WorldWideScience

Sample records for high sugar prices

  1. Do High Consumers of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Respond Differently to Price Changes? A Finite Mixture IV-Tobit Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etilé, Fabrice; Sharma, Anurag

    2015-09-01

    This study compares the impact of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) tax between moderate and high consumers in Australia. The key methodological contribution is that price response heterogeneity is identified while controlling for censoring of consumption at zero and endogeneity of expenditure by using a finite mixture instrumental variable Tobit model. The SSB price elasticity estimates show a decreasing trend across increasing consumption quantiles, from -2.3 at the median to -0.2 at the 95th quantile. Although high consumers of SSBs have a less elastic demand for SSBs, their very high consumption levels imply that a tax would achieve higher reduction in consumption and higher health gains. Our results also suggest that an SSB tax would represent a small fiscal burden for consumers whatever their pre-policy level of consumption, and that an excise tax should be preferred to an ad valorem tax. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Sugar Price Supports and Taxation: A Public Health Policy Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilk, Abby; Savaiano, Dennis A

    2017-05-01

    Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar "tax" on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of "empty" calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)-sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources-is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity. There have been substantial efforts to tax sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to both reduce consumption and provide a source of funds for nutrition education, thereby emulating the tobacco tax model. Volume-based SSB taxes levy the tax rate per ounce of liquid, where some are only imposed on beverages with added sugar content exceeding a set threshold. Nonetheless, volume-based taxes have significant limitations in encouraging consumers to reduce their caloric intake due to a lack of transparency at the point of purchase. Thus, it is hypothesized that point-of-purchase, nutrient-specific excise taxes on SSBs would be more effective at reducing sugar consumption. However, all SSB taxes are limited by the possibility that consumers may compensate their decreased intake from SSBs with other high-calorie junk foods. Furthermore, there are no existing studies to provide evidence on how SSB taxes will impact obesity rates in the long term. The paradox of sugar prices is that Americans have paid higher prices for sugar to protect domestic production for more than 80 years, and now, Americans are being asked to pay even more to promote public health. The effective use of sugar taxes should be considered based on their merits in reducing sugar consumption and making available a new source of

  3. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there

  4. Price elasticity of the demand for sugar sweetened beverages and soft drinks in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M A; Salgado, J C; Unar-Munguía, M; Hernández-Ávila, M; Rivera-Dommarco, J A

    2015-12-01

    A large and growing body of scientific evidence demonstrates that sugar drinks are harmful to health. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Mexico has one of the largest per capita consumption of soft drinks worldwide and high rates of obesity and diabetes. Fiscal approaches such as taxation have been recommended as a public health policy to reduce SSB consumption. We estimated an almost ideal demand system with linear approximation for beverages and high-energy food by simultaneous equations and derived the own and cross price elasticities for soft drinks and for all SSB (soft drinks, fruit juices, fruit drinks, flavored water and energy drinks). Models were stratified by income quintile and marginality index at the municipality level. Price elasticity for soft drinks was -1.06 and -1.16 for SSB, i.e., a 10% price increase was associated with a decrease in quantity consumed of soft drinks by 10.6% and 11.6% for SSB. A price increase in soft drinks is associated with larger quantity consumed of water, milk, snacks and sugar and a decrease in the consumption of other SSB, candies and traditional snacks. The same was found for SSB except that an increase in price of SSB was associated with a decrease in snacks. Higher elasticities were found among households living in rural areas (for soft drinks), in more marginalized areas and with lower income. Implementation of a tax to soft drinks or to SSB could decrease consumption particularly among the poor. Substitutions and complementarities with other food and beverages should be evaluated to assess the potential impact on total calories consumed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of increasing the price of sugar-sweetened beverages on alcoholic beverage purchases: an economic analysis of sales data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirmbach, Diana; Cornelsen, Laura; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa; Smith, Richard

    2018-01-23

    Taxing soft-drinks may reduce their purchase, but assessing the impact on health demands wider consideration on alternative beverage choices. Effects on alcoholic drinks are of particular concern, as many contain similar or greater amounts of sugar than soft-drinks and have additional health harms. Changes in consumption of alcoholic drinks may reinforce or negate the intended effect of price changes for soft-drinks. A partial demand model, adapted from the Almost Ideal Demand System, was applied to Kantar Worldpanel data from 31 919 households from January 2012 to December 2013, covering drink purchases for home consumption, providing ~6 million purchases aggregated into 11 groups, including three levels of soft-drink, three of other non-alcoholic drinks and five of alcoholic drinks. An increase in the price of high-sugar drinks leads to an increase in the purchase of lager, an increase in the price of medium-sugar drinks reduces purchases of alcoholic drinks, while an increase in the price of diet/low-sugar drinks increases purchases of beer, cider and wines. Overall, the effects of price rises are greatest in the low-income group. Increasing the price of soft-drinks may change purchase patterns for alcohol. Increasing the price of medium-sugar drinks has the potential to have a multiplier-effect beneficial to health through reducing alcohol purchases, with the converse for increases in the price of diet-drinks. Although the reasons for such associations cannot be explained from this analysis, requiring further study, the design of fiscal interventions should now consider these wider potential outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. High blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - self care; High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... with a lot of carbohydrates, starches, or simple sugars? Are you taking your diabetes medicines correctly? Has your doctor changed your medicines? ...

  7. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood sugar levels are. Causes of High Blood Sugar Levels Managing diabetes is like a three-way balancing act because ... Is Too Low Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Handling Diabetes When You're Sick Diabetes Control: Why It's ...

  8. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Guerrero-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile is the second world’s largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households’ consumption to changes in prices. Methods We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012–2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. Results We found an own price-elasticity of −1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. Conclusions The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  9. Price elasticity of the demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and energy dense food in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-López, Carlos M; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Colchero, M Arantxa

    2017-02-10

    Chile is the second world's largest per capita consumer of caloric beverages. Caloric beverages are associated with overweight, obesity and other chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for soft drinks, other sugar-sweetened beverages and high-energy dense foods in urban areas in Chile in order to evaluate the potential response of households' consumption to changes in prices. We used microdata from the VII Family Budget Survey 2012-2013, which collects information on expenditures made by Chilean urban households on items such as beverages and foods. We estimated a Linear Approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System Model to derive own and cross price elasticities of milk, coffee, tea and other infusions, plain water, soft drinks, other flavored beverages, sweet snacks, sugar and honey, and desserts. We considered the censored nature of the data and included the Inverse Mills Ratio in each equation of the demand system. We estimated a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System and a two-part model as sensitivity analysis. We found an own price-elasticity of -1.37 for soft drinks. This implies that a price increase of 10% is associated with a reduction in consumption of 13.7%. We found that the rest of food and beverages included in the demand system behave as substitutes for soft drinks. For instance, plain water showed a cross-price elasticity of 0.63: a 10% increase in price of soft drinks could lead to an increase of 6.3% of plain water. Own and cross price elasticities were similar between models. The demand of soft drinks is price sensitive among Chilean households. An incentive system such as subsidies to non-sweetened beverages and tax to soft drinks could lead to increases in the substitutions for other healthier beverages.

  10. Study of the prices of sugar and alcohol and its influence on long-term public stocks volume in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laion Wolff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This main objective of the study is to analyze transmission process between the price of sugar and prices of alcohol (anhydrous and hydrated and the influence of the volume of public stocks of sugar, from January 2006 to July 2011. Were used in the analysis, the unit root tests of Dickey-Fuller (ADF, and Kwaiatkowski, Phillips, Schmidt and Shin (KPSS, of Johansen co-integration method and Vector Auto-Regression with Error Correction (VEC. The results show that sugar prices and the prices of anhydrous and hydrated alcohol influence each other, and that the volume of public stocks of sugar does not influence the prices out, what was expected, due to the volume does not change the price and but government intervention. Overall, shocks to variables in the model are transmitted quickly to the variable and are of short duration, disappearing after the sixth month.

  11. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  12. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood can be unhealthy. What Is Hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia (say: hi-per-gly-SEE-me-uh) is the medical word for high blood sugar levels. The hormone insulin is supposed to control the level of glucose ...

  13. A rapid review examining purchasing changes resulting from fiscal measures targeted at high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Katharine E; Ells, Louisa J; McGowan, Victoria J; Machaira, Theodora; Targett, Victoria C; Allen, Rachel E; Tedstone, Alison E

    2017-12-15

    To aim of the review was to examine the most recent (2010 onwards) research evidence on the health and behavioural impacts, in adults and children, of fiscal strategies that target high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks (SSDs). A pragmatic rapid review was undertaken using a systematic search strategy. The review was part of a programme of work to support policy development in relation to high sugar food and SSDs. A total of 11 primary research publications were included, describing evidence from France (n = 1), the Netherlands (n = 3), and the United States of America (n = 7), assessed through a variety of study designs, with the majority in adult populations (n = 10). The evidence reviewed focused on consumer behaviour outcomes and suggested that fiscal strategies can influence purchases of high sugar products. Although the majority of studies (n = 10), including three field studies, demonstrated that an increase in the price of high sugar foods and SSDs resulted in a decrease in purchases, eight studies were conducted in a laboratory or virtual setting which may not reflect real-life situations.Findings from this review support evidence from the broader literature that suggests that fiscal measures can be effective in influencing the purchasing of high sugar foods and SSDs.

