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Sample records for high target utilization

  1. Characterization of Niobium Oxide Films Deposited by High Target Utilization Sputter Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R; Ellis, A D; Loomis, G E; Rana, S I

    2007-01-01

    High quality, refractory metal, oxide coatings are required in a variety of applications such as laser optics, micro-electronic insulating layers, nano-device structures, electro-optic multilayers, sensors and corrosion barriers. A common oxide deposition technique is reactive sputtering because the kinetic mechanism vaporizes almost any solid material in vacuum. Also, the sputtered molecules have higher energies than those generated from thermal evaporation, and so the condensates are smoother and denser than those from thermally-evaporated films. In the typical sputtering system, target erosion is a factor that drives machine availability. In some situations such as nano-layered capacitors, where the device's performance characteristics depends on thick layers, target life becomes a limiting factor on the maximizing device functionality. The keen interest to increase target utilization in sputtering has been addressed in a variety of ways such as target geometry, rotating magnets, and/or shaped magnet arrays. Also, a recent sputtering system has been developed that generates a high density plasma, directs the plasma beam towards the target in a uniform fashion, and erodes the target in a uniform fashion. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and compare niobia films deposited by two types of high target utilization sputtering sources, a rotating magnetron and a high density plasma source. The oxide of interest in this study is niobia because of its high refractive index. The quality of the niobia films were characterized spectroscopically in optical transmission, ellipsometrically, and chemical stoichiometry with X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The refractive index, extinction coefficients, Cauchy constants were derived from the ellipsometric modeling. The mechanical properties of coating density and stress are also determined

  2. The utility target market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, G.J.; Martin, J.

    1994-01-01

    A new model (the Utility Target Market Model) is used to evaluate the economic benefits of photovoltaic (PV) power systems located at the electrical utility customer site. These distributed PV demand-side generation systems can be evaluated in a similar manner to other demand-side management technologies. The energy and capacity values of an actual PV system located in the service area of the New England Electrical System (NEES) are the two utility benefits evaluated. The annual stream of energy and capacity benefits calculated for the utility are converted to the installed cost per watt that the utility should be willing to invest to receive this benefit stream. Different discount rates are used to show the sensitivity of the allowable installed cost of the PV systems to a utility's average cost of capital. Capturing both the energy and capacity benefits of these relatively environmentally friendly distributed generators, NEES should be willing to invest in this technology when the installed cost per watt declines to ca $2.40 using NEES' rated cost of capital (8.78%). If a social discount rate of 3% is used, installation should be considered when installed cost approaches $4.70/W. Since recent installations in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District have cost between $7-8/W, cost-effective utility applications of PV are close. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. Targeting condom distribution at high risk places increases condom utilization-evidence from an intervention study in Livingstone, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandøy Ingvild

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PLACE-method presumes that targeting HIV preventive activities at high risk places is effective in settings with major epidemics. Livingstone, Zambia, has a major HIV epidemic despite many preventive efforts in the city. A baseline survey conducted in 2005 in places where people meet new sexual partners found high partner turnover and unprotected sex to be common among guests. In addition, there were major gaps in on-site condom availability. This study aimed to assess the impact of a condom distribution and peer education intervention targeting places where people meet new sexual partners on condom use and sexual risk taking among people socializing there. Methods The 2005 baseline survey assessed the presence of HIV preventive activities and sexual risk taking in places where people meet new sexual partners in Livingstone. One township was selected for a non-randomised intervention study on condom distribution and peer education in high risk venues in 2009. The presence of HIV preventive activities in the venues during the intervention was monitored by an external person. The intervention was evaluated after one year with a follow-up survey in the intervention township and a comparison township. In addition, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted. Results Young people between 17-32 years of age were recruited as peer educators, and 40% were females. Out of 72 persons trained before the intervention, 38 quit, and another 11 had to be recruited. The percentage of venues where condoms were reported to always be available at least doubled in both townships, but was significantly higher in the intervention vs. the control venues in both surveys (84% vs. 33% in the follow-up. There was a reduction in reported sexual risk taking among guests socializing in the venues in both areas, but reporting of recent condom use increased more among people interviewed in the intervention (57% to 84% than in the

  4. Targeting condom distribution at high risk places increases condom utilization-evidence from an intervention study in Livingstone, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Zyaambo, Cosmas; Michelo, Charles; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2012-01-05

    The PLACE-method presumes that targeting HIV preventive activities at high risk places is effective in settings with major epidemics. Livingstone, Zambia, has a major HIV epidemic despite many preventive efforts in the city. A baseline survey conducted in 2005 in places where people meet new sexual partners found high partner turnover and unprotected sex to be common among guests. In addition, there were major gaps in on-site condom availability. This study aimed to assess the impact of a condom distribution and peer education intervention targeting places where people meet new sexual partners on condom use and sexual risk taking among people socializing there. The 2005 baseline survey assessed the presence of HIV preventive activities and sexual risk taking in places where people meet new sexual partners in Livingstone. One township was selected for a non-randomised intervention study on condom distribution and peer education in high risk venues in 2009. The presence of HIV preventive activities in the venues during the intervention was monitored by an external person. The intervention was evaluated after one year with a follow-up survey in the intervention township and a comparison township. In addition, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted. Young people between 17-32 years of age were recruited as peer educators, and 40% were females. Out of 72 persons trained before the intervention, 38 quit, and another 11 had to be recruited. The percentage of venues where condoms were reported to always be available at least doubled in both townships, but was significantly higher in the intervention vs. the control venues in both surveys (84% vs. 33% in the follow-up). There was a reduction in reported sexual risk taking among guests socializing in the venues in both areas, but reporting of recent condom use increased more among people interviewed in the intervention (57% to 84%) than in the control community (55% to 68%). It is likely that the

  5. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  6. EURISOL High Power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Lindroos, M; Ridikas, D; Stora, T; Tecchio, L; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Modern Nuclear Physics requires access to higher yields of rare isotopes, that relies on further development of the In-flight and Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) production methods. The limits of the In-Flight method will be applied via the next generation facilities FAIR in Germany, RIKEN in Japan and RIBF in the USA. The ISOL method will be explored at facilities including ISAC-TRIUMF in Canada, SPIRAL-2 in France, SPES in Italy, ISOLDE at CERN and eventually at the very ambitious multi-MW EURISOL facility. ISOL and in-flight facilities are complementary entities. While in-flight facilities excel in the production of very short lived radioisotopes independently of their chemical nature, ISOL facilities provide high Radioisotope Beam (RIB) intensities and excellent beam quality for 70 elements. Both production schemes are opening vast and rich fields of nuclear physics research. In this article we will introduce the targets planned for the EURISOL facility and highlight some of the technical and safety cha...

  7. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1978-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (< 100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  8. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1977-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (<100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  9. New emissions targeting strategy for site utility of process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manesh, Mohamamd Hasan Khoshgoftar; Amidpour, Majid; Hamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Abadi, Sajad Khamis; Ghalami, Hooman

    2013-01-01

    A new procedure for environmental targeting of co-generation system is presented. The proposed method is based on the concepts of pinch technology for total site targeting of fuel, power, steam, environmental impacts and total annualized cost with considering emissions taxes. This approach provides a consistent, general procedure for determining mass flow rates and efficiencies of the applied turbines. This algorithm utilizes the relationship of entropy with enthalpy and isentropic efficiency. Also, the life cycle assessment (LCA) as a well-known tool for analyzing environmental impacts on a wide perspective with reference to a product system and the related environmental and economic impacts have been applied. In this regard, a damage-oriented impact analysis method based on Eco-indicator 99 and footprints analysis was considered. In addition, the present work demonstrates the effect of including both sensible and latent heating of steam in the extended Site Utility Grand Composite Curve (ESUGCC). It is shown that including sensible heating allows for better thermal matching between the processes. Furthermore, the other representation YSUGCC as the other form of Site Utility Grand Composite has been proposed. Two case studies were used to illustrate the usefulness of the new environmental targeting method

  10. Utilities for high performance dispersion model PHYSIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1992-09-01

    The description and usage of the utilities for the dispersion calculation model PHYSIC were summarized. The model was developed in the study of developing high performance SPEEDI with the purpose of introducing meteorological forecast function into the environmental emergency response system. The procedure of PHYSIC calculation consists of three steps; preparation of relevant files, creation and submission of JCL, and graphic output of results. A user can carry out the above procedure with the help of the Geographical Data Processing Utility, the Model Control Utility, and the Graphic Output Utility. (author)

  11. High heat flux cooling for accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, I.; Nagler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Accelerator targets, both for radioisotope production and for high neutron flux sources generate very high thermal power in the target material which absorbs the particles beam. Generally, the geometric size of the targets is very small and the power density is high. The design of these targets requires dealing with very high heat fluxes and very efficient heat removal techniques in order to preserve the integrity of the target. Normal heat fluxes from these targets are in the order of 1 kw/cm 2 and may reach levels of an order of magnitude higher

  12. Targeting utility customers to improve energy savings from conservation and efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Nicholas W.; Jones, Pierce H.; Kipp, M. Jennison

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving DSM program impacts by targeting high energy users. • DSM energy savings potential hinges on pre-participation performance. • Targeting can benefit different utilities and energy efficiency programs. • Overall performance can be improved by up to 250% via targeting strategies. - Abstract: Electric utilities, government agencies, and private interests in the US have committed and continue to invest substantial resources – including billions of dollars of financial capital – in the pursuit of energy efficiency and conservation through demand-side management (DSM) programs. While most of these programs are deemed to be cost effective, and therefore in the public interest, opportunities exist to improve cost effectiveness by targeting programs to those customers with the greatest potential for energy savings. This article details an analysis of three DSM programs offered by three Florida municipal electric utilities to explore such opportunities. First, we estimate programs’ energy savings impacts; second, we measure and compare energy savings across subgroups of program participants as determined by their pre-intervention energy performance, and third, we explore potential changes in program impacts that might be realized by targeting specific customers for participation in the DSM programs. All three programs resulted in statistically significant average (per-participant) energy savings, yet average savings varied widely, with the customers who performed best (i.e., most efficient) before the intervention saving the least energy and those who performed worst (i.e., least efficient) before the intervention saving the most. Assessment of alternative program participation scenarios with varying levels of customer targeting suggests that program impacts could be increased by as much as 80% for a professional energy audit program, just over 100% for a high-efficiency heat pump upgrade program, and nearly 250% for an attic insulation

  13. NEO Targets for Biological In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J. M.; Ernst, S. M.; Navarrete, J. U.; Gentry, D.

    2014-12-01

    We are investigating a mission architecture concept for low-cost pre-processing of materials on long synodic period asteroids using bioengineered microbes delivered by small spacecraft. Space exploration opportunities, particularly those requiring a human presence, are sharply constrained by the high cost of launching resources such as fuel, construction materials, oxygen, water, and foodstuffs. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have been proposed for supporting a human space presence. However, the combination of high initial investment requirements, delayed potential return, and uncertainty in resource payoff currently prevents their effective utilization.Biomining is the process in which microorganisms perform useful material reduction, sequestration or separation. It is commonly used in terrestrial copper extraction. Compared to physical and chemical methods of extraction it is slow, but very low cost, thus rendering economical even very poor ores. These advantages are potentially extensible to asteroid in situ resource utilization (ISRU).One of the first limiting factors for the use of biology in these environments is temperature. A survey of NEA data was conducted to identify those NEAs whose projected interior temperatures remained within both potential (-5 - 100 ºC) and preferred (15 - 45 ºC) ranges for the minimum projected time per synodic period without exceeding 100 ºC at any point. Approximately 2800 of the 11000 NEAs (25%) are predicted to remain within the potential range for at least 90 days, and 120 (1%) in the preferred range.A second major factor is water availability and stability. We have evaluated a design for a small-spacecraft-based injector which forces low-temperature fluid into the NEA interior, creating potentially habitable microniches. The fluid contains microbes genetically engineered to accelerate the degradation rates of a desired fraction of the native resources, allowing for more efficient material extraction upon a subsequent

  14. The utilization of high-intensity lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, E.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the laboratory for the Utilization of High-Intensity Lasers (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research program is focused on the laser-plasma physics, on the generation of high pressures by means of laser shock heating, on the laser spectroscopy and on the laser implosions. Numerical simulation codes are developed. Concerning the atomic physics, the investigations on dense plasmas and the x-laser research developments are carried out. The research activities of the laboratory teams, the published papers, the national and international cooperations, are given [fr

  15. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  16. High slot utilization systems for electric machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S

    2009-06-23

    Two new High Slot Utilization (HSU) Systems for electric machines enable the use of form wound coils that have the highest fill factor and the best use of magnetic materials. The epoxy/resin/curing treatment ensures the mechanical strength of the assembly of teeth, core, and coils. In addition, the first HSU system allows the coil layers to be moved inside the slots for the assembly purpose. The second system uses the slided-in teeth instead of the plugged-in teeth. The power density of the electric machine that uses either system can reach its highest limit.

  17. Targeting of human glioma xenografts in vivo utilizing radiolabeled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.A.; Wessels, B.W.; Wharam, M.D.; Order, S.E.; Wanek, P.M.; Poggenburg, J.K.; Klein, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies provide a potential basis for selective radiotherapy of human gliomas. We have measured tumor targeting by radiolabeled monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against neuroectodermal and tumor-associated antigens in nude mice bearing human glioma xenografts. Monoclonal P96.5, a mouse IgG2a immunoglobulin, defines an epitope of a human melanoma cell surface protein, and specifically binds the U-251 human glioma as measured by immunoperoxidase histochemistry. 111In-radiolabeled P96.5 specifically targets the U-251 human glioma xenograft and yields 87.0 microCuries (microCi) of tumor activity per gram per 100 microCi injected activity compared to 4.5 microCi following administration of radiolabeled irrelevant monoclonal antibody. Calculations of targeting ratios demonstrate deposited dose to be 11.6 times greater with radiolabeled P96.5 administration compared to irrelevant monoclonal antibody. The proportion of tumor dose found in normal organs is less than 10%, further supporting specific targeting of the human glioma xenograft by this antibody. Monoclonal antibody ZME018, which defines a second melanoma-associated antigen, and polyclonal rabbit antiferritin, which defines a tumor-associated antigen, demonstrate positive immunoperoxidase staining of the tumor, but comparatively decreased targeting. When compared to the 111In-radiolabeled antibody, 90Y-radiolabeled P96.5 demonstrates comparable tumor targeting and percentages of tumor dose found in normal organs. To test the therapeutic potential of 90Y-radiolabeled P96.5, tumors and normal sites were implanted with miniature thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Seven days following administration of 100 microCi 90Y-radiolabeled P96.5, average absorbed doses of 3770, 980, 353, and 274 cGy were observed in tumor, liver, contralateral control site, and total body, respectively

  18. Targets for high power neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.

    1980-01-01

    Stopping high-power, long-pulse beams is fast becoming an engineering challenge, particularly in neutral beam injectors for heating magnetically confined plasmas. A brief review of neutral beam target technology is presented along with heat transfer calculations for some selected target designs

  19. Polarized targets in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cates, G.D. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Various approaches are discussed for producing polarized nuclear targets for high energy physics experiments. As a unifying theme, examples are drawn from experiments to measure spin dependent structure functions of nucleons in deep inelastic scattering. This single physics goal has, over roughly two decades, been a driving force in advances in target technology. Actual or planned approaches have included solid targets polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), several types of internal targets for use in storage rings, and gaseous 3 He targets polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping. This last approach is the type of target adopted for SLAC E-142, an experiment to measure the spin structure function of the neutron, and is described in detail

  20. Polarized targets in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cates, G.D. Jr. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Various approaches are discussed for producing polarized nuclear targets for high energy physics experiments. As a unifying theme, examples are drawn from experiments to measure spin dependent structure functions of nucleons in deep inelastic scattering. This single physics goal has, over roughly two decades, been a driving force in advances in target technology. Actual or planned approaches have included solid targets polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), several types of internal targets for use in storage rings, and gaseous {sup 3}He targets polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping. This last approach is the type of target adopted for SLAC E-142, an experiment to measure the spin structure function of the neutron, and is described in detail.

  1. A high-power target experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, H G; Ludewig, H; Palmer, Robert; Samulyak, V; Simos, N; Tsang, Thomas; Bradshaw, T W; Drumm, Paul V; Edgecock, T R; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Bennett, Roger; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Fabich, Adrian; Haseroth, H; Haug, F; Lettry, Jacques; Hayato, Y; Yoshimura, Koji; Gabriel, Tony A; Graves, Van; Spampinato, P; Haines, John; McDonald, Kirk T

    2005-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed as a proof-of-principle test for a target system capable of converting a 4 MW proton beam into a high-intensity muon beam suitable for incorporation into either a neutrino factory complex or a muon collider. The target system is based on exposing a free mercury jet to an intense proton beam in the presence of a high strength solenoidal field.

  2. The development of uranium foil farication technology utilizing twin roll method for Mo-99 irradiation target

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C K; Park, H D

    2002-01-01

    MDS Nordion in Canada, occupying about 75% of global supply of Mo-99 isotope, has provided the irradiation target of Mo-99 using the rod-type UAl sub x alloys with HEU(High Enrichment Uranium). ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) through co-operation with BATAN in Indonesia, leading RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) program substantially for nuclear non-proliferation, has designed and fabricated the annular cylinder of uranium targets, and successfully performed irradiation test, in order to develop the fabrication technology of fission Mo-99 using LEU(Low Enrichment Uranium). As the uranium foils could be fabricated in laboratory scale, not in commercialized scale by hot rolling method due to significant problems in foil quality, productivity and economic efficiency, attention has shifted to the development of new technology. Under these circumstances, the invention of uranium foil fabrication technology utilizing twin-roll casting method in KAERI is found to be able to fabricate LEU or...

  3. Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

  4. Utilizing Chemical Genomics to Identify Cytochrome b as a Novel Drug Target for Chagas Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Khare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unbiased phenotypic screens enable identification of small molecules that inhibit pathogen growth by unanticipated mechanisms. These small molecules can be used as starting points for drug discovery programs that target such mechanisms. A major challenge of the approach is the identification of the cellular targets. Here we report GNF7686, a small molecule inhibitor of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, and identification of cytochrome b as its target. Following discovery of GNF7686 in a parasite growth inhibition high throughput screen, we were able to evolve a GNF7686-resistant culture of T. cruzi epimastigotes. Clones from this culture bore a mutation coding for a substitution of leucine by phenylalanine at amino acid position 197 in cytochrome b. Cytochrome b is a component of complex III (cytochrome bc1 in the mitochondrial electron transport chain and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c by a mechanism that utilizes two distinct catalytic sites, QN and QP. The L197F mutation is located in the QN site and confers resistance to GNF7686 in both parasite cell growth and biochemical cytochrome b assays. Additionally, the mutant cytochrome b confers resistance to antimycin A, another QN site inhibitor, but not to strobilurin or myxothiazol, which target the QP site. GNF7686 represents a promising starting point for Chagas disease drug discovery as it potently inhibits growth of intracellular T. cruzi amastigotes with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50 of 0.15 µM, and is highly specific for T. cruzi cytochrome b. No effect on the mammalian respiratory chain or mammalian cell proliferation was observed with up to 25 µM of GNF7686. Our approach, which combines T. cruzi chemical genetics with biochemical target validation, can be broadly applied to the discovery of additional novel drug targets and drug leads for Chagas disease.

  5. Test of a High Power Target Design

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS343 :\\\\ \\\\ A high power tantalum disc-foil target (RIST) has been developed for the proposed radioactive beam facility, SIRIUS, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The yield and release characteristics of the RIST target design have been measured at ISOLDE. The results indicate that the yields are at least as good as the best ISOLDE roll-foil targets and that the release curves are significantly faster in most cases. Both targets use 20 -25 $\\mu$m thick foils, but in a different internal geometry.\\\\ \\\\Investigations have continued at ISOLDE with targets having different foil thickness and internal geometries in an attempt to understand the release mechanisms and in particular to maximise the yield of short lived isotopes. A theoretical model has been developed which fits the release curves and gives physical values of the diffusion constants.\\\\ \\\\The latest target is constructed from 2 $\\mu$m thick tantalum foils (mass only 10 mg) and shows very short release times. The yield of $^{11}$Li (half-life of ...

  6. The SPES High Power ISOL production target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, A.; Corradetti, S.; Ballan, M.; Borgna, F.; Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Silingardi, R.; Mozzi, A.; Vivian, G.; Boratto, E.; De Ruvo, L.; Sattin, N.; Meneghetti, G.; Oboe, R.; Guerzoni, M.; Margotti, A.; Ferrari, M.; Zenoni, A.; Prete, G.

    2016-11-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is a facility under construction at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro), aimed to produce intense neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIBs). These will be obtained using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method, bombarding a uranium carbide target with a proton beam of 40MeV energy and currents up to 200μA. The target configuration was designed to obtain a high number of fissions, up to 1013 per second, low power deposition and fast release of the produced isotopes. The exotic isotopes generated in the target are ionized, mass separated and re-accelerated by the ALPI superconducting LINAC at energies of 10AMeV and higher, for masses in the region of A = 130 amu , with an expected rate on the secondary target up to 109 particles per second. In this work, recent results on the R&D activities regarding the SPES RIB production target-ion source system are reported.

  7. Using the Nova target chamber for high-yield targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The existing 2.2-m-radius Nova aluminum target chamber, coated and lined with boron-seeded carbon shields, is proposed for use with 1000-MJ-yield targets in the next laser facility. The laser beam and diagnostic holes in the target chamber are left open and the desired 10 -2 Torr vacuum is maintained both inside and outside the target chamber; a larger target chamber room is the vacuum barrier to the atmosphere. The hole area available is three times that necessary to maintain a maximum fluence below 12 J/cm 2 on optics placed at a radius of 10 m. Maximum stress in the target chamber wall is 73 MPa, which complies with the intent of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code. However, shock waves passing through the inner carbon shield could cause it to comminute. We propose tests and analyses to ensure that the inner carbon shield survives the environment. 13 refs

  8. High-gravity brewing utilizing factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Almeida

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of factors can influence the behavior of yeast during fermentation. Some of these factors (initial wort concentration, initial pH and percentage of corn syrup in the composition of the wort were studied in order to determine their influence on the productivity of fermentation. Fermentations were carried out at 25ºC utilizing a 2³ factorial design of these factors. The results showed that the percentage of corn syrup had no influence on process productivity, whereas initial pH and especially initial wort concentration did. It can be concluded that using pH and initial wort concentration values higher than those utilized in this work (5.5 and 20ºP, respectively will result in a higher productivity.

  9. Utilizing random Forest QSAR models with optimized parameters for target identification and its application to target-fishing server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoungyeul; Lee, Minho; Kim, Dongsup

    2017-12-28

    The identification of target molecules is important for understanding the mechanism of "target deconvolution" in phenotypic screening and "polypharmacology" of drugs. Because conventional methods of identifying targets require time and cost, in-silico target identification has been considered an alternative solution. One of the well-known in-silico methods of identifying targets involves structure activity relationships (SARs). SARs have advantages such as low computational cost and high feasibility; however, the data dependency in the SAR approach causes imbalance of active data and ambiguity of inactive data throughout targets. We developed a ligand-based virtual screening model comprising 1121 target SAR models built using a random forest algorithm. The performance of each target model was tested by employing the ROC curve and the mean score using an internal five-fold cross validation. Moreover, recall rates for top-k targets were calculated to assess the performance of target ranking. A benchmark model using an optimized sampling method and parameters was examined via external validation set. The result shows recall rates of 67.6% and 73.9% for top-11 (1% of the total targets) and top-33, respectively. We provide a website for users to search the top-k targets for query ligands available publicly at http://rfqsar.kaist.ac.kr . The target models that we built can be used for both predicting the activity of ligands toward each target and ranking candidate targets for a query ligand using a unified scoring scheme. The scores are additionally fitted to the probability so that users can estimate how likely a ligand-target interaction is active. The user interface of our web site is user friendly and intuitive, offering useful information and cross references.

  10. Factors affecting ambulance utilization for asthma attack treatment: understanding where to target interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raun, L H; Ensor, K B; Campos, L A; Persse, D

    2015-05-01

    Asthma is a serious, sometimes fatal condition, in which attacks vary in severity, potentially requiring emergency medical services (EMS) ambulance treatment. A portion of asthma attacks requiring EMS ambulance treatment may be prevented with improved education and access to care. The aim of this study was to identify areas of the city with high rates of utilization of EMS ambulance for treatment, and the demographics, socio-economic status, and time of day associated with these rates, to better target future interventions to prevent emergencies and reduce cost. A cross-sectional study was conducted on individuals in Houston, TX (USA) requiring ambulance treatment for asthma attacks from 2004 to 2011. 12,155 EMS ambulance-treated asthma attack cases were linked to census tracts. High rate treatment areas were identified with geospatial mapping. Census tract demographic characteristics of these high rate areas were compared with the remainder of the city using logistic regression. The association between case level demographics and the time of day of asthma attack within the high rate area was also assessed with logistic regression. EMS ambulance-treated high rate areas were identified and found to have a utilization incidence rate over six times higher per 100,000 people than the remainder of the city. There is an increased risk of location in this high rate area with a census tract level increase of percent of population: earning less than $10,000 yearly income (RR 1.21, 1.16-1.26), which is black (RR 1.08, 1.07-1.10), which is female (RR 1.34, 1.20-1.49) and have obtained less than a high school degree (RR 1.02, 1.01-1.03). Within the high rate area, case level data indicates an increased risk of requiring an ambulance after normal doctor office hours for men compared with women (RR 1.13, 1.03-1.22), for black compared with Hispanic ethnicity (RR 1.31, 1.08-1.59), or for adults (less than 41 and greater than 60) compared with children. Interventions to prevent

  11. Inequities in utilization of maternal health interventions in Namibia: implications for progress towards MDG 5 targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequities in the utilization of maternal health services impede progress towards the MDG 5 target of reducing the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015. In Namibia, despite increasing investments in the health sector, the maternal mortality ratio has increased from 271 per 100,000 live births in the period 1991-2000 to 449 per 100,000 live births in 1998-2007. Monitoring equity in the use of maternal health services is important to target scarce resources to those with more need and expedite the progress towards the MDG 5 target. The objective of this study is to measure socio-economic inequalities in access to maternal health services and propose recommendations relevant for policy and planning. Methods Data from the Namibia Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07 are analyzed for inequities in the utilization of maternal health. In measuring the inequities, rate-ratios, concentration curves and concentration indices are used. Results Regions with relatively high human development index have the highest rates of delivery by skilled health service providers. The rate of caesarean section in women with post secondary education is about seven times that of women with no education. Women in urban areas are delivered by skilled providers 30% more than their rural counterparts. The rich use the public health facilities 30% more than the poor for child delivery. Conclusion Most of the indicators such as delivery by trained health providers, delivery by caesarean section and postnatal care show inequities favoring the most educated, urban areas, regions with high human development indices and the wealthy. In the presence of inequities, it is difficult to achieve a significant reduction in the maternal mortality ratio needed to realize the MDG 5 targets so long as a large segment of society has inadequate access to essential maternal health services and other basic social services. Addressing inequities in

  12. High efficiency diffusion molecular retention tumor targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding and RAD (control probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for (111 In(3+, a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or i.v. methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [(111In] RGD and [(111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [(111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by i.v.. The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide, which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light.

  13. New pricing approaches for bundled payments: Leveraging clinical standards and regional variations to target avoidable utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsten, Erik; Chu, Scally; Crump, R Trafford; Yu, Kevin; Sutherland, Jason M

    2016-03-01

    Develop pricing models for bundled payments that draw inputs from clinician-defined best practice standards and benchmarks set from regional variations in utilization. Health care utilization and claims data for a cohort of incident Ontario ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke episodes. Episodes of care are created by linking incident stroke hospitalizations with subsequent health service utilization across multiple datasets. Costs are estimated for episodes of care and constituent service components using setting-specific case mix methodologies and provincial fee schedules. Costs are estimated for five areas of potentially avoidable utilization, derived from best practice standards set by an expert panel of stroke clinicians. Alternative approaches for setting normative prices for stroke episodes are developed using measures of potentially avoidable utilization and benchmarks established by the best performing regions. There are wide regional variations in the utilization of different health services within episodes of stroke care. Reconciling the best practice standards with regional utilization identifies significant amounts of potentially avoidable utilization. Normative pricing models for stroke episodes result in increasingly aggressive redistributions of funding. Bundled payment pilots to date have been based on the costs of historical service patterns, which effectively 'bake in' unwarranted and inefficient variations in utilization. This study demonstrates the feasibility of novel clinically informed episode pricing approaches that leverage these variations to target reductions in potentially avoidable utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilize target motion to cover clinical target volume (ctv) - a novel and practical treatment planning approach to manage respiratory motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jianyue; Ajlouni, Munther; Kong Fengming; Ryu, Samuel; Chetty, Indrin J.; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To use probability density function (PDF) to model motion effects and incorporate this information into treatment planning for lung cancers. Material and methods: PDFs were calculated from the respiratory motion traces of 10 patients. Motion effects were evaluated by convolving static dose distributions with various PDFs. Based on a differential dose prescription with relatively lower dose to the clinical target volume (CTV) than to the gross tumor volume (GTV), two approaches were proposed to incorporate PDFs into treatment planning. The first approach uses the GTV-based internal target volume (ITV) as the planning target volume (PTV) to ensure full dose to the GTV, and utilizes the motion-induced dose gradient to cover the CTV. The second approach employs an inhomogeneous static dose distribution within a minimized PTV to best match the prescription dose gradient. Results: Motion effects on dose distributions were minimal in the anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral directions: a 10-mm motion only induced about 3% of dose reduction in the peripheral target region. The motion effect was remarkable in the cranial-caudal direction. It varied with the motion amplitude, but tended to be similar for various respiratory patterns. For the first approach, a 10-15 mm motion would adequately cover the CTV (presumed to be 60-70% of the GTV dose) without employing the CTV in planning. For motions 15-mm. An example of inhomogeneous static dose distribution in a reduced PTV was given, and it showed significant dose reduction in the normal tissue without compromising target coverage. Conclusions: Respiratory motion-induced dose gradient can be utilized to cover the CTV and minimize the lung dose without the need for more sophisticated technologies

  15. High-throughput bioscreening system utilizing high-performance affinity magnetic carriers exhibiting minimal non-specific protein binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Naohiro; Nishio, Kosuke; Hatakeyama, Mamoru; Yasuno, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Tada, Masaru; Nakagawa, Takashi; Sandhu, Adarsh; Abe, Masanori; Handa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    For affinity purification of drug target protein we have developed magnetic carriers, narrow in size distribution (184±9 nm), which exhibit minimal non-specific binding of unwanted proteins. The carriers were highly dispersed in aqueous solutions and highly resistant to organic solvents, which enabled immobilization of various hydrophobic chemicals as probes on the carrier surfaces. Utilizing the carriers we have automated the process of separation and purification of the target proteins that had been done by manual operation previously.

  16. Target experiments with high-power proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumung, K; Bluhm, H; Hoppe, P; Rusch, D; Singer, J; Stoltz, O [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Kanel, G I; Razorenov, S V; Utkin, A V [Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemical Physics

    1997-12-31

    At the Karlsruhe Light Ion Facility KALE a pulsed high-power proton beam (50 ns, 0.15 TW/cm{sup 2}, 8 mm fwhm focus diameter, 1.7 MeV peak proton energy) is used to generate short, intense pressure pulses or to ablatively accelerate targets 10-100 {mu}m thick to velocities > 10 km/s. The velocity history of the rear target surface is recorded by line-imaging laser Doppler velocimetry with high spatial ({>=} 10 {mu}m) and temporal ({>=} 200 ps) resolution, and provides information on proton beam parameters, and on the state of the matter at high energy densities and intense loading. Utilizing the bell-shaped power density profile the authors demonstrated a new straightforward method for measuring the shock pressure that leads to material melting in the rarefaction wave. For the first time, the dynamic tensile strength was measured across a crystal grain boundary, and using targets with a 1D periodic structure, the growth rate of a Rayleigh Taylor instability could be measured for the first time in direct drive experiments with an ion beam. (author). 8 figs., 15 refs.

  17. Productivity, utilization efficiency and sward targets for mixed pastures of marandugrass, forage peanut and tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the productivity and utilization efficiency of a mixed marandugrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Mandobi and tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides pasture, rotationally stocked at four daily forage allowance levels (6.6, 10.3, 14.3 and 17.9% of live weight, in order to define sward management targets for these mixtures. In each stocking cycle, dry matter (DM accumulation rates, defoliation intensity (%, grazing depth (% and grazed horizon (cm were evaluated. Sward targets were defined according to the sward condition that best conciliated the grass-legume balance and the equilibrium between forage production and utilization. Pastures submitted to higher forage allowance levels showed higher productivity, but were less efficiently utilized. It was not possible to establish sward management targets for marandugrass-tropical kudzu pastures. For marandugrass-forage peanut pastures the best sward state was set with forage allowance of 10.3% of live weight. Under rotational stocking, the following sward targets were suggested for these pastures in the Western Amazon: pre-grazing height of 30-35 cm (June to September or 45-50 cm (October to May and post-grazing sward height of 20-25 cm (June to September or 25-30 cm (October to May.

  18. The utilization of SA-gal in pre-targeting RIT of colon carcinoma xenograft models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hubing; Huang Zuhan; Peng Wuhe; Gao Xiao

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the improved clearance effect of avidin (Av) and streptavidin-gal (SA - gal) for blood radiolabeled biotinylated antibody in pre-targeting radio-immuno therapy (RIT) of colon carcinoma xenograft models. Biotinylated antibody radiolabeled with 131 I was injected into the nude mice bearing the colon carcinoma via the tail vein. 24 h later, in 2 test groups, SA-gal or Av at a 10 - fold molar excess of antibody was intraperitoneally injected into the animals whereas no any chase agents were given to the control animals. Animals were killed for biodistribution study at 30h after 131 I-labelled biotinylated antibody administration. Results showed that Av and SA-gal took the effect of chase very fast. At 6h after injection, the blood level of radioactivity decreased very fast. The tumor/blood ratios of control group, Av chase group, SA-gal chase group were 0.42, 2.09, 5.23 respectively, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 for the latter two groups as compared other control groups. Compared with Av, SA-gal showed better chase effect, its T/B ratios was 5.23, significantly higher than 2.09 of Av (P < 0.01). In the tissue biodistributions, relatively high non-specific radioactivity uptakes in non-liver organs were seen in Av chase group. Utilized in pre-targeting RIT, both Av and SA-gal could make the blood level of radioactivity decrease quickly and considerably improves tumor T/NT ratios. The chase effect of SA-gal was superior to that of avidin

  19. ISAC target operation with high proton currents

    CERN Document Server

    Dombsky, M; Schmor, P; Lane, M

    2003-01-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC facility target stations were designed for ISOL target irradiations with up to 100 mu A proton beam currents. Since beginning operation in 1998, ISAC irradiation currents have progressively increased from initial values of approx 1 mu A to present levels of up to 40 mu A on refractory metal foil targets. In addition, refractory carbide targets have operated at currents of up to 15 mu A for extended periods. The 1-40 mu A operational regime is achieved by tailoring each target to the thermal requirements dictated by material properties such as beam power deposition, thermal conductivity and maximum operating temperature of the target material. The number of heat shields on each target can be varied in order to match the effective emissivity of the target surface for the required radiative power dissipation. Targets of different thickness, surface area and volume have been investigated to study the effect of diffusion and effusion delays on the yield of radioisotopes. For yields of short-lived p...

  20. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 directs DOE to set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials for certain industries. These targets are to be established at levels representing the maximum feasible increase in utilization of recovered materials that can be achieved progressively by January 1, 1987 and is consistent with technical and economic factors. A benefit to be derived from the increased use of recoverable materials is in energy savings, as state in the Act. Therefore, emhasis on different industries in the metals sector has been related to their energy consumption. The ferrous industry (iron and steel, ferrour foundries and ferralloys), as defined here, accounts for approximately 3%, and all others for the remaining 3%. Energy consumed in the lead and zinc segments is less than 1% each. Emphasis is placed on the ferrous scrap users, followed by the aluminum and copper industries. A bibliography with 209 citations is included.

  1. High-utilizing Crohn's disease patients under psychosomatic therapy*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantschek Günther

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Few studies have been published on health care utilization in Crohn's disease and the influence of psychological treatment on high utilizers. Methods The present sub study of a prospective multi center investigation conducted in 87 of 488 consecutive Crohn's disease (CD patients was designed to investigate the influence of the course of Crohn's disease on health care utilization (hospital days (HD and sick leave days (SLD collected by German insurance companies and to examine the conditions of high-utilizing patients. Predictors of health care utilization should be selected. Based on a standardized somatic treatment, high health care utilizing patients of the psychotherapy and control groups should be compared before and after a one-year treatment. Results Multivariate regression analysis identified disease activity at randomization as an important predictor of the clinical course (r2 = 0.28, p 2 = 0.15, p = 0.09. The patients' level of anxiety, depression and lack of control at randomization predicted their health-related quality of life at the end of the study (r2 = 0.51, p 2 = 0.22, p Among high utilizers, a significantly greater drop in HD (p Conclusion The course of Crohn's disease is influenced by psychological as well as somatic factors; especially depression seems important here. A significant drop of health care utilization demonstrates the benefit of psychological treatment in the subgroup of high-utilizing CD patients. Further studies are needed to replicate the findings of the clinical outcome in this CD subgroup.

  2. Target-oriented utility theory for modeling the deterrent effects of counterterrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bier, Vicki M.; Kosanoglu, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Optimal resource allocation in security has been a significant challenge for critical infrastructure protection. Numerous studies use game theory as the method of choice, because of the fact that an attacker can often observe the defender’s investment in security and adapt his choice of strategies accordingly. However, most of these models do not explicitly consider deterrence, with the result that they may lead to wasted resources if less investment would be sufficient to deter an attack. In this paper, we assume that the defender is uncertain about the level of defensive investment that would deter an attack, and use the target-oriented utility to optimize the level of defensive investment, taking into account the probability of deterrence. - Highlights: • We propose a target-oriented utility model for attacker deterrence. • We model attack deterrence as a function of attacker success probability. • We compare target-oriented utility model and conventional game-theoretical model. • Results show that our model results better value of the defender’s objective function. • Results support that defending series systems is more difficult than parallel systems

  3. High utility-itemset mining and privacy-preserving utility mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Chun-Wei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, high-utility itemset mining (HUIM has emerging a critical research topic since the quantity and profit factors are both concerned to mine the high-utility itemsets (HUIs. Generally, data mining is commonly used to discover interesting and useful knowledge from massive data. It may, however, lead to privacy threats if private or secure information (e.g., HUIs are published in the public place or misused. In this paper, we focus on the issues of HUIM and privacy-preserving utility mining (PPUM, and present two evolutionary algorithms to respectively mine HUIs and hide the sensitive high-utility itemsets in PPUM. Extensive experiments showed that the two proposed models for the applications of HUIM and PPUM can not only generate the high quality profitable itemsets according to the user-specified minimum utility threshold, but also enable the capability of privacy preserving for private or secure information (e.g., HUIs in real-word applications.

  4. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials in the metals and metal products industries (ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead) are discussed. Data preparation and methodology development and analysis of the technological and economic factors in order to prepare draft targets for the use of recovered materials are covered. Chapter 2 provides an introductory discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33, including industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends for the 5 industries: ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead. Chapter 4 presents the evaluation of recycling targets for those industries. (MCW)

  5. Low-enriched uranium high-density target project. Compendium report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, George; Brown, M. Alex; Jerden, James L.; Gelis, Artem V.; Stepinski, Dominique C.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley; Youker, Amanda; Hebden, Andrew; Solbrekken, G; Allen, C; Robertson., D; El-Gizawy, Sherif; Govindarajan, Srisharan; Hoyer, Annemarie; Makarewicz, Philip; Harris, Jacob; Graybill, Brian; Gunn, Andy; Berlin, James; Bryan, Chris; Sherman, Steven; Hobbs, Randy; Griffin, F. P.; Chandler, David; Hurt, C. J.; Williams, Paul; Creasy, John; Tjader, Barak; McFall, Danielle; Longmire, Hollie

    2016-09-01

    At present, most 99Mo is produced in research, test, or isotope production reactors by irradiation of highly enriched uranium targets. To achieve the denser form of uranium needed for switching from high to low enriched uranium (LEU), targets in the form of a metal foil (~125-150 µm thick) are being developed. The LEU High Density Target Project successfully demonstrated several iterations of an LEU-fission-based Mo-99 technology that has the potential to provide the world’s supply of Mo-99, should major producers choose to utilize the technology. Over 50 annular high density targets have been successfully tested, and the assembly and disassembly of targets have been improved and optimized. Two target front-end processes (acidic and electrochemical) have been scaled up and demonstrated to allow for the high-density target technology to mate up to the existing producer technology for target processing. In the event that a new target processing line is started, the chemical processing of the targets is greatly simplified. Extensive modeling and safety analysis has been conducted, and the target has been qualified to be inserted into the High Flux Isotope Reactor, which is considered above and beyond the requirements for the typical use of this target due to high fluence and irradiation duration.

  6. Fixed target physics at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, T.B.

    1984-01-01

    The number and type of fixed target experiments that can be pursued at a proton synchrotron are very large. The advent of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator, the Tevatron, will extend and improve the results which are given here from recent CERN and Fermilab experiments. The sample of experiments given in this paper is neither meant to be inclusive nor intensive. Hopefully, it will give the flavor of contemporary fixed target physics to a predominantly cosmic ray oriented audience. (author)

  7. Liposomal Tumor Targeting in Drug Delivery Utilizing MMP-2- and MMP-9-Binding Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oula Penate Medina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology offers an alternative to conventional treatment options by enabling different drug delivery and controlled-release delivery strategies. Liposomes being especially biodegradable and in most cases essentially nontoxic offer a versatile platform for several different delivery approaches that can potentially enhance the delivery and targeting of therapies to tumors. Liposomes penetrate tumors spontaneously as a result of fenestrated blood vessels within tumors, leading to known enhanced permeability and subsequent drug retention effects. In addition, liposomes can be used to carry radioactive moieties, such as radiotracers, which can be bound at multiple locations within liposomes, making them attractive carriers for molecular imaging applications. Phage display is a technique that can deliver various high-affinity and selectivity peptides to different targets. In this study, gelatinase-binding peptides, found by phage display, were attached to liposomes by covalent peptide-PEG-PE anchor creating a targeted drug delivery vehicle. Gelatinases as extracellular targets for tumor targeting offer a viable alternative for tumor targeting. Our findings show that targeted drug delivery is more efficient than non-targeted drug delivery.

  8. High Altitude Supersonic Target (HAST), Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    consists of a padded cradle assembly and a tubular steel stand with lockable swivel casters on the front wheels . c Tne recovery module lifting handle is...eds no modification of the ordnance fired at it in order to function. With the HAST system a target will be provided to evaluate the most advanced...Components were tested under environmental extremes. With the completion of the preflight readiness tests and with modification incorporated during the

  9. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The introductory chapter provides a discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. It discusses these industries in terms of resource characteristics, industry technology, pollution control requirements, market structure, the economics of recycling, and the issues involved in econometrically estimating scrap supply response behavior. It further presents the methodology established by DOE for the metals, textiles, rubber, and pulp and paper industries. The areas in which government policies might have a significant impact on the utilization of primary and secondary metals and on any recycling targets between now and 1987 are noted. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33. The profiles include such topics as industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends. Chapter 4 specifically covers the evaluation of recycling targets for the ferrous, aluminum, copper, zinc, and lead industries. (MCW)

  10. Designing high power targets with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covrig, S. D.

    2013-01-01

    High power liquid hydrogen (LH2) targets, up to 850 W, have been widely used at Jefferson Lab for the 6 GeV physics program. The typical luminosity loss of a 20 cm long LH2 target was 20% for a beam current of 100 μA rastered on a square of side 2 mm on the target. The 35 cm long, 2500 W LH2 target for the Qweak experiment had a luminosity loss of 0.8% at 180 μA beam rastered on a square of side 4 mm at the target. The Qweak target was the highest power liquid hydrogen target in the world and with the lowest noise figure. The Qweak target was the first one designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. A CFD facility is being established at Jefferson Lab to design, build and test a new generation of low noise high power targets

  11. Designing high power targets with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covrig, S. D. [Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    High power liquid hydrogen (LH2) targets, up to 850 W, have been widely used at Jefferson Lab for the 6 GeV physics program. The typical luminosity loss of a 20 cm long LH2 target was 20% for a beam current of 100 μA rastered on a square of side 2 mm on the target. The 35 cm long, 2500 W LH2 target for the Qweak experiment had a luminosity loss of 0.8% at 180 μA beam rastered on a square of side 4 mm at the target. The Qweak target was the highest power liquid hydrogen target in the world and with the lowest noise figure. The Qweak target was the first one designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. A CFD facility is being established at Jefferson Lab to design, build and test a new generation of low noise high power targets.

  12. Targeting Academic Programs to Student Diversity Utilizing Learning Styles and Learning-Study Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Sue K.

    1995-01-01

    A diagnostic, prescriptive model was utilized (n=394) in identification of learning styles and learning-study strategies of diverse student groups and in the analysis of prescriptive methods to address their specific needs. High-risk groups demonstrated auditory, tactile concrete, and group learning style preferences and were weaker on cognitive,…

  13. Network Bandwidth Utilization Forecast Model on High Bandwidth Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Wucherl; Sim, Alex

    2014-07-07

    With the increasing number of geographically distributed scientific collaborations and the scale of the data size growth, it has become more challenging for users to achieve the best possible network performance on a shared network. We have developed a forecast model to predict expected bandwidth utilization for high-bandwidth wide area network. The forecast model can improve the efficiency of resource utilization and scheduling data movements on high-bandwidth network to accommodate ever increasing data volume for large-scale scientific data applications. Univariate model is developed with STL and ARIMA on SNMP path utilization data. Compared with traditional approach such as Box-Jenkins methodology, our forecast model reduces computation time by 83.2percent. It also shows resilience against abrupt network usage change. The accuracy of the forecast model is within the standard deviation of the monitored measurements.

  14. Network bandwidth utilization forecast model on high bandwidth networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Wuchert (William) [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sim, Alex [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-03-30

    With the increasing number of geographically distributed scientific collaborations and the scale of the data size growth, it has become more challenging for users to achieve the best possible network performance on a shared network. We have developed a forecast model to predict expected bandwidth utilization for high-bandwidth wide area network. The forecast model can improve the efficiency of resource utilization and scheduling data movements on high-bandwidth network to accommodate ever increasing data volume for large-scale scientific data applications. Univariate model is developed with STL and ARIMA on SNMP path utilization data. Compared with traditional approach such as Box-Jenkins methodology, our forecast model reduces computation time by 83.2%. It also shows resilience against abrupt network usage change. The accuracy of the forecast model is within the standard deviation of the monitored measurements.

  15. Processes Utilized by High School Students Reading Scientific Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinger, Alicia Farr

    2014-01-01

    In response to an increased emphasis on disciplinary literacy in the secondary science classroom, an investigation of the literacy processes utilized by high school students while reading scientific text was undertaken. A think-aloud protocol was implemented to collect data on the processes students used when not prompted while reading a magazine…

  16. Conceptual design of a 6-10 MJ driver for a high gain target development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Commercial application of inertial confinement fusion would require low yield (≅200-500 MJ), high gain (≥80) fusion targets. It is thought that the development off such targets would reqiure a 5-10 year research program utilizing one or more dedicated nuclear facilities with drivers capable of delivering on-target pulses of 6-10 MJ at the rate of several shots per day. The ''Target Development Facility'' (TDF) is the light ion driven version of such a facility. A TDF driver concept based upon reasonable extrapolation from present-day technology is described in this paper

  17. Power utility generation portfolio optimization as function of specific RES and decarbonisation targets – EPBiH case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazagic, Anes; Merzic, Ajla; Redzic, Elma; Music, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Guidelines for power utilities to reach specific decarbonisation targets offered. • Optimization model of RES share to be introduced into power system is proposed. • Single criteria analysis and multicriteria sustainability assessment are applied. • The optimization method has been demonstrated on a real power system. • In the considered case, HIGH RES scenario showed to be the preferable one. - Abstract: This paper provides guidelines and principles for power utilities to reach specific energy and decarbonisation targets. Method of power generation portfolio optimization, as function of sustainability and decarbonisation, along with appropriate criteria, has been proposed. Application of this optimization method has been demonstrated on a real power system – power utility JP Elektroprivreda BiH d.d. – Sarajevo (EPBiH), a typical example of South East European power system. The software tool WASP IV has been employed in the analysis, in order to define the dynamics and an optimized expansion of generation portfolio of the power system under consideration for the next period. The mid-term generation portfolio development plan for the EPBiH power system until year 2030 has been made during this research, taking into account the shutdown dynamics of existing power units and commissioning new ones, in order to provide safe supply of electric and heat energy for local consumers. Three basic scenario of renewable energy sources (RES) expansion have been analysed to reach specific RES and decarbonisation targets set for 2030, including RES share increase from the current level of 18% up to 35% (LOW RES), 45% (MID RES) and 55% (HIGH RES). Effects to the sustainability are considered through environmental, economic and social indicators. Multicriteria sustainability assessment gave an advantage to the HIGH RES, under assumption of equal weighting factors of economic and environment groups of indicators. Also, single criteria analysis has been

  18. High utilization of inpatient detoxification: predictors among US veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Grace; Raffi, Edwin; Tang, Michael; Fernando, Gerard I; Zucker, Jarred; Schein, Abigail Z

    2016-05-01

    Readmissions are among the most problematic and expensive problems in the treatment of substance use disorders. To evaluate the characteristics associated with four or more inpatient medically managed detoxification admissions in FY 2012, when all had post-discharge appointments within 7 days. A retrospective case control study. A total of 38 (6.0%) of 623 unique veterans had four or more detoxification admissions (high utilizers). A random sample of 42 was selected from the remaining 585 people (comparison group). In all, 264 detoxification and 70 hospital admissions for other reasons were reviewed. The high utilizers had more alcohol use disorder (AUD, 82% versus 59%, p = 0.03) of significantly longer duration (mean 28.9 years [SD = 17] vs. 19.6 [SD = 13.4], p = 0.01). AUD increased the odds of being a high utilizer three-fold [OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.1, 8.4], and every additional year of AUD, increased the number of admissions 1.3%, p = 0.0006. The high utilizers did not differ from the comparison group with regards to either number of hospitalizations for other reasons (mean 1.2 [SD = 1.9] vs. 0.57 [SD = 0.8], p = 0.06) or rate of 7 day post discharge appointments kept (46.9% vs. 49.3%, p = 0.82). High utilizers were a small percentage of patients (6.0%) who accounted for a disproportionate number (23%) of 977 detoxification admissions. They had greater disease severity as manifest by more years of AUD. They were not more likely to have hospitalizations for other reasons or less likely to keep post discharge appointments. These patients may warrant different services tailored to prevent hospital readmissions for detoxification.

  19. An Incremental High-Utility Mining Algorithm with Transaction Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wensheng; Zhang, Binbin

    2015-01-01

    Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns. PMID:25811038

  20. An Incremental High-Utility Mining Algorithm with Transaction Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Chun-Wei Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns.

  1. An Evolutionary Algorithm to Mine High-Utility Itemsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Chun-Wei Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-utility itemset mining (HUIM is a critical issue in recent years since it can be used to reveal the profitable products by considering both the quantity and profit factors instead of frequent itemset mining (FIM of association rules (ARs. In this paper, an evolutionary algorithm is presented to efficiently mine high-utility itemsets (HUIs based on the binary particle swarm optimization. A maximal pattern (MP-tree strcutrue is further designed to solve the combinational problem in the evolution process. Substantial experiments on real-life datasets show that the proposed binary PSO-based algorithm has better results compared to the state-of-the-art GA-based algorithm.

  2. DOE research in utilization of high-performance computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzbee, B.L.; Worlton, W.J.; Michael, G.; Rodrigue, G.

    1980-12-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) and other Government research laboratories depend on high-performance computer systems to accomplish their programatic goals. As the most powerful computer systems become available, they are acquired by these laboratories so that advances can be made in their disciplines. These advances are often the result of added sophistication to numerical models whose execution is made possible by high-performance computer systems. However, high-performance computer systems have become increasingly complex; consequently, it has become increasingly difficult to realize their potential performance. The result is a need for research on issues related to the utilization of these systems. This report gives a brief description of high-performance computers, and then addresses the use of and future needs for high-performance computers within DOE, the growing complexity of applications within DOE, and areas of high-performance computer systems warranting research. 1 figure

  3. The evaluation study of high performance gas target system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Kim, Sang Wook

    2008-06-01

    The object of this study is a improvement of a gas target and targetry for increasing the radioisotope production yields. The main results are as follows 1. Improvement of beam entrance of the gas target : In this work, deep hole grid was designed for improvement of beam entrance. Using FEM(Finite Elements Method) analysis, it was verified that this design is more effective than the old one. 2. Improvement of target gas loading and withdrawing system : For the targetry, Helium gas and vacuum lines was installed for evaluating the production yields. Using these lines, it was proved that the recovery yields was improved and the residual impurity was reduced. 3. Improvement of target cooling efficiency : In case of the cylindrical target, it is more effective to use short length of target cavity for the high production yields. For improving the cooling efficiency, cooling fin was suggested to the target design. It is more effective to put the cooling fins inside the target cavity for the suppressed target pressure and density reduction effect during the proton beam irradiation. In conclusion, the target with fins inside the target cavity was better for high current irradiation and mass RI production

  4. The evaluation study of high performance gas target system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Kim, Sang Wook

    2008-06-15

    The object of this study is a improvement of a gas target and targetry for increasing the radioisotope production yields. The main results are as follows 1. Improvement of beam entrance of the gas target : In this work, deep hole grid was designed for improvement of beam entrance. Using FEM(Finite Elements Method) analysis, it was verified that this design is more effective than the old one. 2. Improvement of target gas loading and withdrawing system : For the targetry, Helium gas and vacuum lines was installed for evaluating the production yields. Using these lines, it was proved that the recovery yields was improved and the residual impurity was reduced. 3. Improvement of target cooling efficiency : In case of the cylindrical target, it is more effective to use short length of target cavity for the high production yields. For improving the cooling efficiency, cooling fin was suggested to the target design. It is more effective to put the cooling fins inside the target cavity for the suppressed target pressure and density reduction effect during the proton beam irradiation. In conclusion, the target with fins inside the target cavity was better for high current irradiation and mass RI production.

  5. Accuracy verification of PET-CT image fusion and its utilization in target delineation of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuetao; Yu Jinming; Yang Guoren; Gong Heyi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the accuracy of co-registration of PET and CT (PET-CT) images on line with phantom, and utilize it on patients to provide clinical evidence for target delineation in radiotherapy. Methods: A phantom with markers and different volume cylinders was infused with various concentrations of 18 FDG, and scanned at 4 mm by PET and CT respectively. After having been transmitted into GE eNTEGRA and treatment planning system (TPS) workstations, the images were fused and reconstructed. The distance between the markers and the errors were monitored in PET and CT images respectively. The volume of cylinder in PET and CT images were measured and compared by certain pixel value proportion deduction method. The same procedure was performed on the pulmonary tumor image in ten patients. Results: eNTEGRA and TPS workstations had a good length linearity, but the fusion error of the latter was markedly greater than the former. Tumors in different volume filled by varying concentrations of 18 FDG required different pixel deduction proportion. The cylinder volume of PET and CT images were almost the same, so were the images of pulmonary tumor of ten patients. Conclusions: The accuracy of image co-registration of PET-CT on line may fulfill the clinical demand. Pixel value proportion deduction method can be used for target delineation on PET image. (authors)

  6. Utilizing Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration in Identifying Molecular Targets for Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Onyekachi Henry Ogbonna; Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains a devastating disease, with poor survival rates and high recurrence rates with current treatmentregimens. Over the years we have come to understand the complex biology of this cancer, involving cross-talking signalingpathways that proffers resistance to current therapy. Several molecularly targeted agents remain in development. At the2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, an abstract (#4051) was presented which exploredusing endoscopic ultr...

  7. Design and Characterization of High Power Targets for RIB Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, thermal modeling techniques are used to simulate ISOL targets irradiated with high power proton beams. Beam scattering effects, nuclear reactions and beam power deposition distributions in the target were computed with the Monte Carlo simulation code, GEANT4. The power density information was subsequently used as input to the finite element thermal analysis code, ANSYS, for extracting temperature distribution information for a variety of target materials. The principal objective of the studies was to evaluate techniques for more uniformly distributing beam deposited heat over the volumes of targets to levels compatible with their irradiation with the highest practical primary-beam power, and to use the preferred technique to design high power ISOL targets. The results suggest that radiation cooling, in combination, with primary beam manipulation, can be used to control temperatures in practically sized targets, to levels commensurate with irradiation with 1 GeV, 100 kW proton beams

  8. High volume fabrication of laser targets using MEMS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindloe, C; Tomlinson, S; Green, J; Booth, N.; Tolley, M K; Arthur, G; Hall, F; Potter, R; Kar, S; Higginbotham, A

    2016-01-01

    The latest techniques for the fabrication of high power laser targets, using processes developed for the manufacture of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) devices are discussed. These laser targets are designed to meet the needs of the increased shot numbers that are available in the latest design of laser facilities. Traditionally laser targets have been fabricated using conventional machining or coarse etching processes and have been produced in quantities of 10s to low 100s. Such targets can be used for high complexity experiments such as Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) studies and can have many complex components that need assembling and characterisation with high precision. Using the techniques that are common to MEMS devices and integrating these with an existing target fabrication capability we are able to manufacture and deliver targets to these systems. It also enables us to manufacture novel targets that have not been possible using other techniques. In addition, developments in the positioning systems that are required to deliver these targets to the laser focus are also required and a system to deliver the target to a focus of an F2 beam at 0.1Hz is discussed. (paper)

  9. Conceptual design of a 10-MJ driver for a high gain target development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Commercial application of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) will require inexpensive, high gain (>80) fusion targets. It is thought that the development of such targets will require a 5 to 10 year search effort utilizing a dedicated nuclear research facility with a driver capable of providing a 10 MJ, 300 to 1000 TW pulse of on-target energy. The Terget Development Facility (TDF) is a light ion driven concept for such a facility. A TDF driver based upon extrapolations from present-day pulsed power technology is described in the present paper

  10. Isotopic germanium targets for high beam current applications at GAMMASPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. P.; Lauritsen, T.

    2000-01-01

    The creation of a specific heavy ion residue via heavy ion fusion can usually be achieved through a number of beam and target combinations. Sometimes it is necessary to choose combinations with rare beams and/or difficult targets in order to achieve the physics goals of an experiment. A case in point was a recent experiment to produce 152 Dy at very high spins and low excitation energy with detection of the residue in a recoil mass analyzer. Both to create the nucleus cold and with a small recoil-cone so that the efficiency of the mass analyzer would be high, it was necessary to use the 80 Se on 76 Ge reaction rather than the standard 48 Ca on 108 Pd reaction. Because the recoil velocity of the 152 Dy residues was very high using this symmetric reaction (5% v/c), it was furthermore necessary to use a stack of two thin targets to reduce the Doppler broadening. Germanium targets are fragile and do not withstand high beam currents, therefore the 76 Ge target stacks were mounted on a rotating target wheel. A description of the 76 Ge target stack preparation will be presented and the target performance described

  11. Correlates of health care utilization under targeted interventions: The case of female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Varun; Suryawanshi, Dipak; Saggurti, Niranjan; Bharat, Shalini

    2017-11-01

    Accessibility and frequency of use of health care services among female sex workers (FSWs) are constrained by various factors. In this analysis, we examined the correlates of frequency of using health care services under targeted interventions among FSWs. A sample of FSWs (N = 1,973) was obtained from a second round (2012) of Behavioral Tracking Survey, conducted in five districts of Andhra Pradesh, a high-HIV-prevalence state in southern India. We used negative binomial regression models to analyze frequency of utilization of health care services among FSWs. Based on our analysis, we suggest that various predisposing and enabling factors were found to be significantly associated with the visit to NGO clinics for treatment of any health problem, any sexually transmitted infection symptom, and the number of condoms received from the peer worker or condom depot. We suggest the need for further research with respect to various correlates of frequency of using health care among FSWs to develop effective intervention strategies in countries that have high HIV prevalence among FSWs and targeted interventions need more diligent implementation to reach the unreached.

  12. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    lity of high purity target materials, natural or enriched, are crucial for any successful radioisotope pro- gramme. Selection ... and blockages detection in buried pipelines are rendered ..... from reputed international suppliers with analysis report.

  13. Thin film production of ceramic high-Tc-superconductors (targets)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Presently high-quality thin superconducting films having high T c 's may prepared by the sputtering technique. However, a large-area coating is required for an industrial application. One requirement is the availability of sputter targets with controlled and reproducible properties. By means of basic experiments with respect to powder processing, shaping and the densification process superconducting targets up to 200 mm in diameter were prepared in the Y-Ba-Cu-O- system. Additionally, targets from other systems with different geometries (e.g. ring targets) were prepared. These targets were submitted to the project partners as well as to other institutes and companies. During the course of this project the foundations for an industrial-type coating of large-area substrates were elaborated. (orig.). 9 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs [de

  14. The SLAC high-density gaseous polarized 3He target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Chupp, T.E.; Smith, T.B.; Cates, G.D.; Driehuys, B.; Middleton, H.; Newbury, N.R.; Hughes, E.W.; Meyer, W.

