Sample records for high tc oxides

  1. Theoretical models of flux pinning and flux motion in high-{Tc} superconducting oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, D.O.


    Various issues involved in the development of phenomenological models of flux pinning and motion in high-{Tc} oxides are discussed. A simplified model is presented for the critical current density and is used to examine the question of whether flux flow results from an instability due to plasticity of the flux-line array or from pin breaking.

  2. Critical currents and superconductivity ferromagnetism coexistence in high-Tc oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Khene, Samir


    The book comprises six chapters which deal with the critical currents and the ferromagnetism-superconductivity coexistence in high-Tc oxides. It begins by gathering key data for superconducting state and the fundamental properties of the conventional superconductors, followed by a recap of the basic theories of superconductivity. It then discusses the differences introduced by the structural anisotropy on the Ginzburg-Landau approach and the Lawrence-Doniach model before addressing the dynamics of vortices and the ferromagnetism-superconductivity coexistence in high-Tc oxides, and provides an outline of the pinning phenomena of vortices in these materials, in particular the pinning of vortices by the spins. It elucidates the methods to improve the properties of superconducting materials for industrial applications. This optimization aims at obtaining critical temperatures and densities of critical currents at the maximum level possible. Whereas the primary objective is the basic mechanisms pushing the superco...

  3. High-Tc SQUID biomagnetometers (United States)

    Faley, M. I.; Dammers, J.; Maslennikov, Y. V.; Schneiderman, J. F.; Winkler, D.; Koshelets, V. P.; Shah, N. J.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.


    In this paper, we review the preparation technology, integration in measurement systems and tests of high-Tc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) intended for biomagnetic applications. A focus is on developments specific to Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Chalmers University of Technology, MedTech West, and the University of Gothenburg, while placing these results in the perspective of those achieved elsewhere. Sensor fabrication, including the deposition and structuring of epitaxial oxide heterostructures, materials for substrates, epitaxial bilayer buffers, bicrystal and step-edge Josephson junctions, and multilayer flux transformers are detailed. The properties of the epitaxial multilayer high-Tc direct current SQUID sensors, including their integration in measurement systems with special electronics and liquid nitrogen cryostats, are presented in the context of biomagnetic recording. Applications that include magnetic nanoparticle based molecular diagnostics, magnetocardiography, and magnetoencephalography are presented as showcases of high-Tc biomagnetic systems. We conclude by outlining future challenges.

  4. New superconductors from granular to high T$_{c}$

    CERN Document Server

    Deutscher, Guy


    How new are the high Tc superconductors, as compared to the conventional low Tc ones? In what sense are these oxides different from regular metals in their normal state? How different is the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity from the well-known electron-phonon interaction that explains so well superconductivity in metals and alloys? What are the implications of the new features of the high Tc oxides for their practical applications? This book aims to give some answers to those questions, drawing particularly on similarities between the high Tc oxides and granular superconductors, which also present a maximum of their critical temperature near the metal-insulator transition.

  5. New superconductors from granular to high T$_{c}$

    CERN Document Server

    Deutscher, Guy


    How new are the high Tc superconductors, as compared to the conventional low Tc ones? In what sense are these oxides different from regular metals in their normal state? How different is the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity from the well-known electron-phonon interaction that explains so well superconductivity in metals and alloys? What are the implications of the new features of the high Tc oxides for their practical applications? This interesting book aims to provide some answers to those questions, drawing particularly on similarities between the high Tc oxides and granular superconductors, which also present a short coherence length, a small superfluid density and an inhomogeneous structure.

  6. High Density, Insensitive Oxidizer With RDX Performance Final Report CRADA No. TC02178.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagoria, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Preda, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC as manager and operator of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSI), to develop a synthesis and evaluate a novel high density, insensitive oxidizer with RDX performance. This CRADA resulted from the award of a Phase I STTR ("STTR") from DOD. In recent years, the synthesis of new energetic heterocyclic compounds to replace the energetic materials currently in the stockpile has received a great amount of attention. The Office of the Secretary of Defense has identified that there is a need to incorporate new energetic materials in current and future weapon systems in an effort to increase performance and decrease sensitivity. For many of the future weapon systems, incorporation of energetic compounds currently in the stockpile will not provide the desired performance and sensitivity goals. The success of this CRADA may lead to a Phase I option STTR from DOD and to a Phase II STTR from DOD. The goal of this CRADA was to produce and test a novel oxidizer, 2,5,8-trinitroheptazine (TNH).

  7. Reactive nanophase oxide additions to melt-processed high-{Tc} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goretta, K.C.; Brandel, B.P.; Lanagan, M.T.; Hu, J.; Miller, D.J.; Sengupta, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Parker, J.C.; Ali, M.N. [Nanophase Technologies Corp., Darien, IL (United States); Chen, Nan [Illinois Superconductor Corp., Evanston, IL (United States)


    Nanophase TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were synthesized by a vapor-phase process and mechanically mixed with stoichiometric YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} and TlBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} powders in 20 mole % concentrations. Pellets produced from powders with and without nanophase oxides were heated in air or O{sub 2} above the peritectic melt temperature and slow-cooled. At 4.2 K, the intragranular critical current density (J{sub c}) increased dramatically with the oxide additions. At 35--50 K, effects of the oxide additions were positive, but less pronounced. At 77 K, the additions decreased J{sub c}, probably because of inducing a depresion of the transition temperature.

  8. Forming high-Tc superconductors. Vormgeving hoge-Tc-supergeleiders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Roskam, A.; Smit, H.C.D.; Veringa, H.J.


    Within the framework of the National Research Program High-Tc Superconductors the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation carried out research on the title subject by means of ceramic techniques. The aim is to manufacture bulk superconductors formed as a wire, plate or as a pipe. First the preparation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} related compounds and BiCaSrCuO by means of citrate pyrolysis and some other preparation methods are discussed. Also an overview is given of the mechanical and temperature treatment, and the analyses of the powders. Then attention is paid to the ceramic forming techniques of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}: pressing (uniaxial, cold isostatic), tape casting, extrusion, slip casting and plasma spraying. 16 figs., 6 refs., 10 tabs.

  9. Magnetically-related properties of bismuth containing high Tc superconductors (United States)

    Vezzoli, Gary C.; Chen, M. F.; Craver, F.; Safari, A.; Moon, B. M.; Lalevic, B.; Burke, Terence; Shoga, M.


    The effect of magnetic fields to 15 T on electrical resistance has been measured for the BiSrCaCuO superconductor at precise temperatures during the transition to the superconducting state from pre-onset conditions to essentially zero resistance conditions. The results show that the temperature at which the magnetic field causes a divergence in the resistance versus 1000/ T curve is approximately the same temperature as the value at which, during cooling, the positive Hall coefficient begins its abrupt descent to zero. This temperature gives the best measure of Tc. It is also shown that small oscillations of low frequency start near onset conditions, the amplitude of which at a given temperature is B-field dependent. Additionally, Hall effect studies as a function of temperature at 4 T in three separate experiments (including high Tc BiSrCaCu PbO of > 90% theoretical density) show that sharp delta-function-like peaks in + RH are observed near Tc and are superimposed on a broader maximum. The Hall data are explicable in terms of exciton formation and ionization. The bound holes associated with these excitons are believed to be the mediators producing Cooper-pairing, and scale very well with Tc for all the known high Tc oxides.

  10. High-Tc copper oxide superconductors and related novel materials dedicated to prof K. A. Müller on the occasion of his 90th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Hugo; Bianconi, Antonio


    Authored by many of the world's leading experts on high-Tc superconductivity, this volume presents a panorama of ongoing research in the field, as well as insights into related multifunctional materials. The contributions cover many different and complementary aspects of the physics and materials challenges, with an emphasis on superconducting materials that have emerged since the discovery of the cuprate superconductors, for example pnictides, MgB2, H2S and other hydrides. Special attention is also paid to interface superconductivity. In addition to superconductors, the volume also addresses materials related to polar and multifunctional ground states, another class of materials that owes its discovery to Prof. Müller's ground-breaking research on SrTiO3.

  11. Infrared detection with high-[Tc] bolometers and response of Nb tunnel junctions to picosecond voltage pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verghese, S.


    Oxide superconductors with high critical temperature [Tc] make sensitive thermometers for several types of infrared bolometers. The authors built composite bolometers with YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus][delta

  12. Proximity Effect at Graphene - High Tc Superconductor Junctions (United States)

    Wang, Da; Shih, En-Min; Arefe, Ghidewon; Kim, Youngduck; Edelberg, Drew; Andrade, Erick; Wang, Dennis; Hone, James; Dean, Cory; Pasupathy, Abhay; Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA Collaboration

    The proximity effect is a well-known mesoscopic phenomenon where Cooper pairs from a superconductor (S) enter into a normal metal (N) that is well coupled to it. Since graphene was discovered a decade ago, the proximity effect at superconductor-graphene junctions has been extensively studied and interesting phenomena such as specular Andreev reflection and ballistic transport at graphene Josephson junctions have been observed. However, superconductors used in these experiments to date are of conventional low Tc, such as aluminum(Tc=1.2K), NbSe2(Tc=7K), and MoRe(Tc=8K). Understanding how the proximity effect works between high-Tc superconductors (pnictides and cuprates) and the Dirac Fermions of graphene remains largely unexplored. The chief technical challenge here is to create high-quality junctions between high-Tc superconductors and graphene. In this work, we will introduce a home-made setup that allows us to exfoliate, transfer and encapsulate superconductor-graphene junctions in a well controlled inert atmosphere. Transport measurements of the proximity effect at graphene-iron pnictide(FeSe, FeTeSe) and graphene-cuprate(BSCCO) junctions will be described.

  13. A new calculating formula of iodometric titration for high Tc superconductors (United States)

    Chen, W. M.; Lam, C. C.; Geng, J. F.; Li, L. Y.; Hung, K. C.; Jin, X.


    In order to determine the effective oxidation state of Cu ( p) and oxygen content ( y) with the iodometric method, a new formula for calculating p and y of high Tc copper oxides is presented here. The formula of p involves a corrective term of 8 CV1/ M1, which reduces a systematic calculating error. With this approach, for YBCO, the value of p of YBCO is improved by 5% and y by 0.02, as compared with the conventional method.

  14. Semiconductor/High-Tc-Superconductor Hybrid ICs (United States)

    Burns, Michael J.


    Hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) containing both Si-based semiconducting and YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x) superconducting circuit elements on sapphire substrates developed. Help to prevent diffusion of Cu from superconductors into semiconductors. These hybrid ICs combine superconducting and semiconducting features unavailable in superconducting or semiconducting circuitry alone. For example, complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) readout and memory devices integrated with fast-switching Josephson-junction super-conducting logic devices and zero-resistance interconnections.

  15. Oxidative Stability of Tc(I) Tricarbonyl Species Relevant to the Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Technetium (Tc), which exists predominately in the liquid supernatant and salt cake fractions of the nuclear tank waste stored at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site, is one of the most difficult contaminants to dispose of and/or remediate. In the strongly alkaline environments prevalent in the tank waste, its dominant chemical form is pertechnetate (TcO4-, oxidation state +7). However, based on experimentation to-date, a significant fraction of the soluble Tc cannot be effectively separated from the wastes and may be present as a non-pertechnetate species. The presence of a non pertechnetate species significantly complicates disposition of low-activity waste (LAW), and the development of methods to either convert them to pertechnetate or to separate the non-pertechnetate species directly is needed. The challenge is the uncertainty regarding the nature and stability of the alkaline-soluble, low-valence, non pertechnetate species in the liquid tank waste. One objective of the Tc management project is to address this knowledge gap. This fiscal year (FY) 2015 report summarizes experimental work exploring the oxidative stability of model low-valence Tc(I) tricarbonyl species, derived from the [Tc(CO)3]+ moiety. These compounds are of interest due to their implied presence in several Hanford tank waste supernatants. Work in part was initiated in FY 2014, and a series of samples containing non-pertechnetate Tc generated ex situ or in situ in pseudo-Hanford tank supernatant simulant solutions was prepared and monitored for oxidation to Tc(VII) (Levitskaia et al. 2014). This experimentation continued in FY 2015, and new series of samples containing Tc(I) as [Tc(CO)3]+•Ligand was tested. The monitoring method used for these studies was a combination of 99Tc NMR and EPR spectroscopies.

  16. Observing the fluctuating stripes in high-Tc superconductors (United States)

    Cvetkovic, V.; Nussinov, Z.; Mukhin, S.; Zaanen, J.


    Superfluids and superconductors have been around for a long time and their explanation in terms of the Bogoliubov theory for bosons and the BCS theory for fermions belong to the highlights of twentieth century physics. However, it appears that these theories are too primitive to address the high-Tc superconductivity found in copper oxides. These electron systems seem to behave more like a dense, strongly correlated liquid contrasting markedly with the conventional quantum gasses: these show strong dynamical correlations on mesoscopic length and time scales associated with stripes, a particular form of electron crystallization. Resting on the gauge theory of topological quantum melting in 2+1 dimensions relevant for the cuprates, we describe the limit which is exactly opposite to the gas limit: the superconductor with the maximum possible amount of transient translational order. We predict that in this "orderly limit" an extra collective mode appears, and this "massive shear photon" can be regarded as a universal fingerprint of the fluctuating stripes. This mode is visible in the electrodynamic response and the ramification of our theory is that electron energy loss spectroscopy can be employed to prove or disprove the existence of dynamical stripes in cuprate superconductors.

  17. Modal bifurcation in a high-Tc superconducting levitation system (United States)

    Taguchi, D.; Fujiwara, S.; Sugiura, T.


    This paper deals with modal bifurcation of a multi-degree-of-freedom high-Tc superconducting levitation system. As modeling of large-scale high-Tc superconducting levitation applications, where plural superconducting bulks are often used, it can be helpful to consider a system constituting of multiple oscillators magnetically coupled with each other. This paper investigates nonlinear dynamics of two permanent magnets levitated above high-Tc superconducting bulks and placed between two fixed permanent magnets without contact. First, the nonlinear equations of motion of the levitated magnets were derived. Then the method of averaging was applied to them. It can be found from the obtained solutions that this nonlinear two degree-of-freedom system can have two asymmetric modes, in addition to a symmetric mode and an antisymmetric mode both of which also exist in the linearized system. One of the backbone curves in the frequency response shows a modal bifurcation where the two stable asymmetric modes mentioned above appear with destabilization of the antisymmetric mode, thus leading to modal localization. These analytical predictions have been confirmed in our numerical analysis and experiments of free vibration and forced vibration. These results, never predicted by linear analysis, can be important for application of high-Tc superconducting levitation systems.

  18. 3-D coordination polymers based on the tetrathiafulvalenetetracarboxylate (TTF-TC) derivative: synthesis, characterization, and oxidation issues. (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Le Anh; Demir-Cakan, Rezan; Devic, Thomas; Morcrette, Mathieu; Ahnfeldt, Tim; Auban-Senzier, Pascale; Stock, Norbert; Goncalves, Anne-Marie; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Tarascon, Jean-Marie; Férey, Gérard


    The reactivity of the redox-active tetracarboxylic acid derived from the tetrathiafulvalene (TTF-TC)H(4) with alkaline cations (K, Rb, Cs) is reported. The exploration of various experimental parameters (temperature, pH) led to the formation of four crystalline three-dimensional coordination polymers formulated M(2)(TTF-TC)H(2) (M = K, Rb, Cs), denoted MIL-132(K), MIL-133(isostructural K, Rb), and MIL-134(Cs). Thermogravimetric analysis and thermodiffraction show that all of the solids are thermally stable up to 150-200 degrees C in the air. In order to exploit the possibility of oxidation of the organic linker in TTF-based compounds, they were employed as positive electrodes in a classical lithium cell. A highly reversible cyclability was achieved at high current density (10 C) with a reasonable performance (approximately 50 mAh g(-1)). Finally, combined electro-(sub)hydrothermal synthesis was used to prepare a fifth 3-D coordination polymer formulated K(TTF-TC)H(2) (denoted MIL-135(K)), this time not based on the neutral TTF-TC linker but its radical, oxidized form TTF-TC(+*). This solid is less thermally stable than its neutral counterparts but exhibits a semiconducting behavior, with a conductivity at room temperature of about 1 mS cm(-1).

  19. High T$_{c}$ superconductors and related transition metal oxides special contributions in honor of K. Alex Müller on the occasion of his 80th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Bussmann-Holder, Annette


    This book containing 30 articles written by highly reputed experts is dedicated to K. Alex Müller on the occasion of his 80th birthday. The contributions reflect the major research areas of K. Alex Müller which he activated in high temperature superconductivity and phase transitions. They are theoretical as well as experimental ones and focus mainly on high temperature superconductivity. A smaller part deals with ferroelectricity and their applications. Also in this field there have recently been major break throughs experimentally as well as theoretically which will be addressed by the invited authors. During the scientific career of K. Alex Müller he made major advances in the understanding of ferroelectricity, which used to be his major research field. The discovery of superconductivity in cuprates for which he received together with J. Georg Bednorz the Nobel Prize in 1987 has not diminished his interest in this area, but has enlarged his activities considerably.

  20. The research on tool wear of high speed milling titanium alloy TC4 (United States)

    Shi, Hongliang; Wang, Zhichao; Ren, Huanhuan; Yuan, Haoteng


    In this paper, carbide cutting tools with physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating was used to high speed milling α+β phase TC4 titanium alloy. The PVD tool was used to study the process of milling TC4 titanium alloy tool wear patterns and wear mechanisms. The results showed that the PVD coating surface wear was small after cutter blade. The cutting life was long, it was suitable for processing of titanium alloy TC4, the wear of rake face was mainly adhesion wear and oxidation wear, the flank face was mainly boundary wear. That was because the adhesion wear of the rake face and the boundary wear of the flank face had a weakening effect on the cutting edge , which made the micro crack blade of the main cutting edge.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of hydrous titanium oxide as a high affinity adsorbent for molybdenum ({sup 99}Mo) and its potential for use in {sup 99m}Tc generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qazi, Q.M.; Mushtaq, A. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Isotope Production Div.


    Hydrous titanium oxide was prepared and its affinity as an adsorbent for molybdenum ({sup 99}Mo) and its potential for use in {sup 99m}Tc generators were evaluated. Adsorption behavior of molybdate on hydrous titanium oxide was studied at boiling water bath temperature ({proportional_to} 100 C) using radiotracer technique. Various parameters affecting the adsorption of molybdenum, such as pH, amount of molybdenum, incubation period etc., were determined. Technetium-99m generators were prepared by adsorbing low specific activity Molybdenum-99 ({proportional_to} 230 mg) on 1 g hydrous titanium oxide. Elutions were carried out with normal saline. Performance of the generators, such as {sup 99}Mo breakthrough, titanium content, pH, elution profile, radiochemical purity and labeling efficiency of kits, was checked. (orig.)

  2. Microstructures and critical currents in high-{Tc} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, Masaki


    Microstructural defects are the primary determining factors for the values of critical-current densities in a high {Tc} superconductor after the electronic anisotropy along the a-b plane and the c-direction. A review is made to assess firstly what would be the maximum achievable critical-current density in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} if nearly ideal pinning sites were introduced and secondly what types of pinning defects are currently introduced or exist in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and how effective are these in pinning vortices.

  3. International Discussion Meeting on High-Tc Superconductors

    CERN Document Server


    In the past two years conferences on superconductivity have been characterized by the attendance of hundreds of scientists. Consequently, the organizers were forced to schedule numerous parallel sessions and poster presentations with an almost unsurveyable amount of information. It was, therefore, felt that a more informal get-together, providing ample time for a thourough discussion of some topics of current interest in high-temperature superconductivity, was timely and benefitial for leading scientists as well as for newcomers in the field. The present volume contains the majority of papers presented at the International Discussion Meeting on High-Tc Superconductors held at the Mauterndorf Castle in the Austrian Alps from February 7 to 11, 1988. Each subject was introduced in review form by a few invited speakers and then discussed together with the contributed poster presentations. These discussion sessions chaired by selected scientists turned out to be the highlights of the meeting, not only because all ...

  4. The first five years of high- Tc superconductivity (United States)

    Müller, K. Alex


    After the 1986 discovery and confirmation of superconductivity in doped La 2CuO 4, a “gold rush” occurred in the following year when the transition temperature in YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ exceeded the boiling point of liquid nitrogen. In 1988, even higher Tc's were reported in new compounds without rare-earth ions. The preparation techniques started to be improved substantially and results on scholarly conducted experiments became available. Since then, the data obtained with different techniques fitted together like pieces of a puzzle, and continue to do so. Early in 1987, high critical magnetic fields and currents were reported in epitaxial films and single crystals. This opened the way for application-oriented research and has led to first true successes in 1990/91. The following is a near verbal transcript of my presentation.

  5. Doping dependence of fluctuation diamagnetism in high Tc superconductors (United States)

    Sarkar, Kingshuk; Banerjee, Sumilan; Mukerjee, Subroto; Ramakrishnan, T. V.


    Using a recently proposed Ginzburg-Landau-like lattice free energy functional due to Banerjee et al. (2011) we calculate the fluctuation diamagnetism of high-Tc superconductors as a function of doping, magnetic field and temperature. We analyse the pairing fluctuations above the superconducting transition temperature in the cuprates, ranging from the strong phase fluctuation dominated underdoped limit to the more conventional amplitude fluctuation dominated overdoped regime. We show that a model where the pairing scale increases and the superfluid density decreases with underdoping produces features of the observed magnetization in the pseudogap region, in good qualitative and reasonable quantitative agreement with the experimental data. In particular, we explicitly show that even when the pseudogap has a pairing origin the magnetization actually tracks the superconducting dome instead of the pseudogap temperature, as seen in experiment. We discuss the doping dependence of the 'onset' temperature for fluctuation diamagnetism and comment on the role of vortex core-energy in our model.

  6. Plasma resonance in anisotropic layered high-Tc superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, Shigeki; Pedersen, Niels Falsig


    The plasma resonance is described theoretically by the inductive coupling model for a large stacked Josephson-junction system such as the intrinsic Josephson-junction array in anisotropic high- T-c superconductors. Eigenmodes of the plasma oscillation are analytically described and a numerical...... example for the large stack case N=50 is given. The scaling length characteristic of each mode is discussed. Numerical results for the plasma resonance for N= 50 in the presence of an external rf drive with wave number k are given. For k different from zero possible resonance modes among the eigen...... oscillation modes are shown, and it is further demonstrated that for k=0 the resonance takes place as a collection of N independent resonant Josephson junctions. Some guidelines for possible experiments are shown. It is also shown that, very recent microwave experiments for the plasma resonance can...

  7. Present and future wire fabrication techniques for high {Tc} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, S. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)


    Fabrication of high-J{sub c},, long-length conductors is essential for successful applications of the high {Tc} superconductors. Several different approaches for high-J{sub c} wire fabrications have been demonstrated, however, none of them meets all the requirements in terms of desirable length, critical currents, and operating temperature ranges. High-J{sub c} YBCO wires have been made only in length less than a meter. The BSCCO wires/ribbons exhibit high J{sub c} and can be made long but they are not particularly useful for major applications above {approximately}30K. For TBCCO, neither high-J{sub c} long wire comparable to BSCCO material nor sufficient flux pinning comparable to YBCO has been demonstrated, even with the promising single Tl-O layered compound. This paper describes various microstructural and processing problems limiting the development of desirable long-length superconductors, and discusses some alternative approaches that may be utilized to overcome the problems.

  8. Synthesis, structure elucidation and redox properties of 99Tc complexes of lacunary Wells Dawson polyoxometalates: insights into molecular 99Tc - metal oxide interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Donna; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Howell, Robertha C.; Mbomekalle, Israel M.; Lukens Jr, Wayne W.; Bian, Fang; Mausolf, Edward; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R; Francesconi, Lynn C.


    The isotope 99Tc (beta max: 250 keV, half-life: 2 x 105 year) is an abundant product of uranium-235 fission in nuclear reactors and is present throughout the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford and Savannah River. Understanding and controlling the extensive redox chemistry of 99Tc is important to identify tunable strategies to separate 99Tc from spent fuel and from waste tanks and once separated, to identify and develop an appropriately stable waste-form for 99Tc. Polyoxometalates (POMs), nanometer sized models for metal oxide solid-state materials, are used in this study to provide a molecular level understanding of the speciation and redox chemistry of incorporated 99Tc. In this study, 99Tc complexes of the (alpha 2-P2W17O61)10- and (alpha 1-P2W17O61)10- isomers were prepared. Ethylene glycol was used as a"transfer ligand" to minimize the formation of TcO2 cdot xH2O. The solution structures, formulations, and purity of TcVO(alpha 1/alpha 2-P2W17O61)7- were determined by multinuclear NMR. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of the complexes are in agreement with the formulation and structures determined from 31P and 183W NMR. Preliminary electrochemistry results are consistent with the EXAFS results, showing a facile reduction of the TcVO(alpha 1-P2W17O61)7- species compared to the TcVO(alpha 2-P2W17O61)7- analog. The alpha1- defect is unique in that a basic oxygen atom is positioned toward the alpha1- site and the TcVO center appears to form a dative metal-metal bond with a framework W site. These attributes may lead to the assistance of protonation events that facilitate reduction. Electrochemistry comparison shows that the ReV analogs are about 200 mV more difficult to reduce in accordance with periodic trends.

  9. The NMR probe of high-Tc materials and correlated electron systems

    CERN Document Server

    Walstedt, Russell E


    This new edition updates readers in three areas of NMR studies, namely, recent developments in high-Tc materials, heavy fermion systems and actinide oxides are presented.  The NMR probe has yielded a vast array of data for solid state materials, corresponding to different compounds, ionic sites, and nuclear species, as well as to a wide variety of experimental conditions. The last two parts of the book are completely new in this edition, while the first part has seen major updates. This edition features the latest developments for high-Tc materials, especially the advances in the area of pseudogap studies are reviewed.  An in depth overview of heavy fermion systems is presented in the second part,  notably Kondo lattices, quantum critical points and unconventional superconductivity are areas of intense research recently and are covered extensively. Finally, valuable information from NMR studies with actinide oxides will be provided. Ongoing analysis and discussion of NMR data have resulted in a wealth o...

  10. Dynamic resistance of a high-Tc superconducting flux pump (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenan; Hamilton, K.; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Badcock, R. A.; Bumby, C. W.


    Superconducting flux pumps enable large currents to be injected into a superconducting circuit, without the requirement for thermally conducting current leads which bridge between the cryogenic environment and room temperature. In this work, we have built and studied a mechanically rotating flux pump which employs a coated conductor high-Tc superconducting (HTS) stator. This flux pump has been used to excite an HTS double pancake coil at 77 K. Operation of the flux pump causes the current within the superconducting circuit to increase over time, before saturating at a limiting value. Interestingly, the superconducting flux pump is found to possess an effective internal resistance, Reff, which varies linearly with frequency, and is two orders of magnitude larger than the measured series resistance of the soldered contacts within the circuit. This internal resistance sets a limit for the maximum achievable output current from the flux pump, which is independent of the operating frequency. We attribute this effect to dynamic resistance within the superconducting stator wire which is caused by the interaction between the DC transport current and the imposed alternating magnetic field. We provide an analytical expression describing the output characteristics of our rotating flux pump in the high frequency limit, and demonstrate that it describes the time-dependent behavior of our experimental circuit. Dynamic resistance is highlighted as a generic issue that must be considered when optimizing the design of an HTS flux pump.

  11. Magnetic Anisotropy in A High-Tc Superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ Single Crystal below Tc (United States)

    Isikawa, Yosikazu; Mori, Katsunori; Kobayashi, Koichi; Sato, Kiyoo


    We have measured the magnetic field dependence of magnetization of single-crystal YBa2Cu3O7-δ in detail in fields up to 5 kOe in the temperature range below Tc, i.e., 93 K. Lower critical fields, Hc1’s, at which the magnetization deviates from linearity, are very anisotropic; Hc1\\bot(0) (perpendicular to the ab-plane) is 305 Oe and Hc1\\varparallel(0) (parallel to the ab-plane) is 104 Oe. Both Hc1\\bot and Hc1// decrease linearly with increasing temperature up to about Tc. It is suggested that random oxygen defects in the Cu-O planes and chains are important for the high-Jc type II superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ.

  12. The Geochemical Behaviour of Tc, Np, and Pu in Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Oxidizing Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Edgar C.; Hanson, Brady D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; R. Giere and P. Stille


    Studies at the Nopal and Shinkolowbwe uranium deposits show that the primary uraninite (UO2) altered to a suite of secondary uranyl minerals similar to those observed in corrosion tests with uranium oxide . Although the Nopal I deposit tells us something about the possible fate of uranium, it tells us little about the likely fate of the important long-lived radionuclides; iodine (129I), cesium (135Cs), technetium (99Tc), neptunium (237Np), and plutonium (239Pu). Most performance assessment (PA) models, assume conservatively, that as the UO2 matrix corrodes, the key radionuclides (129I, 99Tc, 237Np, and 239Pu) will be released congruently. In so doing, these PA models force increased reliance on human engineered barriers.

  13. On the application of High-Tc superconductors in power coils and transformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevtchenko, O.A.


    In this study, the electro-magnetic properties of high-Tc tapes and coils are investigated. The focus is on Bi-2223/Ag tapes with non-twisted superconducting filaments as these are the only high-Tc superconductors at present available in sufficient length for practical applications. The study is

  14. Neutron depolarization effects in a high-Tc superconductor (abstract) (United States)

    Nunes, A. C.; Pickart, S. J.; Crow, L.; Goyette, R.; McGuire, T. R.; Shinde, S.; Shaw, T. M.


    Using the polarized beam small-angle neutron scattering spectrometer at the Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center Reactor, we have observed significant depolarization of a neutron beam by passage through polycrystalline high-Tc superconductors, specifically 123 Y-Ba-Cu-O prepared and characterized at the IBM Watson Research Center. We believe that this technique will prove useful in studying aspects of these materials, such as the penetration depth of shielding currents, the presence and structure of trapped flux vortices, and grain size effects on the supercurrent distribution in polycrystalline samples. The two samples showed sharp transitions at 87 and 89 K, and have been studied at temperatures of 77 K; the second sample has also been studied at 4 K. The transition to the superconducting state was monitored by the shift in resonant frequency of a coil surrounding the sample. No measurable depolarization was observed in either sample at 77 K in both the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled states, using applied fields of 0 (nominal), 54, and 1400 Oe. This negative result may be connected with the fact that the material is still in the reversible region as indicated by susceptibility measurements, but it allows an estimate of the upper bound of possible inhomogeneous internal fields, assuming a distance scale for the superconducting regions. For the 10-μm grain size suggested by photomicrographs, this upper bound for the field turns out to be 1.2 kOe, which seems reasonable. At 4 K a significant depolarization was observed when the sample was cooled in low fields and a field of 1400 Oe was subsequently applied. This result suggests that flux lines are penetrating the sample. Further investigations are being carried out to determine the field and temperature dependence of the depolarization, and attempts will be made to model it quantitatively in terms of possible internal field distributions. We are also searching for possible diffraction effects from ordered vortex

  15. Feshbach shape resonance for high Tc pairing in superlattices of quantum stripes and quantum wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bianconi


    Full Text Available   The Feshbach shape resonances in the interband pairing in superconducting superlattices of quantum wells or quantum stripes is shown to provide the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity. This mechanism provides the Tc amplification driven by the architecture of material: superlattices of quantum wells (intercalated graphite or diborides and superlattices of quantum stripes (doped high Tc cuprate perovskites where the chemical potential is tuned to a Van Hove-Lifshitz singularity (vHs in the electronic energy spectrum of the superlattice associated with the change of the Fermi surface dimensionality in one of the subbands.

  16. Uniform mixing of antiferromagnetism and high- Tc superconductivity in multilayer copper oxides Ba2Can-1CunO2nF2 (n=2,3,4) with apical fluorines: C63u-NMR/NQR and F19-NMR studies (United States)

    Shimizu, S.; Sakaguchi, T.; Mukuda, H.; Kitaoka, Y.; Shirage, P. M.; Kodama, Y.; Iyo, A.


    We report C63u-NMR/NQR and F19-NMR studies on the multilayered high- Tc copper oxides Ba2Can-1CunO2nF2 with n=2,3,4 , where n is the number of CuO2 planes. It is revealed that bilayered Ba2CaCu2O4F2 is an underdoped superconductor with hole carriers, which are introduced into CuO2 planes by an unexpected deviation from the nominal content of apical fluorines. In a previous paper, we proposed a self-doping mechanism as the origin of carrier doping in n=3 and n=4 ; in the mechanism, electrons are transferred from the inner CuO2 plane (IP) to the outer one (OP). However, since it has been found that the bilayered compound is hole doped, we have re-examined the superconducting and magnetic properties in n=3 and n=4 by C63u-NMR/NQR and F19-NMR . The extensive NMR studies have confirmed that the apical-fluorine compounds are not self-doped but hole doped and that antiferromagnetism (AFM) and superconductivity (SC) coexist in a single CuO2 plane. In n=4 , the AFM ordering occurs at TN=80K well above Tc=55K , where the respective AFM moments are MAFM=0.11μB and 0.18μB at the OP and the IP. In n=3 , on the other hand, the underdoped single IP exhibits a spontaneous moment MAFM=0.12μB at low temperatures and a peak in the nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 of F19 at TN=23K much lower than Tc=76K . We note that the increase in the number of IPs from one to two results in the strengthening of the interlayer coupling; TN increases as the interlayer coupling becomes stronger, although the doping levels for both compounds are comparable. Consequently, we conclude that the uniform mixing of AFM and SC is a general property inherent to a single CuO2 plane in an underdoped regime for hole doping. This conclusion incorporates the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy results on the n=4 compound [Chen , Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 236401 (2006)]; it was found that the two Fermi sheets of the IP and OP are observed and that the SC gap opens at the IP and OP below Tc=55K .

  17. Plasma resonance and flux dynamics in layered high-Tc superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sakai, S.


    Flux dynamics of layered high Tc superconductors are considered with special emphasis on the small oscillation modes. In particular we find the dispersion relation for the plasma modes and discuss the spectra to be observed in microwave experiments.......Flux dynamics of layered high Tc superconductors are considered with special emphasis on the small oscillation modes. In particular we find the dispersion relation for the plasma modes and discuss the spectra to be observed in microwave experiments....

  18. The interaction between ApoA2 -265T>C polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Zamani, Elham; Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Sotoudeh, Gity; Keramat, Laleh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Rafiee, Masoumeh; Koohdani, Fariba


    Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) -265T>C polymorphism has been studied in relation to oxidative stress and various dietary fatty acids. Since the interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids on oxidative stress has not yet discussed, we aimed to investigate the interaction on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The subjects were 180 T2DM patients with known APOA2 genotype, either TT, TC or CC. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was determined by colorimetric method. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α were measured by spectrophotometry and ELISA, respectively. Dietary intake was collected through a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the median intake, fatty acids intake was dichotomized into high or low groups. The interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake was analyzed by ANCOVA multivariate interaction model. Higher than median intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) was associated with increased serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α in subjects with TT/TC genotype (p = 0.004), and higher than median intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was associated with increased serum SOD activity in CC genotype (p oxidative stress. More investigations on different populations are required to confirm the interaction.

  19. Experimental study of 99mTc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection (United States)

    Chernov, V. I.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.


    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p imported analogue and its practical application will facilitate intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes.

  20. Superconducting fluctuations and pseudogap in high-Tc cuprates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alloul H.


    Full Text Available Large pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 Tesla are used to suppress the contribution of superconducting fluctuations (SCF to the ab-plane conductivity above Tc in a series of YBa2Cu3O6+x. These experiments allow us to determine the field Hc’(T and the temperature Tc’ above which the SCFs are fully suppressed. A careful investigation near optimal doping shows that Tc’ is higher than the pseudogap temperature T*, which is an unambiguous evidence that the pseudogap cannot be assigned to preformed pairs. Accurate determinations of the SCF contribution to the conductivity versus temperature and magnetic field have been achieved. They can be accounted for by thermal fluctuations following the Ginzburg-Landau scheme for nearly optimally doped samples. A phase fluctuation contribution might be invoked for the most underdoped samples in a T range which increases when controlled disorder is introduced by electron irradiation. Quantitative analysis of the fluctuating magnetoconductance allows us to determine the critical field Hc2(0 which is found to be be quite similar to Hc’ (0 and to increase with hole doping. Studies of the incidence of disorder on both Tc’ and T* allow us to to propose a three dimensional phase diagram including a disorder axis, which allows to explain most observations done in other cuprate families.

  1. Resonance of High Tc Superconducting Microstrip Patch in a Substrate-Superstrate Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benkouda


    Full Text Available The effect of a protecting dielectric superstrate on the resonance of a high Tc superconducting microstrip patch is investigated. The analysis approach is based on the spectral-domain method of moments in conjunction with the complex resistive boundary condition. The complex surface impedance of the superconducting thin film is determined using London’s equation and the two-fluid model of Gorter and Casimir. Numerical results show that the resonant frequency of the high Tc superconducting rectangular patch decreases monotonically with increasing superstrate thickness, the decrease being greater for high permittivity loading.

  2. Low-field vortex dynamics in various high-Tc thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vortex dynamics; flux creep; high temperature superconductor; thin film; ac susceptibil- ity. PACS Nos 74.72.-h; 74.76.Bz; 74.60.Ge. 1. Introduction. Despite the predictions of fundamental new physics and intriguing vortex phenomena in high-Tc materials at very low fields [1–6], a vast majority of experimental vortex dynam-.

  3. Low noise high-Tc superconducting bolometers on silicon nitride membranes for far-infrared detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nivelle, M.J.M.E.; De Nivelle, M.J.M.E.; Bruijn, M.P.; de Vries, R.; Wijnbergen, J.J.; de Korte, P.A.J.; Sanchez, Stefan; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Heidenblut, T.; Schwierzi, B.; Michalke, W.; Steinbeiss, E.


    High-Tc GdBa2Cu3O7 – delta superconductor bolometers with operation temperatures near 89 K, large receiving areas of 0.95 mm2 and very high detectivity have been made. The bolometers are supported by 0.62 µm thick silicon nitride membranes. A specially developed silicon-on-nitride layer was used to

  4. Experimental study of {sup 99m}Tc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernov, V. I., E-mail:; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Lyapunov, A. Yu., E-mail: [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)


    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52–77 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 16.7–24.5 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of {sup 99}mTc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p < 0.05). In all study points the average uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the lymph node was significantly higher than {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis accumulation. The results of dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualized in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} accumulation reached a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) during 2-hour study and then its accumulation remained practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% in 24 hours. In case of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node was visualized in all animals for 15 min when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose

  5. Development of Tc(IV)-Incorporated Fe Minerals to Enhance 99Tc Retention in Glass Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Luksic, Steven A.; Wang, Guohui; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.


    Iron minerals have been considered to be good hosts for Tc immobilization because the Tc(IV) ion substitutes for Fe(III) in the crystal structure of the Fe oxide due to similarities in (1) cation size [Tc(IV) = 78.5 pm ; Fe(III) = 69 or 78.5 pm], (2) metal-oxygen interatomic distance (Tc—O = 0.199 nm, Fe—O = 0.203 nm), (3) number of coordinating oxygen atoms (both 6-fold coordinated), and (4) the redox potential (Eh=ca. +20 mV at pH = 7) for a redox couple between Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) and Fe(III)/Fe(II). Magnetite, maghemite, and trevorite are iron oxide minerals and all belong to spinel mineral group. Laboratory testing shows that Tc can be removed from aqueous waste solutions by a process of Tc reduction from Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) followed by co-precipitation with iron oxide minerals during recrystallization of Fe(OH)2(s) used as an initial solid precursor. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy confirmed that Tc was in the +4 oxidation state in final Tc-Fe minerals. The Tc-incorporated Fe minerals were also tested for Tc retention in glass melts at different temperatures between 600 – 1,000 oC in a furnace. After being cooled in air, the solid glass specimens collected at different temperatures were analyzed for Tc oxidation state using XANES and Tc retention using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Even though Tc(IV) started to reoxidize at 600 oC, Tc retention in the final glass specimen prepared with Tc-incorporated Fe mineral even at high temperatures was at least two times higher than glass prepared with KTcO4 salt. Higher Tc retention in glass is considered to result from limited and delayed Tc volatilization process due to Fe mineral encapsulation for Tc. Therefore, the results showing the presence of Tc(IV) in the Fe mineral structure indicate strong possibility to enhance Tc retention in borosilicate glass as well as to reduce the remediation costs at the Hanford Site.

  6. Models of high-Tc superconductivity and applications to electric generators and motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter

    We present the Ginzburg Landau model for mesoscopic high-Tc superconductors of complex geometry. It is shown that giant vortices can form at boundary defects. The relation between total magnetic flux penetration through the superconductor and the externally applied field is established...

  7. Theory of macroscopic quantum tunnelling and dissipation in high-Tc Josephson junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawabata, S.; Kawabata, Shiro; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Asano, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yukio; Kato, Takeo; Kato, T.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch


    We have investigated macroscopic quantum tunnelling (MQT) in in-plane high-Tc superconductor Josephson junctions and the influence of the nodal-quasiparticle and zero energy bound states (ZES) on MQT. We have shown that the presence of ZES at the interface between the insulator and the

  8. The 9th symposium of high Tc superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojou, Kiichi; Okayasu, Satoru; Sasase, Masato [eds.


    This workshop was carried out on December 11 and 12, 1997, at JAERI, Tokai in a series of modification of material by irradiation in `the multi core project II of the high temperature superconducting material research` organized by Science and Technology Agency. The following is the abstract of presentations concerning basic theories, various experimental results and material improvement of the superconductivity by high energy ion irradiation. The 26 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. The 11th symposium of high Tc superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojou, Kiichi; Okayasu, Satoru; Sasase, Masato [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    This workshop was carried out on December 16 and 17, 1999, at JAERI, Tokai in a series of modification material by irradiation in 'the multi-core project II of the high temperature superconducting material research' organized by Science and Technology Agency. The following is the abstract of presentations concerning basic theories, various experimental results and material improvement of the superconductivity by high energy ion irradiation. (author)

  10. High frequency of SH3TC2 mutations in Czech HMSN I patients. (United States)

    Laššuthová, P; Mazanec, R; Vondráček, P; Sišková, D; Haberlová, J; Sabová, J; Seeman, P


    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy type 4C (CMT4C) is an autosomal recessive (AR), demyelinating neuropathy with early spine deformities caused by mutations in the SH3TC2 gene. To determine the spectrum of SH3TC2 mutations in the Czech population, the entire coding region of SH3TC2 was sequenced in 60 unrelated Czech patients. The prevalent mutation was shown to be the p.Arg954Stop. Therefore, 412 additional patients referred for CMT testing were tested for the presence of p.Arg954Stop only. Of 60 patients in whom the SH3TC2 gene was sequenced, at least one mutation was detected in 13 (21.7%) patients and biallelic pathogenic mutations were detected in 7 (11.6%) patients. Of the 412 patients tested for p.Arg954Stop, the mutation was found in 8 patients (1.94%), 6 were homozygous and 2 were heterozygous. The second causative mutation was detected by sequencing in one of the patients but not in the other. Nine novel sequence variants were detected. Their pathogenicity was further tested in silico and in control samples. Mutations in the SH3TC2 gene are a frequent cause of demyelinating hereditary neuropathy among Czech patients. In total, at least one mutation was found in 21 unrelated patients. CMT4C seems to be the most frequent type of AR CMT and one of the most frequent of all CMT types. Mutation p.Arg954Stop is highly prevalent in the Czech population. Patients with demyelinating neuropathy along with non-dominant mode of inheritance and negative for CMT1A/hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy should be tested for the presence of the p.Arg954Stop mutation or other mutations in the SH3TC2 gene. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. {sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-DTMA bombesin conjugates having high affinity for the GRP receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Stephanie R. [Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Veerendra, Bhadrasetty [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Rold, Tammy L. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Sieckman, Gary L. [Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Hoffman, Timothy J. [Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Jurisson, Silvia S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Smith, Charles J. [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Division, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); University of Missouri Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Radiopharmaceutical Sciences Institute, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)], E-mail:


    Introduction: Targeted diagnosis of specific human cancer types continues to be of significant interest in nuclear medicine. {sup 99m}Tc is ideally suited as a diagnostic radiometal for in vivo tumor targeting due to its ideal physical characteristics and diverse labeling chemistries in numerous oxidation states. Methods: In this study, we report a synthetic approach toward design of a new tridentate amine ligand for the organometallic aqua-ion [{sup 99m}Tc(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}(CO){sub 3}]{sup +}. The new chelating ligand framework, 2-(N,N'-Bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)diethylenetriamine) acetic acid (DTMA), was synthesized from a diethylenetriamine precursor and fully characterized by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C). DTMA was conjugated to H{sub 2}N-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}, where X=an amino acid or aliphatic pharmacokinetic modifier and BBN=bombesin peptide, by means of solid phase peptide synthesis. DTMA-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2} conjugates were purified by reversed-phase high-performance chromatography and characterized by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Results: The new conjugates were radiolabeled with [{sup 99m}Tc(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} produced via Isolink radiolabeling kits to produce [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-DTMA-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}]. Radiolabeled conjugates were purified by reversed-phase high-performance chromatography. Effective receptor binding behavior was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}-DTMA-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH{sub 2}] conjugates displayed very high affinity for the gastrin releasing peptide receptor in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, these conjugates hold some propensity to be investigated as molecular imaging agents that specifically target human cancers uniquely expressing the gastrin releasing peptide receptor subtypes.

  12. Magnetic forces in high-Tc superconducting bearings (United States)

    Moon, F. C.


    In September 1987, researchers at Cornell levitated a small rotor on superconducting bearings at 10,000 rpm. In April 1989, a speed of 120,000 rpm was achieved in a passive bearing with no active control. The bearing material used was YBa2Cu307. There is no evidence that the rotation speed has any significant effect on the lift force. Magnetic force measurements between a permanent rare-earth magnet and high T(sub c) superconducting material versus vertical and lateral displacements were made. A large hysteresis loop results for large displacements, while minor loops result for small displacements. These minor loops seem to give a slope proportional to the magnetic stiffness, and are probably indicative of flux pinning forces. Experiments of rotary speed versus time show a linear decay in a vacuum. Measurements of magnetic dipole over a high-T(sub c) superconducting disc of YBCO show that the lateral vibrations of levitated rotors were measured which indicates that transverse flux motion in the superconductor will create dissipation. As a result of these force measurements, an optimum shape for the superconductor bearing pads which gives good lateral and axial stability was designed. Recent force measurements on melt-quench processed superconductors indicate a substantial increase in levitation force and magnetic stiffness over free sintered materials. As a result, application of high-T(sub c) superconducting bearings are beginning to show great promise at this time.

  13. The unusually high Tc in rare-earth-doped single crystalline CaFe2As2 (United States)

    Wei, Fengyan; Lv, Bing; Deng, Liangzi; Meen, James K.; Xue, Yu-Yi; Chu, Ching-Wu


    In rare-earth-doped single crystalline CaFe2As2, the mysterious small volume fraction which superconducts up to 49 K, much higher than the bulk Tc ~ 30 s K, has prompted a long search for a hidden variable that could enhance the Tc by more than 30% in iron-based superconductors of the same structure. Here we report a chemical, structural and magnetic study of CaFe2As2 systematically doped with La, Ce, Pr and Nd. Coincident with the high Tc phase, we find extreme magnetic anisotropy, accompanied by an unexpected doping-independent Tc and equally unexpected superparamagnetic clusters associated with As vacancies. These observations lead us to conjecture that the tantalizing Tc enhancement may be associated with naturally occurring chemical interfaces and may thus provide a new paradigm in the search for superconductors with higher Tc.

  14. Vortex configurations in high-{Tc} superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H.G.; Kwong, M.K.


    This article addresses the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) model for high-temperature superconductivity in thin films (two-dimensional periodic domains). A new gauge is defined to reduce the coupling between the equations for the nonzero components of the vector potential. The GL equations are written in a novel form by means of continuous link variables; this form is symmetric and has particular advantages for numerical analysis. The continuous GL model is approximated by a discrete model, which is shown to be second-order accurate. Two methods are used for the numerical solution of the discrete model - a modified Newton`s method, in combination with a sweeping algorithm for the solution of the linear system, and a time-like integration method based on gradient flow. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the discrete GL model leads to asymmetric solutions in the plane; symmetry is recovered only in the limit as the mesh size goes to zero. The results of computational experiments to find the upper critical field and establish an empirical power law for vortex interactions are given.

  15. Experimental study of the lower critical field in high-{Tc}-single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandstatter, C.; Boehmer, C. [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Univ., Wien (Austria); Weber, H.W.; Veal, B.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.


    Employing SQUID magnetometry and novel measuring and evaluation techniques, precise information on the first penetration field can be obtained and used to extract H{sub cl}. Tl- and Bi-based as well as a series of oxygen deficient Y-123 high {Tc} superconducting single crystals were investigated (H{parallel}c). In all cases, H{sub cl} is smaller than previously reported and can be described by BCS-theory.

  16. Modeling in Nonlinear Vibrations of a High-Tc Superconducting Levitation System


    長屋, 幸助; 周東, 俊介


    Three dimensional analytical results for the levitation force of a vibrating high-Tc superconducting levitation system were presented. When the levitated superconductor vibrates, the levitation force shows nonlinear relationships with the air gap, amplitude and vibration frequency, so that the convensional models which do not consider dynamic effects cannot be applied. In the model proposed by(Uesaka et al.), dynamic effects are considered, but the critical current is constant. We propose an ...

  17. The Effect of Twins on Critical Currents of High Tc Superconductors (United States)


    Currents of High Tc Superconductors " - A.M. Campbell and M.F. Ashby The initial work on levitation forces and separation of superconducting powders has...divided into two projects which are being pursued simultaneously. .The first is the nature of the frictional forces and damping oii levitated magnets...Although it is reasonable to suppose this arises from AC losses in the superconductor , magnets rotating about their centre of symmetry should not give

  18. Hall effect in high- Tc Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7-δ superconductor (United States)

    Vezzoli, G. C.; Burke, T.; Moon, B. M.; Lalevic, B.; Safari, A.; Sundar, H. G. K.; Bonometti, R.; Alexander, C.; Rau, C.; Waters, K.


    We have performed point-by-point and continuous Hall effect experiments as a function of temperature in polycrystalline Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7-δ. We have shown that the positive Hall constant shows an abrupt increase upon decreasing temperature at a value just above Tc. This temperature corresponds to where the resistance versus temperature data deviates from linearity. At very high fields of 6.8 and 15 T we observe a subsequent decrease in RH. We interpret these data as supportive of a contribution toward the superconductivity mechanism arising from internal excitions or change transfer excitations such that the bound exciton concentration increases near Tc at the expense of positive carries which are reflected in both bound and free holes.

  19. Extended abstracts of the 12th JAERI workshop on high-Tc superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojou, Kiichi; Okayasu, Satoru; Sasase, Masato [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishida, Takekazu [Osaka Prefectual Univ., Sakai (JP)] (eds.)


    This workshop was held on December 7-8, 2000 at JAERI (Tokai). The research group at JAERI shares a responsibility for material modification of high-Tc superconductors by irradiation in 'the multi-core project II of the high temperature superconducting material research' organized by STA (Science and Technology Agency) of Japan. This report contains the extended abstracts of workshop presentations covering basic theories, various experimental results and material improvement studies of the superconductivity by high energy ion irradiation. The twelve presentations of the workshop were devoted to a mini symposium where the direct observations of vortices were discussed in view of the various sophisticated techniques. (author)

  20. Singularity in the positive Hall coeffcient near pre-onset temperatures in high-Tc superconductors (United States)

    Vezzoli, G. C.; Chen, M. F.; Craver, F.; Moon, B. M.; Safari, A.; Burke, T.; Stanley, W.


    Hall measurements using continuous extremely slow cooling and reheating rates as well as employing eqiulibrium point-by-point conventional techniques reveals a clear anomally in RH at pre-onset temperatures near Tc in polycrystalline samples Y1Ba2Cu3O7 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10. The anomaly has the appearance of a singularity of Dirac-delta function which parallels earlier work on La1-xSrxCuO4. Recent single crystal work on the Bi-containing high-Tc superconductor is in accord with a clearcut anomaly. The singularity is tentatively interpreted to be associated (upon cooling) with initially the removal of positive holes from the hopping conduction system of the normal state such as from the increased concentration of bound virtual excitons due to increased exciton and hole lifetimes at low temperature. Subsequently the formation of Cooper pairs by mediation from these centers (bound-holes) and/or bound excitons) may cause an ionization of these bound virtual excitons thereby re-introducing holes and electrons into the conduction system at Tc.

  1. Random magnetic field and quasiparticle transport in the mixed state of high- Tc cuprates. (United States)

    Ye, J


    By a singular gauge transformation, the quasiparticle transport in the mixed state of high- Tc cuprates is mapped into a charge-neutral Dirac moving in short-range correlated random scalar and long-range correlated vector potential. A fully quantum mechanical approach to longitudinal and transverse thermal conductivities is presented. The semiclassical Volovik effect is presented in a quantum mechanical way. The quasiparticle scattering from the random magnetic field which was completely missed in all the previous semiclassical approaches is the dominant scattering mechanism at sufficient high magnetic field. The implications for experiments are discussed.

  2. A novel phthalimide derivative, TC11, has preclinical effects on high-risk myeloma cells and osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Matsushita

    Full Text Available Despite the recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM, MM patients with high-risk cytogenetic changes such as t(4;14 translocation or deletion of chromosome 17 still have extremely poor prognoses. With the goal of helping these high-risk MM patients, we previously developed a novel phthalimide derivative, TC11. Here we report the further characterization of TC11 including anti-myeloma effects in vitro and in vivo, a pharmacokinetic study in mice, and anti-osteoclastogenic activity. Intraperitoneal injections of TC11 significantly delayed the growth of subcutaneous tumors in human myeloma-bearing SCID mice. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that TC11 induced apoptosis of MM cells in vivo. In the pharmacokinetic analyses, the Cmax was 2.1 μM at 1 h after the injection of TC11, with 1.2 h as the half-life. TC11 significantly inhibited the differentiation and function of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts in mouse osteoclast cultures using M-CSF and RANKL. We also revealed that TC11 induced the apoptosis of myeloma cells accompanied by α-tubulin fragmentation. In addition, TC11 and lenalidomide, another phthalimide derivative, directly bound to nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1, whose role in MM is unknown. Thus, through multiple molecular interactions, TC11 is a potentially effective drug for high-risk MM patients with bone lesions. The present results suggest the possibility of the further development of novel thalidomide derivatives by drug designing.

  3. Photoreduction of 99Tc Pertechnetate by Nanometer-Sized Metal Oxides: New Strategies for Formation and Sequestration of Low-Valent Technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton-Pye, Benjamin P. [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States); Radivojevic, Ivana [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States); McGregor, Donna [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Graduate Center; Mbomekalle, Israel M. [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States); Lukens, Wayne W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Francesconi, Lynn C. [Hunter College of the City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Graduate Center


    Technetium-99 (99Tc)(β-max: 293.7 keV; t1/2: 2.1 x 105 years) is a byproduct of uranium-235 fission and comprises a large component of radioactive waste. Under aerobic conditions and in a neutral- basic environment, the pertechnetate anion (99TcO4-) is stable. 99TcO4- is very soluble, migrates easily through the environment and does not sorb well onto mineral surfaces, soils or sediments. This study moves forward a new strategy for the reduction of TcO4- and chemical incorporation of the reduced 99Tc into a metal oxide material. This strategy employs a single material, a polyoxometalate (POM), α2-[P2W17O61]10-, that can be photoactivated in the presence of 2-propanol to transfer electrons to TcO4- and incorporate the reduced 99Tc covalently into the α2- framework to form the TcVO species, TcVO(α2-P2W17O61)7-. This occurs via the formation of an intermediate species that slowly converts to TcVO(α2-P2W17O61)7-. EXAFS and XANES analysis and preliminary EPR analysis, suggests that the intermediate consists of a Tc(IV) α2- species where the 99Tc is likely bound to only 2 of the 4 W-O oxygen atoms in the α2-[P2W17O61]10- defect. This intermediate then oxidizes and converts to the 99TcVO(α2-P2W17O61)7- product. The reduction and incorporation of 99TcO4- was accomplished in a ''one pot'' reaction using both sunlight and UV irradiation, and monitored as a function of time

  4. CD3+CD8+CD161high Tc17 cells are depleted in HIV-infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Hartling, Hans Jakob; Thorsteinsson, Kristina


    CD8+ Tc17 cells with pro-inflammatory properties have only recently been acknowledged, and Tc17 cells in HIV-infection are undescribed. CD3+CD8+CD161 Tc17 cells and the production of Interleukin-17 were examined in untreated and treated HIV-infected patients, HIV-HCV co-infected patients...... and healthy controls. Depletion of CD3+CD8+CD161 Tc17 cells and diminished production of Interleukin-17 in HIV-infected patients was found. The level of Tc17 cells was associated with the level of the CD4+ count in treated patients....

  5. Thermophysical properties of Almahata Sitta meteorites (asteroid 2008 TC3) for high-fidelity entry modeling (United States)

    Loehle, Stefan; Jenniskens, Peter; Böhrk, Hannah; Bauer, Thomas; Elsäßer, Henning; Sears, Derek W.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Shaddad, Muawia H.


    Asteroid 2008 TC3 was characterized in a unique manner prior to impacting Earth's atmosphere, making its October 7, 2008, impact a suitable field test for or validating the application of high-fidelity re-entry modeling to asteroid entry. The accurate modeling of the behavior of 2008 TC3 during its entry in Earth's atmosphere requires detailed information about the thermophysical properties of the asteroid's meteoritic materials at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to the point of ablation (T 1400 K). Here, we present measurements of the thermophysical properties up to these temperatures (in a 1 atm. pressure of argon) for two samples of the Almahata Sitta meteorites from asteroid 2008 TC3: a thick flat-faced ureilite suitably shaped for emissivity measurements and a thin flat-faced EL6 enstatite chondrite suitable for diffusivity measurements. Heat capacity was determined from the elemental composition and density from a 3-D laser scan of the sample. We find that the thermal conductivity of the enstatite chondrite material decreases more gradually as a function of temperature than expected, while the emissivity of the ureilitic material decreases at a rate of 9.5 × 10-5 K-1 above 770 K. The entry scenario is the result of the actual flight path being the boundary to the load the meteorite will be affected with when entering. An accurate heat load prediction depends on the thermophysical properties. Finally, based on these data, the breakup can be calculated accurately leading to a risk assessment for ground damage.

  6. Internal resonance of an elastic body levitated above high-Tc superconducting bulks (United States)

    Kokuzawa, T.; Toshihiko, S.; Yoshizawa, M.


    In high-Tc superconducting magnetic levitation systems, levitated bodies can keep stable levitation with no contact and no control and thus their damping is very small. Thanks to these features, their applications to various apparatus are expected. However, on account of their small damping, the nonlinearity of electromagnetic levitation force can give notable effects upon motion of the levitated bodies. Therefore this nonlinearity must be taken into account to accurately analyze the dynamical behavior of the levitated bodies. Structures of such a levitated body can show elastic deformation if the large electromagnetic force acts on it. Therefore, we need to deal with the model as an elastic body. As mentioned above, nonlinear characteristics easily appear in this elastic vibration on account of the small damping. Especially when the ratio of the natural frequencies of the eigenmodes is integer, internal resonance can occur. This nonlinear resonance is derived from nonlinear interactions among the eigenmodes of the elastic levitated body. This kind of internal resonance of an elastic body appearing in high-Tc superconducting levitation systems has not been studied so far. This research especially deals with internal resonance of a beam supported at both its ends by electromagnetic forces acting on permanent magnets. The governing equation with the nonlinear boundary conditions for the dynamics of a levitated beam has been derived. Numerical results show internal resonance of the 1st mode and the 3rd mode. Experimental results are qualitatively in good agreement with numerical ones.

  7. Levitation performance of the magnetized bulk high- Tc superconducting magnet with different trapped fields (United States)

    Liu, W.; Wang, J. S.; Liao, X. L.; Zheng, S. J.; Ma, G. T.; Zheng, J.; Wang, S. Y.


    To a high- Tc superconducting (HTS) maglev system which needs large levitation force density, the magnetized bulk high- Tc superconductor (HTSC) magnet is a good candidate because it can supply additional repulsive or attractive force above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG). Because the induced supercurrent within a magnetized bulk HTSC is the key parameter for the levitation performance, and it is sensitive to the magnetizing process and field, so the magnetized bulk HTSC magnets with different magnetizing processes had various levitation performances, not only the force magnitude, but also its force relaxation characteristics. Furthermore, the distribution and configuration of the induced supercurrent are also important factor to decide the levitation performance, especially the force relaxation characteristics. This article experimentally investigates the influences of different magnetizing processes and trapped fields on the levitation performance of a magnetized bulk HTSC magnet with smaller size than the magnetic inter-pole distance of PMG, and the obtained results are qualitatively analyzed by the Critical State Model. The test results and analyses of this article are useful for the suitable choice and optimal design of magnetized bulk HTSC magnets.

  8. Vibration reduction using autoparametric resonance in a high-Tc superconducting levitation system (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Takazakura, Toyoki; Sakaguchi, Ryunosuke; Sugiura, Toshihiko


    High-Tc superconducting levitation systems have very small damping and enable stable levitation without control. Therefore, they can be applied to various kinds of application. However, there are some problems that small damping produces large vibration and nonlinearity of magnetic force can generate complicated phenomena. Accordingly, analysis of these phenomena and reduction of vibration occurring in the system are important. In this study, we examined reduction of vibration without using any absorbers, but utilizing autoparametric resonance caused by nonlinear coupling between vertical oscillation and horizontal oscillation. We conducted numerical analysis and experiments in order to investigate motions of a rigid bar levitated by the electromagnetic force from high-Tc superconductors. As a result, if the ratio of the natural frequency of vertical oscillation and that of horizontal oscillation is two to one, the vertical oscillation decreases while the horizontal oscillation is excited. Thus, it was confirmed that the amplitude of a primary resonance can be reduced by occurrence of autoparametric resonance without using any absorbers.

  9. Josephson junction between two high Tc superconductors with arbitrary transparency of interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GhR Rashedi


    Full Text Available In this paper, a dc Josephson junction between two singlet superconductors (d-wave and s-wave with arbitrary reflection coefficient has been investigated theoretically. For the case of high Tc superconductors, the c-axes are parallel to an interface with finite transparency and their ab-planes have a mis-orientation. The physics of potential barrier will be demonstrated by a transparency coefficient via which the tunneling will occur. We have solved the nonlocal Eilenberger equations and obtained the corresponding and suitable Green functions analytically. Then, using the obtained Green functions, the current-phase diagrams have been calculated. The effect of the potential barrier and mis-orientation on the currents is studied analytically and numerically. It is observed that, the current phase relations are totally different from the case of ideal transparent Josephson junctions between d-wave superconductors and two s-wave superconductors. This apparatus can be used to demonstrate d-wave order parameter in high Tc superconductors.

  10. The Study of 99mTc-Aluminum Oxide Using for Sentinel Lymph Nodes Detection in Experiment (United States)

    Medvedeva, A. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.; Dergilev, A. P.