  14. Sweetened and unsweetened non-alcoholic beverages in New Zealand: assessment of relative availability, price, serve size, and sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Eyles Hi

    2014-03-01

    Sweetened beverages are a major contributor to sugar intakes in New Zealand, yet little information exists regarding the retail environment and the characteristics of sweetened and unsweetened beverages available for purchase. Our aim was to assess the availability, price, serve size and sugar content of sweetened and unsweetened non-alcoholic beverages available for purchase in New Zealand supermarkets. We also review and summarise the evidence for policy options relating to beverage availability, price, serve size and sugar content. Data on all non-alcoholic beverages available for purchase in two large Auckland supermarkets were sourced from Nutritrack, a brand- specific packaged food composition database. Of 680 beverages available for sale in 2012, less than one in five (17%) was low-energy or unsweetened. However, low-energy options were cheaper, on average, than their sugar-sweetened counterparts (by approximately one third). The sugar content of beverages available ranged from zero to 23 g/100 mL. Some beverages contained more than 80 g of sugar (16 teaspoons) per single serve. National and international evidence suggests that increasing prices of fizzy drinks could reduce consumption, but long-term impacts on obesity and population health are unknown. Little evidence exists regarding other strategies to create healthier retail food environments. The vast majority of beverages available for purchase in New Zealand supermarkets are either sugar-sweetened or contain naturally occurring sugars. Options to decrease availability and reduce consumption of sweetened beverages should be urgently explored.

  15. The High Price of Noise Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Hearing Disorders The High Price of Noise Exposure Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... the less time it takes to cause harm. Exposure to loud noise also can cause tinnitus, a continuous ringing, roaring, ...

  16. Trends in beverage prices following the introduction of a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Miriam; Kostova, Deliana; Suhrcke, Marc; Hambleton, Ian; Hassell, Trevor; Samuels, T Alafia; Adams, Jean; Unwin, Nigel

    2017-07-15

    A 10% excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) was implemented in Barbados in September 2015. A national evaluation has been established to assess the impact of the tax. We present a descriptive analysis of initial price changes following implementation of the SSB tax using price data provided by a major supermarket chain in Barbados over the period 2014-2016. We summarize trends in price changes for SSBs and non-SSBs before and after the tax using year-on-year mean price per liter. We find that prior to the tax, the year-on-year growth of SSB and non-SSB prices was very similar (approximately 1%). During the quarter in which the tax was implemented, the trends diverged, with SSB price growth increasing to 3% and that of non-SSBs decreasing slightly. The growth of SSB prices outpaced non-SSBs prices in each quarter thereafter, reaching 5.9% compared to tax price changes. A continued examination of the impact of the SSB tax in Barbados will expand the evidence base available to policymakers worldwide in considering SSB taxes as a lever for reducing the consumption of added sugar at the population level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effects of a price increase on purchases of sugar sweetened beverages. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterlander, W.E.; Mhurchu, C.N.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes are receiving increased political interest. However, there have been no experimental studies of the effects of price increases on SSBs or the effects on close substitutes such as diet drinks, alcohol or sugary snacks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to

  18. The Challenges of High Food and Fuel Prices

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The increase in the price of oil and food carry major adverse poverty and macroeconomic implications especially for fragile and small states and for low income households in all developing countries. In terms of their impact on income distribution, inflation, and poverty food prices are of greater and more immediate concern than high fuel prices. However, the impact of the oil price increa...

  19. Higher Retail Prices of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages 3 Months After Implementation of an Excise Tax in Berkeley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbe, Jennifer; Rojas, Nadia; Grummon, Anna H; Madsen, Kristine A

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the short-term ability to increase retail prices of the first US 1-cent-per-ounce excise tax on the distribution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which was implemented in March 2015 by Berkeley, California. In 2014 and 2015, we examined pre- to posttax price changes of SSBs and non-SSBs in a variety of retailers in Berkeley and in the comparison cities Oakland and San Francisco, California. We examined price changes by beverage, brand, size, and retailer type. For smaller beverages (≤ 33.8 oz), price increases (cents/oz) in Berkeley relative to those in comparison cities were 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.36, 1.03) for soda, 0.47 (95% CI = 0.08, 0.87) for fruit-flavored beverages, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.25, 0.69) for SSBs overall. For 2-liter bottles and multipacks of soda, relative price increases were 0.46 (95% CI = 0.03, 0.89) and 0.49 (95% CI = 0.21, 0.77). We observed no relative price increases for nontaxed beverages overall. Approximately 3 months after the tax was implemented, SSB retail prices increased more in Berkeley than in nearby cities, marking a step in the causal pathway between the tax and reduced SSB consumption.

  20. Pricing Policy and Strategies for Consumer High-Tech Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the complex process of price setting for consumer high-tech products. These prices are highly influenced by some external factors from the economic and social environment. The main objective of this paper is to establish the most effective pricing policies and strategies used by high-tech companies of various sizes. Decisions about price fixing for consumer high-technology products are largely influenced by consumer behaviour, too.

  1. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power; Variacao estacional dos precos da cana-de-acucar, alcool combustivel e energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Carmem Ozana de; Silva, Gerson Henrique da; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Francisco Beltrao, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  2. The Effect of Price and Socio-Economic Level on the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB): The Case of Ecuador: e0152260

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guillermo Paraje

    2016-01-01

    ... of said beverages caused by the potential implementation of taxes in Ecuador. In addition, the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of sugar-free substitutes like mineral water and diet soft drinks and juices are also estimated...

  3. The Effect of Price and Socio-Economic Level on the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB): The Case of Ecuador

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paraje, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    ... of said beverages caused by the potential implementation of taxes in Ecuador. In addition, the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of sugar-free substitutes like mineral water and diet soft drinks and juices are also estimated...

  4. Wholesale Price Discrimination between High Street Retailers and Online Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Aiura

    2007-01-01

    We analyze wholesale pricing and retail pricing when a monopolistic manufacturer sells its product to a high street retailer and an online electronic retailer, which have different selling qualities and marginal selling costs. We observe that (1) the wholesale price for an online electronic retailer is higher than that for a high street retailer if an online electronic retailer's selling cost advantage is greater than its selling quality disadvantage for all consumers buying products, and (2)...

  5. Oil prices are still too high

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tussing, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Despite logical premises than the constant-dollar price of oil will surpass and sustain all-time peaks, there is empirical evidence that the Malthus-Hotelling vision does not describe what really happens to production, consumption, and prices of natural resource commodities. Neither oil nor any important internationally traded commodity has ever shown a sustained upward price trend lasting more than a couple of decades. The payoff is just beginning on the investments, both in hardware and in sophistication, that society made over the last decade to conserve energy. The buyer's market in crude oil should continue for a number of years because these investments are reducing demand, making demand more flexible, and making supply more competitive.

  6. High medicine prices and poor affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Guk-Hee

    2011-07-01

    In developing countries, most people who need medicines have to pay for them out of their own pockets. This review focuses on publications to explore the affordability gap of medicines and ways to close it. Cardiovascular medicines were unaffordable in low-income to middle-income countries, whereas dementia medicines were only affordable in regions of wealth. In urban Mozambique, local mark-ups are up to two-thirds of final price in private pharmacies, whereas some governments consistently paid higher prices above the international reference prices to procure a number of medicines. Generics competition from India made an originator brand manufacturer of a AIDS drug willing to supply the drug at a cheaper rate to poorer countries, whereas a Brazilian national program to produce nonprofit generics against protected patent of originator brand products to provide free AIDS drugs had cut the number of people dying by half and hospitalization by 80%, which saved about half a billion US dollars, making the program almost fund itself. Although lowering the manufacturer's price has a greater effect on the cost, policies to eliminate duties and taxes on medicines and regulate mark-ups are practical strategies to avoid excessive add-on costs.

  7. A Drosophila model of high sugar diet-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Na

    Full Text Available Diets high in carbohydrates have long been linked to progressive heart dysfunction, yet the mechanisms by which chronic high sugar leads to heart failure remain poorly understood. Here we combine diet, genetics, and physiology to establish an adult Drosophila melanogaster model of chronic high sugar-induced heart disease. We demonstrate deterioration of heart function accompanied by fibrosis-like collagen accumulation, insulin signaling defects, and fat accumulation. The result was a shorter life span that was more severe in the presence of reduced insulin and P38 signaling. We provide evidence of a role for hexosamine flux, a metabolic pathway accessed by glucose. Increased hexosamine flux led to heart function defects and structural damage; conversely, cardiac-specific reduction of pathway activity prevented sugar-induced heart dysfunction. Our data establish Drosophila as a useful system for exploring specific aspects of diet-induced heart dysfunction and emphasize enzymes within the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway as candidate therapeutic targets.