    1995-01-01

    A large-scale high-pressure gaseous 3 He polarized target has been developed for use with a high-intensity polarized electron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This target was used successfully in an experiment to study the spin structure of the neutron. The target provided an areal density of about 7x10 21 nuclei/cm 2 and operated at 3 He polarizations between about 30% and 40% for the six-week duration of the experiment. ((orig.))

  15. A high content, high throughput cellular thermal stability assay for measuring drug-target engagement in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    Determining and understanding drug target engagement is critical for drug discovery. This can be challenging within living cells as selective readouts are often unavailable. Here we describe a novel method for measuring target engagement in living cells based on the principle of altered protein thermal stabilization / destabilization in response to ligand binding. This assay (HCIF-CETSA) utilizes high content, high throughput single cell immunofluorescent detection to determine target protein levels following heating of adherent cells in a 96 well plate format. We have used target engagement of Chk1 by potent small molecule inhibitors to validate the assay. Target engagement measured by this method was subsequently compared to target engagement measured by two alternative methods (autophosphorylation and CETSA). The HCIF-CETSA method appeared robust and a good correlation in target engagement measured by this method and CETSA for the selective Chk1 inhibitor V158411 was observed. However, these EC50 values were 23- and 12-fold greater than the autophosphorylation IC50. The described method is therefore a valuable advance in the CETSA method allowing the high throughput determination of target engagement in adherent cells.

  16. Image thresholding in the high resolution target movement monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Randy H.; Watkins, Steve E.; Jones, Tristan H.; Apel, Derek B.; Bairineni, Deepti

    2009-03-01

    Image thresholding in the High Resolution Target Movement Monitor (HRTMM) is examined. The HRTMM was developed at the Missouri University of Science and Technology to detect and measure wall movements in underground mines to help reduce fatality and injury rates. The system detects the movement of a target with sub-millimeter accuracy based on the images of one or more laser dots projected on the target and viewed by a high-resolution camera. The relative position of the centroid of the laser dot (determined by software using thresholding concepts) in the images is the key factor in detecting the target movement. Prior versions of the HRTMM set the image threshold based on a manual, visual examination of the images. This work systematically examines the effect of varying threshold on the calculated centroid position and describes an algorithm for determining a threshold setting. First, the thresholding effects on the centroid position are determined for a stationary target. Plots of the centroid positions as a function of varying thresholds are obtained to identify clusters of thresholds for which the centroid position does not change for stationary targets. Second, the target is moved away from the camera in sub-millimeter increments and several images are obtained at each position and analyzed as a function of centroid position, target movement and varying threshold values. With this approach, the HRTMM can accommodate images in batch mode without the need for manual intervention. The capability for the HRTMM to provide automated, continuous monitoring of wall movement is enhanced.

  17. Price and utilization: why we must target both to curb health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Topher; Lee, Emily Oshima; Emanuel, Ezekiel J

    2012-10-16

    The United States spends nearly $8000 per person on health care annually. Even for a wealthy country, this amount is substantially more than would be expected and 2.5 times the average spent by other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. The growth rate of health care spending in the United States has also far outpaced that in all other high-income OECD countries since 1970, even accounting for population growth. This increase in health spending threatens to squeeze out critical investments in education and infrastructure. To successfully develop and implement policies that effectively address both the level and growth of U.S. health care costs, it is critical to first understand cost drivers. Many health policy and economics scholars have contributed to an ongoing debate on whether to blame high prices or high utilization of services for escalating health care spending in the United States. This paper argues that price and volume both contribute to high and increasing health care costs, along with high administrative costs, supply issues, and the fee-for-service payment system. Initial strategies to contain costs might include implementation and expansion of bundled payment systems and competitive bidding.

  18. Conductive cooling of high-power RIB targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, W.L.; Drake, D.M.; Wilson, M.T.; Lenz, J.W.; Hsu, H.-H.

    2002-01-01

    A short review is presented of target cooling approaches suggested for targets irradiated by intense high-energy proton beams to produce radioactive species for use in a broad range of physics studies. This work reports on conductive cooling approaches for operation at temperatures lower than effective for radiative cooling. The possibilities for conductive cooling are discussed, and a prototype test target is described. This target was constructed for an experiment, designed to validate the numerical analysis approaches, at the TRIUMF/ISAC facility. Fabrication issues and the results of the experiment are presented, followed by a discussion of the implications of the experiment outcome for future development of targets to produce intense beams of radioactive ions

  19. Automated Production of High Rep Rate Foam Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, F.; Spindloe, C.; Haddock, D.; Tolley, M.; Nazarov, W.

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing low density targets in the numbers needed for high rep rate experiments is highly challenging. This report summarises advances from manual production to semiautomated and the improvements that follow both in terms of production time and target uniformity. The production process is described and shown to be improved by the integration of an xyz robot with dispensing capabilities. Results are obtained from manual and semiautomated production runs and compared. The variance in the foam thickness is reduced significantly which should decrease experimental variation due to target parameters and could allow for whole batches to be characterised by the measurement of a few samples. The work applies to both foil backed and free standing foam targets.

  20. Effects of target bias voltage on indium tin oxide films deposited by high target utilisation sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calnan, Sonya; Upadhyaya, Hari M.; Dann, Sandra E.; Thwaites, Mike J.; Tiwari, Ayodhya N.

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited by reactive High Target Utilisation Sputtering (HiTUS) onto glass and polyimide substrates. The ion plasma was generated by an RF power source while the target bias voltage was varied from 300 V to 500 V using a separate DC power supply. The deposition rate, at constant target power, increased with DC target voltage due to increased ion energy reaching 34 nm/min at 500 V. All the films were polycrystalline and showed strong (400) and (222) reflections with the relative strength of latter increasing with target bias voltage. The resistivity was lowest at 500 V with values of 1.8 x 10 -4 Ω cm and 2.4 x 10 -4 Ω cm on glass and polyimide, respectively but was still less than 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 400 V. All films were highly transparent to visible light, (> 80%) but the NIR transmittance decreased with increasing target voltage due to higher free carrier absorption. Therefore, ITO films can be deposited onto semiconductor layers such as in solar cells, with minimal ion damage while maintaining low resistivity

  1. TARGETING HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATIONS UTILIZING LANDSAT-8 ANDASTER DATA IN SHAHR-E-BABAK, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shahr-e-Babak tract of the Kerman metalogenic belt is one of the most potential segments of Urumieh–Dokhtar (Sahand-Bazman magmatic arc. This area encompasses several porphyry copper deposits in exploration, development and exploitation hierarchy. The aim of this study is to map hydrothermal alterations caused by early Cenozoic magmatic intrusions in Shahr-e-Babak area. To this purpose, mineral mapping methods including band combinations, ratios and multiplications as well as PCA and MNF data space transforms in SWIR and VNIR for both ASTER and OLI sensors. Alteration zones according to spectral signatures of each type of alteration mineral assemblages such as argillic, phyllic and propylitic are successfully mapped. For enhancing the target areas false color composites and HSI-RGB color space transform are performed on developed band combinations. Previous studies have proven the robust application of ASTER in geology and mineral exploration; nonetheless, the results of this investigation prove applicability of OLI sensor from landsat-8 for alteration mapping. According to the results, evidently OLI sensor data can accurately map alteration zones. Additionally, the 12-bit quantization of OLI data is its privilege over 8-bit data of ASTER in VNIR and SWIR, thus OLI high quality results, which makes it easy to distinguish targets with enhanced color contrast between the altered and unaltered rocks.

  2. Targeting Hydrothermal Alterations Utilizing LANDSAT-8 Andaster Data in Shahr-E Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, M.; Pour, A. B.; Maghsoudi, A.; Hashim, M.

    2017-10-01

    Shahr-e-Babak tract of the Kerman metalogenic belt is one of the most potential segments of Urumieh-Dokhtar (Sahand-Bazman) magmatic arc. This area encompasses several porphyry copper deposits in exploration, development and exploitation hierarchy. The aim of this study is to map hydrothermal alterations caused by early Cenozoic magmatic intrusions in Shahr-e-Babak area. To this purpose, mineral mapping methods including band combinations, ratios and multiplications as well as PCA and MNF data space transforms in SWIR and VNIR for both ASTER and OLI sensors. Alteration zones according to spectral signatures of each type of alteration mineral assemblages such as argillic, phyllic and propylitic are successfully mapped. For enhancing the target areas false color composites and HSI-RGB color space transform are performed on developed band combinations. Previous studies have proven the robust application of ASTER in geology and mineral exploration; nonetheless, the results of this investigation prove applicability of OLI sensor from landsat-8 for alteration mapping. According to the results, evidently OLI sensor data can accurately map alteration zones. Additionally, the 12-bit quantization of OLI data is its privilege over 8-bit data of ASTER in VNIR and SWIR, thus OLI high quality results, which makes it easy to distinguish targets with enhanced color contrast between the altered and unaltered rocks.

  3. High efficiency targets for high gain inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.H.; Bodner, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rocket efficiencies as high as 15% are possible using short wavelength lasers and moderately high aspect ratio pellet designs. These designs are made possible by two recent breakthroughs in physics constraints. First is the development of the Induced Spatial Incoherence (ISI) technique which allows uniform illumination of the pellet and relaxes the constraint of thermal smoothing, permitting the use of short wavelength laser light. Second is the discovery that the Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate is considerably reduced at the short laser wavelengths. By taking advantage of the reduced constraints imposed by nonuniform laser illumination and Rayleigh-Taylor instability, pellets using 1/4 micron laser light and initial aspect ratios of about 10 (with in flight aspect ratios of about 150 to 200) may produce energy gains as high as 200 to 250

  4. Many Mobile Health Apps Target High-Need, High-Cost Populations, But Gaps Remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karandeep; Drouin, Kaitlin; Newmark, Lisa P; Lee, JaeHo; Faxvaag, Arild; Rozenblum, Ronen; Pabo, Erika A; Landman, Adam; Klinger, Elissa; Bates, David W

    2016-12-01

    With rising smartphone ownership, mobile health applications (mHealth apps) have the potential to support high-need, high-cost populations in managing their health. While the number of available mHealth apps has grown substantially, no clear strategy has emerged on how providers should evaluate and recommend such apps to patients. Key stakeholders, including medical professional societies, insurers, and policy makers, have largely avoided formally recommending apps, which forces patients to obtain recommendations from other sources. To help stakeholders overcome barriers to reviewing and recommending apps, we evaluated 137 patient-facing mHealth apps-those intended for use by patients to manage their health-that were highly rated by consumers and recommended by experts and that targeted high-need, high-cost populations. We found that there is a wide variety of apps in the marketplace but that few apps address the needs of the patients who could benefit the most. We also found that consumers' ratings were poor indications of apps' clinical utility or usability and that most apps did not respond appropriately when a user entered potentially dangerous health information. Going forward, data privacy and security will continue to be major concerns in the dissemination of mHealth apps. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. High efficiency thermal energy storage system for utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrable, D.L.; Quade, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A concept of coupling a high efficiency base loaded coal or nuclear power plant with a thermal energy storage scheme for efficient and low-cost intermediate and peaking power is presented. A portion of the power plant's thermal output is used directly to generate superheated steam for continuous operation of a conventional turbine-generator to product base-load power. The remaining thermal output is used on a continuous basis to heat a conventional heat transfer salt (such as the eutectic composition of KaNO 3 /NaNO 3 /NaNO 2 ), which is stored in a high-temperature reservoir [538 0 C (1000 0 F)]. During peak demand periods, the salt is circulated from the high-temperature reservoir to a low-temperature reservoir through steam generators in order to provide peaking power from a conventional steam cycle plant. The period of operation can vary, but may typically be the equivalent of about 4 to 8 full-power hours each day. The system can be tailored to meet the utilities' load demand by varying the base-load level and the period of operation of the peak-load system

  6. Proposed industrial recoverd materials utilization targets for the textile mill products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Materials recovery targets were established to represent the maximum technically and economically feasible increase in the use of energy-saving materials by January 1, 1987. This report describes targets for the textile industry and describes how those targets were determined. (MCW)

  7. [Targeting high-risk drugs to optimize clinical pharmacists' intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouterde, Anne-Laure; Bourdelin, Magali; Maison, Ophélie; Coursier, Sandra; Bontemps, Hervé

    2016-12-01

    By the Order of 6 April 2011, the pharmacist must validate all the prescriptions containing "high-risk drugs" or those of "patients at risk". To optimize this clinical pharmacy activity, we identified high-risk drugs. A list of high-risk drugs has been established using literature, pharmacists' interventions (PI) performed in our hospital and a survey sent to hospital pharmacists. In a prospective study (analysis of 100 prescriptions for each high-risk drug selected), we have identified the most relevant to target. We obtained a statistically significant PI rate (P<0.05) for digoxin, oral anticoagulants direct, oral methotrexate and colchicine. This method of targeted pharmaceutical validation based on high-risk drugs is relevant to detect patients with high risk of medicine-related illness. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. High Yield F-18 Target for KOTRON-13 Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. K.; Song, J. Y.; Park, J. Y.; Jung, K. I.; Chae, S. K.

    2009-01-01

    Currently the domestic radiation market for medical diagnosis witnesses a high increase of the use of PET/CT for the purpose of cancer diagnosis, and the cases of cancer diagnosis using PET/CT increase by geometric progression every year. In case of domestic practice, full body scan is taken by using FDG medical isotope medicines mainly using F-18, but the necessity of various medical radioactive isotopes according to each medical purpose is increasing. F-18 output yield is directly proportional to energy of protons and beam current, and has correlation with heat production rate in case of target and decides the function of target in accordance with the efficiency of a cooling device. At present, in case of most F-18 target, when one irradiates beam in O-18 water of about 0.2∼5mL, one has to apply heat of over 300W, a high thermal energy per unit area is irradiated in target, which is easily damaged, and it has limitation in beam current. Currently, in case of commercial target, about 2,000W beam current is the maximum value, and in case of double-grid target developed by Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences in 2004, it was designed to stand up to about 1,000W theoretically, but in reality it can irradiate lower beam current than this because of the shortage of cooling efficiency. In general, the irradiation strength to produce radioactive isotopes given in the heat emission by target substance currently is limited to 50μA against target substance irradiated in 1.6mL. However, current KOTRON-13 cyclotron can accelerate proton beam with a high scope of strength marking 100μA thru 120μA by a continuous development. Therefore, it doesn't fully function compared with that of proton beam of KOTRON-13 cyclotron. The solution about this is to get over the problem of cooling target substance of cavity in the production system of radioactive isotopes. Especially, one has to develop the method to cool target substance, and provide higher F-18 yield than

  9. Animal models and therapeutic molecular targets of cancer: utility and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekanova M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Cekanova, Kusum Rathore Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: Cancer is the term used to describe over 100 diseases that share several common hallmarks. Despite prevention, early detection, and novel therapies, cancer is still the second leading cause of death in the USA. Successful bench-to-bedside translation of basic scientific findings about cancer into therapeutic interventions for patients depends on the selection of appropriate animal experimental models. Cancer research uses animal and human cancer cell lines in vitro to study biochemical pathways in these cancer cells. In this review, we summarize the important animal models of cancer with focus on their advantages and limitations. Mouse cancer models are well known, and are frequently used for cancer research. Rodent models have revolutionized our ability to study gene and protein functions in vivo and to better understand their molecular pathways and mechanisms. Xenograft and chemically or genetically induced mouse cancers are the most commonly used rodent cancer models. Companion animals with spontaneous neoplasms are still an underexploited tool for making rapid advances in human and veterinary cancer therapies by testing new drugs and delivery systems that have shown promise in vitro and in vivo in mouse models. Companion animals have a relatively high incidence of cancers, with biological behavior, response to therapy, and response to cytotoxic agents similar to those in humans. Shorter overall lifespan and more rapid disease progression are factors contributing to the advantages of a companion animal model. In addition, the current focus is on discovering molecular targets for new therapeutic drugs to improve survival and quality of life in cancer patients. Keywords: mouse cancer model, companion animal cancer model, dogs, cats, molecular targets

  10. High precision target center determination from a point cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kregar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many applications of terrestrial laser scanners (TLS require the determination of a specific point from a point cloud. In this paper procedure of high precision planar target center acquisition from point cloud is presented. The process is based on an image matching algorithm but before we can deal with raster image to fit a target on it, we need to properly determine the best fitting plane and project points on it. The main emphasis of this paper is in the precision estimation and propagation through the whole procedure which allows us to obtain precision assessment of final results (target center coordinates. Theoretic precision estimations – obtained through the procedure were rather high so we compared them with the empiric precision estimations obtained as standard deviations of results of 60 independently scanned targets. An χ2-test confirmed that theoretic precisions are overestimated. The problem most probably lies in the overestimated precisions of the plane parameters due to vast redundancy of points. However, empirical precisions also confirmed that the proposed procedure can ensure a submillimeter precision level. The algorithm can automatically detect grossly erroneous results to some extent. It can operate when the incidence angles of a laser beam are as high as 80°, which is desirable property if one is going to use planar targets as tie points in scan registration. The proposed algorithm will also contribute to improve TLS calibration procedures.

  11. Radiation Shielding Utilizing A High Temperature Superconducting Magnet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Project objective is to evaluate human radiation protection and architecture utilizing existing superconducting magnet technology while attempting to significantly...

  12. Compound Structure-Independent Activity Prediction in High-Dimensional Target Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfer, Jenny; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    Profiling of compound libraries against arrays of targets has become an important approach in pharmaceutical research. The prediction of multi-target compound activities also represents an attractive task for machine learning with potential for drug discovery applications. Herein, we have explored activity prediction in high-dimensional target space. Different types of models were derived to predict multi-target activities. The models included naïve Bayesian (NB) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers based upon compound structure information and NB models derived on the basis of activity profiles, without considering compound structure. Because the latter approach can be applied to incomplete training data and principally depends on the feature independence assumption, SVM modeling was not applicable in this case. Furthermore, iterative hybrid NB models making use of both activity profiles and compound structure information were built. In high-dimensional target space, NB models utilizing activity profile data were found to yield more accurate activity predictions than structure-based NB and SVM models or hybrid models. An in-depth analysis of activity profile-based models revealed the presence of correlation effects across different targets and rationalized prediction accuracy. Taken together, the results indicate that activity profile information can be effectively used to predict the activity of test compounds against novel targets. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The impact of a conditional cash transfer program on the utilization of non-targeted services: Evidence from Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvorapong, Nopphol; Foshanji, Abo Ismael

    2016-03-01

    While existing research suggests that health-related conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have positive impacts on the utilization of CCT-targeted health services, little is known as to whether they also influence the utilization of non-targeted health services-defined as general health services for which program participants are not financially motivated. Based on a sample of 6649 households in a CCT program that took place in May 2009-June 2011 in Afghanistan, we evaluate the impact of the receipt of CCTs on the utilization of non-targeted health services both by women, who were direct beneficiaries of the program, and by members of their households. We estimate the outcomes of interest through four probit models, accounting for potential endogeneity of the CCT receipt and dealing with lack of credible exclusion restrictions in different ways. In comparison with the control group, the receipt of CCTs is found to be associated with an increase in the probability of utilizing non-targeted services among household members across regression models. The results are mixed, with regard to the utilization by women, suggesting that there exist non-economic barriers to health care, unique to women, that are not captured by the data. The results confirm the importance of accounting for direct as well as indirect effects in policy evaluation and suggest that future studies investigate more deeply the role of community health workers in removing non-economic barriers for Afghan women and the possibility of introducing an incentive structure to motivate them to contribute more actively to population health in Afghanistan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the utility and limitations of high throughput virtual screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Daniel Phillips

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to low cost, speed, and unmatched ability to explore large numbers of compounds, high throughput virtual screening and molecular docking engines have become widely utilized by computational scientists. It is generally accepted that docking engines, such as AutoDock, produce reliable qualitative results for ligand-macromolecular receptor binding, and molecular docking results are commonly reported in literature in the absence of complementary wet lab experimental data. In this investigation, three variants of the sixteen amino acid peptide, α-conotoxin MII, were docked to a homology model of the a3β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. DockoMatic version 2.0 was used to perform a virtual screen of each peptide ligand to the receptor for ten docking trials consisting of 100 AutoDock cycles per trial. The results were analyzed for both variation in the calculated binding energy obtained from AutoDock, and the orientation of bound peptide within the receptor. The results show that, while no clear correlation exists between consistent ligand binding pose and the calculated binding energy, AutoDock is able to determine a consistent positioning of bound peptide in the majority of trials when at least ten trials were evaluated.

  15. Rapid amplification/detection of nucleic acid targets utilizing a HDA/thin film biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenison, Robert; Jaeckel, Heidi; Klonoski, Joshua; Latorra, David; Wiens, Jacinta

    2014-08-07

    Thin film biosensors exploit a flat, optically coated silicon-based surface whereupon formation of nucleic acid hybrids are enzymatically transduced in a molecular thin film that can be detected by the unaided human eye under white light. While the limit of sensitivity for detection of nucleic acid targets is at sub-attomole levels (60 000 copies) many clinical specimens containing bacterial pathogens have much lower levels of analyte present. Herein, we describe a platform, termed HDA/thin film biosensor, which performs helicase-dependant nucleic acid amplification on a thin film biosensor surface to improve the limit of sensitivity to 10 copies of the mecA gene present in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus. As double-stranded DNA is unwound by helicase it was either bound by solution-phase DNA primers to be copied by DNA polymerase or hybridized to surface immobilized probe on the thin film biosensor surface to be detected. Herein, we show that amplification reactions on the thin film biosensor are equivalent to in standard thin wall tubes, with detection at the limit of sensitivity of the assay occurring after 30 minutes of incubation time. Further we validate the approach by detecting the presence of the mecA gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from positive blood culture aliquots with high specificity (signal/noise ratio of 105).

  16. Biological effectiveness of high-energy protons - Target fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucinotta, F.A.; Katz, R.; Wilson, J.W.; Townsend, L.W.; Shinn, J.; Hajnal, F.

    1991-01-01

    High-energy protons traversing tissue produce local sources of high-linear-energy-transfer ions through nuclear fragmentation. The contribution of these target fragments to the biological effectiveness of high-energy protons using the cellular track model is examined. The effects of secondary ions are treated in terms of the production collision density using energy-dependent parameters from a high-energy fragmentation model. Calculations for mammalian cell cultures show that at high dose, at which intertrack effects become important, protons deliver damage similar to that produced by gamma rays, and with fragmentation the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons increases moderately from unity. At low dose, where sublethal damage is unimportant, the contribution from target fragments dominates, causing the proton effectiveness to be very different from that of gamma rays with a strongly fluence-dependent RBE. At high energies, the nuclear fragmentation cross sections become independent of energy. This leads to a plateau in the proton single-particle-action cross section, below 1 keV/micron, since the target fragments dominate. 29 refs

  17. The Opportunistic Pathogen Serratia marcescens Utilizes Type VI Secretion To Target Bacterial Competitors ▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Sarah L.; Trunk, Katharina; English, Grant; Fritsch, Maximilian J.; Pourkarimi, Ehsan; Coulthurst, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is the most recently described and least understood of the protein secretion systems of Gram-negative bacteria. It is widely distributed and has been implicated in the virulence of various pathogens, but its mechanism and exact mode of action remain to be defined. Additionally there have been several very recent reports that some T6SSs can target bacteria rather than eukaryotic cells. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic enteric pathogen, a class of bacteria responsible for a significant proportion of hospital-acquired infections. We describe the identification of a functional T6SS in S. marcescens strain Db10, the first report of type VI secretion by an opportunist enteric bacterium. The T6SS of S. marcescens Db10 is active, with secretion of Hcp to the culture medium readily detected, and is expressed constitutively under normal growth conditions from a large transcriptional unit. Expression of the T6SS genes did not appear to be dependent on the integrity of the T6SS. The S. marcescens Db10 T6SS is not required for virulence in three nonmammalian virulence models. It does, however, exhibit dramatic antibacterial killing activity against several other bacterial species and is required for S. marcescens to persist in a mixed culture with another opportunist pathogen, Enterobacter cloacae. Importantly, this antibacterial killing activity is highly strain specific, with the S. marcescens Db10 T6SS being highly effective against another strain of S. marcescens with a very similar and active T6SS. We conclude that type VI secretion plays a crucial role in the competitiveness, and thus indirectly the virulence, of S. marcescens and other opportunistic bacterial pathogens. PMID:21890705

  18. Genetically Targeted Radiotherapy Utilizing the Human Sodium Iodide Symporter in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krager, Kimberly; Domann, Frederick E

    2006-01-01

    .... Clones were grown and are currently being screen for radioactive accumulation. The stable NIS-expressing cells will then be utilized in determining the level of NIS expression necessary to elicit a bystander effect...

  19. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the textile-mill-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The Congress, in the National Energy Conservation and Policy Act of 1978 (NECPA), directed the Department of Energy to establish materials recovery targets for the metals and metal products, paper and allied products, rubber, and textile-mill-products industries. The targets were developed to provide incentives for using energy-saving recorded materials and to provied a yardstick for measuring progress and improvement in this endeavor. The NECPA indicates that the targets should represent the maximum technically and economically feasible increase in the use of energy-saving recovered materials that each industry can achieve progressively by January 1, 1987. Materials affected by recovered-materials targets include and are limited to aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, iron, steel, paper and associated products, textile-mill, products, and rubber. Using information gathered from the textile-mill-products industry and from other textile-relaed sources, DOE has developed recovered materials targets for that industry. This report presents those targets and their basis and justification. Following an overview of the textile industry, the chapters are: Textile-Mill-Products Industry Operations; Economic Analysis of the Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Governmental and Regulatory Influence on the US Textile Industry; Current Mill Use of Recovered Materials in the Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Limitations on the Use of Recovered Materials in the US Textile-Mill-Products Industry; Materials-Recovery Targets; and Government and Industry Actions That Could Increase the Use of Recovered Materials.

  20. The population program shifts to 'high-scenario' targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon-choudury, P

    1986-01-01

    The Philippine Population Program would like to achieve a replacement level of 1 daughter per childbearing woman by the year 2000 to reduce the population growth rate to 2% by 1992. Laing projected that high performance by the National Population Program would mean continued increase of sterilization prevalence at an average 1978-1983 rate. Strategies have been adopted to strengthen information-education-communication efforts, to attain higher contraceptive prevalence rates and use-effectiveness, to develop manpower, to achieve self-reliance, and to effect better program coordination, monitoring, research use. Effective service delivery will be a key to achieving the high-scenario targets. Effective use of natural family planning (NFP), will help in achieving the high-scenario goals. Apart from the heavy demand on NFP follow-up, need for prompt delivery of supplies, and lack of doctors and nurses, other factors may impede the high-scenario targets. Saniel believes that program workers should be allowed to insert IUDs and to dispense pills. Under the cost-recovery and cost-sharing schemes of the high-scenario targets, only sterilization will be done for free. It might affect the campaign for increased acceptors, but the start for self-reliance must happen now.

  1. Imaging cellularity in benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors: Utility of the "target sign" by diffusion weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlawat, Shivani; Fayad, Laura M

    2018-05-01

    To determine the utility of "target sign" on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping for peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) characterization. This IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study retrospectively reviewed the MR imaging (comprised of T2- FS, DWI (b-values 50, 400, 800 s/mm 2 and ADC mapping), and static contrast-enhanced (CE) T1-W imaging) of 42 patients (mean age: 40 years (range 8-68 years), 48% (20/42) females) with 15 malignant PNSTs (MPNSTs) and 33 benign PNSTs (BPNSTs). MPNSTs were histologically confirmed while BPNSTs were histologically-proven or with stable clinical and imaging appearance for at least 12 months. Two radiologists assessed imaging characteristics (size, signal intensity, heterogeneity, perilesional edema or enhancement) and the presence or absence of "target sign," on each sequence. A "target sign" was defined as a biphasic pattern of peripheral hyperintensity and homogeneous central hypointensity. Descriptive statistics are reported. Cohen's κ statistic or interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to evaluate interobserver agreement between two observers. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify MRI features with predictive values. MPNSTs were larger than BPNSTs (6.3 ± 2.5 cm vs 3.5 ± -2.1 cm, p = 0.0002), had perilesional edema (87%(13/15) vs 18%(6/33), p target sign" was present in: 24%(8/33) BPNSTs vs 0/15 MPNST on T2-FS (p = 0.26); 39%(13/33) BPNSTs vs 20%(3/15) MPNST on DWI using b-value = 50 s/mm 2 (p = 0.5); 55%(18/33) BPNSTs vs 6%(1/15) MPNST on DWI using b-value = 400 s/mm 2 (p = 0.002); 48%(16/33) BPNSTs vs 6%(1/15) MPNST on DWI using b-value = 800 s/mm 2 (p = 0.005) and 64%(21/33) benign vs 0/15 MPNST on ADC mapping(p target sign(p = 0.07). The odds of an MPNST in cases with minimum ADC ≤ 1.0 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s are 150 times higher than in cases with ADC > 1

  2. A retrospective study of the utility of targeted phototherapy in vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit D Raghuwanshi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Targeted phototherapy is a useful treatment for vitiligo with mild adverse effects, though response is mild or moderate and appears to be directly proportional to the number of treatments received.

  3. Improved target detection and bearing estimation utilizing fast orthogonal search for real-time spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Abdalla; El-Sheimy, Naser; Nourledin, Aboelamgd; Theriault, Jim; Campbell, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The problem of target detection and tracking in the ocean environment has attracted considerable attention due to its importance in military and civilian applications. Sonobuoys are one of the capable passive sonar systems used in underwater target detection. Target detection and bearing estimation are mainly obtained through spectral analysis of received signals. The frequency resolution introduced by current techniques is limited which affects the accuracy of target detection and bearing estimation at a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This research investigates the development of a bearing estimation method using fast orthogonal search (FOS) for enhanced spectral estimation. FOS is employed in this research in order to improve both target detection and bearing estimation in the case of low SNR inputs. The proposed methods were tested using simulated data developed for two different scenarios under different underwater environmental conditions. The results show that the proposed method is capable of enhancing the accuracy for target detection as well as bearing estimation especially in cases of a very low SNR

  4. Internal high linear energy transfer (LET) targeted radiotherapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J

    2006-01-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) radiation for internal targeted therapy has been a long time coming on to the medical therapy scene. While fundamental principles were established many decades ago, the clinical implementation has been slow. Localized neutron capture therapy, and more recently systemic targeted alpha therapy, are at the clinical trial stage. What are the attributes of these therapies that have led a band of scientists and clinicians to dedicate so much of their careers? High LET means high energy density, causing double strand breaks in DNA, and short-range radiation, sparing adjacent normal tissues. This targeted approach complements conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such therapies fail on several fronts. Foremost is the complete lack of progress for the control of primary GBM, the holy grail for cancer therapies. Next is the inability to regress metastatic cancer on a systemic basis. This has been the task of chemotherapy, but palliation is the major application. Finally, there is the inability to inhibit the development of lethal metastatic cancer after successful treatment of the primary cancer. This review charts, from an Australian perspective, the developing role of local and systemic high LET, internal radiation therapy. (review)

  5. Interferometric analysis of laboratory photoionized plasmas utilizing supersonic gas jet targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kyle James; Ivanov, Vladimir; Mancini, Roberto; Mayes, Daniel C.

    2018-06-01

    Photoionized plasmas are an important component of active galactic nuclei, x-ray binary systems and other astrophysical objects. Laboratory produced photoionized plasmas have mainly been studied at large scale facilities, due to the need for high intensity broadband x-ray flux. Using supersonic gas jets as targets has allowed university scale pulsed power generators to begin similar research. The two main advantages of this approach with supersonic gas jets include: possibility of a closer location to the x-ray source and no attenuation related to material used for containment and or tamping. Due to these factors, this experimental platform creates a laboratory environment that more closely resembles astrophysical environments. This system was developed at the Nevada Terawatt Facility using the 1 MA pulsed power generator Zebra. Neon, argon, and nitrogen supersonic gas jets are produced approximately 7-8mm from the z-pinch axis. The high intensity broadband x-ray flux produced by the collapse of the z-pinch wire array implosion irradiates the gas jet. Cylindrical wire arrays are made with 4 and 8 gold 10µm thick wire. The z-pinch radiates approximately 12-16kj of x-ray energy, with x-ray photons under 1Kev in energy. The photoionized plasma is measured via x-ray absorption spectroscopy and interferometry. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used to the measure neutral density of the jet prior to the zebra shot at a wavelength of 266 nm. A dual channel air-wedge shearing interferometer is used to measure electron density of the ionized gas jet during the shot, at wavelengths of 532nm and 266nm. Using a newly developed interferometric analysis tool, average ionization state maps of the plasma can be calculated. Interferometry for nitrogen and argon show an average ionization state in the range of 3-8. Preliminary x-ray absorption spectroscopy collected show neon absorption lines. This work was sponsored in part by DOE Office of Science Grant DE-SC0014451.

  6. Plant-Scale Concentration Column Designs for SHINE Target Solution Utilizing AG 1 Anion Exchange Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Dominique C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, G. F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Argonne is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) in their efforts to develop SHINE, an accelerator-driven process that will utilize a uranyl-sulfate solution for the production of fission product Mo-99. An integral part of the process is the development of a column for the separation and recovery of Mo-99, followed by a concentration column to reduce the product volume from 15-25 L to <1 L. Argonne has collected data from batch studies and breakthrough column experiments to utilize the VERSE (Versatile Reaction Separation) simulation program (Purdue University) to design plant-scale product recovery and concentration processes.

  7. Utilization of diagnostic ultrasound and intravenous lipid-encapsulated perfluorocarbons in non-invasive targeted cardiovascular therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Thomas R; Choudhury, Songita A; Xie, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound (DUS) pressures have the ability to induce inertial cavitation (IC) of systemically administered microbubbles; this bioeffect has many diagnostic and therapeutic implications in cardiovascular care. Diagnostically, commercially available lipid-encapsulated perfluorocarbons (LEP) can be utilized to improve endocardial and vascular border delineation as well as assess myocardial perfusion. Therapeutically, the liquid jets induced by IC can alter endothelial function and dissolve thrombi within the immediate vicinity of the cavitating microbubbles. The cavitating LEP can also result in the localized release of any bound therapeutic substance at the site of insonation. DUS-induced IC has been tested in pre-clinical studies to determine what effect it has on acute vascular and microvascular thrombosis as well as nitric oxide (NO) release. These pre-clinical studies have consistently shown that DUS-induced IC of LEP is effective in restoring coronary vascular and microvascular flow in acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), with microvascular flow improving even if upstream large vessel flow has not been achieved. The initial clinical trials examining the efficacy of short pulse duration DUS high mechanical index impulses in patients with STEMI are underway, and preliminary studies have suggested that earlier epicardial vessel recanalization can be achieved prior to arriving in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. DUS high mechanical index impulses have also been effective in pre-clinical studies for targeting DNA delivery that has restored islet cell function in type I diabetes and restored vascular flow in the extremities downstream from a peripheral vascular occlusion. Improvements in this technique will come from three dimensional arrays for therapeutic applications, more automated delivery techniques that can be applied in the field, and use of submicron-sized acoustically activated LEP droplets that may better permeate the

  8. The GEKKO XII-HIPER (High Intensity Plasma Experimental Research) system relevant to ignition targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, N.; Nakatsuka, M.; Azechi, H.

    2001-01-01

    To test high gain targets surrogated in the planar geometry, we have constructed a new experimental system (HIPER) which provides the high ablation pressure with a uniform irradiance profile. These performances were achieved by bundling twelve beams of the existing GEKKO XII into a F/3 focus cone. The partially coherent light is introduced for the beam smoothing of a green foot pulse consisting of three beams, and the three-directional smoothing by spectral dispersion is utilized for residual nine beams delivering a blue main drive pulse. The detail of design concept and results of initial activation of this system are reported. (author)

  9. High-vacuum chamber for the irradiation of targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimmel, E.; Dullnig, H.

    1975-01-01

    The high vacuum chamber for irradiating targets with X-rays, electron or ion beams is connected to a magazine storage vessel for the targets through a loading duct which can be evacuated. This duct is traversed by a carriage transporting a magazine to the irradiation position. The duct can be closed by a closing valve. Inside the chamber there is a grip attached to a swivel arm which takes a frame with a target from the magazine, or vice versa, and moves it into the irradiation position. This means that the chamber must always be kept at a constant internal pressure. The swiveling shaft for the swivel arm and the transport pinion of the carriage in addition are magnetically coupled to drive shafts located outside the chamber, which obviates the need for any seals. The grip may also deposit the frame on a goniometer, which allows the target to be aligned in the irradiation position. In addition, the measuring probes used to record the amount of reflected radiation are installed in the chamber under electrically insulated conditions relative to the chamber. (DG/RF) [de

  10. Efficient visualization of high-throughput targeted proteomics experiments: TAPIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röst, Hannes L; Rosenberger, George; Aebersold, Ruedi; Malmström, Lars

    2015-07-15

    Targeted mass spectrometry comprises a set of powerful methods to obtain accurate and consistent protein quantification in complex samples. To fully exploit these techniques, a cross-platform and open-source software stack based on standardized data exchange formats is required. We present TAPIR, a fast and efficient Python visualization software for chromatograms and peaks identified in targeted proteomics experiments. The input formats are open, community-driven standardized data formats (mzML for raw data storage and TraML encoding the hierarchical relationships between transitions, peptides and proteins). TAPIR is scalable to proteome-wide targeted proteomics studies (as enabled by SWATH-MS), allowing researchers to visualize high-throughput datasets. The framework integrates well with existing automated analysis pipelines and can be extended beyond targeted proteomics to other types of analyses. TAPIR is available for all computing platforms under the 3-clause BSD license at https://github.com/msproteomicstools/msproteomicstools. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. How Does Target Know so Much about Its Customers? Utilizing Customer Analytics to Make Marketing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Hope B.; Craciun, Georgiana; Powell, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    Every time shoppers make a purchase at a store or browse a Web site, customer behavior is tracked, analyzed, and perhaps shared with other businesses. Target Corporation is a leader in analyzing vast amounts of data to identify buying patterns, improve customer satisfaction, predict future trends, select promotional strategies, and increase…

  12. Using NEG-pumping near a high density internal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Alexander; Marton, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard; Zmeskal, Johann [Stefan Meyer Institut fuer Subatomare Physik, OeAW (Germany); Orth, Herbert [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The universal detector PANDA will be constructed at the future high-energy antiproton storage ring HESR at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, GSI/Darmstadt). It will use antiproton beams (1.5 to 15 GeV/c) for hadron physics in the charmonium region. The Stefan Meyer Institut (SMI) contributes to major parts of the PANDA detector like the hydrogen cluster-jet target and the vacuum system of the antiproton - target interaction zone. To ensure low background, the residual gas load in the interaction zone and in the antiproton beam-pipe has to be minimised. Most of the gas load will come from the high density internal hydrogen target. As the detector will cover almost the full solid angle, the installation of pumps near the interaction zone is impossible. Therefore the use of NEG (non-evaporative-getter) coated beam pipes has been considered as an alternative. Two setups with NEG coated tubes have been installed at SMI as prototypes of the PANDA interaction zone. General parameters of the NEG-film, its outgassing behaviour, the pumping speed and the pumping capacity for hydrogen have been tested. The results of the studies on the PANDA-interaction region are presented.

  13. Using NEG-pumping near a high density internal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, A.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Orth, H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Stefan Meyer Institut (SMI) is part of the international PANDA collaboration. The universal detector will be constructed at the future high-energy antiproton storage ring HESR at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, GSI/Darmstadt). PANDA will use antiproton beams (1.5 to 15 GeV/c) for hadron physics in the charmonium region. SMI contributes to major parts of the PANDA detector like the hydrogen cluster-jet target and the vacuum system of the antiproton - target interaction zone. To ensure low background, the residual gas load in the interaction zone and in the antiproton beam-pipe has to be minimized. Most of the gas load, of course will come from the high density internal hydrogen target. Since the PANDA detector will cover almost the full solid angle, the installation of pumps near the interaction zone is impossible. Therefore, the use of NEG (non-evaporative-getter) coated beam pipes has been considered as an alternative. Two setups with NEG coated tubes have been installed at SMI as prototypes of the PANDA interaction zone. The outgassing behavior, the pumping speed and the pumping capacity for hydrogen have been tested. The status of the studies of the interaction region will be presented. (author)

  14. Nonlinear Magnetic Phenomena in Highly Polarized Target Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Yu F

    2007-01-01

    The report introduces and surveys nonlinear magnetic phenomena which have been observed at high nuclear polarizations in polarized targets of the SMC and of the COMPASS collaborations at CERN. Some of these phenomena, namely the frequency modulation eect and the distortion of the NMR line shape, promote the development of the polarized target technique. Others, as the spin-spin cross-relaxation between spin subsystems can be used for the development of quantum statistical physics. New findings bear on an electromagnetic noise and the spectrally resolved radiation from LiD with negatively polarized nuclei detected by low temperature bolometers. These nonlinear phenomena need to be taken into account for achieving the ultimate polarizations.

  15. High-efficiency SO2 removal in utility FGD systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gray, S.; Dekraker, D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have contracted with Radian Corporation to conduct full-scale testing, process modeling, and economic evaluations of six existing utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project objective is to evaluate low capital cost upgrades for achieving up to 98% sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) removal efficiency in a variety of FGD system types. The systems include dual-loop, packed absorbers at Tampa Electric Company's Big Bend Station; cocurrent, packed absorbers at Hoosier Energy's Merom Station; dual-loop absorbers with perforated-plate trays at Southwestern Electric Power Company's Pirkey Station; horizontal spray absorbers at PSI Energy's Gibson Station; venturi scrubbers at Duquesne Light's Elrama Station; and open stray absorbers at New york State Electric and Gas Corporations's (NYSEG's) Kintigh Station. All operate in an inhibited-oxidation mode except the system at Big Bend (forced oxidation), and all use limestone reagent except the Elrama system (Mg-lime). The program was conducted to demonstrate that upgrades such as performance additives and/or mechanical modifications can increase system SO 2 removal at low cost. The cost effectiveness of each upgrade has been evaluated on the basis of test results and/or process model predictions for upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this program may lead some utilities to use SO 2 removal upgrades as an approach for compliance with phase 2 of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. This paper summarizes the results of testing, modeling, and economic evaluations that have been completed since July, 1994

  16. The Utilization of Classifications in High-Energy Astrophysics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Bill

    2012-03-01

    The history of high-energy gamma observations stretches back several decades. But it was with the launch of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) in 1991 onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) [1], that the field entered a new era of discovery. At the high-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum, incoming particles of light, photons, interact with matter mainly by producing electron-positron pairs and this process dominates above an energy of 10-30MeV depending on the material. To a high degree the directionality of the incoming gamma ray is reflected in the e+ and e-, and hence the detection of the trajectories of the e+e- pair can be used to infer the direction of the originating photon. Measuring these high-energy charged particles is the domain of high-energy particle physics and so it should be of little surprise that particle physicists played a significant role in the design and construction of EGRET, as well as the design and implementation of analysis methods for the resulting data. Prior to EGRET, only a handful of sources in the sky were known as high-energy gamma-ray emitters. During EGRET's 9-years mission the final catalog included over 270 sources including new types such as Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). This set the stage for the next-generation mission, the Gamma ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) [2]. Very early in the EGRET mission, the realization that the high-energy gamma-ray sky was extremely interesting led to a competition to develop the next-generation instruments. The technology used in EGRET was frozen in the late 1970s and by 1992, enormous advances had been made in experimental particle physics. In particular the effort to develop solid state detectors, targeted for use at the Super Conducting Super Collider (SSC), had made the technology of silicon strip detectors (SSDs) commercially viable for use in large area arrays. Given the limitations imposed by the space environment (e.g., operate in a vacuum, scarce

  17. Utilizing nanobody technology to target non-immunodominant domains of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Sisse B; Florea, Raluca; Nielsen, Morten A

    2014-01-01

    adhesion. However, the development of a VAR2CSA adhesion-blocking vaccine remains challenging due to (i) the large size of VAR2CSA and (ii) the extensive immune selection for polymorphisms and thereby non-neutralizing B-cell epitopes. Camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs) are known to target epitopes...... that are less immunogenic to classical IgG and, due to their small size and protruding antigen-binding loop, able to reach and recognize cryptic, conformational epitopes which are inaccessible to conventional antibodies. The variable heavy chain (VHH) domain is the antigen-binding site of camelid HcAbs, the so...

  18. Does a target-capacity utilization rule fulfill OPEC's economic objectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suranovic, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses the United States (US) Energy Information Administration's Oil Market Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Simulation model to evaluate the ability of a target-capacity rule to satisfy OPEC's economic objectives. We show that when demand and supply lags exist OPEC's optimal price path may consist of periods of low prices followed by a one or two period price shock. The TCU rule does not display periodic price shocks and thus generates less discounted revenue over the planning period. The TCU rule comes closest to the optimum either when there are no lags or when OPEC optimizes subject to a minimum revenue constraint. (author)

  19. High-resolution imaging and target designation through clouds or smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    A method and system of combining gated intensifiers and advances in solid-state, short-pulse laser technology, compact systems capable of producing high resolution (i.e., approximately less than 20 centimeters) optical images through a scattering medium such as dense clouds, fog, smoke, etc. may be achieved from air or ground based platforms. Laser target designation through a scattering medium is also enabled by utilizing a short pulse illumination laser and a relatively minor change to the detectors on laser guided munitions.

  20. Development of high-performance alkali-hybrid polarized 3He targets for electron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaideep T.; Dolph, P. A. M.; Tobias, W. A.; Averett, T. D.; Kelleher, A.; Mooney, K. E.; Nelyubin, V. V.; Wang, Yunxiao; Zheng, Yuan; Cates, G. D.

    2015-05-01

    Background: Polarized 3He targets have been used as effective polarized neutron targets for electron scattering experiments for over twenty years. Over the last ten years, the effective luminosity of polarized 3He targets based on spin-exchange optical pumping has increased by over an order of magnitude. This has come about because of improvements in commercially-available lasers and an improved understanding of the physics behind the polarization process. Purpose: We present the development of high-performance polarized 3He targets for use in electron scattering experiments. Improvements in the performance of polarized 3He targets, target properties, and operating parameters are documented. Methods: We utilize the technique of alkali-hybrid spin-exchange optical pumping to polarize the 3He targets. Spectrally narrowed diode lasers used for the optical pumping greatly improved the performance. A simulation of the alkali-hybrid spin-exchange optical pumping process was developed to provide guidance in the design of the targets. Data was collected during the characterization of 24 separate glass target cells, each of which was constructed while preparing for one of four experiments at Jefferson Laboratory in Newport News, Virginia. Results: From the data obtained we made determinations of the so-called X -factors that quantify a temperature-dependent and as-yet poorly understood spin-relaxation mechanism that limits the maximum achievable 3He polarization to well under 100%. The presence of the X -factor spin-relaxation mechanism was clearly evident in our data. Good agreement between the simulation and the actual target performance was obtained by including details such as off-resonant optical pumping. Included in our results is a measurement of the K -3He spin-exchange rate coefficient kseK=(7.46 ±0.62 ) ×10-20cm3/s over the temperature range 503 K to 563 K. Conclusions: In order to achieve high performance under the operating conditions described in this paper

  1. Utilization of Glycosaminoglycans/Proteoglycans as Carriers for Targeted Therapy Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Suniti; Hascall, Vincent C.; Atanelishvili, Ilia; Moreno Rodriguez, Ricardo; Markwald, Roger R.; Ghatak, Shibnath

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of patients with cancer has improved significantly in the past decade with the incorporation of drugs targeting cell surface adhesive receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, and modulation of several molecules of extracellular matrices (ECMs), the complex composite of collagens, glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans that dictates tissue architecture. Cancer tissue invasive processes progress by various oncogenic strategies, including interfering with ECM molecules and their interactions with invasive cells. In this review, we describe how the ECM components, proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, influence tumor cell signaling. In particular this review describes how the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) and its major receptor CD44 impact invasive behavior of tumor cells, and provides useful insight when designing new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26448753

  2. Utilizing nanobody technology to target non-immunodominant domains of VAR2CSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse B Ditlev

    Full Text Available Placental malaria is a major health problem for both pregnant women and their fetuses in malaria endemic regions. It is triggered by the accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE in the intervillous spaces of the placenta and is associated with foetal growth restriction and maternal anemia. IE accumulation is supported by the binding of the parasite-expressed protein VAR2CSA to placental chondroitin sulfate A (CSA. Defining specific CSA-binding epitopes of VAR2CSA, against which to target the immune response, is essential for the development of a vaccine aimed at blocking IE adhesion. However, the development of a VAR2CSA adhesion-blocking vaccine remains challenging due to (i the large size of VAR2CSA and (ii the extensive immune selection for polymorphisms and thereby non-neutralizing B-cell epitopes. Camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs are known to target epitopes that are less immunogenic to classical IgG and, due to their small size and protruding antigen-binding loop, able to reach and recognize cryptic, conformational epitopes which are inaccessible to conventional antibodies. The variable heavy chain (VHH domain is the antigen-binding site of camelid HcAbs, the so called Nanobody, which represents the smallest known (15 kDa intact, native antigen-binding fragment. In this study, we have used the Nanobody technology, an approach new to malaria research, to generate small and functional antibody fragments recognizing unique epitopes broadly distributed on VAR2CSA.

  3. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Don M.; Dudey, Norman D.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then "boil off" or evaporate a neutron.

  4. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Dudey, N.D.

    1976-01-01

    The invention described provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then ''boil off'' or evaporate a neutron

  5. Gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Kane, W.R.; Markey, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon gas near the critical point (166 degrees C, 58 atm) is under development. The spectrometer will function as a room-temperature ionization chamber detecting gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. The energy resolution is superior to that of a NaI scintillation spectrometer by a substantial margin (approximately a factor 5), and accordingly, much more information can be extracted from a given gamma-ray spectrum. Unlike germanium detectors, the spectrometer possesses the capability for sustained operation under ambient temperature conditions without a requirement for liquid nitrogen

  6. Utilizing HPC Network Technologies in High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2088631; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Because of their performance characteristics high-performance fabrics like Infiniband or OmniPath are interesting technologies for many local area network applications, including data acquisition systems for high-energy physics experiments like the ATLAS experiment at CERN. This paper analyzes existing APIs for high-performance fabrics and evaluates their suitability for data acquisition systems in terms of performance and domain applicability. The study finds that existing software APIs for high-performance interconnects are focused on applications in high-performance computing with specific workloads and are not compatible with the requirements of data acquisition systems. To evaluate the use of high-performance interconnects in data acquisition systems a custom library, NetIO, is presented and compared against existing technologies. NetIO has a message queue-like interface which matches the ATLAS use case better than traditional HPC APIs like MPI. The architecture of NetIO is based on a interchangeable bac...

  7. High or Low Target Prevalence Increases the Dual-Target Cost in Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menneer, Tamaryn; Donnelly, Nick; Godwin, Hayward J.; Cave, Kyle R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a dual-target cost in visual search. In the current study, the relationship between search for one and search for two targets was investigated to examine the effects of target prevalence and practice. Color-shape conjunction stimuli were used with response time, accuracy and signal detection measures. Performance…

  8. Targeted deletion of fibrinogen like protein 1 reveals a novel role in energy substrate utilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Demchev

    Full Text Available Fibrinogen like protein 1(Fgl1 is a secreted protein with mitogenic activity on primary hepatocytes. Fgl1 is expressed in the liver and its expression is enhanced following acute liver injury. In animals with acute liver failure, administration of recombinant Fgl1 results in decreased mortality supporting the notion that Fgl1 stimulates hepatocyte proliferation and/or protects hepatocytes from injury. However, because Fgl1 is secreted and detected in the plasma, it is possible that the role of Fgl1 extends far beyond its effect on hepatocytes. In this study, we show that Fgl1 is additionally expressed in brown adipose tissue. We find that signals elaborated following liver injury also enhance the expression of Fgl1 in brown adipose tissue suggesting that there is a cross talk between the injured liver and adipose tissues. To identify extra hepatic effects, we generated Fgl1 deficient mice. These mice exhibit a phenotype suggestive of a global metabolic defect: Fgl1 null mice are heavier than wild type mates, have abnormal plasma lipid profiles, fasting hyperglycemia with enhanced gluconeogenesis and exhibit differences in white and brown adipose tissue morphology when compared to wild types. Because Fgl1 shares structural similarity to Angiopoietin like factors 2, 3, 4 and 6 which regulate lipid metabolism and energy utilization, we postulate that Fgl1 is a member of an emerging group of proteins with key roles in metabolism and liver regeneration.

  9. Safety and efficacy of targeted hyperthermia treatment utilizing gold nanorod therapy in spontaneous canine neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Elizabeth M; Portela, Roberta; Gardner, Heather L; Schoen, Christian; London, Cheryl A

    2017-10-02

    Hyperthermia is an established anti-cancer treatment but is limited by tolerance of adjacent normal tissues. Parenteral administration of gold nanorods (NRs) as a photosensitizer amplifies the effects of hyperthermia treatment while sparing normal tissues. This therapy is well tolerated and has demonstrated anti-tumor effects in mouse models. The purpose of this phase 1 study was to establish the safety and observe the anti-tumor impact of gold NR enhanced (plasmonic) photothermal therapy (PPTT) in client owned canine patients diagnosed with spontaneous neoplasia. Seven dogs underwent gold NR administration and subsequent NIR PPTT. Side effects were mild and limited to local reactions to NIR laser. All of the dogs enrolled in the study experienced stable disease, partial remission or complete remission. The overall response rate (ORR) was 28.6% with partial or complete remission of tumors at study end. PPTT utilizing gold nanorod therapy can be safely administered to canine patients. Further studies are needed to determine the true efficacy in a larger population of canine cancer patients and to and identify those patients most likely to benefit from this therapy.

  10. Utilizing Retinotopic Mapping for a Multi-Target SSVEP BCI With a Single Flicker Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maye, Alexander; Zhang, Dan; Engel, Andreas K

    2017-07-01

    In brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that use the steady-state visual evoked response (SSVEP), the user selects a control command by directing attention overtly or covertly to one out of several flicker stimuli. The different control channels are encoded in the frequency, phase, or time domain of the flicker signals. Here, we present a new type of SSVEP BCI, which uses only a single flicker stimulus and yet affords controlling multiple channels. The approach rests on the observation that the relative position between the stimulus and the foci of overt attention result in distinct topographies of the SSVEP response on the scalp. By classifying these topographies, the computer can determine at which position the user is gazing. Offline data analysis in a study on 12 healthy volunteers revealed that 9 targets can be recognized with about 95±3% accuracy, corresponding to an information transfer rate (ITR) of 40.8 ± 3.3 b/min on average. We explored how the classification accuracy is affected by the number of control channels, the trial length, and the number of EEG channels. Our findings suggest that the EEG data from five channels over parieto-occipital brain areas are sufficient for reliably classifying the topographies and that there is a large potential to improve the ITR by optimizing the trial length. The robust performance and the simple stimulation setup suggest that this approach is a prime candidate for applications on desktop and tablet computers.

  11. Highly multiplexed targeted DNA sequencing from single nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Marco L; Wang, Yong; Kim, Charissa; Gao, Ruli; Jiang, Jerry; Sei, Emi; Navin, Nicholas E

    2016-02-01

    Single-cell DNA sequencing methods are challenged by poor physical coverage, high technical error rates and low throughput. To address these issues, we developed a single-cell DNA sequencing protocol that combines flow-sorting of single nuclei, time-limited multiple-displacement amplification (MDA), low-input library preparation, DNA barcoding, targeted capture and next-generation sequencing (NGS). This approach represents a major improvement over our previous single nucleus sequencing (SNS) Nature Protocols paper in terms of generating higher-coverage data (>90%), thereby enabling the detection of genome-wide variants in single mammalian cells at base-pair resolution. Furthermore, by pooling 48-96 single-cell libraries together for targeted capture, this approach can be used to sequence many single-cell libraries in parallel in a single reaction. This protocol greatly reduces the cost of single-cell DNA sequencing, and it can be completed in 5-6 d by advanced users. This single-cell DNA sequencing protocol has broad applications for studying rare cells and complex populations in diverse fields of biological research and medicine.

  12. High-resolution elastic recoil detection utilizing Bayesian probability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, P.; Dollinger, G.; Bergmaier, A.; Genchev, I.; Goergens, L.; Fischer, R.; Ronning, C.; Hofsaess, H.

    2001-01-01

    Elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis is improved in view of depth resolution and the reliability of the measured spectra. Good statistics at even low ion fluences is obtained utilizing a large solid angle of 5 msr at the Munich Q3D magnetic spectrograph and using a 40 MeV 197 Au beam. In this way the elemental depth profiles are not essentially altered during analysis even if distributions with area densities below 1x10 14 atoms/cm 2 are measured. As the energy spread due to the angular acceptance is fully eliminated by ion-optical and numerical corrections, an accurate and reliable apparatus function is derived. It allows to deconvolute the measured spectra using the adaptive kernel method, a maximum entropy concept in the framework of Bayesian probability theory. In addition, the uncertainty of the reconstructed spectra is quantified. The concepts are demonstrated at 13 C depth profiles measured at ultra-thin films of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C). Depth scales of those profiles are given with an accuracy of 1.4x10 15 atoms/cm 2

  13. Using Deep Learning for Targeted Data Selection, Improving Satellite Observation Utilization for Model Initialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. J.; Bonfanti, C. E.; Trailovic, L.; Etherton, B.; Govett, M.; Stewart, J.

    2017-12-01

    At present, a fraction of all satellite observations are ultimately used for model assimilation. The satellite data assimilation process is computationally expensive and data are often reduced in resolution to allow timely incorporation into the forecast. This problem is only exacerbated by the recent launch of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-16 satellite and future satellites providing several order of magnitude increase in data volume. At the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) we are researching the use of machine learning the improve the initial selection of satellite data to be used in the model assimilation process. In particular, we are investigating the use of deep learning. Deep learning is being applied to many image processing and computer vision problems with great success. Through our research, we are using convolutional neural network to find and mark regions of interest (ROI) to lead to intelligent extraction of observations from satellite observation systems. These targeted observations will be used to improve the quality of data selected for model assimilation and ultimately improve the impact of satellite data on weather forecasts. Our preliminary efforts to identify the ROI's are focused in two areas: applying and comparing state-of-art convolutional neural network models using the analysis data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) weather model, and using these results as a starting point to optimize convolution neural network model for pattern recognition on the higher resolution water vapor data from GOES-WEST and other satellite. This presentation will provide an introduction to our convolutional neural network model to identify and process these ROI's, along with the challenges of data preparation, training the model, and parameter optimization.

  14. Criteria for selection of target materials and design of high-efficiency-release targets for radioactive ion beam generation

    CERN Document Server

    Alton, G D; Liu, Y

    1999-01-01

    In this report, we define criteria for choosing target materials and for designing, mechanically stable, short-diffusion-length, highly permeable targets for generation of high-intensity radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for use at nuclear physics and astrophysics research facilities based on the ISOL principle. In addition, lists of refractory target materials are provided and examples are given of a number of successful targets, based on these criteria, that have been fabricated and tested for use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF).

  15. Cooling System for the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F; Silva, P; Pezzeti, M; Pavlov, O; Pirotte, O; Metselaar, J; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fabich, A; Lettry, J; Kirk, H G; McDonald, K T; Titus, P; Bennett, J R J

    2010-01-01

    MERIT is a proof-of-principle experiment of a target station suitable as source for future muon colliders or neutrino factories. When installed at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) PS (Proton Synchrotron)complex fast-extracted high-intensity proton beams intercepted a free mercury jet inside a normal-conducting, pulsed 15-T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid nitrogen. Up to 25 MJ of Joule heat was dissipated in the magnet during a pulse. The fully automated, remotely controlled cryogenic system of novel design permitted the transfer of nitrogen by the sole means of differential pressures inside the vessels. This fast cycling system permitted several hundred tests in less than three weeks during the 2007 data taking campaign.

  16. Advanced targeted monitoring of high temperature components in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Maile, K.; Jovanovic, A. [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The article presents the idea of targeted monitoring of high-temperature pressurized components in fossil-fueled power plants, implemented within a modular software system and using, in addition to pressure and temperature data, also displacement and strain measurement data. The concept has been implemented as a part of a more complex company-oriented Internet/Intranet system of MPA Stuttgart (ALIAS). ALIAS enables to combine smoothly the monitoring results with those of the off-line analysis, e. g. sensitivity analyses, comparison with preceding experience (case studies), literature search, search in material databases -(experimental and standard data), nonlinear FE-analysis, etc. The concept and the system have been implemented in real plant conditions several power plants in Germany and Europe: one of these applications and its results are described more in detail in the presentation. (orig.) 9 refs.

  17. Advanced targeted monitoring of high temperature components in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E; Maile, K; Jovanovic, A [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    The article presents the idea of targeted monitoring of high-temperature pressurized components in fossil-fueled power plants, implemented within a modular software system and using, in addition to pressure and temperature data, also displacement and strain measurement data. The concept has been implemented as a part of a more complex company-oriented Internet/Intranet system of MPA Stuttgart (ALIAS). ALIAS enables to combine smoothly the monitoring results with those of the off-line analysis, e. g. sensitivity analyses, comparison with preceding experience (case studies), literature search, search in material databases -(experimental and standard data), nonlinear FE-analysis, etc. The concept and the system have been implemented in real plant conditions several power plants in Germany and Europe: one of these applications and its results are described more in detail in the presentation. (orig.) 9 refs.