    The purpose of the study was a comparative research of the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes in the experiment. Measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. Average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node - at 1 hour after administration the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower - 1,8% (p imported analogue and its practical application will facilitate intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes.

  11. Thermocurrent dosimetry with high purity aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullerton, G.D.; Cameron, J.R.; Moran, P.R.


    The application of thermocurrent (TC) to ionizing radiation dosimetry was studied. It was shown that TC in alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) has properties that are suited to personnel dosimetry and environmental monitoring. TC dosimeters were made from thin disks of alumina. Aluminum electrodes were evaporated on each side: on one face a high voltage electrode and on the opposite face a measuring electrode encircled by a guard ring. Exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in stored electrons and holes in metastable trapping sites. The signal was read-out by heating the dosimeter with a voltage source and picnometer connected in series between the opposite electrodes. The thermally remobilized charge caused a transient TC. The thermogram, TC versus time or temperature, is similar to a TL glow curve. Either the peak current or the integrated current is a measure of absorbed dose. Six grades of alumina were studied from a total of four commercial suppliers. All six materials displayed radiation induced TC signals. Sapphire of uv-grade quality from the Adolf Meller Co. (AM) had the best dosimetry properties of those investigated. Sources of interference were studied. Thermal fading, residual signal and radiation damage do not limit TC dosimetry. Ultraviolet light can induce a TC response but it is readily excluded with uv-opaque cladding. Improper surface preparation prior to electrode evaporation was shown to cause interference. A spurious TC signal resulted from polarization of surface contaminants. Spurious TC was reduced by improved cleaning prior to electrode application. Polished surfaces resulted in blocking electrodes and caused a sensitivity shift due to radiation induced thermally activated polarization. This was not observed with rough cut surfaces.

  12. High Current Oxide Cathodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luhmann, N


    The aim of the AASERT supported research is to develop the plasma deposition/implantation process for coating barium, strontium and calcium oxides on nickel substrates and to perform detailed surface...

  13. High Current Oxide Cathodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luhmann, N


    .... The vacuum are plasma deposition gun developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been used to deposit oxides and nitrides with very precise control over deposition rate and composition.

  14. Development and characterization of highly polymorphic long TC repeat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macedo Selma E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is a crop of economic and social importance, mainly in tropical areas, and developing countries. Its molecular breeding has been hindered by a shortage of polymorphic genetic markers due to a very narrow genetic base. Microsatellites (SSRs are markers of choice in peanut because they are co-dominant, highly transferrable between species and easily applicable in the allotetraploid genome. In spite of substantial effort over the last few years by a number of research groups, the number of SSRs that are polymorphic for A. hypogaea is still limiting for routine application, creating the demand for the discovery of more markers polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Findings A plasmid genomic library enriched for TC/AG repeats was constructed and 1401 clones sequenced. From the sequences obtained 146 primer pairs flanking mostly TC microsatellites were developed. The average number of repeat motifs amplified was 23. These 146 markers were characterized on 22 genotypes of cultivated peanut. In total 78 of the markers were polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Most of those 78 markers were highly informative with an average of 5.4 alleles per locus being amplified. Average gene diversity index (GD was 0.6, and 66 markers showed a GD of more than 0.5. Genetic relationship analysis was performed and corroborated the current taxonomical classification of A. hypogaea subspecies and varieties. Conclusions The microsatellite markers described here are a useful resource for genetics and genomics in Arachis. In particular, the 66 markers that are highly polymorphic in cultivated peanut are a significant step towards routine genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection for the crop.

  15. An autotrophic H2 -oxidizing, nitrate-respiring, Tc(VII)-reducing Acidovorax sp. isolated from a subsurface oxic-anoxic transition zone. (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Fredrickson, James K; Plymale, Andrew E; Dohnalkova, Alice C; Resch, Charles T; McKinley, James P; Shi, Liang


    Increasing concentrations of H2 with depth were observed across a geologic unconformity and associated redox transition zone in the subsurface at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington, USA. An opposing gradient characterized by decreasing O2 and nitrate concentrations was consistent with microbial-catalysed biogeochemical processes. Sterile sand was incubated in situ within a multilevel sampler placed across the redox transition zone to evaluate the potential for Tc(VII) reduction and for enrichment of H2 -oxidizing denitrifiers capable of reducing Tc(VII). H2 -driven TcO4 (-) reduction was detected in sand incubated at all depths but was strongest in material from a depth of 17.1 m. Acidovorax spp. were isolated from H2 -nitrate enrichments from colonized sand from 15.1 m, with one representative, strain JHL-9, subsequently characterized. JHL-9 grew on acetate with either O2 or nitrate as electron acceptor (data not shown) and on medium with bicarbonate, H2 and nitrate. JHL-9 also reduced pertechnetate (TcO4 (-) ) under denitrifying conditions with H2 as the electron donor. H2 -oxidizing Acidovorax spp. in the subsurface at Hanford and other locations may contribute to the maintenance of subsurface redox gradients and offer the potential for Tc(VII) reduction. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 99mTc-labeled HYNIC-DAPI causes plasmid DNA damage with high efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Kotzerke

    Full Text Available (99mTc is the standard radionuclide used for nuclear medicine imaging. In addition to gamma irradiation, (99mTc emits low-energy Auger and conversion electrons that deposit their energy within nanometers of the decay site. To study the potential for DNA damage, direct DNA binding is required. Plasmid DNA enables the investigation of the unprotected interactions between molecules and DNA that result in single-strand breaks (SSBs or double-strand breaks (DSBs; the resulting DNA fragments can be separated by gel electrophoresis and quantified by fluorescent staining. This study aimed to compare the plasmid DNA damage potential of a (99mTc-labeled HYNIC-DAPI compound with that of (99mTc pertechnetate ((99mTcO4(-. pUC19 plasmid DNA was irradiated for 2 or 24 hours. Direct and radical-induced DNA damage were evaluated in the presence or absence of the radical scavenger DMSO. For both compounds, an increase in applied activity enhanced plasmid DNA damage, which was evidenced by an increase in the open circular and linear DNA fractions and a reduction in the supercoiled DNA fraction. The number of SSBs elicited by 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI (1.03 was twice that caused by (99mTcO4(- (0.51, and the number of DSBs increased fivefold in the (99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated sample compared with the (99mTcO4(- treated sample (0.02 to 0.10. In the presence of DMSO, the numbers of SSBs and DSBs decreased to 0.03 and 0.00, respectively, in the (99mTcO4(- treated samples, whereas the numbers of SSBs and DSBs were slightly reduced to 0.95 and 0.06, respectively, in the (99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated samples. These results indicated that (99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI induced SSBs and DSBs via a direct interaction of the (99mTc-labeled compound with DNA. In contrast to these results, (99mTcO4(- induced SSBs via radical formation, and DSBs were formed by two nearby SSBs. The biological effectiveness of (99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI increased by approximately 4-fold in terms of inducing SSBs and by approximately

  17. Enhanced 99 Tc retention in glass waste form using Tc(IV)-incorporated Fe minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Luksic, Steven A.; Wang, Guohui; Saslow, Sarah; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Bowden, Mark E.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Kruger, Albert A.


    Technetium (99Tc) immobilization by doping into iron oxide mineral phases may alleviate the problems with Tc volatility during vitrification of nuclear waste. Reduced Tc, Tc(IV), substitutes for Fe(III) in the crystal structure by a process of Tc reduction from Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) followed by co-precipitation of Fe oxide minerals. Two Tc-incorporated Fe minerals (Tc-goethite and Tc-magnetite/maghemite) were prepared and tested for Tc retention in glass melt samples at temperatures between 600 – 1,000 oC. After being cooled, the solid glass specimens prepared at different temperatures were analyzed for Tc oxidation state using Tc K-edge XANES. In most samples, Tc was partially oxidized from Tc(IV) to Tc(VII) as the melt temperature increased. However, Tc retention in glass melt samples prepared using Tc-incorporated Fe minerals were moderately higher than in glass prepared using KTcO4 because of limited and delayed Tc volatilization.

  18. Performance of a high Tc superconducting ultralow-loss microwave stripline filter (United States)

    Zahopoulos, C.; Sridhar, S.; Bautista, J. J.; Ortiz, G.; Lanagan, M.


    The successful fabrication is reported of a five-pole interdigital stripline filter made of the 93 K superconductor Y1Ba2Cu3O(y) coated on a silver substrate, with a center frequency of 8.5 GHz and an extremely high rejection ratio of 80 dB. The lowest insertion loss measured was 0.1 dB at 12 K, with a return loss better than 16 dB, representing significant improvements over a similar Cu filter, and comparable to low Tc filters. The insertion loss appears to be limited by extrinsic factors such as tuning mismatch and joint losses, and not by the superconducting material losses.

  19. Nonlinear resonances of three modes in a high-Tc superconducting magnetic levitation system (United States)

    Sasaki, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Ryunosuke; Sugiura, Toshihiko


    In a high-Tc superconducting magnetic levitation system, an object can levitate without control and contact. So it is expected to be applied to magnetically levitated transportation. To use it safely, lightening the levitated object is necessary. But this reduces the bending stiffness of the object. Besides, the system has nonlinearity. Therefore nonlinear elastic vibration can occur. This study focused on how plural nonlinear elastic vibrations of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd modes simultaneously occur. Our numerical calculation and experiment found out that the three modes simultaneously resonate when the amplitude of the 2nd mode is large enough whereas only the 2nd mode resonates when it is small.

  20. Advanced nanoscopic studies in magneto-electric manganites and high T$_c$ superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Melo Mendonça, Tânia Manuela; Martins Correia, João Guilherme


    Technological advances in materials synthesis and the development of new experimental techniques have created a wealth of information with remarkable implications for understanding the macroscopic properties of systems with strongly correlated electronic properties. These advances allowed the observation of a wide range of exotic phenomena such as high T$_c$ superconductivity, colossal magneto-resistance or, more recently, multiferroic behavior, which are known to be strongly dependent on the nanoscale phenomenology. In fact, several experimental and theoretical studies demonstrated that strongly correlated electron systems are not homogeneous at a local scale due to simultaneously active spin, charge, lattice and/or orbital interactions. Consequently, these systems show nanoscale chemical and electronic disorder, which lead to a rich variety of macroscopic properties. It is under this scope that the nuclear hyperfine techniques are introduced, being particularly useful to infer the local lattice structure, e...

  1. 3D modeling of high-Tc superconductors by finite element software (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Coombs, T. A.


    A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model is proposed to solve the electromagnetic problems involving transport current and background field of a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) system. The model is characterized by the E-J power law and H-formulation, and is successfully implemented using finite element software. We first discuss the model in detail, including the mesh methods, boundary conditions and computing time. To validate the 3D model, we calculate the ac loss and trapped field solution for a bulk material and compare the results with the previously verified 2D solutions and an analytical solution. We then apply our model to test some typical problems such as superconducting bulk array and twisted conductors, which cannot be tackled by the 2D models. The new 3D model could be a powerful tool for researchers and engineers to investigate problems with a greater level of complicity.

  2. A study of high {Tc} superconducting ceramic/metal alloy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M.G.; Du, J.; Lee, R.M; Unsworth, J.; Hely, J.; Hodges, J. [Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia). Dept. of Materials Science


    High-{Tc} superconducting ceramic YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x}/metal alloy composites were fabricated. The metal matrix was a low melting point alloy of bismuth, lead, tin, cadmium and indium. The structure, DC electrical resistivity, AC magnetic susceptibility, levitation and mechanical strength of the composites were investigated. The influence of filler content on these properties was also studied. The composites behaved as a typical metal with the resistivity increasing with temperature increase and, further, did not undergo the characteristic superconducting transition to zero resistance that is obtained with the ceramic superconductor. On the other hand, the diamagnetic properties of the superconducting ceramic were preserved in the composites. The values of diamagnetic susceptibility and levitation force increase with the volume fraction of the superconducting material. The flexural strength of the composites is improved significantly in comparison with the ceramic superconductor.

  3. Real-space fluctuations of effective exchange integrals in high-Tc cuprates (United States)

    Petit, S.; Lepetit, M.-B.


    We present ab initio calculations of effective magnetic exchange, J, as well as Hubbard parameters (t, U and δɛ) as a function of the local distribution of doping atoms for the high-Tc superconducting (CaxLa1-x)(Ba1.75-xLa0.25+x)Cu3Oy family. We found that both the exchange and the energies of the magnetic orbitals are strongly dependent on the local dopant distribution, both through the induced modification of the apical oxygen location and of the induced local electrostatic potential. The J real-space map, for a random distribution of dopants, positively compares with observed STS gap inhomogeneity maps. Similarly, the orbital energy fluctuations induce weak charge inhomogeneities on copper sites, that can be positively compared with the observed LDOS inhomogeneities. These results clearly support an extrinsic origin of both the gap inhomogeneities and LDOS.

  4. Efficient CAD Model to Analysis of High Tc Superconducting Circular Microstrip Antenna on Anisotropic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bedra


    Full Text Available In this paper, an electromagnetic approach based on cavity model in conjunction with electromagnetic knowledge was developed. The cavity model combined with London’s equations and the Gorter-Casimir two-fluid model has been improved to investigate the resonant characteristics of high Tc superconducting circular microstrip patch in the case where the patch is printed on uniaxially anisotropic substrate materials.  Merits of our extended model include low computational cost and mathematical simplify. The numerical simulation of this modeling shows excellent agreement with experimental results available in the literature. Finally, numerical results for the dielectric anisotropic substrates effects on the operating frequencies for the case of superconducting circular patch are also presented.

  5. A novel phenylphthalimide derivative, pegylated TC11, improves pharmacokinetic properties and induces apoptosis of high-risk myeloma cells via G2/M cell-cycle arrest. (United States)

    Aida, Shuji; Hozumi, Masashi; Ichikawa, Daiju; Iida, Kazuki; Yonemura, Yuko; Tabata, Noriko; Yamada, Taketo; Matsushita, Maiko; Sugai, Takeshi; Yanagawa, Hiroshi; Hattori, Yutaka


    Despite the development of new drugs for multiple myeloma (MM), the prognosis of MM patients with high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities such as t (4; 14) and del17p remains poor. We reported that a novel phenylphthalimide derivative, TC11, induced apoptosis of MM cells in vitro and in vivo, and TC11 directly bound to α-tubulin and nucleophosmin-1 (NPM1). However, TC11 showed low water solubility and poor pharmacokinetic properties. Here we synthesized a water-soluble TC11-derivative, PEG(E)-TC11, in which HOEtO-TC11 is pegylated with PEG through an ester bond, and we examined its anti-myeloma activity. We observed that PEG(E)-TC11 and its hydrolyzed product, HOEtO-TC11, induced G2/M arrest and the apoptosis of MM cells. Intraperitoneal administration of PEG(E)-TC11 to xenografted mice revealed improved pharmacokinetic properties and significantly delayed tumor growth. TC11 and its derivatives did not bind to cereblon (CRBN), which is a responsible molecule for thalidomide-induced teratogenicity. These results suggest that PEG(E)-TC11 is a good candidate drug for treating high-risk MM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of high pulsed magnetic field on tensile properties of TC4 alloy (United States)

    Li, Gui-Rong; Wang, Fang-Fang; Wang, Hong-Ming; Zheng, Rui; Xue, Fei; Cheng, Jiang-Feng


    The tensile tests of TC4 alloy are carried on electronic universal testing machine in the synchronous presence of high pulsed magnetic field (HPMF) parallel to the axial direction. The effects of magnetic induction intensity (B=0, 1 T, 3 T, and 5 T) on elongation (δ) of TC4 alloy are investigated. At 3 T, the elongation arrives at a maximum value of 12.41%, which is enhanced by 23.98% in comparison with that of initial sample. The elongation curve shows that 3 T is a critical point. With B increasing, the volume fraction of α phase is enhanced from 49.7% to 55.9%, which demonstrates that the HPMF can induce the phase transformation from β phase to α phase. Furthermore, the magnetic field not only promotes the orientation preference of crystal plane along the slipping direction, but also has the effect on increasing the dislocation density. The dislocation density increases with the enhancement of magnetic induction intensity and the 3-T parameter is ascertained as a turning point from increase to decrease tendency. When B is larger than 3 T, the dislocation density decreases with the enhancement of B. The influence of magnetic field is analyzed on the basis of magneto-plasticity effect. The high magnetic field will enhance the dislocation strain energy and promote the state conversion of radical pair generated between the dislocation and obstacles from singlet into triplet state, in which is analyzed the phenomenon that the dislocation density is at an utmost with B=3 T. Finally, the inevitability of optimized 3-T parameter is further discussed on a quantum scale. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51371091, 51174099, and 51001054) and the Industrial Center of Jiangsu University, China (Grant No. ZXJG201585).

  7. Trinitromethyl Heterocyclic Oxidizers as a Solid Propellant Ingredient Final Report CRADA No TC02146.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagoria, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Racoveanu, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC as manager and operator of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSI), to develop a synthesis of two novel energetic heterocyclic oxidizers as possible replacements for ammonium perchlorate (AP) in rocket propellant formulations. This CRADA resulted from the award of the Phase I Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) from DOD. The CRADA consisted of two phases. The goal for Phase 1 was to produce a new oxidizer called TNMDNP. Phase 2 is optional (based on the success of Phase 1) and the goal of Phase 2 (optional) was to produce a new oxidizer called TNMDNT. Phase 2 tasks would be performed based on the successful results of Phase 1.

  8. Processing and Fabrication of High Temperature Oxide Superconductors (United States)


    XRD analysis of this calcined powder showed that metallic Cu, Y203, and BaCO3 formed, suggesting that NH3 is too strongly reducing and not suitable for...December 4, 1990). 10. S. M. Johnson and M. I. Gusman, "Microstructure and Critical Current Density in High-Tc Metal Oxide Superconductors," EPRI Final...superconducting closed. ceramic oxides indicate that only crude methods of D. W. Johnson et a., in the CeramicA Bulletin, VoL 53, powder preparation are

  9. Unconventional charge order in a co-doped high-Tc superconductor (United States)

    Pelc, D.; Vučković, M.; Grafe, H.-J.; Baek, S.-H.; Požek, M.


    Charge-stripe order has recently been established as an important aspect of cuprate high-Tc superconductors. However, owing to the complex interplay between competing phases and the influence of disorder, it is unclear how it emerges from the parent high-temperature state. Here we report on the discovery of an unconventional ordered phase between charge-stripe order and (pseudogapped) metal in the cuprate La1.8-xEu0.2SrxCuO4. We use three complementary experiments--nuclear quadrupole resonance, nonlinear conductivity and specific heat--to demonstrate that the order appears through a sharp phase transition and exists in a dome-shaped region of the phase diagram. Our results imply that the new phase is a state, which preserves translational symmetry: a charge nematic. We thus resolve the process of charge-stripe development in cuprates, show that this nematic phase is distinct from high-temperature pseudogap and establish a link with other strongly correlated electronic materials with prominent nematic order.

  10. Unconventional charge order in a co-doped high-Tc superconductor. (United States)

    Pelc, D; Vučković, M; Grafe, H-J; Baek, S-H; Požek, M


    Charge-stripe order has recently been established as an important aspect of cuprate high-Tc superconductors. However, owing to the complex interplay between competing phases and the influence of disorder, it is unclear how it emerges from the parent high-temperature state. Here we report on the discovery of an unconventional ordered phase between charge-stripe order and (pseudogapped) metal in the cuprate La1.8-xEu0.2SrxCuO4. We use three complementary experiments-nuclear quadrupole resonance, nonlinear conductivity and specific heat-to demonstrate that the order appears through a sharp phase transition and exists in a dome-shaped region of the phase diagram. Our results imply that the new phase is a state, which preserves translational symmetry: a charge nematic. We thus resolve the process of charge-stripe development in cuprates, show that this nematic phase is distinct from high-temperature pseudogap and establish a link with other strongly correlated electronic materials with prominent nematic order.

  11. Spectroscopic Properties of Tc(I) Tricarbonyl Species Relevant to the Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Andersen, Amity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Technetium-99 (Tc) exists predominately in soluble forms in the liquid supernatant and salt cake fractions of the nuclear tank waste stored at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site. In the strongly alkaline environments prevalent in the tank waste, its dominant chemical form is pertechnetate (TcO4-, oxidation state +7). However, attempts to remove Tc from the Hanford tank waste using ion-exchange processes specific to TcO4- only met with limited success, particularly processing tank waste samples containing elevated concentrations of organic complexants. This suggests that a significant fraction of the soluble Tc can be present as non-pertechnetate low-valent Tc (oxidation state < +7) (non-pertechnetate). The chemical identities of these non-pertechnetate species are poorly understood. Previous analysis of the SY-101 and SY-103 tank waste samples provided strong evidence that non-pertechnetate can be comprised of [Tc(CO)3]+ complexes containing Tc in oxidation state +1 (Lukens et al. 2004). During the last two years, our team has expanded this work and demonstrated that high-ionic-strength solutions typifying tank waste supernatants promote oxidative stability of the [Tc(CO)3]+ species (Rapko et al. 2013; Levitskaia et al. 2014). It also was observed that high-ionic-strength alkaline matrices stabilize Tc(VI) and potentially Tc(IV) oxidation states, particularly in presence organic chelators, suggesting that the relevant Tc compounds can serve as important redox intermediates facilitating the reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(I). Designing strategies for effective Tc processing, including separation and immobilization, necessitates understanding the molecular structure of these non-pertechnetate species and their identification in the actual tank waste samples. To-date, only limited information exists regarding the nature and characterization of the Tc(I), Tc(IV), and Tc(VI) species. One objective of this project is to

  12. High resolution spectroscopy of the hyperfine structure splitting in 97,99Tc (United States)

    Raeder, Sebastian; Kron, Tobias; Heinke, Reinhard; Henares, Jose L.; Lecesne, Nathalie; Schönberg, Pascal; Trümper, Marcel; Wendt, Klaus


    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry is an efficient tool for detecting trace amounts of long-lived radio-isotopes in environmental samples. For absolute quantification a tracer with identical atomic properties and chemical behavior is needed to prevent a possible dependency onto the absolute efficiency for the analytical method. For an application in 99Tc, the isotope 97Tc could serve as a potential tracer. Therefore the optical transitions of an efficient ionization scheme for technetium were investigated for the two odd mass isotopes 97,99Tc, both with a nuclear spin of I={9}/{2}. Using a pulsed, single mode laser with narrow bandwidth, the hyperfine structures (HFS) of two transitions were fully resolved. The observed isotope shift is small in comparison to the width of the hyperfine structure splitting. This is ideal for the application of 97Tc as tracer isotope for 99Tc quantification. The evaluation of the observed HFS splitting results in a first experimental value for the magnetic dipole for 97Tc of μ=+5.82(9) μ N .

  13. Prediction of high-Tc conventional superconductivity in the ternary lithium borohydride system (United States)

    Kokail, Christian; von der Linden, Wolfgang; Boeri, Lilia


    We investigate the superconducting ternary lithium borohydride phase diagram at pressures of 0 and 200 GPa using methods for evolutionary crystal structure prediction and linear-response calculations for the electron-phonon coupling. Our calculations show that the ground state phase at ambient pressure, LiBH4, stays in the P n m a space group and remains a wide band-gap insulator at all pressures investigated. Other phases along the 1 :1 :x Li:B:H line are also insulating. However, a full search of the ternary phase diagram at 200 GPa revealed a metallic Li2BH6 phase, which is thermodynamically stable down to 100 GPa. This superhydride phase, crystallizing in a F m 3 ¯m space group, is characterized by sixfold hydrogen-coordinated boron atoms occupying the fcc sites of the unit cell. Due to strong hydrogen-boron bonding this phase displays a critical temperature of ˜100 K between 100 and 200 GPa. Our investigations confirm that ternary compounds used in hydrogen-storage applications should exhibit high-Tc conventional superconductivity in diamond anvil cell experiments, and suggest a viable route to optimize the superconducting behavior of high-pressure hydrides, exploiting metallic covalent bonds.

  14. The gradient crystalline structure and microhardness in the treated layer of TC17 via high energy shot peening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huimin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Liu, Yingang, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Li, Miaoquan, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Liu, Hongjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The gradient nanocrystalline structure was induced in treated layer of TC17. • The thickness of nanograin layer with an average grain size of 10.5 nm was 20 μm. • The composition of the treated layer of TC17 was discussed. • The gradient variation of the microhardness was obtained in treated layer of TC17. - Abstract: The gradient nanocrystalline structure from the topmost surface to the matrix of a bulk coarse-grained TC17 was attained by using high energy shot peening treatment at an air pressure of 0.35 MPa and a processing duration of 30 min. The thickness from the topmost surface with a grain size of about 10.5 nm to the matrix with a micrometer structure was about 120 μm, and the thickness in the nanocrystalline layer was about 20 μm. The microscopic and nanocrystalline structure characteristic in the treated layer were investigated via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The nanograins layer, the nanometer-thick laminated structure layer, the refined grains layer and the low-strain matrix layer occurred in sequence from the topmost surface to the matrix, and therefore the gradient nanocrystalline structure in the treated layer was produced by using high energy shot peening. TEM investigation confirmed that the dislocation activity with very high stacking fault energy induced by surface severe plastic deformation mainly controlled the grain refinement. The microhardness (HV{sub 0.02}) from the topmost surface to the matrix gradually increased by 43% from 440 to 629 and the gradient variation of the microhardness with the depths from the topmost surface to the matrix of treated TC17 was obtained.

  15. Quantitation of left ventricular ejection fraction reserve from early gated regadenoson stress Tc-99m high efficiency SPECT (United States)

    Brodov, Yafim; Fish, Mathews; Rubeaux, Mathieu; Otaki, Yuka; Gransar, Heidi; Lemley, Mark; Gerlach, Jim; Berman, Daniel; Germano, Guido; Slomka, Piotr


    Background Ejection fraction (EF) reserve has been found to be a useful adjunct for identifying high risk coronary artery disease in cardiac positron emission tomography (PET). We aimed to evaluate EF reserve obtained from technetium-99m sestamibi (Tc-99m) high-efficiency (HE) SPECT. Methods Fifty patients (mean age 69 y) undergoing regadenoson same-day rest (8–11 mCi)/stress (32–42mCi) Tc-99m gated HE SPECT were enrolled. Stress imaging was started one min after sequential intravenous regadenoson 0.4mg and Tc-99m injection, and was composed of five 2 min supine gated acquisitions followed by two 4 min supine and upright images. Ischemic total perfusion deficit (ITPD) ≥ 5 % was considered as significant ischemia. Results Significantly lower mean EF reserve was obtained in the 5th and 9th min after regadenoson bolus in patients with significant ischemia versus patients without (5th min: −4.2 ± 4.6% vs. 1.3 ± 6.6%, p = 0.006; 9th min: −2.7 ± 4.8% vs. 2.0 ± 6.6%, p = 0.03). Conclusions Negative EF reserve obtained between 5th and 9th min of regadenoson stress demonstrated best concordance with significant ischemia and may be a promising tool for detection of myocardial stunning with Tc-99m HE-SPECT. PMID:27387521

  16. Quantitation of left ventricular ejection fraction reserve from early gated regadenoson stress Tc-99m high-efficiency SPECT. (United States)

    Brodov, Yafim; Fish, Mathews; Rubeaux, Mathieu; Otaki, Yuka; Gransar, Heidi; Lemley, Mark; Gerlach, Jim; Berman, Daniel; Germano, Guido; Slomka, Piotr


    Ejection fraction (EF) reserve has been found to be a useful adjunct for identifying high risk coronary artery disease in cardiac positron emission tomography (PET). We aimed to evaluate EF reserve obtained from technetium-99m sestamibi (Tc-99m) high-efficiency (HE) SPECT. Fifty patients (mean age 69 years) undergoing regadenoson same-day rest (8-11 mCi)/stress (32-42 mCi) Tc-99m gated HE SPECT were enrolled. Stress imaging was started 1 minute after sequential intravenous regadenoson .4 mg and Tc-99m injections, and was composed of five 2 minutes supine gated acquisitions followed by two 4 minutes supine and upright images. Ischemic total perfusion deficit (ITPD) ≥5 % was considered as significant ischemia. Significantly lower mean EF reserve was obtained in the 5th and 9th minute after regadenoson bolus in patients with significant ischemia vs patients without (5th minute: -4.2 ± 4.6% vs 1.3 ± 6.6%, P = .006; 9th minute: -2.7 ± 4.8% vs 2.0 ± 6.6%, P = .03). Negative EF reserve obtained between 5th and 9th minutes of regadenoson stress demonstrated best concordance with significant ischemia and may be a promising tool for detection of transient ischemic functional changes with Tc-99m HE-SPECT.

  17. High-Tc dc-SQUID gradiometers in flip-chip configuration (United States)

    Peiselt, K.; Schmidl, F.; Linzen, S.; Anton, A. S.; Hübner, U.; Seidel, P.


    We describe a new design of a gradiometric flip-chip antenna, which is inductively coupled to a dc-SQUID gradiometer. Both components are patterned out of thin films of the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO). For the flip-chip antenna, a 40 mm × 10 mm SrTiO3 single crystalline substrate is used, while the gradiometer sensors are prepared on 10 mm × 10 mm SrTiO3 bicrystal substrates. Special attention is paid to the inductive coupling between the flip-chip antenna and the read-out gradiometer antenna. We investigate different designs of coupling loops in order to optimize the coupling inductance between both components of the sensor. With optimized coupling the sensor achieves a field-gradient resolution of 12 fT cm-1 Hz-1/2 in the white noise region and of 310 fT cm-1 Hz-1/2 at 1 Hz in the unshielded laboratory environment.

  18. Report on neutron beam utilization and study of high Tc superconductors at NRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuong Huu Tan [Nuclear Physics Dept., Nuclear Research Inst. (NRI), Dalat (Viet Nam)


    Utilization of reactor neutron beams at NRI for research and applications up to November 1996 had been presented at the last Workshop in Jakarta (25-28 Nov., 1996). This paper describes new research and applications carried out at Nuclear Physics Department of NRI after that time. They consist of neutron beam developments, neutron activation cross section measurements for waste disposal assessment and in-vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for Cd determination in organs. After the last Sub-Workshop on Neutron Scattering in Serpong (21-23 Nov., 1996), we were accepted to participate in the Regional Program on Study of High Tc Superconductors with the topic `The mechanism of Pb and Sb dopant role on superconductivity of 2223 phase of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system`. Indeed, this study has begun at NRI only since August, 1997 due to the problem of materials. The study has been carried out in collaboration with the Hanoi State University (Superconductors Department) where experts and equipment for superconductors research have been considered as the best ones in Vietnam. Primary results in this study are presented in this workshop. (author)

  19. An autotrophic H 2 -oxidizing, nitrate-respiring, Tc(VII)-reducing A cidovorax sp. isolated from a subsurface oxic-anoxic transition zone: H 2 -oxidizing, Tc-reducing Acidovorax spp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fredrickson, James K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Plymale, Andrew E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dohnalkova, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Resch, Charles T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McKinley, James P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shi, Liang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Increasing concentrations of H2 with depth were observed across a geologic unconformity and associated redox transition zone in the subsurface at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington, USA. An opposing gradient characterized by decreasing O2 and nitrate concentrations was consistent with microbial-catalyzed biogeochemical processes. Sterile sand was incubated in situ within a multi-level sampler placed across the redox transition zone to evaluate the potential for Tc(VII) reduction and for enrichment of H2-oxidizing denitrifiers capable of reducing Tc(VII). H2-driven TcO4- reduction was detected in sand incubated at all depths but was strongest in material from a depth of 17.1 m. Acidovorax spp. were isolated from H2-nitrate enrichments from colonized sand from 15.1 m, with one representative, strain JHL-9, subsequently characterized. JHL-9 grew on acetate with either O2 or nitrate as electron acceptor (data not shown) and on medium with bicarbonate, H2 and nitrate. JHL-9 also reduced pertechnetate (TcO4-) under denitrifying conditions with H2 as the electron donor. H2-oxidizing Acidovorax spp. in the subsurface at Hanford and other locations may contribute to the maintenance of subsurface redox gradients and offer the potential for Tc(VII) reduction.

  20. The Gap and the Upper Critical Field Hc2 as Function of Doping for High-Tc Cuprates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Orozco


    Full Text Available The relation between the d-wave superconducting gap Δ0 and the specific heat obtained with the Volovik effect is used to determine the upper critical field Hc2 as doping function, for high-temperature superconductors. A two-components model with d-wave symmetry, within the BCS framework, is introduced to describe the superconducting state. Generalized Fermi surface topologies are used in order to increase the density of states at the Fermi level, allowing the high-Tc values observed. The electron-phonon interaction is considered the most relevant mechanism for the high-Tc cuprates, where the available phonon energy is provided by the half-breathing modes. The energy gap values Δ0 calculated with this model are introduced to describe the variation of the upper critical field Hc2 as function of doping, for La2-xSrxCuO4.

  1. Highly oxidized graphene oxide and methods for production thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tour, James M.; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.


    A highly oxidized form of graphene oxide and methods for production thereof are described in various embodiments of the present disclosure. In general, the methods include mixing a graphite source with a solution containing at least one oxidant and at least one protecting agent and then oxidizing the graphite source with the at least one oxidant in the presence of the at least one protecting agent to form the graphene oxide. Graphene oxide synthesized by the presently described methods is of a high structural quality that is more oxidized and maintains a higher proportion of aromatic rings and aromatic domains than does graphene oxide prepared in the absence of at least one protecting agent. Methods for reduction of graphene oxide into chemically converted graphene are also disclosed herein. The chemically converted graphene of the present disclosure is significantly more electrically conductive than is chemically converted graphene prepared from other sources of graphene oxide.

  2. Presentation of test cases TC-2A, TC-2B, TC-2C, TC-2D - Twodimensional, incompressible, wall flows with separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel Larsen, Poul


    The four test cases comprise the backfacing step at high Re-number (TC-2A) and low Re-number (TC-2B), a low Re-number boundary layer flow past a thin obstacle, fence-on-wall (TC-2C), and a high Re-number developed channel flow past a squareobstacle (TC-2D). Geometry, test conditions and available...

  3. Enhancing magnetic ordering in Cr-doped Bi2Se3 using high-TC ferrimagnetic insulator. (United States)

    Liu, Wenqing; He, Liang; Xu, Yongbing; Murata, Koichi; Onbasli, Mehmet C; Lang, Murong; Maltby, Nick J; Li, Shunpu; Wang, Xuefeng; Ross, Caroline A; Bencok, Peter; van der Laan, Gerrit; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Kang L


    We report a study of enhancing the magnetic ordering in a model magnetically doped topological insulator (TI), Bi(2-x)Cr(x)Se(3), via the proximity effect using a high-TC ferrimagnetic insulator Y(3)Fe(5)O(12). The FMI provides the TI with a source of exchange interaction yet without removing the nontrivial surface state. By performing the elemental specific X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements, we have unequivocally observed an enhanced TC of 50 K in this magnetically doped TI/FMI heterostructure. We have also found a larger (6.6 nm at 30 K) but faster decreasing (by 80% from 30 to 50 K) penetration depth compared to that of diluted ferromagnetic semiconductors (DMSs), which could indicate a novel mechanism for the interaction between FMIs and the nontrivial TIs surface.

  4. Possibility of critical field enhancement due to field penetration in high-Tc sponges and thin films (United States)

    Collings, E. W.; Markoworth, A. J.; Marken, K. R., Jr.


    Magnetic susceptibility measurements of a sample of sintered high-Tc ceramic superconductor of nominal composition Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-y) were conducted as a function of temperature from liquid-He temperatures to Tc. The fitted form of the susceptibility temperature dependence yielded a sample-particle size that was only a few times larger than the field-penetration depth. The particle size was much less than the grain size and commensurate with the thickness of the optical twins. The results of the enhancement studies are also discussed in the light of Bean's (1964) early experiments on Pb sponges (in this case wavelength much greater than particle size) which exhibited spectacular enhancements of Hc in association with flux trapping at or between the Pb filaments. It is predicted that it should be possible, using presently available film-deposition techniques, to produce high-Tc films possessing severalfold enhancements of H(c1) beyond the bulk value, and that, as with the Pb sponges, the magnetization loops, even when taken within what passes for the Meissner state in such materials, will be hysteretic.

  5. Improvement of High-Resolution Tropical Cyclone Structure and Intensity Forecasts using COAMPS-TC (United States)


    north and east of the center. This large shield of heavy precipitation caused severe river flooding as it slowly moved north through the mid...invited) Doyle, J.D., 2011: An Overview of NRL’s COAMPS System and Physics. EMC Physics Workshop. 26-27 July 2011, NCEP/ EMC . Doyle, J.D., C...Overview of the COAMPS-TC Tropical Cyclone Boundary Layer Parameterization. HFIP Physics Workshop. 9-11 August 2011, NCEP/ EMC . 8 Hendricks, E

  6. An effective attractive electron-electron interaction and high-Tc superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howson, M.A.; Porter, J.; Morgan, G.J. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Leeds (UK))


    The repulsive Coulomb interaction is usually seen as opposing the attractive phonon mediated interaction giving rise to superconductivity. Here we show how the vertex part for electron-electron scattering can lead to an effective attractive Coulomb interaction. We then solve the Eliashberg equations with this effective vertex correction and calculate Tc for a model density of states as we vary the strength of the interaction and the effective mass of the electrons. (orig.).

  7. Transiently enhanced interlayer tunneling in optically driven high-Tc superconductors (United States)

    Okamoto, Jun-ichi; Hu, Wanzheng; Cavalleri, Andrea; Mathey, Ludwig


    Recent pump-probe experiments reported an enhancement of superconducting transport along the c axis of underdoped YBa2Cu3O6 +δ (YBCO), induced by a midinfrared optical pump pulse tuned to a specific lattice vibration. To understand this transient nonequilibrium state, we develop a pump-probe formalism for a stack of Josephson junctions, and we consider the tunneling strengths in the presence of modulation with an ultrashort optical pulse. We demonstrate that a transient enhancement of the Josephson coupling can be obtained for pulsed excitation and that this can be even larger than in a continuously driven steady state. Especially interesting is the conclusion that the effect is largest when the material is parametrically driven at a frequency immediately above the plasma frequency, in agreement with what is found experimentally. For bilayer Josephson junctions, an enhancement similar to that experimentally is predicted below the critical temperature Tc. This model reproduces the essential features of the enhancement measured below Tc. To reproduce the experimental results above Tc, we will explore extensions of this model, such as in-plane and amplitude fluctuations, elsewhere.

  8. Tuning the Interlayer Spacing of High-Tc Bi-Based Superconductors by Intercalation: Measuring the Penetration Depth and the Two-Dimensional Superfluid Density (United States)

    Baker, P. J.; Lancaster, T.; Blundell, S. J.; Pratt, F. L.; Brooks, M. L.; Kwon, S.-J.


    Substantial control of the interlayer spacing in Bi-based high temperature superconductors has been achieved through the intercalation of guest molecules between the superconducting layers. Measurements using implanted muons reveal that the penetration depth increases with increasing layer separation while Tc does not vary appreciably, demonstrating that the bulk superfluid density is not the determining factor controlling Tc. Our results strongly suggest that for Bi-based high temperature superconductors the superfluid density appearing in the Uemura scaling relation ρs∝Tc should be interpreted as the two-dimensional density within the superconducting layers, which we find to be constant for each class of system investigated.

  9. DNA adopts normal B-form upon incorporation of highly fluorescent DNA base analogue tC: NMR structure and UV-Vis spectroscopy characterization


    Engman, K. Cecilia; Sandin, Peter; Osborne, Sadie; Brown, Tom; Billeter, Martin; Lincoln, Per; Nordén, Bengt; Albinsson, Bo; Wilhelmsson, L. Marcus


    The influence of the highly fluorescent tricyclic cytosine base analogue (tC) on duplex DNA conformation is investigated. The duplex properties are characterized by absorbance and circular dichroism (CD) for all combinations of neighbouring bases to tC, and an NMR structure is determined for one tC-containing sequence. For the oligonucleotides with one tC incorporated instead of cytosine, the melting temperature is increased on average by 2.7°C above that for the unmodified ones. CD spectra a...

  10. Growth of high {Tc} superconducting fibers using a miniaturized laser-heated float zone process. Progress report, November 6, 1990--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigelson, R.S.; Route, R.K.; DeMattei, R.C.


    This report summarizes the progress made on the project ``Growth of High {Tc} Superconducting Fibers Using a Miniaturized Laser-Heated Float Zone Process`` during the 14 month period from Nov. 6, 1990 to Dec. 31, 1991. The studies during this period focused primarily on phase diagram studies, phase relations in the calcium aluminate system and on Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (BSCCO). Some work was also done on the Advanced Fiber Growing Station. Because of the complicated phase relationships found in the incongruently melting BSCCO system, the incongruently melting CA{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} phase of the calcium oxide-aluminum oxide system was studied as a model material. The data obtained was in agreement with well known solidification theory. Fibers grown from calcium oxide rich sources contained calcium oxide nodules which transported from the melting source interface to the growth interface, while those grown from aluminum oxide rich sources contained continuous inclusions of a divorced eutectic. The melt compositions were also found to follow theoretical predictions. The agreement of this data with the phase diagram and solidification theory demonstrates that phase equilibrium information can be extracted from fiber growth experiments. BSCCO feed rods were made from 12 different compositions. Fibers were grown from these rods and the melts were abruptly quenched which preserves the as-grown 2212 fiber, a glassy frozen melt and the source. A future study of these sections will reveal the phase relationships that exist in the BSCCO system. Melt temperature gradients of 500--1,000 C/cm were measured near the interface in these experiments. During this reporting period, work continued on the mechanical components of the Advanced Fiber Growth Station.

  11. Higher critical current density achieved in Bi-2223 High-Tc superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Shalaby


    Full Text Available Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223 were prepared using a solid state reaction method at different sintering times and temperatures. Structural phase identifications have been done using X-Ray analysis and refinement by Reitveld method which proves the coexistence of Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 phases. The critical transition temperature Tc and critical current density Jc values were measured using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID and by the magneto-optics technique. A remarkable rapid decrease to the diamagnetic signal in the magnetization versus temperature M(T at 110 K and Jc around 1.2 × 107 A/m2 at 5 K are confirmed for the Bi-2223 compound.

  12. Electrochemical processing of high-Tc Bi(Pb)–Sr–Ca–CuO thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    furnace oxidation technique, the films were oxidized at 600°C temperature for 15 min using auto-controlled furnace and then quenched down to room temperature. Microstructural properties of these films were studied with METZER optical microscope (magnification 500 ×) with CCTV attachment. X-ray diffraction pattern was.

  13. TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose with High Degree of Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuwu Tang


    Full Text Available In this paper, water-soluble 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO-oxidized cellulose with a high degree of oxidation was prepared by a two-step process using bamboo dissolving pulp. The first step was to destroy the cellulose crystal I by NaOH/urea solution to obtain cellulose powder with decreased crystallinity. The second step was to oxidize the cellulose powder by TEMPO oxidation. The TEMPO-oxidized cellulose was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, conductimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD, fiber analyzer, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. FTIR showed that the hydroxymethyl groups in cellulose chains were converted into carboxyl groups. The degree of oxidation measured by conductimetry titration was as high as 91.0%. The TEMPO-oxidized cellulose was soluble in water for valuable polyelectrolytes and intermediates.

  14. Experiment investigation of laser shock peening on TC6 titanium alloy to improve high cycle fatigue performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Xiangfan, E-mail:; He, Weifeng; Zhou, Liucheng; Li, Qipeng; Wang, Xuede


    Laser shock peening (LSP) is an innovative surface treatment technique, and can significantly improve the fatigue performance of metallic components. In this paper, the objective of this work was to improve the fatigue resistance of TC6 titanium alloy by laser shock peening. Firstly, the effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties with different LSP impacts were investigated, which were observed and measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), residual stress tester and microhardness tester. Specially, nanostructure was detected in the laser-peened surface layer with multiple LSP impacts. Whereafter, a better parameter was chosen to be applied on the standard vibration fatigue specimens. Via the high-cycle vibration fatigue tests, the high cycle fatigue limits of the specimens without and with LSP were obtained and compared. The fatigue results demonstrate that LSP can effectively improve the fatigue limit of TC6 titanium alloy. The strengthening mechanism was indicated by analyzing the effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties comprehensively.

  15. TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose with High Degree of Oxidation


    Zuwu Tang; Wenyan Li; Xinxing Lin; He Xiao; Qingxian Miao; Liulian Huang; Lihui Chen; Hui Wu


    In this paper, water-soluble 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose with a high degree of oxidation was prepared by a two-step process using bamboo dissolving pulp. The first step was to destroy the cellulose crystal I by NaOH/urea solution to obtain cellulose powder with decreased crystallinity. The second step was to oxidize the cellulose powder by TEMPO oxidation. The TEMPO-oxidized cellulose was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), conductim...

  16. Impeding 99Tc(IV) mobility in novel waste forms (United States)

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Kruger, Albert A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra


    Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant, long-lived radioactive fission product whose mobility in the subsurface is largely governed by its oxidation state. Tc immobilization is crucial for radioactive waste management and environmental remediation. Tc(IV) incorporation in spinels has been proposed as a novel method to increase Tc retention in glass waste forms during vitrification. However, experiments under high-temperature and oxic conditions show reoxidation of Tc(IV) to volatile pertechnetate, Tc(VII). Here we examine this problem with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and propose that, at elevated temperatures, doping with first row transition metal can significantly enhance Tc retention in magnetite in the order Co>Zn>Ni. Experiments with doped spinels at 700 °C provide quantitative confirmation of the theoretical predictions in the same order. This work highlights the power of modern, state-of-the-art simulations to provide essential insights and generate theory-inspired design criteria of complex materials at elevated temperatures.

  17. Simplified Magnetically Shielded Cylinder Using Flexible Magnetic Sheets for High-Tc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Magnetocardiogram Systems (United States)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Yokosawa, Koichi; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Kandori, Akihiko; Tsukada, Keiji; Tsukamoto, Akira; Arakawa, Shunsuke


    A small and simple magnetic-shielding cylinder using a new high-permeability sheet, developed for magnetic shielding, can reduce the amount of effort expended on taking magnetocardiogram (MCG) measurements. This sheet is made of a nanocrystalline soft-magnetic material (an Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-B alloy) and is flexible and easy to handle. Moreover, magnetostriction of the material is nearly zero, unlike that of the materials used in conventional magnetic shielding. The shielding cylinder is made up of three tubes of various diameters (but having the same length), placed one inside the other. The shielding cylinder is 1.0 m in diameter and 2.0 m long, and it has a shielding factor of about 35 dB at 1 Hz. The shielding cylinder was tested by measuring MCGs using a high-Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) gradiometer.

  18. Association between ApoA-II -265T/C polymorphism and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Koohdani, Fariba; Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Djalali, Mahmoud; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Keramat, Laleh; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali; Zamani, Elham


    Apolipoprotein A-II (ApoA-II) constitutes approximately 20% of the total HDL protein content. The results of various studies on the relationship between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and the plasma ApoA-II level are contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between ApoA-II polymorphism and oxidative stress (OS) as a risk factor for CVD. The present comparative study was carried out on 180 obese and non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes, with equal numbers of CC, TC, and TT genotypes of ApoA-II -265T/C gene. The ApoA-II genotype was determined by the TaqMan assay method. The anthropometric measurements and serum levels of lipid profile, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and 8-isoprostaneF2α were measured. After adjusting for confounding factors, in the total study population and in obese and non-obese groups, the subjects with CC genotype had a lower mean serum SOD activity (p=0.002, p=0.007 and p=0.005, respectively) and higher mean 8-isoprostaneF2α concentration (pdiabetes is a protective factor against OS; obesity inhibits this protective effect. The results of this study represent the anti-atherogenic properties of ApoA-II. However, further studies are needed in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The efficacy of low and high dose (99m)Tc-MIBI protocols for intraoperative identification of hyperplastic parathyroid glands in secondary hyperparathyroidism. (United States)

    Gencoglu, Esra Arzu; Aktas, Ayse


    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of low- and high-dose (99m)Tc-MIBI protocols for intraoperative identification of hyperplastic parathyroid glands via gamma probe in secondary hyperparathyroidism. This retrospective study was conducted using a prospective database of 59 patients who had undergone radioguided subtotal parathyroidectomy between 2004-2012. The patients were studied in 2 groups. Group 1 (n=31) received 37 MBq (99m)Tc-MIBI intravenously in the surgical room approximately 10 min before the beginning of the intervention and surgery was performed under gamma probe guidance. Group 2 (n=28) received 555 MBq (99m)Tc- MIBI intravenously 2h before surgery, which was also performed under gamma probe guidance. Intraoperative gamma probe findings, laboratory findings, and histopathological findings were evaluated together. Using acceptance of the histopathological findings as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative gamma probe for identifying hyperplastic parathyroid glands was 98% and 100%, respectively, in both groups. In the light of these findings, it is concluded that the low-dose (99m)Tc-MIBI protocol might be preferable for intraoperative identification of hyperplastic parathyroid glands in secondary hyperparathyroidism patients because it was observed to be as effective as the high-dose (99m)Tc-MIBI protocol. Furthermore, the low-dose protocol does not have the disadvantages that are associated with the high-dose protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  20. Noise and conversion performance of a high-Tc superconducting Josephson junction mixer at 0.6 THz (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Du, Jia; Zhang, Ting; Guo, Yingjie Jay


    This letter presents both theoretical and experimental investigations on the noise and conversion performance of a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) step-edge Josephson-junction mixer at the frequency of 0.6 THz and operating temperatures of 20-40 K. Based on the Y-factor and U-factor methods, a double-sideband noise temperature of around 1000 K and a conversion gain of -3.5 dB were experimentally obtained at 20 K. At the temperature of 40 K, the measured mixer noise and conversion efficiency are around 2100 K and -10 dB, respectively. The experimental data are in good agreement with the numerical analysis results using the three-port model. A detailed performance comparison with other reported HTS terahertz mixers has confirmed the superior performance of our presented mixer device.

  1. Analysis of High Tc Superconducting Rectangular Microstrip Patches over Ground Planes with Rectangular Apertures in Substrates Containing Anisotropic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderraouf Messai


    Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave analysis of high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch over ground plane with rectangular aperture in the case where the patch is printed on a uniaxially anisotropic substrate material is presented. The dyadic Green’s functions of the considered structure are efficiently determined in the vector Fourier transform domain. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with measurements and previously published data for several anisotropic substrate materials. Numerical results showing variation of the resonant frequency and the quality factor of the superconducting antenna with regard to operating temperature are given. Finally, the effects of uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate on the resonant frequencies of different TM modes of the superconducting microstrip antenna with rectangular aperture in the ground plane are presented.

  2. Vertical Cloud Climatology During TC4 Derived from High-Altitude Aircraft Merged Lidar and Radar Profiles (United States)

    Hlavka, Dennis; Tian, Lin; Hart, William; Li, Lihua; McGill, Matthew; Heymsfield, Gerald


    profiles occurring 94 percent of the time during the ER-2 flights. One to three cloud layers were common, with the average calculated at 2.03 layers per profile. The upper troposphere had a cloud frequency generally over 30%, reaching 42 percent near 13 km during the study. There were regional differences. The Caribbean was much clearer than the Pacific regions. Land had a much higher frequency of high clouds than ocean areas. One region just south and west of Panama had a high probability of clouds below 15 km altitude with the frequency never dropping below 25% and reaching a maximum of 60% at 11-13 km altitude. These cloud statistics will help characterize the cloud volume for TC4 scientists as they try to understand the complexities of the tropical atmosphere.

  3. Innate immune signaling induces high levels of TC-specific deaminase activity in primary monocyte-derived cells through expression of APOBEC3A isoforms. (United States)

    Thielen, Beth K; McNevin, John P; McElrath, M Juliana; Hunt, Brook Vander Stoep; Klein, Kevin C; Lingappa, Jaisri R


    In HIV-1-infected individuals, G-to-A hypermutation is found in HIV-1 DNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). These mutations are thought to result from editing by one or more host enzymes in the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminases, which act on CC (APOBEC3G) and TC (other A3 proteins) dinucleotide motifs in DNA (edited cytidine underlined). Although many A3 proteins display high levels of deaminase activity in model systems, only low levels of A3 deaminase activity have been found in primary cells examined to date. In contrast, here we report high levels of deaminase activity at TC motifs when whole PBMCs or isolated primary monocyte-derived cells were treated with interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) or IFNalpha-inducing toll-like receptor ligands. Induction of TC-specific deaminase activity required new transcription and translation and correlated with the appearance of two APOBEC3A (A3A) isoforms. Knockdown of A3A in monocytes with siRNA abolished TC-specific deaminase activity, confirming that A3A isoforms are responsible for all TC-specific deaminase activity observed. Both A3A isoforms appear to be enzymatically active; moreover, our mutational studies raise the possibility that the smaller isoform results from internal translational initiation. In contrast to the high levels of TC-specific activity observed in IFNalpha-treated monocytes, CC-specific activity remained low in PBMCs, suggesting that A3G deaminase activity is relatively inhibited, unlike that of A3A. Together, these findings suggest that deaminase activity of A3A isoforms in monocytes and macrophages may play an important role in host defense against viruses.

  4. Availability of {sup 99}Tc in undisturbed soil cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denys, Sebastien; Echevarria, Guillaume E-mail:; Florentin, Louis; Leclerc-Cessac, Elisabeth; Morel, Jean-Louis


    Models for safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories need accurate values of the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides. In oxidizing environments, {sup 99}Tc is expected to occur as pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). Due to its high mobility, leaching of this element in the field might be important, potentially affecting the reliability of estimated transfer parameters of {sup 99}Tc as measured in closed experimental systems such as hydroponics or pot experiments. The aim of this experiment was to measure the leaching of {sup 99}Tc in undisturbed irrigated soil cores under cultivation as well as plant uptake and to study the possible competition between the two transfer pathways. Undisturbed soil cores (50x50 cm) were sampled from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a colluvial Fluvic Cambisol (F) and a Dystric Cambisol (D) using PVC tubes (three cores sampled per soil type). Each core was equipped with a leachate collector at the bottom, allowing the monitoring of {sup 99}Tc leaching through the cores. Cores were placed in a greenhouse and maize (Zea mays L., cv. DEA, Pioneer[reg]) was sown. After 135 d, maize was harvested and radioactivity determined in both plant and water samples. Results showed that during the growing period, leaching of {sup 99}Tc was limited, due to the high evapotranspiration rate of maize. After harvest, leaching of {sup 99}Tc went on because of the absence of evapotranspiration. Effective uptake (EU) of {sup 99}Tc in leaves and grains was calculated. EU reached 70% of the input in the leaves and was not significantly different among soils. These results confirmed those obtained from pot experiments, even though leaching was allowed to occur in close-to-reality hydraulical conditions. As a consequence, it was concluded that pot experiments are an adequate surrogate for more complex 'close-to-reality' experimental systems for measuring transfer factors.

  5. Bright upconversion luminescence and increased Tc in CaBi2Ta2O9:Er high temperature piezoelectric ceramics (United States)

    Peng, Dengfeng; Wang, Xusheng; Xu, Chaonan; Yao, Xi; Lin, Jian; Sun, Tiantuo


    Er3+ doped CaBi2Ta2O9 (CBT) bismuth layered-structure high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by the traditional solid state method. The upconversion (UC) emission properties of Er3+ doped CBT ceramics were investigated as a function of Er3+ concentration and incident pump power. A bright green upconverted emission was obtained under excitation 980 nm at room temperature. The observed strong green and weak red emission bands corresponded to the transitions from 4S3/2 and 4F9/2 to 4I15/2, respectively. The dependence of UC emission intensity on pumping power indicated that a three-photon process was involved in UC emissions. Studies of dielectric with temperature have also been carried out. Introduction of Er increased the Curie temperature of CBT, thus, making this ceramic suitable for sensor applications at higher temperatures. Because of its strong up-converted emission and increased Tc, the multifunctional high temperature piezoelectric ceramic may be useful in high temperature sensor, fluorescence thermometry, and optical-electro integration applications.

  6. Bearing design for flywheel energy storage using high-TC superconductors (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.


    A high temperature superconductor material bearing system (38) This system (38) includes a rotor (50) having a ring permanent magnet (60), a plurality of permanent magnets (16, 20 and 70) for interacting to generate levitation forces for the system (38). This group of magnets are a push/pull bearing (75). A high temperature superconductor structure (30) interacts with the ting permanent magnet (60) to provide stabilizing forces for the system (38).

  7. Microbial impacts on 99mTc migration through sandstone under highly alkaline conditions relevant to radioactive waste disposal. (United States)

    Smith, Sarah L; Boothman, Christopher; Williams, Heather A; Ellis, Beverly L; Wragg, Joanna; West, Julia M; Lloyd, Jonathan R


    Geological disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste in the UK is planned to involve the use of cementitious materials, facilitating the formation of an alkali-disturbed zone within the host rock. The biogeochemical processes that will occur in this environment, and the extent to which they will impact on radionuclide migration, are currently poorly understood. This study investigates the impact of biogeochemical processes on the mobility of the radionuclide technetium, in column experiments designed to be representative of aspects of the alkali-disturbed zone. Results indicate that microbial processes were capable of inhibiting 99mTc migration through columns, and X-ray radiography demonstrated that extensive physical changes had occurred to the material within columns where microbiological activity had been stimulated. The utilisation of organic acids under highly alkaline conditions, generating H2 and CO2, may represent a mechanism by which microbial processes may alter the hydraulic conductivity of a geological environment. Column sediments were dominated by obligately alkaliphilic H2-oxidising bacteria, suggesting that the enrichment of these bacteria may have occurred as a result of H2 generation during organic acid metabolism. The results from these experiments show that microorganisms are able to carry out a number of processes under highly alkaline conditions that could potentially impact on the properties of the host rock surrounding a geological disposal facility for intermediate level radioactive waste. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Short-circuit experiments on a high Tc-superconducting cable conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Jensen, E.H.; Traholt, C.


    A high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable conductor (CC) with a critical current of 2.1 kA was tested over a range of short-circuit currents up to 20 kA. The duration of the short-circuit currents is 1 s. Between each short-circuit test the critical current of the HTS CC was measured in order...

  9. Theory of charge transfer at the high-Tc superconductor/electrolyte interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluzman, Sasha; Kuznetsov, Alexander M.


    We discuss the kinetics of electrochemical process on the high-T-c superconducting electrodes dependent on the type of superconductivity. The existence of the hump of an appreciable height in the temperature dependence of the current clearly points towards the BCS s-type superconductivity......) mechanism. Low-temperature tails at the current/temperature curve are also informative being determined by the electronic states within the gap typical of the unconventional d-wave pairing....

  10. Zone centre phonons in high Tc CaBi 2Sr 2Cu 2O 8 (United States)

    Gupta, H. C.


    The zone centre phonons have been investigated in CaBi 2Sr 2Cu 2O 8 using radial and tangential force constants. It is found that the phonons due to Bi O layers do not play an important role from the point of view of superconductivity. The calculation provides an information on the phonons which may be important for explaining the high temperature superconductivity.

  11. PEGylated N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate as a new reagent for the high-yield preparation of nitrido Tc-99m and Re-188 radiopharmaceuticals. (United States)

    Boschi, Alessandra; Massi, Alessandro; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micol; Duatti, Adriano


    A novel nitrido nitrogen atom donor for the preparation of (99m)Tc and (188)Re radiopharmaceuticals containing a metal-nitrogen multiple bond is presented. HO(2)C-PEG(600)-DTCZ was obtained by conjugation of N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate [H(2)N-N(CH(3))-C(S)SCH(3), HDTCZ] with polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG(600)). Asymmetrical heterocomplexes of the type [M(N)(PNP)(B)](0/+) (M=(99m)Tc, (188)Re; PNP=diphosphine ligands, B=DBODC, DEDC, NSH, H(2)OS, CysNAc, HDTCZ) and symmetrical nitride compounds of the type [M(N)(L)(2)] (L=DEDC, DPDC) have been prepared in high yield by using the newly designed nitride nitrogen atom donor HO(2)C-PEG(600)-DTCZ. A two-step procedure was applied for preparing the above symmetrical and asymmetrical complexes. The first step involved the preliminary formation of a mixture of nitride Tc-99m or Re-188 precursors, which contained the [M≡N](2+) core, through reduction of generator-eluted (99m)Tc-pertechnetate or (188)Re-perrhenate with thin (II) chloride in the presence of HO(2)C-PEG(600)-DTCZ. In the second step, the intermediate mixture was converted either in the final mixed asymmetrical complex by the simultaneous addition of diphosphine ligand and the suitable bidentate ligand B, or in the final symmetrical complex by the only addition of the bidentate ligand L. It was also demonstrated that the novel water-soluble nitride nitrogen atom donor HO(2)C-PEG(600)-DTCZ did not show coordinating properties toward the M≡N ((99m)Tc, (188)Re) core. Biodistribution studies in rats of the hitherto unreported [(99m)Tc(N)(PNP(3))DTCZ](+) and [(99m)Tc(N)(PNP(5))DTCZ](+) complexes showed that they selectively localize in the myocardium of rats with a favourable heart-to-lung and heart-to-liver uptake ratios. In particular, the heart-to-lung and heart-to-liver uptake ratios dramatically increased in the interval between 60 and 120 min postinjection. Hence, the combination of the favourable chemical and biological properties of HO(2)C-PEG(600)-DTCZ

  12. Delineation of target volume for radiotherapy of high-grade gliomas by {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT and MRI fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krengli, M.; Manfredda, I.; Gambaro, G. [Radiotherapy, Univ. of Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); Loi, G.; Brambilla, M. [Medical Physics, Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Novara (Italy); Sacchetti, G.; Inglese, E. [Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); Carriero, A. [Radiology, Univ. of Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy)


    Background and Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are traditionally used for treatment planning of high-grade glioma. {sup 99m}Tc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed high sensitivity and specificity in literature series. In the present study, it was investigated how the information provided by {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT and MRI fusion could affect target delineation for radiotherapy of high-grade glioma. Patients and Methods: 21 patients with high-grade glioma were studied by MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT imaging. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was outlined on MRI (MRI-GTV) and SPECT images (SPECT-GTV). Three additional volumes were analyzed: the (MRI+SPECT)-GTV representing the whole amount of MRI-GTV plus SPECT-GTV, the (MRI and SPECT)-GTV identified by the overlapping region of MRI-GTV and SPECT-GTV, and the (SPECT/MRI)-GTV identified by the extension of SPECT-GTV outside MRI-GTV. Results: MRI contrast-enhanced and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT-positive lesions were found in all 21 patients. The average SPECT-GTV was slightly larger than the average MRI-GTV, with greater difference for resected than for unresected cases. The average increment of (MRI+SPECT)-GTV compared to MRI-GTV was 33%, being significantly higher for resected than for unresected cases (p = 0.006). Conclusion: The fusion of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI SPECT and MRI significantly affected the delineation of the target volume identified by MRI alone. (orig.)

