Model: Molding Preforms and Mold Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-10-05

    This brief report contains a critique of two key components of FiveFocal's cost model for glass compression molding of chalcogenide lenses for infrared applications. Molding preforms and mold technology have the greatest influence on the ultimate cost of the product and help determine the volumes needed to select glass molding over conventional single-point diamond turning or grinding and polishing. This brief report highlights key areas of both technologies with recommendations for further study.

  8. A dual tech gem for future neutrino detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    Innovative technologies for next-generation neutrino detectors are currently being tested in the CERN Neutrino Platform project WA105.   Installation of the WA105 cryostat. (Image : Maximilien Brice/ CERN) The activities under way in the framework of the CERN Neutrino Platform are multiple and restless. Along with the refurbishment of ICARUS, another project is making great strides towards its completion: WA105. In spite of the not-so-expressive name, the technology being tested in this prototype is unprecedented. WA105, presently at an advanced state of assembly at CERN, is a 3x1x1-metre, 25-tonne “dual-phase” liquid argon time projection chamber (DLAr-TPC) demonstrator. It has been conceived in the quest to solve the technological problems related to the next generation of neutrino detectors, whose dimensions need to be gigantic in order to thoroughly study the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations. Indeed, a major new international project called DUNE (Deep Underground Neutri...

  9. The Identification of Technology Platforms and Innovation Areas with High Regional Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Urbančíková

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the process of identification of the technological platforms and innovation areas with high regional impact. The aim is to discover future fields of technological innovation which are having a high qualitative and quantitative demand of high potentials. The research has been undertaken within project Innovative Development of European Areas by fostering transnational Knowledge Development – IDEA/ 2CE1175P1 funded by Central Europe Programme. The aim of IDEA project is the development of an adequate strategy which enables the small and medium sized enterprises in the regions of Central Europe to face the increasing demand of high potentials with tested methods and instruments. The target group of IDEA project are so called “high potentials” in the engineering and scientific sector where future-oriented technologies are one of the main sources of innovation.

  10. The development and evaluation of mini-GEMs - short, focused, online e-learning videos in geriatric medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garside, Mark J; Fisher, James M; Blundell, Adrian G; Gordon, Adam L

    2016-04-06

    Mini Geriatric E-Learning Modules (Mini-GEMs) are short, focused, e-learning videos on geriatric medicine topics, hosted on YouTube, which are targeted at junior doctors working with older people. This study aimed to explore how these resources are accessed and used. The authors analyzed the viewing data from 22 videos published over the first 18 months of the Mini-GEM project. We conducted a focus group of U.K. junior doctors considering their experiences with Mini-GEMS. The Mini-GEMs were viewed 10,291 times over 18 months, equating to 38,435 minutes of total viewing time. The average viewing time for each video was 3.85 minutes. Learners valued the brevity and focused nature of the Mini-GEMs and reported that they watched them in a variety of settings to supplement clinical experiences and consolidate learning. Watching the videos led to an increase in self-reported confidence in managing older patients. Mini-GEMs can effectively disseminate clinical teaching material to a wide audience. The videos are valued by junior doctors due to their accessibility and ease of use.

  11. Strategy Planning of Technology Development for High Speed Railways : Electrical Parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. J.; Kim, K. H.; Rim, G. H.; Ha, H. D.; Park, K. Y.; Lee, J. D.; Kang, D. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    At the beginning of 1996, Government has set up the Technology Development Program for High Speed Railways as a national project. Accordingly, the detailed action planning has been established with the collaboration works between Ministry of Construction and Transport and Ministry of Commerce and Trade. On the other hand, the current technology status of domestic manufacturer and many related organizations in Korea only reveals the lack of capabilities in producing the high speed trains. Without the technology transfer programs from the advanced foreign manufacturer (GEC-Alsthom), the domestic manufacturers could not produce HSR. Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute has steered the study to integrate the domestic engineering and technology units specialized in the diversified areas by formulating the feasible collaboration structure between KERI and many organizations on the technology basis. The long term action planning both with the strategic guide and on the technology basis shall be the key function to upgrade the current technology status feasibly for development of the advanced high speed train of 350 km/h. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  12. Data management and other logistical challenges for the GEMS: the data coordinating center perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kousick; Carty, Christina; Horney, Rebecca; Nasrin, Dilruba; Farag, Tamer H; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Myron M

    2012-12-01

    The Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center provided the data management, administrative, and statistical support to the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). The GEMS study, the largest epidemiological study in the diarrheal disease area among children <5 years of age, was carried out in 4 African countries and 3 Asian countries. Given the geographical and geopolitical differences among the countries, the administration of a centralized data management operation was a major challenge. The sheer volume of the data that were collected, regular transfer of the data to a centralized database, and the cleaning of the same also posed some challenges. This paper outlines the details of the support that the data coordinating center provided and the challenges faced during the course of the study.