  18. High spin K isomeric target of 177mLu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig, O.; Belier, G.; Daugas, J.-M.; Delbourgo, P.; Maunoury, L.; Meot, V.; Morichon, E.; Sauvestre, J.-E.; Aupiais, J.; Boulin, Y.; Fioni, G.; Letourneau, A.; Marie, F.; Ridikas, D.

    2004-01-01

    The techniques used to produce a 177m Lu (J π =23/2 - ,T 1/2 =160.4 days) target are described in this paper. Firstly, an isotopic separation of an enriched lutetium sample was used to reach a purity of 176 Lu close to 99.993%. Afterwards, the high neutron flux of the Grenoble Institut Laue-Langevin reactor was used to produce the 177m Lu isomer by the 176 Lu(n,γ) reaction. Finally, a chemical separation was performed to extract 10 13 nuclei of 177m Lu. Thanks to this experiment, we have been able to estimate the destruction cross-section of the 177m Lu

  19. Material studies for pulsed high-intensity proton beam targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simos, N.; Kirk, H.; Ludewig, H.; Thieberger, P.; Weng, W-T.; McDonald, K.; Yoshimura, K.

    2004-01-01

    Intense beams for muon colliders and neutrino facilities require high-performance target stations of 1-4 MW proton beams. The physics requirements for such a system push the envelope of our current knowledge as to how materials behave under high-power beams for both short and long exposure. The success of an adopted scheme that generates, captures and guides secondary particles depends on the useful life expectancy of this critical system. This paper presents an overview of what has been achieved during the various phases of the experimental effort including a tentative plan to continue the effort by expanding the material matrix. The first phase of the project was to study the changes after irradiation in mechanical properties and specially in thermal expansion coefficient of various materials. During phase-I the study attention was primarily focused on Super-invar and in a lesser degree on Inconel-718. Invar is a metal alloy which predominantly consists of 62% Fe, 32% Ni and 5% Co. It is showed that this metal, whose non-irradiated properties held such promise, can only be considered a serious target candidate for an intense proton beam only if one can anneal the atomic displacements followed by the appropriate heat treatment to restore its favorable expansion coefficient. New materials that have been developed for various industrial needs by optimizing key properties, might be of value for the accelerator community. These materials like carbon-carbon composites, titanium alloys, the Toyota 'gum metal', the Vascomax material and the AlBeMet alloy will be explored and tested in the second phase of the project. (A.C.)

  20. Design criteria for a high energy Compton Camera and possible application to targeted cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conka Nurdan, T.; Nurdan, K.; Brill, A. B.; Walenta, A. H.

    2015-07-01

    The proposed research focuses on the design criteria for a Compton Camera with high spatial resolution and sensitivity, operating at high gamma energies and its possible application for molecular imaging. This application is mainly on the detection and visualization of the pharmacokinetics of tumor targeting substances specific for particular cancer sites. Expected high resolution (animals with a human tumor xenograft which is one of the first steps in evaluating the potential utility of a candidate gene. The additional benefit of high sensitivity detection will be improved cancer treatment strategies in patients based on the use of specific molecules binding to cancer sites for early detection of tumors and identifying metastasis, monitoring drug delivery and radionuclide therapy for optimum cell killing at the tumor site. This new technology can provide high resolution, high sensitivity imaging of a wide range of gamma energies and will significantly extend the range of radiotracers that can be investigated and used clinically. The small and compact construction of the proposed camera system allows flexible application which will be particularly useful for monitoring residual tumor around the resection site during surgery. It is also envisaged as able to test the performance of new drug/gene-based therapies in vitro and in vivo for tumor targeting efficacy using automatic large scale screening methods.

  1. Future utilization of polarized beams and targets at the ZGS. Report of the Technical Advisory Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    A program is proposed for upgrading the usefulness and attractiveness of ZGS polarized facilities to the user community. It is hoped that the advance approval or completion of parts (or all) of such a program will lead to an accelerated interest in proposing experiments unique to the ZGS, which will open new dimensions in the understanding of high energy phenomena. Recommendations are summarized, and a discussion is given of past activities and future plans of various experimental groups and ZGS facilities. A series of arguments is made concerning possible future ZGS facilities which do not necessarily relate to any specific experiments, suggested or proposed

  2. High-speed packet filtering utilizing stream processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Richard J.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2009-04-01

    Parallel firewalls offer a scalable architecture for the next generation of high-speed networks. While these parallel systems can be implemented using multiple firewalls, the latest generation of stream processors can provide similar benefits with a significantly reduced latency due to locality. This paper describes how the Cell Broadband Engine (CBE), a popular stream processor, can be used as a high-speed packet filter. Results show the CBE can potentially process packets arriving at a rate of 1 Gbps with a latency less than 82 μ-seconds. Performance depends on how well the packet filtering process is translated to the unique stream processor architecture. For example the method used for transmitting data and control messages among the pseudo-independent processor cores has a significant impact on performance. Experimental results will also show the current limitations of a CBE operating system when used to process packets. Possible solutions to these issues will be discussed.

  3. Production and utilization of high level and long duration shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrot, R.

    1978-01-01

    In order to verify the behaviour of equipments under extreme environmental conditions (propulsion, falls, impacts...), it is necessary to create 'high level and long duration shocks'. For these shocks, the velocity variation ΔV, which is equal to the area under the accelerogram γ (t), can reach several hundred meters per second. These velocity variations cannot be performed via classical free fall shock machine (ΔV [fr

  4. Endothelial targeting of high-affinity multivalent polymer nanocarriers directed to intercellular adhesion molecule 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Silvia; Dziubla, Thomas; Qiu, Weining; Leferovich, John; Cui, Xiumin; Berk, Erik; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2006-06-01

    Targeting of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to endothelial cells (ECs) provides an avenue to improve treatment of many maladies. For example, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a constitutive endothelial cell adhesion molecule up-regulated in many diseases, is a good determinant for endothelial targeting of therapeutic enzymes and polymer nanocarriers (PNCs) conjugated with anti-ICAM (anti-ICAM/PNCs). However, intrinsic and extrinsic factors that control targeting of anti-ICAM/PNCs to ECs (e.g., anti-ICAM affinity and PNC valency and flow) have not been defined. In this study we tested in vitro and in vivo parameters of targeting to ECs of anti-ICAM/PNCs consisting of either prototype polystyrene or biodegradable poly(lactic-coglycolic) acid polymers (approximately 200 nm diameter spheres carrying approximately 200 anti-ICAM molecules). Anti-ICAM/PNCs, but not control IgG/PNCs 1) rapidly (t1/2 approximately 5 min) and specifically bound to tumor necrosis factor-activated ECs in a dose-dependent manner (Bmax approximately 350 PNC/cell) at both static and physiological shear stress conditions and 2) bound to ECs and accumulated in the pulmonary vasculature after i.v. injection in mice. Anti-ICAM/PNCs displayed markedly higher EC affinity versus naked anti-ICAM (Kd approximately 80 pM versus approximately 8 nM) in cell culture and, probably because of this factor, higher value (185.3 +/- 24.2 versus 50.5 +/- 1.5% injected dose/g) and selectivity (lung/blood ratio 81.0 +/- 10.9 versus 2.1 +/- 0.02, in part due to faster blood clearance) of pulmonary targeting. These results 1) show that reformatting monomolecular anti-ICAM into high-affinity multivalent PNCs boosts their vascular immuno-targeting, which withstands physiological hydrodynamics and 2) support potential anti-ICAM/PNCs utility for medical applications.

  5. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  6. Development of high capacity, high rate lithium ion batteries utilizing metal fiber conductive additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soonho; Kim, Youngduk; Kim, Kyung Joon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyungkeun; Kim, Myung H.

    As lithium ion cells dominate the battery market, the performance improvement is an utmost concern among developers and researchers. Conductive additives are routinely employed to enhance electrode conductivity and capacity. Carbon particulates—graphite or carbon black powders—are conventional and popular choices as conductive fillers. However, percolation requirements of particles demand significant volumetric content of impalpable, and thereby high area conductive fillers. As might be expected, the electrode active surface area escalates unnecessarily, resulting in overall increase in reaction with electrolytes and organic solvents. The increased reactions usually manifest as an irreversible loss of anode capacity, gradual oxidation and consumption of electrolyte on the cathode—which causes capacity decline during cycling—and an increased threat to battery safety by gas evolution and exothermic solvent oxidation. In this work we have utilized high aspect ratio, flexible, micronic metal fibers as low active area and high conductivity additives. The metal fibers appear well dispersed within the electrode and to satisfy percolation requirements very efficiently at very low volumetric content compared to conventional carbon-based conductive additives. Results from 18650-type cells indicate significant enhancements in electrode capacity and high rate capability while the irreversible capacity loss is negligible.

  7. High Energy Cutting and Stripping Utilizing Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Howard; Noah, Donald E.; Hayes, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    The Aerospace Industry has endeavored for decades to develop hybrid materials that withstand the rigors of mechanized flight both within our atmosphere and beyond. The development of these high performance materials has led to the need for environmentally friendly technologies for material re-work and removal. The NitroJet(TM) is a fluid jet technology that represents an evolution of the widely used, large-scale water jet fluid jet technology. It involves the amalgamation of fluid jet technology and cryogenics technology to create a new capability that is applicable where water jet or abrasive jet (water jet plus entrained abrasive) are not suitable or acceptable because of technical constraints such as process or materials compatibility, environmental concerns and aesthetic or legal requirements. The NitroJet(TM) uses ultra high-pressure nitrogen to cut materials, strip numerous types of coatings such as paint or powder coating, clean surfaces and profile metals. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is used as the feed stream and is pressurized in two stages. The first stage pressurizes sub cooled LN2 to an intermediate pressure of between 15,000 and 20,000 psi at which point the temperature of the LN2 is about -250 F. The discharge from this stage is then introduced as feed to a dual intensifier system, which boosts the pressure from 15,000 - 20,000 psi up to the maximum operating pressure of 55,000 psi. A temperature of about -220 F is achieved at which point the nitrogen is supercritical. In this condition the nitrogen cuts, strips and abrades much like ultra high-pressure water would but without any residual liquid to collect, remove or be contaminated. Once the nitrogen has performed its function it harmlessly flashes back into the atmosphere as pure nitrogen gas. The system uses heat exchangers to control and modify the temperature of the various intake and discharge nitrogen streams. Since the system is hydraulically operated, discharge pressures can be easily varied over

  8. High-resolution field shaping utilizing a masked multileaf collimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P C; Cooper, P

    2000-08-01

    Multileaf collimators (MLCs) have become an important tool in the modern radiotherapy department. However, the current limit of resolution (1 cm at isocentre) can be too coarse for acceptable shielding of all fields. A number of mini- and micro-MLCs have been developed, with thinner leaves to achieve approved resolution. Currently however, such devices are limited to modest field sizes and stereotactic applications. This paper proposes a new method of high-resolution beam collimation by use of a tertiary grid collimator situated below the conventional MLC. The width of each slit in the grid is a submultiple of the MLC width. A composite shaped field is thus built up from a series of subfields, with the main MLC defining the length of each strip within each subfield. Presented here are initial findings using a prototype device. The beam uniformity achievable with such a device was examined by measuring transmission profiles through the grid using a diode. Profiles thus measured were then copied and superposed to generate composite beams, from which the uniformity achievable could be assessed. With the average dose across the profile normalized to 100%, hot spots up to 5.0% and troughs of 3% were identified for a composite beam of 2 x 5.0 mm grids, as measured at Dmax for a 6 MV beam. For a beam composed from 4 x 2.5 mm grids, the maximum across the profile was 3.0% above the average, and the minimum 2.5% below. Actual composite profiles were also formed using the integrating properties of film, with the subfield indexing performed using an engineering positioning stage. The beam uniformity for these fields compared well with that achieved in theory using the diode measurements. Finally sine wave patterns were generated to demonstrate the potential improvements in field shaping and conformity using this device as opposed to the conventional MLC alone. The scalloping effect on the field edge commonly seen on MLC fields was appreciably reduced by use of 2 x 5.0 mm

  9. High-resolution metagenomics targets major functional types in complex microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Lapidus, Alla; Ivanova, Natalia; Copeland, Alex C.; McHardy, Alice C.; Szeto, Ernest; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Suciu, Dominic; Levine, Samuel R.; Markowitz, Victor M.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Tringe, Susannah G.; Bruce, David C.; Richardson, Paul M.; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2009-08-01

    Most microbes in the biosphere remain uncultured and unknown. Whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of environmental DNA (metagenomics) allows glimpses into genetic and metabolic potentials of natural microbial communities. However, in communities of high complexity metagenomics fail to link specific microbes to specific ecological functions. To overcome this limitation, we selectively targeted populations involved in oxidizing single-carbon (C{sub 1}) compounds in Lake Washington (Seattle, USA) by labeling their DNA via stable isotope probing (SIP), followed by WGS sequencing. Metagenome analysis demonstrated specific sequence enrichments in response to different C{sub 1} substrates, highlighting ecological roles of individual phylotypes. We further demonstrated the utility of our approach by extracting a nearly complete genome of a novel methylotroph Methylotenera mobilis, reconstructing its metabolism and conducting genome-wide analyses. This approach allowing high-resolution genomic analysis of ecologically relevant species has the potential to be applied to a wide variety of ecosystems.

  10. High utilizers of medical care: a crucial subgroup among somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Wolfgang; Fichter, Manfred M

    2004-04-01

    Patients with somatoform disorders (SFD) are likely to overutilize healthcare services. This study investigates (a) whether extraordinarily high medical costs can be predicted from patient characteristics or psychopathology, and (b) whether high-utilizing patients respond differently to cognitive-behavioral treatment. We compared 42 SFD high utilizers with 53 SFD average utilizers and 29 patients suffering from other than SFD mental disorders. High utilization was defined by healthcare expenditures of > or = 2500 euros during the past 2 years. Costs were computed from medical and billing records of health insurance companies. Somatization distress, hypochondriasis, depression, dysfunctional cognitions related to bodily symptoms, general psychopathology, personality profiles, and psychosocial disabilities were assessed before treatment. High utilizers had higher levels of self- and observer-rated illness behavior, self-perceived bodily weakness, and psychosocial disabilities. Although they did not report more somatization symptoms, their subjective symptom distress was higher. There were no differences between high and average utilizers concerning general psychopathology, DSM-IV comorbidity, and personality profiles. Treatment improvements were similar. High- and average-utilizing somatizers represent distinguishable subgroups. The results emphasize the importance of mechanisms specifically related to SFD and may enhance the early detection of patients who are likely to develop overutilization. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  11. High Density Lipoprotein: A Therapeutic Target in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Barter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High density lipoproteins (HDLs have a number of properties that have the potential to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis and thus reduce the risk of having a cardiovascular event. These protective effects of HDLs may be reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, a condition in which the concentration of HDL cholesterol is frequently low. In addition to their potential cardioprotective properties, HDLs also increase the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle and stimulate the synthesis and secretion of insulin from pancreatic β cells and may thus have a beneficial effect on glycemic control. This raises the possibility that a low HDL concentration in type 2 diabetes may contribute to a worsening of diabetic control. Thus, there is a double case for targeting HDLs in patients with type 2 diabetes: to reduce cardiovascular risk and also to improve glycemic control. Approaches to raising HDL levels include lifestyle factors such as weight reduction, increased physical activity and stopping smoking. There is an ongoing search for HDL-raising drugs as agents to use in patients with type 2 diabetes in whom the HDL level remains low despite lifestyle interventions.

  12. High Gain and High Directive of Antenna Arrays Utilizing Dielectric Layer on Bismuth Titanate Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Wee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high gain and high directive microstrip patch array antenna formed from dielectric layer stacked on bismuth titanate (BiT ceramics have been investigated, fabricated, and measured. The antennas are designed and constructed with a combination of two-, four-, and six-BiT elements in an array form application on microwave substrate. For gain and directivity enhancement, a layer of dielectric was stacked on the BiT antenna array. We measured the gain and directivity of BiT array antennas with and without the dielectric layer and found that the gain of BiT array antenna with the dielectric layer was enhanced by about 1.4 dBi of directivity and 1.3 dB of gain over the one without the dielectric layer at 2.3 GHz. The impedance bandwidth of the BiT array antenna both with and without the dielectric layer is about 500 MHz and 350 MHz, respectively, which is suitable for the application of the WiMAX 2.3 GHz system. The utilization of BiT ceramics that covers about 90% of antenna led to high radiation efficiency, and small-size antennas were produced. In order to validate the proposed design, theoretical and measured results are provided and discussed.

  13. Direct Utilization of Coal Syngas in High Temperature Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Ismail B. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This EPSCoR project had two primary goals: (i) to build infrastructure and work force at WVU to support long-term research in the area of fuel cells and related sciences; (ii) study effects of various impurities found in coal-syngas on performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). As detailed in this report the WVU research team has made significant accomplishments in both of these areas. What follows is a brief summary of these accomplishments: State-of-the-art test facilities and diagnostic tools have been built and put into use. These include cell manufacturing, half-cell and full-cell test benches, XPS, XRD, TEM, Raman, EDAX, SEM, EIS, and ESEM equipment, unique in-situ measurement techniques and test benches (Environmental EM, Transient Mass-Spectrometer-MS, and IR Optical Temperature measurements). In addition, computational capabilities have been developed culminating in a multi-scale multi-physics fuel cell simulation code, DREAM-SOFC, as well as a Beowulf cluster with 64 CPU units. We have trained 16 graduate students, 10 postdoctoral fellows, and recruited 4 new young faculty members who have actively participated in the EPSCoR project. All four of these faculty members have already been promoted to the tenured associate professor level. With the help of these faculty and students, we were able to secure 14 research awards/contracts amounting to a total of circa $5.0 Million external funding in closely related areas of research. Using the facilities mentioned above, the effects of PH3, HCl, Cl2, and H2S on cell performance have been studied in detail, mechanisms have been identified, and also remedies have been proposed and demonstrated in the laboratory. For example, it has been determined that PH3 reacts rapidly with Ni to from secondary compounds which may become softer or even melt at high temperature and then induce Ni migration to the surface of the cell changing the material and micro-structural properties of the cell drastically. It is found that

  14. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  15. Utilization of High-Temperature Slags From Metallurgy Based on Crystallization Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongqi; Zhang, Zuotai

    2018-05-01

    Here, following the principle of modifying crystallization behaviors, including avoidance and optimization, we review recent research on the utilization of hot slags. Because of the high-temperature property (1450-1650°C), the utilization of hot slags are much different from that of other wastes. We approach this issue from two main directions, namely, material recycling and heat utilization. From the respect of material recycling, the utilization of slags mainly follows total utilization and partial utilization, whereas the heat recovery from slags follows two main paths, namely, physical granulation and chemical reaction. The effective disposal of hot slags greatly depends on clarifying the crystallization behaviors, and thus, we discuss some optical techniques and their applicable scientific insights. For the purpose of crystallization avoidance, characterizing the glass-forming ability of slags is of great significance, whereas for crystallization modification, the selection of chemical additives and control of crystallization conditions comprise the central routes.

  16. Mass Media Strategies Targeting High Sensation Seekers: What Works and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine strategies for using the mass media effectively in drug prevention campaigns targeting high sensation seekers. Methods: Both experimental lab and field studies were used to develop a comprehensive audience segmentation strategy targeting high sensation seekers. Results: A 4-pronged targeting strategy employed in an…

  17. TMI-2 in-vessel hydraulic systems utilize high water and high boron content fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, V.F.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Hofman, L.A.; Gallagher, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Choice of a hydraulic fluid for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel defueling equipment required consideration of the following constraints for the hydraulic fluid given an accidental spill into the reactor coolant system (RCS). The TMI-2 RCS hydraulic fluid utilized in the hydraulic operations utilized a solution composition of 95 wt% water and 5 wt% of the above base fluid. The TMI-2 hydraulic system utilizes pressures up to 3500 psi. The selected hydraulic fluid has been in use since December 1986 with minimal operational difficulties

  18. Nuclear reactions of high energy deuterons with medium mass targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numajiri, Masaharu; Miura, Taichi; Oki, Yuichi

    1994-01-01

    Formation cross sections of product nuclides in the nuclear reactions of medium mass targets by 10 GeV deuterons were measured with a gamma-ray spectroscopy. The measured data were compared with the cross sections of 12 GeV protons. (author)

  19. Expanding the linear dynamic range for quantitative liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry utilizing natural isotopologue signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hanghui; Lam, Lily; Yan, Lin; Chi, Bert; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Less abundant isotopologue ions were utilized to decrease detector saturation. • A 25–50 fold increase in the upper limit of dynamic range was demonstrated. • Linear dynamic range was expanded without compromising mass resolution. - Abstract: The linear dynamic range (LDR) for quantitative liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry can be extended until ionization saturation is reached by using a number of target isotopologue ions in addition to the normally used target ion that provides the highest sensitivity. Less abundant isotopologue ions extend the LDR: the lower ion abundance decreases the probability of ion detector saturation. Effectively the sensitivity decreases and the upper limit of the LDR increases. We show in this paper that the technique is particularly powerful with a high resolution time of flight mass spectrometer because the data for all ions are automatically acquired, and we demonstrated this for four small organic molecules; the upper limits of LDRs increased by 25–50 times

  20. Determinants of Mental Health Care Utilization in a Suicide High-risk Group With Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Moo-Sik; Hong, Jee-Young

    2016-01-01

    The suicide rate in Korea is increasing every year, and is the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Psychiatric patients in particular have a higher risk of suicide than other patients. This study was performed to evaluate determinants of mental health care utilization among individuals at high risk for suicide. Korea Health Panel data from 2009 to 2011 were used. Subjects were individuals at high risk of suicide who had suicidal ideation, a past history of psychiatric illness, or had utilized outpatient services for a psychiatric disorder associated with suicidal ideation within the past year. The chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression were used to identify significant determinants of mental health care utilization. The total number of subjects with complete data on the variables in our model was 989. Individuals suffering from three or more chronic diseases used mental health care more frequently. Mental health care utilization was higher in subjects who had middle or high levels of educational attainment, were receiving Medical Aid, or had a large family size. It is important to control risk factors in high-risk groups as part of suicide prevention strategies. The clinical approach, which includes community-based intervention, entails the management of reduction of suicidal risk. Our study identified demographic characteristics that have a significant impact on mental health care utilization and should be considered in the development of suicide prevention strategies. Further studies should examine the effect of mental health care utilization on reducing suicidal ideation.

  1. Twin target self-amplification-based DNA machine for highly sensitive detection of cancer-related gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huo; Jiang, Yifan; Liu, Dengyou; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Yafeng; Yu, Suhong; Shen, Zhifa; Wu, Zai-Sheng

    2018-06-29

    The sensitive detection of cancer-related genes is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of human cancers, and previous isothermal amplification sensing systems were often based on the reuse of target DNA, the amplification of enzymatic products and the accumulation of reporting probes. However, no reporting probes are able to be transformed into target species and in turn initiate the signal of other probes. Herein we reported a simple, isothermal and highly sensitive homogeneous assay system for tumor suppressor p53 gene detection based on a new autonomous DNA machine, where the signaling probe, molecular beacon (MB), was able to execute the function similar to target DNA besides providing the common signal. In the presence of target p53 gene, the operation of DNA machine can be initiated, and cyclical nucleic acid strand-displacement polymerization (CNDP) and nicking/polymerization cyclical amplification (NPCA) occur, during which the MB was opened by target species and cleaved by restriction endonuclease. In turn, the cleaved fragments could activate the next signaling process as target DNA did. According to the functional similarity, the cleaved fragment was called twin target, and the corresponding fashion to amplify the signal was named twin target self-amplification. Utilizing this newly-proposed DNA machine, the target DNA could be detected down to 0.1 pM with a wide dynamic range (6 orders of magnitude) and single-base mismatched targets were discriminated, indicating a very high assay sensitivity and good specificity. In addition, the DNA machine was not only used to screen the p53 gene in complex biological matrix but also was capable of practically detecting genomic DNA p53 extracted from A549 cell line. This indicates that the proposed DNA machine holds the potential application in biomedical research and early clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. SWATHtoMRM: Development of High-Coverage Targeted Metabolomics Method Using SWATH Technology for Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Haihong; Cai, Yuping; Yin, Yandong; Wang, Zhuozhong; Li, Kang; Zhu, Zheng-Jiang

    2018-03-20

    The complexity of metabolome presents a great analytical challenge for quantitative metabolite profiling, and restricts the application of metabolomics in biomarker discovery. Targeted metabolomics using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) technique has excellent capability for quantitative analysis, but suffers from the limited metabolite coverage. To address this challenge, we developed a new strategy, namely, SWATHtoMRM, which utilizes the broad coverage of SWATH-MS technology to develop high-coverage targeted metabolomics method. Specifically, SWATH-MS technique was first utilized to untargeted profile one pooled biological sample and to acquire the MS 2 spectra for all metabolites. Then, SWATHtoMRM was used to extract the large-scale MRM transitions for targeted analysis with coverage as high as 1000-2000 metabolites. Then, we demonstrated the advantages of SWATHtoMRM method in quantitative analysis such as coverage, reproducibility, sensitivity, and dynamic range. Finally, we applied our SWATHtoMRM approach to discover potential metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis. A high-coverage targeted metabolomics method with 1303 metabolites in one injection was developed to profile colorectal cancer tissues from CRC patients. A total of 20 potential metabolite biomarkers were discovered and validated for CRC diagnosis. In plasma samples from CRC patients, 17 out of 20 potential biomarkers were further validated to be associated with tumor resection, which may have a great potential in assessing the prognosis of CRC patients after tumor resection. Together, the SWATHtoMRM strategy provides a new way to develop high-coverage targeted metabolomics method, and facilitates the application of targeted metabolomics in disease biomarker discovery. The SWATHtoMRM program is freely available on the Internet ( http://www.zhulab.cn/software.php ).

  3. Utility industry evaluation of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, S.; Bitel, J.S.; Tramm, T.R.; High, M.D.; Neils, G.H.; Tomonto, J.R.; Weinberg, C.J.

    1990-02-01

    A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor plant design, a current design created by an industrial team led by General Atomics under Department of Energy sponsorship and with support provided by utilities through Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates. The utility industry team concluded that the plant design should be considered a viable application of an advanced nuclear concept and deserves continuing development. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution toward improving a very promising plant design. 2 refs

  4. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging.

  5. Thermal shocks and magnetohydrodynamics in high power mercury jet targets

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, Jacques; Gilardoni, S S; Benedikt, Michael; Farhat, M; Robert, E

    2003-01-01

    The response of mercury samples submitted to a pulsed proton beam and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects of a mercury jet injected into a 20 T magnetic field are reported. The experimental conditions differ from those of proposed neutrino factories and the purpose of these measurements is to provide benchmarks for simulation tools of a realistic free mercury jet target. These measurements were completed in June 2002. Analysis is ongoing and the presented results are preliminary. (12 refs).

  6. Research Activity in Computational Physics utilizing High Performance Computing: Co-authorship Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sul-Ah; Jung, Youngim

    2016-10-01

    The research activities of the computational physicists utilizing high performance computing are analyzed by bibliometirc approaches. This study aims at providing the computational physicists utilizing high-performance computing and policy planners with useful bibliometric results for an assessment of research activities. In order to achieve this purpose, we carried out a co-authorship network analysis of journal articles to assess the research activities of researchers for high-performance computational physics as a case study. For this study, we used journal articles of the Scopus database from Elsevier covering the time period of 2004-2013. We extracted the author rank in the physics field utilizing high-performance computing by the number of papers published during ten years from 2004. Finally, we drew the co-authorship network for 45 top-authors and their coauthors, and described some features of the co-authorship network in relation to the author rank. Suggestions for further studies are discussed.

  7. Promoting high efficiency residential HVAC equipment: Lessons learned from leading utility programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neme, C.; Peters, J.; Rouleau, D.

    1998-07-01

    The Consortium for Energy Efficiency recently sponsored a study of leading electric utility efforts to promote high efficiency residential HVAC equipment. Given growing concerns from some utilities about the level of expenditures associated with rebate programs, special emphasis was placed on assessing the success of financing and other non-rebate options for promoting efficiency. Emphasis was also placed on review of efforts--rebate or otherwise--to push the market to very high levels of efficiency (i.e., SEER 13). This paper presents the results of the study. It includes discussion of key lessons from the utility programs analyzed. It also examines program participation rates and other potential indicators of market impacts. One notable conclusion is that several utility programs have pushed market shares for SEER 12 equipment to about 50% (the national average is less than 20%). At least one utility program has achieved a 50% market share for SEER 13 equipment (the national average is less than 3%). In general, financing does not appear to have as broad an appeal as consumer rebates. However, one unique utility program which combines the other of customer financing with modest incentives to contractors--in the form of frequent seller points that can be redeemed for advertising, technician training, travel and other merchandise--offers some promise that high participation rates can be achieved without customer rebates.

  8. Utility of FMISO PET in advanced head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiation incorporating a hypoxia-targeting chemotherapy agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, Melbourne (Australia); University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, St Vincent' s Medical School, Melbourne (Australia); Rischin, Danny [University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, St Vincent' s Medical School, Melbourne (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Haematology and Medical Oncology, Melbourne (Australia); Fisher, Richard [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Melbourne (Australia); Binns, David [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, Melbourne (Australia); Scott, Andrew M. [Austin Hospital, Centre for PET, and Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Melbourne (Australia); Peters, Lester J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Radiation Oncology, Melbourne (Australia)

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate [{sup 18}F]fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET in advanced head and neck cancer during hypoxia-targeting therapy. Fifteen of 16 patients in a phase I trial of chemoradiation plus tirapazamine (specific cytotoxin for hypoxic cells) in advanced (T3/4 and/or N2/3) head and neck cancer underwent serial [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and FMISO PET. We have previously reported excellent early clinical outcome of these patients and now review FMISO PET results in the context of longer follow-up of this patient cohort. Based on blinded qualitative scoring by two readers, FMISO PET was positive in 13/15 patients at baseline: 12/15 of primary sites and 8/13 neck nodes were scored as positive. All sites of corresponding FDG and FMISO abnormality at baseline showed marked qualitative reduction of uptake within 4 weeks of commencing therapy, consistent with effective hypoxia-targeted therapy. With a median follow-up of 6.9 years, there have been only four locoregional failures, while three other patients have died of metachronous lung cancer. The 5-year overall survival was 50% (95% CI 27-73%), the 5-year failure-free survival was 44% (95% CI 22-68%) and the 5-year freedom from locoregional failure was 68% (95% CI 38-88%). The high prevalence of hypoxia demonstrated on FMISO PET imaging is consistent with the advanced disease stage of these patients and would be expected to predict an adverse prognosis. Evidence of the early resolution of FMISO abnormality during treatment, associated with excellent locoregional control in this patient cohort, supports further investigation of hypoxia-targeting agents in advanced head and neck cancer. (orig.)

  9. Utility of FMISO PET in advanced head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiation incorporating a hypoxia-targeting chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Rodney J.; Rischin, Danny; Fisher, Richard; Binns, David; Scott, Andrew M.; Peters, Lester J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate [ 18 F]fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET in advanced head and neck cancer during hypoxia-targeting therapy. Fifteen of 16 patients in a phase I trial of chemoradiation plus tirapazamine (specific cytotoxin for hypoxic cells) in advanced (T3/4 and/or N2/3) head and neck cancer underwent serial [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and FMISO PET. We have previously reported excellent early clinical outcome of these patients and now review FMISO PET results in the context of longer follow-up of this patient cohort. Based on blinded qualitative scoring by two readers, FMISO PET was positive in 13/15 patients at baseline: 12/15 of primary sites and 8/13 neck nodes were scored as positive. All sites of corresponding FDG and FMISO abnormality at baseline showed marked qualitative reduction of uptake within 4 weeks of commencing therapy, consistent with effective hypoxia-targeted therapy. With a median follow-up of 6.9 years, there have been only four locoregional failures, while three other patients have died of metachronous lung cancer. The 5-year overall survival was 50% (95% CI 27-73%), the 5-year failure-free survival was 44% (95% CI 22-68%) and the 5-year freedom from locoregional failure was 68% (95% CI 38-88%). The high prevalence of hypoxia demonstrated on FMISO PET imaging is consistent with the advanced disease stage of these patients and would be expected to predict an adverse prognosis. Evidence of the early resolution of FMISO abnormality during treatment, associated with excellent locoregional control in this patient cohort, supports further investigation of hypoxia-targeting agents in advanced head and neck cancer. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of bias associated with high-multiplex, target-specific pre-amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Okino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel PCR-based pre-amplification (PreAmp technology that can increase the abundance of over 350 target genes one million-fold. To assess potential bias introduced by PreAmp we utilized ERCC RNA reference standards, a model system that quantifies measurement error in RNA analysis. We assessed three types of bias: amplification bias, dynamic range bias and fold-change bias. We show that our PreAmp workflow introduces only minimal amplification and fold-change bias under stringent conditions. We do detect dynamic range bias if a target gene is highly abundant and PreAmp occurred for 16 or more PCR cycles; however, this type of bias is easily correctable. To assess PreAmp bias in a gene expression profiling experiment, we analyzed a panel of genes that are regulated during differentiation using the NTera2 stem cell model system. We find that results generated using PreAmp are similar to results obtained using standard qPCR (without the pre-amplification step. Importantly, PreAmp maintains patterns of gene expression changes across samples; the same biological insights would be derived from a PreAmp experiment as with a standard gene expression profiling experiment. We conclude that our PreAmp technology can facilitate analysis of extremely limited samples in gene expression quantification experiments.

  11. Visual observation of boiling in high power liquid target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeples, J. L.; Stokely, M. H.; Poorman, M. C.; Magerl, M.; Wieland, B. W. [Bruce Technologies Inc., 1939 Evans Rd. Cary, NC 27513 (United States); IBA Molecular, 801 Forestwood Dr. Romeoville, IL 60446 (United States); Bruce Technologies Inc., 1939 Evans Rd. Cary, NC 27513 (United States)

    2012-12-19

    A top pressurized, batch style, 3.15 mL total volume (2.5 mL fill volume) water target with transparent viewing windows was operated on an IBA 18/9 cyclotron at 18 MeV proton energy and beam power up to 1.1 kW. Video recordings documented bubble formation and transport, and blue light from de-excitation of water molecules produced images of proton beam stopping geometry including location of the Bragg peak.

  12. High power laser interaction with single and double layer targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borodziuk, S.; Demchenko, N. N.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Jungwirth, Karel; Kálal, M.; Kasperczuk, A.; Kondrashov, V. N.; Králiková, Božena; Krouský, Eduard; Limpouch, Jiří; Mašek, Karel; Pisarczyk, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Rozanov, V. B.; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2005), s. 241-262 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A100; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK2043105 Grant - others:EU(XE) HPRI-CT-1999-00053; RFBR(RU) 02-02-16966; IAEA(XE) 11655/RBF; INTAS(XX) 01-0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser produced plasma * three-frame interferometry * macroparticle * single and double targets * crater * shock wave * laser energy absorption Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2005

  13. Electronic Adherence Monitoring in a High-Utilizing Pediatric Asthma Cohort: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chén Collin; Chang, Joyce; Wynter, Sheri-Ann; Fowler, Jessica C; Long, Jin; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra C

    2016-06-22

    Inner-city, minority children with asthma have the highest rates of morbidity and death from asthma and the lowest rates of asthma controller medication adherence. Some recent electronic medication monitoring interventions demonstrated dramatic improvements in adherence in lower-risk populations. The feasibility and acceptability of such an intervention in the highest-risk children with asthma has not been studied. Our objective was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a community health worker-delivered electronic adherence monitoring intervention among the highest utilizers of acute asthma care in an inner-city practice. This was a prospective cohort pilot study targeting children with the highest frequency of asthma-related emergency department and hospital care within a local managed care Medicaid plan. The 3-month intervention included motivational interviewing, electronic monitoring of controller and rescue inhaler use, and outreach by a community health worker for predefined medication alerts. We measured acceptability by using a modified technology acceptability model and changes in asthma control using the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Given prominent feasibility issues, we describe qualitative patterns of medication use at baseline only. We enrolled 14 non-Hispanic black children with a median age of 3.5 years. Participants averaged 7.8 emergency or hospital visits in the year preceding enrollment. We observed three distinct patterns of baseline controller use: 4 patients demonstrated sustained use, 5 patients had periodic use, and 5 patients lapsed within 2 weeks. All participants initiated use of the electronic devices; however, no modem signal was transmitted for 5 or the 14 participants after a mean of 45 days. Of the 9 (64% of total) caregivers who completed the final study visit, all viewed the electronic monitoring device favorably and would recommend it to friends, and 5 (56%) believed that the device helped to improve asthma control. ACT

  14. Anti-vascular internal high LET targeted radiotherapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) is an emerging therapeutic modality, thought to be best suited to cancers such as leukaemia and cancer micrometastases, but not solid tumours. However, several subjects in our phase 1 clinical trial of systemic TAT for melanoma experienced marked regression of subcutaneous and internal tumours. The MCSP receptor is expressed on both tumour capillary pericytes and melanoma cells, and is targeted by the 9.2.27 monoclonal antibody. When this is labelled with the alpha-emitting radioisotope Bi-213, the resulting alpha-immunoconjugate can extravasate through capillary fenestrations and selectively kill these cells, as well as the contiguous endothelial cells in the capillaries, causing capillary closure and subsequent tumour regression. These results suggest that tumours can be regressed by a process called tumour anti-vascular alpha therapy (TAVAT). By analogy, tumour regression in boron neutron capture therapy could be achieved by similar means, where in the alpha and Li-7 ions emitted by boron-10 neutron capture events in cancer cells contiguous to the endothelial cells could shut down tumour capillaries by a process of tumour anti-vascular neutron capture therapy (TAVNCT). (author)

  15. Efficient hiding of confidential high-utility itemsets with minimal side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jerry Chun-Wei; Hong, Tzung-Pei; Fournier-Viger, Philippe; Liu, Qiankun; Wong, Jia-Wei; Zhan, Justin

    2017-11-01

    Privacy preserving data mining (PPDM) is an emerging research problem that has become critical in the last decades. PPDM consists of hiding sensitive information to ensure that it cannot be discovered by data mining algorithms. Several PPDM algorithms have been developed. Most of them are designed for hiding sensitive frequent itemsets or association rules. Hiding sensitive information in a database can have several side effects such as hiding other non-sensitive information and introducing redundant information. Finding the set of itemsets or transactions to be sanitised that minimises side effects is an NP-hard problem. In this paper, a genetic algorithm (GA) using transaction deletion is designed to hide sensitive high-utility itemsets for PPUM. A flexible fitness function with three adjustable weights is used to evaluate the goodness of each chromosome for hiding sensitive high-utility itemsets. To speed up the evolution process, the pre-large concept is adopted in the designed algorithm. It reduces the number of database scans required for verifying the goodness of an evaluated chromosome. Substantial experiments are conducted to compare the performance of the designed GA approach (with/without the pre-large concept), with a GA-based approach relying on transaction insertion and a non-evolutionary algorithm, in terms of execution time, side effects, database integrity and utility integrity. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm hides sensitive high-utility itemsets with fewer side effects than previous studies, while preserving high database and utility integrity.

  16. Mining of high utility-probability sequential patterns from uncertain databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Zhang

    Full Text Available High-utility sequential pattern mining (HUSPM has become an important issue in the field of data mining. Several HUSPM algorithms have been designed to mine high-utility sequential patterns (HUPSPs. They have been applied in several real-life situations such as for consumer behavior analysis and event detection in sensor networks. Nonetheless, most studies on HUSPM have focused on mining HUPSPs in precise data. But in real-life, uncertainty is an important factor as data is collected using various types of sensors that are more or less accurate. Hence, data collected in a real-life database can be annotated with existing probabilities. This paper presents a novel pattern mining framework called high utility-probability sequential pattern mining (HUPSPM for mining high utility-probability sequential patterns (HUPSPs in uncertain sequence databases. A baseline algorithm with three optional pruning strategies is presented to mine HUPSPs. Moroever, to speed up the mining process, a projection mechanism is designed to create a database projection for each processed sequence, which is smaller than the original database. Thus, the number of unpromising candidates can be greatly reduced, as well as the execution time for mining HUPSPs. Substantial experiments both on real-life and synthetic datasets show that the designed algorithm performs well in terms of runtime, number of candidates, memory usage, and scalability for different minimum utility and minimum probability thresholds.

  17. INFLUENCE OF STUDENT ENGLISH UTILITY AND TEACHER EFFICACY ON ENGLISH PROFICIENCY OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. ORTEGA-DELA CRUZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning second language considers a number of factors that influence the manner in which the language is taught. Understanding of the learners’ goals and motivation for learning is one. Using descriptive-correlational research design, this study determined the influence of student English utility and teacher efficacy on the students’ English proficiency. A total of 101 students from first year to fourth year level served as the respondents of the study. The study quantified the students’ perception towards English utility and their evaluation of English teacher efficacy which employed a researcher-made survey questionnaire. Results revealed high positive perceptions of students towards English utility. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the perceptions of high school students on the efficacy of their English teachers. Correlation coefficients indicated a positive linear relationship among the given variables. The p-value revealed significant relationship of teacher efficacy (r = .691, p-value = .000 and English utility (r = .467, p-value = .000 to students’ English proficiency. Results of regression statistics revealed that English utility has no significant influence on the student English proficiency. Therefore, the main factor that must still be considered then should be the teacher. Finally, there is an explicit indication that high level of teachers’ efficacy performing in teaching has much powerful influence on the English proficiency of high school students. Thus improving the methods of teaching English provides a better way of motivating students to achieve higher levels of proficiency in the future.

  18. A multimodal high-value curriculum affects drivers of utilization and performance on the high-value care component of the internal medicine in-training exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Tom; Loertscher, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Background : Teaching the practice of high-value care (HVC) is an increasingly important function of graduate medical education but best practices and long-term outcomes remain unknown. Objective : Whether a multimodal curriculum designed to address specific drivers of low-value care would affect resident attitudes, skills, and performance of HVC as tested by the Internal Medicine In-Training Exam (ITE). Methods : In 2012, we performed a baseline needs assessment among internal medicine residents at a community program regarding drivers of healthcare utilization. We then created a multimodal curriculum with online interactive worksheets, lectures, and faculty buy-in to target specific skills, knowledge, and culture deficiencies. Perceived drivers of care and performance on the Internal Medicine ITE were assessed yearly through 2016. Results : Fourteen of 27 (52%) residents completed the initial needs assessment while the curriculum was eventually seen by at least 24 of 27 (89%). The ITE was taken by every resident every year. Long-term, 3-year follow-up demonstrated persistent improvement in many drivers of utilization (patient requests, reliance on subspecialists, defensive medicine, and academic curiosity) and improvement with sustained high performance on the high-value component of the ITE. Conclusion : A multimodal curriculum targeting specific drivers of low-value care can change culture and lead to sustained improvement in the practice of HVC.

  19. Electrostatic levitation, control and transport in high rate, low cost production of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Johnson, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion requires production of power plant grade targets at high rates and process yield. A review of present project specifications and techniques to produce targets is discussed with special emphasis on automating the processes and combining them with an electrostatic transport and suspension system through the power plant target factory

  20. Temperature calculations of heat loads in rotating target wheels exposed to high beam currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, John P.; Gabor, Rachel; Neubauer, Janelle

    2001-01-01

    In heavy-ion physics, high beam currents can eventually melt or destroy the target. Tightly focused beams on stationary targets of modest melting point will exhibit short lifetimes. Defocused or 'wobbled' beams are employed to enhance target survival. Rotating targets using large diameter wheels can help overcome target melting and allow for higher beam currents to be used in experiments. The purpose of the calculations in this work is to try and predict the safe maximum beam currents which produce heat loads below the melting point of the target material

  1. Temperature calculations of heat loads in rotating target wheels exposed to high beam currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. P.; Gabor, R.; Neubauer, J.

    2000-01-01

    In heavy-ion physics, high beam currents can eventually melt or destroy the target. Tightly focused beams on stationary targets of modest melting point will exhibit short lifetimes. Defocused or wobbled beams are employed to enhance target survival. Rotating targets using large diameter wheels can help overcome target melting and allow for higher beam currents to be used in experiments. The purpose of the calculations in this work is to try and predict the safe maximum beam currents which produce heat loads below the melting point of the target material

  2. Utilizing assumption for project of stand for solid state targets activation on inner beams of AIC-144 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelenz, B.

    1997-09-01

    General assumptions for project of target activation stand at AIC-144 cyclotron are presented. The project predicts production of 67 Ga, 111 In, 201 Tl, 139 Ce, 88 Y, 123 I and 211 At isotopes using various target backings. Directions concerning target cooling and beam parameters are also described

  3. Progress in target materials for high-efficiency X-ray backlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Ai; Zhou Bin; Li Longxiang; Zhu Xiurong; Li Yu'nong; Shen Jun; Gao Guohua; Zhang Zhihua; Wu Guangming

    2012-01-01

    The composition, microstructure and density of the target materials are the key parameters to determinate the photon energy and intensity of the laser-induced X-ray backlight. Thus the classification of backlight targets, the preparation of target materials and the interaction between targets and high power laser were introduced in this paper. Underdense targets were more competitive than traditional dense targets among the backlight targets. Nano-structured foam targets, which could be classified into nanofiber targets and aerogel targets, were regarded as novel high-efficiency underdense targets. Nanofiber, which was commonly prepared via electro spinning and thermal treatment, exhibited good formability and high concentration of emission atoms; while aerogel, which was prepared via sol-gel processes and supercritical fluid drying, possesses the advantages of homogeneous microstructure and theoretically high conversion efficiency, but accompanied with the disadvantages of complex synthetic processes and low concentration of emission atoms. To prepare monolithic aerogels with low density and high concentration of emission atoms via combined sol-gel theories may be the better design for the development of the laser-induced X-ray backlight. (authors)

  4. Radar cross-section (RCS) analysis of high frequency surface wave radar targets

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Gonca; SEVGİ, Levent

    2010-01-01

    Realistic high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) targets are investigated numerically in terms of electromagnetic wave -- target interactions. Radar cross sections (RCS) of these targets are simulated via both the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the Method of Moments (MoM). The virtual RCS prediction tool that was introduced in previous work is used for these investigations. The virtual tool automatically creates the discrete FDTD model of the target under investi...

  5. Mobile natural gas leak surveys indicate that two utilities have high false negative rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fischer, J. C.; Brewer, P. E.; Chamberlain, S.; Gaylord, A.; von Fischer, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the distribution systems that carry natural gas to consumers, leaks need to be discovered for safety reasons and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, few utilities have adopted newer laser-based technologies that have greater sensitivity and precision, and instead rely on "industry standard" equipment that is far less sensitive. In partnership with the Environmental Defense Fund and Google, we mapped natural gas leaks in the domains of two anonymous utilities (Utility "A" and "B") using high sensitivity Picarro methane analyzers in Google Street View Cars. Surprisingly, when we shared these results with utilities, their survey crews were unable to find most of the leaks that our survey indicated (84% in A and 80% in B). To investigate this phenomenon, our team visited a subset of the leaks in each utility domain (n=32 in A and n=30 in B), and worked alongside utility surveyors to search the leak indication area, using a Los Gatos Research ultraportable methane analyzer to pinpoint leak locations. We found evidence of natural gas leaks at 69% and 68% of the locations in Utilities A and B respectively where survey crews had found nothing. We describe this as a "false negative" rate for the utility because the utility survey falsely indicated that there was no leak at these locations. Of these false negatives, 7% (n=2 of 32 in A, n=2 of 30 in B) were determined to be Grade 1 leaks requiring immediate repair due to high safety risk. Instrument sensitivity appears to explain some of the false negative rates. In particular, use of some industry standard equipment appears to have created a false sense of confidence among utility surveyors that leaks were not present. However, there was also evidence of communication failures and that surveyors did not use optimal approaches in their search. Based on these findings, we suggest that: 1) mobile deployment of high-precision methane analyzers can help find more natural gas leaks, and 2) use of some hand-held survey

  6. The world trends of high temperature gas-cooled reactors and the mode of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Shimokawa, Jun-ichi

    1974-01-01

    After a long period of research and development, high temperature gas-cooled reactors are going to enter the practical stage. The combination of a HTGR with a closed cycle helium gas turbine is advantageous in thermal efficiency, reduction of environmental impact and economy. In recent years, the direct utilization of nuclear heat energy in industries has been attracting interest. The multi-purpose utilization of high temperature gas-cooled reactors is thus now the world trend. Reviewing the world developments in this field, the following matters are described: (1) development of HTGRs in the U.K., West Germany, France and the United States; (2) development of He gas turbine, etc. in West Germany; and (3) multi-purpose utilization of HTGRs in West Germany and Japan. (Mori, K.)

  7. A 20 kw beam-on-target test of a high-power liquid lithium target for RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Claude B.; Nolen, Jerry A.; Specht, James R.; Novick, Vincent J.; Plotkin, Perry

    2004-01-01

    The high-power heavy-ion beams produced by the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac have large energy deposition density in solids and in many cases no solid materials would survive the full beam power. Liquid lithium technology has been proposed to solve this problem in RIA. Specifically, a windowless target for the production of radioactive ions via fragmentation, consisting of a jet of about 3 cm thickness of flowing liquid lithium, exposed to the beamline vacuum [1,2] is being developed. To demonstrate that power densities equivalent to a 200-kW RIA uranium beam, deposited in the first 4 mm of a flowing lithium jet, can be handled by the windowless target design, a high power 1 MeV Dynamitron was leased and a test stand prepared to demonstrate the target's capability of absorbing and carrying away a 20kW heat load without disrupting either the 5 mm x 10 mm flowing lithium jet target or the beam line vacuum

  8. Determinants of Mental Health Care Utilization in a Suicide High-risk Group With Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Soo Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The suicide rate in Korea is increasing every year, and is the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Psychiatric patients in particular have a higher risk of suicide than other patients. This study was performed to evaluate determinants of mental health care utilization among individuals at high risk for suicide. Methods: Korea Health Panel data from 2009 to 2011 were used. Subjects were individuals at high risk of suicide who had suicidal ideation, a past history of psychiatric illness, or had utilized outpatient services for a psychiatric disorder associated with suicidal ideation within the past year. The chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression were used to identify significant determinants of mental health care utilization. Results: The total number of subjects with complete data on the variables in our model was 989. Individuals suffering from three or more chronic diseases used mental health care more frequently. Mental health care utilization was higher in subjects who had middle or high levels of educational attainment, were receiving Medical Aid, or had a large family size. Conclusions: It is important to control risk factors in high-risk groups as part of suicide prevention strategies. The clinical approach, which includes community-based intervention, entails the management of reduction of suicidal risk. Our study identified demographic characteristics that have a significant impact on mental health care utilization and should be considered in the development of suicide prevention strategies. Further studies should examine the effect of mental health care utilization on reducing suicidal ideation.

  9. High School Administrative Staffing in Washington State: Principal Perspectives on Resource Needs and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steach, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored how high school principals prioritize their work and utilize available human resources to adjust to inadequate administrative staffing. Analysis of staffing levels across the state of Washington and specifically inside two eastern Washington districts framed interview questions for central office administration…

  10. Utilization of Screw Piles in High Seismicity Areas of Cold and Warm Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This work was performed in support of the AUTC project Utilization of Screw Piles in : High Seismicity Areas of Cold and Warm Permafrost under the direction of PI Dr. Kenan : Hazirbaba. Surface wave testing was performed at 30 sites in the City...

  11. High Pt utilization PEMFC electrode obtained by alternative ion-exchange/electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siguo; Wei, Zidong; Li, Hua; Li, Li

    2010-12-14

    High Pt utilization PEMFC electrodes were prepared by an alternative ion-exchange/electrodeposition (AIEE) technique. The results demonstrated that the MEA employing an AIEE electrode with a Pt loading of 0.014 mg Pt cm(-2) exhibits performance approximately 2.2 times larger than that employing a conventional Nafion-bonded Pt/C electrode with a same Pt loading.

  12. DISABILITY AND DEPRESSION AMONG HIGH UTILIZERS OF HEALTH-CARE - A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VONKORFF, M; ORMEL, J; KATON, W; LIN, EHB

    We evaluated, among depressed medical patients who are high utilizers of health care, whether improved vs unimproved depression is associated with differences in the course of functional disability. At baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, depression and disability were assessed among a sample of

  13. Utilizing High Pressure Processing to Induce Structural Changes in Dairy and Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlien, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    High pressure (HP) is capable of modifying the functional properties of milk and meat proteins by pressure-induced changes of the molecular structure. Therefore, HP treatment of milk and meat has been extensively investigated to understand, clarify, and utilize HP processing in the food industry....

  14. Obligations to High Priority Target Groups: Philosophical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, June Jackson

    Community mental health center services must be most plentiful where the need is greatest and must be appropriate and available to meet these needs. The first high priority group, according to statistics on juvenile delinquency, and narcotics, is the black inner city. Socio-psychiatric services, numerous enough in quantity to begin to meet needs…

  15. Achieving High Burnup Targets With Mox Fuels: Techno Economic Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement Ravi Chandar, S.; Sivayya, D.N.; Puthiyavinayagam, P.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-01-01

    For a typical MOX fuelled SFR of power reactor size, Implications due to higher burnup have been quantified. Advantages: – Improvement in the economy is seen upto 200 GWd/ t; Disadvantages: – Design changes > 150 GWd/ t bu; – Need for 8/ 16 more fuel SA at 150/ 200 GWd/ t bu; – Higher enrichment of B 4 C in CSR/ DSR at higher bu; – Reduction in LHR may be required at higher bu; – Structural material changes beyond 150 GWd/ t bu; – Reprocessing point of view-Sp Activity & Decay heat increase. Need for R & D is a must before increasing burnup. bu- refers burnup. Efforts to increase MOX fuel burnup beyond 200 GWd/ t may not be highly lucrative; • MOX fuelled FBR would be restricted to two or four further reactors; • Imported MOX fuelled FBRs may be considered; • India looks towards launching metal fuel FBRs in the future. – Due to high Breeding Ratio; – High burnup capability

  16. High-Voltage DC-DC Converter Topology for PV Energy Utilization - Investigation and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This paper exploited the utilization of photovoltaic (PV) energy system with high-voltage (HV) output DC-DC converter. Classical boost converters are used for both renewable energy integration and HV applications, but limited by reducing output/efficiency in performance. Moreover, as parasitic...... elements suppress the power transfer ratio, converter needs to maximize the PV energy utilization. This investigation study focused to include additional parasitic elements (voltage-lift technique) to a standard DC-DC buck converter and to overcome all the above drawbacks to maximize the PV power...

  17. Production of RS4 from rice starch and its utilization as an encapsulating agent for targeted delivery of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Gani, Asir; Gani, Adil; Shah, Asima; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2018-01-15

    The research reported in this article is based on the hypothesis that crosslinking of starch can make it a potential wall material for targeted delivery of probiotics by altering its digestion. Three probiotic strains namely Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum were microencapsulated with resistant starch. Encapsulation yield (%) of resistant starch microspheres was in the range of 43.01-48.46. The average diameter of resistant starch microparticles was in the range of 45.53-49.29μm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy of microcapsules showed peaks in the region of 900-1300cm -1 and 2918-2925cm -1 which corresponds to the presence of bacteria. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) showed better thermal stability of resistant starch microcapsules. Microencapsulated probiotics survived well in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and adverse heat conditions. The viability of the microcapsulated lactobacilli also remained high (>7 log cfu g -1 ) for 2months at 4°C. The results revealed that resistant starch is the potential new delivery carrier for oral administration of probiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Computational design of high efficiency release targets for use at ISOL facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Y

    1999-01-01

    This report describes efforts made at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design high-efficiency-release targets that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, controllable temperatures, and heat-removal properties required for the generation of useful radioactive ion beam (RIB) intensities for nuclear physics and astrophysics research using the isotope separation on-line (ISOL) technique. Short diffusion lengths are achieved either by using thin fibrous target materials or by coating thin layers of selected target material onto low-density carbon fibers such as reticulated-vitreous-carbon fiber (RVCF) or carbon-bonded-carbon fiber (CBCF) to form highly permeable composite target matrices. Computational studies that simulate the generation and removal of primary beam deposited heat from target materials have been conducted to optimize the design of target/heat-sink systems for generating RIBs. The results derived from diffusion release-rate simulation studies for selected t...

  19. Novel viral vectors utilizing intron splice-switching to activate genome rescue, expression and replication in targeted cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Andaloussi Samir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of virus infection depends from the precise coordination of viral gene expression and genome replication. The ability to control and regulate these processes is therefore important for analysis of infection process. Viruses are also useful tools in bio- and gene technology; they can efficiently kill cancer cells and trigger immune responses to tumors. However, the methods for constructing tissue- or cell-type specific viruses typically suffer from low target-cell specificity and a high risk of reversion. Therefore novel and universal methods of regulation of viral infection are also important for therapeutic application of virus-based systems. Methods Aberrantly spliced introns were introduced into crucial gene-expression units of adenovirus vector and alphavirus DNA/RNA layered vectors and their effects on the viral gene expression, replication and/or the release of infectious genomes were studied in cell culture. Transfection of the cells with splice-switching oligonucleotides was used to correct the introduced functional defect(s. Results It was demonstrated that viral gene expression, replication and/or the release of infectious genomes can be blocked by the introduction of aberrantly spliced introns. The insertion of such an intron into an adenovirus vector reduced the expression of the targeted gene more than fifty-fold. A similar insertion into an alphavirus DNA/RNA layered vector had a less dramatic effect; here, only the release of the infectious transcript was suppressed but not the subsequent replication and spread of the virus. However the insertion of two aberrantly spliced introns resulted in an over one hundred-fold reduction in the infectivity of the DNA/RNA layered vector. Furthermore, in both systems the observed effects could be reverted by the delivery of splice-switching oligonucleotide(s, which corrected the splicing defects. Conclusions Splice-switch technology, originally developed for

  20. SPMK AND GRABCUT BASED TARGET EXTRACTION FROM HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Target detection and extraction from high resolution remote sensing images is a basic and wide needed application. In this paper, to improve the efficiency of image interpretation, we propose a detection and segmentation combined method to realize semi-automatic target extraction. We introduce the dense transform color scale invariant feature transform (TC-SIFT descriptor and the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG & HSV descriptor to characterize the spatial structure and color information of the targets. With the k-means cluster method, we get the bag of visual words, and then, we adopt three levels’ spatial pyramid (SP to represent the target patch. After gathering lots of different kinds of target image patches from many high resolution UAV images, and using the TC-SIFT-SP and the multi-scale HOG & HSV feature, we constructed the SVM classifier to detect the target. In this paper, we take buildings as the targets. Experiment results show that the target detection accuracy of buildings can reach to above 90%. Based on the detection results which are a series of rectangle regions of the targets. We select the rectangle regions as candidates for foreground and adopt the GrabCut based and boundary regularized semi-auto interactive segmentation algorithm to get the accurate boundary of the target. Experiment results show its accuracy and efficiency. It can be an effective way for some special targets extraction.

  1. Spmk and Grabcut Based Target Extraction from High Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weihong; Wang, Guofeng; Feng, Chenyi; Zheng, Yiwei; Li, Jonathan; Zhang, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Target detection and extraction from high resolution remote sensing images is a basic and wide needed application. In this paper, to improve the efficiency of image interpretation, we propose a detection and segmentation combined method to realize semi-automatic target extraction. We introduce the dense transform color scale invariant feature transform (TC-SIFT) descriptor and the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) & HSV descriptor to characterize the spatial structure and color information of the targets. With the k-means cluster method, we get the bag of visual words, and then, we adopt three levels' spatial pyramid (SP) to represent the target patch. After gathering lots of different kinds of target image patches from many high resolution UAV images, and using the TC-SIFT-SP and the multi-scale HOG & HSV feature, we constructed the SVM classifier to detect the target. In this paper, we take buildings as the targets. Experiment results show that the target detection accuracy of buildings can reach to above 90%. Based on the detection results which are a series of rectangle regions of the targets. We select the rectangle regions as candidates for foreground and adopt the GrabCut based and boundary regularized semi-auto interactive segmentation algorithm to get the accurate boundary of the target. Experiment results show its accuracy and efficiency. It can be an effective way for some special targets extraction.

  2. The interactions of laser beam with high Z solid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Huimin; Zhang Guoping; Sheng Jiatian

    1990-01-01

    The 1-D non-LTE radiative hydrodynamic laser irradiated code JB-19 is used to calculate the laser-produced plasma conditions of high z gold disk. Following physical processes are considered: bremsstrahlung effect, radiative ionization and recombination, collisional ionization by electrons and three-body recombination, collisional excitation and de-excitation by electrons, radiative line emission and absorption and Compton scattering. A gaussian laser pulse with wavelength 1.06 μm, FWHM 600 ps and peak intensity 3 x 10 14 W/cm 2 is used to irradiate 20 μm thick gold disk. The computational results for laser-produced plasma conditions and the absorption efficiency and laser-x-rays conversion efficiency for gold disk are shown

  3. High Power Proton Beam Shocks and Magnetohydrodynamics in a Mercury Jet Target for a Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Fabich, A; Fabjan, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of liquid metal jet targets for secondary particle production with high power proton beams has been studied. The main aspects of the thesis were benchmark experiments covering the behaviour of liquid targets under thermal shock waves induced by high power proton beams, and also magnetohydrodynamic effects. Severe challenges were imposed by safety issues and the restricted beam time to the tests in ISOLDE at CERN and at the High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Grenoble. Restricted access times in high radiation level areas were of the order of minutes and in this short time span, the complete experimental setup had to be performed and verified. The involvement of mercury as liquid target material and its activation during beam tests demanded special confinement precautions. The setup for both experiments was based on the use of a high speed camera system for observation of the mercury target. The presence of high radiation or high magnetic field required the installation of the sensitive camera sy...