  13. Giant flux creep through the surface barriers and the irreversibility line in high-{Tc} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlachkov, L. [Bar-Ilan Univ., Ramat-Gan (Israel); Geshkenbein, V.B. [Landau Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)]|[Theoretische Physik, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland); Koshelev, A.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[ISSP, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Larkin, A.I. [Landau Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Vinokur, V.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    Magnetic flux relaxation over the surface barrier in high temperature superconductors are investigated Vortex dynamics controlled by the penetration both of pancake vortices and vortex lines are discussed. The penetration field H{sub p} for pancakes decay is exponentially with temperature. The size of the magnetization loop is determined by the decay of H{sub p} during the process of relaxation, but its shape remains unchanged. The irreversibility line associated with the pancake penetration is given by H{sub irr} {proportional_to} exp(- 2T/T{sub o}), and may lie both above and below the melting line.

  14. Nodal quasi-particles of the high-Tc superconductors as carriers of heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Behnia


    Full Text Available   In the quest for understanding correlated electrons, high-temperature superconductivity remains a formidable challenge and a source of insight. This paper briefly recalls the central achievement by the study of heat transport at low temperatures. At very low temperatures, nodal quasi-particles of the d-wave superconducting gap become the main carriers of heat. Their thermal conductivity is unaffected by disorder and reflects the fine structure of the superconducting gap. This finding had led to new openings in the exploration of other unconventional superconductors

  15. Silicon Carbide Nanotube Oxidation at High Temperatures (United States)

    Ahlborg, Nadia; Zhu, Dongming


    Silicon Carbide Nanotubes (SiCNTs) have high mechanical strength and also have many potential functional applications. In this study, SiCNTs were investigated for use in strengthening high temperature silicate and oxide materials for high performance ceramic nanocomposites and environmental barrier coating bond coats. The high · temperature oxidation behavior of the nanotubes was of particular interest. The SiCNTs were synthesized by a direct reactive conversion process of multiwall carbon nanotubes and silicon at high temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study the oxidation kinetics of SiCNTs at temperatures ranging from 800degC to1300degC. The specific oxidation mechanisms were also investigated.

  16. Future prospects of high Tc superconductors-coated conductors and their applications (United States)

    Shiohara, Yuh; Yoshizumi, Masateru; Takagi, Yuji; Izumi, Teruo


    The research and development of high-temperature superconducting wires, especially yttrium-based coated conductors (CCs), and their energy applications have been expected to reduce CO2 emissions. This article reviews recent progress in this area, mainly focusing on the results obtained by national projects in Japan. The Ic (critical current) × L (wire length) value of CCs has been improved to reach 466,752 A m (572 A/cm-W, 816 m), which exceeds that of Bi-system wires. CCs have also been improved in terms of in-field performance and AC loss reduction to meet market requirements. Power applications such as superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, power cables and transformers have been developed using CCs in the current project. Because of fundamental research on high-capacity power cables, a low AC loss of 0.8 W/m-ph at 3 kA and 73.7 K was achieved. System design and fundamental research were performed on a 2GJ-class SMES system and a 20 MVA-class transformer. Based on the technologies developed by the end of the current project (FY2012), the innovation process of those applications will reach the implementation stage, where the long-term reliability tests will be performed. The process is expected to reach the penetration and propagation stage around 2020.

  17. A New Landscape of Multiple Dispersion Kinks in a High-TcCuprate Superconductor. (United States)

    Anzai, H; Arita, M; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M; Ishikado, M; Fujita, K; Ishida, S; Uchida, S; Ino, A


    Conventional superconductivity is caused by electron-phonon coupling. The discovery of high-temperature superconductors raised the question of whether such strong electron-phonon coupling is realized in cuprates. Strong coupling with some collective excitation mode has been indicated by a dispersion "kink". However, there is intensive debate regarding whether the relevant coupling mode is a magnetic resonance mode or an oxygen buckling phonon mode. This ambiguity is a consequence of the energy of the main prominent kink. Here, we show a new landscape of dispersion kinks. We report that heavily overdoping a Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ superconductor results in a decline of the conventional main kink and a rise of another sharp kink, along with substantial energy shifts of both. Notably, the latter kink can be ascribed only to an oxygen-breathing phonon. Hence, the multiple phonon branches provide a consistent account of our data set on the multiple kinks. Our results suggest that strong electron-phonon coupling and its dramatic change should be incorporated into or reconciled with scenarios for the evolution of high-T c superconductivity.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of electrically tunable high-Tc superconducting resonators incorporating barium strontium titanate as a tuning material (United States)

    Lee, E.-H.; Sok, J.; Park, S.-J.; Lee, J.-S.; Song, I.-H.; Kwak, J.; Jung, K.-R.; Kim, J.-Y.; Yoon, S.-Y.; Jeon, D. Y.


    We have made the electrically tunable microstrip resonators by using both high-Tc superconducting and dielectric films. The two-pole resonators employ a dielectric barium strontium titanate film on their centre in the form of flip chip. The superconducting YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) and dielectric Ba0.1Sr0.9TiO3 were deposited on the CeO2-buffered sapphire substrate and LaAlO3 substrate, respectively, by a pulsed laser deposition technique. Variations of the relative permittivity, icons/Journals/Common/varepsilon" ALT="varepsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/>r, and dielectric loss tangent, tanicons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/>, of the Ba0.1Sr0.9TiO3 were studied as a function of the applied dc bias at liquid-nitrogen temperature. The tunability, defined as C(0 V)/C(100 V), and loss tangent of the resonators were measured to be ~1.9 and 1.5 × 10-2 (at 100 V), respectively.

  19. Superstrate loading effects on the resonant characteristics of high Tc superconducting circular patch printed on anisotropic materials (United States)

    Bedra, Sami; Bedra, Randa; Benkouda, Siham; Fortaki, Tarek


    In this paper, the effects of both anisotropies in the substrate and superstrate loading on the resonant frequency and bandwidth of high-Tc superconducting circular microstrip patch in a substrate-superstrate configuration are investigated. A rigorous analysis is performed using a dyadic Galerkin's method in the vector Hankel transform domain. Galerkin's procedure is employed in the spectral domain where the TM and TE modes of the cylindrical cavity with magnetic side walls are used in the expansion of the disk current. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. London's equations and the two-fluid model of Gorter and Casimir are used in the calculation of the complex surface impedance of the superconducting circular disc. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with previously published data for several anisotropic substrate-superstrate materials. Good agreement is found among all sets of results. The numerical results obtained show that important errors can be made in the computation of the resonant frequencies and bandwidths of the superconducting resonators when substrate dielectric anisotropy, and/or superstrate anisotropy are ignored. Other theoretical results obtained show that the superconducting circular microstrip patch on anisotropic substrate-superstrate with properly selected permittivity values along the optical and the non-optical axes combined with optimally chosen structural parameters is more advantageous than the one on isotropic substrate-superstrate by exhibiting wider bandwidth characteristic.

  20. Monitoring of Spectral Map Changes from Normal State to Superconducting State in High-TC Superconductor Films Using Raman Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. González-Solís


    Full Text Available We have explored the chemical structure of TlBa2Ca2Cu3O9 high-TC superconductor films with Tl-1223 phase to monitor spectral map changes from normal state to superconducting state using the technique of Raman imaging. Raman images were performed for 12 different temperatures in the 77–293 K range. At room temperature, the Raman images were characterized by a single color but as the temperature dropped a new color appeared and when the temperature of 77 K is reached and the superconducting state is assured, the Raman images were characterized by the red, green, and blue colors. Our study could suggest that the superconducting state emerged around 133 K, in full agreement with those reported in the literature. A cross-checking was done applying principal component analysis (PCA to other sets of Raman spectra of our films measured at different temperatures. PCA result showed that the spectra can be grouped into two temperature ranges, one in the 293–153 K range and the other in the 133–77 K range suggesting that transition to the superconducting state occurred at some temperature around 133 K. This is the first report of preliminary results evaluating the usefulness of Raman imaging in determination of transition temperature of superconductor films.

  1. Low-frequency noise in high-(Tc) superconductor Josephson junctions, SQUIDs, and magnetometers (United States)

    Miklich, A. H.


    Design and performance of high-T(sub c) dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID's), junctions that comprise them, and magnetometers made from them are described, with attention to sources of 1/f noise. Biepitaxial junctions are found to have large levels of critical current fluctuations which make them unsuitable for low-noise SQUID's; this suggests a poorly connected interface at the grain boundary junction. SQUID's from bicrystal junctions have levels of critical current noise controllable using bias current reversal techniques which leave the noise white down to frequencies of a few Hz. A SQUID with an energy resolution of 1.5 x 10(exp -30) J Hz(exp -1) at 1 Hz is reported. Magnetometers in which a (9 mm)(exp 2) pickup loop is directly coupled to a SQUID body have achieved field resolutions of 93 fT Hz(exp -1/2) down to frequencies below 1 Hz, improving to 39 fT Hz(exp -1/2) at 1 Hz with the addition of a 50mm-diameter single-turn flux transformer. Poor coupling to pickup loop makes it difficult to satisfy competing goals of high field resolution and small detector size necessary for multichannel biomagnetic imaging. Improved coupling is demonstrated by the use of multiturn-input-coil flux transformers, and a resolution of 35 fT Hz(exp -1/2) in the white noise region is reported with a (10 mm)(exp 2) pickup loop. However, additional 1/f noise from processed multilayer structures in the transformer limits the resolution at 1 Hz to 114 fT Hz(exp -1/2). High-T(sub c) SQUID's exhibit additional 1/f noise when cooled in a nonzero static magnetic field because of additional flux vortices trapped in the film, with the noise power at 1 Hz typically increasing by a factor of 10-20 in a field of 0.05mT (0.5 G). Finally, a SQUID-based voltmeter with a resolution of 9.2 pV Hz(exp -1/2) at 10 Hz (24 pV Hz(exp -1/2) at 1 Hz) is described.

  2. Magneto-optical studies of magnetization processes in high-Tc superconductors structure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasko-Vlasox, V. K.


    Magneto-optical imaging is a powerful tool for nondestructive quality control and scientific research through visualization of magnetic fields around any magnetic flux or current carrying sample. It allows real time observations of domain structures and their transformations in magnetics, static and dynamic field patterns due to inhomogeneous currents in electric circuits and superconductors, and reveals distortions of the fields due to defects. In addition to qualitative pictures showing different details in the intensities of the magneto-optical images, one can obtain quantitative maps of field distributions and retrieve values of the underlying currents or magnetization variations. In this review we discuss the advantages of magneto-optics for studies of superconductors, show its place among other techniques, and report recent results in magneto-optical investigations of high temperature superconductors (HTS).

  3. Compensated electron and hole pickets in an underdoped high Tc superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Neil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Altarawneh, Moaz M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mielke, Charles H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sebastian, Suchitra E [CAMBRIDGE U; Goddard, P A [U OF OXFORD; Liang, Ruixing [U BRITISH COLUMBIA; Bonn, D A [U BRITISH COLUMBIA; Hardy, W N [U BRITISH COLUMBIA; Andersen, O K [MAX PLANCK INST.; Lonzarich, G G [CAMBRIDGE U


    Important to the question of high temperature superconductivity is whether bound fermionic pairs with zero or finite momentum - exhibiting bosonic physics - are involved. Here we use angle-dependent magnetic quantum oscillation measurements in underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} to reveal two significantly differently corrugated small sections of Fermi surface, identifying them as comprising opposite carriers located at different locations of the Brillouin zone. The surprising finding that these disproportionately heavy small pockets are equal in size indicates they are prone to a finite momentum excitonic insulator instability. We discuss the possibility that reducing the doping drives YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} closer to an instability of this nature, its ultimate realization occuring at the metal-insulator quantum critical point, accompanied by a potential enhancement of superconducting transition temperatures.

  4. Towards resolution of the Fermi surface in underdoped high-Tc superconductors. (United States)

    Sebastian, Suchitra E; Harrison, Neil; Lonzarich, Gilbert G


    We survey recent experimental results including quantum oscillations and complementary measurements probing the electronic structure of underdoped cuprates, and theoretical proposals to explain them. We discuss quantum oscillations measured at high magnetic fields in the underdoped cuprates that reveal a small Fermi surface section, comprising quasiparticles that obey Fermi-Dirac statistics, unaccompanied by other states of comparable thermodynamic mass at the Fermi level. The location of the observed Fermi surface section at the nodes is indicated by a body of evidence including the collapse in Fermi velocity measured by quantum oscillations, which is found to be associated with the nodal density of states observed in angular resolved photoemission, the persistence of quantum oscillations down to low fields in the vortex state, the small value of density of states from heat capacity and the multiple frequency quantum oscillation pattern consistent with nodal magnetic breakdown of bilayer-split pockets. A nodal Fermi surface pocket is further consistent with the observation of a density of states at the Fermi level concentrated at the nodes in photoemission experiments, and the antinodal pseudogap observed by photoemission, optical conductivity, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Knight shift, as well as other complementary diffraction, transport and thermodynamic measurements. One of the possibilities considered is that the small Fermi surface pockets observed at high magnetic fields can be understood in terms of Fermi surface reconstruction by a form of small wavevector charge order, observed over long lengthscales in experiments such as NMR and x-ray scattering, potentially accompanied by an additional mechanism to gap the antinodal density of states.

  5. A magnetic levitation rotating plate model based on high-Tc superconducting technology (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Li, Jipeng; Sun, Ruixue; Qian, Nan; Deng, Zigang


    With the wide requirements of the training aids and display models of science, technology and even industrial products for the public like schools, museums and pleasure grounds, a simple-structure and long-term stable-levitation technology is needed for these exhibitions. Opportunely, high temperature superconducting (HTS) technology using bulk superconductors indeed has prominent advantages on magnetic levitation and suspension for its self-stable characteristic in an applied magnetic field without any external power or control. This paper explores the feasibility of designing a rotatable magnetic levitation (maglev) plate model with HTS bulks placed beneath a permanent magnet (PM) plate. The model is featured with HTS bulks together with their essential cryogenic equipment above and PMs below, therefore it eliminates the unclear visual effects by spray due to the low temperature coolant such as liquid nitrogen (LN2) and additional levitation weight of the cryogenic equipment. Besides that, a matched LN2 automation filling system is adopted to help achieving a long-term working state of the rotatable maglev plate. The key low-temperature working condition for HTS bulks is maintained by repeatedly opening a solenoid valve and automatically filling LN2 under the monitoring of a temperature sensor inside the cryostat. With the support of the cryogenic devices, the HTS maglev system can meet all requirements of the levitating display model for exhibitions, and may enlighten the research work on HTS maglev applications.

  6. Nonlinear vibration behaviors of high-Tc superconducting bulks in an applied permanent magnetic array field (United States)

    Li, Jipeng; Li, Haitao; Zheng, Jun; Zheng, Botian; Huang, Huan; Deng, Zigang


    The nonlinear vibration of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks in an applied permanent magnetic array (Halbach array) field, as a precondition for commercial application to HTS maglev train and HTS bearing, is systematically investigated. This article reports the actual vibration rules of HTS bulks from three aspects. First, we propose a new numerical model to simplify the calculation of levitation force. This model could provide precise simulations, especially the estimation of eigenfrequency. Second, an approximate analytic solution of the vibration of the HTS bulks is obtained by using the method of harmonic balance. Finally, to verify the results mentioned above, we measure the vertical vibration acceleration signals of an HTS maglev model, consisting of eight YBaCuO bulks, oscillating freely above a Halbach array with large displacement excitation. Higher order harmonic components, which indicate the nonlinear vibration phenomenon, are detected in the responses. All the three results are compared and agreed well with each other. This study combines the experimental and theoretical analyses and provides a deep understanding of the physical phenomenon of the nonlinear vibration and is meaningful for the vibration control of the relevant applications.

  7. Impurity band Mott insulators: a new route to high Tc superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Baskaran


    Full Text Available Last century witnessed the birth of semiconductor electronics and nanotechnology. The physics behind these revolutionary developments is certain quantum mechanical behaviour of 'impurity state electrons' in crystalline 'band insulators', such as Si, Ge, GaAs and GaN, arising from intentionally added (doped impurities. The present article proposes that certain collective quantum behaviour of these impurity state electrons, arising from Coulomb repulsions, could lead to superconductivity in a parent band insulator, in a way not suspected before. Impurity band resonating valence bond theory of superconductivity in boron doped diamond, recently proposed by us, suggests possibility of superconductivity emerging from impurity band Mott insulators. We use certain key ideas and insights from the field of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates and organics. Our suggestion also offers new possibilities in the field of semiconductor electronics and nanotechnology. The current level of sophistication in solid state technology and combinatorial materials science is very well capable of realizing our proposal and discover new superconductors.

  8. Design report of Task 7.5, High-Tc Link

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A


    The proposal of developing High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables derives from the potential of the application of HTS in the powering system of the LHC accelerator [1]. The powering of the LHC magnets is today performed via power converters located in tunnel alcoves. Warm cables connect the power converters to the leads integrated in cryostats in line with the beam. The use of superconducting links allows the removal of the powering equipment from the radiation areas in the tunnel to remote radiation-free locations. As a result, one can ensure safer long-term operation of the equipment as well as easier access - in non radiation zones - of personnel to power converters, current leads and related control apparatus for the maintenance, repair, diagnostic and other interventions. The FP7 activity performed within the Task 7.5 aims at the development of a superconducting link of the type that could be applied in the LHC at P3 or P7. It consists of 48 cables, rated at 600 A – DC, and developed for the po...

  9. Phonon characteristics of high {Tc} superconductors from neutron Doppler broadening measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trela, W.J.; Kwei, G.H.; Lynn, J.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Meggers, K. [Univ. of Kiel (Germany)


    Statistical information on the phonon frequency spectrum of materials can be measured by neutron transmission techniques if they contain nuclei with low energy resonances, narrow enough to be Doppler-broadened, in their neutron cross sections. The authors have carried out some measurements using this technique for materials of the lanthanum barium cuprate class, La{sub 2{minus}x}Ba{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. Two samples with slightly different concentrations of oxygen, one being superconductive, the other not, were examined. Pure lanthanum cuprate was also measured. Lanthanum, barium and copper all have relatively low energy narrow resonances. Thus it should be possible to detect differences in the phonons carried by different kinds of atom in the lattice. Neutron cross section measurements have been made with high energy resolution and statistical precision on the 59m flight path of LANSCE, the pulsed spallation neutron source at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Measurements on all three materials were made over a range of temperatures from 15K to 300K, with small steps through the critical temperature region near 27K. No significant changes in the mean phonon energy of the lanthanum atoms were observed near the critical temperature of the super-conducting material. It appears however that the mean phonon energy of lanthanum in the superconductor is considerably higher than that in the non-superconductors. The samples used in this series of experiments were too thin in barium and copper to determine anything significant about their phonon spectra.

  10. Healing Effect of Controlled Anti-Electromigration on Conventional and High-Tc Superconducting Nanowires. (United States)

    Baumans, Xavier D A; Lombardo, Joseph; Brisbois, Jérémy; Shaw, Gorky; Zharinov, Vyacheslav S; He, Ge; Yu, Heshan; Yuan, Jie; Zhu, Beiyi; Jin, Kui; Kramer, Roman B G; de Vondel, Joris Van; Silhanek, Alejandro V


    The electromigration process has the potential capability to move atoms one by one when properly controlled. It is therefore an appealing tool to tune the cross section of monoatomic compounds with ultimate resolution or, in the case of polyatomic compounds, to change the stoichiometry with the same atomic precision. As demonstrated here, a combination of electromigration and anti-electromigration can be used to reversibly displace atoms with a high degree of control. This enables a fine adjustment of the superconducting properties of Al weak links, whereas in Nb the diffusion of atoms leads to a more irreversible process. In a superconductor with a complex unit cell (La2-x Cex CuO4 ), the electromigration process acts selectively on the oxygen atoms with no apparent modification of the structure. This allows to adjust the doping of this compound and switch from a superconducting to an insulating state in a nearly reversible fashion. In addition, the conditions needed to replace feedback controlled electromigration by a simpler technique of electropulsing are discussed. These findings have a direct practical application as a method to explore the dependence of the characteristic parameters on the exact oxygen content and pave the way for a reversible control of local properties of nanowires. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions in hybrid structures involving cuprate high-Tc superconductors (United States)

    Takei, So; Fregoso, Benjamin M.; Galitski, Victor; Das Sarma, S.


    The possibility of inducing topological superconductivity with cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) is studied for various heterostructures. We first consider a ballistic planar junction between a HTSC and a metallic ferromagnet. We assume that inversion symmetry breaking at the tunnel barrier gives rise to Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the barrier and allows equal-spin triplet superconductivity to exist in the ferromagnet. Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations are obtained by explicitly modeling the barrier and taking account of the transport anisotropy in the HTSC. By making use of the self-consistent boundary conditions and solutions for the barrier and HTSC regions, an effective equation of motion for the ferromagnet is obtained where Andreev scattering at the barrier is incorporated as a boundary condition for the ferromagnetic region. For a ferromagnet layer deposited on a (100) facet of the HTSC, triplet p-wave superconductivity is induced. For the layer deposited on a (110) facet, the induced gap does not have the p-wave orbital character, but has an even orbital symmetry and an odd dependence on energy. For the layer on the (001) facet, an exotic f-wave superconductivity is induced. We also consider the induced triplet gap in a one-dimensional half-metallic nanowire deposited on a (001) facet of a HTSC. Due to the breaking of translational symmetry in the direction perpendicular to the wire axis, the expression for the gap receives contributions from different perpendicular momentum eigenstates in the superconductor. We find that for a wire axis along the a axis, these different contributions constructively interfere and give rise to a robust triplet p-wave gap. For a wire oriented 45∘ away from the a axis, the different contributions destructively interfere and the induced triplet p-wave gap vanishes. For the appropriately oriented wire, the induced p-wave gap may give rise to Majorana fermions at the ends of the half-metallic wire. In light of the

  12. DNA adopts normal B-form upon incorporation of highly fluorescent DNA base analogue tC: NMR structure and UV-Vis spectroscopy characterization. (United States)

    Engman, K Cecilia; Sandin, Peter; Osborne, Sadie; Brown, Tom; Billeter, Martin; Lincoln, Per; Nordén, Bengt; Albinsson, Bo; Wilhelmsson, L Marcus


    The influence of the highly fluorescent tricyclic cytosine base analogue (tC) on duplex DNA conformation is investigated. The duplex properties are characterized by absorbance and circular dichroism (CD) for all combinations of neighbouring bases to tC, and an NMR structure is determined for one tC-containing sequence. For the oligonucleotides with one tC incorporated instead of cytosine, the melting temperature is increased on average by 2.7 degrees C above that for the unmodified ones. CD spectra are practically identical for modified and unmodified sequences, indicating an unperturbed B-DNA conformation. The NMR structure determination of the self-complementary sequence 5'-CTC(tC)ACGTGGAG shows a DNA conformation consistent with B-form for the whole duplex. The root-mean-square distance for the nucleotides of the eight central base pairs between the 10 structures with lowest CYANA target functions and a mean structure is 0.45 +/- 0.17 A. The NMR data confirm correct base pairing for tC by the observation of both intrastrand and interstrand imino proton NOEs. Altogether, this suggests that tC works well as a cytosine analogue, i.e. it is situated in the base stack, forming hydrogen bonds with G in the complementary strand, without distorting the DNA backbone conformation. This first example of an artificial, highly fluorescent DNA base that does not perturb the DNA conformation could have valuable applications for the study of the structure and dynamics of nucleic acid systems.

  13. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Gersen, Sander


    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly...... diluted in nitrogen. It was found that under the investigated conditions, the onset temperature for methane oxidation ranged from 723 K under reducing conditions to 750 K under stoichiometric and oxidizing conditions. The RCM experiments were carried out at pressures of 15–80 bar and temperatures of 800......–1250 K under stoichiometric and fuel-lean (Φ=0.5) conditions. Ignition delays, in the range of 1–100 ms, decreased monotonically with increasing pressure and temperature. A chemical kinetic model for high-pressure methane oxidation was established, with particular emphasis on the peroxide chemistry...

  14. Insights into Stabilization of the 99TcVO Core for Synthesis of 99TcVO Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Donna; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Howell, Robertha C.; Francesconi, Lynn C.


    Synthesis of technetium-99 (99Tc; t1/2: 2.1 105 years, max: 253 keV) materials is of importance in studies of the nuclear fuel cycle where Tc is a major fission product (6percent thermal yield from 235U and 239Pu), in understanding radioactive tank waste composition, and in identifying 99mTc compounds for nuclear medicine imaging. One of the most useful synthetic starting materials, (NBu4)TcOCl4, is susceptible to disproportionation in water to form TcO4 and TcIV species, especially TcO2 2H2O. This unwanted reaction is especially problematic when working with ligands bearing hard donor atoms, such as oxygen, where the stability with the soft TcV=O3+ core may be low. Polyoxometalates (POMs) are such ligands. They possess defect sites with four hard oxygen atoms and show low (ca. 108) stability constants with transition metals. Tc complexes of POMs are molecular-level models for Tc metal oxide solid-state materials and can provide information on coordination and redox environments of metal oxides that stabilize low-valent Tc. In order to synthesize pure Tc POM complexes [TcVO(1-P2W17O61)]7 (TcVO-1) and [TcVO(2-P2W17O61)]7 (TcVO-2) from (NBu4)TcOCl4, we have identified strategies that minimize formation of TcIV species and optimize the formation of pure TcV species. The parameters that we consider are the amount of ethylene glycol, which is employed as a transfer ligand to prevent hydrolysis of (NBu4)TcOCl4, and the precipitating agent. The TcIV species that contaminates the non-optimized syntheses is likely a TcIV -oxido-bridged dimer [TcIV-(-O)2-TcIV]. We also employ a novel procedure where the 2 ligand is photoactivated and reduced (in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor) to subsequently reduce TcVIIO4 to an isolatable TcVO-2 product that is remarkably free of TcIV.

  15. Aqueous (99)Tc, (129)I and (137)Cs removal from contaminated groundwater and sediments using highly effective low-cost sorbents. (United States)

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I; Knox, Anna S; Crapse, Kimberly P; Diprete, David P


    Technetium-99 ((99)Tc), iodine-129 ((129)I), and cesium-137 ((137)Cs) are among the key risk-drivers for environmental cleanup. Immobilizing these radionuclides, especially TcO4(-) and I(-), has been challenging. TcO4(-) and I(-) bind very weakly to most sediments, such that distribution coefficients (Kd values; radionuclide concentration ratio of solids to liquids) are typically organoclays sorbed large amounts of TcO4(-) (Kd > 1 × 10(5) mL/g), I(-) (Kd ≥ 1 × 10(4) mL/g), and Cs(+) (Kd > 1 × 10(3) mL/g) and also demonstrated a largely irreversible binding of the radionuclides. Activated carbon GAC 830 was effective at sorbing TcO4(-) (Kd > 1 × 10(5) mL/g) and I(-) (Kd = 6.9 × 10(3) mL/g), while a surfactant modified chabazite was effective at sorbing TcO4(-) (Kd > 2.5 × 10(4) mL/g) and Cs(+) (Kd > 6.5 × 10(3) mL/g). Several sorbents were effective for only one radionuclide, e.g., modified zeolite Y had TcO4(-)Kd > 2.3 × 10(5) mL/g, AgS had I(-) Kd = 2.5 × 10(4) mL/g, and illite, chabazite, surfactant modified clinoptilolite, and thiol-SAMMS had Cs(+)Kd > 10(3) mL/g. These low-cost and high capacity sorbents may provide a sustainable solution for environmental remediation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Comparison of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 113m/In-DTPA aerosol clearances in humans. Effects of smoking, hyperinflation, and in vitro oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolop, K.B.; Maxwell, D.L.; Fleming, J.S.; Braude, S.; Hughes, J.M.; Royston, D.


    As an index of permeability of the alveolar epithelium, the clearance of an inhaled aerosol of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA is increased in several disease states. However, the usefulness of the test to assess the severity of disease is limited because healthy smokers also have abnormally rapid rates of clearance. Because the stability of the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA bond might be a contributory factor, we tested the affinity of /sup 99m/Tc for DTPA in vitro, and in groups of healthy smokers (n = 13) and nonsmokers (n = 7) we measured the clearances of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 113m/In-DTPA, which have a similar molecular shape and charge. In vitro, sodium hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide released as much as 98% of free /sup 99m/Tc from the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA complex. When incubated with human neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate, between 4 and 7% of free /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA was released after 30 min, and 12% was released after 60 min. In vivo, the clearances of both /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA and /sup 113m/In-DTPA in the smokers (n = 13) were faster than in the nonsmokers (n = 7) (p less than 0.05). Within the smokers, the mean /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA clearance (T1/2 25 +/- 4 min) was faster than the mean /sup 113m/In-DTPA clearance (34 +/- 6 min), (p less than 0.05). For nonsmokers, the difference was smaller (T1/2 /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA, 56 +/- 6; T1/2 /sup 113m/In-DTPA, 62 +/- 6) and not significant. During hyperinflation, smokers (n = 8) and nonsmokers (n = 8) both demonstrated an increase in /sup 113m/In-DTPA clearance.

  17. Hydrocarbon oxidation at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnatz, J.


    In this review it is described how, by suitable separation and elimination of unimportant reactions, a mechanism is developed with the aid of the present kinetic data for the elementary reactions involved. This mechanism explains, without fitting, the currently available experimental results for laminar premixed flames of alkanes, alkenes and acetylene. These experimental results are simulated by the solution of the corresponding conservation equations with suitable models describing diffusion and heat conduction in the multicomponent mixture considered. In lean and moderately rich flames the hydrocarbon is attacked by O, H, and OH in the first step. These radicals are produced by the chain-branching steps of the oxyhydrogen reaction. The alkyl radicals formed in this way always decompose to smaller alkyl radicals by fast thermal elimination of alkenes. Only the relatively slow thermal decomposition of the smallest alkyl radicals (CH/sub 3/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 5/) competes with recombination and with oxidation reactions by O atoms and O/sub 2/. This part of the mechanism is rate-controlling in the combustion of alkanes and alkenes, and is therefore the reason for the similarity of all alkane and alkene flames.

  18. Stability of xenon oxides at high pressures. (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Jung, Daniel Y; Oganov, Artem R; Glass, Colin W; Gatti, Carlo; Lyakhov, Andriy O


    Xenon, which is quite inert under ambient conditions, may become reactive under pressure. The possibility of the formation of stable xenon oxides and silicates in the interior of the Earth could explain the atmospheric missing xenon paradox. Using an ab initio evolutionary algorithm, we predict the existence of thermodynamically stable Xe-O compounds at high pressures (XeO, XeO(2) and XeO(3) become stable at pressures above 83, 102 and 114 GPa, respectively). Our calculations indicate large charge transfer in these oxides, suggesting that large electronegativity difference and high pressure are the key factors favouring the formation of xenon compounds. However, xenon compounds cannot exist in the Earth's mantle: xenon oxides are unstable in equilibrium with the metallic iron occurring in the lower mantle, and xenon silicates are predicted to decompose spontaneously at all mantle pressures (xenon atoms may be retained at defects in mantle silicates and oxides.

  19. Hysteresis-free high rate reactive sputtering of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Särhammar, Erik, E-mail:; Berg, Sören; Nyberg, Tomas [Department of Solid State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)


    This work reports on experimental studies of reactive sputtering from targets consisting of a metal and its oxide. The composition of the targets varied from pure metal to pure oxide of Al, Ta, and Nb. This combines features from both the metal target and oxide target in reactive sputtering. If a certain relation between the metal and oxide parts is chosen, it may be possible to obtain a high deposition rate, due to the metal part, and a hysteresis-free process, due to the oxide part. The aim of this work is to quantify the achievable boost in oxide deposition rate from a hysteresis-free process by using a target consisting of segments of a metal and its oxide. Such an increase has been previously demonstrated for Ti using a homogeneous substoichiometric target. The achievable gain in deposition rate depends on transformation mechanisms from oxide to suboxides due to preferential sputtering of oxygen. Such mechanisms are different for different materials and the achievable gain is therefore material dependent. For the investigated materials, the authors have demonstrated oxide deposition rates that are 1.5–10 times higher than what is possible from metal targets in compound mode. However, although the principle is demonstrated for oxides of Al, Ta, and Nb, a similar behavior is expected for most oxides.

  20. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob M.; Gersen, Sander; Levinsky, Howard; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Glarborg, Peter


    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly

  1. Enhancing electric-field control of ferromagnetism through nanoscale engineering of high-Tc MnxGe1−x nanomesh (United States)

    Nie, Tianxiao; Tang, Jianshi; Kou, Xufeng; Gen, Yin; Lee, Shengwei; Zhu, Xiaodan; He, Qinglin; Chang, Li-Te; Murata, Koichi; Fan, Yabin; Wang, Kang L.


    Voltage control of magnetism in ferromagnetic semiconductor has emerged as an appealing solution to significantly reduce the power dissipation and variability beyond current CMOS technology. However, it has been proven to be very challenging to achieve a candidate with high Curie temperature (Tc), controllable ferromagnetism and easy integration with current Si technology. Here we report the effective electric-field control of both ferromagnetism and magnetoresistance in unique MnxGe1−x nanomeshes fabricated by nanosphere lithography, in which a Tc above 400 K is demonstrated as a result of size/quantum confinement. Furthermore, by adjusting Mn doping concentration, extremely giant magnetoresistance is realized from ∼8,000% at 30 K to 75% at 300 K at 4 T, which arises from a geometrically enhanced magnetoresistance effect of the unique mesh structure. Our results may provide a paradigm for fundamentally understanding the high Tc in ferromagnetic semiconductor nanostructure and realizing electric-field control of magnetoresistance for future spintronic applications. PMID:27762320

  2. Large-moment antiferromagnetic order in overdoped high-Tc superconductor 154SmFeAsO1-x D x. (United States)

    Iimura, Soshi; Okanishi, Hiroshi; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hiraka, Haruhiro; Honda, Takashi; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Hansen, Thomas C; Otomo, Toshiya; Hosono, Hideo


    In iron-based superconductors, high critical temperature (Tc) superconductivity over 50 K has only been accomplished in electron-doped hREFeAsO (hRE is heavy rare earth (RE) element). Although hREFeAsO has the highest bulk Tc (58 K), progress in understanding its physical properties has been relatively slow due to difficulties in achieving high-concentration electron doping and carrying out neutron experiments. Here, we present a systematic neutron powder diffraction study of 154SmFeAsO1-x D x , and the discovery of a long-range antiferromagnetic ordering with x ≥ 0.56 (AFM2) accompanying a structural transition from tetragonal to orthorhombic. Surprisingly, the Fe magnetic moment in AFM2 reaches a magnitude of 2.73 μB/Fe, which is the largest in all nondoped iron pnictides and chalcogenides. Theoretical calculations suggest that the AFM2 phase originates in kinetic frustration of the Fe-3dxy orbital, in which the nearest-neighbor hopping parameter becomes zero. The unique phase diagram, i.e., highest-Tc superconducting phase adjacent to the strongly correlated phase in electron-overdoped regime, yields important clues to the unconventional origins of superconductivity.

  3. Effect of Nb Doping on High Temperature Oxidation Resistance of Ti-Al Alloyed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAI Jing-jie


    Full Text Available Ti-Al alloyed coatings with different Nb doping contents were fabricated on TC4 titanium alloy by laser surface alloying to improve high temperature oxidation resistance of the alloy. Structures and high temperature oxidation behaviors of the alloyed coatings were analyzed and tested by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS and box-type resistance furnace. The results show that the alloyed coatings consist of TiAl and Ti3Al, and no niobium compound are formed in Ti-Al-Nb alloyed coatings. The alloyed coatings are uniform and exhibit excellent metallurgical bonding with the substrates. A large amount of surface cracks and a few penetrating cracks are formed in Ti-Al alloyed coating without Nb doping, while no obvious cracks are formed in Ti-Al alloyed coating with Nb doping. The oxidation mass gains of all the alloyed coatings were significantly lower than those of the substrate. The alloyed coatings with Nb doping exhibit more excellent high temperature oxidation resistance due to the beneficial machanism of Nb doping. The mechanism of Nb doping on improving high temperature oxidation resistance of Ti-Al alloyed coatings includes reducing the defect concentration of TiO2, refining oxide grains and promoting the formation of Al2O3.

  4. PEGylated N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate as a new reagent for the high-yield preparation of nitrido Tc-99m and Re-188 radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschi, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.boschi@unife.i [Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Massi, Alessandro [Department of Chemistry, University of Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micol; Duatti, Adriano [Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara (Italy)


    A novel nitrido nitrogen atom donor for the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re radiopharmaceuticals containing a metal-nitrogen multiple bond is presented. HO{sub 2}C-PEG{sub 600}-DTCZ was obtained by conjugation of N-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbazate [H{sub 2}N-N(CH{sub 3})-C({identical_to}S)SCH{sub 3}, HDTCZ] with polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG{sub 600}). Asymmetrical heterocomplexes of the type [M(N)(PNP)(B)]{sup 0/+} (M={sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}Re; PNP=diphosphine ligands, B=DBODC, DEDC, NSH, H{sub 2}OS, CysNAc, HDTCZ) and symmetrical nitride compounds of the type [M(N)(L){sub 2}] (L=DEDC, DPDC) have been prepared in high yield by using the newly designed nitride nitrogen atom donor HO{sub 2}C-PEG{sub 600}-DTCZ. A two-step procedure was applied for preparing the above symmetrical and asymmetrical complexes. The first step involved the preliminary formation of a mixture of nitride Tc-99m or Re-188 precursors, which contained the [M{identical_to}N]{sup 2+} core, through reduction of generator-eluted {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate or {sup 188}Re-perrhenate with thin (II) chloride in the presence of HO{sub 2}C-PEG{sub 600}-DTCZ. In the second step, the intermediate mixture was converted either in the final mixed asymmetrical complex by the simultaneous addition of diphosphine ligand and the suitable bidentate ligand B, or in the final symmetrical complex by the only addition of the bidentate ligand L. It was also demonstrated that the novel water-soluble nitride nitrogen atom donor HO{sub 2}C-PEG{sub 600}-DTCZ did not show coordinating properties toward the M{identical_to}N ({sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}Re) core. Biodistribution studies in rats of the hitherto unreported [{sup 99m}Tc(N)(PNP{sub 3})DTCZ]{sup +} and [{sup 99m}Tc(N)(PNP{sub 5})DTCZ]{sup +} complexes showed that they selectively localize in the myocardium of rats with a favourable heart-to-lung and heart-to-liver uptake ratios. In particular, the heart-to-lung and heart-to-liver uptake ratios dramatically

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Tc(I) Carbonyl Nitrosyl Species Relevant to the Hanford Tank Waste: FY 2016 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martin, Thibaut J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wall, Nathalie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Among long-lived radioactive constituents in the Hanford tank waste, Tc presents a unique challenge in that it exists predominantly in the liquid phase, generally in the anionic form of pertechnetate, TcO4-, which is highly volatile at low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification melter temperatures and mobile in the Hanford site’s subsurface environment. The complex behavior of Tc under storage, treatment, and immobilization conditions significantly affects its management options, which to-date remain uncertain. In strongly alkaline environments, Tc exists as pertechnetate, TcO4- (oxidation state +7), and in the reduced forms (oxidation state < +7) collectively known as non-pertechnetate species. Pertechnetate is a well-characterized, anionic Tc species that can be removed from LAW by anion exchange or solvent extraction methods. There is no definitive information on the origin of the non-pertechnetate Tc species, nor is there a comprehensive description of their composition and behavior. It has been recently proposed that the non-pertechnetate species can comprise Tc(I) metal center and carbonyl or mixed carbonyl nitrosyl ligands stabilizing low-valent Tc. Recent work by our group has significantly expanded this previous work, generating a series of Tc(I) carbonyl compounds and demonstrating that they can be generated from reduction of TcO4- in the simulated Hanford tank waste in presence of CO at elevated temperature (Levitskaia et al. 2014). These results are consistent with the previous proposal that [Tc(CO)3]+ species can be present in the Hanford tank waste and suggest that the low Tc(I) oxidation state is stabilized by the π-accepting ability of the CO ligands. The continuation work has been initiated to develop model Tc carbonyl nitrosyl compounds and investigate their potential presence in the Hanford tank wastes. This report summarizes our to-date results.

  6. Bioreduction of Fe-bearing clay minerals and their reactivity toward pertechnetate (Tc-99) (United States)

    Bishop, Michael E.; Dong, Hailiang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Liu, Chongxuan; Edelmann, Richard E.


    99Technetium ( 99Tc) is a fission product of uranium-235 and plutonium-239 and poses a high environmental hazard due to its long half-life ( t1/2 = 2.13 × 10 5 y), abundance in nuclear wastes, and environmental mobility under oxidizing conditions [i.e., Tc(VII)]. Under reducing conditions, Tc(VII) can be reduced to insoluble Tc(IV). Ferrous iron, either in aqueous form (Fe 2+) or in mineral form [Fe(II)], has been used to reduce Tc(VII) to Tc(IV). However, the reactivity of Fe(II) from clay minerals, other than nontronite, toward immobilization of Tc(VII) and its role in retention of reduced Tc(IV) has not been investigated. In this study the reactivity of a suite of clay minerals toward Tc(VII) reduction and immobilization was evaluated. The clay minerals chosen for this study included five members in the smectite-illite (S-I) series, (montmorillonite, nontronite, rectorite, mixed layered I-S, and illite), chlorite, and palygorskite. Surface Fe-oxides were removed from these minerals with a modified dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) procedure. The total structural Fe content of these clay minerals, after surface Fe-oxide removal, ranged from 0.7% to 30.4% by weight, and the structural Fe(III)/Fe(total) ratio ranged from 45% to 98%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy results showed that after Fe oxide removal the clay minerals were free of Fe-oxides. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that little dissolution occurred during the DCB treatment. Bioreduction experiments were performed in bicarbonate buffer (pH-7) with structural Fe(III) in the clay minerals as the sole electron acceptor, lactate as the sole electron donor, and Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 cells as a mediator. In select tubes, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfate (AQDS) was added as electron shuttle to facilitate electron transfer. In the S-I series, smectite (montmorillonite) was the most reducible (18% and 41% without and with AQDS, respectively) and illite the least (1% for both

  7. High rate flame synthesis of highly crystalline iron oxide nanorods (United States)

    Merchan-Merchan, W.; Saveliev, A. V.; Taylor, A. M.


    Single-step flame synthesis of iron oxide nanorods is performed using iron probes inserted into an opposed-flow methane oxy-flame. The high temperature reacting environment of the flame tends to convert elemental iron into a high density layer of iron oxide nanorods. The diameters of the iron oxide nanorods vary from 10 to 100 nm with a typical length of a few microns. The structural characterization performed shows that nanorods possess a highly ordered crystalline structure with parameters corresponding to cubic magnetite (Fe3O4) with the [100] direction oriented along the nanorod axis. Structural variations of straight nanorods such as bends, and T-branched and Y-branched shapes are frequently observed within the nanomaterials formed, opening pathways for synthesis of multidimensional, interconnected networks.

  8. Quasiparticle States at a d-Wave Vortex Core in High-Tc Superconductors: Induction of Local Spin Density Wave Order


    Zhu, Jian-Xin; Ting, C. S.


    The local density of states (LDOS) at one of the vortex lattice cores in a high Tc superconductor is studied by using a self-consistent mean field theory including interactions for both antiferromagnetism (AF) and d-wave superconductivity (DSC). The parameters are chosen in such a way that in an optimally doped sample the AF order is completely suppressed while DSC prevails. In the mixed state, we show that the local AF-like SDW order appears near the vortex core and acts as an effective loca...

  9. New high- Tc 2-2-3 type superconductor Y 2Ba 1.5Ca 0.5Cu 3O 8+δ (United States)

    Kulkarni, R. G.; Baldha, G. J.; Mohan, H.; Jotania, R. B.; Joshi, H. H.; Skumryev, V.; Rao, K. V.


    We have prepared and identified as a single-phase the new high- Tc 2-2-3 type superconductor Y 2Ba 1.5Ca 0.5Cu 3O 8+δ by resistance and a.c.-susceptibility measurements. The resistive superconducting onset occurs at 82 K and "zero resistance" at 78 K. Diamagnetism and Meissner effect sets in at low fields and magnetic superconducting onset starts at 82 K. The systematic investigation of the real and imaginary components of a.c.-susceptibility reveals that the magnetic behavior is that of a granular type superconductor.

  10. Oxidative stress and the high altitude environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak


    Full Text Available In the recent years there has been considerable interest in mountain sports, including mountaineering, owing to the general availability of climbing clothing and equipment as well trainings and professional literature. This raised a new question for the environmental and mountain medicine: Is mountaineering harmful to health? Potential hazards include the conditions existing in the alpine environment, i.e. lower atmospheric pressure leading to the development of hypobaric hypoxia, extreme physical effort, increased UV radiation, lack of access to fresh food, and mental stress. A reasonable measure of harmfulness of these factors is to determine the increase in the level of oxidative stress. Alpine environment can stimulate the antioxidant enzyme system but under specific circumstances it may exceed its capabilities with simultaneous consumption of low-molecular antioxidants resulting in increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. This situation is referred to as oxidative stress. Rapid and uncontrolled proliferation of reactive oxygen species leads to a number of adverse changes, resulting in the above-average damage to the lipid structures of cell membranes (peroxidation, proteins (denaturation, and nucleic acids. Such situation within the human body cannot take place without resultant systemic consequences. This explains the malaise of people returning from high altitude and a marked decrease in their physical fitness. In addition, a theory is put forward that the increase in the level of oxidative stress is one of the factors responsible for the onset of acute mountain sickness (AMS. However, such statement requires further investigation because the currently available literature is inconclusive. This article presents the causes and effects of development of oxidative stress in the high mountains.

  11. Tc Generator Development: Up-to-Date Tc Recovery Technologies for Increasing the Effectiveness of Mo Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van So Le


    Full Text Available A review on the Mo sources available today and on the Tc generators developed up to date for increasing the effectiveness of Mo utilisation is performed in the format of detailed description of the features and technical performance of the technological groups of the Mo production and Tc recovery. The latest results of the endeavour in this field are also surveyed in regard of the technical solution for overcoming the shortage of Mo supply. The technological topics are grouped and discussed in a way to reflect the similarity in the technological process of each group. The following groups are included in this review which are high specific activity Mo: the current issues of production, the efforts of more effective utilisation, and the high specific activity Mo-based Tc generator and Tc concentration units; low specific activity Mo: the Mo production based on neutron capture and accelerators and the direct production of Tc and the methods of increasing the specific activity of Mo using Szilard-Chalmers reaction and high electric power isotopic separator; up-to-date technologies of Tc recovery from low specific activity Mo: the solvent extraction-based Tc generator, the sublimation methods for Mo/Tc separation, the electrochemical method for Tc recovery, and the column chromatographic methods for Tc recovery. Besides the traditional Tc-generator systems, the integrated Tc generator systems (Tc generator column combined with postelution purification/concentration unit are discussed with the format of process diagram and picture of real generator systems. These systems are the technetium selective sorbent column-based generators, the high Mo-loading capacity column-based integrated Tc generator systems which include the saline-eluted generator systems, and the nonsaline aqueous and organic solvent eluent-eluted generator systems using high Mo-loading capacity molybdategel and recently developed sorbent columns. Tc concentration methods used in the

  12. Direct 99m Tc labeling of Herceptin (trastuzumab) by 99m Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion. (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Jou; Yen, Chao-Liang; Lo, Su-Tang; Chen, Kuo-Ting; Lo, Jem-Mau


    By simply incubating Herceptin (trastuzumab) with [99m Tc(CO)3(OH2)3]+ ion in saline, a significant yield of 99m Tc-labeled trastuzumab was found to be achievable. The effective labeling may be based on that trastuzumab is inherent with endogenous histidine group to which 99m Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion can be strongly bound. For practical 99m Tc labeling processing, trastuzumab was purified beforehand from the commercial product, Herceptin (Genentech) via size exclusion chromatography to remove the excipient, alpha-histidine and a high-labeled yield could be obtained by incubating the purified trastuzumab with [99m Tc(CO)3(OH2)3]+. Retention of bioactivity of the 99m Tc(I)-labeled trastuzumab was validated using a cell binding test.

  13. Laser ablation of YBCO targets and optical-breakdown-assisted PLD for high Tc superconducting thin films deposition (United States)

    Apostol, Ileana; Stoian, Razvan; Luculescu, C.; Dabu, Razvan V.; Stratan, Aurel; Udrea, S.; Flacau, Catalin


    We report a YBa2Cu3O7 PLD method designed to reduce the oxygen deficiency in the as deposited YBCO superconducting thin films.OPtical dissociation of O2 buffer gas in front of the plume using a second IR laser pulse simultaneously with the UV laser beam producing the ablation plasma is proposed as a method for oxidation enhancement and oxygen enrichment in the deposited film. Oxides enhancement measurements were performed by optical spectroscopy on YO, BaO and CuO lines at large distances from the target surface. Temporal evolution of ionic, neutral and oxide lines was analyzed in 400-620 nm region, in correlation with plasma expansion in the ambient gas.

  14. High Performance Nitrous Oxide Analyzer for Atmospheric Research Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project targets the development of a highly sensitive gas sensor to monitor atmospheric nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide is an important species in Earth science...

  15. Tuning effective interactions in high-Tc cuprates via apical oxygen atoms: New realization from the first-principles Wannier function approach (United States)

    Yin, Weiguo; Ku, Wei


    Based on a novel first-principles Wannier function approach, the low-energy effective Hamiltonian for high-Tc cuprates is derived. The apical oxygen atoms are found to significantly modify the mobility and distribution of the Zhang-Rice singlets in the CuO2 plane, by tuning the effective hopping parameters t^' and t^'', and local chemical potential, μeff. Most remarkably, Veff, an additional effective repulsion (de- pairing) between neighboring doped holes, is found to be significantly tuned by a ``vacuum fluctuation'' mechanism inherited from the correlated multiband nature of the cuprates. Our results identify the apical oxygen states as the main material dependence of these systems and provide a microscopic avenue to the understanding of recent spectroscopic imaging STM data [K. McElroy et al., Science 309, 1048 (2005)].

  16. High-Tc superconducting EuBa2Cu3O(y) thin films on MgO and YAlO3 for coplanar devices (United States)

    Asano, H.; Satoh, M.; Konaka, T.


    The authors have studied the microwave properties of high-Tc superconducting EuBa2Cu3Oy (EBCO) films on MgO and YAlO3 substrates with low dielectric constants and a low loss tangent. Measurements of surface resistance Rs at 50 GHz in a cavity show that EBCO films exhibit low Rs values (77 K) of 2-10 micro-ohm. A microstructural study using transmission electron microscopy showed that crystal defects related to the in-plane misorientation are observed for films with higher Rs values. The Rs values of the patterned films were measured in a coplanar transmission line resonator. A typical value for patterned films was 28 micro-ohms at 4 GHz and 28 K.

  17. Fracture behavior of an inclined crack interacting with a circular inclusion in a high-TC superconductor under an electromagnetic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xue


    Full Text Available A simple model is proposed to investigate the interaction problem for a circular nonsuperconducting inclusion embedded in a high-TC superconducting matrix which contains an inclined crack, oriented at an arbitrary angle from the direction of the critical currents. The electromagnetic behavior is described by the critical state, the original Bean model. The perturbation brought upon by the circular inclusion and the crack on the critical current density is assumed to be negligible and not considered in this model. The distribution dislocation technology is applied to formulate the current problem. The stress intensity factors (SIFs are obtained by solving the formulated singular integral equations. The effects of the crack angle, the elastic modulus, the inclusion-crack distance and the inclusion-crack size on the stress intensity factors are discussed in detail.

  18. Determination of Tc-99 in radioactive wastes; Determinacion de Tc-99 en desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera S, A. A.


    Tc-99 is a fission product and one of the most important radionuclides from the view point of safety assessment for the disposal of radioactive waste because of its long half-life (2.1 x 10{sup 5} years) and high mobility in soil-water systems, if this is released into the environment in significant quantities can concentrate on plants and animals. Tc-99 is a pure beta emitter with a maximum energy of 292 KeV, so their quantification imposes destructive methods to be analyzed by liquid scintillation. Therefore the quantification of Tc-99 in ion exchange resins requires of the mineralization of these and separation of Tc-99 of other radioisotopes present in the resin. Therefore the object of this thesis is to develop a quantification method of Tc-99 content in spent exchange resins. So in order to track the behavior of technetium during digestion exchange resins and radiochemical separation, given its high volatility, in this work the {sup 99m}Tc is used. To determine the degree of mineralization of the resins, an analysis was performed by chromatography. Subsequently the method used to determine the percentage of {sup 99m}Tc aerosolized during mineralization of resin is described. After the method for the radiochemical separation of {sup 99m}Tc is presented by liquid-liquid extraction using crown ether as extractant; for this testing was performed by varying the molarity of the extractant, the ratio of solvent extractant, type of digestion of the resin and the presence of Sr-85, in order to study the behavior of {sup 99m}Tc in the presence of this radioisotope. Finally, a track beta spectra of a sample of {sup 99m}Tc eluted from a generator {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc function of time was performed. (Author)

  19. [SLCO1B1c. 521T>C gene polymorphisms are associated with high-dose methotrexate pharmacokinetics and clinical outcome of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia]. (United States)

    Zhang, Huanian; He, Xuelian; Li, Jianxin; Wang, Yang; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Yujun; Niu, Changhe; Gao, Ping


    To provide guidance for the high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and to understand the impact of SLCO1B1c.521T>C (rs4149056) variant on methotrexate (MTX) pharmacokinetics and clinical outcome in children with ALL. Eighty-two children with ALL in Division of Hematology of Wuhan Children's Hospital from January 2008 to February 2013 were enrolled. All patients were genotyped for rs4149056 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) into wild-type group (TT genotype) and variant group (TC/CC genotype). According to the ALL-BFM 2000 protocol, all patients received intravenous infusion of MTX every ten days at 3 to 5 g/m(2). Leucovorin rescue was performed after 36 hours of the MTX administration and its dose was adjusted according to the MTX plasma concentration at 48 hours. The concentrations of MTX and its metabolite at 24, 48 and 72 h were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with solid phase extraction. Population pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by the NLME software. The pharmacokinetics, toxicity and leucovorin rescue was compared. The relapse rate within 5 years and event-free survival were followed up. Eighty-two pediatric patients were classified into two groups: variant group including 20 TC genotype carriers and one CC genotype carrier, wild-type group included 61 patients with TT genotype. Compared with wild-type group, plasma concentration of MTX at 48 and 72 h increased significantly [48 h: (1.00±1.41) vs.(0.34±0.17) µmol/L, t=2.131, P=0.046; 72 h: (0.31±0.26) vs.(0.08±0.04) µmol/L; t=3.995, P=0.001]. Area under the concentration time curve (AUC48-∝) of MTX significantly increased in variant group [(23.18±19.91) vs.(5.66±2.01) h·µmol/L] (t=4.025, P=0.001). Time above the MTX safety threshold (TC>0.1 µmol/L) increased significantly in variant group [(95.3±22.0) vs.(67.1±7.5) h, t=5.880, Prs4149056 C allele suffered from a higher frequency of serious adverse effect

  20. Synthesis of biolubricants with high viscosity and high oxidation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondioli Paolo


    Full Text Available The synthetic procedure as well as the main properties of obtained products of a group of complex esters are reported here. Complex esters were prepared using low molecular weight saturated fatty acids, trimethylolpropane and a dicarboxylic acid as a feedstock. By means of this procedure it is possible to obtain products having high viscosity and very good lubricating, thermal and cold properties. Thanks to the absence of unsaturations into the ester also the oxidation property is good, opening several application perspective for these products which are partly prepared from renewable source.

  1. Highly efficient solid phase supported radiosynthesis of [11 C]PiB using tC18 cartridge as a "3-in-1" production entity. (United States)

    Boudjemeline, Mehdi; Hopewell, Robert; Rochon, Pierre-Luc; Jolly, Dean; Hammami, Iness; Villeneuve, Sylvia; Kostikov, Alexey


    Pittsburgh compound B ([11 C]PiB) is the gold standard positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for the in vivo imaging of amyloid plaques. Currently, it is synthesized by either solution chemistry or using a "dry loop" approach followed by HPLC purification within 30 minutes starting from [11 C]CO2 . Here, we report a novel, highly efficient solid phase supported carbon-11 radiolabeling procedure using commercially available disposable tC18 cartridge as a "3-in-1" entity: reactor, purifier, and solvent replacement system. [11 C]PiB is synthesized by passing gaseous [11 C]CH3 OTf through a tC18 cartridge preloaded with a solution of precursor. Successive elution with aqueous ethanol solutions allows for nearly quantitative separation of the reaction mixture to provide chemically and radiochemically pure PET tracer. [11 C]PiB suitable for human injection is produced within 10 minutes starting from [11 C]CH3 OTf (20 min from [11 C]CO2 ) in 22% isolated yield not corrected for decay and molar activity of 190 GBq/μmol using 0.2 mg of precursor. This technique reduces the amount of precursor and other supplies, avoids use of preparative HPLC and toxic solvents, and decreases the time between consecutive production batches. Solid phase supported technique can facilitate [11 C]PiB production compliant with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and improve synthesis reliability. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Possible association of ABCB1:c.3435T>C polymorphism with high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol response to statin treatment - a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sałacka


    Full Text Available The gene product ABCB1 (formerly MDR1 or P-glycoprotein is hypothesized to be involved in cholesterol cellular trafficking, redistribution and intestinal re-absorption. Carriers of the ABCB1:3435T allele have previously been associated with decreases in ABCB1 mRNA and protein concentrations and have been correlated with changes in serum lipid concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate possible association between the ABCB1:3435T>C polymorphism and changes in lipids in patients following statin treatment. Outpatients (n=130 were examined: 43 men (33%, 87 women (67%: treated with atorvastatin or simvastatin (all patients with equivalent dose of 20 or 40 mg/d simvastatin. Blood was taken for ABCB1:3435T>C genotyping, and before and after statin treatment for lipid concentration determination (total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, triglycerides. Change (Δ in lipid parameters, calculated as differences between measurements before and after treatment, were analyzed with multiple regression adjustments: gender, diabetes, age, body mass index, equivalent statin dose, length of treatment. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed significant differences in ΔHDL-C (univariate p=0.029; multivariate p=0.036 and %ΔHDL-C (univariate p=0.021; multivariate p=0.023 between patients with TT (-0.05 ± 0.13 g/l; -6.8% ± 20%; respectively and CC+CT genotypes (0.004 ± 0.15 g/l; 4.1 ± 26%; respectively. Reduction of HDL-C in homozygous ABCB1:3435TT patients suggests this genotype could be associated with a reduction in the benefits of statin treatment.

  3. High Performance Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactor System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pioneer Astronautics proposes a technology program for the development of an innovative photocatalytic oxidation reactor for the removal and mineralization of...

  4. Efficient preparation of {sup 99m}Tc(III) '4+1' mixed-ligand complexes for peptide labeling with high specific activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstler, Jens-Uwe [Biotectid GmbH, Deutscher Platz 5c, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Seidel, Gesine [Institute of Radiopharmacy, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510 119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Pietzsch, Hans-Jurgen, E-mail: h.j.pietzsch@fzd.d [Institute of Radiopharmacy, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510 119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)


    An improved labeling procedure for peptides attached to organometallic {sup 99m}Tc(III) '4+1' mixed-ligand complexes in which the radiometal is coordinated by a tripodal tetradentate chelator 2,2',2''-nitrilotriethanethiol (NS{sub 3}) and a monodentate isocyanide ligand is presented. The labeling procedure was evaluated by the synthesis of [{sup 99m}Tc(NS{sub 3})(L2-RGD)]. The containing radiopharmaceutically interesting RGD-peptide cyclo[Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Tyr-Lys] was modified with 4-isocyanobutanoic acid (L2) as linker conjugated to N{sup 6}-Lys to get the monodentate ligand L2-RGD. The structural identity of the {sup 99m}Tc-conjugate was confirmed by comparison to a Re reference compound. The Tc- and Re-conjugates had matching retention times under identical HPLC conditions. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeling was performed in a novel one-step procedure using the eluate of a {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator, NS{sub 3}, the isocyanide modified peptide, SnCl{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}EDTA, mannitol and ascorbic acid in the reaction mixture. Using optimized reagents it is possible to label 50 nmol peptide with {sup 99m}Tc within 60 min at room temperature with a radiochemical yield higher than 95% and a specific activity of {approx}20 GBq/{mu}mol.

  5. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites (United States)

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li


    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications.

  6. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites (United States)

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li


    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications. PMID:23974435

  7. The presence of sodium nitrate in generator eluate decreases the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-sestamibi. (United States)

    Métayé, Thierry; Rosenberg, Thierry; Guilhot, Joëlle; Bouin-Pineau, Marie-Hélène; Perdrisot, Rémy


    A high radiochemical purity (RCP) is recommended for radiopharmaceutical compounds used in the clinical practice of nuclear medicine. However, some preparations of (99m)Tc-sestamibi contain excess impurities (>6%). To understand the origin of these impurities, we investigated the effect of sodium nitrate on the RCP of sestamibi preparations by testing eluates from 3 commercially available (99m)Tc generators. The sestamibi kits (Stamicis) were reconstituted with (99m)Tc eluate from nitrate-containing wet-column (NCWC), nitrate-free wet-column (NFWC), and nitrate-free dry-column (NFDC) generators. Sodium nitrate was 0.05 mg/mL in eluates from the NCWC generators. The RCP was determined using aluminum oxide sheets as the stationary phase and absolute ethanol as the mobile phase. Succimer, tetrofosmin, oxidronate, exametazine, albumin nanocolloid, and soluble albumin were also tested for their RCP values with eluates from the 3 different (99m)Tc generators. The RCP assessment of (99m)Tc-sestamibi was performed on 127 Stamicis preparations. Significantly lower RCP values were found for Stamicis kits prepared with the NCWC generator than for Stamicis prepared with the NFWC (P nitrate in NFWC generator eluates significantly decreased the RCP of the Stamicis preparation. In the absence of nitrate in (99m)Tc eluate, no difference was observed between the RCP values of Stamicis kits prepared with the NFWC and NFDC generators. The (99m)Tc impurities generated by nitrates did not modify the quality of myocardial imaging (normal heart-to-lung ratio, 2.2), probably because these impurities are not in the heart field of view. No other tested (99m)Tc-radiopharmaceutical interfered with nitrates. We recommend using nitrate-free generator eluates in (99m)Tc-sestamibi preparations to improve the product quality and prevent unnecessary exposure of the patient to radiation.

  8. Bright upconversion luminescence and increased Tc in CaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}:Er high temperature piezoelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Dengfeng [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kyushu, 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Wang Xusheng; Yao Xi [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xu Chaonan [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Kyushu, 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Lin Jian; Sun Tiantuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao' an Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)


    Er{sup 3+} doped CaBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (CBT) bismuth layered-structure high temperature piezoelectric ceramics were synthesized by the traditional solid state method. The upconversion (UC) emission properties of Er{sup 3+} doped CBT ceramics were investigated as a function of Er{sup 3+} concentration and incident pump power. A bright green upconverted emission was obtained under excitation 980 nm at room temperature. The observed strong green and weak red emission bands corresponded to the transitions from {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} to {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, respectively. The dependence of UC emission intensity on pumping power indicated that a three-photon process was involved in UC emissions. Studies of dielectric with temperature have also been carried out. Introduction of Er increased the Curie temperature of CBT, thus, making this ceramic suitable for sensor applications at higher temperatures. Because of its strong up-converted emission and increased Tc, the multifunctional high temperature piezoelectric ceramic may be useful in high temperature sensor, fluorescence thermometry, and optical-electro integration applications.