  13. Estimating the outer scale in altitude - L0(h) - using the GeMS profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesalaga, A.; Neichel, B.; Fusco, T.; Oberti, S.; Valenzuela, J.; Masciadri, E.; Correia, C.; Sauvage, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze the altitude distribution of the turbulence outer scale - L0(h) - at Cerro Pachon from Gemini South MCAO (GeMS) loop data. GeMS turbulence profiler is fed with telemetry from their 5 WFSs and from the voltages applied to the deformable mirrors, providing estimations of r0, Cn2(h), wind profile (speed and direction for every layer), isoplanatic angle and the outer scale distribution L0(h). It is shown that this last parameter ranges from less than 1 meter at the ground to more than 50m (the telescope is insensitive to larger cannot detect differences above this value). The technique is based on cross correlations of the pseudo-open-loop slopes that allow to disentangle the multiple constituents of L0.

  14. Operational experience with the GEM detector assembly lines for the CMS forward muon upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Vai, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Collaboration has been developing large-area Triple-GEM detectors to be installed in the muon endcap regions of the CMS experiment in 2019 to maintain forward muon trigger and tracking performance at the HL-LHC. Ten pre-production detectors were built at CERN to commission the first assembly line and the quality controls. These were installed in the CMS detector in early 2017 and are currently participating in the 2017 LHC run. The collaboration has prepared several additional assembly and quality control lines for distributed mass production of 160 GEM detectors at various sites worldwide. During 2017, these additional production sites have been optimizing construction techniques and quality control procedures and validating them against common specifications by constructing additional pre-production detectors. Using the specific experience from one production site as an example, we discuss how the quality controls make use of independent hardware and trained personnel to ensure fast and reliable pro...

  15. Data Management and Other Logistical Challenges for the GEMS: The Data Coordinating Center Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kousick; Carty, Christina; Horney, Rebecca; Nasrin, Dilruba; Farag, Tamer H.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.

    2012-01-01

    The Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center provided the data management, administrative, and statistical support to the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). The GEMS study, the largest epidemiological study in the diarrheal disease area among children <5 years of age, was carried out in 4 African countries and 3 Asian countries. Given the geographical and geopolitical differences among the countries, the administration of a centralized data management operation was a major challenge. The sheer volume of the data that were collected, regular transfer of the data to a centralized database, and the cleaning of the same also posed some challenges. This paper outlines the details of the support that the data coordinating center provided and the challenges faced during the course of the study. PMID:23169938

  16. Report from the II Melanoma Translational Meeting of the Spanish Melanoma Group (GEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, Alfonso; Puig, Susana; Karachaliou, Niki; De Matos-Arruda, Leticia; Seoane, Joan; Escors, David; Alvarez, Carmen; Vaque, Jose Pedro; Prat, Aleix; Wellbrock, Claudia; Arozarena, Imanol; Marquez-Rodas, Ivan; Espinosa, Enrique; Molina, Migue Angel; Puertolas, Teresa; Juan-Otero, Manuel; Malagrida, Rosina; Jantus-Lewintre, Eloisa; Soriano, Virtudes; Arance, Ana; Manzano, Jose Luis; Lorigan, Paul; Gajewski, Thomas F.; Rosell, Rafael; Martin-Algarra, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    The II Melanoma Translational Meeting of the Spanish Melanoma Group (GEM) was held in Barcelona, Spain, at the Hospital Universitari Quiron-Dexeus on November 3rd, 2016. The conference featured leaders in the fields of oncology, immunology and dermatology, all working at both national and international levels on basic research with direct applications to the clinical setting. The objective was to present cutting edge research on melanoma, mainly from Spanish research groups, but also from some international groups, with the aim of generating a network for future national and international collaborations. During a single day, fifteen speakers, seven biologists and eight clinicians, with a special focus on translational research, outlined the main findings of their ongoing studies. The moderators in every session were recognized GEM oncologists who guided discussion from the clinical point of view regarding the preclinical data presented. Herein, we summarize the main topics discussed during the meeting.