  4. Generic study on the design and operation of high power targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the move towards beam power in the range of 1–10 MW, a thorough understanding of the response of target materials and auxiliary systems to high power densities and intense radiation fields is required. This paper provides insight into three major aspects related to the design and operation of high power solid targets: thermal stresses, coolant performance, and radiation damage. Where appropriate, a figure-of-merit approach is followed to facilitate the comparison between different target or coolant candidates. The section on radiation damage reports total and spatial variations of displacement-per-atom and helium production levels in different target materials.

  5. Exome sequencing generates high quality data in non-target regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exome sequencing using next-generation sequencing technologies is a cost efficient approach to selectively sequencing coding regions of human genome for detection of disease variants. A significant amount of DNA fragments from the capture process fall outside target regions, and sequence data for positions outside target regions have been mostly ignored after alignment. Result We performed whole exome sequencing on 22 subjects using Agilent SureSelect capture reagent and 6 subjects using Illumina TrueSeq capture reagent. We also downloaded sequencing data for 6 subjects from the 1000 Genomes Project Pilot 3 study. Using these data, we examined the quality of SNPs detected outside target regions by computing consistency rate with genotypes obtained from SNP chips or the Hapmap database, transition-transversion (Ti/Tv ratio, and percentage of SNPs inside dbSNP. For all three platforms, we obtained high-quality SNPs outside target regions, and some far from target regions. In our Agilent SureSelect data, we obtained 84,049 high-quality SNPs outside target regions compared to 65,231 SNPs inside target regions (a 129% increase. For our Illumina TrueSeq data, we obtained 222,171 high-quality SNPs outside target regions compared to 95,818 SNPs inside target regions (a 232% increase. For the data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we obtained 7,139 high-quality SNPs outside target regions compared to 1,548 SNPs inside target regions (a 461% increase. Conclusions These results demonstrate that a significant amount of high quality genotypes outside target regions can be obtained from exome sequencing data. These data should not be ignored in genetic epidemiology studies.

  6. Target isolation system, high power laser and laser peening method and system using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Harris, Fritz

    2007-11-06

    A system for applying a laser beam to work pieces, includes a laser system producing a high power output beam. Target delivery optics are arranged to deliver the output beam to a target work piece. A relay telescope having a telescope focal point is placed in the beam path between the laser system and the target delivery optics. The relay telescope relays an image between an image location near the output of the laser system and an image location near the target delivery optics. A baffle is placed at the telescope focal point between the target delivery optics and the laser system to block reflections from the target in the target delivery optics from returning to the laser system and causing damage.

  7. A randomized trial of treatments for high-utilizing somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Arthur J; Ahern, David K; Bauer, Mark R; Nolido, Nyryan; Orav, E John

    2013-11-01

    Somatization and hypochondriacal health anxiety are common sources of distress, impairment, and costly medical utilization in primary care practice. A range of interventions is needed to improve the care of these patients. To determine the effectiveness of two cognitive behavioral interventions for high-utilizing, somatizing patients, using the resources found in a routine care setting. Patients were randomly assigned to a two-step cognitive behavioral treatment program accompanied by a training seminar for their primary care physicians, or to relaxation training. Providers routinely working in these patients' primary care practices delivered the cognitive behavior therapy and relaxation training. A follow-up assessment was completed immediately prior to treatment and 6 and 12 months later. Eighty-nine medical outpatients with elevated levels of somatization, hypochondriacal health anxiety, and medical care utilization. Somatization and hypochondriasis, overall psychiatric distress, and role impairment were assessed with well-validated, self-report questionnaires. Outpatient visits and medical care costs before and after the intervention were obtained from the encounter claims database. At 6 month and 12 month follow-up, both intervention groups showed significant improvements in somatization (p somatization, hypochondriacal symptoms, overall psychiatric distress, and role function. They also reduced the ambulatory visits and costs of these high utilizing outpatients.

  8. Toward high-efficiency and detailed Monte Carlo simulation study of the granular flow spallation target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Han-Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Lei; Fu, Fen; Li, Jian-Yang; Zhang, Xun-Chao; Zhang, Ya-Ling; Yan, Xue-Song; Lin, Ping; Xv, Jian-Ya; Yang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    The dense granular flow spallation target is a new target concept chosen for the Accelerator-Driven Subcritical (ADS) project in China. For the R&D of this kind of target concept, a dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) program named GMT was developed to perform the simulation study of the beam-target interaction. Owing to the complexities of the target geometry, the computational cost of the MC simulation of particle tracks is highly expensive. Thus, improvement of computational efficiency will be essential for the detailed MC simulation studies of the dense granular target. Here we present the special design of the GMT program and its high efficiency performance. In addition, the speedup potential of the GPU-accelerated spallation models is discussed.

  9. Utility assessment: the market for the high temperature gas-cooled reactor and the incentives for its utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The approach taken in this assessment is one in which the HTGR is evaluated from the perspective of its eventual users and operators - the utility industry. Section 2 of this report presents projections of future electrical and process heat energy demands in order to attempt to quantify the potential market for the HTGR. Section 3 provides an analysis of the effects of the HTGR on specific utility systems as well as extrapolated results on a national basis. Section 4 presents assessments of the various recognized incentives for HTGR commercialization. Sections 5, 6, and 7 present technical descriptions, and economic and market assessments of each of the three reference HTGR systems, namely the HTGR Steam Cycle, Gas Turbine, and Reformer

  10. 650 mm long liquid hydrogen target for use in a high intensity electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.

    1983-07-01

    This paper describes a 650 mm long liquid hydrogen target constructed for use in the high intensity electron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The main design problem was to construct a target that would permit the heat deposited by the electron beam to be removed rapidly without boiling the hydrogen so as to maintain constant target density for optimum data taking. Design requirements, construction details and operating experience are discussed

  11. Utility/user requirements for the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, V.S.; Kendall, J.M.; Gotschall, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) in developing Utility/User Requirements for the Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR). As representatives of the Utility/User industry, it is GCRA's goal that the MHTGR concept be established as an attractive nuclear option offering competitive economics and limited ownership risks. Commercially deployed MHTGR systems should then compete favorably in a mixed-fuel economy with options using fossil, other nuclear and other non-fossil sources. To achieve this goal, the design of the MHTGR plant must address the problems experienced by the U.S. industrial infrastructure during deployment of the first generation of nuclear plants. Indeed, it is GCRA's intent to utilize the characteristics of MHTGR technology for the development of a nuclear alternative that poses regulatory, financial and operational demands on the Owner/Operator that are, in aggregate, comparable to those encountered with non-nuclear options. The dominant risks faced by U.S. Utilities with current nuclear plants derive from their operational complexity and the degree of regulatory involvement in virtually all aspects of utility operations. The MHTGR approach of using ceramic fuel coatings to contain fission products provides the technical basis for simplification of the plant and stabilization of licensing requirements and thus the opportunity for reducing the risks of nuclear plant ownership. The paper describes the rationale for the selection of key requirements for public safety, plant size and performance, operations and maintenance, investment protection, economics and siting in the context of a risk management philosophy. It also describes the ongoing participation of the Utility/User in interpreting requirements, conducting program and design reviews and establishing priorities from the Owner/Operator perspective. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig

  12. A GA-Based Approach to Hide Sensitive High Utility Itemsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A GA-based privacy preserving utility mining method is proposed to find appropriate transactions to be inserted into the database for hiding sensitive high utility itemsets. It maintains the low information loss while providing information to the data demanders and protects the high-risk information in the database. A flexible evaluation function with three factors is designed in the proposed approach to evaluate whether the processed transactions are required to be inserted. Three different weights are, respectively, assigned to the three factors according to users. Moreover, the downward closure property and the prelarge concept are adopted in the proposed approach to reduce the cost of rescanning database, thus speeding up the evaluation process of chromosomes.

  13. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Kekos, Dimitris; Loizidou, Maria; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-08

    Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall

  14. Department of Energy research in utilization of high-performance computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzbee, B.L.; Worlton, W.J.; Michael, G.; Rodrigue, G.

    1980-08-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) and other Government research laboratories depend on high-performance computer systems to accomplish their programmatic goals. As the most powerful computer systems become available, they are acquired by these laboratories so that advances can be made in their disciplines. These advances are often the result of added sophistication to numerical models, the execution of which is made possible by high-performance computer systems. However, high-performance computer systems have become increasingly complex, and consequently it has become increasingly difficult to realize their potential performance. The result is a need for research on issues related to the utilization of these systems. This report gives a brief description of high-performance computers, and then addresses the use of and future needs for high-performance computers within DOE, the growing complexity of applications within DOE, and areas of high-performance computer systems warranting research. 1 figure

  15. A high sensitivity process variation sensor utilizing sub-threshold operation

    OpenAIRE

    Meterelliyoz, Mesut; Song, Peilin; Stellari, Franco; Kulkarni, Jaydeep P.; Roy, Kaushik

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel low-power, bias-free, high-sensitivity process variation sensor for monitoring random variations in the threshold voltage. The proposed sensor design utilizes the exponential current-voltage relationship of sub-threshold operation thereby improving the sensitivity by 2.3X compared to the above-threshold operation. A test-chip containing 128 PMOS and 128 NMOS devices has been fabri...

  16. Cross-Continuum Tool Is Associated with Reduced Utilization and Cost for Frequent High-Need Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Lauran; Kilian, Adam; Muller, Leslie; Callison, Kevin; Olgren, Michael

    2017-02-01

    High-need, high-cost (HNHC) patients can over-use acute care services, a pattern of behavior associated with many poor outcomes that disproportionately contributes to increased U.S. healthcare cost. Our objective was to reduce healthcare cost and improve outcomes by optimizing the system of care. We targeted HNHC patients and identified root causes of frequent healthcare utilization. We developed a cross-continuum intervention process and a succinct tool called a Complex Care Map (CCM)© that addresses fragmentation in the system and links providers to a comprehensive individualized analysis of the patient story and causes for frequent access to health services. Using a pre-/post-test design in which each subject served as his/her own historical control, this quality improvement project focused on determining if the interdisciplinary intervention called CCM© had an impact on healthcare utilization and costs for HNHC patients. We conducted the analysis between November 2012 and December 2015 at Mercy Health Saint Mary's, a Midwestern urban hospital with greater than 80,000 annual emergency department (ED) visits. All referred patients with three or more hospital visits (ED or inpatient [IP]) in the 12 months prior to initiation of a CCM© (n=339) were included in the study. Individualized CCMs© were created and made available in the electronic medical record (EMR) to all healthcare providers. We compared utilization, cost, social, and healthcare access variables from the EMR and cost-accounting system for 12 months before and after CCMs© implementation. We used both descriptive and limited inferential statistics. ED mean visits decreased 43% (pcost of care.

  17. Covariates of depression and high utilizers of healthcare: Impact on resource use and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rebecca L; Grabner, Michael; Palli, Swetha Rao; Faries, Douglas; Stephenson, Judith J

    2016-06-01

    To characterize healthcare costs, resource use, and treatment patterns of survey respondents with a history of depression who are high utilizers (HUds) of healthcare and to identify factors associated with high utilization. Adults with two or more depression diagnoses identified from the HealthCore Integrated Research Database were invited to participate in the CODE study, which links survey data with 12-month retrospective claims data. Patient surveys provided data on demographics, general health, and symptoms and/or comorbidities associated with depression. Similar clinical conditions also were identified from the medical claims. Factors associated with high utilization were identified using logistic regression models. Of 3132 survey respondents, 1921 were included, 193 of whom were HUds (defined as those who incurred the top 10% of total all-cause costs in the preceding 12months). Mean total annual healthcare costs were eightfold greater for HUds than for non-HUds ($US56,145 vs. $US6,954; pcosts/resource use. HUds were prescribed twice as many medications (total mean: 16.86 vs. 8.32; psychotropic mean: 4.11 vs. 2.61; both pcosts in patients with depression. Copyright © 2016 Eli Lilly and Company. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Utilization of High-Frequency Gravitational Waves for Global Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M L Baker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available For over 1000 years electromagnetic radiation has been utilized for long-distance communication. Smoke signals, heliographs, telegraphs, telephones and radio have all served our previous communication needs. Nevertheless, electromagnetic radiation has one major difficulty: it is easily absorbed. In this paper we consider a totally different radiation, a radiation that is not easily absorbed: gravitational radiation. Such radiation, like gravity itself, is not absorbed by earth, water or any material substance. In particular we discuss herein means to generate and detect high-frequency gravitational waves or HFGWs, and how they can be utilized for communication. There are two barriers to their practical utilization: they are extremely difficult to generate (a large power required to generate very weak GWs and it is extremely difficult to detect weak GWs. We intend to demonstrate theoretically in this paper their phase-coherent generation utilizing an array of in-phase microelectro-mechanical systems or MEMS resonator elements in which the HFGW flux is proportional to the square of the number of elements. This process solves the transmitter difficulty. Three HFGW detectors have previously been built; but their sensitivity is insufficient for meaningful HFGW reception; greater sensitivity is necessary. A new Li-Baker HFGW detector, discussed herein, is based upon a different measurement technique than the other detectors and is predicted to achieve a sensitivity to satisfy HFGW communication needs.

  19. High degree utilization of computers for design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, Takao; Sawada, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are the huge technology in which various technologies are compounded, and the high safety is demanded. Therefore, in the design of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to carry out the design by sufficiently grasping the behavior of the plants, and to confirm the safety by carrying out the accurate design evaluation supposing the various operational conditions, and as the indispensable tool for these analysis and evaluation, the most advanced computers in that age have been utilized. As to the utilization for the design, there are the fields of design, analysis and evaluation and another fields of the application to the support of design. Also in the field of the application to operation control, computers are utilized. The utilization of computers for the core design, hydrothermal design, core structure design, safety analysis and structural analysis of PWR plants, and for the nuclear design, safety analysis and heat flow analysis of FBR plants, the application to the support of design and the application to operation control are explained. (K.I.)

  20. Low velocity target detection based on time-frequency image for high frequency ground wave radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Songhua; WU Shicai; WEN Biyang

    2007-01-01

    The Doppler spectral broadening resulted from non-stationary movement of target and radio-frequency interference will decrease the veracity of target detection by high frequency ground wave(HEGW)radar.By displaying the change of signal energy on two dimensional time-frequency images based on time-frequency analysis,a new mathematical morphology method to distinguish target from nonlinear time-frequency curves is presented.The analyzed results from the measured data verify that with this new method the target can be detected correctly from wide Doppler spectrum.

  1. 3D numerical thermal stress analysis of the high power target for the SLC Positron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, E.M.; Hodgson, J.A.

    1991-05-01

    The volumetrically nonuniform power deposition of the incident 33 GeV electron beam in the SLC Positron Source Target is hypothesized to be the most likely cause target failure. The resultant pulsed temperature distributions are known to generate complicated stress fields with no known closed-form analytical solution. 3D finite element analyses of these temperature distributions and associated thermal stress fields in the new High Power Target are described here. Operational guidelines based on the results of these analyses combined with assumptions made about the fatigue characteristics of the exotic target material are proposed. 6 refs., 4 figs

  2. Targeted Capture and High-Throughput Sequencing Using Molecular Inversion Probes (MIPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantsilieris, Stuart; Stessman, Holly A; Shendure, Jay; Eichler, Evan E

    2017-01-01

    Molecular inversion probes (MIPs) in combination with massively parallel DNA sequencing represent a versatile, yet economical tool for targeted sequencing of genomic DNA. Several thousand genomic targets can be selectively captured using long oligonucleotides containing unique targeting arms and universal linkers. The ability to append sequencing adaptors and sample-specific barcodes allows large-scale pooling and subsequent high-throughput sequencing at relatively low cost per sample. Here, we describe a "wet bench" protocol detailing the capture and subsequent sequencing of >2000 genomic targets from 192 samples, representative of a single lane on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform.

  3. Online virtual isocenter based radiation field targeting for high performance small animal microirradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James M. P.; Ansell, Steve; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in precision microirradiators for small animal radiation oncology studies have provided the framework for novel translational radiobiological studies. Such systems target radiation fields at the scale required for small animal investigations, typically through a combination of on-board computed tomography image guidance and fixed, interchangeable collimators. Robust targeting accuracy of these radiation fields remains challenging, particularly at the millimetre scale field sizes achievable by the majority of microirradiators. Consistent and reproducible targeting accuracy is further hindered as collimators are removed and inserted during a typical experimental workflow. This investigation quantified this targeting uncertainty and developed an online method based on a virtual treatment isocenter to actively ensure high performance targeting accuracy for all radiation field sizes. The results indicated that the two-dimensional field placement uncertainty was as high as 1.16 mm at isocenter, with simulations suggesting this error could be reduced to 0.20 mm using the online correction method. End-to-end targeting analysis of a ball bearing target on radiochromic film sections showed an improved targeting accuracy with the three-dimensional vector targeting error across six different collimators reduced from 0.56+/- 0.05 mm (mean  ±  SD) to 0.05+/- 0.05 mm for an isotropic imaging voxel size of 0.1 mm.

  4. Predicting the Noise of High Power Fluid Targets Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael; Covrig Dusa, Silviu

    The 2.5 kW liquid hydrogen (LH2) target used in the Qweak parity violation experiment is the highest power LH2 target in the world and the first to be designed with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) at Jefferson Lab. The Qweak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from unpolarized liquid hydrogen at small momentum transfer (Q2 = 0 . 025 GeV2). This target satisfied the design goals of bench-marked with the Qweak target data. This work is an essential component in future designs of very high power low noise targets like MOLLER (5 kW, target noise asymmetry contribution < 25 ppm) and MESA (4.5 kW).

  5. The 1989 progress report: Laboratory for the Utilization of High-Intensity Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, E.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory for the Utilization of High-Intensity Lasers of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The investigations reported were performed in the following fields: laser-matter interactions in fusion experiments, particles' laser acceleration, picoseconds and femtoseconds interactions, low-flux interactions, development of hydrodynamic codes, laser chocks simulation codes, x-ray lasers, generation of high pressures, implosion physics at 0.26 microns, dense plasmas, material's hardening by laser radiation. The published papers, the conferences and the Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  6. The Role of High Dose Interleukin-2 in the Era of Targeted Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gills, Jessie; Parker, William P; Pate, Scott; Niu, Sida; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Mirza, Moben; Holzbeierlein, Jeffery M; Lee, Eugene K

    2017-09-01

    We assessed survival outcomes following high dose interleukin-2 in a contemporary cohort of patients during the era of targeted agents. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with high dose interleukin-2 between July 2007 and September 2014. Clinicopathological data were abstracted and patient response to therapy was based on RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors), version 1.1 criteria. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate progression-free and overall survival in the entire cohort, the response to high dose interleukin-2 in regard to previous targeted agent therapy and the response to the targeted agent in relation to the response to high dose interleukin-2. We identified 92 patients, of whom 87 had documentation of a response to high dose interleukin-2. Median overall survival was 34.4 months from the initiation of high dose interleukin-2 therapy in the entire cohort. Patients who received targeted therapy before high dose interleukin-2 had overall survival (median 34.4 and 30.0 months, p = 0.88) and progression-free survival (median 1.5 and 1.7 months, p = 0.8) similar to those in patients who received no prior therapy, respectively. Additionally, patients with a complete or partial response to high dose interleukin-2 had similar outcomes for subsequent targeted agents compared to patients whose best response was stable or progressive disease (median overall survival 30.1 vs 25.4 months, p = 0.4). Our data demonstrate that patient responses to high dose interleukin-2 and to targeted agents before and after receiving high dose interleukin-2 are independent. As such, carefully selected patients should be offered high dose interleukin-2 for the possibility of a complete and durable response without the fear of limiting the treatment benefit of targeted agents. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Some problems in utilization system of FP nuclides and actinides in the high level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiyanagi, Katsuaki; Emura, Satoru

    1974-01-01

    There are three nuclides of sup(134/137)Cs for irradiation sources, 90 Sr for radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and 238 Pu for cardiac pacemakers, as the nuclides for which considerable demand is expected in near future among those contained in reprocessed high level liquid wastes. Technical problems are first described from the viewpoint of utilization system. Then the control system of reprocessed high level wastes is expained. Finally, economic possibility and problems in their utilization are discussed. Being in competition with 60 Co, the price of sup(134/137)Cs will be lower than that of 60 Co after a decade. The annual demand in 1985 may be 6.1 x 10 6 Ci. The conclusive factor of 90 Sr market price is hard to get because it finds no strong competitive nuclides. It may be about 20 yen/Ci after ten years. Demand is expected to be approximately 1.2 x 10 7 Ci/year. However it is pretty hard to pay the cost of group separation and solidification, storage and conversion to products with such gain. It is estimated that the balance of income and outgo would be almost profitable, if the utilization of FP nuclides would progress and the demand three times as large as this assumption would be developed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. High-speed photography of light beams transmitted through pinhole targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaonan, D.; Haien, He.; Lian, C.; Huifang, Z.; Zhijian, Z.

    1988-01-01

    A method of high speed photography is presented. It was designed and performed in order to study temporal behaviors of plasma closure effects of pinhole targets in laser plasma experiments. A series of high speed photographs were taken for the laser beam transmitted through the pinhole targets. Spatially resolved and integrated temporal histories of closure effects were observed, respectively. Some physical information about closure effect and closure speed have been studied

  9. Improved High Current Liquid and Gas Targets for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes (Saudi Arabia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Jammaz, Ibrahim; AlYanbawi, S.; Van-Heerden, W.; Miliebari, S.; Rahma, S.; Carrol, D. [King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    The development and improvement of target technology for reliable and higher production yields is described with respect to fluorine-18 and krypton-81. This report includes specific studies on: 1) beam degradation, distribution and diagnostic tools for monitoring the beam during irradiation; 2) targets that are capable of withstanding high current beam and consequently high specific activity radiopharmaceuticals; 3) greater understanding of in-target chemical and physical phenomena for the preparation of new radiolabeled species; and 4) recovery and characterization very expensive enriched material. (author)

  10. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production

    OpenAIRE

    Halfon, S.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Eliyahu, I.; Feinberg, G.; Friedman, M.; Hazenshprung, N.; Mardor, I.; Nagler, A.; Shimel, G.; Tessler, M.; Silverman, I.

    2013-01-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as ...

  11. Improved High Current Liquid and Gas Targets for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes (Saudi Arabia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Jammaz, Ibrahim; AlYanbawi, S.; Van-Heerden, W.; Miliebari, S.; Rahma, S.; Carrol, D.

    2009-01-01

    The development and improvement of target technology for reliable and higher production yields is described with respect to fluorine-18 and krypton-81. This report includes specific studies on: 1) beam degradation, distribution and diagnostic tools for monitoring the beam during irradiation; 2) targets that are capable of withstanding high current beam and consequently high specific activity radiopharmaceuticals; 3) greater understanding of in-target chemical and physical phenomena for the preparation of new radiolabeled species; and 4) recovery and characterization very expensive enriched material. (author)

  12. Targets on the basis of ferrites and high-temperature superconductors for ion-plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepeshev, A.A.; Saunin, V.N.; Telegin, S.V.; Polyakova, K.P.; Seredkin, V.A.; Pol'skij, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Paper describes a method to produce targets for ion-plasma sputtering using plasma splaying of the appropriate powders on a cooled metal basis. Application of the plasma process was demonstrated to enable to produce complex shaped targets under the controlled atmosphere on the basis of ceramic materials ensuring their high composition homogeneity, as well as, reliable mechanical and thermal contact of the resultant coating with the base. One carried out experiments in ion-plasma sputtering of targets to prepare ferrite polycrystalline films to be used in magnetooptics and to prepare high-temperature superconductor epitaxial films [ru

  13. High Health Care Utilization Preceding Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joyce C; Mandell, David S; Knight, Andrea M

    2017-12-01

    Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with high risk for organ damage, which may be mitigated by early diagnosis and treatment. We characterized health care utilization for youth in the year preceding SLE diagnosis compared to controls. Using Clinformatics ™ DataMart (OptumInsight, Eden Prairie, MN) de-identified administrative data from 2000 to 2013, we identified 682 youth ages 10-24 years with new-onset SLE (≥3 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for SLE 710.0, each >30 days apart), and 1,364 age and sex-matched healthy controls. We compared the incidence of ambulatory, emergency, and inpatient visits 12 months before SLE diagnosis, and frequency of primary diagnoses. We examined subject characteristics associated with utilization preceding SLE diagnosis. Youth with SLE had significantly more visits in the year preceding diagnosis than controls across ambulatory (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.48, p<0.001), emergency (IRR 3.42, p<0.001) and inpatient settings (IRR 3.02, p<0.001). The most frequent acute care diagnoses and median days to SLE diagnosis were: venous thromboembolism (313, interquartile range (IQR) 18-356), thrombocytopenia (278, IQR 39-354), chest pain (73, IQR 29.5-168), fever (52, IQR 17-166), and acute kidney failure (14, IQR 5-168). Having a psychiatric diagnosis prior to SLE diagnosis was strongly associated with increased utilization across all settings. Youth with SLE have high health care utilization throughout the year preceding SLE diagnosis. Examining variable diagnostic trajectories of youth presenting for acute care preceding SLE diagnosis, and increased attention to psychiatric morbidity may help improve care for youth with new-onset SLE. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Image-aided Suicide Gene Therapy Utilizing Multifunctional hTERT-targeting Adenovirus for Clinical Translation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Kyung Tae; Lee, Sang-Jin; Hong, Seung-Hee; Moon, Ju Young; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Kim, Sukyoung; Kim, Eun Ok; Kang, Se Hun; Kim, Seok Ki; Choi, Sun Il; Goh, Sung Ho; Kim, Daehong; Lee, Seong-Wook; Ju, Mi Ha; Jeong, Jin Sook; Kim, In-Hoo

    2016-01-01

    Trans-splicing ribozyme enables to sense and reprogram target RNA into therapeutic transgene and thereby becomes a good sensing device for detection of cancer cells, judging from transgene expression. Previously we proposed PEPCK-Rz-HSVtk (PRT), hTERT targeting trans-splicing ribozyme (Rz) driven by liver-specific promoter phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) with downstream suicide gene, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gene therapy. Here, we describe success of a re-engineered adenoviral vector harboring PRT in obtaining greater antitumor activity with less off-target effect for clinical application as a theranostics. We introduced liver-selective apolipoprotein E (ApoE) enhancer to the distal region of PRT unit to augment activity and liver selectivity of PEPCK promoter, and achieved better transduction into liver cancer cells by replacement of serotype 35 fiber knob on additional E4orf1-4 deletion of E1&E3-deleted serotype 5 back bone. We demonstrated that our refined adenovirus harboring PEPCK/ApoE-Rz-HSVtk (Ad-PRT-E) achieved great anti-tumor efficacy and improved ability to specifically target HCC without damaging normal hepatocytes. We also showed noninvasive imaging modalities were successfully employed to monitor both how well a therapeutic gene (HSVtk) was expressed inside tumor and how effectively a gene therapy took an action in terms of tumor growth. Collectively, this study suggests that the advanced therapeutic adenoviruses Ad-PRT-E and its image-aided evaluation system may lead to the powerful strategy for successful clinical translation and the development of clinical protocols for HCC therapy.

  15. A highly polarized hydrogen/deuterium internal gas target embedded in a toroidal magnetic spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheever, D.; Ihloff, E.; Kelsey, J.; Kolster, H.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R.; Shinozaki, A.; Tsentalovich, E.; Zwart, T.; Ziskin, V.; Xiao, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2006-01-01

    A polarized hydrogen/deuterium internal gas target has been constructed and operated at the internal target region of the South Hall Ring (SHR) of the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center to carry out measurements of spin-dependent electron scattering at 850MeV. The target used an Atomic Beam Source (ABS) to inject a flux of highly polarized atoms into a thin-walled, coated storage cell. The polarization of the electron beam was determined using a Compton laser backscattering polarimeter. The target polarization was determined using well-known nuclear reactions. The ABS and storage cell were embedded in the Bates Large Acceptance Toroidal Spectrometer (BLAST), which was used to detect scattered particles from the electron-target interactions. The target has been designed to rapidly (∼8h) switch operation from hydrogen to deuterium. Further, this target was the first to be operated inside a magnetic spectrometer in the presence of a magnetic field exceeding 2kG. An ABS intensity 2.5x10 16 at/s and a high polarization (∼70%) inside the storage cell have been achieved. The details of the target design and construction are described here and the performance over an 18 month period is reported

  16. Uniform irradiation of adjustable target spots in high-power laser driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiujuan; Li Jinghui; Li Huagang; Li Yang; Lin Zunqi

    2011-01-01

    For smoothing and shaping the on-target laser patterns flexibly in high-power laser drivers, a scheme has been developed that includes a zoom lens array and two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). The size of the target pattern can be controlled handily by adjusting the focal length of the zoom lens array, while the profile of the pattern can be shaped by fine tuning the distance between the target and the focal plane of the principal focusing lens. High-frequency stripes inside the pattern caused by beamlet interference are wiped off by spectral dispersion. Detailed simulations indicate that SSD works somewhat differently for spots of different sizes. For small spots, SSD mainly smooths the intensity modulation of low-to-middle spatial frequency, while for large spots, SSD sweeps the fine speckle structure to reduce nonuniformity of middle-to-high frequency. Spatial spectra of the target patterns are given and their uniformity is evaluated.

  17. Directional enhancement of selected high-order-harmonics from intense laser irradiated blazed grating targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guobo; Chen, Min; Liu, Feng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Weng, Suming; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Yanyun; Shao, Fuqiu; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2017-10-02

    Relativistically intense laser solid target interaction has been proved to be a promising way to generate high-order harmonics, which can be used to diagnose ultrafast phenomena. However, their emission direction and spectra still lack tunability. Based upon two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we show that directional enhancement of selected high-order-harmonics can be realized using blazed grating targets. Such targets can select harmonics with frequencies being integer times of the grating frequency. Meanwhile, the radiation intensity and emission area of the harmonics are increased. The emission direction is controlled by tailoring the local blazed structure. Theoretical and electron dynamics analysis for harmonics generation, selection and directional enhancement from the interaction between multi-cycle laser and grating target are carried out. These studies will benefit the generation and application of laser plasma-based high order harmonics.

  18. Integrated high voltage power supply utilizing burst mode control and its performance impact on dielectric electro active polymer actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    Through resent years new high performing Dielectric Electro Active Polymers (DEAP) have emerged. To fully utilize the potential of DEAPs a driver with high voltage output is needed. In this paper a piezoelectric transformer based power supply for driving DEAP actuators is developed, utilizing...

  19. Utilization of Volatile Fatty Acids from Microalgae for the Production of High Added Value Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Chalima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA are small organic compounds that have attracted much attention lately, due to their use as a carbon source for microorganisms involved in the production of bioactive compounds, biodegradable materials and energy. Low cost production of VFA from different types of waste streams can occur via dark fermentation, offering a promising approach for the production of biofuels and biochemicals with simultaneous reduction of waste volume. VFA can be subsequently utilized in fermentation processes and efficiently transformed into bioactive compounds that can be used in the food and nutraceutical industry for the development of functional foods with scientifically sustained claims. Microalgae are oleaginous microorganisms that are able to grow in heterotrophic cultures supported by VFA as a carbon source and accumulate high amounts of valuable products, such as omega-3 fatty acids and exopolysaccharides. This article reviews the different types of waste streams in concert with their potential to produce VFA, the possible factors that affect the VFA production process and the utilization of the resulting VFA in microalgae fermentation processes. The biology of VFA utilization, the potential products and the downstream processes are discussed in detail.

  20. Synthetic high-density lipoprotein nanodisks for targeted withalongolide delivery to adrenocortical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuai R

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rui Kuai,1,2,* Chitra Subramanian,3,* Peter T White,3,* Barbara N Timmermann,4 James J Moon,1,2,5 Mark S Cohen,3,6 Anna Schwendeman1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, 2Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, 3Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 4Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, 6Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC is a rare endocrine malignancy and has a 5-year survival rate of <35%. ACC cells require cholesterol for steroid hormone production, and this requirement is met via expression on the cell surface of a high level of SRB1, responsible for the uptake of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs, which carry and transport cholesterol in vivo. Here, we describe how this natural lipid carrier function of SRB1 can be utilized to improve the tumor-targeted delivery of a novel natural product derivative – withalongolide A 4,19,27-triacetate (WGA-TA – which has shown potent antitumor efficacy, but poor aqueous solubility. Our strategy was to use synthetic HDL (sHDL nanodisks, which are effective in tumor-targeted delivery due to their smallness, long circulation half-life, documented safety, and ability to bind to SRB1. In this study, we prepared sHDL nanodisks using an optimized phospholipid composition combined with ApoA1 mimetic peptide (22A, which has previously been tested in clinical trials, to load WGA-TA. Following optimization, WGA-TA nanodisks showed drug encapsulation efficiency of 78%, a narrow particle size distribution (9.81±0.41 nm, discoid shape, and sustained drug release in phosphate buffered saline. WGA-TA-sHDL nanodisks exhibited higher cytotoxicity in the ACC cell line H295R half maximal inhibitory concentration ([IC50] 0.26±0.045 µM than free WGA-TA (IC50 0.492±0

  1. A modified high-intensity Cs sputter negative-ion source with multi-target mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Houzhi; Zhang Weizhong; Zhu Jinhau; Du Guangtian; Zhang Tiaorong; Gao Xiang

    1993-01-01

    The source is based on Middleton's high-intensity mode, but modified to a multi-target version. It is equipped with a spherical molybdenum ionizer, a 20-position target wheel and a vacuum lock for loading and unloading sample batches. A metal-ceramic bonded section protected by a specially designed labyrinth shielding system results in reliable insulation of the cathode and convenient control of cesium vapor. The latter is particularly important when an oversupply of cesium occurs. The source was developed for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) applications. Recently, three versions based on the prototype of the source have been successfully tested to meet different requirements: (a) Single target version, (b) multi-target version with manual sample change, and (c) multi-target version with remote control sample change. Some details of the technical and operational characteristics are presented. (orig.)

  2. How Do Junior High School Students Utilize Interactional Strategies in Speaking Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayatul Avia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interactional strategies are very important especially for English as a foreign language learners which can help the learners negotiate of the meaning during the interaction in speaking activity. The aim of this research is to analyze the interactional strategies (ISs utilized by three students at different levels (Low, Average, High in speaking activity at the eighth grade students of SMP Islam As-Sakinah Sidoarjo. This research uses qualitative descriptive as a research design, which all of the data are obtained through observation and interview for three students at different level such as low level learner (LLL, average level learner (ALL and high level learner (HLL. In brief, the results of this research show that LLL uses all aspects of interactional strategies in her speaking activity, average level learner (ALL uses some aspects of interactional strategies and high level learner (HLL almost never use the aspects of interactional strategies in his speaking activities.

  3. Feasibility of using ultra-high field (7 T MRI for clinical surgical targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Duchin

    Full Text Available The advantages of ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla MRI for basic science research and neuroscience applications have proven invaluable. Structural and functional MR images of the human brain acquired at 7 T exhibit rich information content with potential utility for clinical applications. However, (1 substantial increases in susceptibility artifacts, and (2 geometrical distortions at 7 T would be detrimental for stereotactic surgeries such as deep brain stimulation (DBS, which typically use 1.5 T images for surgical planning. Here, we explore whether these issues can be addressed, making feasible the use of 7 T MRI to guide surgical planning. Twelve patients with Parkinson's disease, candidates for DBS, were scanned on a standard clinical 1.5 T MRI and a 7 T MRI scanner. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of global and regional distortion were evaluated based on anatomical landmarks and transformation matrix values. Our analyses show that distances between identical landmarks on 1.5 T vs. 7 T, in the mid-brain region, were less than one voxel, indicating a successful co-registration between the 1.5 T and 7 T images under these specific imaging parameter sets. On regional analysis, the central part of the brain showed minimal distortion, while inferior and frontal areas exhibited larger distortion due to proximity to air-filled cavities. We conclude that 7 T MR images of the central brain regions have comparable distortions to that observed on a 1.5 T MRI, and that clinical applications targeting structures such as the STN, are feasible with information-rich 7 T imaging.

  4. A field-deployable gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Salwen, C.; Kane, W.R.; Lemley, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prototype gamma-ray spectrometers utilizing xenon gas at high pressure, suitable for applications in the nuclear safeguards, arms control, and nonproliferation communities, have been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). These spectrometers function as ambient-temperature ionization chambers detecting gamma rays with good efficiency in the energy range 50 keV - 2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. They are capable of prolonged, low-power operation without a requirement for cryogenic fluids or other cooling mechanisms, and with the addition of small quantities of 3 He gas, can function simultaneously as efficient thermal neutron detectors

  5. Utilization of multi-purpose high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, Osamu; Onuki, Yoshiaki; Wasaoka, Takeshi.

    1974-01-01

    Concerning the utilization of multi-purpose high temperature gas-cooled reactors, the electric power generation with gas turbines is described: features of HTR-He gas turbine power plants; the state of development of He gas turbines; and combined cycle with gas turbines and steam turbines. The features of gas turbines concern heat dissipation into the environment and the mode of load operation. Outstanding work in the development of He gas turbines is that in Hochtemperatur Helium-Turbine Project in West Germany. The power generation with combined gas turbines and steam turbines appears to be superior to that with gas turbines alone. (Mori, K.)

  6. Targeted delivery of doxorubicin-utilizing chitosan nanoparticles surface-functionalized with anti-Her2 trastuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefpour P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Parisa Yousefpour1, Fatemeh Atyabi2, Ebrahim Vasheghani-Farahani3, Ali-Akbar Mousavi Movahedi1, Rassoul Dinarvand21Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Tehran, 2Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 3Biotechnology Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IranBackground: Targeting drugs to their sites of action to overcome the systemic side effects associated with most antineoplastic agents is still a major challenge in pharmaceutical research. In this study, the monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, was used as a targeting agent in nanoparticles carrying the antitumor drug, doxorubicin, specifically to its site of action.Methods: Chitosan-doxorubicin conjugation was carried out using succinic anhydride as a crosslinker. Trastuzumab was conjugated to self-assembled chitosan-doxorubin conjugate (CS-DOX nanoparticles (particle size, 200 nm via thiolation of lysine residues and subsequent linking of the resulted thiols to chitosan. Conjugation was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential determination were used to characterize the nanoparticles.Results: CS-DOX conjugated nanoparticles had a spherical shape and smooth surface with a narrow size distribution and core-shell structure. Increasing the ratio of doxorubicin to chitosan in the conjugation reaction gave rise to a higher doxorubicin content but lower conjugation efficiency. Trastuzumab-decorated nanoparticles (CS-DOX-mAb contained 47 µg/mg doxorubicin and 33.5 µg/mg trastuzumab. Binding of trastuzumab to the nanoparticles was further probed thermodynamically by isothermal titration calorimetry. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated enhanced and

  7. Design and evaluation of heat utilization systems for the high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    The primary focus of this CRP was to perform detailed investigation of the high temperature industrial processes that are attainable through incorporation of an HTGR, and for their possible demonstration in the HTTR. The HTGR has the capability to achieve a core outlet temperature approaching 1,000 deg. C in a safe and effective manner. These attributes, coupled with the offer by JAERI to utilize the HTTR, resulted in the initiation of this CRP by the IAEA. High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) utilizes a 30 MW(th) HTGR comprised of 30 fuel columns of hexagonal pin-in-pin graphite block type fuel elements. The fuel consists of UO 2 TRISO coated particles with an enrichment of ∼ 6% wt. Relative to the demonstration of high temperature heat applications, the HTTR will be capable of producing 10 MW(th) of heat at 950 deg. C. However, the thermal power for these applications has the potential to be increased up to 30 MW(th) in the future, which may be required for demonstration of gas turbine system components. The HTTR reached initial criticality in November 1998. Initial operational plans includes a series of rise to power tests followed by tests to demonstrate the safety and operational characteristics of the HTTR. In addition to completion of the HTTR demonstration tests, it was recommended that the R and D be performed within the HTTR project. JAERI is encouraged to publicize the results of the HTTR tests and 'lessons learned' from their experiences including potential capabilities of the HTGR for heat applications. The next priority application was determined to be the generation of electricity through the use of the gas turbine. Application of the Brayton Cycle utilizing high temperature helium from a modular HTGR was chosen for development because of its projected benefits as an economic and efficient means for the production of electricity. Evaluation of the remaining high temperature heat utilization applications chosen for investigation resulted

  8. Utilization of SA-gal as clearing agent in pre-targeting RII of colon carcinoma xenograft bearing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hubing; Huang Zuhan; Peng Wuhe; Gao Xiao

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To conjugate galactose streptavidin (SA-gal) and use it as a clearing agent in pre-targeting radioimmunoimaging (RII) of colon carcinoma xenograft models. Methods: SA-gal was obtained by incubating galactose moiety with streptavidin at a molar ratio of 45 : 1. For imaging in vivo, biotinylated antibody radiolabelled with 131 I was injected into the nude mice bearing the colon carcinoma xenograft via the tail vein. 24 h later, SA-gal were intraperitoneally injected at a ratio of 10-fold (molar) excess to antibody. At 0.5 h and 6 h after SA-gal administration, the animals of different test groups were killed for biodistribution study or imaging. No clearing agent was administrated to the animals of two control groups and they were also killed for biodistribution study or imaging at 24 h or 30 h after injection of 131 I labelled antibody. Results: 1) Galactose moiety was bound to SA at a molar ratio of 20 : 1. 2) In pre-targeting RII, SA-gal undertook the chase effect very fast. At 0.5 h after injection, the blood level of radioactivity decreased very fast and tumor-to-blood (T/B) ratio increased from 0.32 to 1.44. At 6 h after SA-gal administration, T/B ratio reached 5.23, significantly higher than 0.41 of the control group (P 131 I-biotinylated antitumor antibody RII

  9. Cooling equilibrium and beam loss with internal targets in high energy storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Hasse, R.; Hinterberger, F.; Lehrach, A.; Zenkevich, P.

    2006-01-01

    The beam cooling equilibrium with internal target interaction is analyzed for parameters relevant to the proposed High Energy Storage Ring (HESR). For the proposed experiments with anti-protons high luminosities together with low momentum spreads are required. Rate equations are used to predict the rms equilibrium beam parameters. The cooling and IBS rate coefficients are obtained from simplified models. Energy loss straggling in the target and the associated beam loss are analyzed analytically assuming a thin target. A longitudinal kinetic simulation code is used to study the evolution of the momentum distribution in coasting and bunched beams. Analytic expressions for the target induced momentum tail are found in good agreement with the simulation results

  10. Numerical simulation on range of high-energy electron moving in accelerator target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Wencheng; Sun Punan; Dai Wenjiang

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the range of high-energy electron moving in accelerator target, the range of electron with the energy range of 1 to 100 MeV moving in common target material of accelerator was calculated by Monte-Carlo method. Comparison between the calculated result and the published data were performed. The results of Monte-Carlo calculation are in good agreement with the published data. Empirical formulas were obtained for the range of high-energy electron with the energy range of 1 to 100 MeV in common target material by curve fitting, offering a series of referenced data for the design of targets in electron accelerator. (authors)

  11. Mechanical design and development of a high power target system for the SLC Positron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, E.; Mansour, D.; Porter, T.; Sax, W.; Szumillo, A.

    1991-12-01

    In order to bring the SLC Positron Source luminosity up to design specifications, the previous (stationary) positron target had to be replaced with a version which could reliably dissipate the higher power levels and cyclic pulsed thermal stresses of the high intensity 33GeV electron beam. In addition to this basic requirement, the new target system had to meet SLAC's specifications for Ultra High Vacuum, be remotely controllable, ''radiation hard,'' and designed in such a way that it could be removed and replaced quickly and easily with minimum personnel exposure to radiation. It was also desirable to integrate the target and collection components into a compact, easily manufacturable, and easily maintainable module. This paper briefly summarize the mechanical design and development of the new modular target system, its associated controls and software, alignment, and the quick removal system. Operational experience gained with the new system over the first running cycle is also summarized

  12. High-Speed Target Identification System Based on the Plume’s Spectral Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Lang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to recognize the target of high speed quickly and accurately, an identification system was designed based on analysis of the distribution characteristics of the plume spectrum. In the system, the target was aligned with visible light tracking module, and the spectral analysis of the target’s plume radiation was achieved by interference module. The distinguishing factor recognition algorithm was designed on basis of ratio of multifeature band peaks and valley mean values. Effective recognition of the high speed moving target could be achieved after partition of the active region and the influence of target motion on spectral acquisition was analyzed. In the experiment the small rocket combustion was used as the target. The spectral detection experiment was conducted at different speeds 2.0 km away from the detection system. Experimental results showed that spectral distribution had significant spectral offset in the same sampling period for the target with different speeds, but the spectral distribution was basically consistent. Through calculation of the inclusion relationship between distinguishing factor and distinction interval of the peak value and the valley value at the corresponding wave-bands, effective identification of target could be achieved.

  13. High-stringency screening of target-binding partners using a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Hyongsok; Lou, Xinhui; Lagally, Eric

    2015-12-01

    The invention provides a method of screening a library of candidate agents by contacting the library with a target in a reaction mixture under a condition of high stringency, wherein the target includes a tag that responds to a controllable force applied to the tag, and passing the members of the library through a microfluidic device in a manner that exposes the library members to the controllable force, thereby displacing members of the library that are bound to the target relative to their unbound counterparts. Kits and systems for use with the methods of the invention are also provided.

  14. High-power spallation target using a heavy liquid metal free surface flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litfin, K.; Fetzer, J.R.; Batta, A.; Class, A.G.; Wetzel, Th.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype of a heavy liquid metal free surface target as proposed for the multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications in Mol, Belgium, has been set up and experimentally investigated at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory. A stable operation was demonstrated in a wide range of operating conditions and the surface shape was detected and compared with numerical pre-calculations employing Star-CD. Results show a very good agreement of experiment and numerical predictions which is an essential input for other windowless target designs like the META:LIC target for the European Spallation Source. (author)

  15. Post-Irradiation Properties of Candidate Materials for High-Power Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, H.G.; Ludewig, H.; Mausner, L.F.; Simos, N.; Thieberger, P.; Brookhaven; Hayato, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; McDonald, K.T.; Sheppard, J.; Trung, L.P.

    2006-01-01

    The desire of the high-energy-physics community for more intense secondary particle beams motivates the development of multi-megawatt, pulsed proton sources. The targets needed to produce these secondary particle beams must be sufficiently robust to withstand the intense pressure waves arising from the high peak-energy deposition which an intense pulsed beam will deliver. In addition, the materials used for the targets must continue to perform in a severe radiation environment. The effect of the beam-induced pressure waves can be mitigated by use of target materials with high-yield strength and/or low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) [1, 2, 3]. We report here first results of an expanded study of the effects of irradiation on several additional candidate materials with high strength (AlBeMet, beryllium, Ti-V6-Al4) or low CTE (a carbon-carbon composite, a new Toyota ''gum'' metal alloy [4], Super-Invar)

  16. Optical Frequency Optimization of a High Intensity Laser Power Beaming System Utilizing VMJ Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.

    2012-01-01

    An effective form of wireless power transmission (WPT) has been developed to enable extended mission durations, increased coverage and added capabilities for both space and terrestrial applications that may benefit from optically delivered electrical energy. The high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) system enables long range optical 'refueling" of electric platforms such as micro unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV), airships, robotic exploration missions and spacecraft platforms. To further advance the HILPB technology, the focus of this investigation is to determine the optimal laser wavelength to be used with the HILPB receiver, which utilizes vertical multi-junction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells. Frequency optimization of the laser system is necessary in order to maximize the conversion efficiency at continuous high intensities, and thus increase the delivered power density of the HILPB system. Initial spectral characterizations of the device performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) indicate the approximate range of peak optical-to-electrical conversion efficiencies, but these data sets represent transient conditions under lower levels of illumination. Extending these results to high levels of steady state illumination, with attention given to the compatibility of available commercial off-the-shelf semiconductor laser sources and atmospheric transmission constraints is the primary focus of this paper. Experimental hardware results utilizing high power continuous wave (CW) semiconductor lasers at four different operational frequencies near the indicated band gap of the photovoltaic VMJ cells are presented and discussed. In addition, the highest receiver power density achieved to date is demonstrated using a single photovoltaic VMJ cell, which provided an exceptionally high electrical output of 13.6 W/sq cm at an optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 24 percent. These results are very promising and scalable, as a potential 1.0 sq m HILPB receiver of

  17. Opioid management strategy decreases admissions in high-utilizing adults with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Amy; Pelot, Kristin; Koch, Kathryn; Miller, Lawrence; Hubler, Collin; Ndifor, Anisah; Coan, Canice; Leonard, Cynthia; Field, Joshua J

    A subset of adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) heavily utilizes the emergency department (ED) and hospital. The objective of our study was to determine the efficacy of a multidisciplinary strategy to address unmet needs in highly utilizing adults with SCD. In a prospective study, adults with SCD with ≥10 admissions per year were assessed by a multidisciplinary team for gaps in medical, social, and psychological care. Thereafter, the team decided upon the subject's predominant domain that drove admissions and instituted an interventional plan. All plans included an opioid management strategy. Preintervention and postintervention admission rate, as well as opioid use, was compared. Twelve subjects were enrolled. Median rate of ED and hospital admissions preintervention was 25 per year. The predominant domains identified were social needs (n = 6), psychological disorder (n = 1), and substance use disorder (n = 5). Multifaceted interventional plans were developed to address a wide range of gaps in care, but an opioid management strategy was the only intervention successfully completed. Even so, when the preintervention versus postintervention admission rate was compared, regardless of the domain, there was a 40 percent decline in hospital admissions (p = 0.03). Consistent with the successful implementation of an opioid management plan, the decrease in admissions was accompanied by a 37 percent decrease in intravenous opioid use (p = 0.02) and 10 percent decrease in oral opioid use (p = 0.04). An opioid management strategy, as part of a larger effort to improve care for high-utilizing adults with SCD, decreased rate of admissions and opioid use.

  18. Introduction and Utilization of High Priced HCV Medicines across Europe; Implications for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Winnie; Ibáñez, Cristina; Frisk, Pia; Bak Pedersen, Hanne; Alkan, Ali; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Brkičić, Ljiljana S.; Bucsics, Anna; Dedet, Guillaume; Eriksen, Jaran; Fadare, Joseph O.; Fürst, Jurij; Gallego, Gisselle; Godói, Isabella P.; Guerra Júnior, Augusto A.; Gürsöz, Hakkı; Jan, Saira; Jones, Jan; Joppi, Roberta; Kerman, Saim; Laius, Ott; Madzikwa, Newman; Magnússon, Einar; Maticic, Mojca; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; Massele, Amos; Ogunleye, Olayinka; O'Leary, Aisling; Piessnegger, Jutta; Sermet, Catherine; Simoens, Steven; Tiroyakgosi, Celda; Truter, Ilse; Thyberg, Magnus; Tomekova, Kristina; Wladysiuk, Magdalena; Vandoros, Sotiris; Vural, Elif H.; Zara, Corinne; Godman, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infection with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a widespread transmittable disease with a diagnosed prevalence of 2.0%. Fortunately, it is now curable in most patients. Sales of medicines to treat HCV infection grew 2.7% per year between 2004 and 2011, enhanced by the launch of the protease inhibitors (PIs) boceprevir (BCV) and telaprevir (TVR) in addition to ribavirin and pegylated interferon (pegIFN). Costs will continue to rise with new treatments including sofosbuvir, which now include interferon free regimens. Objective: Assess the uptake of BCV and TVR across Europe from a health authority perspective to offer future guidance on dealing with new high cost medicines. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of medicines to treat HCV (pegIFN, ribavirin, BCV and TVR) among European countries from 2008 to 2013. Utilization measured in defined daily doses (DDDs)/1000 patients/quarter (DIQs) and expenditure in Euros/DDD. Health authority activities to influence treatments categorized using the 4E methodology (Education, Engineering, Economics and Enforcement). Results: Similar uptake of BCV and TVR among European countries and regions, ranging from 0.5 DIQ in Denmark, Netherlands and Slovenia to 1.5 DIQ in Tayside and Catalonia in 2013. However, different utilization of the new PIs vs. ribavirin indicates differences in dual vs. triple therapy, which is down to factors including physician preference and genotypes. Reimbursed prices for BCV and TVR were comparable across countries. Conclusion: There was reasonable consistency in the utilization of BCV and TVR among European countries in comparison with other high priced medicines. This may reflect the social demand to limit the transmission of HCV. However, the situation is changing with new curative medicines for HCV genotype 1 (GT1) with potentially an appreciable budget impact. These concerns have resulted in different prices across countries, with their impact on budgets and patient outcomes

  19. Conceptual design of a high current ISOL target area at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beveridge, J.L.; Buchmann, L.; Clark, G.S.; Sprenger, H.; Thorson, I.; Vincent, J.; D'Auria, J.M.; Dombsky, M.

    1993-05-01

    Two similar conceptual designs for the handling of highly activated components at the target area of a high current radioactive beam facility have been investigated. The proposed designs are sufficiently flexible that practical detailed designs could be realized. Personnel exposure to radiation during the handling procedures is expected to be minimal. (author) 3 refs., 4 figs

  20. Effects of thin high-Z layers on the hydrodynamics of laser-accelerated plastic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenschain, S.P.; Colombant, D.G.; Karasik, M.; Pawley, C.J.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A.J.; Weaver, J.L.; Gardner, J.H.; Phillips, L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Chan, Y.; Dahlburg, J.P.; Klapisch, M.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results and simulations that study the effects of thin metallic layers with high atomic number (high-Z) on the hydrodynamics of laser accelerated plastic targets are presented. These experiments employ a laser pulse with a low-intensity foot that rises into a high-intensity main pulse. This pulse shape simulates the generic shape needed for high-gain fusion implosions. Imprint of laser nonuniformity during start up of the low intensity foot is a well-known seed for hydrodynamic instability. Large reductions are observed in hydrodynamic instability seeded by laser imprint when certain minimum thickness gold or palladium layers are applied to the laser-illuminated surface of the targets. The experiment indicates that the reduction in imprint is at least as large as that obtained by a 6 times improvement in the laser uniformity. Simulations supported by experiments are presented showing that during the low intensity foot the laser light can be nearly completely absorbed by the high-Z layer. X rays originating from the high-Z layer heat the underlying lower-Z plastic target material and cause large buffering plasma to form between the layer and the accelerated target. This long-scale plasma apparently isolates the target from laser nonuniformity and accounts for the observed large reduction in laser imprint. With onset of the higher intensity main pulse, the high-Z layer expands and the laser light is transmitted. This technique will be useful in reducing laser imprint in pellet implosions and thereby allow the design of more robust targets for high-gain laser fusion

  1. High-Resolution Sonars: What Resolution Do We Need for Target Recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pailhas Yan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Target recognition in sonar imagery has long been an active research area in the maritime domain, especially in the mine-counter measure context. Recently it has received even more attention as new sensors with increased resolution have been developed; new threats to critical maritime assets and a new paradigm for target recognition based on autonomous platforms have emerged. With the recent introduction of Synthetic Aperture Sonar systems and high-frequency sonars, sonar resolution has dramatically increased and noise levels decreased. Sonar images are distance images but at high resolution they tend to appear visually as optical images. Traditionally algorithms have been developed specifically for imaging sonars because of their limited resolution and high noise levels. With high-resolution sonars, algorithms developed in the image processing field for natural images become applicable. However, the lack of large datasets has hampered the development of such algorithms. Here we present a fast and realistic sonar simulator enabling development and evaluation of such algorithms.We develop a classifier and then analyse its performances using our simulated synthetic sonar images. Finally, we discuss sensor resolution requirements to achieve effective classification of various targets and demonstrate that with high resolution sonars target highlight analysis is the key for target recognition.

  2. Transformation of Food Habits through Promotion of Under-Utilized Cereals in High Hills of Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koirala, Pramod; Bajracharya, Keshari; Chalise, Ananda

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Malnutrition is a persistent social setback in Nepal. High hills in Nepal is considered as the headquarter of the malnourished people as it holds almost the twice of stunted children than the national average. Food insecurity is the major causes of malnutrition as there is low agriculture production followed by difficult terrain and poor road connectivity. Nevertheless, there are several types of locally produced cereals that are under-utilized because of the traditional food-habit of eating rice. In order to bring a change in local food habit by the high-hill residents, attempts were made in processing of under-utilized cereals. Six different cereals were processed into super flour, porridge, cookies, flakes and traditional sweets for which locally accessible home level processing technology was used. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica), Porso Millet (Panicum miliaceum), Buck Wheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), Amaranth (Amaranth caudatus) and Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare) were processed into diverse products that suit to the local taste. The processing steps were standardized and laboratory analysis was carried out. It was then distributed to local development partners through trainers' training. Now, local people have started processing and consuming these products. It is anticipated that processed products promotion helps in solving food insecurity to some extent, and contributes in reducing malnutrition for the children below two. (author)

  3. Utility of intraoperative diagnostic C-arm angiography for management of high grade subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikui Wei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The accurate and efficient localization of underlying vascular lesions is crucial for prompt and definitive treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. To demonstrate the utility and feasibility of intraoperative C-arm angiography in cerebrovascular emergencies, we report five cases of high grade SAH and/or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH where intraoperative diagnostic C-arm angiography was safely and effectively utilized. Initial evaluations of all patients included a non-contrast head CT scan, which was followed by urgent decompressive hemicraniectomy as a life-saving measure in the presence of markedly elevated intracranial pressure. Further diagnostic evaluations were performed intraoperatively using a multi-purpose C-arm angiography system. The C-arm angiography findings greatly aided the intraoperative planning and led to definitive treatments in four cases of SAH by elucidating the underlying neurovascular lesions. With this treatment strategy, two of the patients made moderately good recoveries from their SAH and/or ICH with a Glasgow outcome score (GOS of 4. Three of the patients expired despite maximal therapy mostly due to unfavorable presenting grade. These results suggest that C-arm angiography is a reasonable diagnostic and surgical planning tool for selected patients with high grade diffuse SAH who require immediate decompression.

  4. A free-jet Hg target operating in a high magnetic field intersecting a high-power proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Graves; Spampinato, Philip; Gabriel, Tony; Kirk, Harold; Simos, Nicholas; Tsang, Thomas; McDonald, Kirk; Peter Titus; Fabich, Adrian; Haseroth, Helmut; Lettry, Jacques

    2006-06-01

    A proof-of-principal experiment to investigate the interaction of a proton beam, high magnetic field, and high- Z target is planned to take place at CERN in early 2007. This experiment is part of the Muon Collider Collaboration, with participants from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Princeton University, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology, European Organization for Nuclear Research-CERN, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. An unconstrained mercury jet target system that interacts with a high power (1 MW) proton beam in a high magnetic field (15 T) is being designed. The Hg jet diameter is 1-cm with a velocity up to 20 m/s. A laser optical diagnostic system will be incorporated into the target design to permit observation of the dispersal of the jet resulting from interaction with a 24 GeV proton beam with up to 20×10 12 ppp. The target system includes instruments for sensing mercury vapor, temperature, flow rate, and sump tank level, and the means to position the jet relative to the magnetic axis of a solenoid and the proton beam. The design considerations for the system include all issues dealing with safely handling approximately 23 l of Hg, transporting the target system and the mercury to CERN, decommissioning the experiment, and returning the mildly activated equipment and Hg to the US.

  5. Critical Role of the Sphingolipid Pathway in Stroke: a Review of Current Utility and Potential Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Na; Keep, Richard F; Hua, Ya; Xi, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    Sphingolipids are a series of cell membrane-derived lipids which act as signaling molecules and play a critical role in cell death and survival, proliferation, recognition, and migration. Sphingosine-1-phosphate acts as a key signaling molecule and regulates lymphocyte trafficking, glial cell activation, vasoconstriction, endothelial barrier function, and neuronal death pathways which plays a critical role in numerous neurological conditions. Stroke is a second leading cause of death all over the world and effective therapies are still in great demand, including ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke as well as poststroke repair. Significantly, sphingolipid activities change after stroke and correlate with stroke outcome, which has promoted efforts to testify whether the sphingolipid pathway could be a novel therapeutic target in stroke. The sphingolipid metabolic pathway, the connection between the pathway and stroke, as well as therapeutic interventions to manipulate the pathway to reduce stroke-induced brain injury are discussed in this review.