  9. Tc Reductant Chemistry and Crucible Melting Studies with Simulated Hanford Low-Activity Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; McGrail, B PETER.; Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Yeager, John D.; Matyas, Josef; Darnell, Lori P.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Owen, Antionette T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Snow, Lanee A.; Steele, Marilyn J.


    The FY 2003 risk assessment (RA) of bulk vitrification (BV) waste packages used 0.3 wt% of the technetium (Tc) inventory as a leachable salt and found it sufficient to create a significant peak in the groundwater concentration in a 100-meter down-gradient well. Although this peak met regulatory limits, considering uncertainty in the actual Tc salt fraction, peak concentrations could exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) under some scenarios so reducing the leachable salt inventory is desirable. The main objective of this study was to reduce the mobile Tc species available within a BV disposal package by reducing the oxidation state of the Tc in the waste feed and/or during melting because Tc in its reduced form of Tc(IV) has a much lower volatility than Tc(VII). Reduced Tc volatility has a secondary benefit of increasing the Tc retention in glass.

  10. Technology for High Pure Aluminum Oxide Production from Aluminum Scrap (United States)

    Ambaryan, G. N.; Vlaskin, M. S.; Shkolnikov, E. I.; Zhuk, A. Z.


    In this study a simple ecologically benign technology of high purity alumina production is presented. The synthesis process consists of three steps) oxidation of aluminum in water at temperature of 90 °C) calcinations of Al hydroxide in atmosphere at 1100 °C) high temperature vacuum processing of aluminum alpha oxide at 1750 °C. Oxidation of aluminum scrap was carried out under intensive mixing in water with small addition of KOH as a catalyst. It was shown that under implemented experimental conditions alkali was continuously regenerated during oxidation reaction and synergistic effect of low content alkali aqueous solution and intensive mixing worked. The product of oxidation of aluminum scrap is the powder of Al(OH)3. Then it can be preliminary granulated or directly subjected to thermal treatment deleting the impurities from the product (aluminum oxide). It was shown the possibility to produce the high-purity aluminum oxide of 5N grade (99.999 %). Aluminum oxide, synthesized by means of the proposed method, meets the requirements of industrial manufacturers of synthetic sapphire (aluminum oxide monocrystals). Obtained high pure aluminum oxide can be also used for the manufacture of implants, artificial joints, microscalpels, high-purity ceramics and other refractory shapes for manufacture of ultra-pure products.

  11. Theoretical Modeling of 99 Tc NMR Chemical Shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Gabriel B.; Andersen, Amity; Washton, Nancy M.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.


    Technetium (Tc) displays a rich chemistry due to the wide range of oxidation states (from -I to +VII) and ability to form coordination compounds. Determination of Tc speciation in complex mixtures is a major challenge, and 99Tc NMR spec-troscopy is widely used to probe chemical environments of Tc in odd oxidation states. However interpretation of the 99Tc NMR data is hindered by the lack of reference compounds. DFT computations can help fill this gap, but to date few com-putational studies have focused on 99Tc NMR of compounds and complexes. This work systematically evaluates the inclu-sion small percentages of Hartree-Fock exchange correlation and relativistic effects in DFT computations to support in-terpretation of the 99Tc NMR spectra. Hybrid functionals are found to perform better than their pure GGA counterparts, and non-relativistic calculations have been found to generally show a lower mean absolute deviation from experiment. Overall non-relativistic PBE0 and B3PW91 calculations are found to most accurately predict 99Tc NMR chemical shifts.

  12. Establishment of an experimental human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1BM with high bone metastases potency by {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Shunfang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail:; Dong Qianggang [Laboratory of Mol-diagnosis, Shanghai Cancer Institute of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yao Ming [Laboratory of Pathology, Shanghai Cancer Institute of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shi Meiping [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ye Jianding [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhao Langxiang [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Su Jianzhong; Gu Weiyong [Shanghai Thoracic Tumor Institute, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xie Wenhui [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wang Kankan; Du Yanzhi [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Li Yao [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yan [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail:


    Background: Bone metastasis is one of the most common clinical phenomena of late stage lung cancer. A major impediment to understanding the pathogenesis of bone metastasis has been the lack of an appropriate animal and cell model. This study aims to establish human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with highly bone metastases potency with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Methods: The human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells SPC-A-1 were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of NIH-Beige-Nude-XID (NIH-BNX) immunodeficient mice. The metastatic lesions of tumor-bearing mice were imaged with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy on a Siemens multi-single photon emission computed tomography. Pinhole images were acquired on a GZ-B conventional gamma camera with a self-designed pinhole collimator. The mice with bone metastasis were sacrificed under deep anesthesia, and the lesions were resected. Bone metastatic cancer cells in the resected lesions were subjected for culture and then reinoculated into the NIH-BNX mice through left cardiac ventricle. The process was repeated for eight cycles to obtain a novel cell subline SPC-A-1BM. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare the gene expression differences in the parental and SPC-A-1BM cells. Results: The bone metastasis sites were successfully revealed by bone scintigraphy. The established bone metastasis cell line SPC-A-1BM had a high potential to metastasize in bone, including mandible, humerus, thoracic vertebra, lumbar, femur, patella, ilium and cartilage rib. The expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor gene family, Bcl-2 and cell adhesion-related genes ECM1, ESM1, AF1Q, SERPINE2 and FN1 were examined. Gene expression difference was found between parental and bone-seeking metastasis cell SPC-A-1BM, which indicates SPC-A-1BM has metastatic capacity vs. its parental cells. Conclusion: SPC-A-1BM is a bone-seeking metastasis human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Bone scintigraphy may be used as

  13. Experimental Investigation on Thermoresistance between AlN, Bi-2223 and OFHC in High Tc- Direct Cooling Technology (United States)

    Wang, H. L.; Rao, R. S.; Wang, J.


    In the development of high temperature superconducting (HTS) direct cooling technology, the high electric insulation high heat conducting AlN has become one of the important components. The thermal contact resistance between AlN, Bi-2223 and OFHC is investigated by experiment with a G-M cryocooler as the source of cooling. The heat conductivity of AlN is measured between 29 and 160 K temperatures. When the temperature on the interface layer side of Bi-2223 is 55 K, under the action of the contact pressure of 0.5469 MPa, the thermal contact resistance between AlN and Bi-2223 is 38.86 times to the thermal conduction resistance of a 10 mm thick AlN pad. Baced on micro-nanocryogenics, it is proposed that the thermal contact resistance is one of the crucial techniques to be attacked in HTS direct cooling technology.

  14. High-Tc superconductivity in ultrathin Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+x) down to half-unit-cell thickness by protection with graphene. (United States)

    Jiang, Da; Hu, Tao; You, Lixing; Li, Qiao; Li, Ang; Wang, Haomin; Mu, Gang; Chen, Zhiying; Zhang, Haoran; Yu, Guanghui; Zhu, Jie; Sun, Qiujuan; Lin, Chengtian; Xiao, Hong; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng


    High-Tc superconductors confined to two dimension exhibit novel physical phenomena, such as superconductor-insulator transition. In the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+x) (Bi2212) model system, despite extensive studies, the intrinsic superconducting properties at the thinness limit have been difficult to determine. Here, we report a method to fabricate high quality single-crystal Bi2212 films down to half-unit-cell thickness in the form of graphene/Bi2212 van der Waals heterostructure, in which sharp superconducting transitions are observed. The heterostructure also exhibits a nonlinear current-voltage characteristic due to the Dirac nature of the graphene band structure. More interestingly, although the critical temperature remains essentially the same with reduced thickness of Bi2212, the slope of the normal state T-linear resistivity varies by a factor of 4-5, and the sheet resistance increases by three orders of magnitude, indicating a surprising decoupling of the normal state resistance and superconductivity. The developed technique is versatile, applicable to investigate other two-dimensional (2D) superconducting materials.

  15. Effects of magnetic field on the cuprate high-Tc superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lake, B.; Aeppli, G.; Christensen, N.B.


    This article discusses neutron scattering measurements on the cuprate, high transition temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO) in an applied magnetic field. LSCO is a type-II superconductor and magnetic flux can penetrate the material via the formation of vorticies. Phase coherent...

  16. CTLA-4 (CD152) enhances the Tc17 differentiation program. (United States)

    Pick, Jonas; Arra, Aditya; Lingel, Holger; Hegel, J Kolja; Huber, Magdalena; Nishanth, Gopala; Jorch, Gerhard; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Schlüter, Dirk; Tedford, Kerry; Brunner-Weinzierl, Monika C


    Although CD8(+) T cells that produce IL-17 (Tc17 cells) have been linked to host defense, Tc17 cells show reduced cytotoxic activity, which is the characteristic function of CD8(+) T cells. Here, we show that CTLA-4 enhances the frequency of IL-17 in CD8(+) T cells, indicating that CTLA-4 (CD152) specifically promotes Tc17 differentiation. Simultaneous stimulation of CTLA-4(+/+) and CTLA-4(-/-) T cells in cocultures and agonistic CTLA-4 stimulation unambiguously revealed a cell-intrinsic mechanism for IL-17 control by CTLA-4. The quality of CTLA-4-induced Tc17 cells was tested in vivo, utilizing infection with the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (LM). Unlike CTLA-4(+/+) Tc17 cells, CTLA-4(-/-) were nearly as efficient as Tc1 CTLA-4(+/+) cells in LM clearance. Additionally, adoptively transferred CTLA-4(-/-) Tc17 cells expressed granzyme B after rechallenge, and produced Tc1 cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, which strongly correlate with bacterial clearance. CTLA-4(+/+) Tc17 cells demonstrated a high-quality Tc17 differentiation program ex vivo, which was also evident in isolated IL-17-secreting Tc17 cells, with CTLA-4-mediated enhanced upregulation of Tc17-related molecules such as IL-17A, RORγt, and IRF-4. Our results show that CTLA-4 promotes Tc17 differentiation that results in robust Tc17 responses. Its inactivation might therefore represent a central therapeutic target to enhance clearance of infection. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Non-destructive Testing (NDT) of metal cracks using a high Tc rf-SQUID and eddy current method (United States)

    Lu, D. F.; Fan, Chang-Xin; Ruan, J. Z.; Han, S. G.; Wong, K. W.; Sun, G. F.


    A SQUID is the most sensitive device to detect change in magnetic field. A nondestructive testing (NDT) device using high temperature SQUID's and eddy current method will be much more sensitive than those currently used eddy current systems, yet much cheaper than one with low temperature SQUID's. In this paper, we present our study of such a NDT device using a high temperature superconducting rf-SQUID as a gradiometer sensor. The result clearly demonstrates the expected sensitivity of the system, and indicates the feasibility of building a portable HTS SQUID NDT device with the help from cryocooler industry. Such a NDT device will have a significant impact on metal corrosion or crack detection technology.

  18. Non-destructive testing (NDT) of metal cracks using a high Tc rf-SQUID and eddy current method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, D.F.; Fan, C.; Ruan, J.Z. [Midwest Superconductivity Inc., Lawrence, KS (United States)] [and others


    A SQUID is the most sensitive device to detect change in magnetic field. A non-destructive testing (NDT) device using high temperature SQUIDs and eddy current method will be much more sensitive than those currently used eddy current systems, yet much cheaper than one with low temperature SQUIDs. In this paper, we present our study of such a NDT device using a high temperature superconducting rf-SQUID as a gradiometer sensor. The result clearly demonstrates the expected sensitivity of the system, and indicates the feasibility of building a portable HTS SQUID NDT device with the help from cryocooler industry. Such a NDT device will have a significant impact on metal corrosion or crack detection technology.

  19. New high Tc multiferroics KBiFe2O5 with narrow band gap and promising photovoltaic effect (United States)

    Zhang, Ganghua; Wu, Hui; Li, Guobao; Huang, Qingzhen; Yang, Chongyin; Huang, Fuqiang; Liao, Fuhui; Lin, Jianhua


    Intrinsic polarization of ferroelectrics (FE) helps separate photon-generated charge carriers thus enhances photovoltaic effects. However, traditional FE with transition-metal cations (M) of d0 electron in MO6 network typically has a band gap (Eg) exceeding 3.0 eV. Although a smaller Eg (2.6 eV) can be obtained in multiferroic BiFeO3, the value is still too high for optimal solar energy applications. Computational “materials genome” searches have predicted several exotic MO6 FE with Eg photoelectric activities. The high photovoltage (8.8 V) and photocurrent density (15 μA/cm2) were obtained, which is comparable to the reported BiFeO3. This finding may open a new avenue to discovering and designing optimal FE compounds for solar energy applications. PMID:23405279

  20. Fiber Based Optical Amplifier for High Energy Laser Pulses Final Report CRADA No. TC02100.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cunningham, P. [Boeing Company, Springfield, VA (United States)


    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (formerly The Regents of the University of California)/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and The Boeing Company to develop an optical fiber-based laser amplifier capable of producing and sustaining very high-energy, nanosecond-scale optical pulses. The overall technical objective of this CRADA was to research, design, and develop an optical fiber-based amplifier that would meet specific metrics.

  1. An explanation for the rise in Tc in the Tl- and Bi-based high temperature superconductors (United States)

    Bose, S. M.; Longe, P.


    Using the plasmon exchange model for the high T(sub c) superconductor, it is shown that the T(sub c) rises with an increase in the number of CuO layers per unit cell, which is in agreement with recent observations in the Tl- and Bi-based compounds. The calculation also suggests that the sample will become superconducting in successive stages and that there is a saturation effect, i.e., that T(sub c) cannot be raised indefinitely by increasing the number of CuO layers.

  2. High temperature oxidation of slurry coated interconnect alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Åsa Helen

    with this interaction mechanism mainly give a geometrical protection against oxidation by blocking oxygen access at the surface of the oxide scale. The protecting effect is gradually reduced as the oxide scale grows thicker than the diameter of the coating particles. Interaction mechanism B entails a chemical reaction.......85Sr0.15)CoO3 + 10% Co3O4, LSC, coatings were found to be relatively successful in decreasing the oxidation rate, the chromium content in the outermost part of ii the dense scale, and the electrical resistance in the growing oxide scales when applied onto Crofer 22APU. But, the positive effects......In this project, high temperature oxidation experiments of slurry coated ferritic alloys in atmospheres similar to the atmosphere found at the cathode in an SOFC were conducted. From the observations possible interaction mechanisms between the slurry coatings and the growing oxide scale...

  3. Simulation of Field Dependence of Critical Current Densities of Bulk High Tc Superconducting Materials regarding Thermally Activated Flux Motion (United States)

    Santosh, M.; Naik, S. Pavan Kumar; Koblischka, M. R.


    In the upcoming generation, bulk high temperature superconductors (HTS) will play a crucial and a promising role in numerous industrial applications ranging from Maglev trains to magnetic resonance imaging, etc. Especially, the bulk HTS as permanent magnets are suitable due to the fact that they can trap magnetic fields being several orders of magnitude higher than those of the best hard ferromagnets. The bulk HTS LREBa2Cu3O7-δ (LREBCO or LRE-123, LRE: Y, Gd, etc.,) materials could obtain very powerful compact superconducting super-magnets, which can be operated at the cheaper liquid nitrogen temperature or below due to higher critical temperatures (i.e., ∼90 K). As a result, the new advanced technology can be utilized in a more attractive manner for a variety of technological and medical applications which have the capacity to revolutionize the field. An understanding of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density (J c(H)) is important to develop better adapted materials. To achieve this goal, a variety of Jc (H) behaviours of bulk LREBCO samples were modelled regarding thermally activated flux motion. In essence, the Jc (H) curves follows a certain criterion where an exponential model is applied. However, to fit the complete Jc (H) curve of the LRE-123 samples an unique model is necessary to explain the behavior at low and high fields. The modelling of the various superconducting materials could be understood in terms of the pinning mechanisms.

  4. Enhancing electric-field control of ferromagnetism through nanoscale engineering of high-TcMnxGe1-xnanomesh. (United States)

    Nie, Tianxiao; Tang, Jianshi; Kou, Xufeng; Gen, Yin; Lee, Shengwei; Zhu, Xiaodan; He, Qinglin; Chang, Li-Te; Murata, Koichi; Fan, Yabin; Wang, Kang L


    Voltage control of magnetism in ferromagnetic semiconductor has emerged as an appealing solution to significantly reduce the power dissipation and variability beyond current CMOS technology. However, it has been proven to be very challenging to achieve a candidate with high Curie temperature (T c ), controllable ferromagnetism and easy integration with current Si technology. Here we report the effective electric-field control of both ferromagnetism and magnetoresistance in unique Mn x Ge 1-x nanomeshes fabricated by nanosphere lithography, in which a T c above 400 K is demonstrated as a result of size/quantum confinement. Furthermore, by adjusting Mn doping concentration, extremely giant magnetoresistance is realized from ∼8,000% at 30 K to 75% at 300 K at 4 T, which arises from a geometrically enhanced magnetoresistance effect of the unique mesh structure. Our results may provide a paradigm for fundamentally understanding the high T c in ferromagnetic semiconductor nanostructure and realizing electric-field control of magnetoresistance for future spintronic applications.

  5. Practice of AC loss measurement in high Tc superconductor; Koon chodendo senzai no koryu sonshitsu sokutei jisshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, N.; Tsukamoto, O.; Ciszek, M. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The cooperative research promotion center in the Yokohama National University was set up for a purpose to promote the co-operative research with civilian agencies, conduct and the co-operate technical education to engineers from civilian agencies and take the technical discussion and supply the academic information with civilian agencies. As one part of this work, the engineer training called as the high technology training was conducted. In this paper, the seminar on the alternate current loss measurement conducted in November 1998 was reported. This training was a 'high' technology training for an objective of engineers, 8 participants included engineers and graduate students in a major of superconductivity from makers, civilian institutes and universities as the superconducting specialists attended this lecture. In this training, lectures on the loss generating mechanism and the loss measurement principle and its practical use, manufacture of the measuring samples, measurement (the energization loss and magnetization loss), the report of measured results and examination and comments were carried out in order. In the manufacture of samples, participants carried out all soldering and pick-up coil rolls by handling sample tapes and sample holder parts. (NEDO)

  6. Planar defects, dislocations, and coherently scattering-size in GdBa2Cu3O7-x high-Tc thin films determined by high resolution X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csiszár, Gábor; Li, Xiaofen; Zilahi, Gyula


    The frequency of planar defects, the average dislocation densities, and coherent domain size in epitaxial GdBa2Cu3O7-x high Tc thin films, with altering CuO2 and CuO planes, are measured by fitting full widths at half maximum values of 00l type reflections using a model function based on intensity...... distribution configurations in reciprocal space. The reduction of the dislocation density during oxygenation seems to be an unavoidable condition to obtain superconductivity in GdBa 2Cu3O7-x thin films. © 2013 American Institute of Physics....

  7. Wide applicability of high-Tc pairing originating from coexisting wide and incipient narrow bands in quasi-one-dimensional systems (United States)

    Matsumoto, Karin; Ogura, Daisuke; Kuroki, Kazuhiko


    We study superconductivity in the Hubbard model on various quasi-one-dimensional lattices with coexisting wide and narrow bands originating from multiple sites within a unit cell, where each site corresponds to a single orbital. The systems studied are the two-leg and three-leg ladders, the diamond chain, and the crisscross ladder. These one-dimensional lattices are weakly coupled to form two-dimensional (quasi-one-dimensional) ones, and the fluctuation exchange approximation is adopted to study spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductivity. When one of the bands is perfectly flat and the Fermi level intersecting the wide band is placed in the vicinity of, but not within, the flat band, superconductivity arising from the interband scattering processes is found to be strongly enhanced owing to the combination of the light electron mass of the wide band and the strong pairing interaction due to the large density of states of the flat band. Even when the narrow band has finite bandwidth, the pairing mechanism still works since the edge of the narrow band, due to its large density of states, plays the role of the flat band. The results indicate the wide applicability of the high-Tc pairing mechanism due to coexisting wide and "incipient" narrow bands in quasi-one-dimensional systems.

  8. Magnetic neutron scattering resonance of high-¤Tc¤ superconductors in external magnetic fields: An SO(5) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Rønnow, Henrik Moodysson; Bruus, Henrik


    The magnetic resonance at 41 meV observed in neutron scattering studies of YBa2Cu3O7 holds a key position in the understanding of high-T-c, superconductivity. Within the SO(5) model for superconductivity and antiferromagnetism, we have calculated the effect of an applied magnetic field...... space we find that (i) the scattering amplitude is zero at (pi/a,pi/a), (ii) the resonance peak is split into a ring with radius pi/d centered at (pi/a, pi/a), d being the vortex lattice constant, and consequently, (iii) the splitting pi/d scales with the magnetic field as root B....... on the neutron scattering cross section of the magnetic resonance. In the presence of Abrikosov vortices, the neutron scattering cross section shows clear signatures of not only the fluctuations in the superconducting order parameter psi, but also the modulation of the phase of psi due to vortices. In reciprocal...

  9. Telecom 2-B and 2-C (TC2B and TC2C) (United States)

    Dulac, J.; Alvarez, H.


    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Telecom 2-B and 2-C (TC2B and TC2C) are summarized. These Telecom missions will provide high-speed data link applications, telephone, and television service between France and overseas territories as a follow-on to TC2A. Mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  10. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized inside highly ordered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanosized iron oxide, a moderately large band-gap semiconductor and an essential component of optoelectrical and magnetic devices, has been prepared successfully inside the restricted internal pores of mesoporous silica material through in-situ reduction during impregnation. The samples were characterized by ...

  11. In vivo oxidation in remelted highly cross-linked retrievals. (United States)

    Currier, B H; Van Citters, D W; Currier, J H; Collier, J P


    Elimination of free radicals to prevent oxidation has played a major role in the development and product differentiation of the latest generation of highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene bearing materials. In the current study, we (1) examined oxidation in a series of retrieved remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene bearings from a number of device manufacturers and (2) compared the retrieval results with findings for shelf-stored control specimens. The hypothesis was that radiation-cross-linked remelted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene would maintain oxidative stability in vivo comparable with the stability during shelf storage and in published laboratory aging tests. Fifty remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular liners and nineteen remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene tibial inserts were received after retrieval from twenty-one surgeons from across the U.S. Thirty-two of the retrievals had been in vivo for two years or more. Each was measured for oxidation with use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A control series of remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular liners from three manufacturers was analyzed with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure free radical content and with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to measure oxidation initially and after eight to nine years of shelf storage in air. The never-implanted, shelf-aged controls had no measurable free-radical content initially or after eight to nine years of shelf storage. The never-implanted controls showed no increase in oxidation during shelf storage. Oxidation measurements showed measurable oxidation in 22% of the retrieved remelted highly cross-linked liners and inserts after an average of two years in vivo. Because never-implanted remelted highly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight

  12. A.C. loss of the high-Tc superconducting cable conductor; Koon chodendo keburu dotai no koryu sonshitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, A.; Futaki, N.; Ono, K.; Sadakata, N.; Saito, T. [Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Ltd., Aichi (Japan)


    High-temperature superconducting cable used in the liquid nitrogen circulation cooling was expected in the electric power field, because of an attempt to compact the cable size and possibly reduce the power transmission loss. In the multilayer spiral conductor laminated by which Bi-2223 phase silver sheath tape were spirally wound and insulated between layers, the drift problem that current distribution concentrated in the outer layer occurred, because the inductance of the internal layer was higher than that of the outer layer in the alternating current. In this study, for a purpose of attempting the drift countermeasure and reduction of AC loss, the transposition yarn twist segment was composed of Bi-2223 phase silver sheath tape, the transposition yarn twist conductor was manufactured with the structure of the transposition yarn twist segment spirally wound on a frame, and the alternating current characteristics were investigated. As the result, the phase shift of transferring current could be hardly observed on the silver sheath wire in the segment. (NEDO)

  13. High Specific Stiffness Shafts and Advanced Bearing Coatings for Gas Turbine Engines Final Report CRADA No. TC-1089-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, Troy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chin, Herbert [United Technologies Corporation, East Hartford, CT (United States)


    At the time of the CRADA, the largest in-service gas-turbine aircraft engines strove for increased thrust and power density to meet the requirements for take-off thrust, given the increase in take-off gross weight (TOGW) associated with longer range transport requirements. The trend in modem turbo shaft engines was toward turbine shafts with higher and higher length-to-diameter ratios, which reduced the shaft critical speed. Using co nventional shaft materials, this lead to shafts that needed to operate near or above sensitive shaft bending critical speeds, therefore requiring multiple bearings and/ or multiple squeeze-film dampers to control the dynamic response. Using new materials and d esign concepts this project demonstrated the use of new shaft materials which could provide increased shaft speed range above existing maximum engine speeds without encountering a critic al speed event and high vector deflections. This increased main shaft speed also resulted in decreased bearing life associated with lower heat dissipation and higher centrifugal forces. Thus, a limited effort was devoted to feasibility of higher performance bearing coatings to mitigate the speed effects.

  14. Separation of tc from Uranium and development of metallic Technetium waste forms (United States)

    Mausolf, Edward John

    The isotope Technetium-99 (99Tc) is a major fission product of the nuclear industry. In the last decade, approximately 20 tons of 99Tc have been produced by the US nuclear industry. Due to its long half-life (t1/2 = 214,000 yr), beta radiotoxicity, and high mobility as pertechnetate [TcO4]-, Tc represents long-term concern to the biosphere. Various options have been considered to manage 99Tc. One of them is its separation from spent fuel, conversion to the metal and incorporation into a metallic waste form for long-term disposal. After dissolution of spent fuel in nitric acid and extraction of U and Tc in organic media, previously developed methods can be used to separate Tc from U, convert the separate Tc stream to the metal and reuse the uranium component of the fuel. A variety of metallic waste forms, ranging from pure Tc metal to ternary Tc alloys combined with stainless steel (SS) and Zr are proposed. The goal of this work was to examine three major questions: What is the optimal method to separate Tc from U? After separation, what is the most efficient method to convert the Tc stream to Tc metal? Finally, what is the corrosion behavior of Tc metal, Tc-SS alloys and Tc-Zr-SS alloys in 0.01M NaCl? The goal is to predict the long term behavior of Tc metallic waste in a hypothetical storage environment. In this work, three methods have been used to separate Tc from U: anionic exchange resin, liquid-liquid extraction and precipitation. Of the three methods studied, anionic exchange resins is the most selective. After separation of Tc from U, three different methods were studied to convert the Tc stream to the metal: thermal treatment under hydrogen atmosphere, electrochemical and chemical reduction of pertechnetate in aqueous media. The thermal treatment of the Tc stream under hydrogen atmosphere is the preferred method to produce Tc metal. After Tc metal is isolated, it will be incorporated into a metal host phase. Three different waste forms were produced for

  15. {sup 99m}TcO(MAG{sub 2}-3G{sub 3}-dimer): a new integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-targeted SPECT radiotracer with high tumor uptake and favorable pharmacokinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jiyun [Purdue University, School of Health Sciences, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Peking University, Medical Isotopes Research Center, Beijing (China); Wang, Lijun; Kim, Young-Seung; Zhai, Shizhen; Liu, Shuang [Purdue University, School of Health Sciences, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan [Peking University, Medical Isotopes Research Center, Beijing (China)


    This report presents the synthesis of a cyclic RGD dimer conjugate, MAG{sub 2}-G{sub 3}-E[G{sub 3}-c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} (MAG{sub 2}-3G{sub 3}-dimer, G{sub 3} = Gly-Gly-Gly, MAG{sub 2} = S-benzoyl mercaptoacetylglycylglycyl), and evaluation of its {sup 99m}Tc complex, {sup 99m}TcO(MAG{sub 2}-3G{sub 3}-dimer), as a new radiotracer for imaging the tumor integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} expression. An in vitro displacement assay was used to determine the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} binding affinity of MAG{sub 2}-3G{sub 3}-dimer against {sup 125}I-c(RGDyK) bound to U87MG human glioma cells. The athymic nude mice bearing U87MG glioma xenografts were used for biodistribution and planar imaging studies. We found that (1) MAG{sub 2} is such a highly effective bifunctional chelator that {sup 99m}TcO(MAG{sub 2}-3G{sub 3}-dimer) can be prepared in high yield (radiochemical purity >95%) and with high specific activity ({proportional_to}5 Ci/{mu}mol) using a kit formulation; (2) {sup 99m}TcO(MAG{sub 2}-3G{sub 3}-dimer) has very high solution stability in the kit matrix; and (3) {sup 99m}TcO(MAG{sub 2}-3G{sub 3}-dimer) has very fast clearance kinetics from the intestine, liver, and kidneys. Among the {sup 99m}Tc-labeled cyclic RGD peptides evaluated in the xenografted U87MG glioma models, {sup 99m}TcO(MAG{sub 2}-3G{sub 3}-dimer) has the best pharmacokinetics and tumor to background ratios (tumor/liver = 4.29 {+-} 1.00 at 30 min postinjection and 8.29 {+-} 1.50 at 120 min postinjection; tumor/kidney = 1.16 {+-} 0.19 at 30 min postinjection and 2.49 {+-} 0.25 at 120 min postinjection). Planar imaging studies showed that tumors in the glioma-bearing mice administered with {sup 99m}TcO(MAG{sub 2}-3G{sub 3}-dimer) can be visualized with excellent contrast as early as 15 min postinjection. {sup 99m}TcO(MAG{sub 2}-3G{sub 3}-dimer) was able to maintain its chemical integrity in kidneys (>80% intact) and liver (>95% intact) over the 2-h period. However, there was significant

  16. Assessment of radionuclidic impurities in cyclotron produced (99m)Tc. (United States)

    Lebeda, Ondřej; van Lier, Erik J; Štursa, Jan; Ráliš, Jan; Zyuzin, Alexander


    The commercial viability of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc as an alternative to generator-produced (99m)Tc depends on several factors. These include: production yield, ease of target processing and recycling of (100)Mo, radiochemical purity, specific activity as well as the presence of other radionuclides, particularly various Tc radioisotopes that cannot be separated chemically and will remain in the final clinical preparation. These Tc radionuclidic impurities are derived from nuclear interactions of the accelerated protons with other stable Mo isotopes present in the enriched (100)Mo target. The aim of our study was to determine experimentally the yields of Tc radioisotopes produced from these stable Mo isotopes as a function of incident beam energy in order to predict radionuclidic purity of (99m)Tc produced in highly enriched (100)Mo targets of known isotopic composition. Enriched molybdenum targets of (95)Mo, (96)Mo, (97)Mo, (98)Mo and (100)Mo were prepared by pressing powdered metal into an aluminum target support. The thick targets were bombarded with 10 to 24MeV protons using the external beam line of the U-120M cyclotron of the Nuclear Physics Institute, Řež. The thick target yields of (94)Tc, (94m)Tc, (95)Tc, (95m)Tc, (96m+g)Tc and (97m)Tc were derived from their activities measured by γ spectrometry using a high purity Ge detector. These data were then used to assess the effect of isotopic composition of highly enriched (100)Mo targets on the radionuclidic purity of (99m)Tc as a function of proton beam energy. Estimates were validated by comparison to measured activities of Tc radioisotopes in proton irradiated, highly enriched (100)Mo targets of known isotopic composition. The measured thick target yields of (94)Tc, (94m)Tc, (95)Tc, (95m)Tc, (96m+g)Tc and (97m)Tc correspond well with recently published values calculated via the EMPIRE-3 code. However, the measured yields are more favourable with regard to achievable radionuclidic purity of (99m)Tc

  17. Synthesis of a Novel Energetic Heterocyclic Oxidizer with Higher Energy and Lower Sensitivity Final Report CRADA No. TC02099.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagoria, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Racoveanu, A. [Physical Sciences, Inc., Andover, MD (United States)


    The project involved the synthesis of 5g of a target energetic compound, 3,4-bis(5-nitro-1,2,5- oxadiazol-4-yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole-1-oxide (DNTF. The deliverables were the synthesis of 5g of DNTF along with quantities of the precursor compounds. In addition, small-scale safety tests on DNTF were performed, which to confirmed that DNTF has no undesirable safety properties before scaling up the synthesis in Phase II of this project.

  18. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Peili


    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Biochemical basis of the high resistance to oxidative stress in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    the fact that D. discoideum is unusually resistant to oxi- dative stress. To address the biochemical events associated with high resistance to oxidative stress, in D. discoideum, the acti- vity of catalase, SOD and GSH-Px antioxidant enzymes were measured. SOD activity did not show any change in cells subjected to oxidative, ...

  20. Propane Oxidation at High Pressure and Intermediate Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Glarborg, Peter

    Propane oxidation at intermediate temperatures (500—900 K) and high pressure (100 bar) has been characterized by conducting experiments in a laminar flow reactor over a wide range of stoichiometries. The onset of fuel oxidation was found to be 600—725 K, depending on mixture stoichiometry...

  1. High membrane protein oxidation in the human cerebral cortex. (United States)

    Granold, Matthias; Moosmann, Bernd; Staib-Lasarzik, Irina; Arendt, Thomas; Del Rey, Adriana; Engelhard, Kristin; Behl, Christian; Hajieva, Parvana


    Oxidative stress is thought to be one of the main mediators of neuronal damage in human neurodegenerative disease. Still, the dissection of causal relationships has turned out to be remarkably difficult. Here, we have analyzed global protein oxidation in terms of carbonylation of membrane proteins and cytoplasmic proteins in three different mammalian species: aged human cortex and cerebellum from patients with or without Alzheimer's disease, mouse cortex and cerebellum from young and old animals, and adult rat hippocampus and cortex subjected or not subjected to cerebral ischemia. Most tissues showed relatively similar levels of protein oxidation. However, human cortex was affected by severe membrane protein oxidation, while exhibiting lower than average cytoplasmic protein oxidation. In contrast, ex vivo autooxidation of murine cortical tissue primarily induced aqueous protein oxidation, while in vivo biological aging or cerebral ischemia had no major effect on brain protein oxidation. The unusually high levels of membrane protein oxidation in the human cortex were also not predicted by lipid peroxidation, as the levels of isoprostane immunoreactivity in human samples were considerably lower than in rodent tissues. Our results indicate that the aged human cortex is under steady pressure from specific and potentially detrimental membrane protein oxidation. The pronounced difference between humans, mice and rats regarding the primary site of cortical oxidation might have contributed to the unresolved difficulties in translating into therapies the wealth of data describing successful antioxidant neuroprotection in rodents. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High membrane protein oxidation in the human cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Granold


    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is thought to be one of the main mediators of neuronal damage in human neurodegenerative disease. Still, the dissection of causal relationships has turned out to be remarkably difficult. Here, we have analyzed global protein oxidation in terms of carbonylation of membrane proteins and cytoplasmic proteins in three different mammalian species: aged human cortex and cerebellum from patients with or without Alzheimer's disease, mouse cortex and cerebellum from young and old animals, and adult rat hippocampus and cortex subjected or not subjected to cerebral ischemia. Most tissues showed relatively similar levels of protein oxidation. However, human cortex was affected by severe membrane protein oxidation, while exhibiting lower than average cytoplasmic protein oxidation. In contrast, ex vivo autooxidation of murine cortical tissue primarily induced aqueous protein oxidation, while in vivo biological aging or cerebral ischemia had no major effect on brain protein oxidation. The unusually high levels of membrane protein oxidation in the human cortex were also not predicted by lipid peroxidation, as the levels of isoprostane immunoreactivity in human samples were considerably lower than in rodent tissues. Our results indicate that the aged human cortex is under steady pressure from specific and potentially detrimental membrane protein oxidation. The pronounced difference between humans, mice and rats regarding the primary site of cortical oxidation might have contributed to the unresolved difficulties in translating into therapies the wealth of data describing successful antioxidant neuroprotection in rodents.

  3. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites


    Yingyan Mao; Shipeng Wen; Yulong Chen; Fazhong Zhang; Pierre Panine; Tung W. Chan; Liqun Zhang; Yongri Liang; Li Liu


    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical prope...

  4. Synthesis of Highly Reduced Graphene Oxide for Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chubei Wang


    Full Text Available A facile method to synthesize highly reduced graphene oxide in solid phase was developed. The reduced graphene oxide was scarcely prepared in solid phase. Solid substances act as spacers and pillaring agents. Sheets can not be close to each other in reduction process, and sheets agglomeration might not form. After reduction reaction is complete, the spacers and pillaring agents are removed. The average interlayer spacing and surface area of product are bigger than those of reduced graphene oxide. The product has few-layered sheet, and the ratio of carbon to oxygen is high, which might imply that the product is more similar to graphene compared to reduced graphene oxide. The specific capacitance of product is almost three times higher than that of reduced graphene oxide at the same current density.

  5. Cyclotron Production of (99m)Tc using (100)Mo2C targets. (United States)

    Richards, Vernal N; Mebrahtu, Efrem; Lapi, Suzanne E


    An investigative study of the (100)Mo (p,2n)(99m)Tc reaction on a medical cyclotron using (100)Mo2C is reported. This is the first report of this compound being used as a target for this reaction. (100)Mo2C, a refractory carbide with high thermal conductivity, properties which underscore its use on a cyclotron, was synthesized using (100)MoO3. Its ease of oxidation back to (100)MoO3 under air at elevated temperatures facilitates the use of thermo-chromatography, a high temperature gas phase separation technique for the separation and isolation of (99m)Tc. Activity yields for (99m)Tc averaged 84% of the calculated theoretical yields. Additionally, the percent recovery of MoO3, the precursor for Mo2C, was consistently high at 85% ensuring a good life cycle for this target material. The produced (99m)Tc was radio-chemically pure and easily labeled MDP for imaging purposes. © 2013.

  6. Nanocarbon synthesis by high-temperature oxidation of nanoparticles (United States)

    Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Li, Ying; Nakano, Aiichiro; Rajak, Pankaj; Sheng, Chunyang; Shimamura, Kohei; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Vashishta, Priya


    High-temperature oxidation of silicon-carbide nanoparticles (nSiC) underlies a wide range of technologies from high-power electronic switches for efficient electrical grid and thermal protection of space vehicles to self-healing ceramic nanocomposites. Here, multimillion-atom reactive molecular dynamics simulations validated by ab initio quantum molecular dynamics simulations predict unexpected condensation of large graphene flakes during high-temperature oxidation of nSiC. Initial oxidation produces a molten silica shell that acts as an autocatalytic ‘nanoreactor’ by actively transporting oxygen reactants while protecting the nanocarbon product from harsh oxidizing environment. Percolation transition produces porous nanocarbon with fractal geometry, which consists of mostly sp2 carbons with pentagonal and heptagonal defects. This work suggests a simple synthetic pathway to high surface-area, low-density nanocarbon with numerous energy, biomedical and mechanical-metamaterial applications, including the reinforcement of self-healing composites.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J


    A salt solution (doped with Tc-99), that simulates the salt waste stream to be processed at the Saltstone Production Facility, was immobilized in grout waste forms with and without (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag and (2) pretreatment with iron salts. The degree of immobilization of Tc-99 was measured through monolithic and crushed grout leaching tests. Although Fe (+2) was shown to be effective in reducing Tc-99 to the +4 state, the strong reducing nature of the blast furnace slag present in the grout formulation dominated the reduction of Tc-99 in the cured grouts. An effective diffusion coefficient of 4.75 x 10{sup -12} (Leach Index of 11.4) was measured using the ANSI/ANS-16.1 protocol. The leaching results show that, even in the presence of a concentrated salt solution, blast furnace slag can effectively reduce pertechnetate to the immobile +4 oxidation state. The measured diffusivity was introduced into a flow and transport model (PORFLOW) to calculate the release of Tc-99 from a Saltstone Vault as a function of hydraulic conductivity of the matrix.

  8. Direct {sup 99m}Tc labeling of Herceptin (trastuzumab) by {sup 99m}Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.-J.; Yen, C.-L.; Lo, S.-T.; Chen, K.-T. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lo, J.-M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:


    By simply incubating Herceptin (trastuzumab) with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(OH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup +} ion in saline, a significant yield of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled trastuzumab was found to be achievable. The effective labeling may be based on that trastuzumab is inherent with endogenous histidine group to which {sup 99m}Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion can be strongly bound. For practical {sup 99m}Tc labeling processing, trastuzumab was purified beforehand from the commercial product, Herceptin (Genentech) via size exclusion chromatography to remove the excipient, {alpha}-histidine and a high-labeled yield could be obtained by incubating the purified trastuzumab with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(OH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup +}. Retention of bioactivity of the {sup 99m}Tc(I)-labeled trastuzumab was validated using a cell binding test.

  9. Synthesis of a Novel Energetic Heterocyclic Oxidizer with Higher Energy and Lower Sensitivity (Phase 2) Final Report CRADA No. TC02125.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagoria, P. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Racoveanu, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This project was a continuation of work originally performed under a Phase 1 of the Small Business Technology Transfer (STIR). The success of the Phase 1 led to the award of a Phase 2 of the STIR. In Phase 1 of the STIR, the target energetic compound, 3,4-bis(4-nitro-l,2,5- oxadiazol-3yl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole-l-oxide (DNTF), was synthesized at the 5g scale and small-scale safety tests were performed. DNTF showed promising performance· and safety properties. DNTF was shown to be relatively insensitive while performing better than the current industry standard, H1vIX, in solid propellant formulations. Because of the successful research and development project involving PSI, LLNL and Aerojet in Phase I of the STIR, the sponsors wanted to obtain larger quantities of DNTF for further testing.

  10. Research progress of Tc1/Mariner superfamily. (United States)

    Shen, Dan; Chen, Cai; Wang, Sai-sai; Chen, Wei; Gao, Bo; Song, Cheng-yi


    With the rapid improvement of sequencing techniques, more and more genome annotations reveal the transposons are the important components of most genomes and present on almost all organisms. Among them, the Tc1/Mariner superfamily represents the most widespread DNA transposons. Until now, fourteen active Tc1/Mariner transposons (Minos, Mos1, etc.) have been identified and some highly active artificial transposons have been created through molecular reconstruction, such as Sleeping Beauty (SB). The transposons such as SB and Mos1 have been widely used as gene transfer vectors in the fields of transgenosis, gene trapping and gene therapy. In this review, we summarize the structure, classification, distributions, transposition mechanism and excavations of active members of Tc1/Mariner as well as its application in the fields of transgenesis, gene trapping and gene therapy.

  11. High temperature heterogeneous reaction kinetics and mechanisms of tungsten oxidation (United States)

    Sabourin, Justin L.

    Tungsten, which is a material used in many high temperature applications, is limited by its susceptibility to oxidation at elevated temperatures. Although tungsten has the highest melting temperature of any metal, at much lower temperatures volatile oxides are formed during oxidation with oxygen containing species. This differs from many heterogeneous oxidation reactions involving metals since most reactions form very stable oxides that have higher melting or boiling points than the pure metal (e.g., aluminum, iron). Understanding heterogeneous oxidation and vaporization processes may allow for the expansion and improvement of high temperature tungsten applications. In order to increase understanding of the oxidation processes of tungsten, there is a need to develop reaction mechanisms and kinetics for oxidation processes involving oxidizers and environmental conditions of interest. Tungsten oxidation was thoroughly studied in the past, and today there is a good phenomenological understanding of these processes. However, as the design of large scale systems increasingly relies on computer modeling there becomes a need for improved descriptions of chemical reactions. With the increase in computing power over the last several decades, and the development of quantum chemistry and physics theories, heterogeneous systems can be modeled in detail at the molecular level. Thermochemical parameters that may not be measured experimentally may now be determined theoretically, a tool that was previously unavailable to scientists and engineers. Additionally, chemical kinetic modeling software is now available for both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. This study takes advantage of these new theoretical tools, as well as a thermogravimetric (TG) flow reactor developed as part of this study to learn about mechanisms and kinetics of tungsten oxidation. Oxidizers of interest are oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO 2), water (H2O), and other oxidizers present in combustion and

  12. Gallium Oxide Nanostructures for High Temperature Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintalapalle, Ramana V. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)


    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films were produced by sputter deposition by varying the substrate temperature (Ts) in a wide range (Ts=25-800 °C). The structural characteristics and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and spectrophotometric measurements. The effect of growth temperature is significant on the chemistry, crystal structure and morphology of Ga2O3 films. XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the Ga2O3 films grown at lower temperatures were amorphous while those grown at Ts≥500 oC were nanocrystalline. RBS measurements indicate the well-maintained stoichiometry of Ga2O3 films at Ts=300-800 °C. The electronic structure determination indicated that the nanocrystalline Ga2O3films exhibit a band gap of ~5 eV. Tungsten (W) incorporated Ga2O3 films were produced by co-sputter deposition. W-concentration was varied by the applied sputtering-power. No secondary phase formation was observed in W-incorporated Ga2O3 films. W-induced effects were significant on the structure and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films. The band gap of Ga2O3 films without W-incorporation was ~5 eV. Oxygen sensor characteristics evaluated using optical and electrical methods indicate a faster response in W-doped Ga2O3 films compared to intrinsic Ga2O3 films. The results demonstrate the applicability of both intrinsic and W-doped Ga-oxide films for oxygen sensor application at temperatures ≥700 °C.

  13. In Vitro-Generated Tc17 Cells Present a Memory Phenotype and Serve As a Reservoir of Tc1 Cells In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Flores-Santibáñez


    Full Text Available Memory CD8+ T cells are ideal candidates for cancer immunotherapy because they can mediate long-term protection against tumors. However, the therapeutic potential of different in vitro-generated CD8+ T cell effector subsets to persist and become memory cells has not been fully characterized. Type 1 CD8+ T (Tc1 cells produce interferon-γ and are endowed with high cytotoxic capacity, whereas IL-17-producing CD8+ T (Tc17 cells are less cytotoxic but display enhanced self-renewal capacity. We sought to evaluate the functional properties of in vitro-generated Tc17 cells and elucidate their potential to become long lasting memory cells. Our results show that in vitro-generated Tc17 cells display a greater in vivo persistence and expansion in response to secondary antigen stimulation compared to Tc1 cells. When transferred into recipient mice, Tc17 cells persist in secondary lymphoid organs, present a recirculation behavior consistent with central memory T cells, and can shift to a Tc1 phenotype. Accordingly, Tc17 cells are endowed with a higher mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity than Tc1 cells and express higher levels of memory-related molecules than Tc1 cells. Together, these results demonstrate that in vitro-generated Tc17 cells acquire a central memory program and provide a lasting reservoir of Tc1 cells in vivo, thus supporting the use of Tc17 lymphocytes in the design of novel and more effective therapies.

  14. Spectroscopic Imaging Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Electronic Structure in the Superconducting and Pseudogap Phases of Cuprate High-Tc Superconductors (United States)

    Fujita, Kazuhiro; Schmidt, Andrew R.; Kim, Eun-Ah; Lawler, Michael J.; Lee, Dung Hai; Davis, J. C.; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shin-ichi


    phase diagram and the mechanism of high-Tc superconductivity, represents one of a key challenges for cuprate studies.

  15. Oxidation resistant high creep strength austenitic stainless steel (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Pint, Bruce A.; Liu, Chain-Tsuan; Maziasz, Philip J.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Lu, Zhao P.


    An austenitic stainless steel displaying high temperature oxidation and creep resistance has a composition that includes in weight percent 15 to 21 Ni, 10 to 15 Cr, 2 to 3.5 Al, 0.1 to 1 Nb, and 0.05 to 0.15 C, and that is free of or has very low levels of N, Ti and V. The alloy forms an external continuous alumina protective scale to provide a high oxidation resistance at temperatures of 700 to C. and forms NbC nanocarbides and a stable essentially single phase fcc austenitic matrix microstructure to give high strength and high creep resistance at these temperatures.

  16. Translucency and Strength of High Translucency Monolithic Zirconium Oxide Materials (United States)


    the most esthetic full veneer restorative material in dentistry for many years. In the mid-1900’s, dental materials researchers began marketing and...OBSOLETE 48. DATE Page 3 of 3 Pages Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium-Oxide Materials Abstract Dental common problem has involved an increase in the fracture rate of the veneered zirconium oxide compared to metal-ceramic crowns potentially caused

  17. Ammonia oxidation at high pressure and intermediate temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yu; Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt


    was satisfactory. The main oxidation path for NH3 at high pressure under oxidizing conditions is NH3⟶+OH NH2⟶+HO2,NO2 H2NO⟶+O2 HNO⟶+O2 NO ⟶+NH2 N2. The modeling predictions are most sensitive to the reactions NH2 + NO = NNH + OH and NH2 + HO2 = H2NO + OH, which promote the ammonia consumption by forming OH...

  18. High Performance Pillared Vanadium Oxide Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries (United States)


    Performance Pillared Vanadium Oxide Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries Siu on Tung, Krista L. Hawthorne, Yi Ding, James Mainero, and Levi T. Thompson...Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center, Warren, MI 48387, USA Keywords: nanostructured materials, lithium ion batteries , cathode...2014 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High Performance Pillared Vanadium Oxide Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  19. Thin Films of Reduced Hafnium Oxide with Excess Carbon for High-Temperature Oxidation Protection (United States)


    contamination; thus the higher oxygen content found by XPS is partly due to organic impurities (and, possibly, water ) that are mostly concentrated in the...International Service Award, 2007. 25 REFERENCES ’C. B. Bargeron, R. C. Benson, and A. N. Jette , "High-Temperature Diffusion of Oxygen in Oxidizing Hafnium...A. N. Jette , and T. E. Phillips, "Oxidation of Hafnium Carbide in the Temperature Range 1400 ° to 2060 °C," Journal of the American Ceramic Society

  20. High-throughput search for improved transparent conducting oxides (United States)

    Miglio, Anna

    High-throughput methodologies are a very useful computational tool to explore the space of binary and ternary oxides. We use these methods to search for new and improved transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). TCOs exhibit both visible transparency and good carrier mobility and underpin many energy and electronic applications (e.g. photovoltaics, transparent transistors). We find several potential new n-type and p-type TCOs with a low effective mass. Combining different ab initio approaches, we characterize candidate oxides by their effective mass (mobility), band gap (transparency) and dopability. We present several compounds, not considered previously as TCOs, and discuss the chemical rationale for their promising properties. This analysis is useful to formulate design strategies for future high mobility oxides and has led to follow-up studies including preliminary experimental characterization of a p-type TCO candidate with unexpected chemistry. G. Hautier, A. Miglio, D. Waroquiers, G.-M. Rignanese, and X. Gonze, ``How Does Chemistry Influence Electron Effective Mass in Oxides? A High-Throughput Computational Analysis'', Chem. Mater. 26, 5447 (2014). G. Hautier, A. Miglio, G. Ceder, G.-M. Rignanese, and X. Gonze, ``Identification and design principles of low hole effective mass p-type transparent conducting oxides'', Nature Commun. 4, 2292 (2013).

  1. High temperature oxidation of iron-chromium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, Lars


    The high temperature oxidation of the ferritic alloy Fe78Cr22 has been investigated in the present work. The effect of small alloying additions of cerium and/or silicon was also investigated. The alloys were oxidized at 973, 1173 and 1373 K in either air or a hydrogen/argon mixture. The various reaction atmospheres contained between 0.02 and 50% water vapour. The oxide scales formed on the various alloys at 973 K consisted of thin chromia layers. The oxide scales grown on the alloys at 1173 K also consisted of a chromia layer. The microstructure of the chromia scales was found to depend on the reaction atmosphere. The chromia scales grown in hydrogen/argon atmospheres formed oxide whiskers and oxide ridges at the surface of the scales, while the chromia scales grown in air formed larger oxide grains near the surface. This difference in oxide microstructure was due to the vaporization of chromium species from the chromia scales grown in air. Two different growth mechanisms are proposed for the growth of oxide whiskers. The growth rate of the chromia scales was independent of the oxygen activity. This is explained by a growth mechanism of the chromia scales, where the growth is governed by the diffusion of interstitial chromium. The addition of silicon to the iron-chromium alloy resulted in the formation of silica particles beneath the chromia scale. The presence of silicon in the alloy was found to decrease the growth rate of the chromia scale. This is explained by a blocking mechanism, where the silica particles beneath the chromia scale partly block the outwards diffusion of chromium from the alloy to the chromia scale. The addition of cerium to the iron-chromium alloy improved the adhesion of the chromia scale to the alloy and decreased the growth rate of chromia. It was observed that the minimum concentration of cerium in the alloy should be 0.3 at.% in order to observe an effect of the cerium addition. The effect of cerium is explained by the &apos

  2. New Oxide Materials for an Ultra High Temperature Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perepezko, John H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    In this project, a new oxide material, Hf6Ta2O17 has been successfully synthesized by the controlled oxidization of Hf-Ta alloys. This oxide exhibits good oxidation resistance, high temperature phase stability up to more than 2000°C, low thermal conductivity and thus could serve as a component or a coating material in an ultrahigh temperature environment. We have examined the microstructure evolution and phase formation sequence during the oxidation exposure of Hf-Ta alloys at 1500°C and identified that the oxidation of a Hf-26.7atomic %Ta alloy leads to the formation of a single phase adherent Hf6Ta2O17 with a complex atomic structure i.e. superstructure. The overall reactive diffusion pathway is consistent with the calculated Hf-Ta-O ternary phase diagram. Besides the synthesis of Hf6Ta2O17 superstructure by oxidizing Hf-Ta alloys, we have also developed a synthesis method based upon the reactive sintering of the correct ratios of mixed powders of HfO2 and Ta2O5 and verified the low thermal conductivity of Hf6Ta2O17 superstructure on these samples. We have completed a preliminary analysis of the oxidation kinetics for Hf6Ta2O17, which shows an initial parabolic oxidation kinetics.

  3. Highly efficient multipurpose graphene oxide embedded with copper oxide nanohybrid for electrochemical sensors and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Kiran Kumar


    Full Text Available A novel graphene oxide/copper oxide (GO@CuO nanocomposite (NCS was successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method. The NCS was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and BET surface area analysis. The NCS modified electrode was applied to detect the dopamine (DA and paracetamol. The voltammograms obtained during the oxidation studies revealed that the as-synthesized GO@CuO NCS sensor shows a highly senstive catalytic activity. The oxidation peak potential (Epa of DA at the bare carbon paste electrode (BCPE and modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE were observed at 0.1115 V and 0.1127 V, respectively. This electrode exhibits good and satisfactory results in the determination of DA in a commercial injection. In addition, the NCSs show enhanced antimicrobial and anticancer activities thanks to the combined effect of GO and CuO.

  4. Molybdenum Disilicide Oxidation Kinetics in High Temperature Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Elizabeth Sooby [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Stephen Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nelson, Andrew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program’s Advanced Fuels Campaign is currently supporting a range of experimental efforts aimed at the development and qualification of ‘accident tolerant’ nuclear fuel forms. One route to enhance the accident tolerance of nuclear fuel is to replace the zirconium alloy cladding, which is prone to rapid oxidation in steam at elevated temperatures, with a more oxidation-resistant cladding. Several cladding replacement solutions have been envisaged. The cladding can be completely replaced with a more oxidation resistant alloy, a layered approach can be used to optimize the strength, creep resistance, and oxidation tolerance of various materials, or the existing zirconium alloy cladding can be coated with a more oxidation-resistant material. Molybdenum is one candidate cladding material favored due to its high temperature creep resistance. However, it performs poorly under autoclave testing and suffers degradation under high temperature steam oxidation exposure. Development of composite cladding architectures consisting of a molybdenum core shielded by a molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) coating is hypothesized to improve the performance of a Mo-based cladding system. MoSi2 was identified based on its high temperature oxidation resistance in O2 atmospheres (e.g. air and “wet air”). However, its behavior in H2O is less known. This report presents thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) results for MoSi2 exposed to 670-1498 K water vapor. Synthetic air (80-20%, Ar-O2) exposures were also performed, and those results are presented here for a comparative analysis. It was determined that MoSi2 displays drastically different oxidation behavior in water vapor than in dry air. In the 670-1498 K temperature range, four distinct behaviors are observed. Parabolic oxidation is exhibited in only 670

  5. High temperature oxidation in boiler environment of chromized steel (United States)

    Alia, F. F.; Kurniawan, T.; Asmara, Y. P.; Ani, M. H. B.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.


    The demand for increasing efficiency has led to the development and construction of higher operating temperature power plant. This condition may lead to more severe thickness losses in boiler tubes due to excessive corrosion process. Hence, the research to improve the corrosion resistance of the current operated material is needed so that it can be applied for higher temperature application. In this research, the effect of chromizing process on the oxidation behaviour of T91 steel was investigated under steam condition. In order to deposit chromium, mixture of chromium (Cr) powder as master alloy, halide salt (NH4Cl) powder as activator and alumina (Al2O3) powder as inert filler were inserted into alumina retort together with the steel sample and heated inside furnace at 1050°C for ten hours under argon gas environment. Furthermore, for the oxidation process, steels were exposed at 700°C at different oxidation time (6h-24h) under steam condition. From FESEM/EDX analysis, it was found that oxidation rate of pack cemented steel was lower than the un-packed steel. These results show that Cr from chromizing process was able to become reservoir for the formation of Cr2O3 in high temperature steam oxidation, and its existence can be used for a longer oxidation time.

  6. High Performance Nano-Ceria Electrodes for Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Martinez Aguilera, Lev; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy


    In solid oxide electrochemical cells, the conventional Ni-based fuel-electrodes provide high electrocatalytic activity but they are often a major source of long-term performance degradation due to carbon deposition, poisoning of reaction sites, Ni mobility, etc. Doped-ceria is a promising mixed...... ionic-electronic conducting oxide that could solve these issues if it can be integrated into an appropriate electrode structure. Two new approaches to obtain high-performance nanostructured doped-ceria electrodes are highlighted. The first is an infiltration-based architecture with Ce0.8Pr0.2O2-δ...... forming the active surfaces on a porous backbone with embedded electronic current collector material, yielding one of the highest performances reported for an electrode that operates either on fuel or oxidant. The second is a nano-Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ thin film prepared by spin-coating, which provides...

  7. Activation of [(99(m))TcO4](-) by phosphonium cations. (United States)

    Braband, Henrik; Benz, Michael; Tooyama, Yuji; Alberto, Roger


    Phosphonium salts in solution or bound to solid phase supports interact with the robust [(99(m))TcO4](-) anion in neutral water. This activated form of [(99(m))TcO4](-) represents a source for complexes with the fac-{(99m)Tc(VII)O3}(+) core, which can be synthesized in high yields and purity.

  8. Comparison of a new Tc-99m renal function agent, Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine, with I-131 OIH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Kasina, S.; Johnson, D.L.; Taylor, A.


    The search for a Tc-99m replacement for I-131 hippurate (OIH) has led to the synthesis of (mercaptoacetyltriglycine) Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/, a N/sub 3/S derivative with a single stereochemical form, amenable to it formulation. Mouse biodistribution studies in control and probenecid treated animals indicated that renal excretion of Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ was superior to OIH in both groups of animals. Protein binding studies, constant infusion clearance studies and extraction efficiencies were performed in rats to determine the potential of this agent for evaluation of renal function. In rat plasma TC-99m MAG/sub 3/ was 78% protein bound while OIH was 34% bound. The constant infusion clearance values for Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ and OIH were 2.70 and 2.11 ml/min/ 100 gm body weight respectively. Clearance values were determined in the presence of IV administered competitive inhibitors, probenecid and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). Extraction efficiency studies were performed in rats by arterio-venous differences for Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ and OIH. Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ was found to have an extraction efficiency of 84.8% while 69.4% was found for OIH. In summary, TC-99m MAG/sub 3/ is cleared more rapidly than OIH in normal rodents with high specificity. Its clearance, in the presence of tubular transport inhibitors, was similar to OIH when corrected for GFR.

  9. High performance fuel electrode for a solid oxide electrochemical cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    perovskite oxides selected from the group consisting of niobium-doped strontium titanate, vanadium-doped strontium titanate, tantalum-doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof, thereby obtaining a porous anode backbone, (b) sintering the coated electrolyte at a high temperature, such as 1200 DEG C...

  10. Oxidation resistant iron and nickel alloys for high temperature use (United States)

    Hill, V. L.; Misra, S. K.; Wheaton, H. L.


    Iron-base and nickel-base alloys exhibit good oxidation resistance and improved ductility with addition of small amounts of yttrium, tantalum /or hafnium/, and thorium. They can be used in applications above the operating temperatures of the superalloys, if high strength materials are not required.

  11. Manganese oxide/graphene oxide composites for high-energyaqueous asymmetric electrochemical capacitors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jafta, CJ


    Full Text Available A high-energy aqueous asymmetric electrochemical capacitor was developed using manganese diox-ide ( -MnO2)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites. The nanostructured -MnO2was prepared frommicron-sized commercial electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) via...

  12. Side-suspended High-Tc Superconducting Maglev Prototype Vehicle Running at a High Speed in an Evacuated Circular Test Track (United States)

    Zhou, Dajin; Zhao, Lifeng; Cui, Chenyu; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Jianqiang; Zhao, Yong


    High-T c superconductor (HTS) and permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) based maglev train is intensively studied in China, Japan, Germany and Brazil, mainly through static or vibration test. Amongst these studies, only a few of reports are available for the direct and effective assessment on the dynamic performance of the HTS maglev vehicle by running on a straight or circular PMG track. The highest running speed of these experiments is lower than 50 km/h. In this paper, a side-suspended HTS permanent magnetic guideway maglev system was proposed and constructed in order to increase the running speed in a circular track. By optimizing the arrangement of YBCO bulks besides the PMG, the side-suspended HTS maglev prototype vehicle was successfully running stably at a speed as high as 150 km/h in a circular test track with 6.5 m in diameter, and in an evacuated tube environment, in which the pressure is 5 × 103 Pa.

  13. Konsumsi Antioksidan dan Ekspresi Gen eNOS3 Alel -786T>C pada Penderita Hipertensi Etnik Minangkabau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmi Sulastri


    Full Text Available Gene of eNOS 3 allel -786T>C is one of the important genes which is related to the high prevalence of hypertension. Polymorphism of this gene decreases nitric oxide synthase (NOS enzyme synthesis result in reduction of nitric oxide (NO. Nitric oxide causes vasodilatation, which decreases peripheral resistant and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of an antioxidant consumption on eNOS3 gene -786T>C allel expression in hypertension patients with Minangkabau ethnicity. Cross sectional study was done on 130 hypertension and normotension subjects, 30–65 years old in 4 districts, Padang, Sumatera Barat during 2009. The interview about antioxidant consumption by food frequency questioner, the assessment of eNOS3 gene by polymerase chain reaction and NO plasma level by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were done. The data were analyzed using t-test and chi-square. The results showed that the hypertensive’s and normotensive’s plasma NO concentration were 26.91±15.40 μM/L and 25.79±15.04 μM/L, respectively. There were thymine to cytosine substitution found at 786 position in 1.5% of the hypertensive subjects and 9.2% of the normotensive subjects. A low plasma NO levels (67.2% was found in subjects with heterozygote TC alleles.There was a significant relationship between consumption of antioxidant (vitamin E and NO plasma level in hypertension subjects with TC heterozygote allel. In conclusions, vitamin E influences NO plasma level in hypertension patients with heterozygote TC alleles.