  8. High Penetrated Wind Farm Impacts on the Electricity Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haji Bashi, Mazaher; Yousefi, G. R.; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    Energy trading policies, intermittency of wind farm output power, low marginal cost of the production, are the key factors that cause the wind farms to be effective on the electricity price. In this paper, the Danish electricity market is studied as a part of Nord Pool. Considering the completely...... fossil fuel free overview in Danish energy policies, and the currently great share of wind power (more than 100% for some hours) in supplying the load, it is an interesting benchmark for the future electricity markets. Negative prices, price spikes, and price volatility are considered as the main effects...... of the high penetrated wind farm integration into electricity markets. Then, stochastic programming approach is employed to compare the volume of trades for a typical wind farm in a high and low wind penetrated market. Although increasing price spikes and volatility was reported in the literature...

  9. Gene regulation: hacking the network on a sugar high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Tom; Wang, Xiao; Collins, James J

    2008-04-11

    In a recent issue of Molecular Cell, Kaplan et al. (2008) determine the input functions for 19 E. coli sugar-utilization genes by using a two-dimensional high-throughput approach. The resulting input-function map reveals that gene network regulation follows non-Boolean, and often nonmonotonic, logic.

  10. High fuel price: Will Indonesian shift to public transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Pamungkas, Adhiguna Ramadhani

    2016-06-01

    Public transportation has been declining over years, while on the other hand, private vehicles are dramatically increasing. The share of public transportation was 38.3% in 2002 and slowly decreasing to 12.9% in 2010. Cheap fuel price has been alleged to be the main cause for the increased private vehicles. The declining trend of public transportation needs further investigation whether higher fuel price indeed influences the choice of transportation mode. The present study therefore aims at exploring the preference of using public transportation compared to motorcycle and private car for various fuel price and identifying barriers toward public transportation. A survey was conducted in 2013 to capture the preference of each transportation mode given different fuel price. A questionnaire which was designed according to the structure of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was distributed using random sampling in ten cities in Sumatra and Java islands, Indonesia. Results indicate that the increased fuel price would not lead to significant increase of public transportation users. Motorcycle seems continuously being the dominating transportation mode in the future. On the other hand, issues resulted from limited public transportation capacity such as long travel time, security and safety issues, limited route, poor schedule appear to be the most barriers of using public transportation. It is implied that in order to promote public transportation, interventions should be introduced simultaneously at both supply (i.e., increasing public transportation capacity) and demand (i.e., high fuel price) sides. Limitations of the study are also discussed.

  11. Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital: a Patient's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital A Patient’s Guide Hyperglycemia is the medical term for blood glucose (sugar) ... org/guidelines/index.cfm). www.hormone.org Managing Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar) in the Hospital Patient Guide ...

  12. Cigarette availability and price in low and high socioeconomic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalglish, Emma; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Dobson, Annette; Gartner, Coral

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether tobacco retailer density and cigarette prices differ between low and high socioeconomic status suburbs in South-East Queensland. A survey of retail outlets selling cigarettes was conducted in selected suburbs over a two-day period. The suburbs were identified by geographical cluster sampling based on their Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage score and size of retail complex within the suburb. All retail outlets within the suburb were visited and the retail prices for the highest ranking Australian brands were recorded at each outlet. A significant relationship was found between Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage score (in deciles) and the number of tobacco retail outlets (r=0.93, p=0.003), with the most disadvantaged suburbs having a greater number of tobacco retailers. Results also demonstrate that cigarettes were sold in a broader range of outlets in suburbs of low SES. The average price of the packs studied was significantly lower in the most disadvantaged suburbs compared to the most advantaged. While cigarettes were still generally cheaper in the most disadvantaged suburbs, the difference was no longer statistically significant when the average price of cigarette packs was compared according to outlet type (supermarket, newsagent, etc). In South-East Queensland, cigarettes are more widely available in the most disadvantaged suburbs and at lower prices than in the most advantaged suburbs. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. High oil prices and the African economy | African Development Bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the Africa Development Bank, in this paper, highlights the expected effects of high oil prices on oil-importing and exporting member countries. It therefore recommends the implementation of remedial policies by importers and other supports from the international community to bridge the financing gap arising from the oil ...

  14. Irregular grid methods for pricing high-dimensional American options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berridge, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis proposes and studies numerical methods for pricing high-dimensional American options; important examples being basket options, Bermudan swaptions and real options. Four new methods are presented and analysed, both in terms of their application to various test problems, and in terms of

  15. The Effect of Price and Socio-Economic Level on the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB): The Case of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraje, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of demand for SSB in Ecuador, as an indispensable step for predicting a reduction in the consumption of said beverages caused by the potential implementation of taxes in Ecuador. In addition, the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of sugar-free substitutes like mineral water and diet soft drinks and juices are also estimated. The data from the 2011-2012 ENIGHUR, which contains detailed information on household consumption and socioeconomic variables, was used. The estimates are done using Deaton's Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) which accounts for differences in the quality of goods purchased. This demand system is estimated for different socio-economic groups, according to total household expenditure. The results reveal own-price elasticities for SSB between -1.17 and -1.33 depending on the socio-economic group, in line with the existing evidence for developed countries. Own-price elasticity for non-SSB is between -1 and -1.24. Income elasticities reveal that both SSB and non-SSB are normal goods with elasticities decreasing for higher socio-economic groups. These results show that the consumption of SSB is sensitive to price changes, meaning that the implementation of taxes on said beverages could be effective in reducing their consumption. The fact that non-SSB are also sensitive to price changes would indicate that subsidies could be implemented for the production of some of them.

  16. Heritability of high sugar consumption through drinks and the genetic correlation with substance use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.L.; Boomsma, D.I.; Ligthart, R.S.L.; Willemsen, G.; Vink, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: High sugar consumption contributes to the rising prevalence of obesity. Sugar can have rewarding effects that are similar to, but less strong than, the effects of addictive substances. People who consume large amounts of sugar also tend to use more addictive substances, but it is unclear

  17. Retailer-Led Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Price Increase Reduces Purchases in a Hospital Convenience Store in Melbourne, Australia: A Mixed Methods Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Miranda R; Peeters, Anna; Lancsar, Emily; Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Corben, Kirstan; Stevenson, Christopher E; Palermo, Claire; Backholer, Kathryn

    2017-09-01

    Limited evidence has been gathered on the real-world impact of sugar-sweetened beverage price changes on purchasing behavior over time or in community-retail settings. Our aim was to determine changes in beverage purchases, business outcomes, and customer and retailer satisfaction associated with a retailer-led sugar-sweetened beverage price increase in a convenience store. We hypothesized that purchases of less-healthy beverages would decrease compared to predicted sales. A convergent parallel mixed methods design complemented sales data (122 weeks pre-intervention, 17 weeks during intervention) with stakeholder interviews and customer surveys. Electronic beverage sales data were collected from a convenience store in Melbourne, Australia (August through November 2015). Convenience store staff completed semi-structured interviews (n=4) and adult customers exiting the store completed surveys (n=352). Beverages were classified using a state government framework. Prices of "red" beverages (eg, nondiet soft drinks, energy drinks) increased by 20%. Prices of "amber" (eg, diet soft drinks, small pure fruit juices) and "green" beverages (eg, water) were unchanged. Changes in beverage volume, item sales, and revenue during the intervention were compared with predicted sales. Sales data were analyzed using time series segmented regression while controlling for pre-intervention trends, autocorrelation in sales data, and seasonal fluctuations. Beverage volume sales of red (-27.6%; 95% CI -32.2 to -23.0) and amber (-26.7%; 95% CI -39.3 to -16.0) decreased, and volume of green beverages increased (+26.9%; 95% CI +14.1 to +39.7) in the 17th intervention week compared with predicted sales. Store manager and staff considered the intervention business-neutral, despite a small reduction in beverage revenue. Fifteen percent of customers noticed the price difference and 61% supported the intervention. A 20% sugar-sweetened beverage price increase was associated with a reduction

  18. Price comparison of high-cost originator medicines in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, high-cost medicines have increasingly been challenging the public health budget in all countries including high-income economies. In this context, this study aims to survey, analyze and compare prices of medicines that likely contribute to high expenditure for the public payers in high-income countries. We chose the following 16 European countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Slovakia, Spain and United Kingdom. The ex-factory price data of 30 medicines in these countries were collected in national databases accessible through the Pharmaceutical Price Information (PPI) service of Gesundheit Österreich GmbH (Austrian Public Health Institute). The ex-factory prices (median) per unit (e.g. per tablet, vial) ranged from 10.67 cent (levodopa + decarboxylase inhibitor) to 17,000 euro (ipilimumab). A total of 53% of the medicines surveyed had a unit ex-factory price (median) above 200 Euro. For two thirds of the medicines, price differences between the highest-priced country and lowest-priced country ranged between 25 and 100%; the remaining medicines, mainly low-priced medicines, had higher price differential, up to 251%. Medicines with unit prices of a few euros or less were medicines for the treatment of diseases in the nervous system (anti-depressants, medicines to treat Parkinson and for the management of neuropathic pain), of obstructive airway diseases and cardio-vascular medicines (lipid modifying agents). High-priced medicines were particularly cancer medicines. Medicine prices of Greece, Hungary, Slovakia and UK were frequently at the lower end, German and Swedish, as well as Danish and Irish prices at the upper end. For high-priced medicines, actual paid prices are likely to be lower due to confidential discounts and similar funding arrangements between industry and public payers. Pricing authorities refer to the higher undiscounted prices when they use