  6. Physiological and genomic features of highly alkaliphilic hydrogen-utilizing Betaproteobacteria from a continental serpentinizing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shino; Kuenen, J Gijs; Schipper, Kira; van der Velde, Suzanne; Ishii, Shun'ichi; Wu, Angela; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Tenney, Aaron; Meng, XianYing; Morrill, Penny L; Kamagata, Yoichi; Muyzer, Gerard; Nealson, Kenneth H

    2014-05-21

    Serpentinization, or the aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks, results in challenging environments for life in continental sites due to the combination of extremely high pH, low salinity and lack of obvious electron acceptors and carbon sources. Nevertheless, certain Betaproteobacteria have been frequently observed in such environments. Here we describe physiological and genomic features of three related Betaproteobacterial strains isolated from highly alkaline (pH 11.6) serpentinizing springs at The Cedars, California. All three strains are obligate alkaliphiles with an optimum for growth at pH 11 and are capable of autotrophic growth with hydrogen, calcium carbonate and oxygen. The three strains exhibit differences, however, regarding the utilization of organic carbon and electron acceptors. Their global distribution and physiological, genomic and transcriptomic characteristics indicate that the strains are adapted to the alkaline and calcium-rich environments represented by the terrestrial serpentinizing ecosystems. We propose placing these strains in a new genus 'Serpentinomonas'.

  7. Utilizing wideband AMC structures for high-gain inkjet-printed antennas on lossy paper substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Cook, Benjamin Stassen

    2013-01-01

    Significant gain and bandwidth improvement of inkjet-printed antennas with integrated artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) is achieved by utilizing wideband ground-backed frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) to overcome the high losses of organic substrates such as paper. A microstrip-fed monopole mounted on an artificial magnetic conductor is demonstrated to improve the gain by 5 dB over previous works and exhibit much wider impedance bandwidth while maintaining a thin antenna profile and a 20% electrical size reduction. The effect of AMC bandwidth on substrate losses and the gain reduction caused by finite AMC array effects are investigated in an effort to produce high-gain, miniaturized, low-cost wearable and structure mount antennas. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Getting high utilization of peak GFLOPS in real applications in the Cray X1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, J.M. [Cray Research, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2003-07-01

    This paper will show the advanced characteristics of the Cray X1 and discuss how they are used to achieve high-utilized GFLOPS on many real world applications. On most MPP systems, other than the Earth Simulator and the Cray Inc. X1, advanced scientific applications do not obtain a high percentage of peak performance, in some cases less than 2%. When this small percentage of peak is attained on the processor, one needs to have more individual processors to achieve a TFLOP of sustained performance. Larger numbers of processors result in a tremendous burden on the interconnect. Here again MPPs other than the Earth Simulator and the X1 do not have the interconnect to support the increased number of processors. Combining low processor performance with insufficient scaling results in less than desired performance for many applications. (author)

  9. Getting high utilization of peak GFLOPS in real applications in the Cray X1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will show the advanced characteristics of the Cray X1 and discuss how they are used to achieve high-utilized GFLOPS on many real world applications. On most MPP systems, other than the Earth Simulator and the Cray Inc. X1, advanced scientific applications do not obtain a high percentage of peak performance, in some cases less than 2%. When this small percentage of peak is attained on the processor, one needs to have more individual processors to achieve a TFLOP of sustained performance. Larger numbers of processors result in a tremendous burden on the interconnect. Here again MPPs other than the Earth Simulator and the X1 do not have the interconnect to support the increased number of processors. Combining low processor performance with insufficient scaling results in less than desired performance for many applications. (author)

  10. Feasibility study of high temperature reactor utilization in Czech Republic after 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losa, Evžen, E-mail: evzen.losa@fjfi.cvut.cz [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Nuclear Reactors (Czech Republic); Heřmanský, Bedřich; Kobylka, Dušan; Rataj, Jan; Sklenka, Ľubomír [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Nuclear Reactors (Czech Republic); Souček, Václav; Kohout, Petr [AZIN CZ, s.r.o., Hanusova 3, 140 00 Praha 4 (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) were examined as an option to intended future broadening of the nuclear energy production in Czech Republic. The known qualities as the inherent safety, high thermal utilization and non-electrical applications have been assessed in years 2009–2011 during the survey funded by Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. The survey of high temperature reactors with spherical fuel was initiated by reason of mature state of the art of this technology type in South Africa and in China, where in both countries pilot plants were planned. Unfortunately, the global financial crisis caused the decision of stopping the governmental support in South African programme was made. In China, however, the development still continues. Czech Republic has almost 60 years nuclear research history and the knowledge of operation of gas cooled and heavy water moderated reactor has been gained in the past. Nevertheless, the design of light water reactors was more developed in former Soviet Union, which provided Czech scientists by initial knowledge base; hence the research has been reoriented to this technology. But, the demands on future nuclear reactors application are still growing and the same or even higher living standard of next generations have to be taken into consideration. Therefore the systems, which can produce more energy and less waste, are getting into foreground of interest of Czech decision makers. The high temperature reactor technology seems to be the successful representative of the GEN IV reactor types, which will be operated commercially in the near future. The broad spectrum of utilization enables this system to be an option after 2030, when the electricity demand is planned to be covered from about 50% by nuclear in our country.

  11. Feasibility study of high temperature reactor utilization in Czech Republic after 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losa, Evžen; Heřmanský, Bedřich; Kobylka, Dušan; Rataj, Jan; Sklenka, Ľubomír; Souček, Václav; Kohout, Petr

    2014-01-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) were examined as an option to intended future broadening of the nuclear energy production in Czech Republic. The known qualities as the inherent safety, high thermal utilization and non-electrical applications have been assessed in years 2009–2011 during the survey funded by Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. The survey of high temperature reactors with spherical fuel was initiated by reason of mature state of the art of this technology type in South Africa and in China, where in both countries pilot plants were planned. Unfortunately, the global financial crisis caused the decision of stopping the governmental support in South African programme was made. In China, however, the development still continues. Czech Republic has almost 60 years nuclear research history and the knowledge of operation of gas cooled and heavy water moderated reactor has been gained in the past. Nevertheless, the design of light water reactors was more developed in former Soviet Union, which provided Czech scientists by initial knowledge base; hence the research has been reoriented to this technology. But, the demands on future nuclear reactors application are still growing and the same or even higher living standard of next generations have to be taken into consideration. Therefore the systems, which can produce more energy and less waste, are getting into foreground of interest of Czech decision makers. The high temperature reactor technology seems to be the successful representative of the GEN IV reactor types, which will be operated commercially in the near future. The broad spectrum of utilization enables this system to be an option after 2030, when the electricity demand is planned to be covered from about 50% by nuclear in our country

  12. Pose Measurement Method and Experiments for High-Speed Rolling Targets in a Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyuan Jia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High-precision wind tunnel simulation tests play an important role in aircraft design and manufacture. In this study, a high-speed pose vision measurement method is proposed for high-speed and rolling targets in a supersonic wind tunnel. To obtain images with high signal-to-noise ratio and avoid impacts on the aerodynamic shape of the rolling targets, a high-speed image acquisition method based on ultrathin retro-reflection markers is presented. Since markers are small-sized and some of them may be lost when the target is rolling, a novel markers layout with which markers are distributed evenly on the surface is proposed based on a spatial coding method to achieve highly accurate pose information. Additionally, a pose acquisition is carried out according to the mentioned markers layout after removing mismatching points by Case Deletion Diagnostics. Finally, experiments on measuring the pose parameters of high-speed targets in the laboratory and in a supersonic wind tunnel are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the position measurement precision is less than 0.16 mm, the pitching and yaw angle precision less than 0.132° and the roll angle precision 0.712°.

  13. Pose measurement method and experiments for high-speed rolling targets in a wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhenyuan; Ma, Xin; Liu, Wei; Lu, Wenbo; Li, Xiao; Chen, Ling; Wang, Zhengqu; Cui, Xiaochun

    2014-12-12

    High-precision wind tunnel simulation tests play an important role in aircraft design and manufacture. In this study, a high-speed pose vision measurement method is proposed for high-speed and rolling targets in a supersonic wind tunnel. To obtain images with high signal-to-noise ratio and avoid impacts on the aerodynamic shape of the rolling targets, a high-speed image acquisition method based on ultrathin retro-reflection markers is presented. Since markers are small-sized and some of them may be lost when the target is rolling, a novel markers layout with which markers are distributed evenly on the surface is proposed based on a spatial coding method to achieve highly accurate pose information. Additionally, a pose acquisition is carried out according to the mentioned markers layout after removing mismatching points by Case Deletion Diagnostics. Finally, experiments on measuring the pose parameters of high-speed targets in the laboratory and in a supersonic wind tunnel are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the position measurement precision is less than 0.16 mm, the pitching and yaw angle precision less than 0.132° and the roll angle precision 0.712°.

  14. Transfer and focusing of high current relativistic electron beams on a target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranchikov, E.I.; Gordeev, A.V.; Koba, Yu.V.; Korolev, V.D.; Penkina, V.S.; Rudakov, L.I.; Smirnov, V.P.; Sukhov, A.D.; Tarumov, E.Z.; Bakshaeev, Yu.L.

    Research is being conducted at the I. V. Kurchatov Atomic Energy Institute to investigate possibilities of creating a pulsed thermonuclear reactor based on REBs; this work involves the creation of a multimodel system using vacuum lines for transferring energy and an acute angled external magnetic field for transferring electron beams to the target. A field of this configuration can be used at the same time for accumulating a ''cloud'' of relativistic protons around the target for purposes of irradiating them. This alternative solution of the problem of target irradiation, instead of focusing beams directly on it, may prove to be highly promising. Experiments are described which were conducted recently on high current electron accelerators ''URAL'', ''MS'' and others and which were directed at investigating possibilities of transferring and focusing high current REBs, as well as effective transmission of electromagnetic energy using vacuum lines at considerable distances

  15. High-intensity laser-accelerated ion beam produced from cryogenic micro-jet target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, M., E-mail: maxence.gauthier@stanford.edu; Kim, J. B.; Curry, C. B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Göde, S.; Propp, A.; Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Aurand, B.; Willi, O. [Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf (Germany); Goyon, C.; Hazi, A.; Pak, A.; Ruby, J.; Williams, G. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Kerr, S. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1R1 (Canada); Ramakrishna, B. [Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad (India); Rödel, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    We report on the successful operation of a newly developed cryogenic jet target at high intensity laser-irradiation. Using the frequency-doubled Titan short pulse laser system at Jupiter Laser Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we demonstrate the generation of a pure proton beam a with maximum energy of 2 MeV. Furthermore, we record a quasi-monoenergetic peak at 1.1 MeV in the proton spectrum emitted in the laser forward direction suggesting an alternative acceleration mechanism. Using a solid-density mixed hydrogen-deuterium target, we are also able to produce pure proton-deuteron ion beams. With its high purity, limited size, near-critical density, and high-repetition rate capability, this target is promising for future applications.

  16. Theoretical Research Progress in High-Velocity/Hypervelocity Impact on Semi-Infinite Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhou Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the hypervelocity kinetic weapon and hypersonic cruise missiles research projects being carried out, the damage mechanism for high-velocity/hypervelocity projectile impact on semi-infinite targets has become the research keystone in impact dynamics. Theoretical research progress in high-velocity/hypervelocity impact on semi-infinite targets was reviewed in this paper. The evaluation methods for critical velocity of high-velocity and hypervelocity impact were summarized. The crater shape, crater scaling laws and empirical formulae, and simplified analysis models of crater parameters for spherical projectiles impact on semi-infinite targets were reviewed, so were the long rod penetration state differentiation, penetration depth calculation models for the semifluid, and deformed long rod projectiles. Finally, some research proposals were given for further study.

  17. Detailed studies of a high-density polarized hydrogen gas target for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapfe, K.; Brueckner, W.; Gaul, H.G.; Grieser, M.; Lin, M.T.; Moroz, Z.; Povh, B.; Rall, M.; Stechert, B.; Steffens, E.; Stenger, J.; Stock, F.; Tonhaeuser, J.; Montag, C.; Rathmann, F.; Fick, D.; Braun, B.; Graw, G.; Haeberli, W.

    1996-01-01

    A high-density target of polarized atomic hydrogen gas for applications in storage rings was produced by injecting atoms from an atomic beam source into a T-shaped storage cell. The influence of the internal gas target on electron-cooled beams of 27 MeV α-particles and 23 MeV protons in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring has been studied in detail. Target polarization and target thickness were measured by means of 27 MeV α-particles. For hyperfine states 1+2 a target thickness of n=(0.96±0.04) x 10 14 H/cm 2 was achieved with the cell walls cooled to 100 K. Working with a weak magnetic holding field (∼5 G) the maximum target polarization was P T =0.84±0.02 when state 1 and P T =0.46±0.01 when states 1+2 were injected. The target polarization was found to be constant over a period of 3 months with a net charge of Q∼100 C passing the storage cell. (orig.)

  18. Predictive distractor context facilitates attentional selection of high, but not intermediate and low, salience targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töllner, Thomas; Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J

    2015-03-01

    It is well established that we can focally attend to a specific region in visual space without shifting our eyes, so as to extract action-relevant sensory information from covertly attended locations. The underlying mechanisms that determine how fast we engage our attentional spotlight in visual-search scenarios, however, remain controversial. One dominant view advocated by perceptual decision-making models holds that the times taken for focal-attentional selection are mediated by an internal template that biases perceptual coding and selection decisions exclusively through target-defining feature coding. This notion directly predicts that search times remain unaffected whether or not participants can anticipate the upcoming distractor context. Here we tested this hypothesis by employing an illusory-figure localization task that required participants to search for an invariant target amongst a variable distractor context, which gradually changed--either randomly or predictably--as a function of distractor-target similarity. We observed a graded decrease in internal focal-attentional selection times--correlated with external behavioral latencies--for distractor contexts of higher relative to lower similarity to the target. Critically, for low but not intermediate and high distractor-target similarity, these context-driven effects were cortically and behaviorally amplified when participants could reliably predict the type of distractors. This interactive pattern demonstrates that search guidance signals can integrate information about distractor, in addition to target, identities to optimize distractor-target competition for focal-attentional selection. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Design of a Binocular Pupil and Gaze Point Detection System Utilizing High Definition Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Durna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel binocular pupil and gaze detection system utilizing a remote full high definition (full HD camera and employing LabVIEW. LabVIEW is inherently parallel and has fewer time-consuming algorithms. Many eye tracker applications are monocular and use low resolution cameras due to real-time image processing difficulties. We utilized the computer’s direct access memory channel for rapid data transmission and processed full HD images with LabVIEW. Full HD images make easier determinations of center coordinates/sizes of pupil and corneal reflection. We modified the camera so that the camera sensor passed only infrared (IR images. Glints were taken as reference points for region of interest (ROI area selection of the eye region in the face image. A morphologic filter was applied for erosion of noise, and a weighted average technique was used for center detection. To test system accuracy with 11 participants, we produced a visual stimulus set up to analyze each eye’s movement. Nonlinear mapping function was utilized for gaze estimation. Pupil size, pupil position, glint position and gaze point coordinates were obtained with free natural head movements in our system. This system also works at 2046 × 1086 resolution at 40 frames per second. It is assumed that 280 frames per second for 640 × 480 pixel images is the case. Experimental results show that the average gaze detection error for 11 participants was 0.76° for the left eye, 0.89° for right eye and 0.83° for the mean of two eyes.

  20. Utilizing individual fish biomass and relative abundance models to map environmental niche associations of adult and juvenile targeted fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaiduk, Ronen; Radford, Ben T; Harvey, Euan S

    2018-06-21

    Many fishes undergo ontogenetic habitat shifts to meet their energy and resource needs as they grow. Habitat resource partitioning and patterns of habitat connectivity between conspecific fishes at different life-history stages is a significant knowledge gap. Species distribution models were used to examine patterns in the relative abundance, individual biomass estimates and environmental niche associations of different life stages of three iconic West Australian fishes. Continuous predictive maps describing the spatial distribution of abundance and individual biomass of the study species were created as well predictive hotspot maps that identify possible areas for aggregation of individuals of similar life stages of multiple species (i.e. spawning grounds, fisheries refugia or nursery areas). The models and maps indicate that processes driving the abundance patterns could be different from the body size associated demographic processes throughout an individual's life cycle. Incorporating life-history in the spatially explicit management plans can ensure that critical habitat of the vulnerable stages (e.g. juvenile fish, spawning stock) is included within proposed protected areas and can enhance connectivity between various functional areas (e.g. nursery areas and adult populations) which, in turn, can improve the abundance of targeted species as well as other fish species relying on healthy ecosystem functioning.

  1. TARGET: A multi-channel digitizer chip for very-high-energy gamma-ray telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtol, K.; Funk, S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Okumura, A.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ruckman, L.; /Hawaii U.; Simons, A.; Tajima, H.; Vandenbroucke, J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Varner, G.; /Hawaii U.

    2011-08-11

    The next-generation very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array, will feature dozens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs), each with thousands of pixels of photosensors. To be affordable and reliable, reading out such a mega-channel array requires event recording technology that is highly integrated and modular, with a low cost per channel. We present the design and performance of a chip targeted to this application: the TeV Array Readout with GSa/s sampling and Event Trigger (TARGET). This application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has 16 parallel input channels, a 4096-sample buffer for each channel, adjustable input termination, self-trigger functionality, and tight window-selected readout. We report the performance of TARGET in terms of sampling frequency, power consumption, dynamic range, current-mode gain, analog bandwidth, and cross talk. The large number of channels per chip allows a low cost per channel ($10 to $20 including front-end and back-end electronics but not including photosensors) to be achieved with a TARGET-based IACT readout system. In addition to basic performance parameters of the TARGET chip itself, we present a camera module prototype as well as a second-generation chip (TARGET 2), both of which have been produced.

  2. Development of Ultra-High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) : towards an efficient utilization of binders and fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, R.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method to develop Ultra-High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC). Towards an efficient utilization of binders and fibres in UHPFRC, the modified Andreasen & Andersen particle packing model and the hybridization design of fibres are utilized. Particularly, the UHPFRC

  3. The Merit(nTOF-11) High Intensity Liquid Mercury Target Experiment at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I; Caretta, O; Carroll, A J; Fabich, A; Graves, V B; Grudiev, A; Haug, F; Kirk, H G; Lettry, Jacques; Loveridge, P; McDonald, K T; Mokhov, N; Palm, M; Park, H; Pernegger, H; Spampinato, P T; Steerenberg, R; Striganov, S; Tsang, T

    2008-01-01

    The MERIT(nTOF-11) experiment is a proof-ofprinciple test of a target system for a high power proton beam to be used as front-end for a neutrino factory or a muon collider. The experiment took data in autumn 2007 with the fast-extracted beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to a maximum intensity of $30 × 10^{12}$ per pulse. The target system, based on a free mercury jet, is capable of intercepting a 4-MW proton beam inside a 15-T magnetic field required to capture the low energy secondary pions as the source for intense muon beams. Partice detectors installed around the target setup measure the secondary particle flux out of the target and can probe cavitation effects in the mercury jet when excited by an intense proton beam.Preliminary results of the data analysis will be presented here.

  4. Folic acid-decorated polyamidoamine dendrimer exhibits high tumor uptake and sustained highly localized retention in solid tumors: Its utility for local siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Leyuan; Yeudall, W Andrew; Yang, Hu

    2017-07-15

    The utility of folic acid (FA)-decorated polyamidoamine dendrimer G4 (G4-FA) as a vector was investigated for local delivery of siRNA. In a xenograft HN12 (or HN12-YFP) tumor mouse model of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), intratumorally (i.t.) injected G4-FA exhibited high tumor uptake and sustained highly localized retention in the tumors according to near infrared (NIR) imaging assessment. siRNA against vascular endothelial growth factor A (siVEGFA) was chosen as a therapeutic modality. Compared to the nontherapeutic treatment groups (PBS solution or dendrimer complexed with nontherapeutic siRNA against green fluorescent protein (siGFP)), G4-FA/siVEGFA showed tumor inhibition effects in single-dose and two-dose regimen studies. In particular, two doses of G4-FA/siVEGFA i.t. administered eight days apart resulted in a more profound inhibition of tumor growth, accompanied with significant reduction in angiogenesis, as judged by CD31 staining and microvessel counts. Tumor size reduction in the two-dose regimen study was ascertained semi-quantitatively by live fluorescence imaging of YFP tumors and independently supported antitumor effects of G4-FA/siVEGFA. Taken together, G4-FA shows high tumor uptake and sustained retention properties, making it a suitable platform for local delivery of siRNAs to treat cancers that are readily accessible such as HNSCC. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is difficult to transfect for gene therapy. We developed folate receptor (FR)-targeted polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer for enhanced delivery of genes to HNSCC and gained in-depth understanding of how gene delivery and transfection in head and neck squamous cancer cells can be enhanced via FR-targeted PAMAM dendrimers. The results we report here are encouraging and present latest advances in using dendrimers for cancer therapies, in particular for HNSCC. Our work has demonstrated that localized delivery of FR-targeted

  5. Cross-Continuum Tool Is Associated with Reduced Utilization and Cost for Frequent High-Need Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauran Hardin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High-need, high-cost (HNHC patients can over-use acute care services, a pattern of behavior associated with many poor outcomes that disproportionately contributes to increased U.S. healthcare cost. Our objective was to reduce healthcare cost and improve outcomes by optimizing the system of care. We targeted HNHC patients and identified root causes of frequent healthcare utilization. We developed a crosscontinuum intervention process and a succinct tool called a Complex Care Map (CCM© that addresses fragmentation in the system and links providers to a comprehensive individualized analysis of the patient story and causes for frequent access to health services. Methods: Using a pre-/post-test design in which each subject served as his/her own historical control, this quality improvement project focused on determining if the interdisciplinary intervention called CCM© had an impact on healthcare utilization and costs for HNHC patients. We conducted the analysis between November 2012 and December 2015 at Mercy Health Saint Mary’s, a Midwestern urban hospital with greater than 80,000 annual emergency department (ED visits. All referred patients with three or more hospital visits (ED or inpatient [IP] in the 12 months prior to initiation of a CCM© (n=339 were included in the study. Individualized CCMs© were created and made available in the electronic medical record (EMR to all healthcare providers. We compared utilization, cost, social, and healthcare access variables from the EMR and cost-accounting system for 12 months before and after CCMs© implementation. We used both descriptive and limited inferential statistics. Results: ED mean visits decreased 43% (p<0.001, inpatient mean admissions decreased 44% (p<0.001, outpatient mean visits decreased 17% (p<0.001, computed tomography mean scans decreased 62% (p<0.001, and OBS/IP length of stay mean days decreased 41% (p<0.001. Gross charges decreased 45% (p<0.001, direct expenses

  6. Study of high-Z target plate materials in the divertor of ASDEX-Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, S; Asmussen, K; Engelhardt, W; Field, A R; Fussmann, G; Lieder, G; Naujoks, D; Neu, R; Radtke, R; Wenzel, U [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The reduction of divertor tile erosion is a challenging problem in present and future tokamaks. Until now, graphite has almost exclusively been used for divertor plates, and it is estimated that unacceptable amounts of material would be eroded under reactor relevant conditions where power fluxes to the target plates as high as 20 MW/m{sup 2} are expected. In a high-recycling divertor with relatively low temperature (5 eVhigh density (n{sub e} {approx} 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) high-Z materials, e.g. tungsten, offer a possible solution to the target erosion problem. The reason is that the sputtering rates for these materials are extremely low under low temperature conditions. In addition, at high density the ionization lengths can be smaller than the gyro-radius leading to a high probability for prompt redeposition of the eroded ions. To provide a test of the suitability of high-Z materials for the divertor plates, in-situ studies of the erosion of various divertor target materials have been performed by means of passive spectroscopy. From our spectroscopic observations we infer that under high density divertor conditions the advantages of high-Z materials become fully efficient. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Preparation and characterization of clay bonded high strength silica refractory by utilizing agriculture waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Hossain, S.K.S.; Majh, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Clay bonded silica refractory was prepared by utilizing agriculture waste called rice husk ash (RHA) and refractory grog. Various samples were prepared with different compositions based upon partial replacement of quartz by RHA. Rectangular samples were prepared by following semi dry process prior to pressing in a uniaxial hydraulic press and sintering at a temperature of 1200°C in air atmosphere. Various physical, mechanical and thermal characterizations were done like X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), apparent porosity (AP), bulk density (BD), cold crushing strength (CCS), refractoriness and thermal conductivity measurement. The sample utilizing 30% of RHA was considered most optimum composition which produced cold crushing strength of 38MPa and thermal conductivity of 2.08W/mK at 800°C with a considerable good refractoriness. Enhancement in the mechanical as well as thermal properties may be considered as attributed to the amorphous silica which has reacted more easily and efficiently with other material surrounding giving rise to the densification and produced stable crystalline phase to the refractory material. These promising characteristics suggests that the RHA may lead to be used as a potential material for the preparation of clay bonded high strength silica refractories. [es

  8. High platinum utilization in ultra-low Pt loaded PEM fuel cell cathodes prepared by electrospraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S.; Garcia-Ybarra, P.L.; Castillo, J.L. [Dept. Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Cathode electrodes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with ultra-low platinum loadings as low as 0.012 mg{sub Pt}cm{sup -2} have been prepared by the electrospray method. The electrosprayed layers have nanostructured fractal morphologies with dendrites formed by clusters (about 100 nm diameter) of a few single catalyst particles rendering a large exposure surface of the catalyst. Optimization of the control parameters affecting this morphology has allowed us to overcome the state of the art for efficient electrodes prepared by electrospraying. Thus, using these cathodes in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), a high platinum utilization in the range 8-10 kW g{sup -1} was obtained for the fuel cell operating at 40 C and atmospheric pressure. Moreover, a platinum utilization of 20 kW g{sup -1} was attained under more suitable operating conditions (70 C and 3.4 bar over-pressure). These results substantially improve the performances achieved previously with other low platinum loading electrodes prepared by electrospraying. (author)

  9. Industrial waste utilization in the panels production for high buildings facade and socle facing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitkalova, Irina; Torlova, Anastasiya; Pikalov, Evgeniy; Selivanov, Oleg

    2018-03-01

    The research presents comprehensive utilization of such industrial waste as galvanic sludge, broken window glass as functional additives for producing ceramics for facade and socle paneling in high-rise construction. The basic charge component is low-plasticity clay, which does not allow producing high-quality products if used without any functional additives. The application of the mentioned above components broadens the resource base, reduces production cost and the mass of the products in comparison with the currently used facing ceramics. The decrease of product mass helps to reduce the load on the basement and to use ceramic material in high-rise construction more effectively. Additional advantage of the developed composition is the reducing of production energy intensity due to comparatively low pressing pressure and firing temperature thus reducing the overall production cost. The research demonstrates the experimental results of determining density, compressive strength, water absorption, porosity and frost resistance of the produced ceramic material. These characteristics prove that the material can be applied for high buildings outdoor paneling. Additional research results prove ecologic safety of the produced ceramic material.

  10. Predictors of high healthcare resource utilization and liver disease progression among patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMori, Joyce; Tandon, Neeta; Laliberté, François; Germain, Guillaume; Pilon, Dominic; Lefebvre, Patrick; Prabhakar, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Since hepatitis C virus therapy is typically prioritized for patients with more advanced disease, predicting which patients will progress could help direct scarce resources to those likely to benefit most. This study aims to identify demographics and clinical characteristics associated with high healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and liver disease progression among CHC patients. Using health insurance claims (January 2001-March 2013), adult patients with ≥2 CHC claims (ICD-9-CM: 070.44 or 070.54), and ≥6 months of continuous insurance coverage before and ≥36 months after the first CHC diagnosis were included. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus were excluded. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify the demographic and clinical characteristics of being in the 20% of patients with the highest HRU. Factors predicting liver disease progression were also identified. In the study population (n = 4898), liver disease severity and both CHC- and non-CHC-related comorbidities and conditions were strong predictors of high healthcare costs, with odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for ≥2 CHC-related and ≥2 non-CHC-related comorbidities/conditions of 2.78 (2.48-3.12) and 2.19 (1.76-2.72), respectively. CHC- and non-CHC-related comorbidities and conditions were also strong predictors of liver disease progression with ORs (95% CI) for ≥2 CHC-related and ≥2 non-CHC-related comorbidities and conditions of 2.18 (1.83-2.60) and 1.50 (1.14-1.97), respectively. Potential inaccuracies in claims data, information or classification bias, and findings based on a privately insured population. This study suggests that CHC patients with high healthcare resource utilization have a high level of comorbidity at baseline and also that non-CHC comorbidities and conditions are strong predictors of high HRU. Non-cirrhotic CHC patients with one or more comorbidities are at high risk of progressing to cirrhosis or end-stage liver disease.

  11. Infrared maritime target detection using the high order statistic filtering in fractional Fourier domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Anran; Xie, Weixin; Pei, Jihong

    2018-06-01

    Accurate detection of maritime targets in infrared imagery under various sea clutter conditions is always a challenging task. The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is the extension of the Fourier transform in the fractional order, and has richer spatial-frequency information. By combining it with the high order statistic filtering, a new ship detection method is proposed. First, the proper range of angle parameter is determined to make it easier for the ship components and background to be separated. Second, a new high order statistic curve (HOSC) at each fractional frequency point is designed. It is proved that maximal peak interval in HOSC reflects the target information, while the points outside the interval reflect the background. And the value of HOSC relative to the ship is much bigger than that to the sea clutter. Then, search the curve's maximal target peak interval and extract the interval by bandpass filtering in fractional Fourier domain. The value outside the peak interval of HOSC decreases rapidly to 0, so the background is effectively suppressed. Finally, the detection result is obtained by the double threshold segmenting and the target region selection method. The results show the proposed method is excellent for maritime targets detection with high clutters.

  12. Data Mining FAERS to Analyze Molecular Targets of Drugs Highly Associated with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Keith K; Abernethy, Darrell; Jackson, David

    2015-06-01

    Drug features that are associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) have not been fully characterized. A molecular target analysis of the drugs associated with SJS in the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) may contribute to mechanistic insights into SJS pathophysiology. The publicly available version of FAERS was analyzed to identify disproportionality among the molecular targets, metabolizing enzymes, and transporters for drugs associated with SJS. The FAERS in-house version was also analyzed for an internal comparison of the drugs most highly associated with SJS. Cyclooxygenases 1 and 2, carbonic anhydrase 2, and sodium channel 2 alpha were identified as disproportionately associated with SJS. Cytochrome P450 (CYPs) 3A4 and 2C9 are disproportionately represented as metabolizing enzymes of the drugs associated with SJS adverse event reports. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP-1), organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), and PEPT2 were also identified and are highly associated with the transport of these drugs. A detailed review of the molecular targets identifies important roles for these targets in immune response. The association with CYP metabolizing enzymes suggests that reactive metabolites and oxidative stress may have a contributory role. Drug transporters may enhance intracellular tissue concentrations and also have vital physiologic roles that impact keratinocyte proliferation and survival. Data mining FAERS may be used to hypothesize mechanisms for adverse drug events by identifying molecular targets that are highly associated with drug-induced adverse events. The information gained may contribute to systems biology disease models.

  13. High-resolution remotely sensed small target detection by imitating fly visual perception mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fengchen; Xu, Lizhong; Li, Min; Tang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The difficulty and limitation of small target detection methods for high-resolution remote sensing data have been a recent research hot spot. Inspired by the information capture and processing theory of fly visual system, this paper endeavors to construct a characterized model of information perception and make use of the advantages of fast and accurate small target detection under complex varied nature environment. The proposed model forms a theoretical basis of small target detection for high-resolution remote sensing data. After the comparison of prevailing simulation mechanism behind fly visual systems, we propose a fly-imitated visual system method of information processing for high-resolution remote sensing data. A small target detector and corresponding detection algorithm are designed by simulating the mechanism of information acquisition, compression, and fusion of fly visual system and the function of pool cell and the character of nonlinear self-adaption. Experiments verify the feasibility and rationality of the proposed small target detection model and fly-imitated visual perception method.

  14. High-Resolution Remotely Sensed Small Target Detection by Imitating Fly Visual Perception Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchen Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty and limitation of small target detection methods for high-resolution remote sensing data have been a recent research hot spot. Inspired by the information capture and processing theory of fly visual system, this paper endeavors to construct a characterized model of information perception and make use of the advantages of fast and accurate small target detection under complex varied nature environment. The proposed model forms a theoretical basis of small target detection for high-resolution remote sensing data. After the comparison of prevailing simulation mechanism behind fly visual systems, we propose a fly-imitated visual system method of information processing for high-resolution remote sensing data. A small target detector and corresponding detection algorithm are designed by simulating the mechanism of information acquisition, compression, and fusion of fly visual system and the function of pool cell and the character of nonlinear self-adaption. Experiments verify the feasibility and rationality of the proposed small target detection model and fly-imitated visual perception method.

  15. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Eliyahu, I.; Feinberg, G.; Friedman, M.; Hazenshprung, N.; Mardor, I.; Nagler, A.; Shimel, G.; Tessler, M.; Silverman, I.

    2013-12-01

    A compact liquid-lithium target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at the Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm3) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the 7Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution, and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop at ˜200 °C and generates a stable 1.5 mm-thick film flowing at a velocity up to 7 m/s onto a concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power areal densities of >4 kW/cm2 and volume power density of ˜2 MW/cm3 at a lithium flow of ˜4 m/s while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. The LiLiT setup is presently in online commissioning stage for high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 1-2 mA) at SARAF.

  16. Utilizing boron nitride sheets as thin supports for high resolution imaging of nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yimin A; Kirkland, Angus I; Schaeffel, Franziska; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Young, Neil P; Briggs, G Andrew D; Warner, Jamie H, E-mail: Jamie.warner@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-13

    We demonstrate the use of thin BN sheets as supports for imaging nanocrystals using low voltage (80 kV) aberration-corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy. This provides an alternative to the previously utilized 2D crystal supports of graphene and graphene oxide. A simple chemical exfoliation method is applied to get few layer boron nitride (BN) sheets with micrometer-sized dimensions. This generic approach of using BN sheets as supports is shown by depositing Mn doped ZnSe nanocrystals directly onto the BN sheets and resolving the atomic structure from both the ZnSe nanocrystals and the BN support. Phase contrast images reveal moire patterns of interference between the beams diffracted by the nanocrystals and the BN substrate that are used to determine the relative orientation of the nanocrystals with respect to the BN sheets and interference lattice planes. Double diffraction is observed and has been analyzed.

  17. Utilizing boron nitride sheets as thin supports for high resolution imaging of nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yimin A; Kirkland, Angus I; Schaeffel, Franziska; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Young, Neil P; Briggs, G Andrew D; Warner, Jamie H

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of thin BN sheets as supports for imaging nanocrystals using low voltage (80 kV) aberration-corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy. This provides an alternative to the previously utilized 2D crystal supports of graphene and graphene oxide. A simple chemical exfoliation method is applied to get few layer boron nitride (BN) sheets with micrometer-sized dimensions. This generic approach of using BN sheets as supports is shown by depositing Mn doped ZnSe nanocrystals directly onto the BN sheets and resolving the atomic structure from both the ZnSe nanocrystals and the BN support. Phase contrast images reveal moire patterns of interference between the beams diffracted by the nanocrystals and the BN substrate that are used to determine the relative orientation of the nanocrystals with respect to the BN sheets and interference lattice planes. Double diffraction is observed and has been analyzed.

  18. Clean utilization of high sulphur petroleum coke by circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragos, L.; Flueraru, C.; Girjoaba, M.

    1996-01-01

    The economic and environmental problems caused by inefficient utilization of residual high-sulphur petroleum coke resulted from oil cracking in Romania is discussed. A special research programme applying CFBC technology has been carried out in the Institute for Power Equipment, Bucharest. The results from both laboratory facilities and pilot plant are presented. The main operating conditions and parameters are pointed out. Data on quality and composition of petroleum coke, combustion efficiency, temperature range in different zones and flue gas composition at distinct operating loads are given. The results obtained will be used for innovative design of CFBC boilers based on petroleum coke. A project for implementing a CFBC boiler in one of the Romanian oil refineries is being developed. An analysis of technical and economic advantages of these boilers for energy generation is presented

  19. Development of Nonlinear Flight Mechanical Model of High Aspect Ratio Light Utility Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, S.; Sasongko, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    The implementation of Flight Control Law (FCL) for Aircraft Electronic Flight Control System (EFCS) aims to reduce pilot workload, while can also enhance the control performance during missions that require long endurance flight and high accuracy maneuver. In the development of FCL, a quantitative representation of the aircraft dynamics is needed for describing the aircraft dynamics characteristic and for becoming the basis of the FCL design. Hence, a 6 Degree of Freedom nonlinear model of a light utility aircraft dynamics, also called the nonlinear Flight Mechanical Model (FMM), is constructed. This paper shows the construction of FMM from mathematical formulation, the architecture design of FMM, the trimming process and simulations. The verification of FMM is done by analysis of aircraft behaviour in selected trimmed conditions.

  20. The efficiency of ceramic-faced metal targets at high-velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkachev, V. F.; Konyaev, A. A.; Pakhnutova, N. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper represents experimental results and engineering evaluation concerning the efficiency of composite materials to be used as an additional protection during the high- velocity interaction of a tungsten rod with a target in the velocity range of 1...5 km/s. The main parameter that characterizes the high-velocity interaction of a projectile with a layered target is the penetration depth. Experimental data, numerical simulation and engineering evaluation by modified models are used to determine the penetration depth. Boron carbide, aluminum oxide, and aluminum nickelide are applied as a front surface of targets. Based on experimental data and numerical simulation, the main characteristics of ceramics are determined, which allows composite materials to be effectively used as additional elements of protection.

  1. Substantial difference in target surface chemistry between reactive dc and high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczynski, G.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M.; Hultman, L.

    2018-02-01

    The nitride layer formed in the target race track during the deposition of stoichiometric TiN thin films is a factor 2.5 thicker for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), compared to conventional dc processing (DCMS). The phenomenon is explained using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the as-operated Ti target surface chemistry supported by sputter depth profiles, dynamic Monte Carlo simulations employing the TRIDYN code, and plasma chemical investigations by ion mass spectrometry. The target chemistry and the thickness of the nitride layer are found to be determined by the implantation of nitrogen ions, predominantly N+ and N2+ for HIPIMS and DCMS, respectively. Knowledge of this method-inherent difference enables robust processing of high quality functional coatings.

  2. Spatial distribution of moderated neutrons along a Pb target irradiated by high-energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragopoulou, M.; Manolopoulou, M.; Stoulos, S.; Brandt, R.; Westmeier, W.; Kulakov, B.A.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Sosnin, A.N.; Debeauvais, M.; Adloff, J.C.; Zamani Valasiadou, M.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy protons in the range of 0.5-7.4 GeV have irradiated an extended Pb target covered with a paraffin moderator. The moderator was used in order to shift the hard Pb spallation neutron spectrum to lower energies and to increase the transmutation efficiency via (n,γ) reactions. Neutron distributions along and inside the paraffin moderator were measured. An analysis of the experimental results was performed based on particle production by high-energy interactions with heavy targets and neutron spectrum shifting by the paraffin. Conclusions about the spallation neutron production in the target and moderation through the paraffin are presented. The study of the total neutron fluence on the moderator surface as a function of the proton beam energy shows that neutron cost is improved up to 1 GeV. For higher proton beam energies it remains constant with a tendency to decline

  3. Identification of GPC2 as an Oncoprotein and Candidate Immunotherapeutic Target in High-Risk Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Kristopher R; Raman, Pichai; Zhu, Zhongyu; Lane, Maria; Martinez, Daniel; Heitzeneder, Sabine; Rathi, Komal S; Kendsersky, Nathan M; Randall, Michael; Donovan, Laura; Morrissy, Sorana; Sussman, Robyn T; Zhelev, Doncho V; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Hwang, Jennifer; Lopez, Gonzalo; Harenza, Jo Lynne; Wei, Jun S; Pawel, Bruce; Bhatti, Tricia; Santi, Mariarita; Ganguly, Arupa; Khan, Javed; Marra, Marco A; Taylor, Michael D; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Mackall, Crystal L; Maris, John M

    2017-09-11

    We developed an RNA-sequencing-based pipeline to discover differentially expressed cell-surface molecules in neuroblastoma that meet criteria for optimal immunotherapeutic target safety and efficacy. Here, we show that GPC2 is a strong candidate immunotherapeutic target in this childhood cancer. We demonstrate high GPC2 expression in neuroblastoma due to MYCN transcriptional activation and/or somatic gain of the GPC2 locus. We confirm GPC2 to be highly expressed on most neuroblastomas, but not detectable at appreciable levels in normal childhood tissues. In addition, we demonstrate that GPC2 is required for neuroblastoma proliferation. Finally, we develop a GPC2-directed antibody-drug conjugate that is potently cytotoxic to GPC2-expressing neuroblastoma cells. Collectively, these findings validate GPC2 as a non-mutated neuroblastoma oncoprotein and candidate immunotherapeutic target. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Utilization of heat from High Temperature Reactors (HTR) for dry reforming of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrząb, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    One of the methods for utilization of waste carbon dioxide consists in reaction of methane with carbon dioxide, referred to as dry reforming of methane. It is an intensely endothermic catalytic process that takes place at the temperature above 700°C. Reaction of methane with carbon dioxide leads to formation of synthesis gas (syngas) that is a valuable chemical raw material. The energy that is necessary for the process to take place can be sourced from High Temperature Nuclear Reactors (HTR). The completed studies comprises a series of thermodynamic calculations and made it possible to establish optimum conditions for the process and demand for energy from HTR units. The dry reforming of methane needs also a catalytic agent with appropriate activity, therefore the hydrotalcite catalyser with admixture of cerium and nickel, developed at AGH University of Technology seems to be a promising solution. Thus, the researchers from the Institute for Chemical Processing of Coal (IChPW) in Zabrze have developed a methodology for production of the powdery hydrotalcite catalyser and investigated catalytic properties of the granulate obtained. The completed experiments confirmed that the new catalyser demonstrated high activity and is suitable for the process of methane dry reforming. In addition, optimum parameters of the were process (800°C, CO2:CH4 = 3:1) were established as well. Implementation of the technology in question into industrial practice, combined with utilization of HTR heat can be a promising method for management of waste carbon dioxide and may eventually lead to mitigation of the greenhouse effect.

  5. Child-targeted TV advertising and preschoolers' consumption of high-sugar breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Harris, Jennifer; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013. Parents reported their child's consumption of SBC brands; whether their child had watched any of 11 kids' channels in the past week; their child's TV viewing time; and socio-demographics. Children's exposure to child-targeted SBC TV ads was calculated by combining TV channel and viewing time with advertising data for SBC ads aired on kids' TV channels during the same timeframe. Five hundred forty-eight parents completed surveys; 52.7% had an annual household income of $50,000 or less. Children's mean age was 4.4 years, 51.6% were female, and 72.5% were non-Hispanic white. In the past week, 56.9% (N = 312) of children ate SBCs advertised on kids' channels. Overall, 40.6% of children were exposed to child-targeted SBC TV ads in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the number of SBC brands children consumed was positively associated with their exposure to child-targeted SBC ads. Children consumed 14% (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27) more SBC brands for every 10 SBC ads seen in the past 7 days. Exposure to child-targeted SBC TV advertising is positively associated with SBC brand consumption among preschool-aged children. These findings support recommendations to limit the marketing of high-sugar foods to young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Very High Uranium Density Fission Mo Target Suitable for LEU Using atomization Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. K.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Ryu, H. J.; Woo, Y. M.; Jang, S. J.; Park, J. M.; Choi, S. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Currently HEU minimization efforts in fission Mo production are underway in connection with the global threat reduction policy. In order to convert HEU to LEU for the fission Mo target, higher uranium density material could be applied. The uranium aluminide targets used world widely for commercial {sup 99}Mo production are limited to 3.0 g-U/cc in uranium density of the target meat. A consideration of high uranium density using the uranium metal particles dispersion plate target is taken into account. The irradiation burnup of the fission Mo target are as low as 8 at.% and the irradiation period is shorter than 7 days. Pure uranium material has higher thermal conductivity than uranium compounds or alloys. It is considered that the degradation by irradiation would be almost negligible. In this study, using the computer code of the PLATE developed by ANL the irradiation behavior was estimated. Some considerations were taken into account to improve the irradiation performance further. It has been known that some alloying elements of Si, Cr, Fe, and Mo are beneficial for reducing the swelling by grain refinement. In the RERTR program recently the interaction problem could be solved by adding a small amount of Si to the aluminum matrix phase. The fabrication process and the separation process for the proposed atomized uranium particles dispersion target were reviewed

  7. Enhanced membrane pore formation through high-affinity targeted antimicrobial peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Arnusch

    Full Text Available Many cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs target the unique lipid composition of the prokaryotic cell membrane. However, the micromolar activities common for these peptides are considered weak in comparison to nisin, which follows a targeted, pore-forming mode of action. Here we show that AMPs can be modified with a high-affinity targeting module, which enables membrane permeabilization at low concentration. Magainin 2 and a truncated peptide analog were conjugated to vancomycin using click chemistry, and could be directed towards specific membrane embedded receptors both in model membrane systems and whole cells. Compared with untargeted vesicles, a gain in permeabilization efficacy of two orders of magnitude was reached with large unilamellar vesicles that included lipid II, the target of vancomycin. The truncated vancomycin-peptide conjugate showed an increased activity against vancomycin resistant Enterococci, whereas the full-length conjugate was more active against a targeted eukaryotic cell model: lipid II containing erythrocytes. This study highlights that AMPs can be made more selective and more potent against biological membranes that contain structures that can be targeted.

  8. Dynamic RCS Simulation of a Missile Target Group Based on the High-frequency Asymptotic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Tao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To simulate dynamic Radar Cross Section (RCS of missile target group, an efficient RCS prediction approach is proposed based on the high-frequency asymptotic theory. The minimal energy trajectory and coordinate transformation is used to get trajectories of the missile, decoys and roll booster, and establish the dynamic scene for the separate procedure of the target group, and the dynamic RCS including specular reflection, edge diffraction and multi-reflection from the target group are obtained by Physical Optics (PO, Equivalent Edge Currents (EEC and Shooting-and-Bouncing Ray (SBR methods. Compared with the dynamic RCS result with the common interpolation method, the proposed method is consistent with the common method when the targets in the scene are far away from each other and each target is not sheltered by others in the incident direction. When the target group is densely distributed and the shelter effect can not be neglected, the interpolation method is extremely difficult to realize, whereas the proposed method is successful.

  9. Widespread utility of highly informative AFLP molecular markers across divergent shark species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Kyall R; Stow, Adam J; Peddemors, Victor; Briscoe, David A; Harcourt, Robert G

    2006-01-01

    Population numbers of many shark species are declining rapidly around the world. Despite the commercial and conservation significance, little is known on even the most fundamental aspects of their population biology. Data collection that relies on direct observation can be logistically challenging with sharks. Consequently, molecular methods are becoming increasingly important to obtain knowledge that is critical for conservation and management. Here we describe an amplified fragment length polymorphism method that can be applied universally to sharks to identify highly informative genome-wide polymorphisms from 12 primer pairs. We demonstrate the value of our method on 15 divergent shark species within the superorder Galeomorphii, including endangered species which are notorious for low levels of genetic diversity. Both the endangered sand tiger shark (Carcharodon taurus, N = 18) and the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, N = 7) displayed relatively high levels of allelic diversity. A total of 59 polymorphic loci (H(e) = 0.373) and 78 polymorphic loci (H(e) = 0.316) were resolved in C. taurus and C. carcharias, respectively. Results from other sharks (e.g., Orectolobus ornatus, Orectolobus sp., and Galeocerdo cuvier) produced remarkably high numbers of polymorphic loci (106, 94, and 86, respectively) from a limited sample size of only 2. A major constraint to obtaining much needed genetic data from sharks is the time-consuming process of developing molecular markers. Here we demonstrate the general utility of a technique that provides large numbers of informative loci in sharks.

  10. Strategic Approach in Enhancing the Utilization of GGH Facilities Towards High Impact of Agrobiotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abdul Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Gamma greenhouse (GGH) is associates with chronic radiation activities in life organism. The facility is equipped with 137 Cs source with relatively high energy (t 1/2 =30.1 years). The energy associated with gamma radiation is high enough to break the molecular bonds and ionize atoms without affecting structure of the atomic nucleus (avoiding induction of radioactivity). Nuclear Malaysia is the only institute that provides the facility for Research and Development chronic mutagenesis activities in Malaysia. Chronic gamma irradiation is an exposure of ionizing radiation over an extended period (hours, weeks, months) depending on their nature, sensitivity and research requirements. The alteration by chronic irradiation is tremendous, resulting in physical appearance, changes in molecular structures and metabolism changes. These changes are randomly events, inheritable, and the stability depends on cell damages after irradiation at molecular level. In agrobiotechnology, chronic gamma irradiation produces a wider mutation spectrum and useful for minimizing radiation damages towards obtaining new improved traits for commercial values. Continuous expose at low dose of gamma irradiation resulting in considerably elevated somaclonal variation frequency without negative effects on natural response. However, there is still lack of users especially researchers in Malaysia to utilize the facility. Strategic approaches as seminars, public talk, direct connections and engagement through collaboration, research activities and road show approaches are expected to bring more consumers in conveying high impact activities at GGH. (author)

  11. High utility of active tuberculosis case finding in an Ethiopian prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merid, Y; Woldeamanuel, Y; Abebe, M; Datiko, D G; Hailu, T; Habtamu, G; Assefa, G; Kempker, R R; Blumberg, H M; Aseffa, A

    2018-05-01

    Hawassa Prison, Southern Region of Ethiopia. To determine the burden of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) using active case finding among prisoners. In this cross-sectional study, prisoners were screened for TB using a symptom screen. Those with cough of 2 weeks had spot and morning sputum samples collected for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and molecular diagnostic testing (Xpert® MTB/RIF). Among 2068 prisoners, 372 (18%) had a positive cough screen. The median age of these 372 persons was 23 years, 97% were male and 63% were from urban areas. Among those with a positive symptom screen, 8 (2%) were AFB sputum smear-positive and 31 (8%) were Xpert-positive. The point prevalence of pulmonary TB at the prison was 1748 per 100 000 persons. In multivariate analysis, persons with cough >4 weeks were more likely to have TB (OR 3.34, 95%CI 1.54-7.23). A high prevalence of TB was detected among inmates at a large Ethiopian prison. Active case finding using a cough symptom screen in combination with Xpert had high utility, and has the potential to interrupt transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in correctional facilities in low- and middle-income, high-burden countries.

  12. Emission spectroscopy of hypervelocity impacts on aluminum, organic and high-explosive targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.; Day, J.P.R.; Halswijk, W.H.C.; Loiseau, J.; Huneault, J.; Higgins, A.J.; Devir, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments of hypervelocity impacts on aluminum, nylon and high-explosive targets are presented. Spectral measurements of the impact flash are recorded, together with radiometric measurements to derive the temperature of the flash. Such experiments aim at demonstrating that the impact

  13. Liquid metal targets for high-power applications : pulsed heating and shock hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    2000-01-01

    Significant interest has recently focused on the use of liquid-metal targets flowing with high velocities for various high-power nuclear and high-energy physics applications such as fusion reactor first-walls, the Spallation Neutron Source, Isotope Separation On Line, and Muon Collider projects. This is because the heat generated in solid targets due to beam or plasma bombardment cannot be removed easily and the resulting thermal shock damage could be a serious lifetime problem for long-term operation. More recently, the use of free or open flying-liquid jets has been proposed for higher-power-density applications. The behavior of a free-moving liquid mercury or gallium jet subjected to proton beam deposition in a strong magnetic field has been modeled and analyzed for the Muon Collider project. Free-liquid-metal jets can offer significant advantages over conventional solid targets, particularly for the more demanding and challenging high-power applications. However, the use of free-moving liquid-metal targets raises a number of new and challenging problems such as instabilities of the jet in a strong magnetic field, induced eddy-current effects on jet shape, thermal-shock formation, and possible jet fragmentation. Problems associated with shock heating of liquid jets in a strong magnetic field are analyzed in this study

  14. High neutronic efficiency, low current targets for accelerator-based BNCT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1998-01-01

    The neutronic efficiency of target/filters for accelerator-based BNCT applications is measured by the proton current required to achieve a desirable neutron current at the treatment port (10 9 n/cm 2 /s). In this paper the authors describe two possible targeyt/filter concepts wihch minimize the required current. Both concepts are based on the Li-7 (p,n)Be-7 reaction. Targets that operate near the threshold energy generate neutrons that are close tothe desired energy for BNCT treatment. Thus, the filter can be extremely thin (∼ 5 cm iron). However, this approach has an extremely low neutron yield (n/p ∼ 1.0(-6)), thus requiring a high proton current. The proposed solutino is to design a target consisting of multiple extremely thin targets (proton energy loss per target ∼ 10 keV), and re-accelerate the protons between each target. Targets operating at ihgher proton energies (∼ 2.5 MeV) have a much higher yield (n/p ∼ 1.0(-4)). However, at these energies the maximum neutron energy is approximately 800 keV, and thus a neutron filter is required to degrade the average neutron energy to the range of interest for BNCT (10--20 keV). A neutron filter consisting of fluorine compounds and iron has been investigated for this case. Typically a proton current of approximately 5 mA is required to generate the desired neutron current at the treatment port. The efficiency of these filter designs can be further increased by incorporating neutron reflectors that are co-axial with the neutron source. These reflectors are made of materials which have high scattering cross sections in the range 0.1--1.0 MeV

  15. The Potential of Targeting Ribosome Biogenesis in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunfei Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall survival for patients with ovarian cancer (OC has shown little improvement for decades meaning new therapeutic options are critical. OC comprises multiple histological subtypes, of which the most common and aggressive subtype is high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC. HGSOC is characterized by genomic structural variations with relatively few recurrent somatic mutations or dominantly acting oncogenes that can be targeted for the development of novel therapies. However, deregulation of pathways controlling homologous recombination (HR and ribosome biogenesis has been observed in a high proportion of HGSOC, raising the possibility that targeting these basic cellular processes may provide improved patient outcomes. The poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitor olaparib has been approved to treat women with defects in HR due to germline BRCA mutations. Recent evidence demonstrated the efficacy of targeting ribosome biogenesis with the specific inhibitor of ribosomal RNA synthesis, CX-5461 in v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC-driven haematological and prostate cancers. CX-5461 has now progressed to a phase I clinical trial in patients with haematological malignancies and phase I/II trial in breast cancer. Here we review the currently available targeted therapies for HGSOC and discuss the potential of targeting ribosome biogenesis as a novel therapeutic approach against HGSOC.

  16. High pressure deuterium-tritium gas target vessels for muon-catalyzed fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, A.J.; Spaletta, H.W.; Ware, A.G.; Zabriskie, J.M.; Hardwick, D.A.; Maltrud, H.R.; Paciotti, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental studies of muon-catalyzed fusion, the density of the hydrogen gas mixture is an important parameter. Catalysis of up to 150 fusions per muon has been observed in deuterium-tritium gas mixtures at liquid hydrogen density; at room temperature, such densities require a target gas pressure of the order of 1000 atmospheres (100 MPa, 15,000 psi). We report here the design considerations for hydrogen gas target vessels for muon-catalyzed fusion experiments that operate at 1000 and 10,000 atmospheres. The 1000 atmosphere high pressure target vessels are fabricated of Type A-286 stainless steel and lined with oxygen-free, high-conductivity (OFHC) copper to provide a barrier to hydrogen permeation of the stainless steel. The 10,000 atmosphere ultrahigh pressure target vessels are made from 18Ni (200 grade) maraging steel and are lined with OFHC copper, again to prevent hydrogen permeation of the steel. In addition to target design features, operating requirements, fabrication procedures, and secondary containment are discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Utilization of cone-beam CT for offline evaluation of target volume coverage during prostate image-guided radiotherapy based on bony anatomy alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluska, Petr; Hanus, Josef; Sefrova, Jana; Rouskova, Lucie; Grepl, Jakub; Jansa, Jan; Kasaova, Linda; Hodek, Miroslav; Zouhar, Milan; Vosmik, Milan; Petera, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    To assess target volume coverage during prostate image-guided radiotherapy based on bony anatomy alignment and to assess possibility of safety margin reduction. Implementation of IGRT should influence safety margins. Utilization of cone-beam CT provides current 3D anatomic information directly in irradiation position. Such information enables reconstruction of the actual dose distribution. Seventeen prostate patients were treated with daily bony anatomy image-guidance. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans were acquired once a week immediately after bony anatomy alignment. After the prostate, seminal vesicles, rectum and bladder were contoured, the delivered dose distribution was reconstructed. Target dose coverage was evaluated by the proportion of the CTV encompassed by the 95% isodose. Original plans employed a 1 cm safety margin. Alternative plans assuming a smaller 7 mm margin between CTV and PTV were evaluated in the same way. Rectal and bladder volumes were compared with the initial ones. Rectal and bladder volumes irradiated with doses higher than 75 Gy, 70 Gy, 60 Gy, 50 Gy and 40 Gy were analyzed. In 12% of reconstructed plans the prostate coverage was not sufficient. The prostate underdosage was observed in 5 patients. Coverage of seminal vesicles was not satisfactory in 3% of plans. Most of the target underdosage corresponded to excessive rectal or bladder filling. Evaluation of alternative plans assuming a smaller 7 mm margin revealed 22% and 11% of plans where prostate and seminal vesicles coverage, respectively, was compromised. These were distributed over 8 and 7 patients, respectively. Sufficient dose coverage of target volumes was not achieved for all patients. Reducing of safety margin is not acceptable. Initial rectal and bladder volumes cannot be considered representative for subsequent treatment.