  14. Patterning of high mobility electron gases at complex oxide interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Felix; Prawiroatmodjo, G. E. D. K.; von Soosten, Merlin


    Oxide interfaces provide an opportunity for electronics. However, patterning of electron gases at complex oxide interfaces is challenging. In particular, patterning of complex oxides while preserving a high electron mobility remains underexplored and inhibits the study of quantum mechanical effects...... where extended electron mean free paths are paramount. This letter presents an effective patterning strategy of both the amorphous-LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (a-LAO/STO) and modulation-doped amorphous-LaAlO3/La7/8Sr1/8MnO3/SrTiO3 (a-LAO/LSM/STO) oxide interfaces. Our patterning is based on selective wet etching...... of amorphous-LSM (a-LSM) thin films, which acts as a hard mask during subsequent depositions. Strikingly, the patterned modulation-doped interface shows electron mobilities up to ∼8 700 cm2/V s at 2 K, which is among the highest reported values for patterned conducting complex oxide interfaces that usually...

  15. The Tribolium castaneum cell line TcA: a new tool kit for cell biology. (United States)

    Silver, Kristopher; Jiang, Hongbo; Fu, Jinping; Phillips, Thomas W; Beeman, Richard W; Park, Yoonseong


    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is an agriculturally important insect pest that has been widely used as a model organism. Recently, an adherent cell line (BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 or TcA) was developed from late pupae of the red flour beetle. Next generation transcriptome sequencing of TcA cells demonstrated expression of a wide variety of genes associated with specialized functions in chitin metabolism, immune responses and cellular and systemic RNAi pathways. Accordingly, we evaluated the sensitivity of TcA cells to dsRNA to initiate an RNAi response. TcA cells were highly sensitive to minute amounts of dsRNA, with a minimum effective dose of 100 pg/mL resulting in significant suppression of gene expression. We have also developed a plasmid containing two TcA-specific promoters, the promoter from the 40S ribosomal protein subunit (TC006550) and a bi-directional heat shock promoter (TcHS70) from the intergenic space between heat shock proteins 68a and b. These promoters have been employed to provide high levels of either constitutive (TC006550) or inducible (TcHS70) gene expression of the reporter proteins. Our results show that the TcA cell line, with its sensitivity to RNAi and functional TcA-specific promoters, is an invaluable resource for studying basic molecular and physiological questions.

  16. High-Capacity, High-Voltage Composite Oxide Cathode Materials (United States)

    Hagh, Nader M.


    This SBIR project integrates theoretical and experimental work to enable a new generation of high-capacity, high-voltage cathode materials that will lead to high-performance, robust energy storage systems. At low operating temperatures, commercially available electrode materials for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries do not meet energy and power requirements for NASA's planned exploration activities. NEI Corporation, in partnership with the University of California, San Diego, has developed layered composite cathode materials that increase power and energy densities at temperatures as low as 0 degC and considerably reduce the overall volume and weight of battery packs. In Phase I of the project, through innovations in the structure and morphology of composite electrode particles, the partners successfully demonstrated an energy density exceeding 1,000 Wh/kg at 4 V at room temperature. In Phase II, the team enhanced the kinetics of Li-ion transport and electronic conductivity at 0 degC. An important feature of the composite cathode is that it has at least two components that are structurally integrated. The layered material is electrochemically inactive; however, upon structural integration with a spinel material, the layered material can be electrochemically activated and deliver a large amount of energy with stable cycling.

  17. Telecom 2-A (TC2A) (United States)

    Dulac, J.; Latour, J.


    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Telecom 2-A (TC2A) are summarized. The Telecom 2-A will provide high-speed data link applications, telephone, and television service between France and overseas territories. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  18. Synthesis from separate oxide targets of high quality La2-xSrxCuO4 thin films and dependence with doping of their superconducting transition width (United States)

    Cotón, N.; Mercey, B.; Mosqueira, J.; Ramallo, M. V.; Vidal, F.


    A series of superconducting La2-xSrxCuO4 thin films, with 0.09 ≲ x ≲ 0.22, is grown over (100)SrTiO3 substrates by means of a novel pulsed laser deposition method devised to increase the homogeneity and control of doping. We employ two separate parent oxide targets that receive ablation shots at arbitrary computer-controlled relative rates, instead of the conventional procedure that uses a single target whose doping determines the one of the film. We characterize the films both through conventional techniques (XRD, SEM, AFM and EDX) and by measuring their superconducting transition with a high-sensitivity SQUID magnetometer. The latter allows one to determine not only their average critical temperatures {\\bar {T}}_{{c}}(x) but also their dispersions due to inhomogeneities, ΔTc(x). For {\\bar {T}}_{{c}}(x) we obtain the conventional parabolic law centered at x = 0.16, plus a Gaussian depression near x = 1/8 with a {\\bar {T}}_{{c}}-height of about 5 K and x-width about 0.03. For ΔTc(x) we obtain, for all the dopings, values among the lowest reported up to now for La2-xSrxCuO4. The ΔTc(x) dependence can be explained in terms of the unavoidable randomness of the positioning of the Sr ions (the so-called intrinsic chemical inhomogeneity) and a separate residual Tc-inhomogeneity contribution of the order of 0.5 K, this last associated with the samples’ structural inhomogeneities and films’ substrate.

  19. Initial direct comparison of 99mTc-TOC and 99mTc-TATE in identifying sites of disease in patients with proven GEP NETs. (United States)

    Cwikla, Jaroslaw B; Mikolajczak, Renata; Pawlak, Dariusz; Buscombe, John R; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Bator, Andrzej; Maecke, Helmut R; Walecki, Jerzy


    The imaging of neuroendocrine tumors has become one of the most significant areas in nuclear oncology. In an attempt to provide high-quality imaging and possible sensitivity at a reduced cost, time, and radiation dose, several (99m)Tc agents have been proposed. The aim of this initial study was to compare the tumor uptake and biodistribution of 2 new 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC)-derivatized Tyr(3)-octreotide analogs, (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TOC) and (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3),Thr(8)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TATE), in patients with somatostatin receptor-expressing tumors. Each of 12 patients with proven gastrointestinal pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors received a mean activity of 520 MBq of (99m)Tc-TOC and (99m)Tc-TATE. Scintigraphy with both tracers was performed 3-4 h after their injection using standard whole-body and SPECT imaging. The images were reviewed subjectively by 2 readers, who reported tumor uptake lesion by lesion. Both radiotracers demonstrated concordance between the results in 7 patients (58%). In total, 110 sites of disease were identified with (99m)Tc-TOC, compared with 115 with (99m)Tc-TATE. There was 1 case in which (99m)Tc-TOC identified sites of disease not seen on (99m)Tc-TATE imaging but 4 cases in which some sites of disease were seen with (99m)Tc-TATE and not (99m)Tc-TOC. In this initial study, both tracers seem to show similar sites of tumor, with (99m)Tc-TATE having a slight edge in the total number of lesions seen, especially in lymph node metastases.

  20. Highly Confined Electronic and Ionic Conduction in Oxide Heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini


    The conductance confined at the interface of complex oxide heterostructures provides new opportunities to explore nanoelectronic as well as nanoionic devices. In this talk I will present our recent results both on ionic and electronic conductivity at different heterostructures systems. In the first...... unattainable for Bi2O3-based materials, is achieved[1]. These confined heterostructures provide a playground not only for new high ionic conductivity phenomena that are sufficiently stable but also uncover a large variety of possible technological perspectives. At the second part, I will discuss and show our...... recent results of high mobile samples realized by, interface confined redox reactions[2], strain induced polarization[3]and modulation doping at complex oxide interfaces. This collection of samples offers unique opportunities for a wide range of rich world of mesoscopic physics. [1] S. Sanne et al...

  1. High performance organic photovoltaics with zinc oxide and graphene oxide buffer layers (United States)

    Mohd Yusoff, Abd Rashid Bin; Kim, Hyeong Pil; Jang, Jin


    We report air stable inverted organic photovoltaics (OPVs) incorporating graphene oxide (GO) and solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) as hole transport and electron transport layers, respectively. Both the hole transport layer and the electron transport layer (HTL and ETL) are of advantage in high transparency and environmental stability. The use of GO and ZnO in poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative (PCDTBT):fullerene derivative (PC70BM)-based inverted OPVs leads to an improved device stability and enhanced high open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.81 V, a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 14.10 mA cm-2, and a fill factor (FF) of 54.44 along with a power conversion efficiency of 6.20%.

  2. Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells: Degradation at High Current Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knibbe, Ruth; Traulsen, Marie Lund; Hauch, Anne


    The degradation of Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based solid oxide electrolysis cells operated at high current densities was studied. The degradation was examined at 850°C, at current densities of −1.0, −1.5, and −2.0 A/cm2, with a 50:50 (H2O:H2) gas supplied to the Ni/YSZ hydrogen electrode...

  3. Oxidative stress at high altitude: genotype–phenotype correlations


    Pasha, Qadar; Pandey, Priyanka


    Priyanka Pandey,1,2 MA Qadar Pasha1,2 1CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India; 2Department of Biotechnology, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India Abstract: It has been well-documented that the hypobaric hypoxic environment at high altitude (HA) causes stress to both the permanent residents of HA and the sojourners. This oxidative stress primarily disturbs the oxygen-sensing and vascular homeostasis pathways, thereby upsetting normal human physiology, especia...

  4. Wet oxidation of real coke wastewater containing high thiocyanate concentration. (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario


    Coke wastewaters, in particular those with high thiocyanate concentrations, represent an important environmental problem because of their very low biodegradability. In this work, the treatment by wet oxidation of real coke wastewaters containing concentrations of thiocyanate above 17 mM has been studied in a 1-L semi-batch reactor at temperatures between 453 and 493 K, with total oxygen pressures in the range of 2.0-8.0 MPa. A positive effect of the matrix of real coke wastewater was observed, resulting in faster thiocyanate degradation than was obtained with synthetic wastewaters. Besides, the effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on thiocyanate wet oxidation was more noticeable in real effluents than in synthetic wastewaters containing only thiocyanate. It was also observed that the degree of mineralization of the matrix organic compounds was higher when the initial thiocyanate concentration increased. Taking into account the experimental data, kinetic models were obtained, and a mechanism implying free radicals was proposed for thiocyanate oxidation in the matrix considered. In all cases, sulphate, carbonates and ammonium were identified as the main reaction products of thiocyanate wet oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Asialoglycoprotein receptor targeted imaging using Tc-99m galactosylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E. M.; Jeong, H. J.; Kim, B. C.; Kim, C. K [Wonkang University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)


    The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) is expressed on liver hepatocytes. Chitosan conjugates of galactose have shown to be specifically taken up by liver parenchymal cells via ASGP-R. In this study, Tc-99m hydrazino nicotinamide (HYNIC)-galactosylated chitosan (HYNIC-GC) was synthesized and evaluated as a targeted agent for the imaging of hepatocytes. GC was obtained after coupling of lactobionic acid as the galactose moiety and coupled with HYNIC. HYNIC-GC was radiolabeled with Tc-99m using stannous chloride and tricine as reducing agent and coligand respectively. Hepatic uptake property of Tc-99m HYNIC-GC was studied in female Balb/C mouse. Tc-99m HYNIC--GC and Tc-99m HYNIC-Chitosan as a control were intravenously injected into mice. Receptor binding was identified by coinjection with 50 mM and 80mM free galactose respectively. Biodistribution was determined at three different time points. The level of galactose substitution was 7.6%. Labeling efficiency was >90% both in vitro and serum up to 24 h. Tc-99m HYNIC-GC injected via tail vein of mice showed high selectivity of liver. On the other hands, Tc-99m HC without galactose group showed low uptake (Fig. 1A, 1B). Hepatic uptake of Tc-99m HYNIC-GC was dramatically blocked by 50 mM and 80 mM free galactose coinjection (Fig. 1C, 1D). The liver accumulated about 14 percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g) up to 120 min after injection. Tc-99m HYNIC-GC showed specific and rapid targeting to liver. It is a promising specific radiopharmaceutical with potential applications in the imaging of liver parenchymal cells.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.


    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  7. The Rise of Tc: A Promising Paradigm via Interfacial Mechanism (United States)

    Chu, C. W.; Lv, B.; Deng, L. Z.; Lorenz, B.; Jawdat, B.; Gooch, M.; Shrestha, K.; Zhao, K.; Zhu, X. Y.; Xue, Y. Y.; Wei, F. Y.


    Following the seminal detection of superconductivity at 35 K in the first cuprate high temperature superconductor Ba-doped ternary LCO (La214) by Mueller and Bednorz in 1986, the discovery of the first liquid nitrogen superconductor quaternary YBCO (Y123) with a transition temperature Tc of 93 K by Chu, Wu, and colleagues in 1987 has ushered in the modern era of high temperature superconductivity (HTS). In the ensuing 25 years, great progress has been made in all areas of HTS research and development, from materials to physics to devices. However, the Tc remains at 134 K in quaternary HBCCO (Hg1223) at ambient pressure achieved in 1993 by Schilling et al. and at 164 K in the same compound under high pressure in the same year by Gao et al. A holistic multidisciplinary enlightened empirical approach has been proposed to search for superconductors with higher Tc, which includes the discovery of new compounds empirically and the realization of novel mechanisms proposed by theorists. Recently, we have observed nonbulk superconductivity in single crystalline rare-earth doped Ca122 samples with an onset Tc of 49 K, higher than the Tc of any known compounds formed of the constituent elements at ambient or under high pressures. Subsequent systematic structural, electrical, magnetic, and calorimetric investigations suggest that the observation may be attributed to an interface-induced Tc, thus suggesting a possible new paradigm for higher Tc. In this presentation, our results will be presented and discussed, following a brief recollection of a few events in our lab in the continuing search for higher Tc, even though a number of review articles have appeared.

  8. The relation of high fat diet, metabolic disturbances and brain oxidative dysfunction: modulation by hydroxy citric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Hamdy H


    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to examine the effect of high fat diet (HFD to modulate brain dysfunction, and understand the linkages between obesity, metabolic disturbances and the brain oxidative stress (BOS dysfunction and modulation with hydroxyl citric acid of G. Cambogia. Methods Rats were divided into 3 groups; 1st control, maintained on standard normal rat chow diet, 2nd HFD, maintained on high fat diet along 12 week and 3rd HFD+G, administered G. Cambogia for 4 weeks and each group include 8 rats. Blood, brain and abdominal fat were collected for biochemical measurements. Results HFD group showed significant increase in energy intake, final BW and BW gain. Also significant increase in weight of abdominal fat in HFD group. HFD induce metabolic disturbance through increasing the lipid profile (LDL, TG, TC, γGT and α-amylase activity, uric acid level and hyperglycemia, while decreasing creatine kinase (CK activity. These changes associated with lowering in brain nitric oxide (NO level and rising in serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, brain catalase activity and MDA levels as oxidative stress markers. These alterations improved by G. Cambogia that decrease BOS and increased NO level. Conclusions Rats fed HFD showed, metabolic disturbances produce hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and increased LDL associated with increased BOS. Involvement of BuChE, NO and oxidative stress associated with metabolic disturbances in the pathophysiological progression in brain, suggesting association between obesity, metabolic disorders and brain alteration while, using G. Cambogia, ameliorate the damaging effects of the HFD via lowering feed intake and BOS.

  9. High-throughput technology for novel SO2 oxidation catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Loskyll, Klaus Stoewe and Wilhelm F Maier


    Full Text Available We review the state of the art and explain the need for better SO2 oxidation catalysts for the production of sulfuric acid. A high-throughput technology has been developed for the study of potential catalysts in the oxidation of SO2 to SO3. High-throughput methods are reviewed and the problems encountered with their adaptation to the corrosive conditions of SO2 oxidation are described. We show that while emissivity-corrected infrared thermography (ecIRT can be used for primary screening, it is prone to errors because of the large variations in the emissivity of the catalyst surface. UV-visible (UV-Vis spectrometry was selected instead as a reliable analysis method of monitoring the SO2 conversion. Installing plain sugar absorbents at reactor outlets proved valuable for the detection and quantitative removal of SO3 from the product gas before the UV-Vis analysis. We also overview some elements used for prescreening and those remaining after the screening of the first catalyst generations.

  10. High performance supercapacitors using metal oxide anchored graphene nanosheet electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan


    Metal oxide nanoparticles were chemically anchored onto graphene nanosheets (GNs) and the resultant composites - SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs (58% of GNs loading) - coated over conductive carbon fabric substrates were successfully used as supercapacitor electrodes. The results showed that the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles improved the capacitive performance of GNs due to a combination of the effect of spacers and redox reactions. The specific capacitance values (with respect to the composite mass) obtained for SnO2/GNs (195 F g-1) and RuO 2/GNs (365 F g-1) composites at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1 in the present study are the best ones reported to date for a two electrode configuration. The resultant supercapacitors also exhibited high values for maximum energy (27.6, 33.1 and 50.6 W h kg-1) and power densities (15.9, 20.4 and 31.2 kW kg-1) for SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs respectively. These findings demonstrate the importance and great potential of metal oxide/GNs based composite coated carbon fabric in the development of high-performance energy-storage systems. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Highly sensitive reduced graphene oxide microelectrode array sensor. (United States)

    Ng, Andrew M H; Kenry; Teck Lim, Chwee; Low, Hong Yee; Loh, Kian Ping


    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been fabricated into a microelectrode array (MEA) using a modified nanoimprint lithography (NIL) technique. Through a modified NIL process, the rGO MEA was fabricated by a self-alignment of conducting Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and rGO layer without etching of the rGO layer. The rGO MEA consists of an array of 10μm circular disks and microelectrode signature has been found at a pitch spacing of 60μm. The rGO MEA shows a sensitivity of 1.91nAμm(-1) to dopamine (DA) without the use of mediators or functionalization of the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) active layer. The performance of rGO MEA remains stable when tested under highly resistive media using a continuous flow set up, as well as when subjecting it to mechanical stress. The successful demonstration of NIL for fabricating rGO microelectrodes on flexible substrate presents a route for the large scale fabrication of highly sensitive, flexible and thin biosensing platform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. In vivo and ex vivo analyses of amyloid toxicity in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome. (United States)

    Naert, Gaëlle; Ferré, Valentine; Keller, Emeline; Slender, Amy; Gibbins, Dorota; Fisher, Elizabeth Mc; Tybulewicz, Victor Lj; Maurice, Tangui


    The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease is increased in people with Down syndrome. The pathology appears much earlier than in the general population, suggesting a predisposition to develop Alzheimer's disease. Down syndrome results from trisomy of human chromosome 21, leading to overexpression of possible Alzheimer's disease candidate genes, such as amyloid precursor protein gene. To better understand how the Down syndrome context results in increased vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease, we analysed amyloid-β [25-35] peptide toxicity in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome, in which ~75% of protein coding genes are functionally trisomic but, importantly, not amyloid precursor protein. Intracerebroventricular injection of oligomeric amyloid-β [25-35] peptide in three-month-old wildtype mice induced learning deficits, oxidative stress, synaptic marker alterations, activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, inhibition of protein kinase B (AKT), and apoptotic pathways as compared to scrambled peptide-treated wildtype mice. Scrambled peptide-treated Tc1 mice presented high levels of toxicity markers as compared to wildtype mice. Amyloid-β [25-35] peptide injection in Tc1 mice induced significant learning deficits and enhanced glycogen synthase kinase-3β activity in the cortex and expression of apoptotic markers in the hippocampus and cortex. Interestingly, several markers, including oxidative stress, synaptic markers, glycogen synthase kinase-3β activity in the hippocampus and AKT activity in the hippocampus and cortex, were unaffected by amyloid-β [25-35] peptide injection in Tc1 mice. Tc1 mice present several toxicity markers similar to those observed in amyloid-β [25-35] peptide-treated wildtype mice, suggesting that developmental modifications in these mice modify their response to amyloid peptide. However, amyloid toxicity led to severe memory deficits in this Down syndrome mouse model.

  13. Oxidative stress at high altitude: genotype–phenotype correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey P


    Full Text Available Priyanka Pandey,1,2 MA Qadar Pasha1,2 1CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India; 2Department of Biotechnology, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India Abstract: It has been well-documented that the hypobaric hypoxic environment at high altitude (HA causes stress to both the permanent residents of HA and the sojourners. This oxidative stress primarily disturbs the oxygen-sensing and vascular homeostasis pathways, thereby upsetting normal human physiology, especially in sojourners. These environmental challenges have caused dynamic evolutionary changes within natives of HA, allowing them to develop adaptive plasticity. This review focuses on the genomic and biochemical features of the molecules involved in the oxygen-sensing and vascular homeostasis pathways with respect to HA pulmonary edema (HAPE and adaptation. We review the role of genetic markers such as HIF-prolyl hydroxylase 2, endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, endothelin 1, cytochrome b-245 alpha polypeptide, and glutathione S-transferase pi 1, as well as three circulatory biomarkers (nitric oxide, endothelin 1, and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, by highlighting approaches such as candidate gene and genome-wide, adopted in deciphering the pathways. A disagreement between the two approaches has also been highlighted. In addition, we discuss that an overrepresentation of wild-type alleles in HA natives and mutant alleles of same polymorphisms in HAPE patients implies that the allelic variants at the same locus are involved in adaptation and HAPE, respectively. Moreover, healthy sojourners present a number of genomic features similar to HA natives, further strengthening the concept of genetic predisposition. A trend in correlation between protective and risk alleles and altered levels of circulatory markers clearly documents the phenomenon of genotype–phenotype correlations. We conclude that the genetic and biochemical

  14. High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Cervantes, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.


    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

  15. Comparative biological evaluation between {sup 99m}Tc tricarbonyl and {sup 99m}Tc-Sn(II) levosalbutamol as a β{sub 2}-adrenoceptor agonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanad, Mahmoud H. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Labeled Compounds Dept.; Borai, Emad H. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Analytical Chemistry Dept.


    This study describes the comparison between {sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl and {sup 99m}Tc-Sn (II) levosalbutamol as a β{sub 2}-adrenoceptors radiopharmaceutical and evaluation of their different biological characteristics using experimental animals. Levosalbutamol was labeled firstly with {sup 99m}Tc in the presence of SnCl{sub 2} . 2H{sub 2}O as a reducing agent under the optimum conditions: pH 8, 50 μg SnCl{sub 2} . 2H{sub 2}O, room temperature, 40 μg levosalbutamol and 30 min reaction time to give a maximum radiochemical yield of 98 ± 0.1%. The obtained {sup 99m}Tc-levosalbutamol was stable for a time up to 8 h. Secondly, {sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl ([{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sup +}) levosalbutamol was prepare under 30 min heating at 100 C. Labeling yield and stability were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (labeling yield >99% and stability for 8 h). Biodistribution investigation showed that, the maximum uptake ratio of the {sup 99m}Tc-levosalbutamol ({sup 99m}Tc-Lev) between lung and heart was 2.34 ± 0.62 % of the injected activity/g tissue organ, at 30 min post-injection. But in case of {sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl levosalbutamol ({sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl Lev) the maximum uptake ratio was 3.6 ± 0.11 of the injected activity/g tissue organ, at 30 min post-injection. This indicates that {sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl levosalbutamol was more selective for lung β{sub 2}-adrenoceptors than {sup 99m}Tc-levosalbutamol. These results introduce {sup 99m}Tc-tricarbonyl levosalbutamol as a novel potential radiopharmaceutical for lung imaging.

  16. Amorphous carbon nanofibres inducing high specific capacitance of deposited hydrous ruthenium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barranco, V. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Sor Juan Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Pico, F.; Ibanez, J. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040-Madrid (Spain); Lillo-Rodenas, M.A.; Linares-Solano, A. [MCMA, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080-Alicante (Spain); Kimura, M. [Gun Ei Chemical Ind. Co., Ltd., Takasaki, Gunma 370 (Japan); Oya, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, Gunma 376 (Japan); Rojas, R.M.; Amarilla, J.M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Sor Juan Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Rojo, J.M., E-mail: jmrojo@icmm.csic.e [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Sor Juan Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, E-28049-Madrid (Spain)


    Composites consisting of ruthenium oxide particles deposited on amorphous carbon nanofibres are prepared by a repetitive impregnation procedure. The choice of amorphous carbon nanofibres as support of amorphous ruthenium oxide leads to composites in which the deposited oxide consists of aggregates of extremely small primary particles (1-1.5 nm-size) and showing high porosity (specific surface area of 450 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). This special deposition of the oxide seems to favour: (i) high oxide capacitance (1000 Fg{sup -1}) at high oxide loadings (up to 20 wt%) and (ii) high capacitance retention (ca. 80% from the initial oxide capacitance) at high current densities (200 mA cm{sup -2}). Amorphous carbon nanofibres are suitable supports for amorphous ruthenium oxide and perhaps for other amorphous oxides acting as active electrode materials.

  17. Cast iron zinc galvanizing improved by high temperature oxidation process


    D. Jędrzejczyk; M. Hajduga


    Purpose: To evaluate influence of the high-temperature oxidation, as the preliminary stage previous to coating with zinc on the change of surface layer structure as well as subsurface layer of cast iron with flake, vermicular and nodular graphite.Design/methodology/approach: The experiment was led in the temperature range: 850-1050ºC in ambient air. Samples have been taken out from the furnace separately after: 2-12 hours. After scale layer removal the hot dip zinc coating in industrial condi...

  18. Performance characterization of solid oxide cells under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Bonaccorso, Alfredo Damiano; Graves, Christopher R.


    Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) offer a great potential for large scale conversion of renewable electrical energy into chemical energy via electrolysis of H2O and CO2 to produce syngas (H2 + CO). The produced syngas can be further catalytically converted into various gaseous or liquid...... in both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode. In electrolysis mode at low current density, the performance improvement was counteracted by the increase in open circuit voltage, but it has to be born in mind that the pressurised gas contains higher molar free energy. Operating at high current density...

  19. Structure of liquid oxides at very high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Landron, C; Thiaudiere, D; Price, D L; Greaves, G N


    The structural characterization of condensed matter by synchrotron radiation combined with neutron data constitutes a powerful structural tool in material science. In order to investigate refractory liquids at very high temperatures, we have developed a new analysis chamber for performing combined X-ray absorption and diffraction measurements by using laser heating and aerodynamic levitation. A similar system has been designed for neutron experiments. This high temperature equipment presents several advantages: the container does not physically or chemically perturb the sample, heterogeneous nucleation during cooling is suppressed and pollution by the container is removed. This cell can operate under various gas conditions from room temperature up to 3000 deg. C obtained by means of a sealed 125 W CO sub 2 laser. Experiments have been performed at LURE, ESRF and at ISIS. We have studied the local structure around the cations in several liquid and solid oxides. We have shown that high temperature synchrotron d...

  20. Ice hydrometeor profile retrieval algorithm for high-frequency microwave radiometers: application to the CoSSIR instrument during TC4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Evans


    Full Text Available A Bayesian algorithm to retrieve profiles of cloud ice water content (IWC, ice particle size (Dme, and relative humidity from millimeter-wave/submillimeter-wave radiometers is presented. The first part of the algorithm prepares an a priori file with cumulative distribution functions (CDFs and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs of profiles of temperature, relative humidity, three ice particle parameters (IWC, Dme, distribution width, and two liquid cloud parameters. The a priori CDFs and EOFs are derived from CloudSat radar reflectivity profiles and associated ECMWF temperature and relative humidity profiles combined with three cloud microphysical probability distributions obtained from in situ cloud probes. The second part of the algorithm uses the CDF/EOF file to perform a Bayesian retrieval with a hybrid technique that uses Monte Carlo integration (MCI or, when too few MCI cases match the observations, uses optimization to maximize the posterior probability function. The very computationally intensive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method also may be chosen as a solution method. The radiative transfer model assumes mixtures of several shapes of randomly oriented ice particles, and here random aggregates of spheres, dendrites, and hexagonal plates are used for tropical convection. A new physical model of stochastic dendritic snowflake aggregation is developed. The retrieval algorithm is applied to data from the Compact Scanning Submillimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSSIR flown on the ER-2 aircraft during the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4 experiment in 2007. Example retrievals with error bars are shown for nadir profiles of IWC, Dme, and relative humidity, and nadir and conical scan swath retrievals of ice water path and average Dme. The ice cloud retrievals are evaluated by retrieving integrated 94 GHz backscattering from CoSSIR for comparison

  1. TC4 COSTA RICA LIGHTNING V1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) mission TC4 field experiment was completed during July and August 2007 based out of San Jose, Costa Rica....

  2. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services


    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC25, the second test campaign using a high moisture lignite coal from the Red Hills mine in Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC25 was conducted from July 4, 2008, through August 12, 2008. During TC25, the PSDF gasification process operated for 742 hours in air-blown gasification mode. Operation with the Mississippi lignite was significantly improved in TC25 compared to the previous test (TC22) with this fuel due to the addition of a fluid bed coal dryer. The new dryer was installed to dry coals with very high moisture contents for reliable coal feeding. The TC25 test campaign demonstrated steady operation with high carbon conversion and optimized performance of the coal handling and gasifier systems. Operation during TC25 provided the opportunity for further testing of instrumentation enhancements, hot gas filter materials, and advanced syngas cleanup technologies. The PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane with syngas from the Transport Gasifier.

  3. Graphene Oxide Interlayers for Robust, High-Efficiency Organic Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Ian P.; Lou, Sylvia J.; Cote, Laura J.; Loser, Stephen; Kadleck, Cameron J.; Xu, Tao; Szarko, Jodi M.; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Johns, James E.; Huang, Jiaxing; Yu, Luping; Chen, Lin X.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C. (NWU)


    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials have recently garnered significant attention as enablers of high power conversion efficiency (PCE), low-cost, mechanically flexible solar cells. Nevertheless, further understanding-based materials developments will be required to achieve full commercial viability. In particular, the performance and durability of many current generation OPVs are limited by poorly understood interfacial phenomena. Careful analysis of typical OPV architectures reveals that the standard electron-blocking layer, poly-3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), is likely a major factor limiting the device durability and possibly performance. Here we report that a single layer of electronically tuned graphene oxide is an effective replacement for PEDOT:PSS and that it significantly enhances device durability while concurrently templating a performance-optimal active layer {pi}-stacked face-on microstructure. Such OPVs based on graphene oxide exhibit PCEs as high as 7.5% while providing a 5x enhancement in thermal aging lifetime and a 20x enhancement in humid ambient lifetime versus analogous PEDOT:PSS-based devices.

  4. A correlative study between {sup 99m}Tc-ESTCPTA and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unak, Perihan E-mail:; Enginar, Huseyin; Zuemruet Biber, F.; Yurt Lambrecht, Fatma; Aslani, M.A.A.; Ozkilic, Hayal


    Tissue distribution of the {sup 99m}Tc labeled derivative of the estrogen compound 3,17-{alpha}-estradiolyl propyl 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecanyl-1-(4-methylbenzoic acid) ester (ESTCPTA), which has an 3,17-{alpha}-estradiolyl propinol coupled to 1-(4-methylbenzoic acid)1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (CPTA), was compared to {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI (methoxyisobutyl isonitrile) in female Albino Wistar rats. Tissues of interest included lung, liver, heart, kidneys, spleen, stomach, intestines, pancreas, muscle, blood, breast, ovary, fat, and uterus. {sup 99m}Tc-ESTCPTA uptake by the uterus and ovary, as ER-rich tissues, was highly selective. Maximum uptakes for {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and {sup 99m}Tc-ESTCPTA are 90 min in breast, ovary and uterus. The pancreas also showed significant receptor saturated and unsaturated ratios for {sup 99m}Tc-ESTCPTA. Results are sufficiently encouraging to generate further evaluation of these and related compounds as possible estrogen receptor based tumor imaging and therapeutic agents in estrogen-rich tissues.

  5. Highly sensitive humidity sensor based on graphene oxide foam (United States)

    Zhang, Kai-Lun; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Bao-Xun; Zhao, Quan-Liang


    Since sensitive humidity sensing is strongly desired, we present a highly sensitive humidity sensor fabricated from graphene oxide (GO) foam based on low-frequency dielectric properties. The GO foam shows humidity- and compression-dependent dielectric. Upon applying compression on GO foam, the humidity sensitivity increases and the maximum humidity sensitivity of dielectric loss is more than 12-fold higher than that of direct-current electrical conductivity. The highly sensitive humidity response originates from the generation of local conductive networks, which is the result of the connected isolated conductive regions by water cluster. Additionally, the dielectric properties of fabricated GO foam show a stable and repeatable humidity response, suggesting a carbon prototype with great potential in humidity sensors.

  6. Protective effect of Garcinia against renal oxidative stress and biomarkers induced by high fat and sucrose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Eltawab Mohamed A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity became major health problem in the world, the objective of this work was to examine the effect of high sucrose and high fat diet to induce obesity on antioxidant defense system, biochemical changes in blood and tissue of control, non treated and treated groups by administration of Garcinia cambogia, and explore the mechanisms that link obesity with altered renal function Methods Rats were fed a standard control diet for 12 week (wk or a diet containing 65% high sucrose (HSD or 35% fat (HFD for 8 wk and then HFD group divided into two groups for the following 4 wks. One group was given Garcinia+HFD, the second only high fat, Also the HSD divided into two groups, 1st HSD+Garcinia and 2nd HSD. Blood and renal, mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues were collected for biochemical assays. Results HFD and HSD groups of rats showed a significant increase in feed intake, Body weight (BW and body mass index (BMI. Also there were significant increases in weights of mesenteric, Perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues in HFD and HSD groups. HFD and HSD affect the kidney by increasing serum urea and creatinine levels and decreased level of nitric oxide (NO and increased blood glucose, low density lipoproteins (LDL, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC and malondialdehyde (MDA. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were significantly decreased in HFD while there were significant increases in HSD and HSD+G groups p ≤ 0.05 compared with control. Moreover, renal catalase activities and MDA levels were significantly increased while NO level was lowered. These changes improved by Garcinia that decreased the oxidative stress biomarkers and increased NO level. There were significant positive correlations among BMI, kidney functions (Creatinine and urea, TG and Oxidative markers (renal MDA and catalase. Conclusions Rats fed a diet with HFD or HSD showed, hypertriglyceridemia, increased LDL production

  7. Liquid crystallinity driven highly aligned large graphene oxide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Oh, Jung Jae; Yun, Taeyeong [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Ouk, E-mail: [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Graphene is an emerging graphitic carbon materials, consisting of sp{sup 2} hybridized two dimensinal honeycomb structure. It has been widely studied to incorporate graphene with polymer to utilize unique property of graphene and reinforce electrical, mechanical and thermal property of polymer. In composite materials, orientation control of graphene significantly influences the property of composite. Until now, a few method has been developed for orientation control of graphene within polymer matrix. Here, we demonstrate facile fabrication of high aligned large graphene oxide (LGO) composites in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix exploiting liquid crystallinity. Liquid crystalline aqueous dispersion of LGO is parallel oriented within flat confinement geometry. Freeze-drying of the aligned LGO dispersion and subsequent infiltration with PDMS produce highly aligned LGO/PDMS composites. Owing to the large shape anisotropy of LGO, liquid crystalline alignment occurred at low concentration of 2 mg/ml in aqueous dispersion, which leads to the 0.2 wt% LGO loaded composites. - Graphical abstract: Liquid crystalline LGO aqueous dispersions are spontaneous parallel aligned between geometric confinement for highly aligned LGO/polymer composite fabrication. - Highlights: • A simple fabrication method for highly aligned LGO/PDMS composites is proposed. • LGO aqueous dispersion shows nematic liquid crystalline phase at 0.8 mg/ml. • In nematic phase, LGO flakes are highly aligned by geometric confinement. • Infiltration of PDMS into freeze-dried LGO allows highly aligned LGO/PDMS composites.

  8. Efficient room temperature oxidation of cyclohexane over highly active hetero-mixed WO3/V2O5 oxide catalyst

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makgwane, PR


    Full Text Available An efficient room temperature catalyzed oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone (K) and cyclohexanol (A) was achieved over hetero-mixed tungsten–vanadia (WO(sub3)/V(sub2)O(sub5)) using H(sub2)O(sub2) oxidant. WO(sub3)/V(sub2)O(sub5) exhibited high...

  9. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys (United States)

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel


    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  10. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature. (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle


    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4 · 7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  11. High-Performance Supported Iridium Oxohydroxide Water Oxidation Electrocatalysts. (United States)

    Massué, Cyriac; Pfeifer, Verena; Huang, Xing; Noack, Johannes; Tarasov, Andrey; Cap, Sébastien; Schlögl, Robert


    The synthesis of a highly active and yet stable electrocatalyst for the anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) remains a major challenge for acidic water splitting on an industrial scale. To address this challenge, we obtained an outstanding high-performance OER catalyst by loading Ir on conductive antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)-nanoparticles by a microwave (MW)-assisted hydrothermal route. The obtained Ir phase was identified by using XRD as amorphous (XRD-amorphous), highly hydrated IrIII/IV oxohydroxide. To identify chemical and structural features responsible for the high activity and exceptional stability under acidic OER conditions with loadings as low as 20 μgIr  cm-2 , we used stepwise thermal treatment to gradually alter the XRD-amorphous Ir phase by dehydroxylation and crystallization of IrO2 . This resulted in dramatic depletion of OER performance, indicating that the outstanding electrocatalytic properties of the MW-produced IrIII/IV oxohydroxide are prominently linked to the nature of the produced Ir phase. This finding is in contrast with the often reported stable but poor OER performance of crystalline IrO2 -based compounds produced through more classical calcination routes. Our investigation demonstrates the immense potential of Ir oxohydroxide-based OER electrocatalysts for stable high-current water electrolysis under acidic conditions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Catalytic combustion over high temperature stable metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    This thesis presents a study of the catalytic effects of two interesting high temperature stable metal oxides - magnesium oxide and manganese substituted barium hexa-aluminate (BMA) - both of which can be used in the development of new monolithic catalysts for such applications. In the first part of the thesis, the development of catalytic combustion for gas turbine applications is reviewed, with special attention to alternative fuels such as low-BTU gas, e.g. produced in an air blown gasifier. When catalytic combustion is applied for such a fuel, the primary advantage is the possibility of decreasing the conversion of fuel nitrogen to NO{sub x}, and achieving flame stability. In the experimental work, MgO was shown to have a significant activity for the catalytic combustion of methane, lowering the temperature needed to achieve 10 percent conversion by 270 deg C compared with homogeneous combustion.The reaction kinetics for methane combustion over MgO was also studied. It was shown that the heterogeneous catalytic reactions were dominant but that the catalytically initiated homogeneous gas phase reactions were also important, specially at high temperatures. MgO and BMA were compared. The latter showed a higher catalytic activity, even when the differences in activity decreased with increasing calcination temperature. For BMA, CO{sub 2} was the only product detected, but for MgO significant amounts of CO and C{sub 2}-hydrocarbons were formed. BMA needed a much lower temperature to achieve total conversion of other fuels, e.g. CO and hydrogen, compared to the temperature for total conversion of methane. This shows that BMA-like catalysts are interesting for combustion of fuel mixtures with high CO and H{sub 2} content, e.g. gas produced from gasification of biomass. 74 refs

  13. Standoff high energy laser induced oxidation spectroscopy (HELIOS) (United States)

    Daigle, J.-F.; Pudo, D.; Théberge, F.


    High Energy Lasers (HELs) used for defense applications require operational distances ranging from few hundred meters to several kilometers. As the distance increases, the incident beam properties and, consequently, the anticipated effect delivered to the sample become less predictable. Therefore, the direct observation of the event induced by the laser can become an asset. In this paper, we propose a novel spectroscopic method that analyses in real time the spectral components present in the flames produced during the interaction of a HEL with a metallic piece at a long distance. This method was used on aluminum and carbon steel samples placed 200 m away from the laser system. It was discovered that the aluminum and iron oxides created as a by-product of the HEL reaction with the samples emitted clear fingerprint signatures that could be detected remotely using a spectroscopic receiver placed beside the HEL beam director. The real-time assessment of the laser-induced effect can be achieved by monitoring the temporal evolution of the oxide signatures, hence providing information to the operator about the reaction and the nature of the sample illuminated.

  14. High pressure oxidation of C2H4/NO mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez-López, J.; Alzueta, M.U.; Rasmussen, C.T.


    An experimental and kinetic modeling study of the interaction between C2H4 and NO has been performed under flow reactor conditions in the intermediate temperature range (600–900K), high pressure (60bar), and for stoichiometries ranging from reducing to oxidizing conditions. The main reaction...... pathways of the C2H4/O2/NOx conversion, the capacity of C2H4 to remove NO, and the influence of the presence of NOx on the C2H4 oxidation are analyzed. Compared to the C2H4/O2 system, the presence of NOx shifts the onset of reaction 75–150K to lower temperatures. The mechanism of sensitization involves...... is removed. This removal is partly explained by the reaction C2H3+NO→HCN+CH2O. However, a second removal mechanism is active in the 700–850K range, which is not captured by the chemical kinetic model. With the present thermochemistry and kinetics, neither formation of nitro-hydrocarbons (CH3NO2, C2H3NO2, C2H...

  15. Antifungal Tc17 cells are durable and stable, persisting as long-lasting vaccine memory without plasticity towards IFNγ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Som Gowda Nanjappa


    Full Text Available Our understanding of persistence and plasticity of IL-17A+ memory T cells is clouded by conflicting results in models analyzing T helper 17 cells. We studied memory IL-17A+ CD8+ T-cell (Tc17 homeostasis, persistence and plasticity during fungal vaccine immunity. We report that vaccine-induced memory Tc17 cells persist with high fidelity to the type 17 phenotype. Tc17 cells persisted durably for a year as functional IL-17A+ memory cells without converting to IFNγ+ (Tc1 cells, although they produced multiple type I cytokines in the absence of residual vaccine antigen. Memory Tc17 cells were canonical CD8+ T cells with phenotypic features distinct from Tc1 cells, and were Ror(γthi, TCF-1hi, T-betlo and EOMESlo. In investigating the bases of Tc17 persistence, we observed that memory Tc17 cells had much higher levels of basal homeostatic proliferation than did Tc1 cells. Conversely, memory Tc17 cells displayed lower levels of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL than Tc1 cells, yet were resistant to apoptosis. Tc1 cells required Bcl-2 for their survival, but Bcl-2 was dispensable for the maintenance of Tc17 cells. Tc17 and Tc1 cells displayed different requirements for HIF-1α during effector differentiation and sustenance and memory persistence. Thus, antifungal vaccination induces durable and stable memory Tc17 cells with distinct requirements for long-term persistence that distinguish them from memory Tc1 cells.

  16. Acute thromboscintigraphy with (99m)Tc-apcitide: Results of the phase 3 multicenter clinical trial comparing (99m)Tc-apcitide scintigraphy with contrast venography for

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raymond Taillefer; Stephen Edell; Grant Innes; John Lister-James


    (99m)Tc-apcitide (formerly known as (99m)Tc-P280) is a radiolabeled peptide that binds with high affinity and specificity to the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors expressed on the activated platelets that are involved in acute thrombosis...

  17. MIS High-Purity Plutonium Oxide Metal Oxidation Product TS707001 (SSR123): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Max A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carillo, Alex [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A high-purity plutonium dioxide material from the Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Program inventory has been studied with regard to gas generation and corrosion in a storage environment. Sample TS707001 represents process plutonium oxides from several metal oxidation operations as well as impure and scrap plutonium from Hanford that are currently stored in 3013 containers. After calcination to 950°C, the material contained 86.98% plutonium with no major impurities. This study followed over time, the gas pressure of a sample with nominally 0.5 wt% water in a sealed container with an internal volume scaled to 1/500th of the volume of a 3013 container. Gas compositions were measured periodically over a six year period. The maximum observed gas pressure was 138 kPa. The increase over the initial pressure of 80 kPa was primarily due to generation of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas in the first six months. Hydrogen and oxygen were minor components of the headspace gas. At the completion of the study, the internal components of the sealed container showed signs of corrosion, including pitting.

  18. Chemical instability of graphene oxide following exposure to highly reactive radicals in advanced oxidation processes. (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Sun, Linyan; Lou, Xiaoyi; Yang, Fei; Feng, Min; Liu, Jianshe


    The rapidly increasing and widespread use of graphene oxide (GO) as catalyst supports, requires further understanding of its chemical stability in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In this study, UV/H2O2 and UV/persulfate (UV/PS) processes were selected to test the chemical instability of GO in terms of their performance in producing highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) and sulfate radicals (SO4(-)), respectively. The degradation intermediates were characterized using UV-visible absorption spectra (UV-vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Experimental data indicate that UV/PS process was more effective in enhancing GO degradation than the UV/H2O2 system. The overall oxygen-containing functionalities (e.g. CO, CO and OCO groups) dramatically declined. After radical attack, sheet-like GO was destructed into lots of flakes and some low-molecular-weight molecules were detected. The results suggest GO is most vulnerable against SO4(-) radical attack, which deserves special attention while GO acts as a catalyst support or even as a catalyst itself. Therefore, stability of GO and its derivatives should be carefully assessed before they are applied to SO4(-)-based AOPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Graphite oxide: a selective and highly efficient oxidant of thiols and sulfides. (United States)

    Dreyer, Daniel R; Jia, Hong-Peng; Todd, Alexander D; Geng, Jianxin; Bielawski, Christopher W


    The selective oxidation of thiols to disulfides and sulfides to sulfoxides using graphite oxide (GO), a heterogeneous carbocatalyst obtained from low cost, commercial starting materials is described. The aforementioned oxidation reactions were found to proceed rapidly (as short as 10 min in some cases) and in good yield (51-100%) (19 examples). No over-oxidation of the substrates was observed, and GO's heterogeneous nature facilitated isolation and purification of the target products.

  20. Interaction mechanisms between slurry coatings and solid oxide fuel cell interconnect alloys during high temperature oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Åsa Helen; Mikkelsen, L.; Hendriksen, P.V.


    oxidation rate constant was reduced with 50–90% of that for uncoated alloy. One coating consisting of MnCo2O4 did not significantly affect the oxidation rate of the alloy, and just as for uncoated samples break-away oxidation occurred for MnCo2O4 coated samples. The interaction mechanisms between...

  1. Bimetallic Porous Iron (pFe) Materials for Remediation/Removal of Tc from Aqueous Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Remediation of Tc remains an unresolved challenge at SRS and other DOE sites. The objective of this project was to develop novel bimetallic porous iron (pFe) materials for Tc removal from aqueous systems. We showed that the pFe is much more effective in removing TcO4 - (×30) and ReO4 - (×8) from artificial groundwater than granular iron. Tc K-edge XANES spectroscopy indicated that Tc speciation on the pFe was 18% adsorbed TcO4 -, 28% Tc(IV) in Tc dioxide and 54% Tc(IV) into the structure of Fe hydroxide. A variety of catalytic metal nanoparticles (i.e., Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Sn and Pd) were successfully deposited on the pFe using scalable chemical reduction methods. The Zn-pFe was outstanding among the six bimetallic pFe materials, with a capacity increase of >100% for TcO4 - removal and of 50% for ReO4 - removal, compared to the pFe. These results provide a highly applicable platform for solving critical DOE and industrial needs related to nuclear environmental stewardship and nuclear power production.

  2. Metabolic comparison of radiolabeled bleomycin and bleomycin-glucuronide labeled with 99mTc. (United States)

    Koçan, Feray; Avcıbaşı, Ugur; Unak, Perihan; Müftüler, Fazilet Zümrüt Biber; Içhedef, Cigdem A; Demiroğlu, Hasan; Gümüşer, Fikriye G


    The metabolic comparison of bleomycin (BLM) and bleomycin-glucuronide (BLMG) radiolabeled with (99m)Tc ((99m)Tc-BLM and (99m)Tc-BLMG, respectively) has been investigated in this study. Quality control procedures were carried out using thin-layer radiochromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. To compare the metabolic behavior of BLM and its glucuronide conjugate radiolabeled with (99m)Tc, scintigraphic, and biodistributional techniques were applied using male New Zealand rabbits and Albino Wistar rats. The results obtained have shown that these compounds were successfully radiolabeled with a labeling yield of about 100%. Maximum uptakes of (99m)Tc-BLM and (99m)Tc-BLMG metabolized as N-glucuronide were observed within 2 hours in the liver, the bladder, and the spinal cord for (99m)Tc-BLM and the lung, the liver, the kidney, the large intestine, and the spinal cord for (99m)Tc-BLMG, respectively. Scintigraphy and biodistributional studies performed on the experimental animals have shown that radiopharmaceutical potentials of these compounds are completely different. At the same time, uptake of the (99m)Tc-BLMG was found to be better than that of (99m)Tc-BLM.

  3. Electron transport in reduced graphene oxides in high electric field (United States)

    Jian, Wen-Bin; Lai, Jian-Jhong; Wang, Sheng-Tsung; Tsao, Rui-Wen; Su, Min-Chia; Tsai, Wei-Yu; Rosenstein, Baruch; Zhou, Xufeng; Liu, Zhaoping

    Due to a honeycomb structure, charge carriers in graphene exhibit quasiparticles of linear energy-momentum dispersion and phenomena of Schwinger pair creation may be explored. Because graphene is easily broken in high electric fields, single-layer reduced graphene oxides (rGO) are used instead. The rGO shows a small band gap while it reveals a graphene like behavior in high electric fields. Electron transport in rGO exhibits two-dimensional Mott's variable range hopping. The temperature behavior of resistance in low electric fields and the electric field behavior of resistance at low temperatures are all well explained by the Mott model. At temperatures higher than 200 K, the electric field behavior does not agree with the model while it shows a power law behavior with an exponent of 3/2, being in agreement with the Schwinger model. Comparing with graphene, the rGO is more sustainable to high electric field thus presenting a complete high-electric field behavior. When the rGO is gated away from the charge neutral point, the turn-on electric field of Schwinger phenomena is increased. A summary figure is given to present electric field behaviors and power law variations of resistances of single-layer rGO, graphene, and MoS2.

  4. Biofluid metabotyping of occupationally exposed subjects to air pollution demonstrates high oxidative stress and deregulated amino acid metabolism (United States)

    Pradhan, Surya Narayan; Das, Aleena; Meena, Ramovatar; Nanda, Ranjan Kumar; Rajamani, Paulraj


    Occupational exposure to air pollution induces oxidative stress and prolonged exposure increases susceptibility to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in several working groups. Biofluid of these subjects may reflect perturbed metabolic phenotypes. In this study we carried out a comparative molecular profiling study using parallel biofluids collected from subjects (n = 85) belonging to auto rickshaw drivers (ARD), traffic cops (TC) and office workers (OW). Higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in serum of ARD subjects were observed as compared to OW and TC. Uni and multivariate analyses of metabolites identified in urine by 1H NMR revealed 11 deregulated molecules in ARD subjects and involved in phenylalanine, histidine, arginine and proline metabolism. Despite contribution of confounding factors like exposure period, dietary factors including smoking and alcohol status, our results demonstrate existence of exposure specific metabotypes in biofluids of ARD, OW and TC groups. Monitoring serum oxidative stress and inflammation markers and urine metabolites by NMR may be useful to characterize perturbed metabolic phenotypes in populations exposed to urban traffic air pollution.

  5. High-Temperature Oxide Regrowth on Mechanically-Damaged Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Lowe, Tracie M [ORNL


    Here we report the effects of mechanical damage from a sharp stylus on the regrowth of oxide layers on a Ni-based superalloy known as Pyromet 80A . It was found that the oxide that reformed on the damaged portion of a pre-oxidized surface differed from that which formed on undamaged areas after the equal exposures to elevated temperature in air. These findings have broad implications for modeling the processes of material degradation in applications such as exhaust valves in internal combustion engines because they imply that static oxidation data for candidate materials may not adequately reflect their reaction to operating environments that involve both mechanical contact and oxidation.

  6. Zinc oxide nanowire gamma ray detector with high spatiotemporal resolution (United States)

    Mayo, Daniel C.; Nolen, J. Ryan; Cook, Andrew; Mu, Richard R.; Haglund, Richard F.


    Conventional scintillation detectors are typically single crystals of heavy-metal oxides or halides doped with rare-earth ions that record the recombination of electron-hole pairs by photon emission in the visible to ultraviolet. However, the light yields are typically low enough to require photomultiplier detection with the attendant instrumental complications. Here we report initial studies of gamma ray detection by zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, grown by vapor-solid deposition. The nanowires grow along the c-axis in a wurtzite structure; they are typically 80 nm in diameter and have lengths of 1- 2 μm. The nanowires are single crystals of high quality, with a photoluminescence (PL) yield from band-edge exciton emission in the ultraviolet that is typically one hundred times larger than the PL yield from defect centers in the visible. Nanowire ensembles were irradiated by 662 keV gamma rays from a Cs-137 source for periods of up to ten hours; gamma rays in this energy range interact by Compton scattering, which in ZnO creates F+ centers that relax to form singly-charged positive oxygen vacancies. Following irradiation, we fit the PL spectra of the visible emission with a sum of Gaussians at the energies of the known defects. We find highly efficient PL from the irradiated area, with a figure of merit approaching 106 photons/s/MeV of deposited energy. Over a period of days, the singly charged O+ vacancies relax to the more stable doubly charged O++ vacancies. However, the overall defect PL returns to pre-irradiation values after about a week, as the vacancies diffuse to the surface of these very thin nanowires, indicating that a self-healing process restores the nanowires to their original state.

  7. Neutrophilic iron oxidizers adapted to highly oxic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Musovic, Sanin; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    carbon) while oxygen (O2) is the electron acceptor provided during the aeration process. Numerous previous studies have described neutrophilic iron oxidizers as a bacterial guild with a special niche preference, especially the transition zone between aerobic and anoxic regions, where abiotic chemical...... oxidation of iron would be retarded. For that reason, no attempts have been documented to describe the density and diversity of iron oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) in oxic neutrophilic environments. Under low temperatures (5 to 10°C) conditions, as typically found in groundwater, extremely low rates of chemical...... iron oxidation (t1/2: 315min.) have been documented. This assumed slow chemical oxidation of Fe2 + in rapid sand filters may allow certain bacteria to oxidize iron concurrently with the ongoing slow chemical oxidation. Hence, we aimed to investigate the abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution...

  8. Anchoring samarium oxide nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, Hamid Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: • Samarium oxide nanoparticles have been anchored on the surface of reduced graphene oxide for the first time. • Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO nanocomposite show high capacitance, good rate and cycling performance. • Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO nanocomposite can serve as efficient electrode material for energy storage. • The best composite electrode exhibits specific capacitance of 321 F g{sup −1} in 2 mV s{sup −1}. - Abstract: We have synthesized Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (SmNs) and anchored them onto the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through a self-assembly thereof by utilizing a facile sonochemical procedure. The nanomaterials were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As the next step, the supercapacitive behavior of the resulting nanocomposites were investigated when used as electrode material, through with cyclic voltammetric (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The SmNs decorated RGO (SmN-RGO) nanocomposites were found to possess a specific capacitance (SC) of 321 F g{sup −1} when used in a 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution as an electrolyte, in a scan rate of 2 mV s{sup −1}. The SC of the SmN-RGO based electrodes were also found to be 268 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 2 A g{sup −1} through galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The outstanding properties of the SmN-RGOs were attributed to synergy of the high charge mobility of SmNs and the flexibility of the sheets of RGOs. Additionally, the nano-composite revealed a unique cycling durability (maintaining 99% of its SC even after 4000 cycles).

  9. Freestanding Gold/Graphene-Oxide/Manganese Oxide Microsupercapacitor Displaying High Areal Energy Density. (United States)

    Morag, Ahiud; Becker, James Y; Jelinek, Raz


    Microsupercapacitors are touted as one of the promising "next frontiers" in energy-storage research and applications. Despite their potential, significant challenges still exist in terms of physical properties and electrochemical performance, particularly attaining high energy density, stability, ease of synthesis, and feasibility of large-scale production. We present new freestanding microporous electrodes comprising self-assembled scaffold of gold and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanowires coated with MnO2 . The electrodes exhibited excellent electrochemical characteristics, particularly superior high areal capacitance. Moreover, the freestanding Au/rGO scaffold also served as the current collector, obviating the need for an additional electrode support required in most reported supercapacitors, thus enabling low volume and weight devices with a high overall device specific energy. Stacked symmetrical solid-state supercapacitors were fabricated using the Au/rGO/MnO2 electrodes in parallel configurations showing the advantage of using freestanding electrodes in the fabrication of low-volume devices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Oxide-Nanoparticle Containing Coatings for High Temperature Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This factsheet describes a study whose objective is to examine the feasibility of using Electromagnetic Stirring (EMS) techniques in dispersing the oxide nanoparticles uniformly within the liquid steel.

  11. Estimation of myocardial perfusion and viability using simultaneous 99mTc-tetrofosmin--FDG collimated SPECT. (United States)

    Fukuchi, K; Katafuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Shimotsu, Y; Toba, M; Hayashida, K; Takamiya, M; Ishida, Y


    This study was designed to elucidate the usefulness of crosstalk correction for dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) with 99mTc-tetrofosmin and FDG in estimating myocardial perfusion and viability. Eighteen patients with coronary artery disease were studied. First, SPECT was performed with a low-energy high-resolution collimator after a single injection of 99mTc-tetrofosmin (single 99mTc-tetrofosmin). Second, PET and DISA with an ultra-high-energy collimator were performed after glucose loading and an injection of FDG. DISA was designed to operate with simultaneous 3-channel acquisition, and weighted scatter correction of crosstalk from the 18F photopeak to the 99mTc photopeak was performed by modification of an existing dual-window technique. The FDG SPECT images were compared with the images obtained by PET. Both crosstalk-corrected and uncorrected 99mTc-tetrofosmin images were generated and compared with the single 99mTc-tetrofosmin images. Regional percentage uptake of FDG agreed well between DISA and PET. However, regional percentage uptake of 99mTc-tetrofosmin was generally higher on the uncorrected 99mTc-tetrofosmin images than on the single 99mTc-tetrofosmin images, especially in areas of low flow (percentage count of 99mTc-tetrofosmin > or = 50%). The crosstalk correction contributed to improving the agreement between regional percentage uptakes and significantly improved the detectability of myocardial perfusion-metabolism mismatching. With 3-channel acquisition and weighted-scatter correction of crosstalk from the 18F photopeak to the 99mTc photopeak, DISA with 99mTc-tetrofosmin and FDG is feasible for assessing regional myocardial perfusion and viability.

  12. Host cell invasion and oral infection by Trypanosoma cruzi strains of genetic groups TcI and TcIV from chagasic patients. (United States)

    Maeda, Fernando Yukio; Clemente, Tatiana Mordente; Macedo, Silene; Cortez, Cristian; Yoshida, Nobuko


    Outbreaks of acute Chagas disease by oral infection have been reported frequently over the last ten years, with higher incidence in northern South America, where Trypanosoma cruzi lineage TcI predominates, being responsible for the major cause of resurgent human disease, and a small percentage is identified as TcIV. Mechanisms of oral infection and host-cell invasion by these parasites are poorly understood. To address that question, we analyzed T. cruzi strains isolated from chagasic patients in Venezuela, Guatemala and Brazil. Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes were orally inoculated into mice. The mouse stomach collected four days later, as well as the stomach and the heart collected 30 days post-infection, were processed for histological analysis. Assays to mimic parasite migration through the gastric mucus layer were performed by counting the parasites that traversed gastric mucin-coated transwell filters. For cell invasion assays, human epithelial HeLa cells were incubated with metacyclic forms and the number of internalized parasites was counted. All TcI and TcIV T. cruzi strains were poorly infective by the oral route. Parasites were either undetectable or were detected in small numbers in the mouse stomach four days post oral administration. Replicating parasites were found in the stomach and/or in the heart 30 days post-infection. As compared to TcI lineage, the migration capacity of TcIV parasites through the gastric mucin-coated filter was higher but lower than that exhibited by TcVI metacyclic forms previously shown to be highly infective by the oral route. Expression of pepsin-resistant gp90, the surface molecule that downregulates cell invasion, was higher in TcI than in TcIV parasites and, accordingly, the invasion capacity of TcIV metacyclic forms was higher. Gp90 molecules spontaneously released by TcI metacyclic forms inhibited the parasite entry into host cells. TcI parasites exhibited low intracellular replication rate. Our findings

  13. Highly oxidized peroxisomes are selectively degraded via autophagy in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Shibata, Michitaro; Oikawa, Kazusato; Yoshimoto, Kohki; Kondo, Maki; Mano, Shoji; Yamada, Kenji; Hayashi, Makoto; Sakamoto, Wataru; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Nishimura, Mikio


    The positioning of peroxisomes in a cell is a regulated process that is closely associated with their functions. Using this feature of the peroxisomal positioning as a criterion, we identified three Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (peroxisome unusual positioning1 [peup1], peup2, and peup4) that contain aggregated peroxisomes. We found that the PEUP1, PEUP2, and PEUP4 were identical to Autophagy-related2 (ATG2), ATG18a, and ATG7, respectively, which are involved in the autophagic system. The number of peroxisomes was increased and the peroxisomal proteins were highly accumulated in the peup1 mutant, suggesting that peroxisome degradation by autophagy (pexophagy) is deficient in the peup1 mutant. These aggregated peroxisomes contained high levels of inactive catalase and were more oxidative than those of the wild type, indicating that peroxisome aggregates comprise damaged peroxisomes. In addition, peroxisome aggregation was induced in wild-type plants by exogenous application of hydrogen peroxide. The cat2 mutant also contained peroxisome aggregates. These findings demonstrate that hydrogen peroxide as a result of catalase inactivation is the inducer of peroxisome aggregation. Furthermore, an autophagosome marker, ATG8, frequently colocalized with peroxisome aggregates, indicating that peroxisomes damaged by hydrogen peroxide are selectively degraded by autophagy in the wild type. Our data provide evidence that autophagy is crucial for quality control mechanisms for peroxisomes in Arabidopsis.

  14. High glucose-mediated oxidative stress impairs cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo L Lamers

    Full Text Available Deficient wound healing in diabetic patients is very frequent, but the cellular and molecular causes are poorly defined. In this study, we evaluate the hypothesis that high glucose concentrations inhibit cell migration. Using CHO.K1 cells, NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, mouse embryonic fibroblasts and primary skin fibroblasts from control and diabetic rats cultured in 5 mM D-glucose (low glucose, LG, 25 mM D-glucose (high glucose, HG or 25 mM L-glucose medium (osmotic control--OC, we analyzed the migration speed, protrusion stability, cell polarity, adhesion maturation and the activity of the small Rho GTPase Rac1. We also analyzed the effects of reactive oxygen species by incubating cells with the antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC. We observed that HG conditions inhibited cell migration when compared to LG or OC. This inhibition resulted from impaired cell polarity, protrusion destabilization and inhibition of adhesion maturation. Conversely, Rac1 activity, which promotes protrusion and blocks adhesion maturation, was increased in HG conditions, thus providing a mechanistic basis for the HG phenotype. Most of the HG effects were partially or completely rescued by treatment with NAC. These findings demonstrate that HG impairs cell migration due to an increase in oxidative stress that causes polarity loss, deficient adhesion and protrusion. These alterations arise, in large part, from increased Rac1 activity and may contribute to the poor wound healing observed in diabetic patients.