  19. High sugar diet disrupts gut homeostasis though JNK and STAT pathways in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyue; Jin, Qiuxia; Jin, Li Hua

    2017-06-10

    The incidence of diseases associated with a high sugar diet has increased in the past years, and numerous studies have focused on the effect of high sugar intake on obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, how a high sugar diet influences gut homeostasis is still poorly understood. In this study, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism and supplemented a culture medium with 1 M sucrose to create a high sugar condition. Our results indicate that a high sugar diet promoted differentiation of intestinal stem cells through upregulation of the JNK pathway and downregulation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Moreover, the number of commensal bacteria decreased in the high sugar group. Our data suggests that the high caloric diet disrupts gut homeostasis and highlights Drosophila as an ideal model system to explore gastrointestinal disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pricing Strategy in Online Retailing Marketplaces of Homogeneous Goods: Should High Reputation Seller Charge More?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuewen; Wei, Kwok Kee; Chen, Huaping

    There are two conflicting streams of research findings on pricing strategy: one is high reputation sellers should charge price premium, while the other is high reputation sellers should charge relatively low price. Motivated by this confliction, this study examines pricing strategy in online retailing marketplace of homogeneous goods. We conduct an empirical study using data collected from a dominant online retailing marketplace in China. Our research results indicate that, in online retailing marketplace of homogeneous goods, high reputation sellers should charge relatively low price, because the consumers of high reputation sellers are more price sensitive than the consumers of low reputation sellers.

  1. Prices high, tensions ease and a new OPEC is formed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-09-15

    Crude oil prices rose on news that BP was to shut-in its 400,000 bpd Prudhoe Bay field, following the discovery of corrosion in a pipeline serving the field. Dated BFO went to a record high of $78.72/bbl on 8th August. Speculation that refiners on the US West Coast would seek to replace the lost Alaska North Slope crude with supplies from the Asia/Pacific region caused prices to rise there as well. US crude prices were rather less affected than elsewhere by events in Alaska as it rapidly became clear that stock levels were sufficient to deal with any loss of production. It also emerged that BP was able to keep about half of Prudhoe Bay in production. By that time, however, oil markets had latched on to an entirely different source of worry. The announcement in London that police had uncovered a plot to blow-up aeroplanes crossing the Atlantic led to concerns of a sharp fall in passenger travel. Traders were not simply worried about the effect of this on the demand for jet fuel, but expressed concerns of a more general loss of business confidence across the world. Fears over a fall in jet fuel consumption did not appear to have spread to Singapore, where jet kerosine traded at an all-time high of $91.75/bbl early in August. (author)

  2. Phenome data - High-sugar stress - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...s.zip File size: 90KB File name: Original file: High-sugar_stress.xls File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/dgby/LATEST/Hi... Center for Protein Sequences) About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of Thi...s Database Site Policy | Contact Us Phenome data - High-sugar stress - DGBY | LSDB Archive ... ...List Contact us DGBY Phenome data - High-sugar stress Data detail Data name Phenome data - High-sugar stress

  3. Simulating the impact on health of internalising the cost of carbon in food prices combined with a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Adam D M; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Scarborough, Peter

    2016-02-03

    Rising greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) have implications for health and up to 30 % of emissions globally are thought to arise from agriculture. Synergies exist between diets low in GHGEs and health however some foods have the opposite relationship, such as sugar production being a relatively low source of GHGEs. In order to address this and to further characterise a healthy sustainable diet, we model the effect on UK non-communicable disease mortality and GHGEs of internalising the social cost of carbon into the price of food alongside a 20 % tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs). Developing previously published work, we simulate four tax scenarios: (A) a GHGEs tax of £2.86/tonne of CO2 equivalents (tCO2e)/100 g product on all products with emissions greater than the mean across all food groups (0.36 kgCO2e/100 g); (B) scenario A but with subsidies on foods with emissions lower than 0.36 kgCO2e/100 g such that the effect is revenue neutral; (C) scenario A but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs; (D) scenario B but with a 20 % sales tax on SSBs. An almost ideal demand system is used to estimate price elasticities and a comparative risk assessment model is used to estimate changes to non-communicable disease mortality. We estimate that scenario A would lead to 300 deaths delayed or averted, 18,900 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.0 billion tax revenue; scenario B, 90 deaths delayed or averted and 17,100 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs; scenario C, 1,200 deaths delayed or averted, 18,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs, and £3.4 billion revenue; and scenario D, 2,000 deaths delayed or averted and 16,500 ktCO2e fewer GHGEs. Deaths averted are mainly due to increased fibre and reduced fat consumption; a SSB tax reduces SSB and sugar consumption. Incorporating the social cost of carbon into the price of food has the potential to improve health, reduce GHGEs, and raise revenue. The simple addition of a tax on SSBs can mitigate negative health consequences arising from sugar being low in GHGEs. Further

  4. Novel DDR Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations from Enzymatic Hydrolysis (230 g/L) and High Ethanol Concentration (10% v/v) During Fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Jennings, Ed; Shekiro, Joe; Kuhn, Erik M.; O' Brien, Marykate; Wang, Wei; Schell, Daniel J.; Himmel, Mike; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2015-04-03

    Distilling and purifying ethanol, butanol, and other products from second and later generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating cost for biofuels production. The energy costs associated with distillation affects plant gate and life cycle analysis costs. Lower titers in fermentation due to lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment increase both energy and production costs. In addition, higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuels production for several decades. In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymatic hydrolysis using the novel deacetylation and disc refining (DDR) process on corn stover. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations from the DDR process allowed ethanol titers as high as 82 g/L in 22 hours, which translates into approximately 10 vol% ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 10 vol% ethanol in fermentation derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps has been reported. Techno-economic analysis shows the higher titer ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.

  5. Effect of high-sugar grasses on methane emissions simulated using a dynamic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    St-Pierre, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.; Parsons, A.J.; Edwards, G.R.; Rasmussen, S.; Kebreab, E.; Bannink, A.

    2012-01-01

    High-sugar grass varieties have received considerable attention for their potential ability to decrease N excretion in cattle. However, feeding high-sugar grasses alters the pattern of rumen fermentation, and no in vivo studies to date have examined this strategy with respect to another

  6. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... to screen a person for diabetes. High blood sugar and diabetes may not cause symptoms in the early stages. ...

  7. Changes in Prices After an Excise Tax to Sweetened Sugar Beverages Was Implemented in Mexico: Evidence from Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M Arantxa; Salgado, Juan Carlos; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Molina, Mariana; Ng, Shuwen; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Angel

    2015-01-01

    In 2014 an excise tax to non-alcoholic sweetened beverages (SSB) was implemented in Mexico. The objective of this paper is to study whether and to what degree these taxes passed-through onto SSB prices in urban areas overall and by region, type of beverage and package size. Prices were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography from 2011 to 2014. We applied a pre-post quasi-experimental approach using fixed effects models. In sensitivity analysis we applied other model specifications to test the robustness of the findings and we also present weighted estimations based on household purchases. The dependent variables are real prices of a specific beverage category; the main independent variables are dummies for each month of 2014, and the models adjust for time trends and seasonality. Results suggest that the SSB tax passed along to consumers for all SSBs and we found overshifting for the carbonated SSBs. A greater effect is seen among the small package sizes, and we see heterogeneous effects by region. Estimating the effect of the tax on prices is important to understand the potential effect on consumption.

  8. Changes in Prices After an Excise Tax to Sweetened Sugar Beverages Was Implemented in Mexico: Evidence from Urban Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arantxa Colchero

    Full Text Available In 2014 an excise tax to non-alcoholic sweetened beverages (SSB was implemented in Mexico. The objective of this paper is to study whether and to what degree these taxes passed-through onto SSB prices in urban areas overall and by region, type of beverage and package size. Prices were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography from 2011 to 2014. We applied a pre-post quasi-experimental approach using fixed effects models. In sensitivity analysis we applied other model specifications to test the robustness of the findings and we also present weighted estimations based on household purchases. The dependent variables are real prices of a specific beverage category; the main independent variables are dummies for each month of 2014, and the models adjust for time trends and seasonality. Results suggest that the SSB tax passed along to consumers for all SSBs and we found overshifting for the carbonated SSBs. A greater effect is seen among the small package sizes, and we see heterogeneous effects by region. Estimating the effect of the tax on prices is important to understand the potential effect on consumption.