  18. Effects of Achieving Target Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis on Functional Status, Quality of Life, and Resource Utilization: Analysis of Clinical Practice Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemao, Evo; Joo, Seongjung; Kawabata, Hugh; Al, Maiwenn J; Allison, Paul D; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H; Frits, Michelle L; Iannaccone, Christine K; Shadick, Nancy A; Weinblatt, Michael E

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate associations between achieving guideline-recommended targets of disease activity, defined by the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using C-reactive protein level (DAS28-CRP) Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) ≤2.8, and other health outcomes in a longitudinal observational study. Other defined thresholds included low disease activity (LDA), moderate (MDA), or severe disease activity (SDA). To control for intraclass correlation and estimate effects of independent variables on outcomes of the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (M-HAQ), the EuroQol 5-domain (EQ-5D; a quality-of-life measure), hospitalization, and durable medical equipment (DME) use, we employed mixed models for continuous outcomes and generalized estimating equations for binary outcomes. Among 1,297 subjects, achievement (versus nonachievement) of recommended disease targets was associated with enhanced physical functioning and lower health resource utilization. After controlling for baseline covariates, achievement of disease targets (versus LDA) was associated with significantly enhanced physical functioning based on SDAI ≤3.3 (ΔM-HAQ -0.047; P = 0.0100) and CDAI ≤2.8 (-0.073; P = 0.0003) but not DAS28-CRP measures was associated with enhanced physical functioning and health-related quality of life. Some health outcomes were similar in subjects attaining guideline targets versus LDA. Achieving LDA is a worthy clinical objective in some patients. © 2016 The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Targeting tumor highly-expressed LAT1 transporter with amino acid-modified nanoparticles: Toward a novel active targeting strategy in breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Di, Xingsheng; Wu, Mingrui; Sun, Zhisu; Zhong, Lu; Wang, Yongjun; Fu, Qiang; Kan, Qiming; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui

    2017-04-01

    Designing active targeting nanocarriers with increased cellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic agents is a promising strategy in cancer therapy. Herein, we report a novel active targeting strategy based on the large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Glutamate was conjugated to polyoxyethylene stearate as a targeting ligand to achieve LAT1-targeting PLGA nanoparticles. The targeting efficiency of nanoparticles was investigated in HeLa and MCF-7 cells. Significant increase in cellular uptake and cytotoxicity was observed in LAT1-targeting nanoparticles compared to the unmodified ones. More interestingly, the internalized LAT1 together with targeting nanoparticles could recycle back to the cell membrane within 3 h, guaranteeing sufficient transporters on cell membrane for continuous cellular uptake. The LAT1 targeting nanoparticles exhibited better tumor accumulation and antitumor effects. These results suggested that the overexpressed LAT1 on cancer cells holds a great potential to be a high-efficiency target for the rational design of active-targeting nanosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prospects for high-gain, high yield NIF targets driven by 2w (green) light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, L J; Glenzer, S; Haan, S; Hammel, B; Manes, K; Meezan, N; Moody, J; Spaeth, M; Oades, K; Stevenson, M

    2003-01-01

    A laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer system is described for the direct analysis of solids, particles, and fibers. The system uses a quadrupole ion trap operated in an ion-storage (IS) mode, coupled with a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). The sample is inserted radially into the ring electrode and an imaging system allows direct viewing and selected analysis of the sample. Measurements identified trace contaminants of Ag, Sn, and Sb in a Pb target with single laser-shot experiments. Resolution (m/Δm) of 1500 and detection limits of approximately 10 pg have been achieved with a single laser pulse. The system configuration and related operating principles for accurately measuring low concentrations of isotopes are described

  1. An Agrobacterium-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 system for high-frequency targeted mutagenesis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Si Nian; Neelakandan, Anjanasree K; Nahampun, Hartinio; Frame, Bronwyn; Main, Marcy; Spalding, Martin H; Becraft, Philip W; Meyers, Blake C; Walbot, Virginia; Wang, Kan; Yang, Bing

    2017-02-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a powerful genome editing tool in many organisms, including a number of monocots and dicots. Although the design and application of CRISPR/Cas9 is simpler compared to other nuclease-based genome editing tools, optimization requires the consideration of the DNA delivery and tissue regeneration methods for a particular species to achieve accuracy and efficiency. Here, we describe a public sector system, ISU Maize CRISPR, utilizing Agrobacterium-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 for high-frequency targeted mutagenesis in maize. This system consists of an Escherichia coli cloning vector and an Agrobacterium binary vector. It can be used to clone up to four guide RNAs for single or multiplex gene targeting. We evaluated this system for its mutagenesis frequency and heritability using four maize genes in two duplicated pairs: Argonaute 18 (ZmAgo18a and ZmAgo18b) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase or anthocyaninless genes (a1 and a4). T 0 transgenic events carrying mono- or diallelic mutations of one locus and various combinations of allelic mutations of two loci occurred at rates over 70% mutants per transgenic events in both Hi-II and B104 genotypes. Through genetic segregation, null segregants carrying only the desired mutant alleles without the CRISPR transgene could be generated in T 1 progeny. Inheritance of an active CRISPR/Cas9 transgene leads to additional target-specific mutations in subsequent generations. Duplex infection of immature embryos by mixing two individual Agrobacterium strains harbouring different Cas9/gRNA modules can be performed for improved cost efficiency. Together, the findings demonstrate that the ISU Maize CRISPR platform is an effective and robust tool to targeted mutagenesis in maize. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Progress towards a high-gain and robust target design for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Grant Logan, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Recently [E. Henestroza et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)], a new inertial-fusion target configuration, the X-target, using one-sided axial illumination has been explored. This class of target uses annular and solid-profile heavy ion beams to compress and ignite deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel that fills the interior of metal cases that have side-view cross sections in the shape of an 'X.' X-targets using all-DT-filled metal cases imploded by three annular ion beams resulted in fuel densities of {approx}50 g/cm{sup 3} at peak compression, and fusion gains of {approx}50, comparable to heavy ion driven hohlraum targets [D. A. Callahan-Miller and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)]. This paper discusses updated X-target configurations that incorporate inside the case a propellant (plastic) and a pusher (aluminum) surrounding the DT fuel. The updated configurations are capable of assembling higher fuel areal densities {approx}2 g/cm{sup 2} using two annular beams to implode the target to peak DT densities {approx}100 g/cm{sup 3}, followed by a fast-ignition solid ion beam which heats the high-density fuel to thermonuclear temperatures in {approx}200 ps to start the burn propagation, obtaining gains of {approx}300. These targets have been modeled using the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA [M. M. Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001)] in two- and three- dimensions to study the properties of the implosion as well as the ignition and burn propagation phases. At typical Eulerian mesh resolutions of a few microns, the aluminum-DT interface shows negligible Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth; also, the shear flow of the DT fuel as it slides along the metal X-target walls, which drives the RT and Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities, does not have a major effect on the burning rate. An analytic estimate of the RT instability process at the Al-DT interface shows that the aluminum spikes generated during the pusher deceleration phase

  3. Target design for high fusion yield with the double Z-pinch-driven hohlraum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesey, R. A.; Herrmann, M. C.; Lemke, R. W.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Cuneo, M. E.; Stygar, W. A.; Bennett, G. R.; Campbell, R. B.; Christenson, P. J.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Porter, J. L.; Slutz, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    A key demonstration on the path to inertial fusion energy is the achievement of high fusion yield (hundreds of MJ) and high target gain. Toward this goal, an indirect-drive high-yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target involving two Z-pinch x-ray sources heating a central secondary hohlraum is described by Hammer et al. [Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999)]. In subsequent research at Sandia National Laboratories, theoretical/computational models have been developed and an extensive series of validation experiments have been performed to study hohlraum energetics, capsule coupling, and capsule implosion symmetry for this system. These models have been used to design a high-yield Z-pinch-driven ICF target that incorporates the latest experience in capsule design, hohlraum symmetry control, and x-ray production by Z pinches. An x-ray energy output of 9 MJ per pinch, suitably pulse-shaped, is sufficient for this concept to drive 0.3-0.5 GJ capsules. For the first time, integrated two-dimensional (2D) hohlraum/capsule radiation-hydrodynamics simulations have demonstrated adequate hohlraum coupling, time-dependent radiation symmetry control, and the successful implosion, ignition, and burn of a high-yield capsule in the double Z-pinch hohlraum. An important new feature of this target design is mode-selective symmetry control: the use of burn-through shields offset from the capsule that selectively tune certain low-order asymmetry modes (P 2 ,P 4 ) without significantly perturbing higher-order modes and without a significant energy penalty. This paper will describe the capsule and hohlraum design that have produced 0.4-0.5 GJ yields in 2D simulations, provide a preliminary estimate of the Z-pinch load and accelerator requirements necessary to drive the system, and suggest future directions for target design work

  4. An effective tumor-targeting strategy utilizing hypoxia-sensitive siRNA delivery system for improved anti-tumor outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lin; Fan, Bo; Sun, Ping; Huang, Wei; Jin, Mingji; Wang, Qiming; Gao, Zhonggao

    2016-10-15

    Hypoxia is a feature of most solid tumors, targeting hypoxia is considered as the best validated yet not extensively exploited strategy in cancer therapy. Here, we reported a novel tumor-targeting strategy using a hypoxia-sensitive siRNA delivery system. In the study, 2-nitroimidazole (NI), a hydrophobic component that can be converted to hydrophilic 2-aminoimidazole (AI) through bioreduction under hypoxic conditions, was conjugated to the alkylated polyethyleneimine (bPEI1.8k-C6) to form amphiphilic bPEI1.8k-C6-NI polycations. bPEI1.8k-C6-NI could self-assemble into micelle-like aggregations in aqueous, which contributed to the improved stability of the bPEI1.8k-C6-NI/siRNA polyplexes, resulted in increased cellular uptake. After being transported into the hypoxic tumor cells, the selective nitro-to-amino reduction would cause structural change and elicit a relatively loose structure to facilitate the siRNA dissociation in the cytoplasm, for enhanced gene silencing efficiency ultimately. Therefore, the conflict between the extracellular stability and the intracellular siRNA release ability of the polyplexes was solved by introducing the hypoxia-responsive unit. Consequently, the survivin-targeted siRNA loaded polyplexes shown remarkable anti-tumor effect not only in hypoxic cells, but also in tumor spheroids and tumor-bearing mice, indicating that the hypoxia-sensitive siRNA delivery system had great potential for tumor-targeted therapy. Hypoxia is one of the most remarkable features of most solid tumors, and targeting hypoxia is considered as the best validated strategy in cancer therapy. However, in the past decades, there were few reports about using this strategy in the drug delivery system, especially in siRNA delivery system. Therefore, we constructed a hypoxia-sensitive siRNA delivery system utilizing a hypoxia-responsive unit, 2-nitroimidazole, by which the unavoidable conflict between improved extracellular stability and promoted intracellular si

  5. Non-statistical fluctuations in fragmentation of target nuclei in high energy nuclear interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Alokananda; Roy, Jaya [Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta (India)

    1994-07-01

    Analysis of target fragmented ''black'' particles in nuclear emulsion from high energy relativistic interactions initiated by [sup 16]O at 2.1 GeV/nucleon and [sup 12]C and [sup 24]Mg at 4.5 GeV/nucleon reveal the existence of non-statistical fluctuations in the azimuthal plane of interaction. The asymmetry or the non-statistical fluctuations, while found to be independent of projectile mass or incident energy, are dependent on the excitation energy of the target nucleus. (Author).

  6. Non-statistical fluctuations in fragmentation of target nuclei in high energy nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Alokananda; Roy, Jaya

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of target fragmented ''black'' particles in nuclear emulsion from high energy relativistic interactions initiated by 16 O at 2.1 GeV/nucleon and 12 C and 24 Mg at 4.5 GeV/nucleon reveal the existence of non-statistical fluctuations in the azimuthal plane of interaction. The asymmetry or the non-statistical fluctuations, while found to be independent of projectile mass or incident energy, are dependent on the excitation energy of the target nucleus. (Author)

  7. Wideband Radar Echo Frequency-domain Simulation and Analysis for High Speed Moving Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A frequency-domain method is proposed for wideband radar echo simulation of high-speed moving targets. Based on the physical process of electromagnetic waves observing a moving target, a frequency-domain echo model of wideband radar is constructed, and the block diagram of the radar echo simulation in frequency-domain is presented. Then, the impacts of radial velocity and slant range on the matching filtering of LFM radar are analyzed, and some quantitative conclusions on the shift and expansion of the radar profiles are obtained. Simulation results illustrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. The efficacy of high-throughput sequencing and target enrichment on charred archaeobotanical remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistelberger, H. M.; Smith, O.; Wales, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    . It has been suggested that high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies coupled with DNA enrichment techniques may overcome some of these limitations. Here we report the findings of HTS and target enrichment on four important archaeological crops (barley, grape, maize and rice) performed in three...... lightly-charred maize cob. Even with target enrichment, this sample failed to yield adequate data required to address fundamental questions in archaeology and biology. We further reanalysed part of an existing dataset on charred plant material, and found all purported endogenous DNA sequences were likely...

  9. Time-resolved x-ray spectra of laser irradiated high-Z targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.H.Y.; Attwood, D.T.; Boyle, M.J.; Campbell, E.M.; Coleman, L.C.; Kornblum, H.N.

    1977-01-01

    Recent results obtained by using the Livermore 15 psec x-ray streak camera to record x-ray emission from laser-irradiated high-z targets in the 1-20 keV range are reported. Nine to eleven K-edge filter channels were used for the measurements. In the lower energy channels, a dynamic range of x-ray emission intensity of better than three orders of magnitude have been recorded. Data will be presented which describe temporally and spectrally resolved x-ray spectra of gold disk targets irradiated by laser pulses from the Argus facility, including the temporal evolution of the superthermal x-ray tail

  10. High-energy, twelve-channel laser facility (DEFIN) for spherical irradiation of thermonuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.G.; Danilov, A.E.; Krokhin, O.N.; Kruglov, B.V.; Mikhailov, Yu.A.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Fedotov, S.I.; Fedorov, A.N.

    This paper describes a high-energy, twelve-channel laser facility (DELFIN) intended for high-temperature heating of thermonuclear targets with spherical symmetry. The facility includes a neodymium-glass laser with the ultimate radiation energy of 10 kJ, a pulse length of approximately 10 -10 to 10 -9 s, beam divergence of 5 x 10 -4 radians, a vacuum chamber in which laser radiation interacts with the plasma, and a system of diagnostic instrumentation for the observation of laser beam and plasma parameters. Described are the optical scheme and construction details of the laser facility. Presented is an analysis of focusing schemes for target irradiation and described is the focusing scheme of the DELFIN facility, which is capable of attaining a high degree of spherical symmetry in irradiating targets with maximum beam intensity at the target surface of approximately 10 15 W/cm 2 . This paper examines the most important problems connected with the physical investigations of thermonuclear laser plasma and the basic diagnostic problems involved in their solution

  11. Utilization of Short-Simulations for Tuning High-Resolution Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W.; Xie, S.; Ma, P. L.; Rasch, P. J.; Qian, Y.; Wan, H.; Ma, H. Y.; Klein, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Many physical parameterizations in atmospheric models are sensitive to resolution. Tuning the models that involve a multitude of parameters at high resolution is computationally expensive, particularly when relying primarily on multi-year simulations. This work describes a complementary set of strategies for tuning high-resolution atmospheric models, using ensembles of short simulations to reduce the computational cost and elapsed time. Specifically, we utilize the hindcast approach developed through the DOE Cloud Associated Parameterization Testbed (CAPT) project for high-resolution model tuning, which is guided by a combination of short (tests have been found to be effective in numerous previous studies in identifying model biases due to parameterized fast physics, and we demonstrate that it is also useful for tuning. After the most egregious errors are addressed through an initial "rough" tuning phase, longer simulations are performed to "hone in" on model features that evolve over longer timescales. We explore these strategies to tune the DOE ACME (Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy) model. For the ACME model at 0.25° resolution, it is confirmed that, given the same parameters, major biases in global mean statistics and many spatial features are consistent between Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP)-type simulations and CAPT-type hindcasts, with just a small number of short-term simulations for the latter over the corresponding season. The use of CAPT hindcasts to find parameter choice for the reduction of large model biases dramatically improves the turnaround time for the tuning at high resolution. Improvement seen in CAPT hindcasts generally translates to improved AMIP-type simulations. An iterative CAPT-AMIP tuning approach is therefore adopted during each major tuning cycle, with the former to survey the likely responses and narrow the parameter space, and the latter to verify the results in climate context along with assessment in

  12. The emergence of Clostridium thermocellum as a high utility candidate for consolidated bioprocessing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur eRagauskas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available First isolated in 1926, Clostridium thermocellum has recently received increased attention as a high utility candidate for use in consolidated bioprocessing applications. These applications, which seek to process lignocellulosic biomass directly into useful products such as ethanol, are gaining traction as economically feasible routes towards the production of fuel and other high value chemical compounds as the shortcomings of fossil fuels become evident. This review evaluates C. thermocellum’s role in this transitory process by highlighting recent discoveries relating to its genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic responses to varying biomass sources, with a special emphasis placed on providing an overview of its unique, multivariate enzyme cellulosome complex and the role that this structure performs during biomass degradation. Both naturally evolved and genetically engineered strains are examined in light of their unique attributes and responses to various biomass treatment conditions, and the genetic tools that have been employed for their creation are presented. Several future routes for potential industrial usage are presented, and it is concluded that, although there have been many advances to significantly improve C. thermocellum’s amenability to industrial use, several hurdles still remain to be overcome as this unique organism enjoys increased attention within the scientific community.

  13. Time Structure of Particle Production in the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I; Palm, M; Lettry, J; Haug, F; Pereira, H; Pernegger, H; Steerenberg, R; Grudiev, A; Kirk, H G; Park, H; Tsang, T; Mokhov, N; Striganov, S; Carroll, A J; Graves, V B; Spampinato, P T; McDonald, K T; Bennett, J R J; Caretta, O; Loveridge, P

    2010-01-01

    The MERIT experiment is a proof-of-principle test of a target system for high power proton beam to be used as front-end for a neutrino factory complex or amuon collider. The experiment took data in autumn 2007 with the fast extracted beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to a maximum intensity of about 30 × 1012 protons per pulse. We report results from the portion of the MERIT experiment in which separated beam pulses were delivered to a free mercury jet target with time intervals between pulses varying from 2 to 700 μs. The analysis is based on the responses of particle detectors placed along side and downstream of the target.

  14. High Transverse Momentum Direct Photon Production at Fermilab Fixed-Target Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apanasevich, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the production of high transverse momentum direct photons and π 0 mesons by proton beams at 530 and 800 GeV/c and π - beams at 515 GeV/c incident on beryllium, copper, and liquid hydrogen targets. The data were collected by Fermilab experiment E706 during the 1990 and 1991-92 fixed target runs. The apparatus included a large, finely segmented lead and liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and a charged particle spectrometer featuring silicon strip detectors in the target region and proportional wire chambers and drift tubes downstream of a large aperture analysis magnet. The inclusive cross sections are presented as functions of transverse momentum and rapidity. The measurements are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations and to results from previous experiments

  15. High-intensity, thin-target He-jet production source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Y.; Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M.; Butler, G.W.; Rosenauer, Dk; Loebner, K.E.G.; Lind, V.G.; Phillips, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    A thin-target He-jet system suited to the production and rapid transport of non-volatile radioactive species has been successfully operated with proton beam intensities of up to 700 μA. The system consists of a water-cooled, thin-target chamber, capillary gas transport system, moving tape/Ge detection system, and an aerosol generator/gas recirculator. The yields for a wide variety of uranium fission and deep spallation products have been measured and robust operation of the system demonstrated for several weeks. He-jet transport and collection efficiencies ranged between 15 and 25% with collection rates of 10 7 to 10 8 atoms/sec/isotope. The high-intensity, thin-target He-jet approach represents a robust production source for nonvolatile radioactive heavy ion beams

  16. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEUTRON DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISHER, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B202 HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEUTRON DETECTORS. Bubble detectors, which can detect neutrons with a spatial 5 to 30 (micro), are the most promising approach to imaging NIF target plasmas with the desired 5 (micro) spatial resolution in the target plane. Gel bubble detectors are being tested to record neutron images of ICF implosions in OMEGA experiments. By improving the noise reduction techniques used in analyzing the data taken in June 2000, we have been able to image the neutron emission from 6 · 10 13 yield DT target plasmas with a target plane spatial resolution of ∼ 140 (micro). As expected, the spatial resolution was limited by counting statistics as a result of the low neutron detection efficiency of the easy-to-use gel bubble detectors. The results have been submitted for publication and will be the subject of an invited talk at the October 2001 Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society. To improve the counting statistics, data was taken in May 2001 using a stack of four gel detectors and integrated over a series of up to seven high-yield DT shots. Analysis of the 2001 data is still in its early stages. Gel detectors were chosen for these initial tests since the bubbles can be photographed several hours after the neutron exposure. They consist of ∼ 5000 drops (∼ 100 (micro) in diameter) of bubble detector liquid/cm 3 suspended in an inactive support gel that occupies ∼ 99% of the detector volume. Using a liquid bubble chamber detector and a light scattering system to record the bubble locations a few microseconds after the neutron exposure when the bubbles are ∼ 10 (micro) in diameter, should result in ∼ 1000 times higher neutron detection efficiency and a target plane resolution on OMEGA of ∼ 10 to 50 (micro)

  17. Multivariate linear regression of high-dimensional fMRI data with multiple target variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Giancarlo; Castellanos, Agustin Lage; Vanacore, Gianluca; Formisano, Elia

    2014-05-01

    Multivariate regression is increasingly used to study the relation between fMRI spatial activation patterns and experimental stimuli or behavioral ratings. With linear models, informative brain locations are identified by mapping the model coefficients. This is a central aspect in neuroimaging, as it provides the sought-after link between the activity of neuronal populations and subject's perception, cognition or behavior. Here, we show that mapping of informative brain locations using multivariate linear regression (MLR) may lead to incorrect conclusions and interpretations. MLR algorithms for high dimensional data are designed to deal with targets (stimuli or behavioral ratings, in fMRI) separately, and the predictive map of a model integrates information deriving from both neural activity patterns and experimental design. Not accounting explicitly for the presence of other targets whose associated activity spatially overlaps with the one of interest may lead to predictive maps of troublesome interpretation. We propose a new model that can correctly identify the spatial patterns associated with a target while achieving good generalization. For each target, the training is based on an augmented dataset, which includes all remaining targets. The estimation on such datasets produces both maps and interaction coefficients, which are then used to generalize. The proposed formulation is independent of the regression algorithm employed. We validate this model on simulated fMRI data and on a publicly available dataset. Results indicate that our method achieves high spatial sensitivity and good generalization and that it helps disentangle specific neural effects from interaction with predictive maps associated with other targets. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Neutron yield from thick lead target by the action of high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, V.I.; Ranyuk, Yu.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Sorokin, P.V.

    1978-01-01

    The results are presented of studying the complete neutron yield from a lead target bombarded by high-energy electrons. Neutrons were recorded by the method of radio-active indicators. The dependence of the neutron yield on the target thickness varying from 0.2 to 8 cm was obtained at the energies of electrons of 230 and 1200 MeV. The neutron yield for the given energies with the target of 6 cm in thickness is in the range of saturation and is 0.1 +-0.03 and 0.65+-0.22 (neutr./MeV.el.), respectively. The neutron angular distributions were measured for different thicknesses of targets at the 201, 230 and 1200 MeV electrons. Within the error limits the angular distributions are isotropic. The dependence of neutron yield on the electron energy was examined for a 3 cm thick target. In the energy range of 100-1200 MeV these values are related by a linear dependence with the proportionality coefficient C=3x10 -4 (neutr./MeV.el.)

  19. Random Access Memories: A New Paradigm for Target Detection in High Resolution Aerial Remote Sensing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhengxia; Shi, Zhenwei

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new paradigm for target detection in high resolution aerial remote sensing images under small target priors. Previous remote sensing target detection methods frame the detection as learning of detection model + inference of class-label and bounding-box coordinates. Instead, we formulate it from a Bayesian view that at inference stage, the detection model is adaptively updated to maximize its posterior that is determined by both training and observation. We call this paradigm "random access memories (RAM)." In this paradigm, "Memories" can be interpreted as any model distribution learned from training data and "random access" means accessing memories and randomly adjusting the model at detection phase to obtain better adaptivity to any unseen distribution of test data. By leveraging some latest detection techniques e.g., deep Convolutional Neural Networks and multi-scale anchors, experimental results on a public remote sensing target detection data set show our method outperforms several other state of the art methods. We also introduce a new data set "LEarning, VIsion and Remote sensing laboratory (LEVIR)", which is one order of magnitude larger than other data sets of this field. LEVIR consists of a large set of Google Earth images, with over 22 k images and 10 k independently labeled targets. RAM gives noticeable upgrade of accuracy (an mean average precision improvement of 1% ~ 4%) of our baseline detectors with acceptable computational overhead.

  20. Ultra-high vacuum target assembly for charged particle irradiations in the materials research field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressers, J.; Cassanelli, G.; Cat, R. de; Kohnen, H.; Gherardi, G.

    1978-01-01

    A target assembly designed for ion irradiation and ion implantation experiments on different particle accelerators is described. It consists of a target chamber separated from the beam line by a thin metal window, thus allowing implantations to be carried out under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Homogeneous in-depth distribution of the implanted ion species is realized by rotating the target about an axis perpendicular to the ion beam (rocking). The target holder is driven by means of a stepping motor with a constant step angle and a rocking device controller containing the required rocking angle-dwell time relation. Ion beam homogeneity over a sufficiently large target area is arrived at by transforming the Gaussian beam intensity profile into a flat beam intensity distribution by means of an electrostatic ring lens. The beam intensity profile is monitored by means of a specially designed ion beam monitor based on the Nipkov disc principle. A toroidal beam current monitoring transformer continuously measures the total beam current. Beam scanners and current measuring collimators complete the beam analysing equipment

  1. MERIT - The high intensity liquid mercury target experiment at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I

    2009-01-01

    The MERIT experiment is a proof-of-principle test of a target system for high power proton beams to be used as front-end for a Neutrino Factory complex or a Muon Collider. The experiment took data in autumn 2007 with the fast extracted beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to a maximum intensity of about 30 × 1012 protons per pulse. The target system, based on a free mercury jet, allowed investigation of the interseption of a 4-MW proton beam inside a 15-T magnetic field required to capture the low-energy secondary pions as the source of the required intense muon beams. Particle detectors have been installed around the target setup to measure the secondary particle flux out of the target and probe cavitation effects in the mercury jet when exited with a beam of variable intensity. With the analysis of the data ongoing, results will be presented here that demonstrate the validity of the liquid target concept.

  2. High-efficiency targets for high-gain inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.H.; Bodner, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rocket efficiencies as high as 15% are possible using short wavelength lasers and moderately high aspect ratio pellet designs. These designs are made possible by two recent breakthroughs in physics constraints. First is the development of the induced spatial incoherence (ISI) technique, which allows uniform illumination of the pellet and relaxes the constraint of thermal smoothing, permitting the use of short wavelength laser light. Second is the discovery that the Rayleigh--Taylor growth rate is considerably reduced at short laser wavelengths. By taking advantage of the reduced constraints imposed by nonuniform laser illumination and Rayleigh--Taylor instability, pellets using (1)/(4) μm laser light and initial aspect ratios of about 10 (with in flight aspect ratios of about 150--200) may produce energy gains as high as 200--250

  3. Dual-mode, high energy utilization system concept for mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a dual-mode, high energy utilization system concept based on the Pellet Bed Reactor (PeBR) to support future manned missions to Mars. The system uses proven Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engines to partially convert the reactor thermal power to electricity. The electric power generated is kept the same during the propulsion and the power modes, but the reactor thermal power in the former could be several times higher, while maintaining the reactor temperatures almost constant. During the propulsion mode, the electric power of the system, minus ∼1-5 kW e for house keeping, is used to operate a Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). In addition, the reactor thermal power, plus more than 85% of the head load of the CBC engine radiators, are used to heat hydrogen. The hot hydrogen is mixed with the high temperature plasma in a VASIMR to provide both high thrust and I sp >35,000 N.s/kg, reducing the travel time to Mars to about 3 months. The electric power also supports surface exploration of Mars. The fuel temperature and the inlet temperatures of the He-Xe working fluid to the nuclear reactor core and the CBC turbine are maintained almost constant during both the propulsion and power modes to minimize thermal stresses. Also, the exit temperature of the He-Xe from the reactor core is kept at least 200 K below the maximum fuel design temperature. The present system has no single point failure and could be tested fully assembled in a ground facility using electric heaters in place of the nuclear reactor. Operation and design parameters of a 40-kW e prototype are presented and discussed to illustrate the operation and design principles of the proposed system

  4. Using Merged Clinical and Claims Registry Data to Identify High Utilizers of Surgical Inpatient Care 1 Year after Colectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stey, Anne M; Russell, Marcia M; Zingmond, David S; Gibbons, Melinda M; Hall, Bruce L; Needleman, Jack; Lawson, Elise H; Liu, Nancy; Ko, Clifford Y

    2015-08-01

    Under bundled payment initiatives, providers will be held financially responsible for patients' acute and post-acute care costs. Certain patients, termed high utilizers, use disproportionate shares of resources during 1 year. The aim of this study was to identify high utilizers, describe their costs, and determine whether preoperative characteristics predict high utilizer status. Colectomy patients with 1-year follow-up were identified in a linked clinical (American College of Surgeons NSQIP) and administrative (Medicare inpatient claims) dataset (2005 to 2008). Cost of inpatient care was calculated by multiplying patient Medicare charges in each cost center by cost-to-charge ratios from the Medicare cost reports. A mixed-effects logistic model quantified the association between preoperative characteristics and being a high utilizer after elective and emergent colectomies. One thousand and fifty-five of 10,561 colectomy patients accounted for >50% of the inpatient care cost of the entire cohort during 1 year postoperatively. This top decile of patients were labeled high utilizers and had substantially greater costs in the following cost centers: intensive care ($36,322 vs $0), respiratory ($2,875 vs $22), radiology ($649 vs $29), and cardiology ($5,057 vs $166) (all p < 0.001). High utilizers more frequently had emergent index colectomies (43% vs 17%; p < 0.001). Patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists class IV and V had 2-fold increased odds of being high utilizers after both elective (odds ratio = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.89-3.90) and emergent colectomies (odds ratio = 2.09; 95% CI, 1.23-3.55). Patients in the top cost decile account for the majority of costs in the year after colectomy, disproportionately accumulate those costs in particular cost centers, and can be identified preoperatively. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Beam-target interaction for high-dose, multi-pulse radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVolder, B.G.; Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.; Kares, R.J.; McLenithan, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The conversion of an intense relativistic electron beam into x-rays for radiographic imaging is achieved through the bremsstrahlung process of electrons in a tantalum or tungsten target of some optimal thickness. A high-dose radiographic source with small spot size is needed to achieve desirable resolution for thick objects. Consequently, an extremely high brightness electron beam is used and a significant amount of electron beam energy can be deposited in a small area of the target. The authors describe a computational methodology used to model the beam-target interaction and the evolution of the resultant plasma. Several codes, including particle-in-cell (PIC), Monte Carlo transport, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) codes, contribute to simulate different parts of the problem in a linked fashion. Issues addressed by the calculations include: the effects of the time dependence of the energy profile deposited in the target; the influence of the external magnetic field on plasma expansion; the influence of the expanding plasma on the guide magnetic field; radiation effects; and multi-dimensional effects

  6. High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Paul, M.; Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I.

    2013-04-01

    A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

  7. Connective tissue growth factor as a novel therapeutic target in high grade serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Jones, Kim; Gloss, Brian S; Murali, Rajmohan; Chang, David K; Colvin, Emily K; Jones, Marc D; Yuen, Samuel; Howell, Viive M; Brown, Laura M; Wong, Carol W; Spong, Suzanne M; Scarlett, Christopher J; Hacker, Neville F; Ghosh, Sue; Mok, Samuel C; Birrer, Michael J; Samimi, Goli

    2015-12-29

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death among women with gynecologic cancer. We examined molecular profiles of fibroblasts from normal ovary and high-grade serous ovarian tumors to identify novel therapeutic targets involved in tumor progression. We identified 2,300 genes that are significantly differentially expressed in tumor-associated fibroblasts. Fibroblast expression of one of these genes, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. CTGF protein expression in ovarian tumor fibroblasts significantly correlated with gene expression levels. CTGF is a secreted component of the tumor microenvironment and is being pursued as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. We examined its effect in in vitro and ex vivo ovarian cancer models, and examined associations between CTGF expression and clinico-pathologic characteristics in patients. CTGF promotes migration and peritoneal adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. These effects are abrogated by FG-3019, a human monoclonal antibody against CTGF, currently under clinical investigation as a therapeutic agent. Immunohistochemical analyses of high-grade serous ovarian tumors reveal that the highest level of tumor stromal CTGF expression was correlated with the poorest prognosis. Our findings identify CTGF as a promoter of peritoneal adhesion, likely to mediate metastasis, and a potential therapeutic target in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. These results warrant further studies into the therapeutic efficacy of FG-3019 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

  8. Report on neutron beam utilization and study of high Tc superconductors at NRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Vuong Huu [Nuclear Physics Dept., Nuclear Research Inst. (NRI), Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    Utilization of reactor neutron beams at NRI for research and applications up to November 1996 had been presented at the last Workshop in Jakarta (25-28 Nov., 1996). This paper describes new research and applications carried out at Nuclear Physics Department of NRI after that time. They consist of neutron beam developments, neutron activation cross section measurements for waste disposal assessment and in-vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for Cd determination in organs. After the last Sub-Workshop on Neutron Scattering in Serpong (21-23 Nov., 1996), we were accepted to participate in the Regional Program on Study of High Tc Superconductors with the topic `The mechanism of Pb and Sb dopant role on superconductivity of 2223 phase of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system`. Indeed, this study has begun at NRI only since August, 1997 due to the problem of materials. The study has been carried out in collaboration with the Hanoi State University (Superconductors Department) where experts and equipment for superconductors research have been considered as the best ones in Vietnam. Primary results in this study are presented in this workshop. (author)

  9. Utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization affected by highly transient flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zachara, John M.; Tonkin, Matthew

    2012-08-01

    A tracer test using both bromide and heat tracers conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Hanford 300 Area (300A), Washington, provided an instrument for evaluating the utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization. The bromide tracer data were critical to improving the calibration of the flow model complicated by the highly dynamic nature of the flow field. However, most bromide concentrations were obtained from fully screened observation wells, lacking depth-specific resolution for vertical characterization. On the other hand, depth-specific temperature data were relatively simple and inexpensive to acquire. However, temperature-driven fluid density effects influenced heat plume movement. Moreover, the temperature data contained "noise" caused by heating during fluid injection and sampling events. Using the hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from the calibration of the bromide transport model, the temperature depth profiles and arrival times of temperature peaks simulated by the heat transport model were in reasonable agreement with observations. This suggested that heat can be used as a cost-effective proxy for solute tracers for calibration of the hydraulic conductivity distribution, especially in the vertical direction. However, a heat tracer test must be carefully designed and executed to minimize fluid density effects and sources of noise in temperature data. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that heat transport was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and porosity, less sensitive to thermal distribution factor, and least sensitive to thermal dispersion and heat conduction. This indicated that the hydraulic conductivity remains the primary calibration parameter for heat transport.

  10. Study on Waste Heat Utilization Device of High-Temperature Freshwater in the Modern Marine Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuaijun; Liu, Chentao; Zhou, Yao

    2018-01-01

    Based on using the waste heat recycling from high temperature freshwater in marine diesel engine to heat fuel oil tank, lubrication oil tank and settling tank and so on to achieve energy saving, improve fuel efficiency as the goal, study on waste heat utilization device of high-temperature freshwater in the modern marine diesel engine to make the combustion chamber effectively cooled by high-temperature freshwater and the inner liner freshwater temperature heat is effectively utilized and so on to improve the overall efficiency of the power plant of the ship and the diesel optimum working condition.

  11. Simulation of beam pointing stability on targeting plane of high power excimer laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dahui; Zhao Xueqing; Zhang Yongsheng; Zheng Guoxin; Hu Yun; Zhao Jun

    2011-01-01

    Based on characteristics of image-relaying structure in high power excimer MOPA laser system, simulation and analysis software of targeting beam's barycenter stability was designed by using LABVIEW and MATLAB. Simulation was made to measured results of every optical component in laboratory environment. Simulation and validation of budget values for optical components was and optimization of error budget of system was accomplished via post-allocation for several times. It is shown that targeting beam's barycenter stability in the condition of current laboratory environment can't satisfy needs and index of high demand optical components can be allotted to 1.7 μrad when index of low demand optical components have some stability margin. These results can provide a guide to construction of system and design and machining of optical components and optimization of system. Optical components of laboratory on work can satisfy optimized distributed index, which reduce the demand of structure to some extent. (authors)

  12. Design, construction, and characterization of high-performance membrane fusion devices with target-selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwada, Ayumi; Yamane, Iori; Tsuboi, Mana; Ando, Shun; Matsuda, Kiyomi

    2012-01-31

    Membrane fusion proteins such as the hemagglutinin glycoprotein have target recognition and fusion accelerative domains, where some synergistically working elements are essential for target-selective and highly effective native membrane fusion systems. In this work, novel membrane fusion devices bearing such domains were designed and constructed. We selected a phenylboronic acid derivative as a recognition domain for a sugar-like target and a transmembrane-peptide (Leu-Ala sequence) domain interacting with the target membrane, forming a stable hydrophobic α-helix and accelerating the fusion process. Artificial membrane fusion behavior between the synthetic devices in which pilot and target liposomes were incorporated was characterized by lipid-mixing and inner-leaflet lipid-mixing assays. Consequently, the devices bearing both the recognition and transmembrane domains brought about a remarkable increase in the initial rate for the membrane fusion compared with the devices containing the recognition domain alone. In addition, a weakly acidic pH-responsive device was also constructed by replacing three Leu residues in the transmembrane-peptide domain by Glu residues. The presence of Glu residues made the acidic pH-dependent hydrophobic α-helix formation possible as expected. The target-selective liposome-liposome fusion was accelerated in a weakly acidic pH range when the Glu-substituted device was incorporated in pilot liposomes. The use of this pH-responsive device seems to be a potential strategy for novel applications in a liposome-based delivery system. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin have similar utility for the identification of insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Salinas Carlos A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance (IR and related metabolic disturbances are characterized by low levels of adiponectin. High molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA is considered the active form of adiponectin and a better marker of IR than total adiponectin. The objective of this study is to compare the utility of total adiponectin, HMWA and the HMWA/total adiponectin index (SA index for the identification of IR and related metabolic conditions. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed in a group of ambulatory subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, in Mexico City. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve for total, HMWA and the SA index were plotted for the identification of metabolic disturbances. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for the identification of IR were calculated. Results The study included 101 men and 168 women. The areas under the ROC curve for total and HMWA for the identification of IR (0.664 vs. 0.669, P = 0.74, obesity (0.592 vs. 0.610, P = 0.32, hypertriglyceridemia (0.661 vs. 0.671, P = 0.50 and hypoalphalipoproteinemia (0.624 vs. 0.633, P = 0.58 were similar. A total adiponectin level of 8.03 μg/ml was associated with a sensitivity of 57.6%, a specificity of 65.9%, a positive predictive value of 50.0%, a negative predictive value of 72.4%, and an accuracy of 62.7% for the diagnosis of IR. The corresponding figures for a HMWA value of 4.25 μg/dl were 59.6%, 67.1%, 51.8%, 73.7% and 64.2%. The area under the ROC curve of the SA index for the identification of IR was 0.622 [95% CI 0.554-0.691], obesity 0.613 [95% CI 0.536-0.689], hypertriglyceridemia 0.616 [95% CI 0.549-0.683], and hypoalphalipoproteinemia 0.606 [95% CI 0.535-0.677]. Conclusions Total adiponectin, HMWA and the SA index had similar utility for the identification of IR and metabolic disturbances.

  14. High-temperature method of rapid separation of In-111 from irradiated silver targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazgaj, Z.; Kolaczkowski, A.; Mikulski, J.; Novgorodov, A.F.; Zielinski, A.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    1990-01-01

    A high-temperature method of separation of In-111 from α-particle activated silver targets was developed. The separation is carried out under reduced pressure, in the atmosphere of HCl and H 2 O vapours. Indium-111, adsorbed on a quartz collector, is washed out quantitatively with 0.1 N HCl. The contaminant, Cd-109 (product of decay of In-109), is removed from the preparation by means of ion-exchange chromatography. 4 tabs., 6 refs. (author)

  15. Energy changes in massive target-nuclei, induced by high-energy hadronic projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1997-01-01

    Now it turned out that it is real to estimate by experiments the energy changes in massive target-nuclei, induced by high-energy hadronic projectiles. The subject matter in this work is to present results of the quantitative estimations of the energy changes in intranuclear matter at various stages of hadron-nucleus collision reactions. Appropriate formulas are proposed for the energy balances - as following from the experimentally based mechanism of the hadron-nucleus collision reactions

  16. Review of high excitation energy structures in heavy ion collisions: target excitations and three body processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frascaria, N.

    1987-09-01

    A review of experimental results on high excitation energy structures in heavy ion inelastic scattering is presented. The contribution to the spectra of the pick-up break-up mechanism is discussed in the light of the data obtained with light heavy ion projectiles. Recent results obtained with 40 Ar beams at various energies will show that target excitations contribute strongly to the measured cross section

  17. Target Surface Area Effects on Hot Electron Dynamics from High Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Science, University ofMichigan, AnnArbor,MI 48109-2099, USA E-mail: czulick@umich.edu Keywords: laser- plasma ,mass-limited, fast electrons , sheath...New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 063020 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/18/6/063020 PAPER Target surface area effects on hot electron dynamics from high intensity laser... plasma interactions CZulick, ARaymond,AMcKelvey, VChvykov, AMaksimchuk, AGRThomas, LWillingale, VYanovsky andKKrushelnick Center forUltrafast Optical

  18. A Powerful Mitochondria-Targeted Iron Chelator Affords High Photoprotection against Solar Ultraviolet A Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Reelfs, Olivier; Abbate, Vincenzo; Hider, Robert C.; Pourzand, Charareh

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are the principal destination for labile iron, making these organelles particularly susceptible to oxidative damage on exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA, 320?400 nm), the oxidizing component of sunlight. The labile iron-mediated oxidative damage caused by UVA to mitochondria leads to necrotic cell death via adenosine triphosphate depletion. Therefore, targeted removal of mitochondrial labile iron via highly specific tools from these organelles may be an effective approach to protect...

  19. Targets for production of high-intensity radioactive ion-beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagebo, E.; Hoff, P.; Steffensen, K.

    1991-01-01

    The recent developments of target systems for production of high intensity radioactive ion-beams at the ISOLDE mass separators is described. Methods for chemically selective production through separation of molecular ions are outlined and the effects of the addition of reactive gases has been studied. Results and further possible applications in the light element region are discussed. (author) 10 refs.; 9 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Designing the nanobiointerface of fluorescent nanodiamonds: highly selective targeting of glioma cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegerova, Jitka; Hajek, Miroslav; Rehor, Ivan; Sedlak, Frantisek; Stursa, Jan; Hruby, Martin; Cigler, Petr

    2015-01-14

    Core-shell nanoparticles based on fluorescent nanodiamonds coated with a biocompatible N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer shell were developed for background-free near-infrared imaging of cancer cells. The particles showed excellent colloidal stability in buffers and culture media. After conjugation with a cyclic RGD peptide they selectively targeted integrin αvβ3 receptors on glioblastoma cells with high internalization efficacy.

  1. Utility and reliability of non-invasive muscle function tests in high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Huenchullan, Sergio F; McLennan, Susan V; Ban, Linda A; Morsch, Marco; Twigg, Stephen M; Tam, Charmaine S

    2017-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Non-invasive muscle function tests have not been validated for use in the study of muscle performance in high-fat-fed mice. What is the main finding and its importance? This study shows that grip strength, hang wire and four-limb hanging tests are able to discriminate the muscle performance between chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice at different time points, with grip strength being reliable after 5, 10 and 20 weeks of dietary intervention. Non-invasive tests are commonly used for assessing muscle function in animal models. The value of these tests in obesity, a condition where muscle strength is reduced, is unclear. We investigated the utility of three non-invasive muscle function tests, namely grip strength (GS), hang wire (HW) and four-limb hanging (FLH), in C57BL/6 mice fed chow (chow group, n = 48) or a high-fat diet (HFD group, n = 48) for 20 weeks. Muscle function tests were performed at 5, 10 and 20 weeks. After 10 and 20 weeks, HFD mice had significantly reduced GS (in newtons; mean ± SD: 10 weeks chow, 1.89 ± 0.1 and HFD, 1.79 ± 0.1; 20 weeks chow, 1.99 ± 0.1 and HFD, 1.75 ± 0.1), FLH [in seconds per gram body weight; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 2552 (1337-4964) and HFD, 1230 (749-1994); 20 weeks chow, 2048 (765-3864) and HFD, 1036 (717-1855)] and HW reaches [n; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 4 (2-5) and HFD, 2 (1-3); 20 weeks chow, 3 (1-5) and HFD, 1 (0-2)] and higher falls [n; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 0 (0-2) and HFD, 3 (1-7); 20 weeks chow, 1 (0-4) and HFD, 8 (5-10)]. Grip strength was reliable in both dietary groups [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.5-0.8; P tests are valuable and reliable tools for assessment of muscle strength and function in high-fat-fed mice. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  2. Preparation and characterization of clay bonded high strength silica refractory by utilizing agriculture waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Bhardwaj

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Clay bonded silica refractory was prepared by utilizing agriculture waste called rice husk ash (RHA and refractory grog. Various samples were prepared with different compositions based upon partial replacement of quartz by RHA. Rectangular samples were prepared by following semi dry process prior to pressing in a uniaxial hydraulic press and sintering at a temperature of 1200 °C in air atmosphere. Various physical, mechanical and thermal characterizations were done like X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, apparent porosity (AP, bulk density (BD, cold crushing strength (CCS, refractoriness and thermal conductivity measurement. The sample utilizing 30% of RHA was considered most optimum composition which produced cold crushing strength of 38 MPa and thermal conductivity of 2.08 W/m K at 800 °C with a considerable good refractoriness. Enhancement in the mechanical as well as thermal properties may be considered as attributed to the amorphous silica which has reacted more easily and efficiently with other material surrounding giving rise to the densification and produced stable crystalline phase to the refractory material. These promising characteristics suggests that the RHA may lead to be used as a potential material for the preparation of clay bonded high strength silica refractories. Resumen: Se preparó sílice refractaria unida a arcilla con residuos agrícolas conocidos como ceniza de cascarilla de arroz (rice husk ash [RHA] y grog refractario. Se prepararon varias muestras con diferentes composiciones basadas en la sustitución parcial de cuarzo por RHA. Las muestras rectangulares se prepararon siguiendo un proceso semiseco antes de prensarlas en una prensa hidráulica uniaxial y sinterizarlas a una temperatura de 1.200 °C en atmósfera de aire. Se realizaron diversas caracterizaciones físicas, mecánicas y térmicas, como la difracción de rayos X, el microscopio electrónico de barrido, la porosidad

  3. Interaction of ultra-high intensity laser pulse with a mass limited targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A.A.; Platonov, K.Yu.; Limpouch, J.; Psikal, J.; Kawata, S.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Ultra-high intensity laser pulses may be produced now via CPA scheme by using very short laser pulses of a relatively low energy. Interaction of such pulses with massive target is not very efficient as the energy delivered to charged particles spreads out quickly over large distances and it is redistributed between many secondary particles. One possibility to limit this undesirable energy spread is to use mass limited targets (MLT), for example droplets, big clusters or small foil sections. This is an intermediate regime in target dimensions between bulk solid and nanometer-size atomic cluster targets. A few experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out on laser absorption, fast particle generation and induced nuclear fusion reactions in the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with MLT plasma. We investigate here laser interactions with MLT via 2D3V relativistic electromagnetic PIC simulations. We assume spherical droplet as a typical MLT. However, the sphere is represented in 2D simulations by an infinite cylinder irradiated uniformly along its length. We assume that MLT is fully ionized before main pulse interaction either due to insufficient laser contrast or due to a prepulse. For simplicity, we assume homogeneous plasma of high initial temperature. We analyze the interaction of relativistic laser pulses of various polarizations with targets of different shapes, such as a foil, quadrant and sphere. The mechanisms of laser absorption, electron and ion acceleration are clarified for different laser and target parameters. When laser interacts with the target front side, kinetic energy of electrons rises rapidly with fast oscillations in the kinetic and field energy, caused by electron oscillations in the laser field. Small energy oscillations, observed later, are caused by the electron motion back and forth through the droplet. Approximately 40% of laser energy is transferred to the kinetic energy of electrons

  4. Carbohydrate supercompensation and muscle glycogen utilization during exhaustive running in highly trained athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K; Pedersen, P K; Rose, P

    1990-01-01

    regimen (Norm), the other after a diet and training programme intended to increase muscle glycogen levels (Carb). Muscle glycogen concentration in the gastrocnemius muscle increased by 25% (P less than 0.05) from 581 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 50 to 722 mmol.kg-1 dry weight, SEM 34 after Carb. Running time...... (0.92, SEM 0.01 vs 0.89, SEM 0.01; P less than 0.05). Since muscle glycogen utilization was identical in the two tests, the indication of higher utilization of total carbohydrate appears to be related to a higher utilization of liver glycogen. We have concluded that glycogen depletion...

  5. Highly Complementary Target RNAs Promote Release of Guide RNAs from Human Argonaute2

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Nabanita; Young, Lisa; Lau, Pick-Wei; Meisner, Nicole-Claudia; Morrissey, David V.; MacRae, Ian J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Argonaute proteins use small RNAs to guide the silencing of complementary target RNAs in many eukaryotes. Although small RNA biogenesis pathways are well studied, mechanisms for removal of guide RNAs from Argonaute are poorly understood. Here we show that the Argonaute2 (Ago2) guide RNA complex is extremely stable, with a half-life on the order of days. However, highly complementary target RNAs destabilize the complex and significantly accelerate release of the guide RNA from Ago2. This “unloading” activity can be enhanced by mismatches between the target and the guide 5′ end and attenuated by mismatches to the guide 3′ end. The introduction of 3′ mismatches leads to more potent silencing of abundant mRNAs in mammalian cells. These findings help to explain why the 3′ ends of mammalian microRNAs (miRNAs) rarely match their targets, suggest a mechanism for sequence-specific small RNA turnover, and offer insights for controlling small RNAs in mammalian cells. PMID:23664376

  6. Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

    2012-03-31

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and

  7. Dynamic Flight Simulation Utilizing High Fidelity CFD-Based Nonlinear Reduced Order Model, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall technical objective of the Phase I effort is to develop a nonlinear aeroelastic solver utilizing the FUN3D generated nonlinear aerodynamic Reduced Order...

  8. Stability time of a DT-filled cryogenic ICF target in a high vacuum environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebey, P.S.; Hoffer, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Following the successful pressure loading with DT of a thin-walled plastic inertial fusion target shell (such as those designed for use at the OMEGA facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE)), continual care must be taken to safeguard the shell from being exposed to unacceptable pressure differentials across its wall. In particular, once the DT has been condensed into a liquid or solid phase and the outside pressure has been reduced, the target must be maintained below some upper cutoff temperature such that the vapor pressure of the DT is below the bursting pressure for the shell. Through the process of β-decay the DT self-heats, but while the shell is in a high vacuum environment (P much-lt 0.8 Pa (6 mtorr) for the OMEGA layering sphere) there is only a negligible heat loss mechanism. This will cause the temperature to increase. A calculation has been done to estimate the rate of temperature increase of the loaded target under high vacuum conditions. A functional form for calculating the target's temperature increase given its starting temperature is presented. An overall result is that under high vacuum conditions the DT changes from a solid at 10 K to a liquid at 37 K (T c = 39.4 K) in about 19 minutes. This holding time is significantly less if the initial temperature is higher, the initial state is liquid, or the upper allowed temperature is lower. Simplifying assumptions which were made and their impact on interpreting the results of this calculation are discussed

  9. Determination of the activity of pulmonary tuberculosis : the utility of high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Myung Hee; Lee, Hae Giu; Yu, Won Jong; Chung, Hong Jun; Yang, Bo Sung; Kwon, Soon Suck; Park, Seog Hee

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), as used to determine the activity of tuberculosis, and to analyze the HRCT findings in active and in inactive tuberculosis. We analyzed the HRCT findings of 100 patients (54 men, 46 women; average age, 54 years) who according to the results of chest radiography had pulmonary tuberculosis of undetermined activity. We assessed HRCT findings such as the presence of a centrilobular, macro-, or micronodule; consolidation, ground-glass opacity, cavity, interlobular septal thickening, irregular linear opacities, bronchial wall thickening, bronchovascular bundle distortion, bronchiectasis, atelectasis, and pericicatrical emphysema. We compared the ratio of the area of nodule and consolidation to that of whole lung, and compared the findings between active and inactive tuberculosis. Eleven of 100 patients were excluded because the final diagnosis was other than tuberculosis. In 59 patients, the presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis was proven by positive sputum smear and/or culture for mycobacterium tuberculosis. On the basis of the negative results of these tests, pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be inactive in 30 patients; serial chest radiographs indicated that their condition remained stable over a 6-month period. For HRCT, sensitivity was 96.6%, specificity 56.7%, positive predictive value 81.4%, negative predictive value 89.5%, and accuracy 83.1%. For active tuberculosis, the presence of centrilobular nodules, tree-in-bud, macronodules, cavity within the nodule, and consolidations was statistically significant, while for inactive tuberculosis, that of irregular linear opacities, micronodules, bronchiectasis, and cicatrization atectasis was similarly significant. The CT score for the area of nodules and consolidations was higher in active than in inactive tuberculosis, but only the nodule score showed statistical significance. HRCT can be a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating the activity

  10. Dynamic target high pressure control of a VRF system for heating energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Geun Young; Lee, Je Hyeon; Kim, Inhan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed the dynamic target high pressure control of a VRF system. • We created the VRF control model using the EnergyPlus runtime language. • Multicalorimeter experimental results indicate that the energy efficiency improved by 21%. • EnergyPlus simulations demonstrate that the annual heating energy consumption was lowered by 22%. - Abstract: Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems are widely used because of their ability to provide individualized comfort control with energy-saving potential. This study develops load responsive high pressure control of a VRF system with the aim of reducing the heating energy consumption of a VRF system under part load conditions. The developed control consists of two parts: one part that determines the level of heating load, and the other that assigns a target high pressure based on the level of heating load. In this way, the compressor speed can be accurately matched to heating load, which improves the energy performance of the VRF system. A series of multicalorimeter experiments revealed that the heating capacity of the VRF system varied by 45% by modulating the target high pressure and that its efficiency was enhanced by 21% by changing the high pressure from 30 kgf/cm"2 to 25 kgf/cm"2. To evaluate the annual heating energy performance of the VRF system with the developed control, a custom computer code was developed to implement the developed control using a programming language called EnergyPlus Runtime Language. Simulation outcomes showed that the annual heating energy consumption of a medium-size office building was reduced by 22% when the developed control was applied.

  11. High-throughput screening in niche-based assay identifies compounds to target preleukemic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerby, Bastien; Veiga, Diogo F.T.; Krosl, Jana; Nourreddine, Sami; Ouellette, Julianne; Haman, André; Lavoie, Geneviève; Fares, Iman; Tremblay, Mathieu; Litalien, Véronique; Ottoni, Elizabeth; Geoffrion, Dominique; Maddox, Paul S.; Chagraoui, Jalila; Hébert, Josée; Sauvageau, Guy; Kwok, Benjamin H.; Roux, Philippe P.

    2016-01-01

    Current chemotherapies for T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) efficiently reduce tumor mass. Nonetheless, disease relapse attributed to survival of preleukemic stem cells (pre-LSCs) is associated with poor prognosis. Herein, we provide direct evidence that pre-LSCs are much less chemosensitive to existing chemotherapy drugs than leukemic blasts because of a distinctive lower proliferative state. Improving therapies for T-ALL requires the development of strategies to target pre-LSCs that are absolutely dependent on their microenvironment. Therefore, we designed a robust protocol for high-throughput screening of compounds that target primary pre-LSCs maintained in a niche-like environment, on stromal cells that were engineered for optimal NOTCH1 activation. The multiparametric readout takes into account the intrinsic complexity of primary cells in order to specifically monitor pre-LSCs, which were induced here by the SCL/TAL1 and LMO1 oncogenes. We screened a targeted library of compounds and determined that the estrogen derivative 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) disrupted both cell-autonomous and non–cell-autonomous pathways. Specifically, 2-ME2 abrogated pre-LSC viability and self-renewal activity in vivo by inhibiting translation of MYC, a downstream effector of NOTCH1, and preventing SCL/TAL1 activity. In contrast, normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells remained functional. These results illustrate how recapitulating tissue-like properties of primary cells in high-throughput screening is a promising avenue for innovation in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:27797342

  12. Comparison of therapeutic lipid target achievements among high-risk patients in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Baneerje, Yajnavalka; Al-Sabti, Hilal; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Farhan, Hatem; Habsi, Khadija Al; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2014-05-01

    We compared therapeutic lipid target achievements among patients with diabetes or coronary heart disease (CHD) in Oman. A retrospective chart review of 94 patients was conducted at an outpatient clinic in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. The variables included low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (apo B). The overall mean age of the cohort was 59 ± 12 years, 54% were male, 66% were diabetic, 48% hypertensive, 45% had CHD, 94% were on simvastatin, 4% were on fenofibrate, and 2% were on both simvastatin and fenofibrate. Lipid goal attainments of calculated LDL-C (<2.6 mmol/L), apo B (<0.9 g/L), and non-HDL-C (<3.36 mmol/L) were reached in 52%, 39%, and 53% of the patients, respectively. A significant proportion of high-risk patients treated with lipid-lowering agents reach LDL-C but not the apo B treatment targets, suggesting that the use of apo B target values should also be considered.

  13. Multi-UAV Doppler Information Fusion for Target Tracking Based on Distributed High Degrees Information Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Benzerrouk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Doppler-based target tracking has not been widely investigated, specifically when using modern nonlinear information filters. A high-degree Gauss–Hermite information filter, as well as a seventh-degree cubature information filter (CIF, is developed to improve the fifth-degree and third-degree CIFs proposed in the most recent related literature. These algorithms are applied to maneuvering target tracking based on Radar Doppler range/range rate signals. To achieve this purpose, different measurement models such as range-only, range rate, and bearing-only tracking are used in the simulations. In this paper, the mobile sensor target tracking problem is addressed and solved by a higher-degree class of quadrature information filters (HQIFs. A centralized fusion architecture based on distributed information filtering is proposed, and yielded excellent results. Three high dynamic UAVs are simulated with synchronized Doppler measurement broadcasted in parallel channels to the control center for global information fusion. Interesting results are obtained, with the superiority of certain classes of higher-degree quadrature information filters.

  14. Ultrasound image based visual servoing for moving target ablation by high intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joonho; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Sugita, Naohiko

    2017-12-01

    Although high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a promising technology for tumor treatment, a moving abdominal target is still a challenge in current HIFU systems. In particular, respiratory-induced organ motion can reduce the treatment efficiency and negatively influence the treatment result. In this research, we present: (1) a methodology for integration of ultrasound (US) image based visual servoing in a HIFU system; and (2) the experimental results obtained using the developed system. In the visual servoing system, target motion is monitored by biplane US imaging and tracked in real time (40 Hz) by registration with a preoperative 3D model. The distance between the target and the current HIFU focal position is calculated in every US frame and a three-axis robot physically compensates for differences. Because simultaneous HIFU irradiation disturbs US target imaging, a sophisticated interlacing strategy was constructed. In the experiments, respiratory-induced organ motion was simulated in a water tank with a linear actuator and kidney-shaped phantom model. Motion compensation with HIFU irradiation was applied to the moving phantom model. Based on the experimental results, visual servoing exhibited a motion compensation accuracy of 1.7 mm (RMS) on average. Moreover, the integrated system could make a spherical HIFU-ablated lesion in the desired position of the respiratory-moving phantom model. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our US image based visual servoing technique in a HIFU system for moving target treatment. © 2016 The Authors The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cardiac and pulmonary dose reduction for tangentially irradiated breast cancer, utilizing deep inspiration breath-hold with audio-visual guidance, without compromising target coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikstroem, Johan; Hjelstuen, Mari H.B.; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Dybvik, Kjell Ivar

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose. Cardiac disease and pulmonary complications are documented risk factors in tangential breast irradiation. Respiratory gating radiotherapy provides a possibility to substantially reduce cardiopulmonary doses. This CT planning study quantifies the reduction of radiation doses to the heart and lung, using deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). Patients and methods. Seventeen patients with early breast cancer, referred for adjuvant radiotherapy, were included. For each patient two CT scans were acquired; the first during free breathing (FB) and the second during DIBH. The scans were monitored by the Varian RPM respiratory gating system. Audio coaching and visual feedback (audio-visual guidance) were used. The treatment planning of the two CT studies was performed with conformal tangential fields, focusing on good coverage (V95>98%) of the planning target volume (PTV). Dose-volume histograms were calculated and compared. Doses to the heart, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, ipsilateral lung and the contralateral breast were assessed. Results. Compared to FB, the DIBH-plans obtained lower cardiac and pulmonary doses, with equal coverage of PTV. The average mean heart dose was reduced from 3.7 to 1.7 Gy and the number of patients with >5% heart volume receiving 25 Gy or more was reduced from four to one of the 17 patients. With DIBH the heart was completely out of the beam portals for ten patients, with FB this could not be achieved for any of the 17 patients. The average mean dose to the LAD coronary artery was reduced from 18.1 to 6.4 Gy. The average ipsilateral lung volume receiving more than 20 Gy was reduced from 12.2 to 10.0%. Conclusion. Respiratory gating with DIBH, utilizing audio-visual guidance, reduces cardiac and pulmonary doses for tangentially treated left sided breast cancer patients without compromising the target coverage

  16. Cardiac and pulmonary dose reduction for tangentially irradiated breast cancer, utilizing deep inspiration breath-hold with audio-visual guidance, without compromising target coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikstroem, Johan; Hjelstuen, Mari H.B.; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Dybvik, Kjell Ivar (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Stavanger Univ. Hospital, Stavanger (Norway)), e-mail: vijo@sus.no

    2011-01-15

    Background and purpose. Cardiac disease and pulmonary complications are documented risk factors in tangential breast irradiation. Respiratory gating radiotherapy provides a possibility to substantially reduce cardiopulmonary doses. This CT planning study quantifies the reduction of radiation doses to the heart and lung, using deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). Patients and methods. Seventeen patients with early breast cancer, referred for adjuvant radiotherapy, were included. For each patient two CT scans were acquired; the first during free breathing (FB) and the second during DIBH. The scans were monitored by the Varian RPM respiratory gating system. Audio coaching and visual feedback (audio-visual guidance) were used. The treatment planning of the two CT studies was performed with conformal tangential fields, focusing on good coverage (V95>98%) of the planning target volume (PTV). Dose-volume histograms were calculated and compared. Doses to the heart, left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, ipsilateral lung and the contralateral breast were assessed. Results. Compared to FB, the DIBH-plans obtained lower cardiac and pulmonary doses, with equal coverage of PTV. The average mean heart dose was reduced from 3.7 to 1.7 Gy and the number of patients with >5% heart volume receiving 25 Gy or more was reduced from four to one of the 17 patients. With DIBH the heart was completely out of the beam portals for ten patients, with FB this could not be achieved for any of the 17 patients. The average mean dose to the LAD coronary artery was reduced from 18.1 to 6.4 Gy. The average ipsilateral lung volume receiving more than 20 Gy was reduced from 12.2 to 10.0%. Conclusion. Respiratory gating with DIBH, utilizing audio-visual guidance, reduces cardiac and pulmonary doses for tangentially treated left sided breast cancer patients without compromising the target coverage

  17. High-speed photographic methods for compression dynamics investigation of laser irradiated shell target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.G.; Kologrivov, A.A.; Krokhin, O.N.; Rupasov, A.A.; Shikanov, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    Three methods are described for a high-speed diagnostics of compression dynamics of shell targets being spherically laser-heated on the installation ''Kal'mar''. The first method is based on the direct investigation of the space-time evolution of the critical-density region for Nd-laser emission (N sub(e) asymptotically equals 10 21 I/cm 3 ) by means of the streak photography of plasma image in the second-harmonic light. The second method involves investigation of time evolution of the second-harmonic spectral distribution by means of a spectrograph coupled with a streak camera. The use of a special laser pulse with two time-distributed intensity maxima for the irradiation of shell targets, and the analysis of the obtained X-ray pin-hole pictures constitute the basis of the third method. (author)

  18. High-spin nuclear target of 178m2Hf: creation and nuclear reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganessyan, Yu.Ts.; Karamyan, S.A.; Gangrskij, Yu.P.