  15. Aqueous solution route to high-aspect-ratio zinc oxide nanostructures on indium tin oxide substrates. (United States)

    Ku, Chen-Hao; Wu, Jih-Jen


    High-aspect-ratio ZnO nanowires and nanotubes are formed on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using a three-step route at low temperatures. The three steps, including successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) deposition of the ZnO seed layer, hydrothermal annealing of the seed layer, and chemical bath deposition (CBD) of the one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures, are all conducted in aqueous solutions at temperatures below 120 degrees C. Both the hydrothermal annealing of the SILAR seed layer and the low-concentration precursor solution employed in the CBD process are crucial in order to synthesize the uniform and high-aspect-ratio ZnO nanostructures on the ITO substrate. TEM analyses reveal that both the nanowire and the nanotube possess the single-crystal structure and are grown along [001] direction. Room-temperature cathodoluminescence spectrum of the 1D ZnO nanostructures shows a sharp ultraviolet emission at 375 nm and a broad green-band emission.

  16. High throughput thermal conductivity of high temperature solid phases: The case of oxide and fluoride perovskites

    CERN Document Server

    van Roekeghem, Ambroise; Oses, Corey; Curtarolo, Stefano; Mingo, Natalio


    Using finite-temperature phonon calculations and machine-learning methods, we calculate the mechanical stability of about 400 semiconducting oxides and fluorides with cubic perovskite structures at 0 K, 300 K and 1000 K. We find 92 mechanically stable compounds at high temperatures -- including 36 not mentioned in the literature so far -- for which we calculate the thermal conductivity. We demonstrate that the thermal conductivity is generally smaller in fluorides than in oxides, largely due to a lower ionic charge, and describe simple structural descriptors that are correlated with its magnitude. Furthermore, we show that the thermal conductivities of most cubic perovskites decrease more slowly than the usual $T^{-1}$ behavior. Within this set, we also screen for materials exhibiting negative thermal expansion. Finally, we describe a strategy to accelerate the discovery of mechanically stable compounds at high temperatures.

  17. Preparation and characterization of [99TcO] apcitide: a technetium labeled peptide. (United States)

    Francesconi, Lynn C; Zheng, Yongyong; Bartis, Judit; Blumenstein, Michael; Costello, Catherine; De Rosch, Mark A


    [99mTcO] apcitide (99mTcO(P246)), the technetium complex of the 13 amino acid, apcitide, cyclo-(D-Tyr-Apc-Gly-Asp-Cys)-Gly-Gly-Cys(Acm)-Gly-Cys(Acm)-Gly-Gly-Cys-NH2, where Apc is L-[S-(3-aminopropyl)]cysteine (an arginine mimetic) and Acm is the acetamidomethyl protecting group, has high affinity and selectivity for the GPIIb/IIIa receptor that is expressed on the membrane surface of activated platelets and plays an integral role in platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. Bibapcitide, a 26 amino acid, bis-succinimidomethyl ether-linked dimer of the peptide apcitide has been formulated as a single-vial, lyophilized kit having the trade name AcuTect. When sterile, nonpyrogenic sodium pertechnetate (99mTcO4-) in 0.9% sodium chloride is added to the AcuTect radiopharmaceutical kit and the resulting kit is heated, [99mTcO] apcitide forms. This is the first radiopharmaceutical to target acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities. We report here the preparation, purification, and isolation of the 99Tc complex of apcitide and its characterization to determine the mode of binding of Tc to apcitide. [99TcO] apcitide was prepared, on the macroscopic level, by reaction of [99TcOCl4]- with apcitide, purified by preparative HPLC and isolated as a trifluoroacetate salt. [99TcO] apcitide can also be formed from the reaction of bibapcitide and 99TcO4- in the presence of Sn(II) and glucoheptonate at 80 degrees C, conditions that mimic the radiopharmaceutical kit preparation. FTIR data show a Tc=O stretch at 961.2 cm(-1), in the range observed for anionic [TcVO]3+ amide thiolate complexes. The mass spectral data is in agreement with the formula, [C51H73O20N17S5Tc]-, consistent with retention of Acm groups and the Tc binding in the Gly11-Gly12-Cys13 region of the peptide. Despite significant spectral overlap due to numerous similar amino acids, all protons of apcitide and [99TcO] apcitide were unambiguously assigned. The observation of two nonequivalent Acm groups

  18. Highly n-Type Titanium Oxide as an Electronically Active Support for Platinum in the Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Baker, L. Robert


    The role of the oxide-metal interface in determining the activity and selectivity of chemical reactions catalyzed by metal particles on an oxide support is an important topic in science and industry. A proposed mechanism for this strong metal-support interaction is electronic activation of surface adsorbates by charge carriers. Motivated by the goal of using electronic activation to drive nonthermal chemistry, we investigated the ability of the oxide support to mediate charge transfer. We report an approximately 2-fold increase in the turnover rate of catalytic carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum nanoparticles supported on stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO2) when the TiO2 is made highly n-type by fluorine (F) doping. However, for nonstoichiometric titanium oxide (TiOX<2) the effect of F on the turnover rate is negligible. Studies of the titanium oxide electronic structure show that the energy of free electrons in the oxide determines the rate of reaction. These results suggest that highly n-type TiO2 electronically activates adsorbed oxygen (O) by electron spillover to form an active O- intermediate. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Biochemical basis of the high resistance to oxidative stress in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apoptosis; D. discoideum; oxidative stress; antioxidant enzymes; lipid peroxidation ... Dose-dependent induction of cell death by exogenous addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in situ generation of H2O2 by hydroxylamine, and nitric oxide (NO) generation by sodium nitroprusside treatment in D. discoideum were studied.

  20. High-quality-factor tantalum oxide nanomechanical resonators by laser oxidation of TaSe2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cartamil Bueno, S.J.; Steeneken, P.G.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Navarro Moratalla, E.; Venstra, W.J.; Leeuwen, R.; Coronado, E.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Steele, G.A.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.


    Controlling the strain in two-dimensional (2D) materials is an interesting avenue to tailor the mechanical properties of nanoelectromechanical systems. Here, we demonstrate a technique to fabricate ultrathin tantalum oxide nanomechanical resonators with large stress by the laser oxidation of

  1. Degradation in Solid Oxide Cells During High Temperature Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar Sohal


    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells. One goal of that project is to address the technical and degradation issues associated with solid oxide electrolysis cells. This report covers a variety of these degradation issues, which were discussed during a workshop on “Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells and Strategies for its Mitigation,” held in Phoenix, AZ on October 27, 2008. Three major degradation issues related to solid oxide electrolysis cells discussed at the workshop are: • Delamination of O2-electrode and bond layer on steam/O2-electrode side • Contaminants (Ni, Cr, Si, etc.) on reaction sites (triple-phase boundary) • Loss of electrical/ionic conductivity of electrolyte. This list is not all inclusive, but the workshop summary can be useful in providing a direction for future research related to the degradation of solid oxide electrolysis cells.

  2. Energy Gaps in the Failed High-Tc Superconductor La_1.875Ba_0.125Cu_O4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.


    A central issue on high-T{sub c} superconductivity is the nature of the normal-state gap (pseudogap) in the underdoped regime and its relationship with superconductivity. Despite persistent efforts, theoretical ideas for the pseudogap evolve around fluctuating superconductivity, competing order and spectral weight suppression due to many-body effects. Recently, while some experiments in the superconducting state indicate a distinction between the superconducting gap and pseudogap, others in the normal state, either by extrapolation from high-temperature data or directly from La{sub 1.875}Ba{sub 0.125}CuO{sub 4} (LBCO-1/8) at low temperature, suggest the ground-state pseudogap is a single gap of d-wave form. Here we report angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) data from LBCO-1/8, collected with improved experimental conditions, that reveal the ground-state pseudogap has a pronounced deviation from the simple d-wave form. It contains two distinct components: a d-wave component within an extended region around the node and the other abruptly enhanced close to the antinode, pointing to a dual nature of the pseudogap in this failed high-T{sub c} superconductor which involves a possible precursor pairing energy scale around the node and another of different but unknown origin near the antinode.

  3. Motion stability of the magnetic levitation and suspension with YBa2Cu3O7-x high-Tc superconducting bulks and NdFeB magnets (United States)

    Li, Jipeng; Zheng, Jun; Huang, Huan; Li, Yanxing; Li, Haitao; Deng, Zigang


    The flux pinning effect of YBa2Cu3O7-x high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk can achieve self-stable levitation over a permanent magnet or magnet array. Devices based on this phenomenon have been widely developed. However, the self-stable flux pinning effect is not unconditional, under disturbances, for example. To disclose the roots of this amazing self-stable levitation phenomenon in theory, mathematical and mechanical calculations using Lyapunov's stability theorem and the Hurwitz criterion were performed under the conditions of magnetic levitation and suspension of HTS bulk near permanent magnets in Halbach array. It is found that the whole dynamical system, in the case of levitation, has only one equilibrium solution, and the singular point is a stable focus. In the general case of suspension, the system has two singular points: one is a stable focus, and the other is an unstable saddle. With the variation of suspension force, the two first-order singular points mentioned earlier will get closer and closer, and finally degenerate to a high-order singular point, which means the stable region gets smaller and smaller, and finally vanishes. According to the center manifold theorem, the high-order singular point is unstable. With the interaction force varying, the HTS suspension dynamical system undergoes a saddle-node bifurcation. Moreover, a deficient damping can also decrease the stable region. These findings, together with existing experiments, could enlighten the improvement of HTS devices with strong anti-interference ability.

  4. Evaluation of 99mTc-Labeled Cyclic RGD Dimers: Impact of Cyclic RGD Peptides and 99mTc Chelates on Biological Properties (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Kim, Young-Seung; Lu, Xin; Liu, Shuang


    The main objective of this study is to explore the impact of cyclic RGD peptides and 99mTc chelates on biological properties of 99mTc radiotracers. Cyclic RGD peptide conjugates, HYNIC-K(NIC)-RGD2 (HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinyl; RGD2 = E[c(RGDfK)]2 and NIC = nicotinyl) HYNIC-K(NIC)-3G-RGD2 (3G-RGD2 = Gly-Gly-Gly-E[Gly-Gly-Gly-c(RGDfK)]2), and HYNIC-K(NIC)-3P-RGD2 (3P-RGD2 = PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2), were prepared. Macrocyclic 99mTc complexes [99mTc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-RGD2)(tricine)] (1), [99mTc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-3G-RGD2)(tricine)] (2) and [99mTc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-3P-RGD2)(tricine)] (3) were evaluated for their biodistribution and tumor-targeting capability in athymic nude mice bearing MDA-MB-435 human breast tumor xenografts. It was found that 1, 2 and 3 could be prepared with high specific activity (~111GBq/3mol). All three 99mTc radiotracers have two major isomers, which show almost identical uptake in tumors and normal organs. Replacing the bulky and highly charged [99mTc(HYNIC)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (TPPTS = trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3′,3″-trisulfonate) with a smaller [99mTc(HYNIC-K(NIC))(tricine)] resulted in less uptake in the kidneys and lungs for 3. Surprisingly, all three 99mTc radiotracers shared a similar tumor uptake (1: 5.73 ± 0.40 %ID/g; 2: 5.24 ± 1.09 %ID/g; and 3: 4.94 ± 1.71 %ID/g) at 60 min p.i. The metabolic stability of 99mTc radiotracers depends on cyclic RGD peptides (3P-RGD2 > 3G-RGD2 ~ RGD2) and 99mTc chelates ([99mTc(HYNIC)(tricine)(TPPTS)] > [99mTc(HYNIC-K(NIC))(tricine)]). Immunohistochemical studies revealed a linear relationship between the αvβ3 expression levels and tumor uptake or tumor/muscle ratios of 3, suggesting that 3 is useful for monitoring the tumor αvβ3 expression. Complex 3 is a very attractive radiotracer for detection of integrin αvβ3 –positive tumors. PMID:22369387

  5. Evaluation of 99mTc-labeled cyclic RGD dimers: impact of cyclic RGD peptides and 99mTc chelates on biological properties. (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Kim, Young-Seung; Lu, Xin; Liu, Shuang


    The main objective of this study is to explore the impact of cyclic RGD peptides and (99m)Tc chelates on biological properties of (99m)Tc radiotracers. Cyclic RGD peptide conjugates, HYNIC-K(NIC)-RGD(2) (HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinyl; RGD(2) = E[c(RGDfK)](2) and NIC = nicotinyl), HYNIC-K(NIC)-3G-RGD(2) (3G-RGD(2) = Gly-Gly-Gly-E[Gly-Gly-Gly-c(RGDfK)](2)), and HYNIC-K(NIC)-3P-RGD(2) (3P-RGD(2) = PEG(4)-E[PEG(4)-c(RGDfK)](2)), were prepared. Macrocyclic (99m)Tc complexes [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-RGD(2))(tricine)] (1), [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-3G-RGD(2))(tricine)] (2), and [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-3P-RGD(2))(tricine)] (3) were evaluated for their biodistribution and tumor-targeting capability in athymic nude mice bearing MDA-MB-435 human breast tumor xenografts. It was found that 1, 2, and 3 could be prepared with high specific activity (∼111 GBq/μmol). All three (99m)Tc radiotracers have two major isomers, which show almost identical uptake in tumors and normal organs. Replacing the bulky and highly charged [(99m)Tc(HYNIC)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (TPPTS = trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3″-trisulfonate) with a smaller [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC))(tricine)] resulted in less uptake in the kidneys and lungs for 3. Surprisingly, all three (99m)Tc radiotracers shared a similar tumor uptake (1, 5.73 ± 0.40%ID/g; 2, 5.24 ± 1.09%ID/g; and 3, 4.94 ± 1.71%ID/g) at 60 min p.i. The metabolic stability of (99m)Tc radiotracers depends on cyclic RGD peptides (3P-RGD(2) > 3G-RGD(2) ∼ RGD(2)) and (99m)Tc chelates ([(99m)Tc(HYNIC)(tricine)(TPPTS)] > [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC))(tricine)]). Immunohistochemical studies revealed a linear relationship between the α(v)β(3) expression levels and tumor uptake or tumor/muscle ratios of 3, suggesting that 3 is useful for monitoring the tumor α(v)β(3) expression. Complex 3 is a very attractive radiotracer for detection of integrin α(v)β(3)-positive tumors.

  6. Nanostructured manganese oxides as highly active water oxidation catalysts: a boost from manganese precursor chemistry. (United States)

    Menezes, Prashanth W; Indra, Arindam; Littlewood, Patrick; Schwarze, Michael; Göbel, Caren; Schomäcker, Reinhard; Driess, Matthias


    We present a facile synthesis of bioinspired manganese oxides for chemical and photocatalytic water oxidation, starting from a reliable and versatile manganese(II) oxalate single-source precursor (SSP) accessible through an inverse micellar molecular approach. Strikingly, thermal decomposition of the latter precursor in various environments (air, nitrogen, and vacuum) led to the three different mineral phases of bixbyite (Mn2 O3 ), hausmannite (Mn3 O4 ), and manganosite (MnO). Initial chemical water oxidation experiments using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) gave the maximum catalytic activity for Mn2 O3 and MnO whereas Mn3 O4 had a limited activity. The substantial increase in the catalytic activity of MnO in chemical water oxidation was demonstrated by the fact that a phase transformation occurs at the surface from nanocrystalline MnO into an amorphous MnOx (1oxidizing agent. Photocatalytic water oxidation in the presence of [Ru(bpy)3 ](2+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) as a sensitizer and peroxodisulfate as an electron acceptor was carried out for all three manganese oxides including the newly formed amorphous MnOx . Both Mn2 O3 and the amorphous MnOx exhibit tremendous enhancement in oxygen evolution during photocatalysis and are much higher in comparison to so far known bioinspired manganese oxides and calcium-manganese oxides. Also, for the first time, a new approach for the representation of activities of water oxidation catalysts has been proposed by determining the amount of accessible manganese centers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. High-pressure Moessbauer study of perovskite iron oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Kawakami, T; Sasaki, T; Kuzushita, K; Morimoto, S; Endo, S; Kawasaki, S; Takano, M


    The perovskite oxides CaFeO sub 3 and La sub 1 sub / sub 3 Sr sub 2 sub / sub 3 FeO sub 3 have been investigated by high-pressure sup 5 sup 7 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The critical temperatures of the charge disproportionation (CD) and the magnetic order (MO) have been determined as a function of pressure. In CaFeO sub 3 the CD (2Fe sup 4 sup + -> Fe sup 3 sup + + Fe sup 5 sup +) occurs at an almost constant temperature of 290 K in the pressure range of 0-17 GPa. Above 20 GPa, the CD is suppressed. The MO temperature of 125 K at an ambient pressure rises to 300 K at 34 GPa. In La sub 1 sub / sub 3 Sr sub 2 sub / sub 3 FeO sub 3 the CD (3Fe sup 1 sup 1 sup / sup 3 sup + -> 2Fe sup 3 sup + + Fe sup 5 sup +) and the MO occur at the same temperature up to 21 GPa, which decreases from 207 to 165 K with increasing pressure. Above 25 GPa, however, the MO temperature rises above 400 K.

  8. High-energy photoemission studies of oxide interfaces (United States)

    Claessen, Ralph


    The interfaces of complex oxide heterostructures can host novel quantum phases not existing in the bulk of the constituents, with the high-mobility 2D electron system (2DES) in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) representing a prominent example. Despite extensive research the origin of the 2DES and its unusual properties - including the supposed coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism - are still a matter of intense debate. Photoelectron spectroscopy, recently extended into the soft (SX-ARPES) and hard (HAXPES) X-ray regime, is a powerful method to provide detailed insight into the electronic structure of these heterostructures and, in particular, of the buried interface. This includes the identification of the orbital character of the 2DES as well as the determination of vital band structure information, such as band alignment, band bending, and even k-resolved band dispersions and Fermi surface topology. Moreover, resonant photoemission at the Ti L-edge reveals the existence of two different species of Ti 3d states, localized and itinerant, which can be distinguished and identified by their different resonance behavior. The role of oxygen vacancies is studied by controlled in-situ oxidation, which allows us to vary the composition from fully stoichiometric to strongly O-deficient. By comparison to free STO surfaces we can thus demonstrate that the metallicity of the heteointerfaces is intrinsic, i . e . it persists even in the absence of O defects. I will discuss our photoemission results on LAO/STO heterostructures in both (100) and (111) orientation as well as on the related system γ-Al2O3/STO(100), which also hosts a 2DES with an even higher mobility. Work in collaboration with J. Mannhart (MPI-FKF, Stuttgart), N. Pryds (TU Denmark), G. Rijnders (U Twente), S. Suga (U Osaka), M. Giorgoi (BESSY, HZB), W. Drube (DESY Photon Science), V.N. Strocov (Swiss Light Source), J. Denlinger (Advanced Light Source, LBNL), and T.-L. Lee (Diamond Light Source). Support by

  9. High-temperature oxidation and ignition of metals (United States)

    Hill, Paul R; Adamson, David; Foland, Douglas H; Bressette, Walter E


    A study of the high-temperature oxidation of several aircraft construction materials was undertaken to assess the possibility of ignition under high-temperature flight conditions.Tests have been made both in open and closed jets, and, in addition, the burning of metals has been observed under static conditions in a pressurized vessel containing either air, oxygen, or nitrogen. When heated in an atmosphere of oxygen or when heated and plunged into a supersonic airstream, titanium, iron, carbon steel, and common alloys such as 4130 were found to have spontaneous-ignition temperatures in the solid phase (below melting) and they melted rapidly while burning. Inconel, copper, 18-8 stainless steel, Monel, and aluminum could not be made to ignite spontaneously at temperatures up to melting with the equipment available. Magnesium ignited spontaneously in either type of test at temperatures just above the melting temperature.A theory for the spontaneous ignition of metals, based on the first law of thermodynamics, is presented. Good correlation was obtained between calculated spontaneous-ignition temperatures and values measured in supersonic jet tests. There appears at the present time to be no need for concern regarding the spontaneous ignition of Inconel, the stainless steels, copper, aluminum, or magnesium for ordinary supersonic airplane or missile applications where the material temperature is kept within ordinary structural limits or at least below melting. For hypersonic applications where the material is to be melted away to absorb the heat of convection, the results of the present tests do not apply sufficiently to allow a conclusion.

  10. Radiochemical purity of Mo and Tc solution obtained after irradiation and dissolution of Mo-100-enriched and ultra-high-purity natural Mo disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Four irradiations of ultra-high-purity natural Mo targets and one irradiation using 97.4% Mo-100-enriched material were performed. The purpose of these irradiations was to determine whether the presence of Sn stabilizer in the H2O2 used for the dissolution of sintered Mo disks can affect the radiochemical purity of the final K2MoO4 in 5M KOH solution. Results from radiochemical purity tests performed using thin-layer paper chromatography show that even 2– 3× excess of Sn-stabilized H2O2 typically used for dissolution of sintered Mo disks did not affect the radiochemical purity of the final product.

  11. Transport measurements in superconductors: critical current of granular high TC ceramic superconductor samples; Medidas de transporte em supercondutores: corrente critica de supercondutores granulares de alta temperatura critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, W.A.C., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco (IPCM/UNIVASF), Juazeiro do Norte, BA (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisas em Ciencia dos Materiais; Silva, E.B. [Companhia Energetica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    This work presents a method to obtain critical current of granular superconductors. We have carried out transport measurements (ρxT curves and VxI curves) in a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} sample to determine critical current density of it. Some specimens reveal a 'semiconductor-like' behavior (electrical resistivity decreases with increasing temperatures above critical temperature T{sub c} of material) competing with superconductor behavior. Due to high granular fraction of the sample, these competition is clearly noted in ρxT curves. Measurements carried out from 0 to 8500 Oe of applied field show the same behavior, and the critical current density of the samples is shown. (author)

  12. Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT scanning in Munchausen syndrome. (United States)

    Mountz, J M; Parker, P E; Liu, H G; Bentley, T W; Lill, D W; Deutsch, G


    Regional cerebral blood flow was studied in a patient with Munchausen syndrome using high resolution Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. The scan demonstrated marked hyperperfusion of the right hemithalamus. The cranial CT scan was normal. The abnormal right hemithalamic blood flow is discussed in relation to the hypothesized neuropathy of this disorder. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8580117

  13. AC-flux penetration into high-Tc superconductors with hall effects 2; Koon chodendotai ni okeru koryu jiba shinnyu to horu koka 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawatari, Y. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)


    It has been confirmed that high temperature superconductor can become the superclean condition in which mean free path is abnormally long in the scattering time of the quasiparticle in the nucleus of line of magnetic flux. Though in this condition, the Hall effect concerning magnetic flux motion remarkably appears, we have not studied it until now on pinning and AC characteristic which together considered Hall effect of line of magnetic flux. For this, we analyzed linear alternating current response of line of magnetic flux for minute alternating magnetic field on the basis of equation of motion of line of magnetic flux considering Hall effect theoretically, and line of magnetic flux had effective mass in the superclean condition, and it was reported that resonance phenomenas were generated in the last time. This time, we carried out magnetic flux motion, alternating magnetic field invasion and more and more detailed analysis on the alternating current permeability, and we examined new possibility of the phenomenon such as elliptic motion of line of magnetic flux and excitation of standing wave. (NEDO)

  14. Study of oxide and α-Zr(O) growth kinetics from high temperature steam oxidation of Zircaloy-4 cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawarn, Tapan K., E-mail:; Banerjee, Suparna, E-mail:; Samanta, Akanksha, E-mail:; Rath, B.N., E-mail:; Kumar, Sunil, E-mail:


    Oxidation kinetics of Zircaloy-4 cladding of fuel pins of Indian pressurized heavy water reactors (IPHWRs) under a simulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) condition was investigated. The kinetic rate constants for the oxide and oxygen stabilized α-Zr phase growth were established from the isothermal metal-steam reaction at high temperatures (900–1200 °C) with soaking periods in the range of 60–900 s. Oxide and α-Zr(O) layer thickness were measured to derive the respective growth rates. The observed rates obeyed a parabolic law and Arrhenius expressions of rate constants were established. Percentage equivalent clad reacted (%ECR) was calculated using Baker-Just equation. Hydrogen estimation was carried out on the oxidized samples using inert gas fusion technique. The hydrogen pick up was found to be in the range 10–30 ppm. The measured values of oxide and α-Zr(O) layer thickness were compared with the results obtained using OXYCON, an indigenously developed model. The model predicts the oxide growth reasonably well but under predicts the α-Zr(O) growth significantly at thickness values higher than 80 μm. - Highlights: • Steam oxidation kinetics of IPHWR fuel cladding material, Zircaloy-4 in the temperature range 900–1200 °C has been studied. • The growth kinetics of the oxide and α-Zr(O) were established from the microstructural analysis. • An indigenously developed model, OXYCON has been validated against the experimental data. • The hydrogen pick up in the cladding during oxidation was observed to be in the range 10–30 ppm.

  15. Resistance to High-Temperature Oxidation and Wear of Various Ferrous Alloys Used in Rolling Mills (United States)

    Delaunois, Fabienne; Stanciu, Victor Ioan; Sinnaeve, Mario


    Various materials are commonly used to manufacture work rolls for hot rolling mills, such as ICDP (Indefinite Chill Double Pour) cast irons, high-chromium white cast irons, and high speed steels (HSS). Various chemical compositions and microstructures are studied in order to optimize the in-use behavior of those grades of rolls. In this paper, six grades of ferrous alloys (an ICDP cast iron; an ICDP cast iron enriched in vanadium, niobium, and molybdenum; a HSS; a graphitic HSS; a high-chromium white cast iron (Hi-Cr); and a niobium-molybdenum-doped high-chromium white cast iron) were investigated. High-temperature oxidation tests with gravimetric means at 575 °C in water vapor atmosphere and sliding wear tests were carried out. The oxidation kinetics was followed during oxidation test. The microstructure was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopies. The oxides formed on the surface of the samples were analyzed by XRD and EDS. The thickness of the oxide scales and the mass gain were measured after oxidation test. The results showed that the behavior of all the grades differed. The oxide scale of HSS and HSS-G grades was fine and their friction coefficient was low. The weight gain after oxidation test of HSS was high. Hi-Cr and M-Hi-Cr grades presented highly porous oxide layer and an important increase of the friction coefficient during wear test. ICDP and M-ICDP had intermediate behavior.

  16. High membrane protein oxidation in the human cerebral cortex


    Granold, Matthias; Moosmann, Bernd; Staib-Lasarzik, Irina; Arendt, Thomas; del Rey, Adriana; Engelhard, Kristin; Behl, Christian; Hajieva, Parvana


    Oxidative stress is thought to be one of the main mediators of neuronal damage in human neurodegenerative disease. Still, the dissection of causal relationships has turned out to be remarkably difficult. Here, we have analyzed global protein oxidation in terms of carbonylation of membrane proteins and cytoplasmic proteins in three different mammalian species: aged human cortex and cerebellum from patients with or without Alzheimer's disease, mouse cortex and cerebellum from young and old anim...

  17. Hot corrosion behavior of TC11 titanium alloy treated by laser shock processing (United States)

    Hua, Yinqun; Bai, Yuchuan; Ye, Yunxia; Xue, Qing; Liu, Haixia; Chen, Ruifang; Chen, Kangmin


    The aim of this research is to improve the hot corrosion resistance of TC11 titanium alloy by laser shock processing. Specimens were treated by laser shock processing on the whole surface. The hot corrosion resistance beneath Na2SO4 containing 20 wt.% NaCl salt deposits at 650 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C in air was investigated. The effects of LSP impacts on surface microstructure, residual stress, and microstructure after hot corrosion were investigated by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction technology, and scanning electron microscope. Results show that laser shock processing can induce -295 MPa compressive residual stresses. The microstructure after LSP was characterized by a high amount of twins and highly tangled and dense dislocation arrangements. We even observed nano-crystallization. More protective oxidation films were remained on the surface of laser shocked specimens after hot corrosion, and it mainly consists of TiO2, Al2O3, MoO3, etc. The average corrosion rate of TC11 titanium alloy treated by laser shock processing is more than 50% lower than that of the untreated alloy.

  18. High Transparent Conductive Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films by Reactive Co-Sputtering (Postprint) (United States)



  19. Potential value of color-coded dynamic breast-specific gamma-imaging; comparing {sup 99m}Tc-(V)-DMSA, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, and {sup 99m}Tc-HDP in a mouse mammary tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. van, E-mail: fw.v.leeuwen@nki.n [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buckle, Tessa; Batteau, Lukas; Pool, Bert; Sinaasappel, Michiel [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jonkers, Jos [Department of Molecular Biology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gilhuijs, Kenneth G.A. [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Using a mouse mammary tumor model based on orthotopic transplantation of luciferase-expressing mouse ILC cells (KEP1-Luc cells), we evaluated the diagnostic value of three clinically applied tracers: {sup 99m}Tc-(V)-DMSA, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, and {sup 99m}Tc-HDP. Uptake of the tracers is compared using static and dynamic imaging procedures. We found that dynamic imaging in combination with pixel-by-pixel color coding has an added value over (high resolution) static imaging procedures. Such dynamic imaging procedures could enhance the potential of breast-specific gamma-imaging.

  20. Electrosynthesis of highly transparent cobalt oxide water oxidation catalyst films from cobalt aminopolycarboxylate complexes. (United States)

    Bonke, Shannon A; Wiechen, Mathias; Hocking, Rosalie K; Fang, Xi-Ya; Lupton, David W; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Spiccia, Leone


    Efficient catalysis of water oxidation represents one of the major challenges en route to efficient sunlight-driven water splitting. Cobalt oxides (CoOx ) have been widely investigated as water oxidation catalysts, although the incorporation of these materials into photoelectrochemical devices has been hindered by a lack of transparency. Herein, the electrosynthesis of transparent CoOx catalyst films is described by utilizing cobalt(II) aminopolycarboxylate complexes as precursors to the oxide. These complexes allow control over the deposition rate and morphology to enable the production of thin, catalytic CoOx films on a conductive substrate, which can be exploited in integrated photoelectrochemical devices. Notably, under a bias of 1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the film deposited from [Co(NTA)(OH2 )2 ](-) (NTA=nitrilotriacetate) decreased the transmission by only 10 % at λ=500 nm, but still generated >80 % of the water oxidation current produced by a [Co(OH2 )6 ](2+) -derived oxide film whose transmission was only 40 % at λ=500 nm. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Thermogravimetric study of oxidation of a PdCr alloy used for high-temperature sensors (United States)

    Boyd, Darwin L.; Zeller, Mary V.


    In this study, the oxidation of Pd-13 weight percent Cr, a candidate alloy for high-temperature strain gages, was investigated by thermogravimetry. Although the bulk alloy exhibits linear electrical resistivity versus temperature and stable resistivity at elevated temperatures, problems attributed to oxidation occur when this material is fabricated into strain gages. In this work, isothermal thermogravimetry (TG) was used to study the oxidation kinetics. Results indicate that the oxidation of Pd-13 weight percent Cr was approximately parabolic in time at 600 C but exhibited greater passivation from 700 to 900 C. At 1100 C, the oxidation rate again increased.

  2. Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.


    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resin’s ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

  3. Hydrogen oxidation at high pressure and intermediate temperatures: experiments and kinetic modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Gersen, Sander


    Hydrogen oxidation at 50 bar and temperatures of 700–900 K was investigated in a high pressure laminar flow reactor under highly diluted conditions. The experiments provided information about H 2 oxidation at pressures above the third explosion limit. The fuel–air equivalence ratio of the reactants...

  4. Evaluation of the technical performance of novel holotranscobalamin (holoTC) assays in a multicenter European demonstration project. (United States)

    Morkbak, Anne L; Heimdal, Randi M; Emmens, Kathleen; Molloy, Anne; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Schneede, Joern; Clarke, Robert; Scott, John M; Ueland, Per M; Nexo, Ebba


    A commercially available holotranscobalamin (holo-TC) radioimmunoassay (RIA) (Axis-Shield, Dundee, Scotland) was evaluated in four laboratories and compared with a holoTC ELISA run in one laboratory. The performance of the holoTC RIA assay was comparable in three of the four participating laboratories. The results from these three laboratories, involving at least 20 initial runs of "low", "medium" and "high" serum-based controls (mean holoTC concentrations 34, 60 and 110 pmol/L, respectively) yielded an intra-laboratory imprecision of 6-10%. No systematic inter-laboratory deviations were observed on runs involving 72 patient samples (holoTC concentration range 10-160 pmol/L). A fourth laboratory demonstrated higher assay imprecision for control samples and systematic deviation of results for the patient samples. Measurement of holoTC by ELISA showed an imprecision of 4-5%, and slightly higher mean values for the controls (mean holoTC concentrations 40, 70 and 114 pmol/L, respectively). Comparable results were obtained for the patient samples. The long-term intra-laboratory imprecision was 12% for the holoTC RIA and 6% for the ELISA. In conclusion, it would be prudent to check the calibration and precision prior to starting to use these holoTC assays in research or clinical practice. The results obtained using the holoTC RIA were similar to those obtained using the holoTC ELISA assay.

  5. Whippits, nitrous oxide and the dangers of legal highs. (United States)

    Thompson, Alexander G; Leite, M Isabel; Lunn, Michael P; Bennett, David L H


    Nitrous oxide is increasingly being used as a recreational drug. Prolonged use of nitrous oxide can have disabling neurological sequelae due to functional inactivation of vitamin B₁₂. We present three cases illustrating the neurological complications of using nitrous oxide. Two of these patients received nitrous oxide as a consequence of repeated hospital attendance and the third via 'Whippit' canisters used in cream dispensers, which are now widely available. Two patients developed sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy with demyelinating features with no clinical or imaging evidence of myelopathy, emphasising that not all patients develop subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord (the typical presentation of functional vitamin B12 deficiency). The diagnosis was based upon the history of nitrous oxide use and raised levels of homocysteine and/or methylmalonic acid. All patients were treated with parenteral vitamin B12 with partial recovery, though two were left significantly disabled. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  6. TC-99 Decontaminant from heat treated gaseous diffusion membrane -Phase I, Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Restivo, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Uranium gaseous diffusion cascades represent a significant environmental challenge to dismantle, containerize and dispose as low-level radioactive waste. Baseline technologies rely on manual manipulations involving direct access to technetium-contaminated piping and materials. There is a potential to utilize novel decontamination technologies to remove the technetium and allow for on-site disposal of the very large uranium converters. Technetium entered these gaseous diffusion cascades as a hexafluoride complex in the same fashion as uranium. Technetium, as the isotope Tc-99, is an impurity that follows uranium in the first cycle of the Plutonium and Uranium Extraction (PUREX) process. The technetium speciation or exact form in the gaseous diffusion cascades is not well defined. Several forms of Tc-99 compounds, mostly the fluorinated technetium compounds with varying degrees of volatility have been speculated by the scientific community to be present in these cascades. Therefore, there may be a possibility of using thermal or leaching desorption, which is independent of the technetium oxidation states, to perform an insitu removal of the technetium as a volatile species and trap the radionuclide on sorbent traps which could be disposed as low-level waste. Based on the positive results of the first part of this work1 the use of steam as a thermal decontamination agent was further explored with a second piece of used barrier material from a different location. This new series of tests included exposing more of the material surface to the flow of high temperature steam through the change in the reactor design, subjecting it to alternating periods of stream and vacuum, as well as determining if a lower temperature steam, i.e., 121°C (250°F) would be effective, too. Along with these methods, one other simpler method involving the leaching of the Tc-99 contaminated barrier material with a 1.0 M aqueous solution of ammonium carbonate, with and without sonication, was

  7. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)


    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  8. High-Temperature Oxidation of Plutonium Surrogate Metals and Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, Joshua C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement (PMDA) is a nuclear non-proliferation agreement designed to remove 34 tons of weapons-grade plutonium from Russia and the United States. While several removal options have been proposed since the agreement was first signed in 2000, processing the weapons-grade plutonium to mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel has remained the leading candidate for achieving the goals of the PMDA. However, the MOX program has received its share of criticisms, which causes its future to be uncertain. One alternative pathway for plutonium disposition would involve oxidizing the metal followed by impurity down blending and burial in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This pathway was investigated by use of a hybrid microwave and a muffle furnace with Fe and Al as surrogate materials. Oxidation occurred similarly in the microwave and muffle furnace; however, the microwave process time was significantly faster.

  9. Recent achievements in Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical direct production by medical cyclotrons. (United States)

    Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Pasquali, Micol; Uccelli, Licia


    99mTc is the most commonly used radionuclide in the field of diagnostic imaging, a noninvasive method intended to diagnose a disease, assess the disease state and monitor the effects of treatments. Annually, the use of 99mTc, covers about 85% of nuclear medicine applications. This isotope releases gamma rays at about the same wavelength as conventional X-ray diagnostic equipment, and owing to its short half-life (t½ = 6 h) is ideal for diagnostic nuclear imaging. A patient can be injected with a small amount of 99mTc and within 24 h almost 94% of the injected radionuclide would have decayed and left the body, limiting the patient's radiation exposure. 99mTc is usually supplied to hospitals through a 99Mo/99mTc radionuclide generator system where it is produced from the β decay of the parent nuclide 99Mo (t½ = 66 h), which is produced in nuclear reactors via neutron fission. Recently, the interruption of the global supply chain of reactor-produced 99Mo, has forced the scientific community to investigate alternative production routes for 99mTc. One solution was to consider cyclotron-based methods as potential replacement of reactor-based technology and the nuclear reaction 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc emerged as the most worthwhile approach. This review reports some achievements about 99mTc produced by medical cyclotrons. In particular, the available technologies for target design, the most efficient extraction and separation procedure developed for the purification of 99mTc from the irradiated targets, the preparation of high purity 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals and the first clinical studies carried out with cyclotron produced 99mTc are described.

  10. Phyto extraction of {sup 99}Tc on soil cores with aged contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoura, S.T.; Echevarria, G.; Morel, J.L. [Institut National Polytechnique, Lab. Sols et Environnement, ENSAIA/INRA-INPL, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Massoura, S.T.; Leclerc-Cessac, E. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, ANDRA, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Denys, D. [INERIS, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (France)


    {sup 99}Tc is an artificial radionuclide which is found in high-activity and long-lived nuclear waste. This work was designed to study the phyto-extraction of {sup 99}Tc in soils that had received aged contamination and to monitor the resulting {sup 99}Tc concentrations in the soil solution of undisturbed soil cores in a greenhouse. Undisturbed soil cores had been sampled previously from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a Fluvic cambisol (F) and a Dystric cambisol (D), using 0.5-m diameter PVC tubing (3 samples/soil type) without disturbing soil structure (1). Each core was equipped with two nylon porous cups (respectively 20 and 35 cm deep) and a final leachate collector. A {sup 99}TcNO{sub 3} solution had been supplied at the soil surface of each core during the two previous years (4200 kBq in total) in which maize and wheat had been successively cropped. These two crops had already removed 30-65% of total contamination before the present study. After the second year no more {sup 99}Tc was added to the cores. Thereafter, Lolium perenne was cultivated for 20 successive months. {sup 99}Tc was determined in both plant aerial parts and water samples (from both cups and collectors), and the balance of {sup 99}Tc in the system was established after phyto-extraction. Results showed that transfer of {sup 99}Tc to plants vary among soils: 7% on soil R to 11% on soil D. Concentration of {sup 99}Tc in the porous cups dramatically decreased in all soils. The plants maintained low and stable concentration levels of {sup 99}Tc in the soil solution which decreased the potential migration of the radionuclide through the cores: The leaching of {sup 99}Tc in the final collectors of the R soil cores decreased from 18 to 1.7 Bq mL{sup -1}. (author)

  11. The oxidation of aluminum at high temperature studied by Thermogravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, Eric Nicholas


    The oxidation in air of high-purity Al foil was studied as a function of temperature using Thermogravimetric Analysis with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA/DSC). The rate and/or extent of oxidation was found to be a non-linear function of the temperature. Between 650 and 750 ÀC very little oxidation took place; at 850 ÀC oxidation occurred after an induction period, while at 950 ÀC oxidation occurred without an induction period. At oxidation temperatures between 1050 and 1150 ÀC rapid passivation of the surface of the aluminum foil occurred, while at 1250 ÀC and above, an initial rapid mass increase was observed, followed by a more gradual increase in mass. The initial rapid increase was accompanied by a significant exotherm. Cross-sections of oxidized specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the observed alumina skin thicknesses correlated qualitatively with the observed mass increases.

  12. A new aerobic chemolithoautotrophic arsenic oxidizing microorganism isolated from a high Andean watershed. (United States)

    Anguita, Javiera M; Rojas, Claudia; Pastén, Pablo A; Vargas, Ignacio T


    Biological arsenic oxidation has been suggested as a key biogeochemical process that controls the mobilization and fate of this metalloid in aqueous environments. To the best of our knowledge, only four aerobic chemolithoautotrophic arsenite-oxidizing (CAO) bacteria have been shown to grow via direct arsenic oxidation and to have the essential genes for chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidation. In this study, a new CAO bacterium was isolated from a high Andean watershed evidencing natural dissolved arsenic attenuation. The bacterial isolate, designated TS-1, is closely related to the Ancylobacter genus, in the Alphaproteobacteria class. Results showed that TS-1 has genes for arsenite oxidation and carbon fixation. The dependence of bacterial growth from arsenite oxidation was demonstrated. In addition, a mathematical model was suggested and the kinetic parameters were obtained by simultaneously fitting the biomass growth, arsenite depletion curves, and arsenate production. This research increases the knowledge of chemolithoautotrophic arsenic oxidizing microorganisms and its potential role as a driver for natural arsenic attenuation.

  13. High conducting oxide--sulfide composite lithium superionic conductor (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Dudney, Nancy J.; Keum, Jong Kahk; Rondinone, Adam Justin


    A solid electrolyte for a lithium-sulfur battery includes particles of a lithium ion conducting oxide composition embedded within a lithium ion conducting sulfide composition. The lithium ion conducting oxide composition can be Li.sub.7La.sub.3Zr.sub.2O.sub.12 (LLZO). The lithium ion conducting sulfide composition can be .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 (LPS). A lithium ion battery and a method of making a solid electrolyte for a lithium ion battery are also disclosed.

  14. Highly porous ceramic oxide aerogels having improved flexibility (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Nguyen, Baochau N. (Inventor)


    Ceramic oxide aerogels incorporating periodically dispersed flexible linkages are provided. The flexible linkages impart greater flexibility than the native aerogels without those linkages, and have been shown to reduce or eliminate the need for supercritical CO.sub.2-mediated drying of the corresponding wet gels. The gels may also be polymer cross-linked via organic polymer chains that are attached to and extend from surface-bound functional groups provided or present over the internal surfaces of a mesoporous ceramic oxide particle network via appropriate chemical reactions.

  15. A new class of high capacity cation-disordered oxides for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li–Ni–Ti–Mo oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jinhyuk; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Twu, Nancy; Li, Xin; Ceder, Gerbrand


    We present a new class of high capacity cation-disordered materials, lithium-excess nickel titanium molybdenum oxides, which deliver a capacity up to 250 mAh/g. These materials were designed from percolation theory which predicts lithium diffusion to become facile in cation-disordered oxides as the lithium-excess level (x > 0 in Li1+xTM1-xO2) increases. The reversible capacity and rate capability in these compounds are shown to considerably improve with lithium excess. In particular, Li1.2Ni1/3Ti1/3Mo2/15O2 delivers up to 250 mAh/g and 750Wh/kg (~3080 Wh/l) at 10 mA/g. Combining in situ X-ray diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, we propose that first charging Li1.2Ni1/3Ti1/3Mo2/15O2 to 4.8 V occurs with Ni2+/Ni~3+ oxidation, oxygen loss, and oxygen oxidation in this sequence, after which Mo6+ and Ti4+ can be reduced upon discharge. Furthermore, we discuss how oxygen loss with lattice densification can affect lithium diffusion in the material by decreasing the Li-excess level. From this understanding, strategies for further improvements are proposed, setting new guidelines for the design of high performance cation-disordered oxides for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  16. Facile Synthesis of Highly Active and Robust Ni-Mo Bimetallic Electrocatalyst for Hydrocarbon Oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, B.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.-Q.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.-F.; Yan, N.; Li, J.; Luo, J.L.


    We report a novel Ni–Mo bimetallic alloy decorated with multimicrocrystals as an efficient anode catalyst for hydrocarbon-fueled solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). We show that these Ni–Mo bimetallic alloys are highly active, thermally stable, and sulfur/coke tolerant electrocatalysts for hydrocarbon

  17. High temperature cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion behaviours of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Oxidation and hot corrosion are serious problems in aircraft, marine, industrial, and land-base gas turbines. It is because of the usage of wide range of fuels coupled with increased operating temperatures, which leads to the degradation of turbine engines. To obviate these problems, superalloys, viz. Superni 75,.

  18. High temperature cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion behaviours of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oxidation and hot corrosion are serious problems in aircraft, marine, industrial, and land-base gas turbines. It is because of the usage of wide range of fuels coupled with increased operating temperatures, which leads to the degradation of turbine engines. To obviate these problems, superalloys, viz. Superni 75, Superni ...

  19. High Temperature Reactions of Uranium Dioxide with Various Metal Oxides (United States)


    difficulties described in (2) and (3). However, sagging of the helix, blocking the line of sight, was a troublesome problem . REFRACTORY METAL HEATER...Jr., Uranium oxide phase equilibrium systems: IV, UOr- ThOg , J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 36, 397 (1953). [20] H. von Wartenberg and E. Prophet, Melting diagrams

  20. High Temperature Strength of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clauer, A.H.; Hansen, Niels


    The tensile flow stress of coarse-grained dispersion strengthened Al-Al2O3 materials were measured as a function of temperature (77–873 K) and volume fraction (0.19-0.92 vol.%) of aluminium oxide. For the same material, the creep strength was determined as a function of temperature in the range 573...

  1. Long-Term Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of Wrought Commercial Alloys at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bingtao [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The oxidation resistance of a high-temperature alloy is dependent upon sustaining the formation of a protective scale, which is strongly related to the alloying composition and the oxidation condition. The protective oxide scale only provides a finite period of oxidation resistance owing to its eventual breakdown, which is especially accelerated under thermal cycling conditions. This current study focuses on the long-term cyclic oxidation behavior of a number of commercial wrought alloys. The alloys studied were Fe- and Ni-based, containing different levels of minor elements, such as Si, Al, Mn, and Ti. Oxidation testing was conducted at 1000 and 1100 C in still air under both isothermal and thermal cycling conditions (1-day and 7-days). The specific aspects studied were the oxidation behavior of chromia-forming alloys that are used extensively in industry. The current study analyzed the effects of alloying elements, especially the effect of minor element Si, on cyclic oxidation resistance. The behavior of oxide scale growth, scale spallation, subsurface changes, and chromium interdiffusion in the alloy were analyzed in detail. A novel model was developed in the current study to predict the life-time during cyclic oxidation by simulating oxidation kinetics and chromium interdiffusion in the subsurface of chromia-forming alloys.

  2. High-temperature Oxidation of Fe-Cr Steels in Steam Condition – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedi Kurniawan


    Full Text Available The development of supercritical (SC and ultra-supercritical (USC power plants requires materials with better corrosion properties. Deep understanding on the oxidation mechanism in the boiler environment is one of the important factors to support this development. In this work, high temperature oxidation of Fe-Cr steels in steam condition is reviewed.  Several mechanisms that explain the effect of water vapor in the oxidation behavior the steel were presented.

  3. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Yan, Yanfa; Coutts, Timothy J.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Dehart, Clay M.


    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  4. Redox chemistry of Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) in dilute to concentrated NaCl and MgCl{sub 2} solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcintas, Ezgi; Gaona, Xavier; Altmaier, Marcus; Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Rossendorf Beamline (ROBL) at ESRF, Grenoble (France); Kobayashi, Taishi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The redox behaviour of Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) was investigated within the pH{sub c} range 2-14.6 in (0.5 M and 5.0 M) NaCl and (0.25 M, 2.0 M and 4.5 M) MgCl{sub 2} solutions in the presence of different reducing agents (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Sn(II), Fe(II)/Fe(III), Fe powder) and macroscopic amounts of Fe minerals (magnetite, mackinawite, siderite: S/L = 20-30 g L{sup -1}). In the first group of samples, the decrease of the initial Tc concentration (1 x 10{sup -5} M, as Tc(VII)) indicated the reduction to Tc(IV) according to the chemical reaction TcO{sub 4}{sup -} + 4H{sup +} + 3e{sup -} <=> TcO{sub 2} . 1.6H{sub 2}O(s) + 0.4H{sub 2}O. Redox speciation of Tc in the aqueous phase was further confirmed by solvent extraction. A good agreement is obtained between the experimentally determined Tc redox distribution and thermodynamic calculations based on NEA-TDB (Nuclear Energy Agency, Thermochemical Database) and ionic strength corrections by SIT or Pitzer approaches. These observations indicate that experimental pH{sub c} and E{sub h} values in buffered systems can be considered as reliable parameters to predict the redox behaviour of Tc in dilute to highly concentrated NaCl and MgCl{sub 2} solutions. E{sub h} of the system and aqueous concentration of Tc(IV) in equilibrium with TcO{sub 2} . 1.6H{sub 2}O(s) are strongly affected by elevated ionic strength, especially in the case of 4.5 M MgCl{sub 2} solutions. In such concentrated brines and under alkaline conditions (pH{sub c} = pH{sub max} ∝ 9), kinetics play a relevant role and thermodynamic equilibrium for the system Tc(IV)(aq) <=> Tc(IV)(s) was not attained from oversaturation conditions within the timeframe of this study (395 days). Tc(VII) is reduced to Tc(IV) by magnetite, mackinawite and siderite suspensions at pH{sub c} = 8-9 in concentrated NaCl and MgCl{sub 2} solutions. Sorption is very high in all cases (R{sub d} ≥ 10{sup 3} L kg{sup -1}), although Rd values are significantly lower in 4.5 M MgCl{sub 2

  5. Anaerobic model for high-solids or high-temperature digestion - additional pathway of acetate oxidation. (United States)

    Wett, B; Takács, I; Batstone, D; Wilson, C; Murthy, S


    Current anaerobic digestion models cannot properly simulate processes that are operated under high solids concentrations or high temperatures. A modification to existing models has been implemented by adding important missing degradation pathways, to accommodate these systems without artificially recalibrating the model parameters. Specifically, we implemented the alternate acetate oxidizing mechanism that is more tolerant to ammonia than the standard aceticlastic pathway. Inhibition values were estimated and an empirical function has been used to apply ammonia inhibition. The model also relates metabolic activity to un-ionised species such as undissociated acetic acid as substrate (although not obligatory for all organisms) and unionised ammonia as inhibitor. The model relies on an equilibrium chemistry module (e.g. including the phosphate buffer), resulting in more accurate pH predictions, which is crucial for proper modeling of CO2 and NH3 stripping. Calibration results from three case-studies modeling thermal hydrolysis and subsequent digestion of sludge are presented.

  6. Imaging endocarditis with Tc-99m-labeled antibody--an experimental study: concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, D.W.; Dhawan, V.K.; Tanaka, T.; Mishkin, F.S.; Reese, I.C.; Thadepalli, H.


    The sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m-labeled antibacterial antibody (Tc-99m Ab) for detecting bacterial endocarditis were evaluated in an experimental model. Rabbit-produced antistaphylococcal antibody was extracted using Rivanol and chemically labeled with Tc-99m. This Tc-99m Ab was injected intravenously in New Zealand rabbits 24 hr after producing Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis of the aortic valve. Imaging and tissue analyses were performed on the following day. All 11 animals developed S. aureus aortic-valve vegetations and showed increased uptake of Tc-99m Ab at the aortic valve, 118 times higher than at the uninfected tricuspid valve. Although high hepatic radioactivity and anatomic uncertainties interfered with in vivo delineation of these lesions, images of the excised hearts showed all affected valves. Two rabbits inoculated with Escherichia coli did not develop endocarditis and had little uptake of Tc-99m Ab, while six rabbits with enterococcal endocarditis had no uptake of the Tc-99m Ab in their vegetations. The findings suggest potential value of Tc-99m Ab on the rapid diagnosis of endocarditis.

  7. Use of 99mTc from a commercial 99Mo/9mTc generator as yield tracer for the determination of 99Tc at low levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Jensen, Mikael; Nielsen, Sven Poul


    The concentrations of Tc-99 and impurity radionuclides in the Tc-99m tracer solution obtained from a commercial Mo-99/Tc-99m generator were measured by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. Mo-99 and Ru-103 were found in the Tc-99m eluate. A simple separation using two extra alumina...

  8. High gas velocity oxidation and hot corrosion testing of oxide dispersion-strengthened nickel-base alloys (United States)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.


    Several oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) nickel-base alloys were tested in high velocity gases for cyclic oxidation resistance at temperatures to 1200 C and times to 500 hours and for hot corrosion resistance at 900 C for 200 hours. Nickel-chromium-aluminum ODS alloys were found to have superior resistance to oxidation and hot corrosion when compared to bare and coated nickel-chromium ODS alloys. The best of the alloys tested had compositions of nickel - 15.5 to 16 weight percent chromium with aluminum weight percents between 4.5 and 5.0. All of the nickel-chromium-aluminum ODS materials experienced small weight losses (less than 16 mg/sq cm).

  9. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: I. Effects on growth performance, liver function, and oxidative status. (United States)

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Zhao, J; Estienne, M J; Dalloul, R A


    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of a dietary antioxidant blend (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) and vitamin E on growth performance, liver function, and oxidative status in pigs fed diets high in oxidants. Crossbred barrows (n=100, 10.91±0.65 kg BW, 36±2 d of age, Landrace×Duroc) were allotted to 5 treatments on the basis of BW (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included 1) HO, high-oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soybean oil and 10% PUFA source (providing 2.05% docosahexaenoic acid in the diet), 2) VE, the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E, 3) AOX, the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg), 4) VE+AOX, the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend, and 5) SC, a standard corn-soy control diet. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet because the animals were displaying very poor health. Compared with SC pigs, HO pigs had decreased ADG (0.92 vs. 0.51 kg for d 26 to 55, 1.29 vs. 0.34 kg for d 56 to 82; Pdiet resulted in HO pigs having a greater ADG than VE-fed pigs from d 83 to 118 (0.90 vs. 0.60 kg; Pdiet (P>0.05) with greater G:F for the entire period (0.44 vs. 0.38; Pdiets had plasma and liver TBARS and carbonyl concentrations similar to those fed SC diets. In the oxidative stress model used in this study, dietary addition of antioxidant blend or antioxidant blend+vitaimin E was effective in improving growth, liver function, and plasma markers of oxidative stress, but VE alone was not.

  10. Highly NO2 sensitive caesium doped graphene oxide conductometric sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Piloto


    Full Text Available Here we report on the synthesis of caesium doped graphene oxide (GO-Cs and its application to the development of a novel NO2 gas sensor. The GO, synthesized by oxidation of graphite through chemical treatment, was doped with Cs by thermal solid-state reaction. The samples, dispersed in DI water by sonication, have been drop-casted on standard interdigitated Pt electrodes. The response of both pristine and Cs doped GO to NO2 at room temperature is studied by varying the gas concentration. The developed GO-Cs sensor shows a higher response to NO2 than the pristine GO based sensor due to the oxygen functional groups. The detection limit measured with GO-Cs sensor is ≈90 ppb.

  11. New perovskite-related oxides having high dielectric constant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    -based family of Ln2Ba2CaCu2Ti3O14.11,12 In this paper we report the synthesis, X-ray diffraction studies and the dielectric properties of two new similar perovskite oxides. La2Ba2CaZn2Ti3O14 and Pr2Ba2CaZn2Ti3O14 which appear to ...

  12. Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao


    In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

  13. Ca-Sr-Ga-Nb mixed oxide system for high temperature superconductor substrate applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdei, S.; Cross, L.E.; Ainger, F.W.; Bhalla, A. (Materials Research Lab., The Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Park, Pennsylvania (United States))


    Twin-free crystals with relatively low melting temperatures are desirable as substrates for high temperature superconductor (HTSC) oxide substrate materials. In the selection of new oxide substrate compositions, special requirements (e.g. suitable dielectric properties for microwave application and perovskite structure with good lattice matching with YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-[delta

  14. Novel high-activity catalysts for partial oxidation of methane to formaldehyde

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parmaliana, A


    Full Text Available Vanadium oxide-silica catalysts can effect the partial oxidation of methane to formaldehyde with extremely high activities and the space time yield (STY) can reach a value in excess of 800 g kg-1cat h-1; bare silica also shows appreciable STY value...

  15. High-temperature oxidation behaviour of Ti3 Alx C2 in air

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    than that of silicon at high temperature. The compound can be described by the formula, Ti3Si(1–x)AlxC2 (0 < x. < 0⋅16) (Zhu and Mei 2009). In the following ... phases of oxide using a rotating anode X-ray diffracto- meter (Model D/MAX-RB, RIGAKU Corporation,. Japan). The microstructures of oxide scales were investi-.

  16. Calcium Oxide Supported on Monoclinic Zirconia as a Highly Active Solid Base Catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, A.M.; Haasterecht, van T.; Jong, de K.P.; Bitter, J.H.


    Calcium oxide supported on ZrO2 is a highly active catalyst for base-catalyzed reactions such as aldol-type reactions and transesterification reactions. The role of key parameters during preparation, that is, impregnation versus precipitation, heat treatment, and metal oxide loading on the basicity

  17. High-performance aqueous asymmetric electrochemical capacitor based on graphene oxide/cobalt(II)-tetrapyrazinoporphyrazine hybrids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lekitima, JN


    Full Text Available A novel asymmetric electrochemical capacitor (AEC) with high energy and power densities has been developed using a graphene oxide/cobalt(II)tetrapyrazinoporphyrazine composite (GO/CoTPyzPz) as the positive electrode and graphene oxide/carbon black...

  18. Pd-Diimine : A Highly Selective Catalyst System for the Base-Free Oxidative Heck Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottumukkala, Aditya L.; Teichert, Johannes F.; Heijnen, Donis; Eisink, Niek; van Dijk, Simon; Ferrer, Catalina; van den Hoogenband, Adri; Minnaard, Adriaan J.


    Pd(OAc)(2)/3 is an efficient catalyst system for the base-free oxidative Heck reaction that outperforms the currently available catalysts for the more challenging substrates studied. The catalyst system is highly selective, and works at room temperature with dioxygen as the oxidant.

  19. Comparative study of high temperature oxidation behaviour in AISI 304 and AISI 439 stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Claret Soares Sabioni


    Full Text Available This work deals with a comparison of high temperature oxidation behaviour in AISI 304 austenitic and AISI 439 ferritic stainless steels. The oxidation experiments were performed between 850 and 950 °C, in oxygen and Ar (100 vpm H2. In most cases, it was formed a Cr2O3 protective scale, whose growth kinetics follows a parabolic law. The exception was for the the AISI 304 steel, at 950 °C, in oxygen atmosphere, which forms an iron oxide external layer. The oxidation resistance of the AISI 439 does not depend on the atmosphere. The AISI 304 has the same oxidation resistance in both atmospheres, at 850 °C, but at higher temperatures, its oxidation rate strongly increases in oxygen atmosphere. Concerning the performance of these steels under oxidation, our results show that the AISI 439 steel has higher oxidation resistance in oxidizing atmosphere, above 850 °C, while, in low pO2 atmosphere, the AISI 304 steel has higher oxidation resistance than the AISI 439, in all the temperature range investigated.

  20. Oxidative degradation of phenols in sono-Fenton-like systems upon high-frequency ultrasound irradiation (United States)

    Aseev, D. G.; Sizykh, M. R.; Batoeva, A. A.


    The kinetics of oxidative degradation of phenol and chlorophenols upon acoustic cavitation in the megahertz range (1.7 MHz) is studied experimentally in model systems, and the involvement of in situ generated reactive oxygen species (ROSs) is demonstrated. The phenols subjected to high frequency ultrasound (HFUS) are ranked in terms of their rate of conversion: 2,4,6-trichlorophenol > 2,4-dichlorophenol 2-chlorophenol > 4-chlorophenol phenol. Oxidative degradation upon HFUS irradiation is most efficient at low concentrations of pollutants, due to the low steady-state concentrations of the in situ generated ROSs. A dramatic increase is observed in the efficiency of oxidation in several sonochemical oxidative systems (HFUS in combination with other chemical oxidative factors). The system with added Fe2+ (a sono-Fenton system) derives its efficiency from hydrogen peroxide generated in situ as a result of the recombination of OH radicals. The S2O8 2-/Fe2+/HFUS system has a synergetic effect on substrate oxidation that is attributed to a radical chain mechanism. In terms of the oxidation rates, degrees of conversion, and specific energy efficiencies of 4-chlorophenol oxidation based on the amount of oxidized substance per unit of expended energy the considered sonochemical oxidative systems form the series HFUS < S2O8 2-/HFUS < S2O8 2-/Fe2+/HFUS.

  1. Measure of the magnitude of Young's modulus in whisker-like samples of the Bi-based high-Tc materials Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub x and Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 Ca sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tritt, T.M.; Ehrlich, A.C.; Gillespie, D.J. (Materials Physics Branch, Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (USA)); Marone, M.; Chen Xinfen; Skove, M.J.; Tessema, G.X. (Clemson Univ., Dept. of Physics, SC (USA)); Franck, J.P.; Jung, J. (Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Physics, Edmonton, AB (Canada))


    We have measured Young's modulus in ribbon-like whisker samples of the high-Tc materials: Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}. This is the first direct measurement of Young's modulus for whiskers of any of the high Tc materials. We used a stress-strain probe that applies an axial force (uniaxial stress) to the whisker-like sample and simultaneously measures the corresponding sample elongation. The slope of the resulting stress-strain curve yields the magnitude of Young's modulus (Y). We found these Bi based high-Tc materials to be soft with Y {approx equal} 20 GPa for Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x} and Y {approx equal} 25 GPa for Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}. (orig.).

  2. Transient analysis of nuclear graphite oxidation for high temperature gas cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei, E-mail:; Shi, Lei; Zheng, Yanhua


    Graphite is widely used as moderator, reflector and structural materials in the high temperature gas-cooled reactor pebble-bed modular (HTR-PM). In normal operating conditions or water/air ingress accident, the nuclear graphite in the reactor may be oxidized by air or steam. Oxidation behavior of nuclear graphite IG-110 which is used as the structural materials and reflector of HTR-PM is mainly researched in this paper. To investigate the penetration depth of oxygen in IG-110, this paper developed the one dimensional spherical oxidation model. In the oxidation model, the equations considered graphite porosity variation with the graphite weight loss. The effect of weight loss on the effective diffusion coefficient and the oxidation rate was also considered in this model. Based on this theoretical model, this paper obtained the relative concentration and local weight loss ratio profile in graphite. In addition, the local effective diffusion coefficient and oxidation rate in the graphite were also investigated.