  9. High-sugar intake does not exacerbate metabolic abnormalities or cardiac dysfunction in genetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Peter A; Galvao, Tatiana F; O'Shea, Karen M; Brown, Bethany H; Henderson, Reney; Riggle, Heather; Gupte, Sachin A; Stanley, William C

    2012-05-01

    A high-sugar intake increases heart disease risk in humans. In animals, sugar intake accelerates heart failure development by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) can fuel ROS production by providing reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for superoxide generation by NADPH oxidase. Conversely, G6PD also facilitates ROS scavenging using the glutathione pathway. We hypothesized that a high-sugar intake would increase flux through G6PD to increase myocardial NADPH and ROS and accelerate cardiac dysfunction and death. Six-week-old TO-2 hamsters, a non-hypertensive model of genetic cardiomyopathy caused by a δ-sarcoglycan mutation, were fed a long-term diet of high starch or high sugar (57% of energy from sucrose plus fructose). After 24 wk, the δ-sarcoglycan-deficient animals displayed expected decreases in survival and cardiac function associated with cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction: control 68.7 ± 4.5%, TO-2 starch 46.1 ± 3.7%, P sugar 58.0 ± 4.2%, NS, versus TO-2 starch or control; median survival: TO-2 starch 278 d, TO-2 sugar 318 d, P = 0.133). Although the high-sugar intake was expected to exacerbate cardiomyopathy, surprisingly, there was no further decrease in ejection fraction or survival with high sugar compared with starch in cardiomyopathic animals. Cardiomyopathic animals had systemic and cardiac metabolic abnormalities (increased serum lipids and glucose and decreased myocardial oxidative enzymes) that were unaffected by diet. The high-sugar intake increased myocardial superoxide, but NADPH and lipid peroxidation were unaffected. A sugar-enriched diet did not exacerbate ventricular function, metabolic abnormalities, or survival in heart failure despite an increase in superoxide production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptome data - High-sugar stress - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us DGBY Transcriptome data - High-sugar stress Data detail Data name Transcriptome data - High-...sugar stress DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00953-003 Description of data contents In the modern baking industry, hi...st Genome 2.0 Array Data analysis method - Number of data entries - - About This Database Database Descrip...tion Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Transcriptome data - High-sugar stress - DGBY | LSDB Archive ...

  11. Background and Impact of Recent High Crude Oil Prices (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    HASEGAWA Eiichi

    2008-01-01

    Crude oil prices on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) temporarily fell to $10 a barrel, reflecting the Asian financial crisis that took place in 1997 and 1998, but global oil prices subsequently began to climb from around 2004, given rising demand from China, the disruption caused by hurricanes in the United States, and supply problems in Russia. In early 2008, crude oil prices topped $100 a barrel. As the sub-prime loan problems of the United States began to impact the global economy,...

  12. Changes in prices, sales, consumer spending, and beverage consumption one year after a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Berkeley, California, US: A before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Lynn D; Ng, Shu Wen; Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Induni, Marta; Miles, Donna R; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-04-01

    Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) meant to improve health and raise revenue are being adopted, yet evaluation is scarce. This study examines the association of the first penny per ounce SSB excise tax in the United States, in Berkeley, California, with beverage prices, sales, store revenue/consumer spending, and usual beverage intake. Methods included comparison of pre-taxation (before 1 January 2015) and first-year post-taxation (1 March 2015-29 February 2016) measures of (1) beverage prices at 26 Berkeley stores; (2) point-of-sale scanner data on 15.5 million checkouts for beverage prices, sales, and store revenue for two supermarket chains covering three Berkeley and six control non-Berkeley large supermarkets in adjacent cities; and (3) a representative telephone survey (17.4% cooperation rate) of 957 adult Berkeley residents. Key hypotheses were that (1) the tax would be passed through to the prices of taxed beverages among the chain stores in which Berkeley implemented the tax in 2015; (2) sales of taxed beverages would decline, and sales of untaxed beverages would rise, in Berkeley stores more than in comparison non-Berkeley stores; (3) consumer spending per transaction (checkout episode) would not increase in Berkeley stores; and (4) self-reported consumption of taxed beverages would decline. Main outcomes and measures included changes in inflation-adjusted prices (cents/ounce), beverage sales (ounces), consumers' spending measured as store revenue (inflation-adjusted dollars per transaction) in two large chains, and usual beverage intake (grams/day and kilocalories/day). Tax pass-through (changes in the price after imposition of the tax) for SSBs varied in degree and timing by store type and beverage type. Pass-through was complete in large chain supermarkets (+1.07¢/oz, p = 0.001) and small chain supermarkets and chain gas stations (1.31¢/oz, p = 0.004), partial in pharmacies (+0.45¢/oz, p = 0.03), and negative in independent corner stores and

  13. The biosynthesis of nitrogen-, sulfur-, and high-carbon chain-containing sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-I; McCarty, Reid M; Liu, Hung-wen

    2013-05-21

    Carbohydrates serve many structural and functional roles in biology. While the majority of monosaccharides are characterized by the chemical composition (CH2O)n, modifications including deoxygenation, C-alkylation, amination, O- and N-methylation, which are characteristic of many sugar appendages of secondary metabolites, are not uncommon. Interestingly, some sugar molecules are formed via modifications including amine oxidation, sulfur incorporation, and "high-carbon" chain attachment. Most of these unusual sugars have been identified over the past several decades as components of microbially produced natural products, although a few high-carbon sugars are also found in the lipooligosaccharides of the outer cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria. Despite their broad distribution in nature, these sugars are considered "rare" due to their relative scarcity. The biosynthetic steps that underlie their formation continue to perplex researchers to this day and many questions regarding key transformations remain unanswered. This review will focus on our current understanding of the biosynthesis of unusual sugars bearing oxidized amine substituents, thio-functional groups, and high-carbon chains.

  14. Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your body's cells to use for energy. Diabetes is a disease in which your blood sugar levels are too high. Over time, having too ... serious problems. Even if you don't have diabetes, sometimes you may have problems with blood sugar that is too low or too high. Keeping ...

  15. Assessing high house prices: Bubbles, fundamentals, and misperceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Himmelberg, Charles; Mayer, Christopher; Sinai, Todd

    2005-01-01

    How does one tell when rapid growth in house prices is caused by fundamental factors of supply and demand and when it is an unsustainable bubble? In this paper, we explain how to assess the state of house prices—both whether there is a bubble and what underlying factors support housing demand—in a way that is grounded in economic theory. In doing so, we correct four common fallacies about the costliness of the housing market. For a number of reasons, conventional metrics for assessing pricing...

  16. The impact of high energy prices in Central American households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, Ana; Manzano, Osmel

    2010-09-15

    Central American countries have one the highest energy costs in Latin America. We look at the potential social impact of higher energy prices using household data. Depending on a portfolio of characteristics, higher energy prices could have significant impact on the poor purchasing power. In countries like Guatemala, the poorest could see a higher impact than the richest. In Mexico and Panama, the impact is higher for the 'lower middle class'. We measure indirect effects of lack of energy sources, we conclude that children that live in households that cook with fossil fuels are subject to attend less to school.

  17. Creating scarcity from abundance: Bumper harvests, high prices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By purchasing majority of the maize on the market, the FRA limited the need for commercial mills to access maize directly from the market. This reduced competition in the wholesaling sector and concentrated maize supply chain around the FRA; (2) Rationing of the FRA maize sold at subsidized prices to commercial mills.

  18. Process evaluation of enzymatic hydrolysis with filtrate recycle for the production of high concentration sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ying; Rusli, Jannov; Chang, Hou-Min; Phillips, Richard; Jameel, Hasan

    2012-02-01

    Process simulation and lab trials were carried out to demonstrate and confirm the efficiency of the concept that recycling hydrolysate at low total solid enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the options to increase the sugar concentration without mixing problems. Higher sugar concentration can reduce the capital cost for fermentation and distillation because of smaller retention volume. Meanwhile, operation cost will also decrease for less operating volume and less energy required for distillation. With the computer simulation, time and efforts can be saved to achieve the steady state of recycling process, which is the scenario for industrial production. This paper, to the best of our knowledge, is the first paper discussing steady-state saccharification with recycling of the filtrate form enzymatic hydrolysis to increase sugar concentration. Recycled enzymes in the filtrate (15-30% of the original enzyme loading) resulted in 5-10% higher carbohydrate conversion compared to the case in which recycled enzymes were denatured. The recycled hydrolysate yielded 10% higher carbohydrate conversion compared to pure sugar simulated hydrolysate at the same enzyme loading, which indicated hydrolysis by-products could boost enzymatic hydrolysis. The high sugar concentration (pure sugar simulated) showed inhibition effect, since about 15% decrease in carbohydrate conversion was observed compared with the case with no sugar added. The overall effect of hydrolysate recycling at WinGEMS simulated steady-state conditions with 5% total solids was increasing the sugar concentration from 35 to 141 g/l, while the carbohydrate conversion was 2% higher for recycling at steady state (87%) compared with no recycling strategy (85%). Ten percent and 15% total solid processes were also evaluated in this study.

  19. Use of sugarcane molasses "B" as an alternative for ethanol production with wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 at high sugar concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, C L; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B; Salgado-Cervantes, M A; García, P G Mendoza; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2012-05-01

    Molasses "B" is a rich co-product of the sugarcane process. It is obtained from the second step of crystallization and is richer in fermentable sugars (50-65%) than the final molasses, with a lower non-sugar solid content (18-33%); this co-product also contains good vitamin and mineral levels. The use of molasses "B" for ethanol production could be a good option for the sugarcane industry when cane sugar prices diminish in the market. In a complex medium like molasses, osmotolerance is a desirable characteristic for ethanol producing strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of molasses "B" for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 (a wild-type yeast isolated from sugarcane molasses) using different initial sugar concentrations (70-291 g L(-1)), two inoculum sizes and the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract, urea, and ammonium sulphate to the culture medium. The results obtained showed that the strain was able to grow at 291 g L(-1) total sugars in molasses "B" medium; the addition of nutrients to the culture medium did not produce a statistically significant difference. This yeast exhibits high osmotolerance in this medium, producing high ethanol yields (0.41 g g(-1)). The best conditions for ethanol production were 220 g L(-1) initial total sugars in molasses "B" medium, pH 5.5, using an inoculum size of 6 × 10(6) cell mL(-1); ethanol production was 85 g L(-1), productivity 3.8 g L(-1 )h(-1) with 90% preserved cell viability.