  17. Preliminary results of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) as real-time beam monitor in hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aza, E., E-mail: eleni.aza@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); AUTH, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ciocca, M. [Fondazione CNAO, Strada Campeggi 53, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Murtas, F. [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); LNF-INFN, Via Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Puddu, S. [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); AEC-LHEP, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pullia, M. [Fondazione CNAO, Strada Campeggi 53, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Silari, M. [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-01-01

    The use of proton and carbon ion beams in cancer therapy (also known as hadron therapy) is progressively growing worldwide due to their improved dose distributions, sparing of healthy tissues and (for carbon ions) increased radiobiological effectiveness especially for radio-resistant tumours. Strict Quality Assurance (QA) protocols need to be followed for guaranteeing the clinical beam specifications. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a gaseous detector based on the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology for measuring the beam spot dimensions and the homogeneity of the scanned irradiation field, which are daily QA tasks commonly performed using radiochromic films. Measurements performed at the National Centre for Oncological Hadron Therapy (CNAO) in Pavia (Italy) showed that the detector is able to monitor the 2D beam image on-line with a pad granularity of 2 mm and a response proportional to the number of delivered particles. The dose homogeneity was measured with low deviation from the results obtained with radiochromic films.

  18. Performance of the full size nGEM detector for the SPIDER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraro, A., E-mail: muraro@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola” – CNR, Milan (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Croci, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola” – CNR, Milan (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Sez. INFN Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Albani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Claps, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati – INFN, Frascati (Italy); Cavenago, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro – INFN, Legnaro (Italy); Cazzaniga, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Dalla Palma, M. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Grosso, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola” – CNR, Milan (Italy); Murtas, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati – INFN, Frascati (Italy); Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Perelli Cippo, E. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola” – CNR, Milan (Italy); Rebai, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Tardocchi, M.; Tollin, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola” – CNR, Milan (Italy); Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Sez. INFN Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2016-03-21

    The ITER neutral beam test facility under construction in Padova will host two experimental devices: SPIDER, a 100 kV negative H/D RF beam source, and MITICA, a full scale, 1 MeV deuterium beam injector. SPIDER will start operations in 2016 while MITICA is expected to start during 2019. Both devices feature a beam dump used to stop the produced deuteron beam. Detection of fusion neutrons produced between beam-deuterons and dump-implanted deuterons will be used as a means to resolve the horizontal beam intensity profile. The neutron detection system will be placed right behind the beam dump, as close to the neutron emitting surface as possible thus providing the map of the neutron emission on the beam dump surface. The system uses nGEM neutron detectors. These are Gas Electron Multiplier detectors equipped with a cathode that also serves as neutron–proton converter foil. The cathode is designed to ensure that most of the detected neutrons at a point of the nGEM surface are emitted from the corresponding beamlet footprint (with dimensions of about 40×22 mm{sup 2}) on the dump front surface. The size of the nGEM detector for SPIDER is 352 mm×200 mm. Several smaller size prototypes have been successfully made in the last years and the experience gained on these detectors has led to the production of the full size detector for SPIDER during 2014. This nGEM has a read-out board made of 256 pads (arranged in a 16×16 matrix) each with a dimension of 22 mm×13 mm. This paper describes the production of this detector and its tests (in terms of beam profile reconstruction capability, uniformity over the active area, gamma rejection capability and time stability) performed on the ROTAX beam-line at the ISIS spallation source (Didcot-UK).

  19. Modelling the effects of gravity waves in the GEM-Mars GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, L.; Daerden, F.; Viscardy, S.

    2017-09-01

    Parameterizations for orographic and non-orographic gravity waves are included in the GEM-Mars general circulation model (GCM) for low-resolution simulations. The impacts of these parameterizations on the temperature and winds in the upper atmosphere are examined and sensitivity studies are discussed. Initial tests indicate that the largest effects of the gravity wave parameterizations on temperature occur during the solstice periods in the upper atmosphere of the winter polar regions, improving the agreement with observations.

  20. Optically read out GEM-based TPC operation and preliminary scintillation studies

    CERN Document Server

    Galgoczi, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this project was to realise the reconstruction of tracks in an optically read out GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) based Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Secondary goal was to initialise a series of systematic studies on the scintillation of particles in Ar/CF4 (80-20%) mixture. Track reconstruction is needed for primary scintillation studies as only tracks fully contained can be considered. A vetoing and trigerring logic was built for the TPC from NIM modules.