  3. Comparative {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin uptake in human soft tissue sarcoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M.; Chehne, F.; Sinzinger, H. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Vienna (Austria); Kalinowska, W.; Zielinski, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital, Vienna (Austria)


    The uptake characteristics of technetium-99m hexakis-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI), {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin in human soft tissue sarcoma cell lines were investigated and compared. After 10-120 min of incubation at 37 C, 32 C and 22 C with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin, the kinetics of cellular uptake of these tracers in human soft tissue sarcoma cells SW 684 (fibrosarcoma), SW 872 (liposarcoma), SW 982 (synovial sarcoma) and SW 1353 (chondrosarcoma) was assessed. The uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin was temperature dependent. The kinetics of uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin was similar between fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma cells, as well as between synovial sarcoma and chondrosarcoma cells. {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin showed similar uptake kinetics in all cell lines. The uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin was, however, significantly higher in liposarcoma than in the other cells. The data indicate that the cellular uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin is dependent on cellular metabolic activity. (orig.)

  4. {sup 99m}Tc-MDP and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintimammography in patients with clinically suspicious breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Moon Sun; Park, Chan H.; Kim, Su Zy; Yoon, Suk Nam; Park, Hee Boong [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    around the tumor on MDP scan than MIBI scan. The sensitivity of MDP-SM for the detection of breast lesions was 90% and 57% for the lymph node lesion. There were the same in MIBI scintimammography, but the quality of MDP images was inferior to that of MIBI. {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scintimammography can demonstrate malignant breast lesions during the preoperative bone scan with a high accuracy. However, the scan quality is not as good as MIBI scintimammography.

  5. High temperature superconductivity the road to higher critical temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, Shin-ichi


    This book presents an overview of material-specific factors that influence Tc and give rise to diverse Tc values for copper oxides and iron-based high- Tc superconductors on the basis of more than 25 years of experimental data, to most of which the author has made important contributions. The book then explains why both compounds are distinct from others with similar crystal structure and whether or not one can enhance Tc, which in turn gives a hint on the unresolved pairing mechanism. This is an unprecedented new approach to the problem of high-temperature superconductivity and thus will be inspiring to both specialists and non-specialists interested in this field.   Readers will receive in-depth information on the past, present, and future of high-temperature superconductors, along with special, updated information on what the real highest Tc values are and particularly on the possibility of enhancing Tc for each member material, which is important for application. At this time, the highest Tc has not been...

  6. Tc-99m-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in patients with carcinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajković Marina


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of Ki-67 proliferation index on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SSRS with Tc-99m-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC (Tc-99m-Tektrotyd somatostatin analogue in patients with carcinoid tumors. Sixty-one patients (31 female, 30 male; age range: 33-76 years were examined: 13 patients highly suspected of having a carcinoid, and 48 patients who had undergone the surgical removal of the tumor. Whole body SSRS at 4 h postinjection, spot scintigrams and SPECT of the selected regions were obtained for all patients. Tc-99m-Tektrotyd scintigraphy was classified as true positive in 26 out of 30 and true negative in 24 out of 28 patients. The sensitivity of Tc-99mTc-Tektrotyd scintigraphy was found to be as high as 94.74% in the group of patients with low mitotic index Ki67 (20%. The likelihood of Tc-99m-Tektrotyd scan being positive when a carcinoid is present was found to be inversely proportional to the value of Ki67 proliferation index. The results showed that Tc-99m-Tektrotyd SSRS is a sensitive method for diagnosing and staging patients with well-differentiated carcinoid tumors. However, in poorly differentiated tumors with high Ki67 proliferation index, additional analyses are necessary for precise staging.

  7. Lead (Pb) column for concentration of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukhari, T.H.; Khan, I.U. [Government College Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry; Mushtaq, A. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Isotope Production Division


    Because of the high content of inactive molybdenum in neutron irradiated MoO{sub 3}, large columns containing alumina or gel are needed to produce chromatographic {sup 99}Mo{yields}{sup 99m}Tc generator. This results in large elution volumes containing relatively high {sup 99}Mo breakthrough and low concentrations of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. The decrease in specific volume of {sup 99m}Tc places a limitation on reconstitution of some kits for {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals applied in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Hence concentration technique is mandatory for effective utilization of (n,{gamma}) produced {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generators at the start of its life whereas in case of fission {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator the technique may be quite useful at the end of first week of its life. We report post elution concentration of {sup 99m}Tc using in house prepared Pb column. The high bolus volumes (10-60 ml saline) can conveniently be concentrated in {proportional_to} 1 ml of saline. (orig.)

  8. A novel {sup 99m}Tc-labeled dimethyl-substituted zoledronic acid (DMIDP) with improved bone imaging efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, L.; Lin, J.; Luo, S.; Wang, Y.; Cheng, W.; Zhang, S. [Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi (China). Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine


    A novel zoledronic acid (ZL) derivative, 1-hydroxy-2-(2,4-dimethyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-ethane-1,1-diyldiphosphonic acid (DMIDP, dimezoledronate), was successfully prepared and labeled with {sup 99m}Tc in a high labeling yield. The biodistribution in mice shows that {sup 99m}Tc-DMIDP has significant advantage regarding bone resorption and clearance from soft tissues compared with {sup 99m}Tc-ZL and the clinically widely-used bone-imaging agent {sup 99m}Tc-MDP (methylenediphosphonic acid). Kinetics of blood clearance displayed that distribution half-life (T{sub 1/2{alpha}}) and elimination half-life (T{sub 1/2{beta}}) of {sup 99m}Tc-DMIDP were 2.53 min and 23.53 min, while those of {sup 99m}Tc-ZL were 2.28 and 52.63 min, respectively. Excellent images of the rabbit skeleton can be quickly obtained from {sup 99m}Tc-DMIDP, which was faster than {sup 99m}Tc-ZL and {sup 99m}Tc-MDP. The present findings indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-DMIDP possesses excellent potential for application as a novel bone scanning agent. (orig.)

  9. Fast removal of tetracycline from wastewater by reduced graphene oxide prepared via microwave-assisted ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid induction method. (United States)

    Yuan, Xingzhong; Wu, Zhibin; Zhong, Hua; Wang, Hou; Chen, Xiaohong; Leng, Lijian; Jiang, Longbo; Xiao, Zhihua; Zeng, Guangming


    A green reagent of ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) was reported herein for reduction of graphene oxide (GO) with microwave assistance. The characteristics of EDDS reduced graphene oxide (ERG), and the tetracycline (TC) adsorption behavior of ERG was investigated. The results showed that the deoxygenation efficiency of GO strongly depended on the EDDS amount and the ERG can be successively obtained by recycled EDDS. The ERG obtained at EDDS/GO ratio of 5 (ERG5) exhibited a maximum capacity of 558.66 mg/g for TC adsorption, which is superior to GO and ERGs obtained at other EDDS/GO ratio. The adsorption reached equilibrium within 10 min, and the driving forces are likely the van der Waals forces, π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction and cation-π bonding between TC and the ERG surface. The adsorbent dose, pH, temperature, initial TC concentration, and ionic strength significantly affect the TC adsorption. The pseudo-second-order kinetics describes TC adsorption process very well, with correlation coefficients (R (2) ) greater than 0.99. The adsorption isotherm was best fitted by Freundlich equation, followed by Langmuir, Temkin, and Hill model equations. Analysis on adsorption thermodynamics shows that the adsorption is a spontaneous endothermic process. The ERG could be a cost-effective and promising sorbent for TC wastewater treatment due to its high-efficiency performance in real river water, medical wastewater, and municipal wastewater.

  10. Hypoxia-induced redox alterations and their correlation with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and {sup 99m}Tc-HL-91 uptake in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrantes, Ana Margarida [Biophysics/Biomathematics Institute, IBILI, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Centre of Investigation on Environment Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal)], E-mail:; Silva Serra, Maria Elisa [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3000-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Goncalves, Ana Cristina [Biochemistry Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Centre of Investigation on Environment Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Rio, Joana; Oliveiros, Barbara; Laranjo, Mafalda [Biophysics/Biomathematics Institute, IBILI, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Rocha-Gonsalves, Antonio Manuel [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3000-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Centre of Investigation on Environment Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Sarmento-Ribeiro, Ana Bela [Biochemistry Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Centre of Investigation on Environment Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Filomena Botelho, Maria [Biophysics/Biomathematics Institute, IBILI, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Centre of Investigation on Environment Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal)


    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the Western world and is an example of a solid tumour in which hypoxia is a common feature and develops because of the inability of the vascular system to supply adequate amounts of oxygen to growing tumours. Hypoxia effects on tumour cell biology can be detected and characterized using different methods. The use of imaging with {gamma}-emitting radionuclides to detect hypoxic tissue was first suggested by Chapman in 1979 [N Engl J Med 301 (1979) 1429-1432]. {sup 99m}Tc-4,9-diaza-3,3,10,10-tetramethyldodecan-2,11-dione dioxime, also known as {sup 99m}Tc-HL-91, has been among the most studied hypoxia markers. The objective of this study was to correlate the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-HL-91 and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in colon cancer cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and to compare this information with some parameters such as oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction of the cells analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results show that the in vitro {sup 99m}Tc-HL-91 uptake is higher in hypoxic conditions, which is confirmed by the decreased uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI. Flow cytometry results demonstrate that hypoxic conditions used are not enough to induce cellular death, but are responsible for the alterations in the intracellular redox environment, namely, increase of ROS production, proteic pimonidazol-derived adduct formation and alteration in the mitochondrial membrane permeability. Therefore, these results confirm that {sup 99m}Tc-HL-91 is a radiopharmaceutical with favourable characteristics for detecting hypoxia.

  11. Caralluma fimbriata and metformin protection of rat pancreas from high fat diet induced oxidative stress. (United States)

    Sudhakara, G; Mallaiah, P; Rajendran, R; Saralakumari, D


    A high fat diet promotes oxidative stress, which contributes to the development of pancreatic fibrosis. We compared the protective effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) to metformin (Met) in the pancreas of Wistar rats fed a high fat diet. The experimental animals were divided into five groups: control (C), treated with CFE (C + CFE), treated with high fat diet (HFD), high fat diet treated with CFE (HFD + CFE), and high fat diet treated with metformin (Met) (HFD + Met). CFE was administered orally to groups C + CFE and HFD + CFE rats for 90 days. Met was given to the HFD + Met group. After 90 days, oxidative stress markers in the pancreas including reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid oxidation (LO), protein oxidation (PO), and activities of antioxidant and polyol pathway enzymes, aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) were assayed and tissue histology was examined. Establishment of oxidative stress in high fat diet fed rats was verified by elevated LO and PO, decreased GSH, decreased activities of antioxidants and increased activities of polyol pathway enzymes. Oxidative stress was prevented in HFD + CFE and HFD + Met groups. Group C + CFE exhibited improved antioxidant status compared to group C. CFE treatment prevented high fat diet induced acinar cell degeneration, necrosis, edema and hemorrhage. CFE could be used as adjuvant therapy for preventing or managing high fat diet induced pancreatic damage.

  12. Retention of 99mTc-bicisate in the human brain after intracarotid injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Andersen, A R; Lassen, N A


    flow (rCBF) was measured tomographically with the 133Xe inhalation technique. We applied a three-compartment kinetic model and algorithms modified from a previous analysis of 99mTc d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxide (HM-PAO) kinetics. The bicisate brain uptake and retention curve was very similar...

  13. Discordant results in Tc-99m tetrofosmin and Tc-99m sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphies


    Duarte, Paulo Schiavom; Domingues, Fernanda C.; Costa, Michele Santi; Brandão, Cynthia; Oliveira, Marco A.C. de; Vieira, José G.H.


    Parathyroid scintigraphies have been used to detect pathological parathyroid glands either before as well as after the parathyroid resection surgery in patients with hyperparathyroidism. One of the most utilized techniques to perform the studies is the double-phase images with Tc-99m sestamibi, which has been shown to be very accurate in the localization of enlarged parathyroid glands. Similar to Tc-99m sestamibi, Tc-99m tetrofosmin is a radiopharmaceutical initially developed to perform myoc...

  14. High performance high-κ/metal gate complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuit element on flexible silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.


    Thinned silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductor(CMOS)electronics can be physically flexible. To overcome challenges of limited thinning and damaging of devices originated from back grinding process, we show sequential reactive ion etching of silicon with the assistance from soft polymeric materials to efficiently achieve thinned (40 μm) and flexible (1.5 cm bending radius) silicon based functional CMOSinverters with high-κ/metal gate transistors. Notable advances through this study shows large area of silicon thinning with pre-fabricated high performance elements with ultra-large-scale-integration density (using 90 nm node technology) and then dicing of such large and thinned (seemingly fragile) pieces into smaller pieces using excimer laser. The impact of various mechanical bending and bending cycles show undeterred high performance of flexible siliconCMOSinverters. Future work will include transfer of diced silicon chips to destination site, interconnects, and packaging to obtain fully flexible electronic systems in CMOS compatible way.

  15. A New Class of High Z Nanocrystalline and Textured Oxide-Based Thermoelectric Material Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop high figure of merit (ZT) oxide-based thermoelectric materials. This will be accomplished by engineering a novel microstructure that will lead...

  16. Design of high Tc superconducting transformer for rolling stick (2). Study for AC loss.; Tetsudo sharyo yo koon chodendo hen'atsuki no gainen sekkei (2). Koryu sonshitsu no kento.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, H.; Kamijo, H.; Fujimoto, H. [Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Matsumura, K.; Iwakuma, M.; Funaki, K. [Kyushu Univ., Kyushu (Japan)


    There is a superconductive advantage for high current density energization, which originates for this with the low loss-ness. It can expect the drastic lightening by that is to say, it reduces the magnetic loading design basic parameter 1 turn voltages, and increasing the electric loading, when the superconductive technology was applied to the transformer. This time, the quantitative examination is reported, because we did it on the assumption of the adoption of present oxide superconducting wire rod in the superconduction of the transformer for the rolling stock. (NEDO)

  17. Technetium Removal Using Tc-Goethite Coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Jung, Hun Bok; Peterson, Reid A.


    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Low temperature waste forms coupled with technetium removal using an alternative immobilization process such as Fe(II) treated-goethite precipitation” to increase our understanding of 99Tc long-term stability in goethite mineral form and the process that controls the 99Tc(VII) reduction and removal by the final Fe (oxy)hydroxide forms. The overall objectives of this task were to 1) evaluate the transformation process of Fe (oxy)hydroxide solids to the more crystalline goethite (α-FeOOH) mineral for 99Tc removal and 2) determine the mechanism that limits 99Tc(IV) reoxidation in Fe(II)-treated 99Tc-goethite mineral and 3) evaluate whether there is a long-term 99Tcoxidation state change for Tc sequestered in the iron solids.

  18. Does cyclic stress play a role in highly crosslinked polyethylene oxidation? (United States)

    Medel, Francisco; Kurtz, Steven; MacDonald, Daniel; Pascual, Francisco Javier; Puértolas, José Antonio


    Minimizing the impact of oxidation on ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene components is important for preserving their mechanical integrity while in vivo. Among the strategies to reduce oxidation in modern first-generation highly crosslinked polyethylenes (HXLPEs), postirradiation remelting was considered to afford the greatest stability. However, recent studies have documented measurable oxidation in remelted HXLPE retrievals. Biologic prooxidants and physiologic loading have been proposed as potential mechanisms. In our pilot study, we asked: (1) Does cyclic stress induced by wear or (2) by cyclic compression loading increase oxidation and crystallinity of remelted HXLPE? (3) Does oxidative aging reduce the wear resistance of remelted HXLPE? Remelted and annealed HXLPE prisms (n = 1 per test condition) were tested in a wear simulator for 500,000 cycles. After wear testing, some samples were subjected to accelerated aging and then wear-tested again. Wear track volumes were characterized by confocal microscopy. Thin films (200-μm thick) were microtomed from wear prisms and then used for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy oxidation and crystallinity assessments. Remelted HXLPE compression cylinders (n = 1 per test condition) were subjected to fatigue experiments and similar oxidation characterization. Remelted HXLPE qualitatively showed low oxidation indices (≤ 1) when subjected either to cyclic loading or aging alone. However, oxidation levels almost doubled in near-surface regions when remelted HXLPE samples underwent consecutive cyclic loading, artificial aging, and cyclic loading steps. The type of loading (wear versus compression fatigue) appeared to not affect the oxidation behavior in the studied conditions. Annealed HXLPE showed higher oxidation (oxidation index > 3) than remelted HXLPE and delamination wear. No delamination wear was observed in remelted HXLPE in agreement with its comparatively low oxidation levels (oxidation index process or

  19. High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of T91 Steel in Dry and Humid Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghao Leong


    Full Text Available High temperature oxidation behavior of T91 ferritic/martensitic steel was examined over the temperature range of 500 to 700°C in dry and humid environments.  The weight gain result revealed that oxidation occurs at all range of temperatures and its rate is accelerated by increasing the temperature. The weight gain of the oxidized steel at 700°C in steam condition was six times bigger than the dry oxidation.. SEM/EDX of the cross-sectional image showed that under dry condition, a protective and steady growth of the chromium oxide (Cr2O3 layer was formed on the steel with the thickness of 2.39±0.34 µm. Meanwhile for the humid environment, it is found that the iron oxide layer, which consists of the hematite (Fe2O3 and magnetite (Fe3O4 was formed as the outer scale, and spinnel as inner scale. This result indicated that the oxidation behavior of T91 steel was affected by its oxidation environment. The existence of water vapor in steam condition may prevent the formation of chromium oxide as protective layer.

  20. Development of highly faceted reduced graphene oxide-coated copper oxide and copper nanoparticles on a copper foil surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ortega-Amaya


    Full Text Available This work describes the formation of reduced graphene oxide-coated copper oxide and copper nanoparticles (rGO-Cu2ONPs, rGO-CuNPs on the surface of a copper foil supporting graphene oxide (GO at annealing temperatures of 200–1000 °C, under an Ar atmosphere. These hybrid nanostructures were developed from bare copper oxide nanoparticles which grew at an annealing temperature of 80 °C under nitrogen flux. The predominant phase as well as the particle size and shape strongly depend on the process temperature. Characterization with transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicates that Cu or Cu2O nanoparticles take rGO sheets from the rGO network to form core–shell Cu–rGO or Cu2O–rGO nanostructures. It is noted that such ones increase in size from 5 to 800 nm as the annealing temperature increases in the 200–1000 °C range. At 1000 °C, Cu nanoparticles develop a highly faceted morphology, displaying arm-like carbon nanorods that originate from different facets of the copper crystal structure.

  1. FePt nanoalloys anchored reduced graphene oxide as high-performance electrocatalysts for formic acid and methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jinxue; Sun, Yanfang; Zhang, Xiao, E-mail:; Tang, Lin; Liu, Hongtian


    Highlights: • FePt alloy nanoparticles anchored RGO composites are successfully synthesized. • The alloying of Fe with Pt is demonstrated with XRD and elemental maps. • FePt/RGO show enhanced catalytic activity on FA/methanol oxidation than Pt/RGO. • FePt/RGO also exhibit improved tolerance to CO poisoning than Pt/RGO. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) supported FePt alloy nanoparticles are synthesized as high-performance electrocatalysts for methanol and formic acid (FA) oxidation. The microstructure, composition and morphology of the sample are systematically characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic tests reveal that, in comparison with pure Pt nanoparticles supported on RGO sheets, the FePt nanoalloys anchored RGO sheets deliver remarkably enhanced electrocatalytic performance on FA/methanol oxidation, improved tolerance to CO poisoning, and superior catalytic durability.

  2. Performance Characterization of Solid Oxide Cells Under High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Bonaccorso, Alfredo Damiano; Graves, Christopher R.


    In this work, recent pressurized test results of a planar Ni- YSZ (YSZ: Yttria stabilized Zirconia) supported solid oxide cell are presented. Measurements were performed at 800 C in both fuel cell and electrolysis mode at different pressures. A comparison of the electrochemical performance...... of the cell at 1 and 3 bar shows a significant and equal performance gain at higher pressure in both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the serial resistance was not affected by the operation pressure; all the other processes that are dependent...... on partial pressures (oxygen, steam and hydrogen) were affected by increasing the pressure. In electrolysis mode at low current density, the performance improvement was counteracted by the increase in open circuit voltage, but it has to be borne in mind that the pressurized gas contains higher molar free...

  3. The role of oxidative stress in high glucose-induced apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Xiang


    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that apoptosis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which hyperglycaemia induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis are not fully understood. The present study was designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress in high glucose-induced apoptosis in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. The MTT assay was used to detect the viability of cardiomyocytes exposed to different concentrations of glucose. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species with 2',7'-dichlorofluoresce diacetate staining and by detecting malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase in the supernatant of culture media. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy with Annexin V/PI staining. Our results showed that high glucose can induce oxidative stress and promote apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and the antioxidant can protect against high glucose-induced apoptosis, which suggests that oxidative stress is involved in high glucose-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, caspase-3 was found to be activated in the process of high glucose-induced oxidative stress, which subsequently contributes to increased apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that oxidative stress is involved in high glucose-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via activation of caspase-3.

  4. Milking technique of sup(99m)Tc generators and labeling efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehi, N.; Guignard, P.A. (Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)


    Increased levels of /sup 99/Tc in generator produced sup(99m)Tc have an adverse effect on the labelling efficiency of red blood cells and human serum albumin. A two-step milking technique in which the first 1-2 ml of eluate is discarded has been found to produce higher and more constant labelling efficiency of lymphocytes and platelets than a one-step procedure. Binding efficiency of platelet-rich plasma and lymphocytes with sup(99m)Tc is greater in the two-step technique. High activity concentration in the eluate for critical labelling is between 1.5-3 ml.

  5. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in skeletal muscle of humans exposed to high-altitude hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Pilegaard, Henriette; van Hall, Gerrit


    Recent research suggests that high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a model for prolonged oxidative stress in healthy humans. In this study, we investigated the consequences of prolonged high-altitude hypoxia on the basal level of oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in muscle cells, a major oxygen......-consuming tissue. Muscle biopsies from seven healthy humans were obtained at sea level and after 2 and 8 weeks of hypoxia at 4100 m.a.s.l. We found increased levels of strand breaks and endonuclease III-sensitive sites after 2 weeks of hypoxia, whereas oxidative DNA damage detected by formamidopyrimidine DNA......) was unaltered by prolonged hypoxia, in accordance with the notion that HO-1 is an acute stress response protein. In conclusion, our data indicate high-altitude hypoxia may serve as a good model for oxidative stress and that antioxidant genes are not upregulated in muscle tissue by prolonged hypoxia despite...

  6. Recent Progress in Nanostructured Oxide TE Materials for Power Generation at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini; Linderoth, Søren

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials, which can convert waste heat into electricity, could play an important role in a global sustainable energy solution and environmental problems. Metal oxides have been considered as potential TE materials for power generation that can operate at high temperatures......σT/κ , where S, σ, T and κ are the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, absolute temperature and thermal conductivity, respectively). We have fabricated high-quality oxide TE materials based on Ca3Co4O9 by optimizing the method for synthesis, modifying the compositions...... and by nanostructuring. This report will focus on the high temperature TE properties of heavy ions doping nanostrcutred Ca3Co4O9 oxides, which exhibit promising ZT, implying suitable polycrystalline oxide TE materials for power generation from waste heat....

  7. High temperature oxidation of stainless steel AISI316L in air plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesel, Alenka [EURATOM-MHEST, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail:; Mozetic, Miran; Drenik, Aleksander [EURATOM-MHEST, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hauptman, Nina [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Balat-Pichelin, Marianne [CNRS-PROMES, Laboratoire Procedes, Materiaux and Energie Solaire, UPR 8521, 7 rue du four solaire, F-66120 Font Romeu, Odeillo (France)


    A study on surface oxidation of AISI316L stainless steel surface was performed. Stainless steel was oxidized in air plasma with a high degree of dissociation of oxygen molecules of about 70%. The resultant flux of oxygen atoms to the surface was about 1 x 10{sup 24} m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The oxidation was performed at high temperatures ranging up to 1250 K. The oxidation time was 5 min. After oxidation the surface of the samples was analyzed by different methods including Auger electron depth profiling (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructure and composition of the surface were temperature dependent. In all cases high Cr concentration was observed on the surface after oxidation at a temperature above 600 K. With increasing temperature Mn concentration at the surface increased as well. Below 1000 K the oxide film was uniform, while above 1000 K islands with large spinel particles were observed to appear.

  8. PREFACE: 2014 Joint IMEKO TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium: Measurement Science Behind Safety and Security (United States)

    Sousa, João A.; Ribeiro, Álvaro S.; Filipe, Eduarda


    The 2014 Joint IMEKO (International Measurement Confederation) TC1-TC7-TC13 Symposium was organized by RELACRE - Portuguese Association of Accredited Laboratories and the Portuguese Society for Metrology, on 3-5 September 2014. The work of this symposium is reported in this volume. The scope of the symposium includes the main topics covered by the above Technical Committees: - TC1 Education and Training in measurement and Instrumentation - TC7 Measurement Science - TC13 Measurements in Biology and Medicine The effort towards excellence of previous events, in this well established series, is maintained. There has been a special focus on measurement science behind safety and security, with the aim of highlighting the interdisciplinary character of measurement science and the importance of metrology in our daily lives. The discussion was introduced by keynote lectures on measurement challenges in biometrics, health monitoring and social sciences, to promote useful interactions with scientists from different disciplines. The Symposium was attended by experts working in these areas from 18 countries, including USA, Japan and China, and provided a useful forum for them to share and exchange their work and ideas. In total over fifty papers are included in the volume, organized according to the presentation sessions. Each paper was independently peer-reviewed by two reviewers from a distinguished international panel. The Symposium was held in Funchal, capital of Madeira Islands, known as the Atlantic Pearl. This wonderful Atlantic archipelago, formed by Madeira and Porto Santo islands, discovered in the 14th century, was chosen to host the 2014 IMEKO TC1-TC7-TC13 Joint Symposium ''Measurement Science behind Safety and Security''. It was the first territory discovered by the Portuguese sailors, when set out to discover a new world, in an epic journey where instrumentation and quality of measurement played a central role in the success of the enterprise, and gave an

  9. Comparison of zircaloy-4 and zirlo by high-temperature oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, J. R.; Jeong, H.; Park, G. H. [Kyunghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, T. G. [FNC Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    An experiment on the oxidation of Zirlo was performed in steam between 850 .deg. C and 1150 .deg. C. Zirlo cladding of the reactor fuel was used for the specimen. Temperature was the range appropriate for LOCA analyses of PWR. Tube-type Zirlo was manufactured as specimens by cutting, grinding, polishing and chemical polishing (etching). After the oxidation experiments, the mass increase of each specimen was measured, and the oxidation layer was observed by an optical microscope. Oxidation layer, and those of {alpha}-phase, {beta}-phase were also observed at the specimens oxidized at high temperatures. The hardness with respect to depth also was measured. It can be compared and verified safty of Zircaloy and Zirlo in LOCA according to the data of experiment.

  10. High-temperature oxidation/corrosion of iron-based superalloys (United States)

    Lemkey, F. D.; Smeggil, J. G.; Bailey, R. S.; Schuster, J. C.; Nowotny, H.


    The oxidation and sulfidation of several novel iron-base superalloys were evaluated in high-temperature cyclic tests. The experimental austenitic alloys examined were modifications of NASAUT-4GA which were developed for Stirling-engine application. The weight gains and resulting surface scales were measured and analyzed. Mixed oxide scales were found to form on all specimens exposed above 871 C. The build-up of these scales led to a depletion of Mn and Cr in a zone adjacent to the oxides. In addition, the initial oxidation of the Fe-rich alloy was inhibited by a thin but tenacious Si layer which formed at the interface between oxides and the parent layer. Sulfidation tests using Na2SO4 coatings resulted in the formation of a protective spinel and alpha-Fe2O3 phases. Preferential attack of the carbide phase by hydrogen was not observed after 350 h at 871 C.

  11. A Highly Practical Copper(I)/TEMPO Catalyst System for Chemoselective Aerobic Oxidation of Primary Alcohols (United States)

    Hoover, Jessica M.; Stahl, Shannon S.


    Aerobic oxidation reactions have been the focus of considerable attention, but their use in mainstream organic chemistry has been constrained by limitations in their synthetic scope and by practical factors, such as the use of pure O2 as the oxidant or complex catalyst synthesis. Here, we report a new (bpy)CuI/TEMPO catalyst system that enables efficient and selective aerobic oxidation of a broad range of primary alcohols, including allylic, benzylic and aliphatic derivatives, to the corresponding aldehydes using readily available reagents, at room temperature with ambient air as the oxidant. The catalyst system is compatible with a wide range of functional groups and the high selectivity for 1° alcohols enables selective oxidation of diols that lack protecting groups. PMID:21861488

  12. High-performance silver nanoparticles coupled with monolayer hydrated tungsten oxide nanosheets: The structural effects in photocatalytic oxidation of cyclohexane. (United States)

    Xiao, Yepeng; Liu, Jincheng; Mai, Jijin; Pan, Chenqian; Cai, Xiaolan; Fang, Yanxiong


    The photocatalytic properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) coupled with tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) nanocrystals are investigated to understand structural effects of the WO 3 nanocrystals in selective oxidation of cyclohexane (CyH). The photocatalytic activity of monolayer hydrated WO 3 nanosheet - Ag nanoparticle composites (WO 3 NSs-Ag NPs) is 1.3 times higher than that of WO 3 nanocube - Ag nanoparticle composites (WO 3 NCs-Ag NPs). The highest cyclohexane conversion of 40.2% with cyclohexanol and cylohexanone (KA oil) selectivity of 97.0% is achieved by the photocatalyst of WO 3 NSs-Ag NPs under solar-light irradiation at room temperature. The WO 3 NSs-Ag NPs shows good photocatalytic stability without evident decline of catalytic activity after ten cycles. The improved photocatalytic activity in the oxidation of cyclohexane by WO 3 NSs-Ag NPs is mainly due to the facilitated generation of high-reactive hydroxyl radical (OH), which is caused by the enhanced light absorption by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of Ag NPs, and the effective charge transfer on the surface of WO 3 monolayer structure. The design and structural analysis of the WO 3 NSs-Ag NPs in this research may provide a novel approach for the further development of high-performance photocatalyst. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Models for the Configuration and Integrity of Partially Oxidized Fuel Rod Cladding at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siefken, L.J.


    Models were designed to resolve deficiencies in the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 calculations of the configuration and integrity of hot, partially oxidized cladding. These models are expected to improve the calculations of several important aspects of fuel rod behavior. First, an improved mapping was established from a compilation of PIE results from severe fuel damage tests of the configuration of melted metallic cladding that is retained by an oxide layer. The improved mapping accounts for the relocation of melted cladding in the circumferential direction. Then, rules based on PIE results were established for calculating the effect of cladding that has relocated from above on the oxidation and integrity of the lower intact cladding upon which it solidifies. Next, three different methods were identified for calculating the extent of dissolution of the oxidic part of the cladding due to its contact with the metallic part. The extent of dissolution effects the stress and thus the integrity of the oxidic part of the cladding. Then, an empirical equation was presented for calculating the stress in the oxidic part of the cladding and evaluating its integrity based on this calculated stress. This empirical equation replaces the current criterion for loss of integrity which is based on temperature and extent of oxidation. Finally, a new rule based on theoretical and experimental results was established for identifying the regions of a fuel rod with oxidation of both the inside and outside surfaces of the cladding. The implementation of these models is expected to eliminate the tendency of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to overpredict the extent of oxidation of the upper part of fuel rods and to underpredict the extent of oxidation of the lower part of fuel rods and the part with a high concentration of relocated material. This report is a revision and reissue of the report entitled, Improvements in Modeling of Cladding Oxidation and Meltdown.

  14. Evaluating 99mTc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by computational methods. (United States)

    Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S; Tavares, João Manuel R S


    Technetium-99m (99mTc) has been widely used as an imaging agent but only recently has been considered for therapeutic applications. This study aims to analyze the potential use of 99mTc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by evaluating the DNA damage and its probability of correct repair and by studying the cellular kinetics, following 99mTc Auger electron irradiation in comparison to iodine-131 (131I) beta minus particles and astatine-211 (211At) alpha particle irradiation. Computational models were used to estimate the yield of DNA damage (fast Monte Carlo damage algorithm), the probability of correct repair (Monte Carlo excision repair algorithm), and cell kinetic effects (virtual cell radiobiology algorithm) after irradiation with the selected particles. The results obtained with the algorithms used suggested that 99mTc CKMMX (all M-shell Coster-Kroning--CK--and super-CK transitions) electrons and Auger MXY (all M-shell Auger transitions) have a therapeutic potential comparable to high linear energy transfer 211At alpha particles and higher than 131I beta minus particles. All the other 99mTc electrons had a therapeutic potential similar to 131I beta minus particles. 99mTc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY presented a higher probability to induce apoptosis than 131I beta minus particles and a probability similar to 211At alpha particles. Based on the results here, 99mTc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY are useful electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy.

  15. 9% Cr steel high temperature oxidation. Solutions investigated for improving corrosion resistance of the steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evin, Harold Nicolas; Heintz, Olivier; Chevalier, Sebastien [UMR 5209 CNRS-Bourgogne Univ. (France). Lab. Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne; Foejer, Cecilia; Jakani, Saad; Dhont, Annick; Claessens, Serge [OCAS N.V. ArcelorMittal Global R and D, Gent (Belgium)


    The improvement of high temperature oxidation resistance of low chromium content steels, such as T/P91, is of great interest in regards with their application in thermal power generating plants. Indeed, they possess good creep properties, but are facing their limits of use at temperature higher than 600 C, due to accelerated corrosion phenomena. Good knowledge of the mechanisms involved during their oxidation process is needed to prevent the degradation of the materials and to extend life time of the power plants components. Oxide layers thermally grown, on 9% Cr steels (provided by OCAS N.V), during isothermal tests between 600 C and 750 C in laboratory air under atmospheric pressure were investigated, by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The oxidation behaviour appeared very limited at 750 C, due to the presence of a breakaway, which can be linked to iron porous oxide grown over the surface of the samples. ''In situ'' X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were performed in air at 600 C after short exposures (between 5 min and 25 h). A complex mixture of iron oxide, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr (VI) species were characterized in the scales. The in-situ analyses were compared and related to XPS analyses performed on thick oxide scales formed on samples oxidized in air at 600 C for 100h. An oxidation mechanism is then proposed to understand the oxide scale growth in the temperature range 600 - 750 C. The second step of this study consists in improving the high temperature corrosion resistance of these steels without modifying their mechanical properties. Thus several solutions were investigated such as MOCVD coatings, pack cementation coatings, and tested in cycle conditions prior. (orig.)

  16. High performance selectively oxidized VCSELs and arrays for parallel high-speed optical interconnects (United States)

    Mederer, Felix; Grabherr, Martin; Eberhard, Franz; Ecker, Irene; Jäger, Roland; Joos, Jürgen; Jung, Chistian; Kicherer, Max; King, Roger; Schnitzer, Peter; Unold, Heiko; Wiedenmann, Dieter; Ebeling, Karl Joachim

    We introduce a new layout for high-bandwidth single-mode selectively oxidized vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays operating at 980 nm or 850 nm emission wavelength for substrate or epitaxial side emission. Coplanar feeding lines and polyimide passivation are used to reduce electrical parasitics in top-emitting GaAs and bottom-emitting InGaAs VCSELs. In order to enhance fundamental single-mode emission for larger devices of reduced series resistance a surface relief transverse mode filter is employed. Fabricated VCSELs are applied in various interconnect schemes. In detail, we demonstrate 2.5 Gb/s pseudo-random data transmission with GaAs VCSELs at an emission wavelength of λ=835 nm over 120 μm core diameter step index plastic-optical fiber (POF) of 2.5 m length. InGaAs quantum-well based VCSELs at 935 nm emission wavelength are investigated for use in perfluorinated graded-index plastic-optical fiber (GI-POF) links. We obtain a 7 Gb/s pseudo random bit sequence (PRBS) non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data transmission over 80 m long 155 μm diameter GI-POF. We investigate data transmission over standard 1300 nm, 9 μm core diameter single-mode fiber using selectively oxidized single-mode GaAs or InGaAs VCSELs. We achieve biased 3 Gb/s and bias-free 1 Gb/s pseudo-random data transmission over 4.3 km at 830 nm emission wavelength where a simple fiber mode filter is used to suppress intermodal dispersion caused by the second order fiber mode. For the first time, we demonstrate 12.5 Gb/s data rate transmission of PRBS signals over 100 m graded-index multimode fiber or 1 km single-mode fiber using high performance single-mode GaAs VCSELs of 12.3 GHz modulation bandwidth emitting at λ=850 nm. Longer wave-length InGaAs VCSELs with emission at λ=1130 nm are used to transmit 2.5 Gb/s signals over 10 km of 9 μm standard fiber. For all data transmission experiments bit-error rates (BER) remain better than 10-11 for transmission of PRBS signals for back

  17. Session 6: Stability and performance of metal oxide catalysts during oxidation of ammonia in steam atmosphere at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, U.; Martin, A.; Radnik, J.; Schneider, M. [Institut fur Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V., Berlin (Germany)


    The aim of this work was to test supported and bulk transition metal oxide catalysts for end of pipe-oxidation of ammonia at high pressure in saturated steam. Reaction engineering aspects are also discussed. In fact, the experimental results show that bulk copper chromites are best performing catalysts for ammonia destruction at temperatures around 300 C and pressures at ca. 50 bar in steam atmosphere. No leaching occurred under the applied conditions, however, influence of phase behaviour of water is crucial to catalyst lifetime. Ammonia is exclusively converted to nitrogen. Only a slight loss in activity was observed in long-term tests that is mainly due to small decrease in active surface area. (authors)

  18. High electrocatalytic performance of nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber-supported nickel oxide nanocomposite for methanol oxidation in alkaline medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Enizi, Abdullah M. [Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, PO Box: 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Elzatahry, Ahmed A., E-mail: [Materials Science and Technology Program, College of Arts and Science, Qatar University, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria 21934 (Egypt); Abdullah, Aboubakr M., E-mail: [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Vinu, Ajayan [Future Industries Institute, University of South Australia, Building X-X2-09, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes 5095 SA (Australia); Iwai, Hideo [Materials Analysis Station, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0047 (Japan); Al-Deyab, Salem S. [Petrochemical Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, PO Box: 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)


    Highlights: • A mixture of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), graphene and emeraldine base polyaniline (PANi) was electrospun and used as starting materials to prepare a nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (N-CNF). • Nickel oxide was loaded on the N-CNF to form a nanocomposite which was calcined later at different temperatures. • The effect of calcination temperature on the electrocatalytic behavior of the nanocomposite was studied which shows that the nanocomposite calcined at 500 °C was proved to be very high compared to the other calcination temperatures. • The stability of catalyst was excellent and its resistance to the adsorption of the intermediates generated from the methanol oxidation was very high. - Abstract: Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofiber (N-CNF)–supported NiO composite was prepared by electrospinning a sol-gel mixture of graphene and polyaniline (PANi) with aqueous solutions of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) followed by a high-temperature annealing process. The electrospun was stabilized for 2 h at 280 °C, carbonized for 5 h at 1200 °C then loaded by 10% NiO. The electrocatalytic activities of the produced nanocomposite have been studied using cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry. Also, N-CNF was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), surface area (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained N-doped carbon nanofiber was found to have a nitrogen content of 2.6 atomic% with a diameter range of (140–160) nm, and a surface area (393.3 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}). In addition, it showed a high electrocatalytic behavior towards methanol oxidation reaction in alkaline medium and high stability and resistivity to the adsorption of intermediates.

  19. Transformations in oxides induced by high-energy ball-milling. (United States)

    Šepelák, Vladimir; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Le Caër, Gérard


    This paper, by no means exhaustive, focuses on high-energy ball-milling of oxides, on their mechanically induced changes and on the consequences of such changes on their physical and chemical properties. High-energy ball-milling offers a fortunate combination of technical simplicity and of complexity both of physical mechanisms which act during milling and of mechanosynthesized materials. Its basic interest, which stems from the large diversity of routes it offers to prepare oxides either directly or indirectly, is illustrated with various families of oxides. The direct path is to be favoured when as-milled oxides are of interest per se because of their nanocrystalline characteristics, their defects or their modified structures which result from mechanically driven phase transformations. The indirect path consists of a sequence of steps starting with mechanically activated oxides which may be subsequently just annealed or submitted to a combination of thermal treatments, with the possible occurrence of various chemical reactions, to prepare the sought-after materials with potential gains in processing temperatures and times. High energy ball-milling of oxides is more and more currently used to activate powders and to prepare nano-oxides at moderate temperatures. The interest of an activation step is well illustrated by the broad development of doped titania powders, synthesized by heat treatment of pre-ground reactants, for photocatalytic applications or to develop antibacterial materials. Another important class of applications of high-energy ball-milling is the formation of composites. It is exemplified here with the case of oxide-dispersed strengthened alloys whose properties are considerably improved by a dispersion of ultra-stable nanosized oxides whose formation mechanisms were recently described. The basic understanding of the mechanisms by which oxides or oxide mixtures evolve by high-energy ball-milling appears to be less advanced than it is for metallic


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.E. Veyo


    During the Westinghouse/USDOE Cooperative Agreement period of November 1, 1990 through November 30, 1997, the Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell has evolved from a 16 mm diameter, 50 cm length cell with a peak power of 1.27 watts/cm to the 22 mm diameter, 150 cm length dimensions of today's commercial prototype cell with a peak power of 1.40 watts/cm. Accompanying the increase in size and power density was the elimination of an expensive EVD step in the manufacturing process. Demonstrated performance of Westinghouse's tubular SOFC includes a lifetime cell test which ran for a period in excess of 69,000 hours, and a fully integrated 25 kWe-class system field test which operated for over 13,000 hours at 90% availability with less than 2% performance degradation over the entire period. Concluding the agreement period, a 100 kW SOFC system successfully passed its factory acceptance test in October 1997 and was delivered in November to its demonstration site in Westervoort, The Netherlands.

  1. Graphene Oxide Bionanocomposite Coatings with High Oxygen Barrier Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Uysal Unalan


    Full Text Available In this work, we present the development of bionanocomposite coatings on poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET with outstanding oxygen barrier properties. Pullulan and graphene oxide (GO were used as main polymer phase and nanobuilding block (NBB, respectively. The oxygen barrier performance was investigated at different filler volume fractions (ϕ and as a function of different relative humidity (RH values. Noticeably, the impermeable nature of GO was reflected under dry conditions, in which an oxygen transmission rate (OTR, mL·m−2·24 h−1 value below the detection limit of the instrument (0.01 mL·m−2·24 h−1 was recorded, even for ϕ as low as 0.0004. A dramatic increase of the OTR values occurred in humid conditions, such that the barrier performance was totally lost at 90% RH (the OTR of coated PET films was equal to the OTR of bare PET films. Modelling of the experimental OTR data by Cussler’s model suggested that the spatial ordering of GO sheets within the main pullulan phase was perturbed because of RH fluctuations. In spite of the presence of the filler, all the formulations allowed the obtainment of final materials with haze values below 3%, the only exception being the formulation with the highest loading of GO (ϕ ≈ 0.03. The mechanisms underlying the experimental observations are discussed.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of the four isomers of technetium-99m labeled ethylenecysteamine cysteine ({sup 99m}Tc-ECC), the mono-acid derivative of {sup 99m}tc-L,L-ethylenedicysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanbilloen, Hubert P.; Cleynhens, Bernard J.; Verbruggen, Alfons M. E-mail:


    A few years ago {sup 99m}Tc-ethylenedicysteine ({sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC) had been proposed as an interesting substitute for technetium-99m labeled mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) as renal function tracer agent. It possesses in its structure two carboxylate functions and is in this respect different from other renal tracers such as {sup 99m}Tc-N,N'-bis-(mercaptoacetyl)-2,3-diaminopropionate ({sup 99m}Tc-CO{sub 2}DADS), {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3, and Hippuran, which have only one carboxylic group. To study whether both carboxylic acid groups of {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC contribute to the efficient renal handling of this compound we synthesized and biologically evaluated the technetium-99m labeled isomers of L- and D-ethylenecysteamine cysteine (ECC), the mono-acid derivative of {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC. Labeling of L-ECC or D-ECC with {sup 99m}Tc using a direct or exchange labeling method yields for each of them two diastereomeric {sup 99m}Tc complexes (A and B, in the order of elution during reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography) in relative amounts depending on the pH during labeling. In mice, all four isomers of {sup 99m}Tc-ECC (LA, LB, DA, and DB) are cleared rapidly from the blood, mainly by the renal system. The isomers LB and DB show the most efficient renal handling, but none of the mono-acid derivatives has a urinary excretion rate as high as that of {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC. The renal handling of the isomers of {sup 99m}Tc-ECC is partly due to tubular secretion because the urinary excretion of these compounds is significantly lower in mice pretreated with probenecid. In the baboon, isomers DA and DB show a plasma clearance comparable to that of {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC. The plasma clearance of isomers LA and LB is lower but still comparable to or higher than that of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3. In a human volunteer, isomer DB shows a plasma clearance rate only slightly lower than that of {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC. Thus, it appears that the presence of one carboxylate in {sup 99m}Tc

  3. High-energy-surface engineered metal oxide micro- and nanocrystallites and their applications. (United States)

    Kuang, Qin; Wang, Xue; Jiang, Zhiyuan; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Zheng, Lansun


    Because many physical and chemical processes occur at surfaces, surface atomic structure is a critical factor affecting the properties of materials. Due to the presence of high-density atomic steps and edges and abundant unsaturated coordination sites, micro- and nanocrystallites with high-energy surfaces usually exhibit greater reactivity than those with low-energy surfaces. However, high-energy crystal surfaces are usually lost during crystal growth as the total surface energy is minimized. Therefore, the selective exposure of high-energy facets at the surface of micro- and nanocrystallites is an important and challenging research topic. Metal oxides play important roles in surface-associated applications, including catalysis, gas sensing, luminescence, and antibiosis. The synthesis of metal oxide micro- and nanocrystallites with specific surfaces, particularly those with high surface energies, is more challenging than the synthesis of metal crystals due to the presence of strong metal-oxygen bonds and diverse crystal structures. In this Account, we briefly summarize recent progress in the surface-structure-controlled synthesis of several typical metal oxide micro- and nanocrystallites, including wurtzite ZnO, anatase TiO2, rutile SnO2, and rocksalt-type metal oxides. We also discuss the improvement of surface properties, focusing on high-energy surfaces. Because of the huge quantity and diverse structure of metal oxides, this Account is not intended to be comprehensive. Instead, we discuss salient features of metal oxide micro- and nanocrystallites using examples primarily from our group. We first discuss general strategies for tuning the surface structure of metal oxide micro- and nanocrystallites, presenting several typical examples. For each example, we describe the basic crystallographic characteristics as well as the thermodynamic (i.e., tuning surface energy) or kinetic (i.e., tuning reaction rates) strategies we have used to synthesize micro- and

  4. Spin-on metal oxide materials with high etch selectivity and wet strippability (United States)

    Yao, Huirong; Mullen, Salem; Wolfer, Elizabeth; McKenzie, Douglas; Rahman, Dalil; Cho, JoonYeon; Padmanaban, Munirathna; Petermann, Claire; Hong, SungEun; Her, YoungJun


    Metal oxide or metal nitride films are used as hard mask materials in semiconductor industry for patterning purposes due to their excellent etch resistances against the plasma etches. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques are usually used to deposit the metal containing materials on substrates or underlying films, which uses specialized equipment and can lead to high cost-of-ownership and low throughput. We have reported novel spin-on coatings that provide simple and cost effective method to generate metal oxide films possessing good etch selectivity and can be removed by chemical agents. In this paper, new spin-on Al oxide and Zr oxide hard mask formulations are reported. The new metal oxide formulations provide higher metal content compared to previously reported material of specific metal oxides under similar processing conditions. These metal oxide films demonstrate ultra-high etch selectivity and good pattern transfer capability. The cured films can be removed by various chemical agents such as developer, solvents or wet etchants/strippers commonly used in the fab environment. With high metal MHM material as an underlayer, the pattern transfer process is simplified by reducing the number of layers in the stack and the size of the nano structure is minimized by replacement of a thicker film ACL. Therefore, these novel AZ® spinon metal oxide hard mask materials can potentially be used to replace any CVD or ALD metal, metal oxide, metal nitride or spin-on silicon-containing hard mask films in 193 nm or EUV process.

  5. Effects of soluble organic complexants and their degradation products on the removal of selected radionuclides from high-level waste. Part 3, Distributions of Sr, Cs, Tc, Pu, and Am onto 33 absorbers from four variations of a 3:1 dilution of Hanford complexant concentrate (CC) simulant: Part 4, The effects of varying dilution ratios on the distributions of Sr, Cs, Tc, Pu, and Am onto 12 absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, S.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    Many of the radioactive waste storage tanks at USDOE facilities contain organic compounds that have been degraded by radiolysis and chemical reactions during decades of storage. Objective of this study was to measure effects of soluble organic complexants and their degradation products on sorption of Sr, Cs, Tc, Pu and Am onto 33 absorbers that in the absence of these organic compounds offer high sorption of these elements. The elements were in a generic simulant for Hanford complexant concentrate supernate that initially contained six organic complexants: EDTA, HEDTA, NTA, citrate, gluconate, and iminodiacetate. This simulant was tested as prepared and after gamma-irradiation to approximately 34 Mrads. Two other variations consisted of the unirradiated and irradiated simulants after treatment at 450C and 15,000 psi in a hydrothermal organic-destruction process. These experiments were conducted with a 3:1 water-to-simulant dilution of each of the four simulant variations. To determine effects of varying dilution ratios on the sorption of these five elements from the unirradiated and gamma-irradiated simulants that were not treated with the hydrothermal process, we measured their distribution from a 1:1 dilution, using 1 M NaOH as the diluent, onto the 12 best-performing absorbers. We then measured the sorption of these five elements from solutions having diluent-simulant ratios of 0, 0.5, 2.0, and 3.0 onto the three absorbers that performed best for sorbing Sr, Pu and Am from the 1:1 dilution. For each of 900 element/absorber/solution combinations, we measured distribution coefficients (Kd values) twice for each period for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about absorber stability and sorption kinetics. The 5400 measured Kd values indicate that the sorption of Sr, Pu, and Am is significantly decreased by the organic complexants in these simulant solutions, whereas the sorption of Cs and Tc is much less affected.

  6. Comprehensive review on the development of high mobility in oxide thin film transistors (United States)

    Choi, Jun Young; Lee, Sang Yeol


    Oxide materials are one of the most advanced key technology in the thin film transistors (TFTs) for the high-end of device applications. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) have leading technique for flat panel display (FPD), active matrix organic light emitting display (AMOLED) and active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) due to their excellent electrical characteristics, such as field effect mobility ( μ FE ), subthreshold swing (S.S) and threshold voltage ( V th ). Covalent semiconductor like amorphous silicon (a-Si) is attributed to the anti-bonding and bonding states of Si hybridized orbitals. However, AOSs have not grain boundary and excellent performances originated from the unique characteristics of AOS which is the direct orbital overlap between s orbitals of neighboring metal cations. High mobility oxide TFTs have gained attractive attention during the last few years and today in display industries. It is progressively developed to increase the mobility either by exploring various oxide semiconductors or by adopting new TFT structures. Mobility of oxide thin film transistor has been rapidly increased from single digit to higher than 100 cm2/V·s in a decade. In this review, we discuss on the comprehensive review on the mobility of oxide TFTs in a decade and propose bandgap engineering and novel structure to enhance the electrical characteristics of oxide TFTs.

  7. Non-activated high surface area expanded graphite oxide for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermisoglou, E.C.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Romanos, G.E.; Boukos, N.; Giannouri, M. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology “Demokritos”, 153 43 Ag. Paraskevi, Attikis (Greece); Lei, C.; Lekakou, C. [Division of Mechanical, Medical, and Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Trapalis, C., E-mail: [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology “Demokritos”, 153 43 Ag. Paraskevi, Attikis (Greece)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • One-step exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide via microwave irradiation. • Effect of pristine graphite (type, flake size) on the microwave expanded material. • Effect of pretreatment and oxidation cycles on the produced expanded material. • Expanded graphene materials with high BET surface areas (940 m{sup 2}/g–2490 m{sup 2}/g). • Non-activated graphene based materials suitable for supercapacitors. - Abstract: Microwave irradiation of graphite oxide constitutes a facile route toward production of reduced graphene oxide, since during this treatment both exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide occurs. In this work, the effect of pristine graphite (type, size of flakes), pretreatment and oxidation cycles on the finally produced expanded material was examined. All the types of graphite that were tested afforded materials with high BET surface areas ranging from 940 m{sup 2}/g to 2490 m{sup 2}/g, without intervening an activation stage at elevated temperature. SEM and TEM images displayed exfoliated structures, where the flakes were significantly detached and curved. The quality of the reduced graphene oxide sheets was evidenced both by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrode material capacitance was determined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The materials with PEDOT binder had better performance (∼97 F/g) at low operation rates while those with PVDF binder performed better (∼20 F/g) at higher rates, opening up perspectives for their application in supercapacitors.

  8. Graphene Oxide Wrapped Amorphous Copper Vanadium Oxide with Enhanced Capacitive Behavior for High-Rate and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes. (United States)

    Zhao, Kangning; Liu, Fengning; Niu, Chaojiang; Xu, Wangwang; Dong, Yifan; Zhang, Lei; Xie, Shaomei; Yan, Mengyu; Wei, Qiulong; Zhao, Dongyuan; Mai, Liqiang


    Graphene oxide-wrapped amorphous copper vanadium oxide is fabricated through a template-engaged redox reaction followed by vacuum dehydration. This material exhibits high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability, and out standing high-rate cyclability. The outstanding performance is attributed to the fast capacitive charge storage and the in situ formed copper with enhanced electrical conductivity.

  9. In situ polymerization of highly dispersed polypyrrole on reduced graphite oxide for dopamine detection. (United States)

    Qian, Tao; Yu, Chenfei; Wu, Shishan; Shen, Jian


    A composite consisting of reduced graphite oxide and highly dispersed polypyrrole nanospheres was synthesized by a straightforward technique, by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization. The novel polypyrrole nanospheres can prevent the aggregation of reduced graphite oxide sheets by electrostatic repulsive interaction, and enhance their electrochemical properties in the nano-molar measurement of dopamine in biological systems with a linear range of 1-8000 nM and a detection limit as low as 0.3 nM. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on High Surface Area Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Srinivasu


    Full Text Available High surface area nanocrystalline zinc oxide material is fabricated using mesoporous nanostructured carbon as a sacrificial template through combustion process. The resulting material is characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The nitrogen adsorption measurement indicates that the materials possess BET specific surface area ca. 30 m2/g. Electron microscopy images prove that the zinc oxide spheres possess particle size in the range of 0.12 μm–0.17 μm. The nanocrystalline zinc oxide spheres show 1.0% of energy conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  11. Self-assembly of a thin highly reduced graphene oxide film and its high electrocatalytic activity. (United States)

    Bai, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Fang; Zhou, An-Wei; Li, Hai-Wai; Zhang, Yu; Luong, John H T; Cui, Hui-Fang


    A thin highly reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film was self-assembled at the dimethyl formamide (DMF)-air interface through evaporation-induced water-assisted thin film formation at the pentane-DMF interface, followed by complete evaporation of pentane. The thin film was transferred onto various solid substrates for film characterization and electrochemical sensing. UV-visible spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemistry techniques were used to characterize the film. An rGO film showing 82.8% of the transmittance at 550 nm corresponds to a few layers of rGO nanosheets. The rGO nanosheets cross-stack with each other, lying approximately in the plane of the film. An rGO film collected on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode exhibited improved electrical conductivity compared to GC, with the electrode charge-transfer resistance (Rct) reduced from 31 Ω to 22 Ω. The as-formed rGO/GC electrode was mechanically very stable, exhibiting significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity to H(2)O(2) and dopamine. Multiple layers of the rGO films on the GC electrode showed even stronger electrocatalytic activity to dopamine than that of the single rGO film layer. The controllable formation of a stable rGO film on various solid substrates has potential applications for nanoelectronics and sensors/biosensors.

  12. Asialoglycoprotein-receptor-targeted hepatocyte imaging using {sup 99m}Tc galactosylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Mi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hwan-Jeong [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail:; Kim, Se-Lim [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Myung-Hee [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Nah, Jae-Woon [Division of Applied Materials Engineering, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon, Jeonnam (Korea, Republic of); Bom, Hee-Seung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonnam National University School of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Kyu [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chong-Su [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This study investigated the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc hydrazinonicotinamide-galactosylated chitosan (HGC) in hepatocyte imaging. HGC was obtained by coupling the galactose moiety of both lactobionic acid and succinimidyl 6-hydrazinonicotinate hydrochloride (succinimidyl HYNIC). The coupled product was then radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc using stannous chloride and tricine as reducing agent and coligand, respectively. Labeling efficiency was >90% both in room temperature and in serum up to 24 h after injection. The hepatic uptake properties of {sup 99m}Tc HGC were studied in Balb/C mice. {sup 99m}Tc HGC and {sup 99m}Tc hydrazinonicotinamide chitosan (HC) were intravenously injected into mice, with receptor binding identified by coinjection with 9 and 14 mg of free galactose. Images were acquired with a {gamma}-camera. After injection via the tail vein of the mice, {sup 99m}Tc HGC showed high selectivity for the liver, while {sup 99m}Tc HC without a galactose group showed low liver uptake. In addition, the hepatic uptake of {sup 99m}Tc HGC was blocked by coinjection of free galactose. Tissue distribution was determined at three different times (10, 60 and 120 min). The liver accumulated 13.16{+-}2.72%, 16.11{+-}5.70% and 16.55{+-}2.28% of the injected dose per gram at 10, 60 and 120 min after injection, respectively. {sup 99m}Tc HGC showed specific and rapid targeting of hepatocytes. It is a promising receptor-specific radiopharmaceutical with potential applications in liver imaging for the evaluation of hepatocytic function.

  13. Is [(99m)Tc]glucarate uptake mediated by fructose transporter GLUT-5? (United States)

    Isnardi, Vanina; Clotagatide, Anthony; Bruel, Sebastien; Perek, Nathalie


    There is growing interest in the ability of [(99m)Tc]Glucarate ([(99m)Tc]GLA) to accumulate in viable tumor cells. Recent vivo studies suggest that [(99m)Tc]Glucarate could be helpful for tumor detection. Fructose transport is thought to be implicated. It is clearly established that facilitated fructose transport in tumor cells is related to the GLUT-5 transporter. This study therefore investigated whether [(99m)Tc]GLA uptake is mediated by GLUT-5 transporter. Different tumor cell lines were used. Modulation of GLUT-5 expression was assessed with and without antisense oligonucleotides directed against GLUT-5. GLUT-5 expression was assessed by indirect cell ELISA. To correlate GLUT-5 expression with tracer accumulation, [(99m)Tc]GLA uptake was determined after antisense treatment. A competition with fructose was also monitored. Inhibition of GLUT-5 expression by antisense oligonucleotides directed against GLUT-5 was effective after 24 h. An optimal of 10μM antisense oligonucleotides directed against GLUT-5 produced a 30%-40% decrease in protein expression. Modulation of [(99m)Tc]GLA uptake was monitored either by use of specific antisense oligonucleotides or by competition with fructose. Both of them produced a significant decrease of [(99m)Tc]GLA accumulation in all tested cell lines. Our results clearly demonstrate that [(99m)Tc]GLA uptake is related to GLUT-5 transporter expression and transport. In tumor imaging, [(99m)Tc]GLA may be a useful tool for non-invasive detection of malignant tumors expressing high levels of GLUT-5 transporter as, for example, breast cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct production of 99mTc using a small medical cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapi, Suzanne [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)


    This project describes an investigation towards the production of 99mTc with a small medical cyclotron. This endeavor addresses the current urgent problem of availability of 99mTc due to the ongoing production reactor failures and the upcoming Canadian reactor shut down. Currently, 99mTc is produced via nuclear fission using highly enriched uranium which is a concern due to nuclear proliferation risks. In addition to this, the United States is dependent solely on currently unreliable foreign sources of this important medical isotope. Clearly, a need exists to probe alternative production routes of 99mTc. In the first year, this project measured cross-sections and production yields of potential pathways to 99mTc and associated radionuclidic impurities produced via these pathways using a small 15 MeV medical cyclotron. During the second and third years target systems for the production of 99mTc via the most promising reaction routes were developed and separation techniques for the isolation of 99mTc from the irradiated target material will be investigated. Systems for the recycling of the enriched target isotopes as well as automated target processing systems were examined in years four and five. This project has the potential to alleviate some of the current crisis in the medical community by developing a technique to produce 99mTc on location at a university hospital. This technology will be applicable at many other sites in the United States as many other similar, low energy (<20 MeV) cyclotrons (currently used for a few hours per day for the production of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose) are available for production of 99mTc though this method, thus leading to job creation and preservation.

  15. {sup 99m}Tc labeled VIP analog: evaluation for imaging colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.S.; Thakur, M.L. E-mail:; Pallela, V.; Patti, R.; Reddy, K.; Li, H.; Sharma, S.; Pham, H.L.; Diggles, L.; Minami, C.; Marcus, C.S


    Early and reliable diagnosis of colorectal cancer continues to be demanding and challenging. Colorectal cancer cells express Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) receptors in high density. We have prepared a VIP analog (TP3654), labeled it with {sup 99m}Tc, and evaluated it in experimental animals as an agent for imaging colorectal cancer. The tissue distribution of {sup 99m}Tc-TP3654 has been compared with that of {sup 111}In-DTPA-Octreotide and {sup 99m}Tc-anti-CEA scan in nude mice bearing human colorectal cancer LS174T. Finally, pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies of {sup 99m}Tc-TP3654 have been performed in four normal human volunteers. Data suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-TP3654 can be prepared efficiently without loss of its receptor specificity and biological activity. Although the 24 hr tumor uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-TP3654 in the animal model used was modest (0.21 {+-} 0.07% I.D./g), the tissue distribution profile was more favorable than that of {sup 111}In-DTPA-Octreotide or {sup 99m}Tc-anti-CEA scan. Human studies indicated that {sup 99m}Tc-TP3654 had no adverse effect in any subject. Within 24 hours, approximately 70% of the injected dose cleared through the kidneys, and approximately 20% through the hepatobiliary system. In these non-fasting volunteers hepatobiliary clearance was slow and in cancer patients tumor uptake was rapid. Data suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-TP3654 is a promising agent for imaging colorectal cancer.

  16. Effects of W on microstructure and high-temperature oxidation behavior of ferritic stainless steel weldment (United States)

    Ji, Yijie; Xie, Yuye; Zhu, Shuangchun; Yan, Biao


    With the promotion of fuel economy policy and automobile lightweight concept, ferritic stainless steels applied in vehicles’ exhaust hot end systems have been developed. This paper simulated the high-temperature environment at which the automobile exhaust system serviced in for high-temperature corrosion. Kinetic curves were conducted in isothermal environments at 1000∘C. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer were used to study the oxidation behavior of ferritic stainless steels and the effects of tungsten (W) addition. The results show that, with increasing oxidation time, the rate of weight gains increase and the main failure is spalling of surface oxide layer. The addition of W has a complicated effect on the oxidation behavior of ferritic stainless steel weldment.