  20. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Plus High-Sugar Diet Provokes a Metabolic Crisis That Inhibits Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Kemppainen

    Full Text Available The Drosophila mutant tko25t exhibits a deficiency of mitochondrial protein synthesis, leading to a global insufficiency of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. This entrains an organismal phenotype of developmental delay and sensitivity to seizures induced by mechanical stress. We found that the mutant phenotype is exacerbated in a dose-dependent fashion by high dietary sugar levels. tko25t larvae were found to exhibit severe metabolic abnormalities that were further accentuated by high-sugar diet. These include elevated pyruvate and lactate, decreased ATP and NADPH. Dietary pyruvate or lactate supplementation phenocopied the effects of high sugar. Based on tissue-specific rescue, the crucial tissue in which this metabolic crisis initiates is the gut. It is accompanied by down-regulation of the apparatus of cytosolic protein synthesis and secretion at both the RNA and post-translational levels, including a novel regulation of S6 kinase at the protein level.

  1. Do ultra-orphan medicinal products warrant ultra-high prices? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picavet E

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eline Picavet,1 David Cassiman,2 Steven Simoens1 1Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 2Department of Hepatology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Abstract: Ultra-orphan medicinal products (ultra-OMPs are intended for the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of ultra-rare diseases, ie, life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases that affect less than one per 50,000 individuals. Recently, high prices for ultra-OMPs have given rise to debate on the sustainability and justification of these prices. The aim of this article is to review the international scientific literature on the pricing of ultra-OMPs and to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the drivers of ultra-OMP pricing. The pricing process of ultra-OMPs is a complex and nontransparent issue. Evidence in the literature seems to indicate that ultra-OMPs are priced according to rarity and what the manufacturer believes the market will bear. Additionally, there appears to be a trend between the price of an ultra-OMP and the number of available alternatives. Patients, third-party payers, and pharmaceutical companies could benefit from more transparent pricing strategies. With a view to containing health care costs, it is likely that cost-sharing strategies, such as performance-based risk sharing arrangements, will become increasingly more important. However, it is vital that any measures for price control are consistent with the intended goals of the incentives to promote the development of new OMPs. Ideally, a balance must be struck between attaining affordable prices for ultra-OMPs and securing a realistic return on investment for the pharmaceutical industry. Keywords: ultra-orphan medicinal product, ultra-rare disease, pricing

  2. Elimination of high-refined-sugar diet as treatment strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dietary intervention through the elimination of highly refined sugar as a treatment strategy to prevent and treat autism. Keywords: Neurotoxicity, Ampicillin, Propionic acid, Neurotransmitters, Cytokines, High-sucrose diet. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,.

  3. A high-sugar diet produces obesity and insulin resistance in wild-type Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Palanker Musselman

    2011-11-01

    Insulin-resistant, ‘type 2’ diabetes (T2D results from a complex interplay between genes and environment. In particular, both caloric excess and obesity are strongly associated with T2D across many genetic backgrounds. To gain insights into how dietary excess affects insulin resistance, we studied the simple model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae reared on a high-sugar diet were hyperglycemic, insulin resistant and accumulated fat – hallmarks of T2D – compared with those reared on control diets. Excess dietary sugars, but not fats or proteins, elicited insulin-resistant phenotypes. Expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis and β-oxidation was upregulated in high-sugar-fed larvae, as were FOXO targets, consistent with known mechanisms of insulin resistance in humans. These data establish a novel Drosophila model of diet-induced insulin resistance that bears strong similarity to the pathophysiology of T2D in humans.

  4. High penetration wind generation impacts on spot prices in the Australian national electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Nicholas J., E-mail: nicholas.cutler@roamconsulting.com.au [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications and Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets, University of New South Wales 2052, Sydney (Australia); Boerema, Nicholas D., E-mail: nicholas.boerema@student.unsw.edu.au [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering and Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); MacGill, Iain F., E-mail: i.macgill@unsw.edu.au [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications and Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets, University of New South Wales 2052, Sydney (Australia); Outhred, Hugh R., E-mail: h.outhred@unsw.edu.au [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    This paper explores wind power integration issues for the South Australian (SA) region of the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) by assessing the interaction of regional wind generation, electricity demand and spot prices over 2 recent years of market operation. SA's wind energy penetration has recently surpassed 20% and it has only a limited interconnection with other regions of the NEM. As such, it represents an interesting example of high wind penetration in a gross wholesale pool market electricity industry. Our findings suggest that while electricity demand continues to have the greatest influence on spot prices in SA, wind generation levels have become a significant secondary influence, and there is an inverse relationship between wind generation and price. No clear relationship between wind generation and demand has been identified although some periods of extremely high demand may coincide with lower wind generation. Periods of high wind output are associated with generally lower market prices, and also appear to contribute to extreme negative price events. The results highlight the importance of electricity market and renewable policy design in facilitating economically efficient high wind penetrations. - Highlights: > In South Australia (SA) wind generation is having an influence on market prices. > Little or no correlation is found between wind generation and demand. > Wind farms in SA are receiving a lower average price than in other States. > The results highlight the importance of appropriate electricity market design.

  5. Locational Pricing to Mitigate Voltage Problems Caused by High PV Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Weckx

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a locational marginal pricing algorithm is proposed to control the voltage in unbalanced distribution grids. The increasing amount of photovoltaic (PV generation installed in the grid may cause the voltage to rise to unacceptable levels during periods of low consumption. With locational prices, the distribution system operator can steer the reactive power consumption and active power curtailment of PV panels to guarantee a safe network operation. Flexible loads also respond to these prices. A distributed gradient algorithm automatically defines the locational prices that avoid voltage problems. Using these locational prices results in a minimum cost for the distribution operator to control the voltage. Locational prices can differ between the three phases in unbalanced grids. This is caused by a higher consumption or production in one of the phases compared to the other phases and provides the opportunity for arbitrage, where power is transferred from a phase with a low price to a phase with a high price. The effect of arbitrage is analyzed. The proposed algorithm is applied to an existing three-phase four-wire radial grid. Several simulations with realistic data are performed.

  6. Is the EU sugar policy reform likely to increase obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Celine; Requillart, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    National Health authorities recommend a decrease in the consumption of ’added’ sugar. At the same moment, a reform of the Common Organisation of the Sugar Market will lead to a decrease by more than 30% of the sugar price in the EU. Using the example of the soft drink industry, this paper investigates the impact of that reform on the consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Because the soft drink industry as well as the retail industry are both highly concentrated, using structural econometr...

  7. Sugar or high fructose corn syrup-what should nurses teach patients and families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Linda L; Dalby, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    There is lack of consensus in the lay literature to support consumption of table sugar as a preferred sweetener when compared to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). The purpose of this study was to search the literature for evidence to determine the health effects of consumption of table sugar (sucrose) and HFCS on blood glucose, lipid levels, obesity, and appetite as well as to make recommendations for patient and family teaching of those at risk for developing negative health outcomes, including coronary heart disease. Nursing and health-related databases, including CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and Health and Wellness were searched for research articles, which were compared and evaluated for purpose, sample size, procedure, findings, and level of evidence. Five studies that met inclusion criteria were evaluated. No difference was found in changes in blood glucose levels, lipid levels, or appetite between table sugar consumption and HFCS consumption. When only fructose was consumed, lipid levels were significantly increased. The evidence suggests that fructose, found in both table sugar and HFCS, has a negative effect on health outcomes. Clinicians should teach patients and families that all sugar consumption should be closely monitored and kept below the 40 g/day recommended by the World Health Organization. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  8. Price Forecasting of Electricity Markets in the Presence of a High Penetration of Wind Power Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Talari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Price forecasting plays a vital role in the day-ahead markets. Once sellers and buyers access an accurate price forecasting, managing the economic risk can be conducted appropriately through offering or bidding suitable prices. In networks with high wind power penetration, the electricity price is influenced by wind energy; therefore, price forecasting can be more complicated. This paper proposes a novel hybrid approach for price forecasting of day-ahead markets, with high penetration of wind generators based on Wavelet transform, bivariate Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA method and Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFN. To this end, a weighted time series for wind dominated power systems is calculated and added to a bivariate ARIMA model along with the price time series. Moreover, RBFN is applied as a tool to correct the estimation error, and particle swarm optimization (PSO is used to optimize the structure and adapt the RBFN to the particular training set. This method is evaluated on the Spanish electricity market, which shows the efficiency of this approach. This method has less error compared with other methods especially when it considers the effects of large-scale wind generators.

  9. Sugar 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Blood Pressure Healthy Hey Kids, Learn About Cholesterol Hey Kids, Learn About Blood Sugar and Diabetes ... as whole-grain cereal, low-fat milk or yogurt, is better than eating nutrient-poor, highly sweetened ...