    1993-01-01

    A long-lived (31 years) four-quasiparticle isomer 178m 2 Hf(I,K π =16,16 + ) was produced in microweight quantities using the nuclear reaction 176 Yb( 4 He, 2n). Methods of precision chemistry and mass-separation for the purification of the produced Hf material have been developed. Thin targets of isomeric hafnium-178 on carbon backings were prepared and used in experiments on a neutron, proton and deuteron beams. First results on nuclear reactions on a high-spin exotic target were obtained. Experiments on electromagnetic interactions of the isomeric hafnium using methods of the collinear laser spectroscopy as well as of the nuclear orientation of hafnium implanted into a crystalline media were started. 11 refs.; 11 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. A mask for high-intensity heavy-ion beams in the MAYA active target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Tajes, C., E-mail: rodriguez@ganil.fr [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pancin, J.; Damoy, S.; Roger, T.; Babo, M. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Caamaño, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Farget, F.; Grinyer, G.F.; Jacquot, B.; Pérez-Loureiro, D. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Ramos, D. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Suzuki, D. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud 11, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2014-12-21

    The use of high-intensity and/or heavy-ion beams in active targets and time-projection chambers is often limited by the strong ionization produced by the beam. Besides the difficulties associated with the saturation of the detector and electronics, beam-related signals may hide the physical events of interest or reduce the detector performance. In addition, space-charge effects may deteriorate the homogeneity of the electric drift field and distort the subsequent reconstruction of particle trajectories. In anticipation of future projects involving such conditions, a dedicated beam mask has been developed and tested in the MAYA active target. Experimental results with a {sup 136}Xe beam are presented.

  20. High magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchenko, N.G.; Bartenev, V.D.; Blinov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    The superconducting polarizing magnet was constructed for movable polarized target (MPT) with working volume 200 mm long and 30 mm in diameter. The magnet provides a polarizing magnetic field up to 6 T with the uniformity of 4.5 x 10 -4 in the working volume of the target. The magnet windings are made of a NbTi wire, impregnated with the epoxy resin and placed in the horizontal cryostat with 'warm' aperture diameter of 96 mm. The design and technology of the magnet winding are described. Results of the magnetic field map measurements using a NMR-magnetometer are given. The MPT set-up is installed in the beam line of polarized neutrons produced by break-up of polarized deuterons extracted from the Synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies (LHE), JINR, Dubna

  1. Lithium vapor trapping at a high-temperature lithium PFC divertor target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Michael; Abrams, T.; Goldston, R. J.; Kaita, R.; Stotler, D. P.; de Temmerman, G.; Scholten, J.; van den Berg, M. A.; van der Meiden, H. J.

    2014-10-01

    Liquid lithium has been proposed as a novel plasma-facing material for NSTX-U and next-step fusion devices but questions remain on the ultimate temperature limits of such a PFC during plasma bombardment. Lithium targets were exposed to high-flux plasma bombardment in the Magnum-PSI experimental device resulting in a temperature ramp from room-temperature to above 1200°C. A stable lithium vapor cloud was found to form directly in front of the target and persist to temperature above 1000°C. Consideration of mass and momentum balance in the pre-sheath region of an attached plasma indicates an increase in the magnitude of the pre-sheath potential drop with the inclusion of ionization sources as well as the inclusion of momentum loss terms. The low energy of lithium emission from a surface measured in previous experiments (Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  2. Sticking efficiency of nanoparticles in high-velocity collisions with various target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reissaus, Philipp; Waldemarsson, Tomas; Blum, Juergen; Clement, Dominik; Llamas, Isabel; Mutschke, Harald; Giovane, Frank

    2006-01-01

    In order to find reliable collector surfaces for the Mesospheric Aerosol - Genesis, Interaction and Composition (MAGIC) sounding rocket experiment, intended to collect atmospheric nanoparticles, the sticking efficiency of nanoparticles was measured on several targets of different materials. The nanoparticles were generated by a molecular beam apparatus in Jena, Germany, by laser ablation (Al 2 O 3 particles, diameter 5-50 nm) and by laser pyrolysis (carbon particles, diameter 10-20 nm). In a vacuum environment (>10 -5 mbar) the particles condensed from the gas phase, formed a particle beam, and were accelerated to ∼∼1 km/s. The sticking efficiency on the target materials carbon, gold and grease was measured by a microbalance. Results demonstrate moderate to high sticking probabilities. Thus, the capture and retrieval of atmospheric nanoparticles was found to be quantitatively feasible

  3. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 high ovarian cancer cells: Towards targeted stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrow, Allison C; Perkins, Brandy; Collector, Michael I; Yu, Wayne; Simons, Brian W; Jones, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) paradigm hypothesizes that successful clinical eradication of CSCs may lead to durable remission for patients with ovarian cancer. Despite mounting evidence in support of ovarian CSCs, their phenotype and clinical relevance remain unclear. We and others have found high aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH(high)) expression in a variety of normal and malignant stem cells, and sought to better characterize ALDH(high) cells in ovarian cancer. We compared ALDH(high) to ALDH(low) cells in two ovarian cancer models representing distinct subtypes: FNAR-C1 cells, derived from a spontaneous rat endometrioid carcinoma, and the human SKOV3 cell line (described as both serous and clear cell subtypes). We assessed these populations for stem cell features then analyzed expression by microarray and qPCR. ALDH(high) cells displayed CSC properties, including: smaller size, quiescence, regenerating the phenotypic diversity of the cell lines in vitro, lack of contact inhibition, nonadherent growth, multi-drug resistance, and in vivo tumorigenicity. Microarray and qPCR analysis of the expression of markers reported by others to enrich for ovarian CSCs revealed that ALDH(high) cells of both models showed downregulation of CD24, but inconsistent expression of CD44, KIT and CD133. However, the following druggable targets were consistently expressed in the ALDH(high) cells from both models: mTOR signaling, her-2/neu, CD47 and FGF18/FGFR3. Based on functional characterization, ALDH(high) ovarian cancer cells represent an ovarian CSC population. Differential gene expression identified druggable targets that have the potential for therapeutic efficacy against ovarian CSCs from multiple subtypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of electromagnetic pulses generated during interactions of high power lasers with solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, M.; Krása, J.; Margarone, D.; Giuffrida, L.; Vrana, R.; Velyhan, A.; Korn, G.; Weber, S.; Cikhardt, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Krouský, E.; Ullschmied, J.; Ahmed, H.; Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.; Limpouch, J.; Velardi, L.; Side, D. Delle; Nassisi, V.

    2016-01-01

    A target irradiated with a high power laser pulse, blows off a large amount of charge and as a consequence the target itself becomes a generator of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) owing to high return current flowing to the ground through the target holder. The first measurement of the magnetic field induced by the neutralizing current reaching a value of a few kA was performed with the use of an inductive target probe at the PALS Laser Facility (Cikhardt et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85 (2014) 103507). A full description of EMP generation should contain information on the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the electromagnetic field inside and outside of the interaction chamber. For this reason, we consider the interaction chamber as a resonant cavity in which different modes of EMP oscillate for hundreds of nanoseconds, until the EMP is transmitted outside through the glass windows and EM waves are attenuated. Since the experimental determination of the electromagnetic field distribution is limited by the number of employed antennas, a mapping of the electromagnetic field has to be integrated with numerical simulations. Thus, this work reports on a detailed numerical mapping of the electromagnetic field inside the interaction chamber at the PALS Laser Facility (covering a frequency spectrum from 100 MHz to 3 GHz) using the commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2. Moreover we carried out a comparison of the EMP generated in the parallelepiped-like interaction chamber used in the Vulcan Petawatt Laser Facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, against that produced in the spherical interaction chamber of PALS.

  5. High-power liquid-lithium target prototype for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S; Paul, M; Arenshtam, A; Berkovits, D; Bisyakoev, M; Eliyahu, I; Feinberg, G; Hazenshprung, N; Kijel, D; Nagler, A; Silverman, I

    2011-12-01

    A prototype of a compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT), which will possibly constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in hospitals, was built. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear Research Center (SNRC). The liquid-lithium target will produce neutrons through the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated using a high-intensity proton beam (>10 kW), necessary for sufficient neutron flux. In off-line circulation tests, the liquid-lithium loop generated a stable lithium jet at high velocity, on a concave supporting wall; the concept will first be tested using a high-power electron beam impinging on the lithium jet. High intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 2-4 mA) will take place at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) superconducting linear accelerator currently in construction at SNRC. Radiological risks due to the (7)Be produced in the reaction were studied and will be handled through a proper design, including a cold trap and appropriate shielding. A moderator/reflector assembly is planned according to a Monte Carlo simulation, to create a neutron spectrum and intensity maximally effective to the treatment and to reduce prompt gamma radiation dose risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intravascular optical imaging of high-risk plaques in vivo by targeting macrophage mannose receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Bak; Park, Kyeongsoon; Ryu, Jiheun; Lee, Jae Joong; Lee, Min Woo; Cho, Han Saem; Nam, Hyeong Soo; Park, Ok Kyu; Song, Joon Woo; Kim, Tae Shik; Oh, Dong Joo; Gweon, Daegab; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Yoo, Hongki; Kim, Jin Won

    2016-03-01

    Macrophages mediate atheroma expansion and disruption, and denote high-risk arterial plaques. Therefore, they are substantially gaining importance as a diagnostic imaging target for the detection of rupture-prone plaques. Here, we developed an injectable near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) probe by chemically conjugating thiolated glycol chitosan with cholesteryl chloroformate, NIRF dye (cyanine 5.5 or 7), and maleimide-polyethylene glycol-mannose as mannose receptor binding ligands to specifically target a subset of macrophages abundant in high-risk plaques. This probe showed high affinity to mannose receptors, low toxicity, and allowed the direct visualization of plaque macrophages in murine carotid atheroma. After the scale-up of the MMR-NIRF probe, the administration of the probe facilitated in vivo intravascular imaging of plaque inflammation in coronary-sized vessels of atheromatous rabbits using a custom-built dual-modal optical coherence tomography (OCT)-NIRF catheter-based imaging system. This novel imaging approach represents a potential imaging strategy enabling the identification of high-risk plaques in vivo and holds promise for future clinical implications.

  7. Fundamental study on target plate model with high thermal conductive ceramics for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Shintaro

    2004-01-01

    Target plate model (35 mm x 25 mm x 100 mm) of divertor device for fusion reactor was fabricated using low activated and light material, Si/xSiC Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) and high strength and thermal conductive SiC. This model has bonding structure of armor tile (25 mm x 25 mm x 10 mmt) of Hot Pressed (HP) and Hot Isostatic Pressed (HIP) Si/SiC (10 wt%)-MMC and substrate (25 mm x 25 mm x 100 mm) of SiC/BeO (1 wt%) with water cooling channel (φ15 mm). Armor tile material, Si/10SiC-MMC shows high thermal conductive and low resistivity with over 200 MPa peak bending strength at high temperature. This material behaves super plasticity over peak temperature corresponding to peak bending strength and low temperature brittleness of this material was improved to degrade DBTT to 673 K by optimization of Hot Press (HP) and Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) conditions. Substrate body material, SiC/1BeO behaves major characteristics of high bending strength over 500 MPa, high density of 3.2 g/cm 3 and high thermal conductivity of 270 W/m·K at room temperature. Target plate model with water cooling by 293 K and 2 MPa pressurized water at 1 m/s was exposed under 5 MW/m 2 x 30 s high heat flux H + ion beam and showed very good cooling performance and no damage was found after this test. (author)

  8. Patient- and Family-Identified Problems of Traumatic Brain Injury: Value and Utility of a Target Outcome Approach to Identifying the Worst Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laraine Winter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to identify the sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI that are most troubling to veterans with TBI and their families and identify veteran-family differences in content and ranking. Instead of standardized measures of symptom frequency or severity, which may be insensitive to change or intervention effects, we used a target outcome measure for veterans with TBI and their key family members, which elicited open-ended reports concerning the three most serious TBI-related problems. This was followed by Likert-scaled ratings of difficulty in managing the problem. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, interviews were conducted in veterans’ homes. Participants included 83 veterans with TBI diagnosed at a Veterans Affairs medical rehabilitation service and a key family member of each veteran. We utilized open-ended questions to determine the problems caused by TBI within the last month. Sociodemographic characteristics of veterans and family members, and veterans’ military and medical characteristics were collected. A coding scheme was developed to categorize open-ended responses. Results: Families identified nearly twice as many categories of problems as did veterans, and veterans and families ranked problem categories very differently. Veterans ranked cognitive and physical problems worst; families ranked emotional and interpersonal problems worst. Conclusions: Easily administered open-ended questions about the most troubling TBI-related problems yield novel insights and reveal important veteran-family discrepancies.

  9. Octopus: a platform for the virtual high-throughput screening of a pool of compounds against a set of molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Eduardo Habib Bechelane; Campos, Vinícius Alves; Dos Reis Santos, Bianca; Costa, Marina Santos; Lima, Iann Gabriel; Greco, Sandro J; Ribeiro, Rosy I M A; Munayer, Felipe M; da Silva, Alisson Marques; Taranto, Alex Gutterres

    2017-01-01

    Octopus is an automated workflow management tool that is scalable for virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS). It integrates MOPAC2016, MGLTools, PyMOL, and AutoDock Vina. In contrast to other platforms, Octopus can perform docking simulations of an unlimited number of compounds into a set of molecular targets. After generating the ligands in a drawing package in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) format, Octopus can carry out geometry refinement using the semi-empirical method PM7 implemented in MOPAC2016. Docking simulations can be performed using AutoDock Vina and can utilize the Our Own Molecular Targets (OOMT) databank. Finally, the proposed software compiles the best binding energies into a standard table. Here, we describe two successful case studies that were verified by biological assay. In the first case study, the vHTS process was carried out for 22 (phenylamino)urea derivatives. The vHTS process identified a metalloprotease with the PDB code 1GKC as a molecular target for derivative LE&007. In a biological assay, compound LE&007 was found to inhibit 80% of the activity of this enzyme. In the second case study, compound Tx001 was submitted to the Octopus routine, and the results suggested that Plasmodium falciparum ATP6 (PfATP6) as a molecular target for this compound. Following an antimalarial assay, Tx001 was found to have an inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of 8.2 μM against PfATP6. These successful examples illustrate the utility of this software for finding appropriate molecular targets for compounds. Hits can then be identified and optimized as new antineoplastic and antimalarial drugs. Finally, Octopus has a friendly Linux-based user interface, and is available at www.drugdiscovery.com.br . Graphical Abstract Octopus: A platform for inverse virtual screening (IVS) to search new molecular targets for drugs.

  10. Awareness, Preference, Utilization, and Messaging Research for the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Rebecca [Bryant Research, LLC; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL

    2011-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) offers the scientific community unique access to two types of world-class neutron sources at a single site - the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The 85-MW HFIR provides one of the highest steady-state neutron fluxes of any research reactor in the world, and the SNS is one of the world's most intense pulsed neutron beams. Management of these two resources is the responsibility of the Neutron Sciences Directorate (NScD). NScD commissioned this survey research to develop baseline information regarding awareness of and perceptions about neutron science. Specific areas of investigative interest include the following: (1) awareness levels among those in the scientific community about the two neutron sources that ORNL offers; (2) the level of understanding members of various scientific communities have regarding benefits that neutron scattering techniques offer; and (3) any perceptions that negatively impact utilization of the facilities. NScD leadership identified users of two light sources in North America - the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory - as key publics. Given the type of research in which these scientists engage, they would quite likely benefit from including the neutron techniques available at SNS and HFIR among their scientific investigation tools. The objective of the survey of users of APS, NSLS, SNS, and HFIR was to explore awareness of and perceptions regarding SNS and HFIR among those in selected scientific communities. Perceptions of SNS and FHIR will provide a foundation for strategic communication plan development and for developing key educational messages. The survey was conducted in two phases. The first phase included qualitative methods of (1) key stakeholder meetings; (2) online interviews with user administrators of APS and NSLS; and (3) one

  11. Awareness, Preference, Utilization, and Messaging Research for the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, Rebecca; Kszos, Lynn A.

    2011-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) offers the scientific community unique access to two types of world-class neutron sources at a single site - the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The 85-MW HFIR provides one of the highest steady-state neutron fluxes of any research reactor in the world, and the SNS is one of the world's most intense pulsed neutron beams. Management of these two resources is the responsibility of the Neutron Sciences Directorate (NScD). NScD commissioned this survey research to develop baseline information regarding awareness of and perceptions about neutron science. Specific areas of investigative interest include the following: (1) awareness levels among those in the scientific community about the two neutron sources that ORNL offers; (2) the level of understanding members of various scientific communities have regarding benefits that neutron scattering techniques offer; and (3) any perceptions that negatively impact utilization of the facilities. NScD leadership identified users of two light sources in North America - the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory - as key publics. Given the type of research in which these scientists engage, they would quite likely benefit from including the neutron techniques available at SNS and HFIR among their scientific investigation tools. The objective of the survey of users of APS, NSLS, SNS, and HFIR was to explore awareness of and perceptions regarding SNS and HFIR among those in selected scientific communities. Perceptions of SNS and FHIR will provide a foundation for strategic communication plan development and for developing key educational messages. The survey was conducted in two phases. The first phase included qualitative methods of (1) key stakeholder meetings; (2) online interviews with user administrators of APS and NSLS; and (3) one-on-one interviews

  12. Heat Exchangers for Utilization of the Heat of High-Temperature Geothermal Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    The basic component of two-circuit geothermal systems is the heat exchanger. When used in geothermal power systems, conventional shell-and-tube and plate heat exchangers cause problems related to the cleaning of the latter from salt-deposition and corrosion products. Their lifetime does not exceed, as a rule, 1 year. To utilize the heat of high-temperature geothermal brines, a heat exchanger of the "tube-in-tube" type is proposed. A heat exchanger of this design has been operated for several years in Ternair geothermal steam field; in this heat exchanger, the thermal potential of the saline thermal water is transferred to the fresh water of the secondary circuit of the heating system for apartment houses. The reduction in the weight and size characteristics of the heat exchangers is a topical problem that can be solved with the help of heat transfer enhancers. To enhance the heat transfer process in the heat exchanger, longitudinal ribbing of the heat exchange surface is proposed. The increase in the heat exchange surface from the heat carrier side by ribbing results in an increase in the amount of the heat transferred from the heating agent. The heat exchanger is easy to manufacture and is assembled out of components comprised of two concentrically positioned tubes of a definite length, 3-6 m, serially connected with each other. The method for calculation of the impact of the number and the size of the longitudinal ribs on the heat transfer in the well heat exchanger is presented and a criterion for the selection of the optimal number and design parameters of the ribs is formulated. To prevent the corrosion and salt deposition in the heat exchanger, the use of an effective OEDFK (oxyethylidenediphosphonic acid) agent is proposed. This agent has a long-lasting corrosion-inhibiting and antiscaling effect, which is explained by the formation of a strongly adhesive chelate layer difficult to wash off the surface. The passivating OEDFK layer is restored by periodical

  13. Polyimide capsules may hold high pressure DT fuel without cryogenic support for the National Ignition Facility indirect-drive targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.J.; Letts, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    New target designs for the Omega upgrade laser and ignition targets in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require thick (80 - 100 microm) cryogenic fuel layers. The Omega upgrade target will require cryogenic handling after initial fill because of the high fill pressures and the thin capsule walls. For the NIF indirectly driven targets, a larger capsule size and new materials offer hope that they can be built, filled and stored in a manner similar to the targets used in the Nova facility without requiring cryogenic handling

  14. Characterization of the fast electrons distribution produced in a high intensity laser target interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westover, B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Chen, C. D.; Patel, P. K.; McLean, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Beg, F. N., E-mail: fbeg@ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Experiments on the Titan laser (∼150 J, 0.7 ps, 2 × 10{sup 20} W cm{sup −2}) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were carried out in order to study the properties of fast electrons produced by high-intensity, short pulse laser interacting with matter under conditions relevant to Fast Ignition. Bremsstrahlung x-rays produced by these fast electrons were measured by a set of compact filter-stack based x-ray detectors placed at three angles with respect to the target. The measured bremsstrahlung signal allows a characterization of the fast electron beam spectrum, conversion efficiency of laser energy into fast electron kinetic energy and angular distribution. A Monte Carlo code Integrated Tiger Series was used to model the bremsstrahlung signal and infer a laser to fast electron conversion efficiency of 30%, an electron slope temperature of about 2.2 MeV, and a mean divergence angle of 39°. Simulations were also performed with the hybrid transport code ZUMA which includes fields in the target. In this case, a conversion efficiency of laser energy to fast electron energy of 34% and a slope temperature between 1.5 MeV and 4 MeV depending on the angle between the target normal direction and the measuring spectrometer are found. The observed temperature of the bremsstrahlung spectrum, and therefore the inferred electron spectrum are found to be angle dependent.

  15. Combining target enrichment with barcode multiplexing for high throughput SNP discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunke Sebastian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary goal of genetic linkage analysis is to identify genes affecting a phenotypic trait. After localisation of the linkage region, efficient genetic dissection of the disease linked loci requires that functional variants are identified across the loci. These functional variations are difficult to detect due to extent of genetic diversity and, to date, incomplete cataloguing of the large number of variants present both within and between populations. Massively parallel sequencing platforms offer unprecedented capacity for variant discovery, however the number of samples analysed are still limited by cost per sample. Some progress has been made in reducing the cost of resequencing using either multiplexing methodologies or through the utilisation of targeted enrichment technologies which provide the ability to resequence genomic areas of interest rather that full genome sequencing. Results We developed a method that combines current multiplexing methodologies with a solution-based target enrichment method to further reduce the cost of resequencing where region-specific sequencing is required. Our multiplex/enrichment strategy produced high quality data with nominal reduction of sequencing depth. We undertook a genotyping study and were successful in the discovery of novel SNP alleles in all samples at uniplex, duplex and pentaplex levels. Conclusion Our work describes the successful combination of a targeted enrichment method and index barcode multiplexing to reduce costs, time and labour associated with processing large sample sets. Furthermore, we have shown that the sequencing depth obtained is adequate for credible SNP genotyping analysis at uniplex, duplex and pentaplex levels.

  16. A Powerful Mitochondria-Targeted Iron Chelator Affords High Photoprotection against Solar Ultraviolet A Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reelfs, Olivier; Abbate, Vincenzo; Hider, Robert C; Pourzand, Charareh

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are the principal destination for labile iron, making these organelles particularly susceptible to oxidative damage on exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA, 320-400 nm), the oxidizing component of sunlight. The labile iron-mediated oxidative damage caused by UVA to mitochondria leads to necrotic cell death via adenosine triphosphate depletion. Therefore, targeted removal of mitochondrial labile iron via highly specific tools from these organelles may be an effective approach to protect the skin cells against the harmful effects of UVA. In this work, we designed a mitochondria-targeted hexadentate (tricatechol-based) iron chelator linked to mitochondria-homing SS-like peptides. The photoprotective potential of this compound against UVA-induced oxidative damage and cell death was evaluated in cultured primary skin fibroblasts. Our results show that this compound provides unprecedented protection against UVA-induced mitochondrial damage, adenosine triphosphate depletion, and the ensuing necrotic cell death in skin fibroblasts, and this effect is fully related to its potent iron-chelating property in the organelle. This mitochondria-targeted iron chelator has therefore promising potential for skin photoprotection against the deleterious effects of the UVA component of sunlight. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Design Optimisation of a High Intensity Beam Facility and Feasibility Experiment of a Solid Fragmented Target

    CERN Document Server

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos; Rivkin, Leonid

    2014-06-13

    The present PhD thesis describes the design, execution and results of the HRMT-10 experiment performed at the HiRadMat facility of the CERN/SPS complex. The first part of the thesis covers the design optimization studies of the HiRadMat facility, focusing in particular on the radiation protection issues. A detailed Monte-Carlo model of the facility has been developed and validated through comparison with measurements. A very satisfactory agreement between the simulation and the experimental data is observed. In the second part of this thesis, a novel feasibility experiment of a fragmented solid target for a future Neutrino Factory or a Super Beam facility, able to support high beam powers ( 1 MW) is presented in detail. A solid granular target has been proposed as an interesting alternative to an open Hg jet target, presently considered as the baseline for such facilities, but posing considerable technical challenges. The HRMT-10 experiment seeks to address the lack of experimental data of the feasibility of...

  18. CRISPRscan: designing highly efficient sgRNAs for CRISPR/Cas9 targeting in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Mateos, Miguel A.; Vejnar, Charles E.; Beaudoin, Jean-Denis; Fernandez, Juan P.; Mis, Emily K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Giraldez, Antonio J.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 technology provides a powerful system for genome engineering. However, variable activity across different single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) remains a significant limitation. We have analyzed the molecular features that influence sgRNA stability, activity and loading into Cas9 in vivo. We observe that guanine enrichment and adenine depletion increase sgRNA stability and activity, while loading, nucleosome positioning and Cas9 off-target binding are not major determinants. We additionally identified truncated and 5′ mismatch-containing sgRNAs as efficient alternatives to canonical sgRNAs. Based on these results, we created a predictive sgRNA-scoring algorithm (CRISPRscan.org) that effectively captures the sequence features affecting Cas9/sgRNA activity in vivo. Finally, we show that targeting Cas9 to the germ line using a Cas9-nanos-3′-UTR fusion can generate maternal-zygotic mutants, increase viability and reduce somatic mutations. Together, these results provide novel insights into the determinants that influence Cas9 activity and a framework to identify highly efficient sgRNAs for genome targeting in vivo. PMID:26322839

  19. Switchable DNA interfaces for the highly sensitive detection of label-free DNA targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rant, Ulrich; Arinaga, Kenji; Scherer, Simon; Pringsheim, Erika; Fujita, Shozo; Yokoyama, Naoki; Tornow, Marc; Abstreiter, Gerhard

    2007-10-30

    We report a method to detect label-free oligonucleotide targets. The conformation of surface-tethered probe nucleic acids is modulated by alternating electric fields, which cause the molecules to extend away from or fold onto the biased surface. Binding (hybridization) of targets to the single-stranded probes results in a pronounced enhancement of the layer-height modulation amplitude, monitored optically in real time. The method features an exceptional detection limit of <3 x 10(8) bound targets per cm(2) sensor area. Single base-pair mismatches in the sequences of DNA complements may readily be identified; moreover, binding kinetics and binding affinities can be determined with high accuracy. When driving the DNA to oscillate at frequencies in the kHz regime, distinct switching kinetics are revealed for single- and double-stranded DNA. Molecular dynamics are used to identify the binding state of molecules according to their characteristic kinetic fingerprints by using a chip-compatible detection format.

  20. Multiplex target enrichment using DNA indexing for ultra-high throughput SNP detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, Elaine M

    2011-02-01

    Screening large numbers of target regions in multiple DNA samples for sequence variation is an important application of next-generation sequencing but an efficient method to enrich the samples in parallel has yet to be reported. We describe an advanced method that combines DNA samples using indexes or barcodes prior to target enrichment to facilitate this type of experiment. Sequencing libraries for multiple individual DNA samples, each incorporating a unique 6-bp index, are combined in equal quantities, enriched using a single in-solution target enrichment assay and sequenced in a single reaction. Sequence reads are parsed based on the index, allowing sequence analysis of individual samples. We show that the use of indexed samples does not impact on the efficiency of the enrichment reaction. For three- and nine-indexed HapMap DNA samples, the method was found to be highly accurate for SNP identification. Even with sequence coverage as low as 8x, 99% of sequence SNP calls were concordant with known genotypes. Within a single experiment, this method can sequence the exonic regions of hundreds of genes in tens of samples for sequence and structural variation using as little as 1 μg of input DNA per sample.

  1. Development of a high-heat-flux target for multimegawatt, multisecond neutral beams at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Milora, S.L.; Bush, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    A high-heat-flux target has been developed for intercepting multimegawatt, multisecond neutral beam power at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Water-cooled copper swirl tubes are used for the heat transfer medium; these tubes exhibit an enhancement in burnout heat flux over conventional axial-flow tubes. The target consists of 126 swirl tubes (each 0.95 cm in outside diameter with 0.16-cm-thick walls and approx. =1 m long) arranged in a V-shape. Two arrays of parallel tubes inclined at an angle α to the beam axis form the V-shape, and this geometry reduces the surface heat flux by a factor of 1/sin α (for the present design, α =13 0 and 21 0 ). In tests with the ORNL long-pulse ion source (13- by 43-cm grid), the target has handled up to 3-MW, 30-s beam pulses with no deleterious effects. The peak power density was estimated at approx. =15 kW/cm 2 normal to the beam axis (5.4 kW/cm 2 maximum on tube surfaces). The water flow rate through the target was 41.6 L/s (660 gpm) or 0.33 L/s (5.2 gpm) per tube (axial flow velocity = 11.6 m/s). The corresponding pressure drop across the target was 1.14 MPa (165 psi) with an inlet pressure of 1.45 MPa (210 psia). Data are also presented from backup experiments in which individual tubes were heated by a small ion source (10-cm-diam grid) to characterize tube performance. These results suggest that the target should handle peak power densities in the range 25 to 30 kW/cm 2 normal to the beam axis (approx. =10 kW/cm 2 maximum on tube surfaces) with the present flow parameters. This translates to beam power levels of 5 to 6 MW for equivalent beam optics

  2. Better target detection in the presence of collinear flankers under high working memory load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan W. De Fockert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are multiple ways in which working memory can influence selective attention. Aside from the content-specific effects of working memory on selective attention, whereby attention is more likely to be directed towards information that matches the contents of working memory, the mere level of load on working memory has also been shown to have an effect on selective attention. Specifically, high load on working memory is associated with increased processing of irrelevant information. In most demonstrations of the effect to-date, this has led to impaired target performance, leaving open the possibility that the effect partly reflects an increase in general task difficulty under high load. Here we show that working memory load can result in a performance gain when processing of distracting information aids target performance. The facilitation in the detection of a low-contrast Gabor stimulus in the presence of collinear flanking Gabors was greater when load on a concurrent working memory task was high, compared to low. This finding suggests that working memory can interact with selective attention at an early stage in visual processing.

  3. DMPDS: A Fast Motion Estimation Algorithm Targeting High Resolution Videos and Its FPGA Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sanchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new fast motion estimation (ME algorithm targeting high resolution digital videos and its efficient hardware architecture design. The new Dynamic Multipoint Diamond Search (DMPDS algorithm is a fast algorithm which increases the ME quality when compared with other fast ME algorithms. The DMPDS achieves a better digital video quality reducing the occurrence of local minima falls, especially in high definition videos. The quality results show that the DMPDS is able to reach an average PSNR gain of 1.85 dB when compared with the well-known Diamond Search (DS algorithm. When compared to the optimum results generated by the Full Search (FS algorithm the DMPDS shows a lose of only 1.03 dB in the PSNR. On the other hand, the DMPDS reached a complexity reduction higher than 45 times when compared to FS. The quality gains related to DS caused an expected increase in the DMPDS complexity which uses 6.4-times more calculations than DS. The DMPDS architecture was designed focused on high performance and low cost, targeting to process Quad Full High Definition (QFHD videos in real time (30 frames per second. The architecture was described in VHDL and synthesized to Altera Stratix 4 and Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGAs. The synthesis results show that the architecture is able to achieve processing rates higher than 53 QFHD fps, reaching the real-time requirements. The DMPDS architecture achieved the highest processing rate when compared to related works in the literature. This high processing rate was obtained designing an architecture with a high operation frequency and low numbers of cycles necessary to process each block.

  4. A free Hg jet system for use in a high-power target experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Spampinato, Philip; Gabriel, Tony A; Graves, Van; Haseroth, H; Kirk, Harold G; Lettry, Jacques; McDonald, Kirk T; Rennich, Mark; Simos, Nikolaos; Titus, P; Tsang, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We describe a mercury jet system that is suitable for insertion into the 15cm diameter bore of a high-field solenoid magnet. The device features a hermetically sealed primary containment volume which is enclosed in a secondary containment system to insure isolation of mercury vapors from the remaining experimental environment. The jet diameter is 1-cm while the jet velocity will be up to 20 m/s. Optical diagnostics is incorporated into the target design to allow observation of the dispersal of the mercury as a result of interaction with a 24 GeV proton beam with up to 20 x 10

  5. Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons in Solid Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, Drew Pitney [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The cone-guided fast ignition approach to Inertial Con nement Fusion requires laser-accelerated relativistic electrons to deposit kilojoules of energy within an imploded fuel core to initiate fusion burn. One obstacle to coupling electron energy into the core is the ablation of material, known as preplasma, by laser energy proceeding nanoseconds prior to the main pulse. This causes the laser-absorption surface to be pushed back hundreds of microns from the initial target surface; thus increasing the distance that electrons must travel to reach the imploded core. Previous experiments have shown an order of magnitude decrease in coupling into surrogate targets when intentionally increasing the amount of preplasma. Additionally, for electrons to deposit energy within the core, they should have kinetic energies on the order of a few MeV, as less energetic electrons will be stopped prior to the core and more energetic electrons will pass through the core without depositing much energy. Thus a quantitative understanding of the electron energy spectrum and how it responds to varied laser parameters is paramount for fast ignition. For the rst time, this dissertation quantitatively investigates the acceleration of electrons using an ultra-high-contrast laser. Ultra-high-contrast lasers reduce the laser energy that reaches the target prior to the main pulse; drastically reducing the amount of preplasma. Experiments were performed in a cone-wire geometry relevant to fast ignition. These experiments irradiated the inner-tip of a Au cone with the laser and observed electrons that passed through a Cu wire attached to the outer-tip of the cone. The total emission of K x-rays is used as a diagnostic to infer the electron energy coupled into the wire. Imaging the x-ray emission allowed an e ective path-length of electrons within the wire to be determined, which constrained the electron energy spectrum. Experiments were carried out on the ultra-high-contrast Trident laser at Los

  6. The Availability and Utilization of School Library Resources in Some Selected Secondary Schools (High School) in Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owate, C. N.; Iroha, Okpa

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the availability and utilization of school library resources by Secondary School (High School) Students. Eight Selected Secondary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria were chosen based on their performance in external examinations and geographic locations. In carrying out the research, questionnaires were administered to both…

  7. Cultivation and utilization of Jerusalem artichoke for ethanol, single cell protein, and high-fructose syrup production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpai, P.K.; Bajpai, Pratima (Thapar Corporate Research and Development Center, Patiala (IN). Div. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering)

    1991-04-01

    Jerusalem artichoke has one of the highest carbohydrate yields of the known agricultural crops and has many distinct advantages over traditional crops. This brief review presents data on the yield and composition of Jerusalem artichoke, techniques of carbohydrate extraction and its utilization for the production of ethanol, single cell protein (SCP), and high-fructose syrup, along with economic considerations. (author).

  8. Utilization of low- and high-voltage electric equipment at heights exceeding 1000 m above sea level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The present-day state of high- and low-voltage equipment utilization at heights exceeding 1000 m above sea level is considered with allowance for the technical requirements applicable to the equipment, as provided for in the GOST (All-Union State Standards), and for the results of scientific research studies. 12 refs.

  9. Heating, Hydrodynamics, and Radiation From a Laser Heated Non-LTE High-Z Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William; Foord, M. E.; Schneider, M. B.; Barrios, M. A.; Brown, G. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Jarrott, L. C.; Liedahl, D. A.; Marley, E. V.; Mauche, C. W.; Widmann, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present 2D R-z simulations that model the hydrodynamics and x-ray output of a laser heated, tamped foil, using the rad-hydro code LASNEX. The foil consists of a thin (2400 A) cylindrical disk of iron/vanadium/gold that is embedded in a thicker Be tamper. The simulations utilize a non-LTE detailed configuration (DCA) model, which generates the emission spectra. Simulated pinhole images are compared with data, finding qualitative agreement with the time-history of the face-on emission profiles, and exhibiting an interesting reduction in emission size over a few ns time period. Furthermore, we find that the simulations recover similar burn through times in both the target and Be tamper as measured by a time-dependent filtered x-ray detector (DANTE). Additional results and characterization of the experimental plasma will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and atherosclerotic lesions targeting effects of tanshinone IIA discoidal and spherical biomimetic high density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; He, Hongliang; Liu, Jianping; Wang, Ji; Zhang, Suyang; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Wu, Zimei

    2013-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) have been successfully reconstructed to deliver a large number of lipophilic drugs. Here, discoidal and spherical recombinant HDL loaded with cardiovascular drug tanshinone IIA (TA) were constructed (TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL), respectively. And next their in vitro physiochemical and biomimetic properties were characterized. Furthermore, pharmacokinetics, atherosclerotic lesions targeting effects and antiatherogenic efficacies were elaborately performed and compared in atherosclerotic New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. In vitro characterizations results showed that both TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL had nano-size diameter, high entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug-loading capacity (DL). Additionally, similar to their native counterparts, TA-d-rHDL maintained remodeling behaviors induced by lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and TA leaked during remodeling behaviors. Pharmacokinetic studies manifested that both TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL markedly improved pharmacokinetic behaviors of TA in vivo. Ex vivo imaging demonstrated that both d-rHDL and s-rHDL bound more avidly to atherosclerotic lesions than to normal vessel walls, and s-rHDL had better targeting effect than d-rHDL. Pharmacodynamic tests illustrated that both TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL had much stronger antiatherogenic efficacies than conventional TA nanostructured lipid carriers (TA-NLC), TA liposomes (TA-L) and commercially available preparation Sulfotanshinone Sodium Injection (SSI). Moreover, TA-s-rHDL had more potent antiatherogenic efficacies than TA-d-rHDL. Collectively our studies indicated that rHDL could be exploited as potential delivery vehicles of TA targeting atherosclerotic lesions as well as synergistically improving efficacies, especially for s-rHDL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors associated with high probability of target blood pressure non-achievement in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Zhemanyuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the topic issue of modern cardiology is factors of target blood pressure level non-achievement clarifying due to a better understanding how we can reduce cardiovascular complications. The aim of the study is to determine the factors of poor blood pressure control using the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters and adenosine 5'-diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation parameters in patients with arterial hypertension. Material and methods. The study involved 153 patients with essential hypertension (EH stage II, II degree. The ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed in patients during at least two of first-line antihypertensive drugs in optimal daily doses usage by the ABPM bifunctional device (Incart, S.-P., R.F.. Platelet aggregation was carried out using light transmittance aggregation by optical analyzer (Solar, R.B. with adenosine 5'-diphosphate (Sigma-Aldrich at final concentration of 10.0 × 10-6 mol / L. The first group were inadequately controlled essential hypertensive individuals with high systolic or/and diastolic BP level according to the ABPM results, and the second one were patients with adequately controlled EH. Groups of patients were comparable in age (60.39 ± 10.74 years vs. 62.80 ± 9.63; p = 0.181, respectively. In the group of EH patients who reached the target level of blood pressure, women predominated (60% vs. 39.81%; p = 0.021, respectively. We used the binary logistic regression analysis to determine the predictors of target blood pressure level poor reaching using ABPM and platelet aggregation parameters. Results According to the univariate logistic regression analysis, the dependent factors influencing the target blood pressure level poor reaching are the average diurnal diastolic blood pressure (DBP (OR = 44.8; diurnal variability of systolic blood pressure (SBP (OR = 4.4; square index of hypertension for diurnal periods SBP (OR = 318.9; square index of hypertension for diurnal

  12. Ship detection for high resolution optical imagery with adaptive target filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hongbin

    2015-10-01

    Ship detection is important due to both its civil and military use. In this paper, we propose a novel ship detection method, Adaptive Target Filter (ATF), for high resolution optical imagery. The proposed framework can be grouped into two stages, where in the first stage, a test image is densely divided into different detection windows and each window is transformed to a feature vector in its feature space. The Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) is accumulated as a basic feature descriptor. In the second stage, the proposed ATF highlights all the ship regions and suppresses the undesired backgrounds adaptively. Each detection window is assigned a score, which represents the degree of the window belonging to a certain ship category. The ATF can be adaptively obtained by the weighted Logistic Regression (WLR) according to the distribution of backgrounds and targets of the input image. The main innovation of our method is that we only need to collect positive training samples to build the filter, while the negative training samples are adaptively generated by the input image. This is different to other classification method such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Logistic Regression (LR), which need to collect both positive and negative training samples. The experimental result on 1-m high resolution optical images shows the proposed method achieves a desired ship detection performance with higher quality and robustness than other methods, e.g., SVM and LR.

  13. Explosive vaporization induced by high-power CO2-laser target interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugenschmidt, M.; Vollrath, K.

    1976-01-01

    The interactions of high-power laser pulses with targets such as metals or dielectric materials causes a series of optical, thermal, and mechanical processes. Thereby, heating, melting, and vaporization can take place in a short time. At power densities of about 10 7 to several 10 8 W/cm 2 this can even be produced explosively. As compared to continuous ablation, this type of interaction can remove greater masses from the bulk of material. The investigations are performed by using an electron-beam preionized CO 2 -laser acting on different target materials. The energy of the laser pulses is about 30 J, the pulse-half-widths of the long-tail pulses 4 to 6 μs. Optical measurements yield some information on threshold values for these processes, for the formation and expansion of plasmas, and for the ejection of material in form of greater particles. High speed photographic techniques include a rotating mirror- and an image converter camera. Starting from shock-wave theory, gas dynamic equations (in unidimensional approximation) allow for a quantitative determination of the specific internal energies and pressures in the case of optical detonation. (orig.) [de

  14. Drugs targeting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol for coronary artery disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Pamela M; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Many patients remain at high risk for future cardiovascular events despite levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at, or below, target while taking statin therapy. Much effort is therefore being focused on strategies to reduce this residual risk. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a strong, independent, inverse predictor of coronary heart disease risk and is therefore an attractive therapeutic target. Currently available agents that raise HDL-C have only modest effects and there is limited evidence of additional cardiovascular risk reduction on top of background statin therapy associated with their use. It was hoped that the use of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors would provide additional benefit, but the results of clinical outcome studies to date have been disappointing. The results of ongoing trials with other CETP inhibitors that raise HDL-C to a greater degree and also lower LDL-C, as well as with other emerging therapies are awaited. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Core-shell nanocarriers with high paclitaxel loading for passive and active targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhu; Lv, Yaqi; Cao, Hui; Yao, Jing; Zhou, Jianping; He, Wei; Yin, Lifang

    2016-06-01

    Rapid blood clearance and premature burst release are inherent drawbacks of conventional nanoparticles, resulting in poor tumor selectivity. iRGD peptide is widely recognized as an efficient cell membrane penetration peptide homing to αVβ3 integrins. Herein, core-shell nanocapsules (NCs) and iRGD-modified NCs (iRGD-NCs) with high drug payload for paclitaxel (PTX) were prepared to enhance the antitumor activities of chemotherapy agents with poor water solubility. Improved in vitro and in vivo tumor targeting and penetration were observed with NCs and iRGD-NCs; the latter exhibited better antitumor activity because iRGD enhanced the accumulation and penetration of NCs in tumors. The NCs were cytocompatible, histocompatible, and non-toxic to other healthy tissues. The endocytosis of NCs was mediated by lipid rafts in an energy-dependent manner, leading to better cytotoxicity of PTX against cancer cells. In contrast with commercial product, PTX-loaded NCs (PTX-NCs) increased area under concentration-time curve (AUC) by about 4-fold, prolonged mean resident time (MRT) by more than 8-fold and reduced the elimination rate constant by greater than 68-fold. In conclusion, the present nanocarriers with high drug-loading capacity represent an efficient tumor-targeting drug delivery system with promising potential for cancer therapy.

  16. Multi-targeted and aggressive treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, P; Pedersen, O

    2005-01-01

    Results from many single risk factor intervention trials and the multi-targeted Steno-2 trial in the last few years have provided a strong case that management of type 2 diabetes in all age groups requires a structured and intensified approach that is far more than just glucocentric, an approach...... addressing additional cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, sedentary behaviour, smoking and dietary habits causing insulin resistance and pro-inflammation. This type of integrated therapy applied for almost 8 years to high-risk type 2 diabetic patients has cut the relative risk......-driven polypharmacy and simple but focused behaviour modelling with continuous education, motivation and trouble-shooting for treatment barriers identified for the patient and the care giver. It is high time we transfer these experiences and major health benefits gained in the 'green house' of controlled clinical...

  17. High performance ZnO:Al films deposited on PET substrates using facing target sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tingting; Dong, Guobo; Gao, Fangyuan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Qiang; Diao, Xungang

    2013-10-01

    ZnO:Al (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on flexible PET substrates using a plasma damage-free facing target sputtering system at room temperature. The structure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties were investigated as a function of working power. All the samples have a highly preferred orientation of the c-axis perpendicular to the PET substrate and have a high quality surface. With increased working power, the carrier concentration changes slightly, the mobility increases at the beginning and decreases after it reaches a maximum value, in line with electrical conductivity. The figure of merit has been significantly improved with increasing of the working power. Under the optimized condition, the lowest resistivity of 1.3 × 10-3 Ω cm with a sheet resistance of 29 Ω/□ and the relative visible transmittance above 93% in the visible region were obtained.

  18. High performance ZnO:Al films deposited on PET substrates using facing target sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Tingting; Dong, Guobo; Gao, Fangyuan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Qiang; Diao, Xungang

    2013-01-01

    ZnO:Al (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on flexible PET substrates using a plasma damage-free facing target sputtering system at room temperature. The structure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties were investigated as a function of working power. All the samples have a highly preferred orientation of the c-axis perpendicular to the PET substrate and have a high quality surface. With increased working power, the carrier concentration changes slightly, the mobility increases at the beginning and decreases after it reaches a maximum value, in line with electrical conductivity. The figure of merit has been significantly improved with increasing of the working power. Under the optimized condition, the lowest resistivity of 1.3 × 10 −3 Ω cm with a sheet resistance of 29 Ω/□ and the relative visible transmittance above 93% in the visible region were obtained.

  19. BUILDING HIGH PERFORMANCE STRATEGY OF MILITARY EXPENDITURES: THE UTILITY FUNCTION IN THE MIDDLE OF DEFENCE BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARITANA SEDYSHEVA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes tasks and methods which can be used in process of discovering the most expedient variants of the perspective and effective strategy development process of the defence spending in the Republic of Estonia.The author offers a part of strategy model named “Financial Perspective” as one of the improvement tools for the system of planning military expenditures and effective utilization of budgetary funds. The Balanced Scorecard application by using the “utility function” will allow the Estonian Defence Forces to overcome important barriers to strategy implementation by interrelation of military planning and budgeting processes. The Balanced Scorecard might be used as a very strong practical application. It will improve the calculations of long-term perspective plans and the development of the military budgetary policy by taking into account the features of national defence expenses.

  20. Propagation of high-current fast electron beam in a dielectric target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimo, O.; Debayle, A.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. A relativistic electron beam with very high current density may be produced during the interaction of a short high intensity laser pulse with a solid target. In Fast Ignition approach to Inertial Confinement Fusion, such beam is supposed to heat a part of the precompressed DT fuel pellet to the conditions of an efficient ignition. For successful implementation of Fast Ignition understanding the propagation and energy deposition of the beam is crucial. A number of processes, mostly associated with the return current, are dissipating the energy of the beam or inhibiting its collimated transport, namely the filamentation. Weibel, two-stream or the recently proposed ionization instability. Ionization instability may develop in a solid dielectric target due to the dependence of the propagation velocity of the beam on the beam density. To study the propagation of high current electron beam in dielectric target, we use a one-dimensional relativistic electrostatic simulation code based on the Particle in Cell method. The code includes ionization processes in dielectric material and collisions of newly generated cold electrons. The current density of the relativistic electron beam used in this work is in the range 3-300 GA/cm 2 , while its length roughly corresponds to the beam, produced by a 40 fs laser pulse. Propagation of the beam in the polyethylene target is studied. The code is complemented by an analytical model, which is applicable og a wider range of beam parameters that are currently beyond our computational possibilities. When the head of the beam enters the plastic target, electric field grows rapidly in consequence of the charge separation and it starts to ionize atoms. In the maximum of the field, which is less than 10% of the atomic field, the density of new free electrons is two orders of magnitude higher than the beam density, which is enough for the current neutralization. Cold electrons are accelerated by the field

  1. Utilization of SRNL-developed radiation-resistant polymer in high radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skibo, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-27

    The radiation-resistant polymer developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory is adaptable for multiple applications to enhance polymer endurance and effectiveness in radiation environments. SRNL offers to collaborate with TEPCO in evaluation, testing, and utilization of SRNL’s radiation-resistant polymer in the D&D of the Fukushima Daiichi NPS. Refinement of the scope and associated costs will be conducted in consultation with TECPO.

  2. High-efficiency SO{sub 2} removal in utility FGD systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gray, S.; Dekraker, D. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have contracted with Radian Corporation to conduct full-scale testing, process modeling, and economic evaluations of six existing utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project objective is to evaluate low capital cost upgrades for achieving up to 98% sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in a variety of FGD system types. The systems include dual-loop, packed absorbers at Tampa Electric Company`s Big Bend Station; cocurrent, packed absorbers at Hoosier Energy`s Merom Station; dual-loop absorbers with perforated-plate trays at Southwestern Electric Power Company`s Pirkey Station; horizontal spray absorbers at PSI Energy`s Gibson Station; venturi scrubbers at Duquesne Light`s Elrama Station; and open stray absorbers at New york State Electric and Gas Corporations`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station. All operate in an inhibited-oxidation mode except the system at Big Bend (forced oxidation), and all use limestone reagent except the Elrama system (Mg-lime). The program was conducted to demonstrate that upgrades such as performance additives and/or mechanical modifications can increase system SO{sub 2} removal at low cost. The cost effectiveness of each upgrade has been evaluated on the basis of test results and/or process model predictions for upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this program may lead some utilities to use SO{sub 2} removal upgrades as an approach for compliance with phase 2 of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. This paper summarizes the results of testing, modeling, and economic evaluations that have been completed since July, 1994.

  3. Generation and evaluation of mammalian secreted and membrane protein expression libraries for high-throughput target discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panavas, Tadas; Lu, Jin; Liu, Xuesong; Winkis, Ann-Marie; Powers, Gordon; Naso, Michael F; Amegadzie, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Expressed protein libraries are becoming a critical tool for new target discovery in the pharmaceutical industry. In order to get the most meaningful and comprehensive results from protein library screens, it is essential to have library proteins in their native conformation with proper post-translation modifications. This goal is achieved by expressing untagged human proteins in a human cell background. We optimized the transfection and cell culture conditions to maximize protein expression in a 96-well format so that the expression levels were comparable with the levels observed in shake flasks. For detection purposes, we engineered a 'tag after stop codon' system. Depending on the expression conditions, it was possible to express either native or tagged proteins from the same expression vector set. We created a human secretion protein library of 1432 candidates and a small plasma membrane protein set of about 500 candidates. Utilizing the optimized expression conditions, we expressed and analyzed both libraries by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. Two thirds of secreted proteins could be detected by Western-blot analyses; almost half of them were visible on Coomassie stained gels. In this paper, we describe protein expression libraries that can be easily produced in mammalian expression systems in a 96-well format, with one protein expressed per well. The libraries and methods described allow for the development of robust, high-throughput functional screens designed to assay for protein specific functions associated with a relevant disease-specific activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited using High Target Utilisation Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calnan, S.; Upadhyaya, H.M.; Thwaites, M.J.; Tiwari, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on soda lime glass and polyimide substrates using an innovative process known as High Target Utilisation Sputtering (HiTUS). The influence of the oxygen flow rate, substrate temperature and sputtering pressure, on the electrical, optical and thermal stability properties of the films was investigated. High substrate temperature, medium oxygen flow rate and moderate pressure gave the best compromise of low resistivity and high transmittance. The lowest resistivity was 1.6 x 10 -4 Ω cm on glass while that on the polyimide was 1.9 x 10 -4 Ω cm. Substrate temperatures above 100 deg. C were required to obtain visible light transmittance exceeding 85% for ITO films on glass. The thermal stability of the films was mainly influenced by the oxygen flow rate and thus the initial degree of oxidation. The film resistivity was either unaffected or reduced after heating in vacuum but generally increased for oxygen deficient films when heated in air. The greatest increase in transmittance of oxygen deficient films occurred for heat treatment in air while that of the highly oxidised films was largely unaffected by heating in both media. This study has demonstrated the potential of HiTUS as a favourable deposition method for high quality ITO suitable for use in thin film solar cells

  5. Fabrication of high specificity hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles assisted by Eudragit for targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xiaodong; Chen, Lijue; Velleman, Leonora; Li, Chengpeng; Zhu, Haijin; He, Canzhong; Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Duan, Wei; Kong, Lingxue

    2015-05-01

    Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) are one of the most promising carriers for effective drug delivery due to their large surface area, high volume for drug loading and excellent biocompatibility. However, the non-ionic surfactant templated HMSNs often have a broad size distribution and a defective mesoporous structure because of the difficulties involved in controlling the formation and organization of micelles for the growth of silica framework. In this paper, a novel "Eudragit assisted" strategy has been developed to fabricate HMSNs by utilising the Eudragit nanoparticles as cores and to assist in the self-assembly of micelle organisation. Highly dispersed mesoporous silica spheres with intact hollow interiors and through pores on the shell were fabricated. The HMSNs have a high surface area (670 m(2)/g), small diameter (120 nm) and uniform pore size (2.5 nm) that facilitated the effective encapsulation of 5-fluorouracil within HMSNs, achieving a high loading capacity of 194.5 mg(5-FU)/g(HMSNs). The HMSNs were non-cytotoxic to colorectal cancer cells SW480 and can be bioconjugated with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) for efficient and specific cell internalization. The high specificity and excellent targeting performance of EGF grafted HMSNs have demonstrated that they can become potential intracellular drug delivery vehicles for colorectal cancers via EGF-EGFR interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Activated Protein C Attenuates Severe Inflammation by Targeting VLA-3high Neutrophil Subpopulation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Pranita P; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Lerman, Yelena V; Trzeciak, Alissa; Harrower, Eric J; Rezaie, Alireza R; Kim, Minsoo

    2017-10-15

    The host injury involved in multiorgan system failure during severe inflammation is mediated, in part, by massive infiltration and sequestration of hyperactive neutrophils in the visceral organ. A recombinant form of human activated protein C (rhAPC) has shown cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory functions in some clinical and animal studies, but the direct mechanism is not fully understood. Recently, we reported that, during endotoxemia and severe polymicrobial peritonitis, integrin VLA-3 (CD49c/CD29) is specifically upregulated on hyperinflammatory neutrophils and that targeting the VLA-3 high neutrophil subpopulation improved survival in mice. In this article, we report that rhAPC binds to human neutrophils via integrin VLA-3 (CD49c/CD29) with a higher affinity compared with other Arg-Gly-Asp binding integrins. Similarly, there is preferential binding of activated protein C (PC) to Gr1 high CD11b high VLA-3 high cells isolated from the bone marrow of septic mice. Furthermore, specific binding of rhAPC to human neutrophils via VLA-3 was inhibited by an antagonistic peptide (LXY2). In addition, genetically modified mutant activated PC, with a high affinity for VLA-3, shows significantly improved binding to neutrophils compared with wild-type activated PC and significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration into the lungs of septic mice. These data indicate that variants of activated PC have a stronger affinity for integrin VLA-3, which reveals novel therapeutic possibilities. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Spectroscopic Characterisation of CARMENES Target Candidates from FEROS, CAFE and HRS High-Resolution Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passegger, Vera Maria; Reiners, Ansgar; Jeffers, Sandra V.; Wende, Sebastian; Schöfer, Patrick; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, Jose A.; Montes, David; Mundt, Reinhard; Ribas, Ignasi; Quirrenbach, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Échelle Spectrographs) started a new planet survey on M-dwarfs in January this year. The new high-resolution spectrographs are operating in the visible and near-infrared at Calar Alto Observatory. They will perform high-accuracy radial-velocity measurements (goal 1 m s-1) of about 300 M-dwarfs with the aim to detect low-mass planets within habitable zones. We characterised the candidate sample for CARMENES and provide fundamental parameters for these stars in order to constrain planetary properties and understand star-planet systems. Using state-of-the-art model atmospheres (PHOENIX-ACES) and χ2-minimization with a downhill-simplex method we determine effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity [Fe/H] for high-resolution spectra of around 480 stars of spectral types M0.0-6.5V taken with FEROS, CAFE and HRS. We find good agreement between the models and our observed high-resolution spectra. We show the performance of the algorithm, as well as results, parameter and spectral type distributions for the CARMENES candidate sample, which is used to define the CARMENES target sample. We also present first preliminary results obtained from CARMENES spectra.

  8. De-Trending K2 Exoplanet Targets for High Spacecraft Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Nicholas; Luger, Rodrigo; Barnes, Rory

    2018-01-01

    After the failure of two reaction wheels, the Kepler space telescope lost its fine pointing ability and entered a new phase of observation, K2. Targets observed by K2 have high motion relative to the detector and K2 light curves have higher noise than Kepler observations. Despite the increased noise, systematics removal pipelines such as K2SFF and EVEREST have enabled continued high-precision transiting planet science with the telescope, resulting in the detection of hundreds of new exoplanets. However, as the spacecraft begins to run out of fuel, sputtering will drive large and random variations in pointing that can prevent detection of exoplanets during the remaining 5 campaigns. In general, higher motion will spread the stellar point spread function (PSF) across more pixels during a campaign, which increases the number of degrees of freedom in the noise component and significantly reduces the de-trending power of traditional systematics removal methods. We use a model of the Kepler CCD combined with pixel-level information of a large number of stars across the detector to improve the performance of the EVEREST pipeline at high motion. We also consider the problem of increased crowding for static apertures in the high-motion regime and develop pixel response function (PRF)-fitting techniques to mitigate contamination and maximize the de-trending power. We assess the performance of our code by simulating sputtering events and assessing exoplanet detection efficiency with transit injection/recovery tests. We find that targets with roll amplitudes of up to 8 pixels, approximately 15 times K2 roll, can be de-trended within 2 to 3 factors of current K2 photometric precision for stars up to 14th magnitude. Achieved recovery precision allows detection of small planets around 11th and 12th magnitude stars. These methods can be applied to the light curves of K2 targets for existing and future campaigns to ensure that precision exoplanet science can still be performed

  9. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider (LHC is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%–20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect. It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS, to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle

  10. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Sancho, J. Blanco; Shutov, A.; Schmidt, R.; Piriz, A. R.

    2012-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%-20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect). It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials) at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle energy in the SPS beam is 440

  11. High-Target Versus Low-Target Blood Pressure Management During Cardiopulmonary Bypass to Prevent Cerebral Injury in Cardiac Surgery Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedel, Anne G; Holmgaard, Frederik; Rasmussen, Lars S; Langkilde, Annika; Paulson, Olaf B; Lange, Theis; Thomsen, Carsten; Olsen, Peter Skov; Ravn, Hanne Berg; Nilsson, Jens C

    2018-04-24

    Cerebral injury is an important complication after cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. The rate of overt stroke after cardiac surgery is 1% to 2%, whereas silent strokes, detected by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, are found in up to 50% of patients. It is unclear whether a higher versus a lower blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass reduces cerebral infarction in these patients. In a patient- and assessor-blinded randomized trial, we allocated patients to a higher (70-80 mm Hg) or lower (40-50 mm Hg) target for mean arterial pressure by the titration of norepinephrine during cardiopulmonary bypass. Pump flow was fixed at 2.4 L·min -1 ·m -2 . The primary outcome was the total volume of new ischemic cerebral lesions (summed in millimeters cubed), expressed as the difference between diffusion-weighted imaging conducted preoperatively and again postoperatively between days 3 and 6. Secondary outcomes included diffusion-weighted imaging-evaluated total number of new ischemic lesions. Among the 197 enrolled patients, mean (SD) age was 65.0 (10.7) years in the low-target group (n=99) and 69.4 (8.9) years in the high-target group (n=98). Procedural risk scores were comparable between groups. Overall, diffusion-weighted imaging revealed new cerebral lesions in 52.8% of patients in the low-target group versus 55.7% in the high-target group ( P =0.76). The primary outcome of volume of new cerebral lesions was comparable between groups, 25 mm 3 (interquartile range, 0-118 mm 3 ; range, 0-25 261 mm 3 ) in the low-target group versus 29 mm 3 (interquartile range, 0-143 mm 3 ; range, 0-22 116 mm 3 ) in the high-target group (median difference estimate, 0; 95% confidence interval, -25 to 0.028; P =0.99), as was the secondary outcome of number of new lesions (1 [interquartile range, 0-2; range, 0-24] versus 1 [interquartile range, 0-2; range, 0-29] respectively; median difference estimate, 0; 95% confidence interval, 0-0; P =0

  12. Expression profiling on high-density DNA grids to detect novel targets in dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissmann, M.