  17. The Synthesis of Highly Aligned Cupric Oxide Nanowires by Heating Copper Foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Liang


    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of grain size and orientation of copper substrates for the growth of cupric oxide nanowires by thermal oxidation method. Long, less-roughness, high-density, and aligned cupric oxide nanowires have been synthesized by heating (200 oriented copper foils with small grain size in air gas. Long and aligned nanowires of diameter around 80 nm can only be formed within a short temperature range from 400 to 700°C. On the other hand, uniform, smooth-surface, and aligned nanowires were not formed in the case of larger crystallite size of copper foils with (111 and (200 orientation. Smaller grain size of copper foil with (200 orientation is favorable for the growth of highly aligned, smooth surface, and larger-diameter nanowires by thermal oxidation method.

  18. Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Electrolyzer & Sabatier System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Paragon Space Development Corporation® (Paragon) and ENrG Incorporated (ENrG) are teaming to provide a highly efficient reactor for carbon monoxide/carbon...

  19. Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Electrolyzer & Sabatier System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Paragon Space Development Corporation (Paragon) and ENrG Incorporated (ENrG) are teaming to provide a highly efficient reactor for carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide...

  20. High Efficiency Direct Methane Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a defined need for energy dense and highly efficient energy storage and power delivery systems for future space missions. Compared to other fuel cell...

  1. Acute Thromboscintigraphy with 99mTc-Apcitide: Results of the Phase 3 Multicenter Clinical Trial Comparing 99mTc-Apcitide Scintigraphy with Contrast Venography for Imaging Acute DVT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taillefer, Raymond; Edell, Stephen; Innes, Grant; Lister-James, John


    .... ABSTRACT 99m Tc-apcitide (formerly known as 99m Tc-P280) is a radiolabeled peptide that binds with high affinity and specificity to the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors expressed on the activated platelets that are involved in acute thrombosis...

  2. Acute thromboscintigraphy with (99m)Tc-apcitide: results of the phase 3 multicenter clinical trial comparing 99mTc-apcitide scintigraphy with contrast venography for imaging acute DVT. Multicenter Trial Investigators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taillefer, R; Edell, S; Innes, G; Lister-James, J


    (99m)Tc-apcitide (formerly known as (99m)Tc-P280) is a radiolabeled peptide that binds with high affinity and specificity to the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors expressed on the activated platelets that are involved in acute thrombosis...

  3. Characteristics of oxide scale formed on Cu-bearing austenitic stainless steel during early stages of high temperature oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, Srinivasan, E-mail: [Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136 791 (Korea, Republic of); Krishna, Nanda Gopala [Metallurgy & Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kim, Dong-Ik, E-mail: [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136 791 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Initial oxidation characteristics of Cu-bearing austenitic stainless steel at 650 °C were studied. • Strong segregation and oxidation of Mn and Nb were found in the entire oxide scale. • Surface coverage by metallic Cu-rich precipitates increases with exposure time. • Chemical heterogeneity of oxide scale revealed initial oxidation to be non-selective. • Fe-Cr and Mn-Cr mixed oxides were realized along with binary oxides of Fe, Cr and Mn. - Abstract: Oxide scale evolution on Cu-bearing austenitic stainless steel 304H at 650 °C, in ambient air, for exposure times 100, 300, 500 and 1000 h, has been investigated. Surface morphology and chemistry of the oxide scale grown were examined using SEM/EDX and XPS. The oxidation kinetics was determined by measuring the weight change using an electronic balance. At the initial stage, up to 500 h of exposure time, the oxidation rate was rapid due to surface reactions governed primarily by oxygen ingress, and then, dropped to a low rate after prolonged oxidation for 1000 h. The diffusion of reactants through the initially formed oxide scale limits the oxidation rate at longer times, thus, the progress of reaction followed the parabolic kinetics. The formed oxide scale was enriched significantly with segregation and subsequent oxidation of Nb, and finely dispersed metallic Cu particles. Within the time frame of oxidation, the oxide scale was mainly composed of mixed oxides such as FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} along with the binary oxides of Fe, Cr and Mn. Moreover, the precipitation fraction of Cu-rich particles on the oxide scale increased markedly with increase of exposure times. The chemical heterogeneity of oxide scale suggests that the oxidation occurred in a non-selective manner.

  4. High quality reduced graphene oxide through repairing with multi-layered graphene ball nanostructures


    Kyoung Hwan Kim; MinHo Yang; Kyeong Min Cho; Young-Si Jun; Sang Bok Lee; Hee-Tae Jung


    We present a simple and up-scalable method to produce highly repaired graphene oxide with a large surface area, by introducing spherical multi-layered graphene balls with empty interiors. These graphene balls are prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of Ni particles on the surface of the graphene oxides (GO). Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy results reveal that defects in the GO surfaces are well repaired during the CVD process, with the help of nickel nanopartic...

  5. A {sup 99m}Tc Generator using PZC for (n,{gamma}) {sup 99}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adang, H.G.; Mutalib, A.; Suparman, I.; Hamid; Purwadi, B.; Pancoko, M.; Setiowati, S.; Yulianti, V.; Robertus, D.H. [Radioisotope Production Center, National Atomic Energy Agency Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia)


    The high performance adsorbent Poly Zirconium Compound (PZC) was produced by Department of Radioisotope, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This compound was developed as an adsorbent for natural Mo (n,{gamma}) {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc Generator. In the present paper, we report the performance of the PZC for a {sup 99m}Tc Generator which was focused on the yield, on elution profile and {sup 99}Mo breakthrough. (author)

  6. Ferroelectric BiFeO3as an Oxide Dye in Highly Tunable Mesoporous All-Oxide Photovoltaic Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Lingfei


    As potential photovoltaic materials, transition-metal oxides such as BiFeO3 (BFO) are capable of absorbing a substantial portion of solar light and incorporating ferroic orders into solar cells with enhanced performance. But the photovoltaic application of BFO has been hindered by low energy-conversion efficiency due to poor carrier transport and collection. In this work, a new approach of utilizing BFO as a light-absorbing sensitizer is developed to interface with charge-transporting TiO2 nanoparticles. This mesoporous all-oxide architecture, similar to that of dye-sensitized solar cells, can effectively facilitate the extraction of photocarriers. Under the standard AM1.5 (100 mW cm−2) irradiation, the optimized cell shows an open-circuit voltage of 0.67 V, which can be enhanced to 1.0 V by tailoring the bias history. A fill factor of 55% is achieved, which is much higher than those in previous reports on BFO-based photovoltaic devices. The results provide here a new viable approach toward developing highly tunable and stable photovoltaic devices based on ferroelectric transition-metal oxides.

  7. Determination of nitric oxide in purified air and high purity nitrogen gases with computer-controlled second derivative spectrometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soichi OTSUKA; Takahiro YAMAMOTO; Kazuhiko SAKAMOTO; Issei IWAMOTO; Naoomi YAMAKI; Takashi KIMOTO


      Nitric oxide impurity in purified air and high purity nitrogen gases, which causes uncertain errors in setting zero level of a nitrogen oxides analyzer, was determined with a newly developed computer...

  8. 99mTc Nanocoll: a radiopharmaceutical for sentinel node localisation in breast cancer - In vitro and in vivo results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, G.M.M.; Gommans, E.; van der Zant, F.M.; Teule, G.J.J.; van der Schors, T.G.; de Waard, J.W.D.


    This study evaluated labelling efficiency and radiochemical purity of 99mTc colloid albumin to identify an optimal labelling protocol for sentinel node detection. Results indicate that a 72 h eluate is not recommended for high specific labelling of 99mTc colloid albumin. Ex vivo, significantly

  9. Defective iron-oxide nanoparticles synthesised by high temperature plasma processing: a magnetic characterisation versus temperature. (United States)

    Balasubramanian, C; Joseph, B; Orpe, P B; Saini, N L; Mukherjee, S; Dziedzic-Kocurek, K; Stanek, J; Di Gioacchino, D; Marcelli, A


    Magnetic properties and phase compositions of iron-oxide nanoparticles synthesised by a high temperature arc plasma route have been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy and high harmonic magnetic AC susceptibility measurements, and correlated with morphological and structural properties for different synthesis conditions. The Mössbauer spectra precisely determined the presence of different iron-oxide fractions in the investigated nanoparticles, while the high harmonic magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed the occurrence of metastable magnetic phases evolving in temperature and time. This study illustrates magnetic properties and dynamics of the magnetic configurations of iron-oxide nanoparticles grown by high temperature plasma, a process less explored so far but extremely useful for synthesising large numbers of nanoparticles for industrial applications.

  10. Clinical application of TcGSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokudo, Norihiro E-mail:; Vera, David R.; Makuuchi, Masatoshi


    Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) is a hepatic cell surface receptor specific for galactose-terminated glycoprotein. The {sup 99m}Tc-labeled asialoglycoprotein analog, TcGSA (galactosyl-human serum albumin-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid) has been applied to human hepatic receptor imaging. This method is unique and provides information that is totally independent of the ICG test or Child-Turcotte Score. However, simple parameters, HH15 or LHL15 are no better than conventional Child-Turcotte Score. Parameters obtained from kinetic modeling were useful in detecting liver cirrhosis or postoperative liver failure. They provide quantitative data on functioning liver mass. Considering the moderate cost and widespread availability of gamma cameras, a TcGSA test should be performed on patients whose liver function are not adequately estimated by an ICG test or a Child-Turcotte score.

  11. High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Studies of Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrous Oxide Adsorption on Germanium Surfaces. (United States)

    Entringer, Anthony G.

    The first high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) studies of the oxidation and nitridation of germanium surfaces are reported. Both single crystal Ge(111) and disordered surfaces were studied. Surfaces were exposed to H, O_2, NO, N _2O, and N, after cleaning in ultra-high vacuum. The Ge surfaces were found to be non-reactive to molecular hydrogen (H_2) at room temperature. Exposure to atomic hydrogen (H) resulted hydrogen adsorption as demonstrated by the presence of Ge-H vibrational modes. The HREEL spectrum of the native oxide of Ge characteristic of nu -GeO_2 was obtained by heating the oxide to 200^circC. Three peaks were observed at 33, 62, and 106 meV for molecular oxygen (O_2) adsorbed on clean Ge(111) at room temperature. These peaks are indicative of dissociative bonding and a dominant Ge-O-Ge bridge structure. Subsequent hydrogen exposure resulted in a shift of the Ge-H stretch from its isolated value of 247 meV to 267 meV, indicative of a dominant +3 oxidation state. A high density of dangling bonds and defects and deeper oxygen penetration at the amorphous Ge surface result in a dilute bridge structure with a predominant +1 oxidation state for similar exposures. Molecules of N_2O decompose at the surfaces to desorbed N_2 molecules and chemisorbed oxygen atoms. In contrast, both oxygen and nitrogen are detected at the surfaces following exposure to NO molecules. Both NO and N_2O appear to dissociate and bond at the top surface layer. Molecular nitrogen (N_2) does not react with the Ge surfaces, however, a precursor Ge nitride is observed at room temperature following exposure to nitrogen atoms and ions. Removal of oxygen by heating of the NO-exposed surface to 550^circC enabled the identification of the Ge-N vibrational modes. These modes show a structure similar to that of germanium nitride. This spectrum is also identical to that of the N-exposed surface heated to 550^circC. Surface phonon modes of the narrow-gap semiconducting

  12. High Capacity and High Voltage Composite Oxide Cathode for Li-ion Batteries Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NEI Corporation and University of Florida propose to develop a mixed metal oxide cathode that is a composite of two and three dimensional structures. At the atomic...

  13. High ionic conductivity in confined bismuth oxide-based heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanna, Simone; Esposito, Vincenzo; Christensen, Mogens


    Bismuth trioxide in the cubic fluorite phase (δ-Bi2O3) exhibits the highest oxygen ionic conductivity. In this study, we were able to stabilize the pure -Bi2O3 at low temperature with no addition of stabilizer but only by engineering the interface, using highly coherent heterostructures made...

  14. Quantifying ligand effects in high-oxidation-state metal catalysis (United States)

    Billow, Brennan S.; McDaniel, Tanner J.; Odom, Aaron L.


    Catalysis by high-valent metals such as titanium(IV) impacts our lives daily through reactions like olefin polymerization. In any catalysis, optimization involves a careful choice of not just the metal but also the ancillary ligands. Because these choices dramatically impact the electronic structure of the system and, in turn, catalyst performance, new tools for catalyst development are needed. Understanding ancillary ligand effects is arguably one of the most critical aspects of catalyst optimization and, while parameters for phosphines have been used for decades with low-valent systems, a comparable system does not exist for high-valent metals. A new electronic parameter for ligand donation, derived from experiments on a high-valent chromium species, is now available. Here, we show that the new parameters enable quantitative determination of ancillary ligand effects on catalysis rate and, in some cases, even provide mechanistic information. Analysing reactions in this way can be used to design better catalyst architectures and paves the way for the use of such parameters in a host of high-valent processes.

  15. Residual activities of 99mTc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals in routine nuclear medicine practice. (United States)

    Stavrou, Petros Z; Papachristou, Maria; Persakis, Evangelos; Kouvelis, Konstantinos; Datseris, Ioannis E


    In this study, we present a series of common Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals administrations performed in a busy nuclear medicine department within a 1-year timeframe in routine practice. The main objective is to identify the true activity administered to the patient and whether that is in compliance with the EANM guidelines, where applicable, and/or with the department's protocols. As a secondary objective, we aimed to assess whether the volume of the injected dose correlates to the percentage of residual activity measured after injection for each studied radiotracer. A number of commonly used Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals including Tc-pertechnetate, Tc-methylenediphosphonic acid, Tc-hydroxymethylenediphosphonic acid, Tc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanedicarboxylic acid, Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine, Tc-2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (sestamibi), Tc-1,2-bis[bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino]ethane (tetrofosmin) and Tc-HYNIC-Tyr-octreotide (Tektrotyd) were assessed. All data were collected prospectively within a 1-year period under routine medical practice and included (a) injected activity, (b) residual activity, (c) percentage of residual activity (residual activity/injected activity×100), (d) effective activity (injected activity minus the residual activity), (e) injected volume, (f) time of injection and (g) type of procedure. In the 1837 collected measurements, the average percentage of residual activity was 13% (95% confidence interval: 12.75-13.39%). The mean effective activities were within the recommended range by the EANM guidelines, where applicable, or did not exceed the recommended doses from the department's protocols. In cases where actual injected activity was lower than the minimum suggested by the department's protocols, the imaging quality was not compromised. There was a negative correlation and thus an inverse relationship between the percentage of residual activity and administered volume for Tc-pertechnetate, Teceos

  16. Shape-controlled ceria-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites toward high-sensitive in situ detection of nitric oxide. (United States)

    Hu, Fang Xin; Xie, Jia Le; Bao, Shu Juan; Yu, Ling; Li, Chang Ming


    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule released by most cancer cells under drug stimulation or/and disease development but it is extremely challenging to in situ while real-time sensitively detect NO due to its large diffusivity, low concentration and fast decay. Herein, shape-controlled reduced graphene oxide nanocomposing with ceria (rGO-CeO2) was synthesized via hydrothermal reaction to construct a highly sensitive real-time sensing platform for NO detection. The crystal shape of CeO2 nanoparticles in rGO-CeO2 composites significantly affects the sensing performance of rGO-CeO2, of which the regular hexagonal nanocrystal CeO2 achieves the highest sensitivity (1676.06 mA cm(-2) M(-1)), a wide dynamic range (18.0 nM to 5.6 µM) and a low detection limit (9.6 nM). This attributes to a synergical effect from high catalytic activity of the specifically shaped CeO2 nanocrystal and good conductivity/high surface area of rGO. This work demonstrates a way by rationally compose individual merit components while well control the nanostructure for a superior synergistic effect to build a smart sensing platform, while offering a great application potential to sensitively real-time detect NO released from living cells for diagnosis or/and studies of complicated biological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxidation of UC: An in situ high temperature environmental scanning electron microscopy study (United States)

    Gasparrini, Claudia; Podor, Renaud; Horlait, Denis; Rushton, Michael J. D.; Fiquet, Olivier; Lee, William Edward


    In situ HT-ESEM oxidation of sintered UC fragments revealed the morphological changes occurring during the transformation between UC to UO2 and UO2 to U3O8 at 723-848 K and in an atmosphere of 10-100 Pa O2. Two main oxidation pathways were revealed. Oxidation at 723 K in atmospheres ≤25 Pa O2 showed the transformation from UC to UO2+x, as confirmed by post mortem HRTEM analysis. This oxidation pathway was comprised of three steps: (i) an induction period, where only surface UC particles oxidised, (ii) a sample area expansion accompanied by crack formation and propagation, (iii) a stabilisation of the total crack length inferring that crack propagation had stopped. Samples oxidised under 50 Pa O2 at 723 K and at 773-848 K for 10-100 Pa O2 showed an ;explosive; oxidation pathway: (i) sample area expansion occurred as soon as oxygen was inserted into the chamber and crack propagation and crack length followed an exponential law; (ii) cracks propagated as a network and the oxide layer fragmented, (iii) an ;explosion; occurred causing a popcorn-like transformation, typical for oxidation from UO2 to U3O8. HRTEM characterisation revealed U3O8 preferentially grow in the [001] direction. The explosive growth, triggered by ignition of UC, proceeded as a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reaction, with a propagation speed of 150-500 ± 50 μm/s.

  18. Temporal stability of solid oxidizers at high temperature and humidity. Memorandum report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellenbarg, R.E.; Dotson, D.A.


    Chemical Warfare/Biological Warfare (CW/BW) decontamination operations may rely on aqueous solutions prepared from stored solid oxidizers. Needed are data defining the shipboard storage stability of candidate oxidizers. Therefore, the stability of a series of potential decontaminants has been examined at high temperature (90 + C) and humidity (95 + % R.H.). The loss of oxidizing capacity in aliquots of the oxidizers was followed with time by iodometric titration. Calcium hypochlorite lost over 99% of its oxidizing capacity in less than two days, whereas lithium hypochlorite retained one-third oxidizing capacity for approximately twenty days. Sodium perborate, and sodium persulfate were very hygroscopic and unstable with time. H-48 decomposed in approximately two days, while sodium isocyanurate lost about 80% of its oxidizing capacity in two weeks. The data presented documents severe stability problems of one sort or another with all the materials tested, although overall the sodium isocyanurate appeared to be the more stable candidate undr extreme conditions. In any case, packaging and storage considerations are shown to be important for any potential decontaminant to be stored under environmentally severe conditions.

  19. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services


    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

  20. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services


    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC24, the first test campaign using a bituminous coal as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC24 was conducted from February 16, 2008, through March 19, 2008. The PSDF gasification process operated for about 230 hours in air-blown gasification mode with about 225 tons of Utah bituminous coal feed. Operational challenges in gasifier operation were related to particle agglomeration, a large percentage of oversize coal particles, low overall gasifier solids collection efficiency, and refractory degradation in the gasifier solids collection unit. The carbon conversion and syngas heating values varied widely, with low values obtained during periods of low gasifier operating temperature. Despite the operating difficulties, several periods of steady state operation were achieved, which provided useful data for future testing. TC24 operation afforded the opportunity for testing of various types of technologies, including dry coal feeding with a developmental feeder, the Pressure Decoupled Advanced Coal (PDAC) feeder; evaluating a new hot gas filter element media configuration; and enhancing syngas cleanup with water-gas shift catalysts. During TC24, the PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 99}Tc-MAG3-biotin conjugates for antibody pretargeting strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gog, Frank B. van; Visser, Gerard W.M.; Gowrising, Radjish W.A.; Snow, Gordon B.; Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van E-mail:


    Four {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-biotin conjugates were synthesized to determine their potential use in antibody pretargeting strategies for radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS). To use these {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-biotin conjugates as model compounds for {sup 186}Re-MAG3-biotin conjugates for radioimmunotherapy (RIT), nanomolar amounts of {sup 99}Tc were added as carrier to {sup 99m}Tc. The biotin derivatives used for the preparation of the conjugates - biocytin, biotin hydrazide, biotinyl-piperazine, and biotinyl-diaminosuccinic acid - differed at the site that is regarded to be susceptible to hydrolysis by biotinidase present in human plasma. All four conjugates were produced with high radiochemical purity, were stable in PBS, and demonstrated full binding capacity to streptavidin. The {sup 99m}Tc/{sup 99}Tc-MAG3-labeled biotinyl-piperazine and biotinyl-diaminosuccinic acid conjugates were stable in mouse as well as human plasma, whereas the corresponding biocytin and biotin hydrazide conjugates were rapidly degraded. The biodistribution in nude mice at 30 min after injection was similar for all conjugates, and a rapid blood clearance and high intestinal excretion were both observed. It is concluded that the metabolic routing of a conjugate containing biotin and MAG3 is dominated by these two moieties. For this reason, MAG3-biotin conjugates do not seem suited for pretargeted RIT, for which quantitative and fast renal excretion is a prerequisite to minimize radiation toxicity. However, in a pretargeted RIS approach the {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-biotin conjugates might have potential.

  2. Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium-Oxide Materials (United States)


    dental manufacturers and laboratories have been marketing high- translucency monolithic zirconia restorative materials with claims of good esthetics ...restorations to combine the esthetics of all-ceramic restorations with the strength properties of zirconia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate...the translucency and strength of new highly translucent monolithic zirconia ceramic materials. Four monolithic zirconium-oxide materials marketed as

  3. Influence of oxidation on the high-temperature mechanical properties of zirconia/nickel cermets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Rodriguez, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, Facultad de Fisica, 41012 Seville (Spain)]. E-mail:; Bravo-Leon, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, Facultad de Fisica, 41012 Seville (Spain); Richter, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Ruehle, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Dominguez-Rodriguez, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, Facultad de Fisica, 41012 Seville (Spain); Jimenez-Melendo, M. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes s/n, Facultad de Fisica, 41012 Seville (Spain)


    influence of an oxidizing atmosphere on the high-temperature plasticity of zirconia/nickel cermets has been studied by conducting creep tests in air. The resulting microstructure has been characterized by scanning, conventional and high-resolution electron microscopy. Despite the large microstructural changes, the composites do not exhibit mechanical degradation.

  4. {sup 99}Tc in Norwegian marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, A.K.; Brown, J.; Rudjord, A.L. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway); Straelberg, E.; Christensen, G.C. [Inst. for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Oughton, D.H. [The Agricultural Univ. og Norway, Aas (Norway)


    In February and July 1999, the {sup 99}Tc concentrations varied between 0.09 Bq m {sup -3} and 1.14 Bq m {sup -3} in the Barents Sea and in the Norwegian Sea. The highest levels of {sup 99}Tc were observed in the eastern part of the Seas. The results reflect the general circulation of water masses in the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. It is evident from the seaweed data from Utsira that the discharge front from Sellafield reached Utsira waters already in the winter 1996/97.This is in agreement with seawater data from late 1996 and 1997. Sea water data from Hillesoey show a best-fit transit time of 42 months (3 years, 6 months), with an estimated uncertainty of {+-} 9 months. The transit time for {sup 99}Tc, from Sellafield to the Norwegian coastal current (Kvitsoey), is estimated to be about 3 years from the results of the Laminaria Hyperborea study. The Utsira data indicates a longer transit time, probably 3-4 years. The distribution of technetium in Laminaria Hyperborea is clearly not homogenous with the stipes containing more technetium than the leaves. The observed {sup 99}Tc concentrations in Laminaria Hyperborea from the Kvitsoey, Buskoey and Smoela are in the range 20-72 Bq kg {sup -1} (d.w.), corresponding to concentration factors of about 7,000- 9,000 Bq kg {sup 1} (d.w.)/ Bq l {sup -1} for the leaves and 11,000-17,000 Bq kg {sup 1} (d.w.)/ Bq l {sup -1} for the stems. In 1997 and 1998, the seaweed results from Utsira show an annual variation in the {sup 99}Tc concentration with a peak in the winter, but for the years 1999 and 2000 the results are however different. The observed variations may instead be related to varying seawater concentrations due to large variations in the monthly Sellafield discharges. The results of the stable analogues study for seaweed show that Re (the closest analogue to Tc) shows a slight seasonal variation, yet with peaks in the summer rather than winter months as observed for {sup 99}Tc. At Hillesoey substantial variations

  5. High ionic conductivity in confined bismuth oxide-based heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanna, Simone; Esposito, Vincenzo; Christensen, Mogens


    Bismuth trioxide in the cubic fluorite phase (δ-Bi2O3) exhibits the highest oxygen ionic conductivity. In this study, we were able to stabilize the pure -Bi2O3 at low temperature with no addition of stabilizer but only by engineering the interface, using highly coherent heterostructures made...... of alternative layers of δ-Bi2O3 and Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), deposited by pulsed laser deposition. The resulting [δ-Bi2O3=YSZ] heterostructures are found to be stable over a wide temperature range (500-750 °C) and exhibits stable high ionic conductivity over a long time comparable to the value...... of the pure δ-Bi2O3, which is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the conductivity of YSZ bulk....

  6. High quality fuel gas from biomass pyrolysis with calcium oxide. (United States)

    Zhao, Baofeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Sun, Laizhi; Si, Hongyu; Chen, Guanyi


    The removal of CO2 and tar in fuel gas produced by biomass thermal conversion has aroused more attention due to their adverse effects on the subsequent fuel gas application. High quality fuel gas production from sawdust pyrolysis with CaO was studied in this paper. The results of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) experiments indicate that the mass ratio of CaO to sawdust (Ca/S) remarkably affects the behavior of sawdust pyrolysis. On the basis of Py-GC/MS results, one system of a moving bed pyrolyzer coupled with a fluid bed combustor has been developed to produce high quality fuel gas. The lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel gas was above 16MJ/Nm(3) and the content of tar was under 50mg/Nm(3), which is suitable for gas turbine application to generate electricity and heat. Therefore, this technology may be a promising route to achieve high quality fuel gas for biomass utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Limitations and pitfalls of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC (Tektrotyd) scintigraphy. (United States)

    Garai, Ildikó; Barna, Sandor; Nagy, Gabor; Forgacs, Attila


    Tektrotyd kit was developed by Polatom company for 99mTc labeling to make an alternative tracer of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy available. Since 2005, 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide has been used in clinical imaging and achieved high impact in management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Knowing the limitations and pitfalls is essential to provide ac-curate diagnosis. Therefore, the potential pitfalls associated with the use of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC are reviewed on the basis of own experience. Data were analyzed of 310 patients who underwent somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with 99mTc-Tektrotyd. Pitfalls during radiolabeling process or acquisition can worsen the sensitivity of SRS (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy). Recognizing physi-ological and clinical pitfalls, the diagnostic accuracy will improve.

  8. Synthesis and biological assessment of folate-accepted developer (99m)Tc-DTPA-folate-polymer. (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Shao, Kejing; Zhu, Bao; Jiang, Mengjun


    A novel cancer-targetable folate-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PFDH) copolymer containing DTPA segment was prepared by conventional chemical synthesis and labeled with (99m)Tc subsequently. The (99m)Tc-labled PFDH could be produced easily with high radiochemical yield of 91% and radiochemical purity of 95%. The LogP octanol-water value for the (99m)Tc-labled PFDH was -2.19 and the radiotracer was stable in phosphate-buffered saline and human serum for 2h (>95% in PBS or ∼90% in human serum). To investigate (99m)Tc-labled PFDH tumor targeting, the in vitro and in vivo stability, cell uptake, in vivo biodistribution, and SPECT imaging were evaluated, respectively. These preliminary results strongly suggest that the novel folate conjugated dendrimer maybe developed to be potential for delivery of therapeutic radionuclides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dry oxidation and fracture of LWR spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, T.M.


    This report evaluates the characteristics of oxidation and fracture of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in dry air. It also discusses their effects on radionuclide releases in the anticipated high-level waste repository environment. A sphere model may describe diffusion-limited formation of lower oxides, such as U{sub 4}O{sub 9}, in the oxidation of the spent fuel (SF) matrix. Detrimental higher oxides, such as U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, may not form at temperatures below a threshold temperature. The nucleation process suggests that a threshold temperature exists. The calculated results regarding fracture properties of the SF matrix agree with experimental observations. Oxidation and fracture of Zircaloy may not be significant under anticipated conditions. Under saturated or unsaturated aqueous conditions, oxidation of the SF matrix is believed to increase the releases of Pu-(239+240), Am-(241+243), C-14, Tc-99, I-129, and Cs-135. Under dry conditions, I-129 releases are likely to be small, unlike C-14, in lower oxides; Cl-36, Tc-99, I-129, and Cs-135 may be released fast in higher oxides. 79 refs.

  10. Development of Kinetics for Soot Oxidation at High Pressures Under Fuel-Lean Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lighty, JoAnn [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Vander Wal, Randy [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    The focus of the proposed research was to develop kinetic models for soot oxidation with the hope of developing a validated, predictive, multi-­scale, combustion model to optimize the design and operation of evolving fuels in advanced engines for transportation applications. The work focused on the relatively unstudied area of the fundamental mechanism for soot oxidation. The objectives include understanding of the kinetics of soot oxidation by O2 under high pressure which require: 1) development of intrinsic kinetics for the surface oxidation, which takes into account the dependence of reactivity upon nanostructure and 2) evolution of nanostructure and its impact upon oxidation rate and 3) inclusion of internal surface area development and possible fragmentation resulting from pore development and /or surface oxidation. These objectives were explored for a variety of pure fuel components and surrogate fuels. This project was a joint effort between the University of Utah (UU) and Pennsylvania State University (Penn State). The work at the UU focuses on experimental studies using a two-­stage burner and a high- pressure thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Penn State provided HRTEM images and guidance in the fringe analysis algorithms and parameter quantification for the images. This report focuses on completion done under supplemental funding.

  11. The Application of a Modified d-ROMs Test for Measurement of Oxidative Stress and Oxidized High-Density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Ito


    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. ROS-derived hydroperoxides, as an indicator of ROS production, have been measured by using the diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs test, which requires iron-containing transferrin in the reaction mixture. In this study we developed a modified d-ROMs test, termed the Fe-ROMs test, where iron ions were exogenously added to the reaction mixture. This modification is expected to exclude the assay variation that comes from different blood iron levels in individuals. In addition, this Fe-ROMs test was helpful for determining the class of plasma lipoproteins that are hydroperoxidized. Low-density lipoprotein/very low-density lipoprotein (LDL/VLDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL were purified by use of an LDL/VLDL purification kit and the dextran sulfate-Mg2+ precipitation method, respectively; their hydroperoxide contents were assessed by performing the Fe-ROMs test. The majority of the hydroperoxides were detected only in the HDL fraction, not in the LDL/VLDL. Further detailed analysis of HDLs by size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the hydroperoxide-containing molecules were small-sized HDLs. Because HDL was shown to be the principal vehicle for the plasma hydroperoxides, this Fe-ROMs test is a beneficial method for the assessment of oxidized-HDL levels. Indeed, Fe-ROMs levels were strongly associated with the levels of oxidized HDL, which were determined by performing the malondialdehyde-modified HDL enzyme immunoassay. In conclusion, the Fe-ROMs test using plasma itself or the HDL fraction after dextran sulfate-Mg2+ precipitation is useful to assess the functionality of HDL, because the oxidation of HDL impairs its antiatherogenic capacity.

  12. Alloying effects on the high-temperature oxidation resistance of Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.


    Alloying effects on the high-temperature oxidation resistance of Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb were examined on the basis of isothermal exposures to air at 950 C. Additions of either Re and Al or Fe, Ni, and Al had relatively little effect on weight gains relative to the Cr-6% Nb binary alloy. One alloying element that improved the mechanical behavior of Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloys substantially increased the oxidation rates and spallation susceptibilities of Cr-6 and -12% Nb alloys. However, the addition of another element completely offset these deleterious effects. The presence of this latter element resulted in the best overall oxidation behavior (in terms of both weight gains and spallation tendencies) of all Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb compositions. Its beneficial effect can be attributed to improvement in the oxidation resistance of the Cr-rich phase.

  13. High performance In2O3 thin film transistors using chemically derived aluminum oxide dielectric

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.


    We report high performance solution-deposited indium oxide thin film transistors with field-effect mobility of 127 cm2/Vs and an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. This excellent performance is achieved by controlling the hydroxyl group content in chemically derived aluminum oxide (AlOx) thin-film dielectrics. The AlOx films annealed in the temperature range of 250–350 °C showed higher amount of Al-OH groups compared to the films annealed at 500 °C, and correspondingly higher mobility. It is proposed that the presence of Al-OH groups at the AlOx surface facilitates unintentional Al-doping and efficient oxidation of the indium oxide channel layer, leading to improved device performance.

  14. Sex-dependent effects of high-fat-diet feeding on rat pancreas oxidative stress. (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Yolanda; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M


    The objective of the study was to investigate whether sex differences in oxidative stress-associated insulin resistance previously reported in rats could be attributed to a possible sex dimorphism in pancreas redox status. Fifteen-month-old male and female Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Serum glucose, lipids, and hormone levels were measured. Insulin immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis of islets were performed. Pancreas triglyceride content, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were determined. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) levels were also measured. Male rats showed a more marked insulin resistance profile than females. In control female rats, pancreas Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and UCP2 levels were higher, and oxidative damage was lower compared with males. High-fat-diet feeding decreased pancreas triglyceride content in female rats and UCP2 levels in male rats. High-fat-diet female rats showed larger islets than both their control and sex counterparts. These results confirm the existence of a sex dimorphism in pancreas oxidative status in both control and high-fat-diet feeding situations, with female rats showing higher protection against oxidative stress, thus maintaining pancreatic function and contributing to a lower risk of insulin resistance.

  15. Development of highly efficient solid oxide electrolyzer cell systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duhn, Jakob Dragsbæk

    , when SOECs are used in systems like Haldor Topsoe A/S’s “eCOs”. In this way, the overall eÿciency of SOEC systems are increased. The CO concentration was limited by carbon formation via the Boudouard reaction, a non-uniform flow in the fuel channels over the fuel electrode, and the di˙usion in the fuel...... with flow rate and therefore high CO concentration. The flow distribution in the fuel channels over the fuel electrode was investigated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. The flow was optimized by changing the cell inlet geometry and an increase in the flow uniformity was observed. The impact...... on the allowed average (exit) CO concentration was quite high (from 22 to 32 %). The effective diffusion in the fuel electrode was investigated with a Wicke-Kallenbach set up. Combined with measurements of the thickness, porosity and pore size, the tortuosity of the material was calculated. This made it possible...

  16. Oxidative Remobilization of Technetium Sequestered by Sulfide-Transformed Nano Zerovalent Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Dimin; Anitori, Roberto; Tebo, Bradley M.; Tratnyek, P. G.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Kovarik, Libor; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.


    The dissolution of Tc(IV) sulfide and concurrent transformation of sulfidated ZVI during 2 oxidation were examined. Kinetic data obtained with 10 mL batch reactors showed that Tc(VII) 3 reduced by sulfidated nZVI has significantly slower reoxidation rates than Tc(VII) reduced by 4 nZVI only. In a 50 mL batch reactor, initial inhibition of Tc(IV) dissolution was apparent and 5 lasted until 120 hours at S/Fe = 0.112, presumably due to the redox buffer capacity of FeS. This 6 is evidenced by the parallel trends in oxidation-reduction potentials (ORP) and Tc dissolution 7 kinetics. Mӧssbauer spectra and micro X-ray diffraction of S/Fe = 0.112 suggested the 8 persistence of FeS after 24-h oxidation although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated 9 substantial surface oxidation. After 120-h oxidation, all characterizations showed complete 10 oxidation of FeS, which further indicates that FeS inhibits Tc oxidation. X-ray absorption 11 spectroscopy for S/Fe = 0.011 showed significantly increasing percentage of TcS2 in the solid 12 phase after 24-h oxidation, indicating TcS2 is more resistant to oxidation than TcO2. At S/Fe = 13 0.112, the XAS results revealed significant transformation of Tc speciation from TcS2 to TcO2 14 after 120-h oxidation at S/Fe = 0.112. Given that no apparent Tc dissolution occurred during this 15 period, the speciation transformation might play a secondary role in hindering Tc oxidation, 16 especially as redox buffer capacity approached depletion.

  17. High fat diet aggravates arsenic induced oxidative stress in rat heart and liver. (United States)

    Dutta, Mousumi; Ghosh, Debosree; Ghosh, Arnab Kumar; Bose, Gargi; Chattopadhyay, Aindrila; Rudra, Smita; Dey, Monalisa; Bandyopadhyay, Arkita; Pattari, Sanjib K; Mallick, Sanjaya; Bandyopadhyay, Debasish


    Arsenic is a well known global groundwater contaminant. Exposure of human body to arsenic causes various hazardous effects via oxidative stress. Nutrition is an important susceptible factor which can affect arsenic toxicity by several plausible mechanisms. Development of modern civilization led to alteration in the lifestyle as well as food habits of the people both in urban and rural areas which led to increased use of junk food containing high level of fat. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of high fat diet on heart and liver tissues of rats when they were co-treated with arsenic. This study was established by elucidating heart weight to body weight ratio as well as analysis of the various functional markers, oxidative stress biomarkers and also the activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Histological analysis confirmed the biochemical investigations. From this study it can be concluded that high fat diet increased arsenic induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesising highly reactive tin oxide using Tin(II2- ethylhexanoate polynucleation as precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Montenegro Hernández


    Full Text Available Tin oxide is a widely used compound in technological applications, particularity as a catalyst, gas sensor and in making varistors, transparent conductors, electrocatalytic electrodes and photovoltaic cells. An ethylhexanoate tin salt, a carboxylic acid and poly-esterification were used for synthesising highly reactive tin oxide in the present study. Synthesis was controlled by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and recording changes in viscosity. The tin oxide characteristics so obtained were determined using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SnO2 dust synthesised and heat-treated at 550°C yielded high density aggregates, having greater than 50 μm particle size. This result demonstrates the high reactivity of the ceramic powders synthesised here.

  19. Synthesising highly reactive tin oxide using Tin(II2- ethylhexanoate polynucleation as precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Montenegro Hernández


    Full Text Available Tin oxide is a widely used compound in technological applications, particularity as a catalyst, gas sensor and in making varistors, transparent conductors, electrocatalytic electrodes and photovoltaic cells. An ethylhexanoate tin salt, a carboxylic acid and poly-esterification were used for synthesising highly reactive tin oxide in the present study. Synthesis was controlled by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and recording changes in viscosity. The tin oxide characteristics so obtained were determined using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SnO2 dust synthesised and heat-treated at 550°C yielded high density aggregates, having greater than 50 μm particle size. This result demonstrates the high reactivity of the ceramic powders synthesised here.

  20. Health risks of space exploration: targeted and nontargeted oxidative injury by high-charge and high-energy particles. (United States)

    Li, Min; Gonon, Géraldine; Buonanno, Manuela; Autsavapromporn, Narongchai; de Toledo, Sonia M; Pain, Debkumar; Azzam, Edouard I


    During deep space travel, astronauts are often exposed to high atomic number (Z) and high-energy (E) (high charge and high energy [HZE]) particles. On interaction with cells, these particles cause severe oxidative injury and result in unique biological responses. When cell populations are exposed to low fluences of HZE particles, a significant fraction of the cells are not traversed by a primary radiation track, and yet, oxidative stress induced in the targeted cells may spread to nearby bystander cells. The long-term effects are more complex because the oxidative effects persist in progeny of the targeted and affected bystander cells, which promote genomic instability and may increase the risk of age-related cancer and degenerative diseases. Greater understanding of the spatial and temporal features of reactive oxygen species bursts along the tracks of HZE particles, and the availability of facilities that can simulate exposure to space radiations have supported the characterization of oxidative stress from targeted and nontargeted effects. The significance of secondary radiations generated from the interaction of the primary HZE particles with biological material and the mitigating effects of antioxidants on various cellular injuries are central to understanding nontargeted effects and alleviating tissue injury. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the cellular responses to HZE particles, particularly under reduced gravity and situations of exposure to additional radiations, such as protons, should be useful in reducing the uncertainty associated with current models for predicting long-term health risks of space radiation. These studies are also relevant to hadron therapy of cancer.

  1. Near-infrared light controlled photocatalytic activity of carbon quantum dots for highly selective oxidation reaction (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Ruihua; Lian, Suoyuan; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui


    Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize the transformation from benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with high selectivity (100%) and conversion (92%) under NIR light irradiation. HO&z.rad; is the main active oxygen specie in benzyl alcohol selective oxidative reaction confirmed by terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing assay (TA-PL), selecting toluene as the substrate. Such metal-free photocatalytic system also selectively converts other alcohol substrates to their corresponding aldehydes with high conversion, demonstrating a potential application of accessing traditional alcohol oxidation chemistry.Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize

  2. Jasmonate-responsive expression of paclitaxel biosynthesis genes in Taxus cuspidata cultured cells is negatively regulated by the bHLH transcription factors TcJAMYC1, TcJAMYC2 and TcJAMYC4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram Keshari Lenka


    Full Text Available Taxus cell suspension culture is a sustainable technology for the industrial production of paclitaxel (Taxol®, a highly modified diterpene anti-cancer agent. The methyl jasmonate (MJ-mediated paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway is not fully characterized, making metabolic engineering efforts difficult. Here, promoters of seven genes (TASY, T5αH, DBAT, DBBT, PAM, BAPT and DBTNBT, encoding enzymes of the paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway were isolated and used to drive MJ-inducible expression of a GUS reporter construct in transiently transformed Taxus cells, showing that elicitation of paclitaxel production by MJ is regulated at least in part at the level of transcription. The paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway promoters contained a large number of E-box sites (CANNTG, similar to the binding sites for the key MJ-inducible transcription factor AtMYC2 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Three MJ-inducible MYC transcription factors similar to AtMYC2 (TcJAMYC1, TcJAMYC2 and TcJAMYC4 were identified in Taxus. Transcriptional regulation of paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway promoters by transient over expression of TcJAMYC transcription factors indicated a negative rather than positive regulatory role of TcJAMYCs on paclitaxel biosynthetic gene expression.

  3. Comparison of 99mTc-sestamibi-18F-fluorodeoxyglucose dual isotope simultaneous acquisition and rest-stress 99mTc-sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography for the assessment of myocardial viability. (United States)

    De Boer, J; Slart, R H J A; Blanksma, P K; Willemsen, A T M; Jager, P L; Paans, A M J; Vaalburg, W; Piers, D A


    Dual isotope simultaneous acquisition single photon emission computed tomography (DISA SPECT) offers the advantage of obtaining information on myocardial perfusion using Tc-sestamibi ( Tc-MIBI) and metabolism using F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( F-FDG) in a single study. The prerequisite is that the Tc-MIBI images are not degraded by scattered 511 keV photons or poor count statistics due to the lower efficiency of the extra high energy (EHE) collimator. Therefore, we compared the registered Tc-MIBI uptake and image quality of DISA and single isotope acquisition. Furthermore, we investigated whether DISA yields additional information for the assessment of myocardial viability in comparison with rest-stress Tc-MIBI. Nineteen patients with known coronary artery disease and irreversible perfusion defects on previous rest-stress MIBI test studies were investigated. After oral glucose loading and simultaneous injection of 600 MBq of Tc-MIBI and 185 MBq of F-FDG at rest, DISA was performed using energy windows of 140 (+/-15%), 170 (+/-20%) and 511 keV (+/-15%). Planar 140 keV images were corrected for scatter by subtraction using the 170 keV window. The single and dual isotope Tc-MIBI images were both displayed in a polar map with 128 segments normalized to maximum counts. F-FDG and Tc-MIBI images were visually scored for a perfusion-metabolism mismatch pattern using nine regions per heart. There was an excellent correlation (r =0.93, PDISA does not affect the quality of the Tc-MIBI images. Furthermore, F-FDG- Tc-MIBI DISA may show viability in a small but significant (7.6%, P<0.0034) number of regions with irreversible perfusion defects on rest-stress Tc-MIBI.

  4. High performance MIIM diode based on cobalt oxide/titanium oxide (United States)

    Herner, S. B.; Weerakkody, A. D.; Belkadi, A.; Moddel, G.


    Optical rectennas for infrared energy harvesting commonly incorporate metal/double-insulator/metal diodes. Required diode characteristics include high responsivity and low resistance near zero bias with a sub-micron area, which have not been obtainable simultaneously. Diodes based on a new material set, Co/Co3O4/TiO2/Ti and an area of 0.071 μm2, provide a median maximum responsivity of 4.1 A/W, a median zero-bias responsivity of 1.2 A/W, and a median resistance of 14 kΩ. The highest performing diode has a maximum responsivity of 4.4 A/W, a zero-bias responsivity of 2.2 A/W, and a resistance of 18 kΩ.

  5. A fast and simple dose-calibrator-based quality control test for the radionuclidic purity of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc. (United States)

    Tanguay, J; Hou, X; Esquinas, P; Vuckovic, M; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A


    Cyclotron production of 99mTc through the (100)Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based (99)Mo generation by nuclear fission of (235)U. Like most radioisotope production methods, cyclotron production of 99mTc will result in creation of unwanted impurities, including Tc and non-Tc isotopes. It is important to measure the amounts of these impurities for release of cyclotron-produced 99mTc (CPTc) for clinical use. Detection of radioactive impurities will rely on measurements of their gamma (γ) emissions. Gamma spectroscopy is not suitable for this purpose because the overwhelming presence of 99mTc and the count-rate limitations of γ spectroscopy systems preclude fast and accurate measurement of small amounts of impurities. In this article we describe a simple and fast method for measuring γ emission rates from radioactive impurities in CPTc. The proposed method is similar to that used to identify (99)Mo breakthrough in generator-produced 99mTc: one dose calibrator (DC) reading of a CPTc source placed in a lead shield is followed by a second reading of the same source in air. Our experimental and theoretical analysis show that the ratio of DC readings in lead to those in air are linearly related to γ emission rates from impurities per MBq of 99mTc over a large range of clinically-relevant production conditions. We show that estimates of the γ emission rates from Tc impurities per MBq of 99mTc can be used to estimate increases in radiation dose (relative to pure 99mTc) to patients injected with CPTc-based radiopharmaceuticals. This enables establishing dosimetry-based clinical-release criteria that can be tested using commercially-available dose calibrators. We show that our approach is highly sensitive to the presence of 93gTc, 93mTc, 94gTc, 94mTc, 95mTc, 95gTc, and 96gTc, in addition to a number of non-Tc impurities.

  6. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Samir A., E-mail: [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)


    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  7. Oxidation of CoCrFeMnNi High Entropy Alloys (United States)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Carney, Casey


    Eight model high entropy alloys (HEAs) in the CoCrFeMnNi family (including one alloy each in the CoCrFeNi and CoFeMnNi subfamilies) were made, prepared, and exposed to laboratory air for 1100 h at 650°C and 750°C. Two commercial alloys, nickel-base superalloy 230 (N06230) and austenitic stainless steel 304H (S30409), were simultaneously exposed for comparison. Mass change oxidation kinetics were measured and cross-sections of exposed samples were observed. Seven of these HEAs contained much more Mn (12-24 wt.%) than is found in commercial heat-resistant stainless steels and superalloys. The oxidation resistance of CoCrFeNi was excellent and comparable to 304H at 650°C and only slightly worse at 750°C. The thin oxide scale on CoCrFeNi was primarily Cr oxide (presumably Cr2O3) with some Mn oxide at the outer part of the scale. The CoCrFeMnNi HEAs all experienced more rapid oxidation than CoCrFeNi and, especially at 750°C, experienced oxide scale spallation. The addition of Y in the alloy to lower S improved the oxidation resistance of these HEAs. Alloy CoFeMnNi, without Cr, experienced much higher oxidation rates and scale spallation than the Cr-containing alloys. A linear regression analysis of the log of the parabolic rate constant, log(kp), as functions of wt.% Cr and Mn found a good correlation for the compositional dependence of the oxidation rate constant, especially at 650°C. Mn was found to be more detrimental increasing log(k p) than Cr was helpful reducing log(k p). If CoCrFeMnNi HEAs are to be used in high temperature oxidizing environments, then examining lower levels of Mn, while maintaining Cr levels, should be pursued.

  8. Fabrication of ultrafine manganese oxide-decorated carbon nanofibers for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ying; Lee, Sungsik; Brown, Dennis E.; Zhao, Hairui; Li, Xinsong; Jiang, Daqiang; Hao, Shijie; Zhao, Yongxiang; Cong, Daoyong; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Yang


    Ultrafine manganese oxide-decorated carbon nanofibers (MnOn-CNF) as a new type of electrode materials are facilely fabricated by direct conversion of Mn, Zn-trimesic acid (H3BTC) metal organic framework fibers (Mn-ZnBTC). The construction and evolution of Mn-ZnBTC precursors are investigated by SEM and in situ high-energy XRD. The manganese oxides are highly dispersed onto the porous carbon nanofibers formed simultaneously, verified by TEM, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), Raman, ICP-AES and N2 adsorption techniques. As expected, the resulting MnOn-CNF composites are highly stable, and can be cycled up to 5000 times with a high capacitance retention ratio of 98% in electrochemical capacitor measurements. They show a high capacitance of up to 179 F g–1 per mass of the composite electrode, and a remarkable capacitance of up to 18290 F g–1 per active mass of the manganese(IV) oxide, significantly exceeding the theoretical specific capacitance of manganese(IV) oxide (1370 F g–1). The maximum energy density is up to 19.7 Wh kg–1 at the current density of 0.25 A g–1, even orders higher than those of reported electric double-layer capacitors and pseudocapacitors. The excellent capacitive performance can be ascribed to the joint effect of easy accessibility, high porosity, tight contact and superior conductivity integrated in final MnOn-CNF composites.

  9. CO2 as an Oxidant for High Temperature Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibudjing eKawi


    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on the developments in catalyst technology for the reactions utilizing CO2 for high temperature applications. These include dehydrogenation of alkanes to olefins, the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene and finally CO2 reforming of hydrocarbon feedstock (i.e. methane and alcohols. Aspects on the various reaction pathways are also highlighted. The literature on the role of promoters and catalyst development is critically evaluated. Most of the reactions discussed in this review are exploited in industries and related to on-going processes, thus providing extensive data from literature. However some reactions, such as CO2 reforming of ethanol and glycerol which have not reached industrial scale are also reviewed owing to their great potential in terms of sustainability which are essential as energy for the future. This review further illustrates the building-up of knowledge which shows the role of support and catalysts for each reaction and the underlying linkage between certain catalysts which can be adapted for the multiple CO2-related reactions.

  10. Role of Oxides and Porosity on High-Temperature Oxidation of Liquid-Fueled HVOF Thermal-Sprayed Ni50Cr Coatings (United States)

    Song, B.; Bai, M.; Voisey, K. T.; Hussain, T.


    High chromium content in Ni50Cr thermally sprayed coatings can generate a dense and protective scale at the surface of coating. Thus, the Ni50Cr coating is widely used in high-temperature oxidation and corrosion applications. A commercially available gas atomized Ni50Cr powder was sprayed onto a power plant steel (ASME P92) using a liquid-fueled high velocity oxy-fuel thermal spray with three processing parameters in this study. Microstructure of as-sprayed coatings was examined using oxygen content analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Short-term air oxidation tests (4 h) of freestanding coatings (without boiler steel substrate) in a thermogravimetric analyzer at 700 °C were performed to obtain the kinetics of oxidation of the as-sprayed coating. Long-term air oxidation tests (100 h) of the coated substrates were performed at same temperature to obtain the oxidation products for further characterization in detail using SEM/EDX and XRD. In all samples, oxides of various morphologies developed on top of the Ni50Cr coatings. Cr2O3 was the main oxidation product on the surface of all three coatings. The coating with medium porosity and medium oxygen content has the best high-temperature oxidation performance in this study.

  11. General report of TC 106 : Unsaturated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jommi, C.


    This general report summarises the contributions on unsaturated soil mechanics submitted to the Discussion Session of TC106 – Unsaturated soils –at the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering held in Paris in September 2013. The thirty-five papers collected under

  12. Reactive removal of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide vapors under visible light irradiation by cerium oxide modified highly porous zirconium (hydr) oxide (United States)

    Mitchell, Joshua K.; Arcibar-Orozco, Javier A.; Bandosz, Teresa J.


    Highly porous cerium oxide modified Zr(OH)4 samples were synthesized using a simple one stage urea precipitation method. The amorphicity level of zirconium hydroxide did not change upon addition of cerium oxide particles. A unique aspect of the cerium oxide-modified materials is the presence of both the oxide (CeO2) and hydroxide (Zr(OH)4) phases resulting in a unique microporous structure of the final material. Extensive characterization using various chemical and physical methods revealed significant differences in the surface features. All synthesized materials were microporous and small additions of cerium oxide affected the surface chemistry. These samples were found as effective catalysts for a decontamination of mustard gas surrogate, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Cerium oxide addition significantly decreased the band gap of zirconium hydroxide. Ethyl vinyl sulfide and 1,2-bis (Ethyl thio) ethane were identified as surface reaction products.

  13. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduction/oxidation (redox) model for the defense waste processing facility (DWPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Trivelpiece, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ramsey, W. G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Control of the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of glasses containing high concentrations of transition metals, such as High Level Waste (HLW) glasses, is critical in order to eliminate processing difficulties caused by overly reduced or overly oxidized melts. Operation of a HLW melter at Fe+2/ΣFe ratios of between 0.09 and 0.33, retains radionuclides in the melt and thus the final glass. Specifically, long-lived radioactive 99Tc species are less volatile in the reduced Tc4+ state as TcO2 than as NaTcO4 or Tc2O7, and ruthenium radionuclides in the reduced Ru4+ state are insoluble RuO2 in the melt which are not as volatile as NaRuO4 where the Ru is in the +7 oxidation state. Similarly, hazardous volatile Cr6+ occurs in oxidized melt pools as Na2CrO4 or Na2Cr2O7, while the Cr+3 state is less volatile and remains in the melt as NaCrO2 or precipitates as chrome rich spinels. The melter REDOX control balances the oxidants and reductants from the feed and from processing additives such as antifoam.

  14. Evaluation of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine-biocytin as a new hepatobiliary imaging agent in mice coinjected with bilirubin. (United States)

    Kim, M; Seidel, J; Le, N; Kim, I S; Yoo, T M; Barker, C; Kobayashi, H; Green, M V; Carrasquillo, J A; Paik, C H


    We evaluated 99mTc-labeled mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3)-biocytin as a hepatobiliary imaging agent in the absence and presence of bilirubin in mice. We then compared its pharmacokinetic parameters; peak liver/heart activity ratio (rmax) and half clearance time (HCT) with those of 99mTc-labeled diisopropyl-iminodiacetic acid (99mTc-disofenin). Balb/c mice were injected intravenously with hepatobiliary agent (99mTc-MAG3-biocytin or 99mTc-disofenin) alone or in combination with bilirubin at two doses (7 and 14 mg/kg) dissolved in 5% human serum albumin. Images were acquired every 15 s for 30 min with a gamma-camera equipped with a pinhole collimator. Dynamic images showed rapid hepatic uptake of 99mTc-MAG3-biocytin, with rapid clearance from the blood and rapid excretion via the biliary system. Its hepatic uptake was not affected by bilirubin coinjection, whereas 99mTc-disofenin coinjected with bilirubin showed a higher blood background than 99mTc-disofenin alone. These qualitative findings were reflected in pharmacokinetic parameters, rmax and HCT. The rmax was obtained from plots of time versus liver/heart activity ratios obtained in equal-area regions of interest over the heart and liver. The HCT was calculated from the hepatic clearance curve from plots of time versus liver activity. 99mTc-MAG3-biocytin without bilirubin coinjection showed an rmax of 8.9+/-1.3 and an HCT of 399+/-36 s. These values did not change even when 14 mg/kg of bilirubin were coinjected. By contrast, the parameters for 99mTc-disofenin with bilirubin were significantly (p biocytin hepatobiliary scintigraphy in mice is not affected by bilirubin coinjection, and this hepatobiliary agent appears to offer promise for estimating hepatic function in patients with high bilirubin levels.

  15. Reduction and Simultaneous Removal of 99 Tc and Cr by Fe(OH) 2 (s) Mineral Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saslow, Sarah A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Pearce, Carolyn I. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental; Bowden, Mark E. [Environmental; Lukens, Wayne [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, United States; Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Kim, Dong-Sang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Kruger, Albert A. [United


    Technetium (Tc) remains a priority remediation concern due to persistent challenges, including rapid re-oxidation of immobilized Tc, and competing contaminants, e.g. Cr(VI), that inhibit targeted Tc reduction and incorporation into stable mineral phases. Here Fe(OH)2(s) is investigated as a comprehensive solution for overcoming these challenges, by serving as both the reductant, (Fe(II)), and immobilization agent to form Tc-incorporated magnetite (Fe3O4). Trace metal analysis suggests removal of Tc(VII) and Cr(VI) from solution occurs simultaneously; however, complete removal and reduction of Cr(VI) is achieved earlier than the removal/reduction of co-mingled Tc(VII). Bulk oxidation state analysis of the magnetite solid phase by XANES confirms that the majority of Tc is Tc(IV), which is corroborated by XPS. Furthermore, EXAFS results show successful Tc(IV) incorporation into magnetite octahedral sites without additional substitution of Cr or Tc into neighboring Fe octahedral sites. XPS analysis of Cr confirms reduction to Cr(III) and the formation of a Cr-incorporated spinel, Cr2O3, and Cr(OH)3 phases. Spinel (modeled as Fe3O4), goethite, and feroxyhyte are detected in all reacted solid phase samples analyzed by XRD, where Tc(IV) incorporation has little effect on the spinel lattice structure. In the presence of Cr(III) a spinel phase along the magnetite-chromite (Fe3O4-FeCr2O4) solid-solution line is formed.

  16. High temperature oxidation and electrochemical studies on novel co-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Leonhard


    Isothermal oxidation in air was carried out on novel γ'-strengthened Cobalt-base superalloys of the system Co-Al-W-B. After fast initial oxide formation, a multi-layered structure establishes, consisting of an outer cobalt oxide layer, a middle spinel-containing layer, and an inner Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich region. Ion diffusion in outward direction is hindered by the development of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, that can be either present as a continuous and protective layer or as a discontinuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich area without comparable protective effect. Furthermore, high temperature oxidation leads to phase transformation (from γ/γ' into γ/Co{sub 3}W) at the alloy/oxide layer interface due to aluminium depletion. Pure cobalt and ternary Co-Al-W alloys exhibit parabolic oxide growth due to the lack or insufficient amounts of protective oxides, whereas quaternary Co-Al-W-B alloys possess sub-parabolic oxidation behaviour (at 900 C). At lower temperatures (800 C), even a blockage of further oxidation can be observed. High amounts of B (0.12 at%) significantly improve oxidation resistance mainly due to its beneficial effect on inner Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-formation at the alloy/oxide interface. Furthermore, B prevents decohesion of high temperature scales due to the formation of B-rich phases (presumably tungsten borides) in the middle oxide layer. Appropriate amounts of chromium (8 at%) as additional alloying element to Co-Al-W-B alloys lead to the formation of an inner duplex layer composed of protective Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases. In this respect, chromium also benefits selective oxidation of aluminium, which results in higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-contents compared to chromium-free alloys. Major drawbacks of chromium additions are, on the one hand, the formation of volatile chromium-containing species at temperatures exceeding 1000 C and on the other hand, the instability of the γ/γ'-microstructure. Titanium and silicon additions lead to

  17. High-volumetric performance aligned nano-porous microwave exfoliated graphite oxide-based electrochemical capacitors. (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mehdi; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Haiping; Lin, Minren; Kim, Tae Young; Ruoff, Rodney S; Zhang, Q M


    Ultra-high volumetric performance electrochemical double layer capacitors based on high density aligned nano-porous microwave exfoliated graphite oxide have been studied. Elimination of macro-, meso-, and larger micro-pores from electrodes and controlling the nano-morphology results in very high volumetric capacitance, energy, and power density values. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Oxide heterostructures for high density 2D electron gases on GaAs (United States)

    Kornblum, Lior; Faucher, Joseph; Morales-Acosta, Mayra D.; Lee, Minjoo L.; Ahn, Charles H.; Walker, Frederick J.


    2D electron gases (2DEGs) that form at oxide interfaces provide a rich testbed of phenomena for condensed matter research, with emerging implementations in devices. Integrating such oxide systems with semiconductors advances these interesting phenomena toward technological applications. This approach further opens prospects of new functionalities arising from the potential to couple the 2DEG carriers with the semiconductor. In this work, we demonstrate the first integration of oxide 2DEGs with a direct bandgap III-V semiconductor. The growth and structural characteristics of (001) GdTiO3-SrTiO3 (GTO-STO) heterostructures on (001) GaAs are described. Analysis of the magnetotransport data yields a high electron density of ˜2 × 1014 cm-2 per GTO-STO interface, and points to the oxide interface as the source of the carriers. The effect of structure and defects on the transport properties is discussed within the context of the growth conditions and their limitations. These results provide a route for integrating oxide 2DEGs and other functional oxides with GaAs toward future device prospects and integration schemes.

  19. Filter Paper Inspired Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials with High Photocatalytic Activity for Degradation of Methylene Orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Liu


    Full Text Available Nanometer-sized zinc oxide (ZnO has been synthesized through sol-gel method with natural cellulose substance (commercial filter paper as template. The structure of zinc oxide nanomaterial was characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption and XRD. The morphology was observed by SEM and TEM. The results show that the hexagonal wurtzite phase is actually the only crystal phase in the sample and the product faithfully inherits the hierarchical morphology and the complex network structure of the original filter paper, which is composed of many randomly intersecting zinc oxide microfibers and nanosheets with lots of close stacked particles adsorbed on the surface. Moreover, these zinc oxide nanomaterials possess abundant mesoporous structure with an average pore diameter of ca. 21 nm and a wide pore size distribution (3–30 nm. Due to the strong absorption ability in the UV range, the zinc oxide nanomaterial prepared by this method displays significantly high photocatalytic activity for degrading methyl orange. In a short period of 20 minutes, the zinc oxide nanomaterial has degraded about 50% of the original MO, and the MO dye is fully degraded after UV irradiation for 80 minutes.

  20. Polyphenols from hawthorn peels and fleshes differently mitigate dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in association with modulation of liver injury in high fructose diet-fed mice. (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Li, Wenfeng; Huang, Di; Yang, Xingbin


    Hawthorn ingestion is linked to health benefits due to the various polyphenols. The present study investigated the differential effects of polyphenols-enriched extracts from hawthorn fruit peels (HPP) and fleshes (HFP) against liver injury induced by high-fructose diet in mice. It was found that the main species of polyphenols in hawthorn was chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, rutin and hyperoside, and their contents in HPP were all higher than those in HFP. Administration of HPP was better than HFP to alleviate liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis, reflected by the reduction of ALT, AST and ALP activities, as well as the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in mice. Meanwhile, HPP was also more effective than HFP to mitigate liver inflammation and oxidative stress by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6) release, and elevating antioxidant enzyme activities and PPARα expression, while reducing Nrf-2 and ARE expression in mice. Interestingly, HPP-treated mice also showed the lower levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and Apo-B, and the higher levels of HDL-C and Apo-A1 than HFP-treated mice via reducing FAS express. These results together with the histopathology of the liver with H&E and oil red O staining suggest that hawthorn fruit, especially its peel, is an excellent source of natural polyphenolic chemopreventive agents in the treatment of liver disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.