  10. Can harms associated with high-intensity drinking be reduced by increasing the price of alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Joshua; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Petrie, Dennis; Doran, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the price of alcohol is consistently shown to reduce the average level of consumption. However, the evidence for the effect of increasing the price on high-intensity drinking is both limited and equivocal. The aim of this analysis is to estimate the effect of changes in price on patterns of consumption. Self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption and demographic data were obtained from the Australian National Drug Strategy Household Surveys, conducted in 2001, 2004 and 2007. A pooled three-stage least-squares estimator was used to simultaneously model the impact of the price on the frequency (measured in days) of consuming no, low, moderate and high quantities of alcohol. A 1% increase in the price of alcohol was associated with a statistically significant increase of 6.41 days per year on which no alcohol is consumed (P ≤ 0.049), and a statistically significant decrease of 7.30 days on which 1-4 standard drinks are consumed (P ≤ 0.021). There was no statistically significant change for high or moderate-intensity drinking. For Australia, and countries with a similar pattern of predominant high-intensity drinking, taxation policies that increase the price of alcohol and are very efficient at decreasing harms associated with reduced average consumption may be relatively inefficient at decreasing alcohol harms associated with high-intensity drinking. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. A pricing strategy to promote sales of lower fat foods in high school cafeterias: acceptability and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A

    2002-01-01

    Prices of four low fat foods were reduced about 25% and prices of three high fat foods were increased about 10% to determine the impact on food purchases in a Midwestern suburban high school cafeteria to explore the impact of price on purchases. Low fat foods averaged about 13% of total sales. Sensitivity analysis was used to estimate that low fat foods would probably have averaged about 9% of total sales without the reduced price.

  12. SUGAR: graphical user interface-based data refiner for high-throughput DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukuto; Kojima, Kaname; Nariai, Naoki; Yamaguchi-Kabata, Yumi; Kawai, Yosuke; Takahashi, Mamoru; Mimori, Takahiro; Nagasaki, Masao

    2014-08-08

    Next-generation sequencers (NGSs) have become one of the main tools for current biology. To obtain useful insights from the NGS data, it is essential to control low-quality portions of the data affected by technical errors such as air bubbles in sequencing fluidics. We develop a software SUGAR (subtile-based GUI-assisted refiner) which can handle ultra-high-throughput data with user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) and interactive analysis capability. The SUGAR generates high-resolution quality heatmaps of the flowcell, enabling users to find possible signals of technical errors during the sequencing. The sequencing data generated from the error-affected regions of a flowcell can be selectively removed by automated analysis or GUI-assisted operations implemented in the SUGAR. The automated data-cleaning function based on sequence read quality (Phred) scores was applied to a public whole human genome sequencing data and we proved the overall mapping quality was improved. The detailed data evaluation and cleaning enabled by SUGAR would reduce technical problems in sequence read mapping, improving subsequent variant analysis that require high-quality sequence data and mapping results. Therefore, the software will be especially useful to control the quality of variant calls to the low population cells, e.g., cancers, in a sample with technical errors of sequencing procedures.

  13. How Pakistan is coping with the Challenge of High Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Afia

    2008-01-01

    The paper is a review of possible consequences and challenges presented by high oil prices in Pakistan. Pakistan is heavily dependent on imported fuels and this dependence is expected to increase even further in future given the depleting gas resources. The rising oil prices in the international market has had effected negatively balance of payment position as well as on the budgetary position of the country and contributed in creating inflationary pressures in the economy. For long run devel...

  14. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were

  15. High-fat high-sugar diet induces polycystic ovary syndrome in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jacob S; Perets, Ron A; Sarfert, Kathryn S; Bowman, John J; Ozark, Patrick A; Whitworth, Gregg B; Blythe, Sarah N; Toporikova, Natalia

    2017-01-27

    Obesity has been linked with a host of metabolic and reproductive disorders including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). While a clear association exists between obesity and PCOS, the exact nature of this relationship remains unexplained. The primary symptoms of PCOS include hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Most animal models utilize androgen treatments to induce PCOS. However, these models often fail to address the underlying causes of the disease and do not effectively reproduce key metabolic features such as hyperinsulinemia. Here, we present a novel rodent model of diet-induced obesity that recapitulates both the metabolic and reproductive phenotypes of human PCOS. Rats on a high-fat high-sugar (HFHS) diet not only demonstrated signs of metabolic impairment, but they also developed polycystic ovaries and experienced irregular estrous cycling. Though hyperandrogenism was not characteristic of HFHS animals as a group, elevated testosterone levels were predictive of high numbers of ovarian cysts. Alterations in steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis gene expression were also found via RNA sequencing of ovarian tissue. Importantly, the PCOS-like symptoms induced in these rats may share a similar etiology to PCOS in humans. Therefore, this model offers a unique opportunity to study PCOS at its genesis rather than following the development of disease symptoms.

  16. Does Enrollment in High-Deductible Health Plans Encourage Price Shopping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinke; Haviland, Amelia; Mehrotra, Ateev; Huckfeldt, Peter; Wagner, Zachary; Sood, Neeraj

    2017-10-23

    To investigate whether enrollment in high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) led enrollees to choose lower-priced providers for office visits and laboratory tests. Claims data from more than 40 large employers. We compared the change in price for office visits and laboratory tests for enrollees who switched to HDHPs versus enrollees who remained in traditional plans. We estimated separate models for enrollees who changed providers versus those who remained with the same provider to disentangle the effects of HDHPs on provider choice and negotiated prices. Claims data from 2004 to 2010 on 1.8 million enrollees. After enrollment in HDHPs, 28 percent of enrollees changed physicians for office visits (compared to 19 percent in the Traditional Plan group, p price for office visits. About 25 percent of enrollees changed providers for laboratory tests (compared to 23 percent in the Traditional Plan group, p price per laboratory test. We found that HDHPs had lower negotiated prices for office visits but not for laboratory tests. High-deductible health plan enrollment may shift enrollees to lower cost providers, resulting in modest savings. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. Changes in prices, sales, consumer spending, and beverage consumption one year after a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Berkeley, California, US: A before-and-after study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Induni, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Background Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) meant to improve health and raise revenue are being adopted, yet evaluation is scarce. This study examines the association of the first penny per ounce SSB excise tax in the United States, in Berkeley, California, with beverage prices, sales, store revenue/consumer spending, and usual beverage intake. Methods and findings Methods included comparison of pre-taxation (before 1 January 2015) and first-year post-taxation (1 March 2015–29 February 2016) measures of (1) beverage prices at 26 Berkeley stores; (2) point-of-sale scanner data on 15.5 million checkouts for beverage prices, sales, and store revenue for two supermarket chains covering three Berkeley and six control non-Berkeley large supermarkets in adjacent cities; and (3) a representative telephone survey (17.4% cooperation rate) of 957 adult Berkeley residents. Key hypotheses were that (1) the tax would be passed through to the prices of taxed beverages among the chain stores in which Berkeley implemented the tax in 2015; (2) sales of taxed beverages would decline, and sales of untaxed beverages would rise, in Berkeley stores more than in comparison non-Berkeley stores; (3) consumer spending per transaction (checkout episode) would not increase in Berkeley stores; and (4) self-reported consumption of taxed beverages would decline. Main outcomes and measures included changes in inflation-adjusted prices (cents/ounce), beverage sales (ounces), consumers’ spending measured as store revenue (inflation-adjusted dollars per transaction) in two large chains, and usual beverage intake (grams/day and kilocalories/day). Tax pass-through (changes in the price after imposition of the tax) for SSBs varied in degree and timing by store type and beverage type. Pass-through was complete in large chain supermarkets (+1.07¢/oz, p = 0.001) and small chain supermarkets and chain gas stations (1.31¢/oz, p = 0.004), partial in pharmacies (+0.45¢/oz, p = 0.03), and

  18. Changes in prices, sales, consumer spending, and beverage consumption one year after a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Berkeley, California, US: A before-and-after study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn D Silver

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs meant to improve health and raise revenue are being adopted, yet evaluation is scarce. This study examines the association of the first penny per ounce SSB excise tax in the United States, in Berkeley, California, with beverage prices, sales, store revenue/consumer spending, and usual beverage intake.Methods included comparison of pre-taxation (before 1 January 2015 and first-year post-taxation (1 March 2015-29 February 2016 measures of (1 beverage prices at 26 Berkeley stores; (2 point-of-sale scanner data on 15.5 million checkouts for beverage prices, sales, and store revenue for two supermarket chains covering three Berkeley and six control non-Berkeley large supermarkets in adjacent cities; and (3 a representative telephone survey (17.4% cooperation rate of 957 adult Berkeley residents. Key hypotheses were that (1 the tax would be passed through to the prices of taxed beverages among the chain stores in which Berkeley implemented the tax in 2015; (2 sales of taxed beverages would decline, and sales of untaxed beverages would rise, in Berkeley stores more than in comparison non-Berkeley stores; (3 consumer spending per transaction (checkout episode would not increase in Berkeley stores; and (4 self-reported consumption of taxed beverages would decline. Main outcomes and measures included changes in inflation-adjusted prices (cents/ounce, beverage sales (ounces, consumers' spending measured as store revenue (inflation-adjusted dollars per transaction in two large chains, and usual beverage intake (grams/day and kilocalories/day. Tax pass-through (changes in the price after imposition of the tax for SSBs varied in degree and timing by store type and beverage type. Pass-through was complete in large chain supermarkets (+1.07¢/oz, p = 0.001 and small chain supermarkets and chain gas stations (1.31¢/oz, p = 0.004, partial in pharmacies (+0.45¢/oz, p = 0.03, and negative in independent corner stores and

  19. PRICE AND PRICING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Titus SUCIU

    2013-01-01

    In individual companies, price is one significant factor in achieving marketing success. In many purchase situations, price can be of great importance to customers. Marketers must establish pricing strategies that are compatible with the rest of the marketing mix. Management should decide whether to charge the same price to all similar buyers of identical quantities of a product (a one-price strategy) or to set different prices (a flexible price strategy). Many organizations, especially retai...