    2000-10-01

    Gene expression analyzes on a large scale using DNA microarrays is a novel approach to study transcription of thousands of genes in parallel. By comparing gene expression profiles of different cell-types and of cells in different activation, novel regulatory networks will be identified that are unique to a cell-type and hence, important in its biological function. Among the differentially expressed genes many novel drug targets will be found. The Genetic department of the Novartis Research Institute was following this approach to identify novel genes, which are critical in the antigen presenting function of DCs and could become promising drug targets. Drugs that modulate effector functions of DCs towards induction of energy or tolerance in T-cells could be useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. By using specific robotics equipment high-density cDNA grids on nylon membranes have been produced for hybridizations with various radioactive labeled DNA probes. By our format, based on 384 well plates and limited by the resolution power of our current image analysis software, 27.648 cDNA clones, bacterial colonies or pure DNA, were spotted on one filter. For RNA profiling, we generated filters containing a collection of genes expressed in peripheral blood DCs or monocytes and characterized by oligonucleotide fingerprinting (ONF) as being differentially expressed. The gene collection contained many unknown genes. Sequence analysis of to date 18.000 cDNA clones led to an estimate of 5.000 non-redundant genes being represented in the collection. 10 % of them are either completely unknown or homologous to rare ESTs (expressed sequence tags) in the public EST database. These clones occurred predominantly in small fingerprint clusters and were therefore assumed to be rarely expressed in DCs or monocytes. Some of those genes may become novel drug targets if their expression is DC specific or induced by external stimuli driving DCs into

  13. FY 1999 Technical research and development for environmentally friendly and highly efficient energy utilization system. Technical research and development for highly efficient and effective energy utilization (Technical research and development for optimum system designs - Part 3); 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 3. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Research and development program is conducted for the elementary techniques as part of the eco-energy urban project of New Sunshine Project. Described herein are the FY 1999 results for the (techniques for transportation and storage of energy (continued), energy supply and utilization, reducing environmental loads, and designing the optimum systems). The R and D on heat transfer system through the vacuum heat insulation pipes involves fabrication, on a trial basis, the vacuum insulation covers for the vacuum insulation tubes, joints, flanges and valves for the 80A pipes, and the heat loss evaluation test for each item. The R and D on the energy supply and utilization techniques involves the heat transfer systems for a variety of fuels by the highly functional heat pump, and compression/absorption hybrid type heat-utilization system. The hybrid type heat-utilization system simulation results suggest possibility of achieving exergy efficiency of 56% as the development target by use of the new medium. The R and D on the environmental load reduction involves the power-saving type heat pump systems which use a natural coolant. (NEDO)

  14. Targeted outreach hepatitis B vaccination program in high-risk adults : The fundamental challenge of the last mile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, M. J.J.; Stibbe, H; Urbanus, A.; Siedenburg, E C; Waldhober, Q; de Wit, G. A.; Steenbergen, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the on-going decentralised targeted hepatitis B vaccination program for behavioural high-risk groups operated by regional public health services in the Netherlands since 1-November-2002. Target groups for free vaccination are

  15. Identification of microRNAs and their targets in Finger millet by high throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, S; Jyothi, M N; Sharadamma, N; Dixit, Rekha; Devaraj, V R; Nagesh Babu, R

    2015-12-15

    MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs which play an important role in regulating gene expression by mRNA cleavage or by translational repression. The majority of identified miRNAs were evolutionarily conserved; however, others expressed in a species-specific manner. Finger millet is an important cereal crop; nonetheless, no practical information is available on microRNAs to date. In this study, we have identified 95 conserved microRNAs belonging to 39 families and 3 novel microRNAs by high throughput sequencing. For the identified conserved and novel miRNAs a total of 507 targets were predicted. 11 miRNAs were validated and tissue specificity was determined by stem loop RT-qPCR, Northern blot. GO analyses revealed targets of miRNA were involved in wide range of regulatory functions. This study implies large number of known and novel miRNAs found in Finger millet which may play important role in growth and development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The injection of a highly focused microjet into a soft target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Nanami; Kawamoto, Sennosuke; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2016-11-01

    Needle-free drug injection systems have been developed in order to supersede traditional syringe injection system with needles. However, in spite of its great potential, these systems are not commonly used. One of the main reasons is to use diffusive jets, which results in severe deceleration of the jets and causes insufficient penetration. Recently, a highly focused microjet generated by irradiating a laser pulse to a point inside a liquid filled in a capillary tube is gathering attention as a method to solve these problems. Although the microjet injection phenomena into a model material of the skin have been studied, the effect of the distance R (R is a distance between a gas-liquid interface and a target) on injection phenomena have not been researched. The distance R is not a parameter which controls the jet generation. However, considering the practical use of the needle-free injection, it is necessary to know appropriate value of the distance R. In this study, we change the distance R in a range of 0.3 mm to 5 mm to investigate its influence on the injection depth Di. As a target, we used 5 wt% gelatin. We show relationship between injection depth Di and distance R and rationalize it in this presentation. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP26709007.

  17. High heat flux tests of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series target elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H.; Boeswirth, B.; Boscary, J.; Plankensteiner, A.; Schedler, B.

    2007-01-01

    The high heat flux (HHF) testing of WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series target elements is an indispensable step in the qualification of the manufacturing process. A set of 20 full scale pre-series elements was manufactured by PLANSEE SE to validate the materials and manufacturing technologies prior to the start of the series production. The HHF tests were performed in the ion beam test facility GLADIS. All actively water-cooled elements were tested for about 100 cycles at 10 MW/m 2 (10-15 s pulse duration). Several elements were loaded with even higher cycle numbers (up to 1000) and heat loads up to 24 MW/m 2 . Hot spots were, observed at the edges of several tiles during the HHF tests indicating local bonding problems of the CFC. The thermo-mechanical behaviour under HHF loading has been evaluated and compared to the FEM predictions. The measured temperatures and strains confirm the chosen FEM approach. This allows a component optimisation to achieve a successful series production of the W7-X divertor target elements

  18. High-resolution 3D simulations of NIF ignition targets performed on Sequoia with HYDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Clark, D. S.; Jones, O. S.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.; Koning, J. M.; Schroeder, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Developments in the multiphysics ICF code HYDRA enable it to perform large-scale simulations on the Sequoia machine at LLNL. With an aggregate computing power of 20 Petaflops, Sequoia offers an unprecedented capability to resolve the physical processes in NIF ignition targets for a more complete, consistent treatment of the sources of asymmetry. We describe modifications to HYDRA that enable it to scale to over one million processes on Sequoia. These include new options for replicating parts of the mesh over a subset of the processes, to avoid strong scaling limits. We consider results from a 3D full ignition capsule-only simulation performed using over one billion zones run on 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations through modes l = 200. We also report progress towards a high-resolution 3D integrated hohlraum simulation performed using 262,000 processors which resolves surface perturbations on the ignition capsule through modes l = 70. These aim for the most complete calculations yet of the interactions and overall impact of the various sources of asymmetry for NIF ignition targets. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Limitations to very high rate wire chambers in fixed target geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel, L.

    1989-11-01

    The task is to explore physical limitations to the operation of wire chambers in fixed target geometries at an interaction rate of 52 MHz (chosen as it corresponds to the FNAL accelerator rf rate.) That is, to see if there are physical limitations to the operation of gaseous wire chambers at such a high operating rate. A primary proton beam energy of 800 GeV has been assumed although modest increases in the primary energy should not affect the basic conclusion as secondary multiplicity increases logarithmically with center-of-momentum energy. By sustaining a 52 MHz interaction rate it is meant that results from a given interaction are electronically isolated from preceding and subsequent rf buckets, good wire plane efficiency is maintained throughout the active region of the chamber, and the chamber operates in a stable manner throughout the course of a typical fixed target run -- six months to a full year. Other working assumptions include the understanding that chamber electronics -- amplifiers, discriminators, delay elements, encoders -- will not suffer degradation at 52 MHz and that the intensely populated beam regions have been somehow excluded from the chambers. 7 refs., 2 figs

  20. High Power Molten Targets for Radioactive Ion Beam Production: from Particle Physics to Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    De Melo Mendonca, T M

    2014-01-01

    Megawatt-class molten targets, combining high material densities and good heat transfer properties are being considered for neutron spallation sources, neutrino physics facilities and radioactive ion beam production. For this last category of facilities, in order to cope with the limitation of long diffusion times affecting the extraction of short-lived isotopes, a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target loop equipped with a diffusion chamber has been proposed and tested offline during the EURISOL design study. To validate the concept, a molten LBE loop is now in the design phase and will be prototyped and tested on-line at CERN-ISOLDE. This concept was further extended to an alternative route to produce 1013 18Ne/s for the Beta Beams, where a molten salt loop would be irradiated with 7 mA, 160 MeV proton beam. Some elements of the concept have been tested by using a molten fluoride salt static unit at CERNISOLDE. The investigation of the release and production of neon isotopes allowed the measurement of the diffu...

  1. In vitro utilization of amylopectin and high-amylose maize (Amylomaize) starch granules by human colonic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Conway, P L; Brown, I L; Evans, A J

    1999-11-01

    It has been well established that a certain amount of ingested starch can escape digestion in the human small intestine and consequently enters the large intestine, where it may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation. Thirty-eight types of human colonic bacteria were screened for their capacity to utilize soluble starch, gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, and high-amylose maize starch granules by measuring the clear zones on starch agar plates. The six cultures which produced clear zones on amylopectin maize starch- containing plates were selected for further studies for utilization of amylopectin maize starch and high-amylose maize starch granules A (amylose; Sigma) and B (Culture Pro 958N). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to detect bacterial starch-degrading enzymes. It was demonstrated that Bifidobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium spp., and strains of Eubacterium, Clostridium, Streptococcus, and Propionibacterium could hydrolyze the gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, while only Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium butyricum could efficiently utilize high-amylose maize starch granules. In fact, C. butyricum and Bifidobacterium spp. had higher specific growth rates in the autoclaved medium containing high-amylose maize starch granules and hydrolyzed 80 and 40% of the amylose, respectively. Starch-degrading enzymes were cell bound on Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides cells and were extracellular for C. butyricum. Active staining for starch-degrading enzymes on SDS-PAGE gels showed that the Bifidobacterium cells produced several starch-degrading enzymes with high relative molecular (M(r)) weights (>160,000), medium-sized relative molecular weights (>66,000), and low relative molecular weights (spp. and C. butyricum degraded and utilized granules of amylomaize starch.

  2. WE-DE-BRA-08: A Linear Accelerator Target Allowing Rapid Switching Between Treatment and High-Contrast Imaging Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yewondwossen, M; Robar, J; Parsons, D [Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: During radiotherapy treatment, lung tumors can display substantial respiratory motion. This motion usually necessitates enlarged treatment margins to provide full tumour coverage. Unfortunately, these margins limit the dose that can be prescribed for tumour control and cause complications to normal tissue. Options for real-time methods of direct detection of tumour position, and particularly those that obviate the need for inserted fiducial markers, are limited. We propose a method of tumor tracking without implanted fiducial markers using a novel fast switching-target that toggles between a FFF copper/tungsten therapy mode and a FFF low-Z target mode for imaging. In this work we demonstrate proof-of-concept of this new technology. Methods: The prototype includes two targets: i) a FFF copper/tungsten target equivalent to that in the Varian 2100 EX 6 MV, and ii) a low-Z (carbon) target with a thickness of 110% of continuous slowing down approximation range (CSDA) at 7 MeV. The two targets can be exchanged with a custom made linear slide and motor-driven actuator. The usefulness of the switching-target concept is demonstrated through experimental BEV Planar images acquired with continual treatment and imaging at a user-defined period. Results: The prototype switching-target demonstrates that two recent advances in linac technology (FFF target for therapy and low-Z target) can be combined with synergy. The switching-target approach offers the capacity for rapid switching between treatment and high-contrast imaging modes, allowing intrafractional tracking, as demonstrated in this work with dynamic breathing phantom. By using a single beam-line, the design is streamlined and may obviate the need for an auxiliary imaging system (e.g., kV OBI.) Conclusion: This switching-target approach is a feasible combination of two current advances in linac technology (FFF target for therapy and a FFF low-Z target) allowing new options in on-line IGRT.

  3. Characterization of very high frequency transducers with wire target and hydrophone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Bin; Shung, K Kik

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the wire-target technique will be shown to be a useful alternative for beam profile measurements in very high frequency range (30-60 MHz). A 9 cm long tungsten wire with a diameter of 8 μm was used as the pulse-echo target to measure the lateral beam profiles at the focal points of two transducers, a spherically focused 40 MHz Panametrics transducer with an aperture size of 6.35 mm and a geometrical focal length of 12.7 mm and a lense-focused in-house lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) 60 MHz transducer with an aperture size of 2 mm and a geometrical focal length around 6.5 mm. For comparison, measurements on the same transducers were performed by three small-aperture hydrophones. The first one is a polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) membrane hydrophone developed by Hewlett-Packard, which has a geometric diameter of 37 μm, a measured effective diameter of less than 100 μm and a -3 dB bandwidth of more than 150 MHz. The second one is a needle-type PVDF hydrophone from Precision Acoustics, which has a 9 μm-thick PVDF element, a 40 μm geometrical aperture and a measured effective diameter of less than 100 μm. The third one is a needle-type PVDF hydrophone from Onda, which has a 150 μm geometrical aperture and an effective diameter of about 180 μm. Experimental results show that the -6 dB two-way beam widths measured by this 8 μm wire-target are in agreement with -3 dB transmitted beam widths measured by small-aperture hydrophones. Compared to small-aperture hydrophones, the wire-target technique is simpler and more cost-effective. Its major advantage however is in the frequency range above 100 MHz in which commercial hydrophones are not yet available

  4. New target for high-intensity laser-matter interaction: Gravitational flow of micrometer-sized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servol, M.; Quere, F.; Bougeard, M.; Monot, P.; Martin, Ph.; Faenov, A.Ya; Pikuz, T.A.; Audebert, P.; Francucci, M.; Petrocelli, G.

    2005-01-01

    The design of efficient targets for high-intensity laser-matter interaction is essential to fully exploit the advantages of laser-induced photons or particles sources. We present an advantageous kind of target, consisting in a free gravitational flow of micrometer-sized powder, and describe its main technical characteristics. We demonstrate a laser-induced keV x-ray source using this target, and show that the photon flux obtained for the Kα line of Si by irradiating different silica powders is comparable to the one obtained with a bulk silica target

  5. Utility of Early Post-operative High Resolution Volumetric MR Imaging after Transsphenoidal Pituitary Tumor Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kunal S.; Kazam, Jacob; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Anand, Vijay K.; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Controversy exists over the utility of early post-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for macroadenomas. We investigate whether valuable information can be derived from current higher resolution scans. Methods Volumetric MRI scans were obtained in the early (30 days) post-operative periods in a series of patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. The volume of the residual tumor, resection cavity, and corresponding visual field tests were recorded at each time point. Statistical analyses of changes in tumor volume and cavity size were calculated using the late MRI as the gold standard. Results 40 patients met the inclusion criteria. Pre-operative tumor volume averaged 8.8 cm3. Early postoperative assessment of average residual tumor volume (1.18 cm3) was quite accurate and did not differ statistically from late post-operative volume (1.23 cm3, p=.64), indicating the utility of early scans to measure residual tumor. Early scans were 100% sensitive and 91% specific for predicting ≥ 98% resection (psurgery and a lack of decrease should alert the surgeon to possible persistent compression of the optic apparatus that may warrant re-operation. PMID:25045791

  6. Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons in Solid Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Drew Pitney

    The cone-guided fast ignition approach to Inertial Confinement Fusion requires laser-accelerated relativistic electrons to deposit kilojoules of energy within an imploded fuel core to initiate fusion burn. One obstacle to coupling electron energy into the core is the ablation of material, known as preplasma, by laser energy proceeding nanoseconds prior to the main pulse. This causes the laser-absorption surface to be pushed back hundreds of microns from the initial target surface; thus increasing the distance that electrons must travel to reach the imploded core. Previous experiments have shown an order of magnitude decrease in coupling into surrogate targets when intentionally increasing the amount of preplasma. Additionally, for electrons to deposit energy within the core, they should have kinetic energies on the order of a few MeV, as less energetic electrons will be stopped prior to the core and more energetic electrons will pass through the core without depositing much energy. Thus a quantitative understanding of the electron energy spectrum and how it responds to varied laser parameters is paramount for fast ignition. For the first time, this dissertation quantitatively investigates the acceleration of electrons using an ultra-high-contrast laser. Ultra-high-contrast lasers reduce the laser energy that reaches the target prior to the main pulse; drastically reducing the amount of preplasma. Experiments were performed in a cone-wire geometry relevant to fast ignition. These experiments irradiated the inner-tip of a Au cone with the laser and observed electrons that passed through a Cu wire attached to the outer-tip of the cone. The total emission of Kalpha x-rays is used as a diagnostic to infer the electron energy coupled into the wire. Imaging the x-ray emission allowed an effective path-length of electrons within the wire to be determined, which constrained the electron energy spectrum. Experiments were carried out on the ultra-high-contrast Trident laser

  7. Improved High Current Liquid and Gas Targets for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes (Turkey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivrakdal, Deniz; Ustaoğlu, Özgur; Soylu, Ayfer [Eczacibasi Nuclear Products Inc. (Turkey)

    2009-07-01

    As positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals gain interest in nuclear medicine, more and more baby cyclotrons are installed. The number of cyclotrons in Turkey went up to nine whereas the number of PET or PET/CT cameras increased more than 50% within a year. At the moment there are 65 positron imaging cameras serving a population of around 70 million. Eczacıbası - Monrol Nuclear Products Industry and Trade Inc. has five cyclotrons three of them being of different brands. In this report production data collected with these cyclotrons using high current liquid targets of silver, tantalum and niobium will be presented. The data presented here covers the whole duration of the project. Another topic which will be discussed here is the work carried out about purification and analysis of used O-18 water for re-use purposes. (author)

  8. Development of low enrichment technologies for high density fuels and for isotope production targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, Horacio; Gonzalez, Alfredo G.

    2005-01-01

    Since more than twenty years ago, CNEA has carried out RERTR activities. Main goals are to convert the RA 6 reactor core from HEU to LEU, to get a comprehensive understanding of U-Mo/Al compounds phase formation in dispersed and monolithic fuels, to develop possible solutions to VHD dispersed and monolithic fuels technical problems, and to optimize techniques to recover U from silicide scrap samples. The future plans include: 1) Completion the RA 6 reactor conversion to LEU; 2) Qualification by irradiation of the promising solutions found for the high density fuels; 3) Irradiation of mini plates and full scale fuel assemblies at the RA 3 reactor and at higher flux and temperature reactors; 4) Optimization of LEU target and radiochemical techniques for radioisotope production. (author) [es

  9. Plutonium-241 processing: from impure oxide to high purity metal target disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.; Baaso, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of three plutonium-241 metal target disks, using a precision casting technique, is described. The disks were 0.625 inch in diameter and 0.125, 0.025, and 0.010 inch thick. All three disks were prepared simultaneously in a single casting. The variation in thickness of each disk was within +-1 percent of the disk's average thickness. The plutonium-241 was highly pure, and the finished disks contained a total of only 297 parts per million of detectable impurities. Purification of the plutonium oxide ( 241 PuO 2 ) and the conversion of the purified 241 PuO 2 to metal are also described. (U.S.)

  10. High energy nuclear collisions in the few GeV/nucleon region: projectile and target fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1980-06-01

    A general review of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions for incident energies <10 GeV/nucleon is presented. The division of these interactions into peripheral and central collisions is briefly discussed. Subjects treated include the following: target and projectile fragmentation systematics, production of exotic nuclear fragments, studies of multiparticle final states, total cross section measurements, results from an experiment that indicate the production of projectile fragments with an anomalously short reaction mean free path, high-energy particle production at backward angles beyond simple N-N kinematic limits, and recent results on backward particle emission in studies with the Berkeley streamer chamber. Both the particle and nuclear physics aspects that are present are considered. A brief discussion of future trends in this energy range ends the presentation. 65 references, 37 figures

  11. ANALYSIS AND MITIGATION OF X-RAY HAZARD GENERATED FROM HIGH INTENSITY LASER-TARGET INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, R.; Liu, J.C.; Prinz, A.A.; Rokni, S.H.; Woods, M.; Xia, Z.; /SLAC

    2011-03-21

    Interaction of a high intensity laser with matter may generate an ionizing radiation hazard. Very limited studies have been made, however, on the laser-induced radiation protection issue. This work reviews available literature on the physics and characteristics of laser-induced X-ray hazards. Important aspects include the laser-to-electron energy conversion efficiency, electron angular distribution, electron energy spectrum and effective temperature, and bremsstrahlung production of X-rays in the target. The possible X-ray dose rates for several femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser systems used at SLAC, including the short pulse laser system for the Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument (peak power 4 TW and peak intensity 2.4 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) were analysed. A graded approach to mitigate the laser-induced X-ray hazard with a combination of engineered and administrative controls is also proposed.

  12. Radiation Dose Measurement for High-Intensity Laser Interactions with Solid Targets at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Taiee [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-09-25

    A systematic study of photon and neutron radiation doses generated in high-intensity laser-solid interactions is underway at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We found that these laser-solid experiments are being performed using a 25 TW (up to 1 J in 40 fs) femtosecond pulsed Ti:sapphire laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source’s (LCLS) Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) facility. Additionally, radiation measurements were performed with passive and active detectors deployed at various locations inside and outside the target chamber. Results from radiation dose measurements for laser-solid experiments at SLAC MEC in 2014 with peak intensity between 1018 to 7.1x1019 W/cm2 are presented.

  13. High spin K isomeric target of {sup 177m}Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roig, O. E-mail: olivier.roig@cea.fr; Belier, G.; Daugas, J.-M.; Delbourgo, P.; Maunoury, L.; Meot, V.; Morichon, E.; Sauvestre, J.-E.; Aupiais, J.; Boulin, Y.; Fioni, G.; Letourneau, A.; Marie, F.; Ridikas, D

    2004-03-21

    The techniques used to produce a {sup 177m}Lu (J{sup {pi}}=23/2{sup -},T{sub 1/2}=160.4 days) target are described in this paper. Firstly, an isotopic separation of an enriched lutetium sample was used to reach a purity of {sup 176}Lu close to 99.993%. Afterwards, the high neutron flux of the Grenoble Institut Laue-Langevin reactor was used to produce the {sup 177m}Lu isomer by the {sup 176}Lu(n,{gamma}) reaction. Finally, a chemical separation was performed to extract 10{sup 13} nuclei of {sup 177m}Lu. Thanks to this experiment, we have been able to estimate the destruction cross-section of the {sup 177m}Lu.

  14. Improved High Current Liquid and Gas Targets for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivrakdal, Deniz; Ustaoğlu, Özgur; Soylu, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    As positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals gain interest in nuclear medicine, more and more baby cyclotrons are installed. The number of cyclotrons in Turkey went up to nine whereas the number of PET or PET/CT cameras increased more than 50% within a year. At the moment there are 65 positron imaging cameras serving a population of around 70 million. Eczacıbası - Monrol Nuclear Products Industry and Trade Inc. has five cyclotrons three of them being of different brands. In this report production data collected with these cyclotrons using high current liquid targets of silver, tantalum and niobium will be presented. The data presented here covers the whole duration of the project. Another topic which will be discussed here is the work carried out about purification and analysis of used O-18 water for re-use purposes. (author)

  15. Monte Carlo simulation on hard X-ray dose produced in interaction between high intensity laser and solid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Qiu Rui; Li Junli; Zhang Hui

    2014-01-01

    The X-ray dose produced in the interaction between high intensity laser and solid target was studied by simulation using Monte Carlo code. Compared with experimental results, the calculation model was verified. The calculation model was used to study the effect on X-ray dose with different electron temperatures, target materials (including Au, Cu and PE) and thicknesses. The results indicate that the X-ray dose is mainly determined by the electron temperature, and will be affected by the target parameters. X-ray dose of Au is about 1.2 times that of Cu, and is about 5 times that of PE (polyethylene). In addition, compared with other target thickness, when target thickness is the mean range of electron in the target, X-ray dose is relatively large. These results will provide references on evaluating the ionizing radiation dose for laser devices. (authors)

  16. Multi probes measurements at the PALS Facility Research Centre during high intense laser pulse interactions with various target materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Marco Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the interaction of high intense laser pulse with solid target, a large amount of hot electrons is produced and a giant Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP is generated due to the current flowing into the system target–target holder, as well as due to the escaping charged particles in vacuum. EMP production for different target materials is investigated inside and outside the target chamber, using monopole antenna, super wide-band microstrip antenna and Moebius antenna. The EMP consists in a fast transient magnetic field lasting hundreds of nanosecond with frequencies ranging from MHz to tens of GHz. Measurements of magnetic field and return target current in the range of kA were carried out by an inductive target probe (Cikhardt J. et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85 (2014 103507.

  17. Accurate molecular diagnosis of phenylketonuria and tetrahydrobiopterin-deficient hyperphenylalaninemias using high-throughput targeted sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillano, Daniel; Perez, Belén; González, Justo; Tornador, Cristian; Navarrete, Rosa; Escaramis, Georgia; Ossowski, Stephan; Armengol, Lluís; Cornejo, Verónica; Desviat, Lourdes R; Ugarte, Magdalena; Estivill, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diagnostics of phenylketonuria (PKU) and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficient hyperphenylalaninemia (BH4DH) rely on methods that scan for known mutations or on laborious molecular tools that use Sanger sequencing. We have implemented a novel and much more efficient strategy based on high-throughput multiplex-targeted resequencing of four genes (PAH, GCH1, PTS, and QDPR) that, when affected by loss-of-function mutations, cause PKU and BH4DH. We have validated this approach in a cohort of 95 samples with the previously known PAH, GCH1, PTS, and QDPR mutations and one control sample. Pooled barcoded DNA libraries were enriched using a custom NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Choice array and sequenced using a HiSeq2000 sequencer. The combination of several robust bioinformatics tools allowed us to detect all known pathogenic mutations (point mutations, short insertions/deletions, and large genomic rearrangements) in the 95 samples, without detecting spurious calls in these genes in the control sample. We then used the same capture assay in a discovery cohort of 11 uncharacterized HPA patients using a MiSeq sequencer. In addition, we report the precise characterization of the breakpoints of four genomic rearrangements in PAH, including a novel deletion of 899 bp in intron 3. Our study is a proof-of-principle that high-throughput-targeted resequencing is ready to substitute classical molecular methods to perform differential genetic diagnosis of hyperphenylalaninemias, allowing the establishment of specifically tailored treatments a few days after birth. PMID:23942198

  18. A Highly Efficient Xylan-Utilization System in Aspergillus niger An76: A Functional-Proteomics Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weili Gong; Lin Dai; Huaiqiang Zhang; Lili Zhang; Lushan Wang; Lushan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Xylan constituted with β-1,4-D-xylose linked backbone and diverse substituted side-chains is the most abundant hemicellulose component of biomass, which can be completely and rapidly degraded into fermentable sugars by Aspergillus niger. This is of great value for obtaining renewable biofuels and biochemicals. To clarify the underlying mechanisms associated with highly efficient xylan degradation, assimilation, and metabolism by A. niger, we utilized functional proteomics to analyze the secre...

  19. High Efficiency Hybrid Energy Storage Utilizing High Power Density Ultracapacitors For Long Duration Balloon Flights, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FastCAP proposes to develop an ultra-high power density and high frequency ultracapacitor capable of surviving over the wide temperature range of -60C to 130C and...

  20. Kinetic mechanism of Toxoplasma gondii adenosine kinase and the highly efficient utilization of adenosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Fardos N. M.; Rais, Reem H.; Al Safarjalani, Omar N.; el Kouni, Mahmoud H.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii has an extraordinarily ability to utilize adenosine (Ado) as the primary source of all necessary purines in this parasite which lacks de novo purine biosynthesis. The activity of T. gondii adenosine kinase (TgAK, EC 2.7.1.20) is responsible for this efficient salvage of Ado in T. gondii. To fully understand this remarkable efficiency of TgAK in the utilization of Ado, complete kinetic parameters of this enzyme are necessary. Initial velocity and product inhibition studies of TgAK demonstrated that the basic mechanism of this enzyme is a hybrid random bi-uni ping-pong uni-bi. Initial velocity studies showed an intersecting pattern, consistent with substrate-enzyme-co-substrate complex formation and a binding pattern indicating that binding of the substrate interferes with the binding of the co-substrate and vice versa. Estimated kinetic parameters were KAdo = 0.002 ± 0.0002 mM, KATP = 0.05 ± 0.008 mM, and Vmax = 920 ± 35 μmol/min/mg protein. Ado exhibited substrate inhibition suggesting the presence of more than one binding site for Ado on the enzyme. ATP relieved substrate inhibition by Ado. Thus, Ado also binds to the ATP binding site. AMP was competitive with ATP, inferring that AMP binds to the same site as ATP. AMP, ADP and ATP were non-competitive with Ado, therefore, none of these nucleotides binds to the Ado binding site. Combining ATP with ADP was additive. Therefore, the binding of either ATP or ADP does not interfere with the binding of the other. It is concluded that for every ATP consumed, TgAK generates three new AMPs. These findings along with the fact that a wide range of nucleoside 5′-mono, di, and triphosphates could substitute for ATP as phosphate donors in this reaction may explain the efficient and central role played by TgAK in the utilization of Ado as the major source from which all other purines can be synthesized in T. gondii. PMID:26112826

  1. Adropin levels and target organ damage secondary to high blood pressure in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulen, Bedia; Eken, Cenker; Kucukdagli, Okkes Taha; Serinken, Mustafa; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Kılıc, Elif; Uyarel, Hüseyin

    2016-11-01

    High blood pressure is still a challenge for emergency physicians to discern the patients that require further analysis to establish the existence of acute hypertensive target organ damage (TOD). The present study aimed to reveal that adropin levels are useful for detecting TOD in patients presenting with high blood pressure. Patients presenting with a blood pressure of more than 180/110 mm Hg were enrolled into the study. After a resting period of 15 minutes, patients' blood pressures were measured thrice at 5-minute intervals while the patients were sitting on a chair, and the average of these measurements was accepted as the baseline value. Blood samples were obtained for either adropin levels or possible TOD during the emergency department admission. A total of 119 patients were included in the study. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of study patients were 204.8±23.2 and 108.3 ± 10.3, respectively, and 42% (n = 50) of the patients had TOD. Although the adropin levels were similar between the patients with or without TOD (TOD group = 195 pg/mL, interquartile range [IQR]: 178-201; no-TOD group = 196 pg/mL, IQR: 176-204 [P = .982]), it is significantly higher in normotensive patients (normotensive group = 289 pg/mL, IQR: 193-403) compared with the hypertensive ones (P high blood pressure to the emergency department. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An efficient hybrid technique in RCS predictions of complex targets at high frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algar, María-Jesús; Lozano, Lorena; Moreno, Javier; González, Iván; Cátedra, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Most computer codes in Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction use Physical Optics (PO) and Physical theory of Diffraction (PTD) combined with Geometrical Optics (GO) and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD). The latter approaches are computationally cheaper and much more accurate for curved surfaces, but not applicable for the computation of the RCS of all surfaces of a complex object due to the presence of caustic problems in the analysis of concave surfaces or flat surfaces in the far field. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a hybrid method based on a new combination of two asymptotic techniques: GTD and PO, considering the advantages and avoiding the disadvantages of each of them. A very efficient and accurate method to analyze the RCS of complex structures at high frequencies is obtained with the new combination. The proposed new method has been validated comparing RCS results obtained for some simple cases using the proposed approach and RCS using the rigorous technique of Method of Moments (MoM). Some complex cases have been examined at high frequencies contrasting the results with PO. This study shows the accuracy and the efficiency of the hybrid method and its suitability for the computation of the RCS at really large and complex targets at high frequencies.

  3. A Highly Sensitive Rapid Diagnostic Test for Chagas Disease That Utilizes a Recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, C. A.; Barney, R. S.; Crudder, C. H.; Wilmoth, J. L.; Stevens, D. S.; Mora-Garcia, S.; Yanovsky, M. J.; Weigl, B. H.; Yanovsky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Improved diagnostic tests for Chagas disease are urgently needed. A new lateral flow rapid test for Chagas disease is under development at PATH, in collaboration with Laboratorio Lemos of Argentina, which utilizes a recombinant antigen for detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. To evaluate the performance of this test, 375 earlier characterized serum specimens from a region where Chagas is endemic were tested using a reference test (the Ortho T. cruzi ELISA, Johnson & Johnson), a commercially available rapid test (Chagas STAT-PAK, Chembio), and the PATH–Lemos rapid test. Compared to the composite reference tests, the PATH–Lemos rapid test demonstrated an optimal sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity of 96.8%, while the Chagas STAT-PAK demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.3% and specificity of 99.5%. These results indicate that the PATH–Lemos rapid test shows promise as an improved and reliable tool for screening and diagnosis of Chagas disease. PMID:21342808

  4. The application of high voltage digital and analogue unit protections to utility telecommunications systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthing, H. [SNC Group, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Verzosa, Q.R.; Care, J.M. [SNC Group, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    The use of fibre optic and digital microwave systems, both within and without utility communications networks was discussed. Their availability has led to the development of phase comparison and differential current relaying systems which provide enhanced protective features for transmission circuits. The application of fibre optic cable or microwave radio data links overcomes problems caused by ground potential rise and transferred potential damage in metallic pilot wire schemes. Some problems were encountered when installing digital differential current and analogue phase comparison relaying systems to a 220 kV power transmission system where a mix of analog microwave, digital microwave radio and multiplexed fibre optic channels were available. However, the relays were successfully installed with the application of digital pilot differential relays to the power system which enabled fast fault clearance to be achieved. 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  5. Underreporting of high-risk water and sanitation practices undermines progress on global targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedachalam, Sridhar; MacDonald, Luke H; Shiferaw, Solomon; Seme, Assefa; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2017-01-01

    Water and sanitation indicators under the Millennium Development Goals failed to capture high-risk practices undertaken on a regular basis. In conjunction with local partners, fourteen rounds of household surveys using mobile phones with a customized open-source application were conducted across nine study geographies in Asia and Africa. In addition to the main water and sanitation facilities, interviewees (n = 245,054) identified all water and sanitation options regularly used for at least one season of the year. Unimproved water consumption and open defecation were targeted as high-risk practices. We defined underreporting as the difference between the regular and main use of high-risk practices. Our estimates of high-risk practices as the main option matched the widely accepted Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) estimates within the 95% confidence interval. However, estimates of these practices as a regular option was far higher than the DHS estimates. Across the nine geographies, median underreporting of unimproved water use was 5.5%, with a range of 0.5% to 13.9%. Median underreporting of open defecation was much higher at 9.9%, with a range of 2.7% to 11.5%. This resulted in an underreported population of 25 million regularly consuming unimproved water and 50 million regularly practicing open defecation. Further examination of data from Ethiopia suggested that location and socio-economic factors were significant drivers of underreporting. Current global monitoring relies on a framework that considers the availability and use of a single option to meet drinking water and sanitation needs. Our analysis demonstrates the use of multiple options and widespread underreporting of high-risk practices. Policies based on current monitoring data, therefore, fail to consider the range of challenges and solutions to meeting water and sanitation needs, and result in an inflated sense of progress. Mobile surveys offer a cost-effective and innovative platform to rapidly

  6. Atomic Beam Merging and Suppression of Alkali Contaminants in Multi Body High Power Targets: Design and Test of Target and Ion Source Prototypes at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Bouquerel, Elian J A; Lettry, J; Stora, T

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of high power ISOL-facilities will deliver intense and pure radioactive ion beams. Two key issues of developments mandatory for the forthcoming generation of ISOL target-ion source units are assessed and demonstrated in this thesis. The design and production of target and ion-source prototypes is described and dedicated measurements at ISOLDE-CERN of their radioisotope yields are analyzed. The purity of short lived or rare radioisotopes suffer from isobaric contaminants, notably alkalis which are highly volatile and easily ionized elements. Therefore, relying on their chemical nature, temperature controlled transfer lines were equipped with a tube of quartz that aimed at trapping these unwanted elements before they reached the ion source. The successful application yields high alkali-suppression factors for several elements (ie: 80, 82mRb, 126, 142Cs, 8Li, 46K, 25Na, 114In, 77Ga, 95, 96Sr) for quartz temperatures between 300ºC and 1100ºC. The enthalpies of adsorption on quartz were measu...

  7. Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus in Mice by a Small Interfering RNA Targeting a Highly Conserved Sequence in Viral IRES Pseudoknot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Su Moon

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES that directs cap-independent viral translation is a primary target for small interfering RNA (siRNA-based HCV antiviral therapy. However, identification of potent siRNAs against HCV IRES by bioinformatics-based siRNA design is a challenging task given the complexity of HCV IRES secondary and tertiary structures and association with multiple proteins, which can also dynamically change the structure of this cis-acting RNA element. In this work, we utilized siRNA tiling approach whereby siRNAs were tiled with overlapping sequences that were shifted by one or two nucleotides over the HCV IRES stem-loop structures III and IV spanning nucleotides (nts 277-343. Based on their antiviral activity, we mapped a druggable region (nts 313-343 where the targets of potent siRNAs were enriched. siIE22, which showed the greatest anti-HCV potency, targeted a highly conserved sequence across diverse HCV genotypes, locating within the IRES subdomain IIIf involved in pseudoknot formation. Stepwise target shifting toward the 5' or 3' direction by 1 or 2 nucleotides reduced the antiviral potency of siIE22, demonstrating the importance of siRNA accessibility to this highly structured and sequence-conserved region of HCV IRES for RNA interference. Nanoparticle-mediated systemic delivery of the stability-improved siIE22 derivative gs_PS1 siIE22, which contains a single phosphorothioate linkage on the guide strand, reduced the serum HCV genome titer by more than 4 log10 in a xenograft mouse model for HCV replication without generation of resistant variants. Our results provide a strategy for identifying potent siRNA species against a highly structured RNA target and offer a potential pan-HCV genotypic siRNA therapy that might be beneficial for patients resistant to current treatment regimens.

  8. Synthesis, solubilization, and surface functionalization of highly fluorescent quantum dots for cellular targeting through a small molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Justin F.

    To achieve long-term fluorescence imaging with quantum dots (QDs), a CdSe core/shell must first be synthesized. The synthesis of bright CdSe QDs is not trivial and as a consequence, the role of surfactant in nucleation and growth was investigated. It was found that the type of surfactant used, either phosphonic or fatty acid, played a pivotal role in the size of the CdSe core. The study of surfactant on CdSe synthesis, ultimately led to an electrical passivation method that utilized a short-chained phosphonic acid and highly reactive organometallic precursors to achieve high quantum yield (QY) as has been previously described. The synthesis of QDs using organometallic precursors and a phosphonic acid for passivation resulted in 4 out of 9 batches of QDs achieving QYs greater than 50% and 8 out of 9 batches with QYs greater than 35%. The synthesis of CdSe QDs was done in organic solutions rendering the surface of the particle hydrophobic. To perform cell-targeting experiments, QDs must be transferred to water. The transfer of QDs to water was successfully accomplished by using single acyl chain lipids. A systematic study of different lipid combinations and coatings demonstrated that 20-40 mol% single acyl chained lipids were able to transfer QDs to water resulting in monodispersed, stable QDs without adversely affecting the QY. The advantage to water solubilization using single acyl chain lipids is that the QD have a hydrodynamic radius less than 15 nm, QYs that can exceed 50% and additional surface functionalization can be down using the reactive sites incorporated into the lipid bilayer. QDs that are bright and stable in water were studied for the purpose of targeting G protein-coupled Receptors (GPCR). GPCRs are transmembrane receptors that internalize extracellular cues, and thus mediate signal transduction. The cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Receptor 1 of the model organism Dictyostelium disodium was the receptor of interest. The Halo protein, a genetically

  9. Pressure and stress waves in a spallation neutron source mercury target generated by high-power proton pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Futakawa, M; Conrad, H; Stechemesser, H

    2000-01-01

    The international ASTE collaboration has performed a first series of measurements on a spallation neutron source target at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) in Brookhaven. The dynamic response of a liquid mercury target hit by high-power proton pulses of about 40 ns duration has been measured by a laser Doppler technique and compared with finite elements calculations using the ABAQUS code. It is shown that the calculation can describe the experimental results for at least the time interval up to 100 mu s after the pulse injection. Furthermore, it has been observed that piezoelectric pressure transducers cannot be applied in the high gamma-radiation field of a spallation target.

  10. PROTECTION, UTILIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF HIGH MAST STREET LIGHT IN RURAL AREA.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagawati Chandra , Miss Anjali Karsh

    2017-01-01

    High Mast Light gives the several cost effective advantages and cost is a major issue for rural area general services. This project illustrates the theoretical basis and the analytical development of the high mast lighting poles. In the late 1960"s, studies were conducted to investigate the impact that high-mast lighting gives on traffic performance, driver visibility, and illumination costs. It was found that increasing the height of the lighting offered a noticeable advantage in that it pr...

  11. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  12. Utility of sentinel node biopsy in patients with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, J E; Stolle, L B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently there is no consensual agreement on the standard use of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) in staging of high-risk patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to define the predictive value and role of SLNB combined with the different high-risk factors to determine which patients...... cm. Sensitivity, specificity and NPV for a tumor localized at a high-risk area were 72.63%, 100% and 96.74%, respectively. Specificity was 100% as was NPV for immunosuppression. CONCLUSION: SLNB has a high NPV and low false negative rate and carries a low risk of complications. SLNB may prove...

  13. A novel transition radiation detector utilizing superconducting microspheres for measuring the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Luke C.L.; Chen, C.P.; Huang, C.Y.; Lee, S.C.; Waysand, G.; Perrier, P.; Limagne, D.; Jeudy, V.; Girard, T.

    2000-01-01

    A novel transition radiation detector (TRD) utilizing superheated superconducting microspheres of tin of 22-26, 27-32 and 32-38 μm in diameter, respectively, has been constructed which is capable of measuring accurately the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles. The test has been conducted in a high-energy electron beam facility at the CERN PS in the energy range of 1-10 GeV showing an energy dependence of the TR X-ray photon produced and hence the value γ=E/mc 2 of the charged particle

  14. The Relationship between Utilization of Computer Games and Spatial Abilities among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Vahid; Yaghoubi, Razeyah Mohagheghyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between computer game use and spatial abilities among high school students. The sample consisted of 300 high school male students selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Data gathering tools consisted of a researcher made questionnaire (to collect information on computer game usage) and the…

  15. Structural basis for the high specificity of a Trypanosoma congolense immunoassay targeting glycosomal aldolase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joar Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal African trypanosomosis (AAT is a neglected tropical disease which imposes a heavy burden on the livestock industry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Its causative agents are Trypanosoma parasites, with T. congolense and T. vivax being responsible for the majority of the cases. Recently, we identified a Nanobody (Nb474 that was employed to develop a homologous sandwich ELISA targeting T. congolense fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (TcoALD. Despite the high sequence identity between trypanosomatid aldolases, the Nb474-based immunoassay is highly specific for T. congolense detection. The results presented in this paper yield insights into the molecular principles underlying the assay's high specificity.The structure of the Nb474-TcoALD complex was determined via X-ray crystallography. Together with analytical gel filtration, the structure reveals that a single TcoALD tetramer contains four binding sites for Nb474. Through a comparison with the crystal structures of two other trypanosomatid aldolases, TcoALD residues Ala77 and Leu106 were identified as hot spots for specificity. Via ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR, we demonstrate that mutation of these residues does not abolish TcoALD recognition by Nb474, but does lead to a lack of detection in the Nb474-based homologous sandwich immunoassay.The results show that the high specificity of the Nb474-based immunoassay is not determined by the initial recognition event between Nb474 and TcoALD, but rather by its homologous sandwich design. This (i provides insights into the optimal set-up of the assay, (ii may be of great significance for field applications as it could explain the potential detection escape of certain T. congolense strains, and (iii may be of general interest to those developing similar assays.

  16. Rapid screening for targeted genetic variants via high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Allison B; Resnick, Molly; Petrides, Athena K; Clarke, William A; Marzinke, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    Current methods for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with aberrant drug-metabolizing enzyme function are hindered by long turnaround times and specialized techniques and instrumentation. In this study, we describe the development and validation of a high-resolution melting (HRM) curve assay for the rapid screening of variant genotypes for targeted genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A5. Sequence-specific primers were custom-designed to flank nine SNPs within the genetic regions of aforementioned drug metabolizing enzymes. PCR amplification was performed followed by amplicon denaturation by precise temperature ramping in order to distinguish genotypes by melting temperature (Tm). A standardized software algorithm was used to assign amplicons as 'reference' or 'variant' as compared to duplicate reference sequence DNA controls for each SNP. Intra-assay (n=5) precision of Tms for all SNPs was ≤0.19%, while inter-assay (n=20) precision ranged from 0.04% to 0.21%. When compared to a reference method of Sanger sequencing, the HRM assay produced no false negative results, and overcall frequency ranged from 0% to 26%, depending on the SNP. Furthermore, HRM genotyping displayed accuracy over input DNA concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 ng/μL. The presented assay provides a rapid method for the screening for genetic variants in targeted CYP450 regions with a result of 'reference' or 'variant' available within 2 h from receipt of extracted DNA. The method can serve as a screening approach to rapidly identify individuals with variant sequences who should be further investigated by reflexed confirmatory testing for aberrant cytochrome P450 enzymatic activity. Rapid knowledge of variant status may aid in the avoidance of adverse clinical events by allowing for dosing of normal metabolizer patients immediately while identifying the need to wait for confirmatory testing in those patients who are

  17. New design targets and new automated technology for the production of radionuclides with high specificity radioactivity in nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, A.S.; Kiselev, G.V.

    1997-01-01

    Current demands of industry require the application of radionuclides with high specific radioactivity under low consumption of neutrons. To provide this aim staff of ITEP Reactor Department investigated the different type AEs of start targets for the production of the main radionuclides; Co-60, Ir-192 and others. In first turn the targets of Co and Ir without the block-effect of neutron flux (with low absorption of neutrons) were investigated. The following principal results were received for example for Ir-192: block effect is equal 0.086 for diameter of Ir target mm and is equal 0.615 for diameter Ir target 0.5mm. It means average neutron flux for Ir target diameter 0.5mm and therefore the production of Ir-192 will be at 10 times more than for diameter 6.0mm. To provide the automated technology of the manufacture of radioactive sources with radionuclides with high specific radioactivity it was proposed that the compound targets for the irradiation of ones and for the management with the irradiated targets. Different types of compound targets were analyzed. (authors)

  18. Day lighting Simulation and Thermoacoustic Laser Development for the Enhanced Utilization of Highly Concentrated Solar Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Jong

    2011-02-15

    Solar energy has been used in various fields, because it is clean and reliable. The present study explored the use of sunlight in two important areas which make it competitive and also attractive. First, we carried out a series of computer simulations for using sun pipes to introduce sunlight into the interior of a building. The focus was made onto the enhancement of visual environment when natural daylight is delivered to a classroom. While daylighting provides efficient means to harness the sun's abundant energy, it still leaves much room for further exploitation. With the aid of simple optical devices, sunlight could be easily concentrated and utilized. Solar-powered Thermal Acoustic(TA) lasers make one of these applications, which we explored as the other important area of solar utilization. 1) Daylighting simulation A lightless space with the dimension of a typical classroom at Jeju National University was modeled by ECOTECT. Two different cases were simulated and analyzed by RADIANCE. In the first case, a comparative analysis of illuminance was carried out to estimate the basic performance of sun pipe systems. In the other case, different designs of sun pipe systems were analyzed to elicit the most efficient model of operation. Simulations were performed for solar noon which indicates the time (or point) in the sun's path at which the sun is on the local meridian. Results show that indoor visual environment could be greatly enhanced with the application of sun pipe systems. The maximum illuminance took place with the sun pipe system of 1.0m in diameter and 0.5m in height. 2) Thermo-Acoustic Laser(TAL) development A series of experiments were carried out to find the most optimum operating conditions for the maximum SPL(Sound Pressure Level) and frequency of the acoustic waves generated by ThermoAcoustic(TA) lasers. Among various experimental variables, we focused our research on the stack position, stack length, length of the resonance tube and input

  19. Day lighting Simulation and Thermoacoustic Laser Development for the Enhanced Utilization of Highly Concentrated Solar Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Jong

    2011-02-01

    Solar energy has been used in various fields, because it is clean and reliable. The present study explored the use of sunlight in two important areas which make it competitive and also attractive. First, we carried out a series of computer simulations for using sun pipes to introduce sunlight into the interior of a building. The focus was made onto the enhancement of visual environment when natural daylight is delivered to a classroom. While daylighting provides efficient means to harness the sun's abundant energy, it still leaves much room for further exploitation. With the aid of simple optical devices, sunlight could be easily concentrated and utilized. Solar-powered Thermal Acoustic(TA) lasers make one of these applications, which we explored as the other important area of solar utilization. 1) Daylighting simulation A lightless space with the dimension of a typical classroom at Jeju National University was modeled by ECOTECT. Two different cases were simulated and analyzed by RADIANCE. In the first case, a comparative analysis of illuminance was carried out to estimate the basic performance of sun pipe systems. In the other case, different designs of sun pipe systems were analyzed to elicit the most efficient model of operation. Simulations were performed for solar noon which indicates the time (or point) in the sun's path at which the sun is on the local meridian. Results show that indoor visual environment could be greatly enhanced with the application of sun pipe systems. The maximum illuminance took place with the sun pipe system of 1.0m in diameter and 0.5m in height. 2) Thermo-Acoustic Laser(TAL) development A series of experiments were carried out to find the most optimum operating conditions for the maximum SPL(Sound Pressure Level) and frequency of the acoustic waves generated by ThermoAcoustic(TA) lasers. Among various experimental variables, we focused our research on the stack position, stack length, length of the resonance tube and input power

  20. Development of high pressure deuterium gas targets for the generation of intense mono-energetic fast neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzek, J.; Richardson, K.; Franklyn, C.B.; Waites, A.; McMurray, W.R.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Tapper, U.A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Two different technical solutions to the problem of generation of mono-energetic fast neutron beams on the gaseous targets are presented here. A simple and cost-effective design of a cooled windowed gas target system is described in the first part of this paper. It utilises a thin metallic foil window and circulating deuterium gas cooled down to 100 K. The ultimate beam handling capability of such target is determined by the properties of the window. Reliable performance of this gas target system was achieved at 1 bar of deuterium gas, when exposed to a 45 μA beam of 5 MeV deuterons, for periods in excess of 6 h. Cooling of the target gas resulted in increased fast neutron output and improved neutron to gamma-ray ratio. The second part of this paper discusses the design of a high pressure, windowless gas target for use with pulsed, low duty cycle accelerators. A rotating seal concept was applied to reduce the gas load in a differentially pumped system. This allows operation at 1.23 bar of deuterium gas pressure in the gas cell region. Such a gas target system is free from the limitations of the windowed target but special attention has to be paid to the heat dissipation capability of the beam dump, due to the use of a thin target. The rotating seal concept is particularly suitable for use with accelerators such as radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linacs that operate with a very high peak current at low duty cycle. The performance of both target systems was comprehensively characterized using the time-of-flight (TOF) technique. This demonstrated that very good quality mono-energetic fast neutron beams were produced with the slow neutron and gamma-ray component below 10% of the total target output

  1. An ex vivo feasibility experimental study on targeted cell surgery by high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi Biao; Wu, Junru; Fang, Liao Qiong; Wang, Hua; Li, Fa Qi; Tian, Yun Bo; Gong, Xiao Bo; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Lian; Feng, Ruo

    2012-10-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has become a new noninvasive surgical modality in medicine. A portion of tissue seated inside a patient's body may experience coagulative necrosis after a few seconds of insonification by high intensity focused ultrasound (US) generated by an extracorporeal focusing US transducer. The region of tissue affected by coagulative necrosis (CN) usually has an ellipsoidal shape when the thermal effect due to US absorption plays the dominant role. Its long and short axes are parallel and perpendicular to the US propagation direction respectively. It was shown by ex vivo experiments that the dimension of the short and long axes of the tissue which experiences CN can be as small as 50 μm and 250 μm respectively after one second exposure of US pulse (the spatial and pulse average acoustic power is on the order of tens of Watts and the local acoustic spatial and temporal pulse averaged intensity is on the order of 3 × 104 W/cm2) generated by a 1.6 MHz HIFU transducer of 12 cm diameter and 11 cm geometric focal length (f-number = 0.92). The numbers of cells which suffered CN were estimated to be on the order of 40. This result suggests that HIFU is able to interact with tens of cells at/near its focal zone while keeping the neighboring cells minimally affected, and thus the targeted cell surgery may be achievable.

  2. Rapid Target Detection in High Resolution Remote Sensing Images Using Yolo Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Chen, X.; Gao, Y.; Li, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Object detection in high resolution remote sensing images is a fundamental and challenging problem in the field of remote sensing imagery analysis for civil and military application due to the complex neighboring environments, which can cause the recognition algorithms to mistake irrelevant ground objects for target objects. Deep Convolution Neural Network(DCNN) is the hotspot in object detection for its powerful ability of feature extraction and has achieved state-of-the-art results in Computer Vision. Common pipeline of object detection based on DCNN consists of region proposal, CNN feature extraction, region classification and post processing. YOLO model frames object detection as a regression problem, using a single CNN predicts bounding boxes and class probabilities in an end-to-end way and make the predict faster. In this paper, a YOLO based model is used for object detection in high resolution sensing images. The experiments on NWPU VHR-10 dataset and our airport/airplane dataset gain from GoogleEarth show that, compare with the common pipeline, the proposed model speeds up the detection process and have good accuracy.

  3. High-contrast laser acceleration of relativistic electrons in solid cone-wire targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, D. P. [Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Link, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sawada, H. [Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Wilks, S. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chawla, S. R. [Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chen, C. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jarrott, L. C. [Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Flippo, K. A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McLean, H. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Perez, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beg, F. N. [Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Bartal, T. [Univ. of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wei, M. S. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Optimization of electron coupling into small solid angles is of extreme importance to applications, such as Fast Ignition, that require maximum electron energy deposition within a small volume. To optimize this coupling, we use the ultra-high-contrast Trident laser, which remains below intensity of 1011 W/cm2 until < 0.1 ns before the main pulse, while still attaining high-energy, 75 J, and peak intensity of 5 x 1019 W/cm2. Using a cone-wire target, we find that the coupling into the 40 μm diameter wire is increased by a factor of 2.7x over the low-contrast Titan laser at similar peak intensity. Full-scale simulations are used to model the laser interaction and quantitatively reproduce the experimental results. These show that increase in coupling is due to both a closer interaction, as well as the reduction of laser filamentation and self-focusing.

  4. Influence of Utilization of High-Volumes of Class F Fly Ash on the Abrasion Resistance of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William PRINCE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of large volumes of fly ash in various concrete applications is a becoming a more general practice in an efforts towards using large quantities of fly ash. Around the world, Class C or Class F or both as available have been used in high volumes in cement-based materials. In India, majority of fly generated is of Class F type as per ASTM C 618. Yearly fly ash generation in India is approximately 95 million tonnes. Out of which around 15-20% is utilized in cement production and cement/concrete related activities. In order to increase its percentage utilization, an investigation was carried out to use it in concrete.In this paper, abrasion resistance of high volume fly ash (HVFA concretes made with 35, 45, 55, and 65% of cement replacement was evaluated in terms of its relation with compressive strength. Comparison was made between ordinary Portland cement and fly ash concrete. Test results indicated that abrasion resistance of concrete having cement replacement up to 35 percent was comparable to the normal concrete mix with out fly ash. Beyond 35% cement replacement, fly ash concretes exhibited slightly lower resistance to abrasion relative to non-fly ash concretes. Test results further indicated that abrasion resistance of concrete is closely related with compressive strength, and had a very good correlation between abrasion resistance and compressive strength (R2 value between 0.9018 and 0.9859 depending upon age.

  5. Study of flow fractionation characteristics of magnetic chromatography utilizing high-temperature superconducting bulk magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Fukui, Yoshihiro Shoji, Jun Ogawa, Tetsuo Oka, Mitsugi Yamaguchi, Takao Sato, Manabu Ooizumi, Hiroshi Imaizumi and Takeshi Ohara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present numerical simulation of separating magnetic particles with different magnetic susceptibilities by magnetic chromatography using a high-temperature superconducting bulk magnet. The transient transport is numerically simulated for two kinds of particles having different magnetic susceptibilities. The time evolutions were calculated for the particle concentration in the narrow channel of the spiral arrangement placed in the magnetic field. The field is produced by the highly magnetized high-temperature superconducting bulk magnet. The numerical results show the flow velocity difference of the particle transport corresponding to the difference in the magnetic susceptibility, as well as the possible separation of paramagnetic particles of 20 nm diameter.

  6. Study of flow fractionation characteristics of magnetic chromatography utilizing high-temperature superconducting bulk magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Satoshi; Shoji, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Jun; Oka, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Sato, Takao; Ooizumi, Manabu; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Ohara, Takeshi

    2009-02-01

    We present numerical simulation of separating magnetic particles with different magnetic susceptibilities by magnetic chromatography using a high-temperature superconducting bulk magnet. The transient transport is numerically simulated for two kinds of particles having different magnetic susceptibilities. The time evolutions were calculated for the particle concentration in the narrow channel of the spiral arrangement placed in the magnetic field. The field is produced by the highly magnetized high-temperature superconducting bulk magnet. The numerical results show the flow velocity difference of the particle transport corresponding to the difference in the magnetic susceptibility, as well as the possible separation of paramagnetic particles of 20 nm diameter.

  7. A High-Sensitivity Current Sensor Utilizing CrNi Wire and Microfiber Coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Xie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We obtain an extremely high current sensitivity by wrapping a section of microfiber on a thin-diameter chromium-nickel wire. Our detected current sensitivity is as high as 220.65 nm/A2 for a structure length of only 35 μm. Such sensitivity is two orders of magnitude higher than the counterparts reported in the literature. Analysis shows that a higher resistivity or/and a thinner diameter of the metal wire may produce higher sensitivity. The effects of varying the structure parameters on sensitivity are discussed. The presented structure has potential for low-current sensing or highly electrically-tunable filtering applications.

  8. The Pale Blue Dot: Utilizing Real World Globes in High School and Undergraduate Oceanography Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience classrooms have benefitted greatly from the use of interactive, dry-erasable globes to supplement instruction on topics that require three-dimensional visualization, such as seismic wave propagation and the large-scale movements of tectonic plates. Indeed, research by Bamford (2013) demonstrates that using three-dimensional visualization to illustrate complex processes enhances student comprehension. While some geoscience courses tend to bake-in lessons on visualization, other disciplines of earth science that require three-dimensional visualization, such as oceanography, tend to rely on students' prior spatial abilities. In addition to spatial intelligence, education on the three-dimensional structure of the ocean requires knowledge of the external processes govern the behavior of the ocean, as well as the vertical and lateral distribution of water properties around the globe. Presented here are two oceanographic activities that utilize RealWorldGlobes' dry-erase globes to supplement traditional oceanography lessons on thermohaline and surface ocean circulation. While simultaneously promoting basic plotting techniques, mathematical calculations, and unit conversions, these activities touch on the processes that govern global ocean circulation, the principles of radiocarbon dating, and the various patterns exhibited by surface ocean currents. These activities challenge students to recognize inherent patterns within their data and synthesize explanations for their occurrence. Spatial visualization and critical thinking are integral to any geoscience education, and the combination of these abilities with engaging hands-on activities has the potential to greatly enhance oceanography education in both secondary and postsecondary settings

  9. Study of a high temperature gas cooled reactor heat utilization plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, A.; Hayakawa, H.; Yasuno, T.

    1997-01-01

    A number of nuclear power plants have been successfully constructed and operating in Japan. The nuclear-generated electricity is expected to be increasing constantly and to account for 42% of total electricity supply in FY 2010, which is now about 30%. Since about 40% of the primary energy supply is consumed for the electricity production in Japan, the nuclear energy would account for only 20% of the primary energy supply even if the nuclear-generated electricity could account for 50% of the total electricity supply. In order to preserve the global environment and to secure the stable energy supply, it is most effective to increase the use of the nuclear energy. However, considering the situation described above, if the nuclear energy is applied only to electricity generation, the effect is limited. Therefore, it is necessary to utilize the nuclear energy to wide filed other than the electric power generation. This is very important especially in Japan where most of the energy supply depends on imported fossil fuels and in the developing countries where the energy demand is increasing rapidly. (author)

  10. Utility of High Temporal Resolution Observations for Heat Health Event Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palecki, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Many heat health watch systems produce a binary on/off warning when conditions are predicted to exceed a given threshold during a day. Days with warnings and their mortality/morbidity statistics are analyzed relative to days not warned to determine the impacts of the event on human health, the effectiveness of warnings, and other statistics. The climate analyses of the heat waves or extreme temperature events are often performed with hourly or daily observations of air temperature, humidity, and other measured or derived variables, especially the maxima and minima of these data. However, since the beginning of the century, 5-minute observations are readily available for many weather and climate stations in the United States. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) has been collecting 5-minute observations from the NOAA Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) stations since 2000, and from the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) stations since 2005. This presentation will demonstrate the efficacy of utilizing 5-minute environmental observations to characterize heat waves by counting the length of time conditions exceed extreme thresholds based on individual and multiple variables and on derived variables such as the heat index. The length and depth of recovery periods between daytime heating periods will also be examined. The length of time under extreme conditions will influence health outcomes for those directly exposed. Longer periods of dangerous conditions also could increase the chances for poor health outcomes for those only exposed intermittently through cumulative impacts.

  11. Highly efficient power system based on direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel V.; Hart, Ron R.; Parish, Theodore A.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was focused on developing a technologically feasible power system that is based on direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation. The new concept is an attempt to combine several advantageous design solutions, which have been proposed for application in both fission and fusion reactors, into one innovative system that can offer exceptional energy conversion efficiency. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of operational aspects including fission fragment escape from the fuel, collima