  20. The effects of Curcuma zedoaria oil on high blood sugar level and gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Handajani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperglycemia is a condition when blood sugar level is higher than normal. Hyperglycemia is also one of diabetes mellitus (DM symptoms. Hyperglycemia has a correlation with the occurrence of periodontal disease. Curcuma zedoaria oil is known to decrease concentration of serum glucose. Purpose: This study was aimed to determine the effects of Curcuma zedoaria oil on high blood sugar level and gingivitis in rats. Method: This study used twenty-five male Wistar rats, divided into two groups, namely the treatment group and the control group. In the treatment group, fifteen rats were divided into three subgroups (each of which was induced with 10 μl/ml, 30 μl/ml and 50 μl/ml of Curcuma zedoaria oil. The control group was consisted often rats, divided into two subgroups, as the positive control group (induced with 10 mg/kg of Glibenclamide and the negative control group (induced with propylene glycol. Streptozotocin (STZ (Naclai tesque, Kyoto Japan with a dose of 40 mg/kg was used to create hyperglycemia condition in those rats. Gingivitis was then made by using silk ligature in those hyperglycemia rats. Silk ligature was twisted at the margin of gingiva anterior mandibular incisors for seven days. After the rats had gingivitis, Curcuma zedoaria oil, glibenclamide and propylene glycol were orally administered for seven days. Their gingivitis condition was observed, and their blood sugar level was measured before and after the induction of STZ and during the treatment. The data obtained were analyzed by using Manova. Result: There were significant differences of blood sugar levels between the treatment group before and after the administration of Curcuma zedoaria oil and the positive control group (p<0.05. Healthy gingiva was then found in the treatment group and the positive control group. Conclusion: Curcuma zedoaria oil can decrease blood sugar level and gingivitis.

  1. Gluten-Free Foods in Rural Maritime Provinces: Limited Availability, High Price, and Low Iron Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jennifer A; Gougeon, Laura

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the price difference between gluten-free (GF) and gluten-containing (GC) foods available in rural Maritime stores. GF foods and comparable GC items were sampled through random visits to 21 grocery stores in nonurban areas of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, Canada. Wilcoxon rank tests were conducted on price per 100 g of product, and on the price relative to iron content; 2226 GF foods (27.2% staple items, defined as breads, cereals, flours, and pastas) and 1625 GC foods were sampled, with an average ± SD of 66 ± 2.7 GF items per store in rural areas and 331 ± 12 in towns. The median price of GF items ($1.76/100 g) was more expensive than GC counterparts ($1.05/100 g) and iron density was approximately 50% less. GF staple foods were priced 5% higher in rural stores than in town stores. Although the variety of GF products available to consumers has improved, higher cost and lower nutrient density remain issues in nonurban Maritime regions. Dietitians working in nonurban areas should consider the relative high price, difficult access, and low iron density of key GF items, and work together with clients to find alternatives and enhance their food literacy.

  2. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.; Schene, Aart H.; Lok, Anja; Vries, de Jeanne H.; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Nicolaou, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. Design: We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy

  3. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Mejia, A M; Longacre, M R; Skatrud-Mickelson, M; Li, Z; Purvis, L A; Titus, L J; Beach, M L; Dalton, M A

    2013-05-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location - urban, town or rural - and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Cross-sectional observational study. Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P = 0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prices and Price Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies price data and tries to unravel the underlying economic processes of why firms have chosen these prices. It focuses on three aspects of price setting. First, it studies whether the existence of a suggested price has a coordinating effect on the prices of firms.

  5. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L.; Letsinger, Ayland C.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Granados, Jorge Z.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s) may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD) or high fat/high sugar (HFHS) diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males) and 17β-estradiol (females) to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity. Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀) were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001) and had significantly higher body fat (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001). The HFHS diet did not reduce sex hormone levels, but did significantly reduce acute running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28%) and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%). In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat. Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones. PMID:28890701

  6. Comparison of reduced sugar high quality chocolates sweetened with stevioside and crude stevia 'green' extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Frati, Alessandra; Ninfali, Paolino; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Morini, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The demand for zero and reduced-sugar food products containing cocoa is expanding continuously. The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing high-quality chocolate sweetened with a crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) prepared by a green microwave-assisted water-steam extraction procedure. Seven approximately isosweet chocolate formulations were developed, mixing cocoa paste, sucrose, commercial stevioside, crude green extract and maltitol in different proportions. All samples were analyzed for the determination of polyphenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and sensory acceptability. The use of a crude stevia extract allowed low-sugar, high-quality chocolates to be obtained that were also acceptable by consumers and had a significant increased antioxidant activity. Moreover, consumers' segmentation revealed a cluster of consumers showing the same overall liking for the sample with 50% sucrose replaced by the stevia crude extract as that obtained with the commercial stevioside and the control sample (without sucrose replacement). The results provide information that can contribute to promoting the development of sweet food products, with advantages in terms of an improved nutritional value (reduced sugar content and increased antioxidant activity) and a reduced impact of the production process on the environment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Profiling the high frequency wine consumer by price segmentation in the US market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Thach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy users of consumer products are important to marketers as a profitable target segment. This is equally true in the wine industry, but with the added precaution of encouraging responsible consumption. This study examines the attributes and behaviors of 681 high frequency (heavy-user wine consumers in the US, based on a price segmentation of High, Moderate, and Low Spenders. For this study, price segmentation was defined as the price typically paid for a bottle of wine for home consumption. Significant differences were discovered based on gender, age, income, wine involvement, shopping channel, ecommerce/social media usage and other key areas. Implications for marketing managers as well as areas of future research are described.

  8. High and low or close to close prices? Evidence from the multifractal volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhichao; Ma, Feng; Long, Yujia

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we examine the daily returns and daily range returns dependent on close-close and the high-low prices when forecasting multifractal volatility in the Chinese stock market. In in-sample forecasting we find that both the daily returns and range returns have a significant impact on the future multifractal volatility, existing the well-established phenomenon of "leverage effects" of the positive and negative returns. Moreover, using the MF-DFA method, we find that both the two series present the persistence and exhibit the multifractal features. Furthermore, our MCS test results show that the ARFIMA-lnMFV-R and ARFIMA-lnMFV-LR models provide relatively superior volatility forecasts in comparison to all other models. Finally, we find that the daily returns calculated by close to close prices have a greater power than the daily range return calculated by high and low prices in forecasting.

  9. Selection of processing tomato genotypes with high acyl sugar content that are resistant to the tomato pinworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, D M; Resende, J T V; Faria, M V; Camargo, L K P; Chagas, R R; Lima, I P

    2013-02-08

    Acyl sugars are allelochemicals present at high concentrations in leaves of accessions of the wild tomato Solanum pennellii; they confer resistance to a large number of arthropod pests, including the tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). Accession 'LA716', with high contents of acyl sugars in the leaves, was used as a source of resistance to start a genetic breeding program of processing cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum. We selected plants of the F₂ generation of an interspecific cross (S. lycopersicum cv. 'Redenção' x S. pennellii 'LA716') for extremes of concentrations (high and low) of acyl sugars in the leaves and evaluated the resistance of selected genotypes to the tomato pinworm, compared with plants of the parental and F₁ generations. The concentrations of acyl sugars present in the genotypes selected for high contents were close to those of S. pennellii 'LA 716', while the genotypes with low concentrations of acyl sugars were close to cultivar 'Redenção'. The F₁ hybrid ('Redenção' x 'LA716') had intermediate concentrations of acyl sugars, but was closer to Redenção, indicating that the inheritance of this type of character is due to a recessive major gene, along with minor genes with additive effects. There was a direct association between high contents of acyl sugars and non-preference for oviposition and suppression of larval development, indicating that the allelochemical acts through mechanisms of non-preference for oviposition and through antibiosis. Genotypes with high contents of acyl sugars were more effective in reducing the damage caused by the tomato pinworm. Genotypes RVTA-2010pl#94 and RVTA-2010pl#31, selected for high contents of acyl sugars, showed a good level of resistance to T. absoluta, similar to the wild genotype LA716. These genotypes are promising for use in a breeding program for developing commercial processing tomatoes.

  10. High Generic Drug Prices and Market Competition: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Chintan V; Kesselheim, Aaron S; Fox, Erin R; Qiu, Peihua; Hartzema, Abraham

    2017-08-01

    Prices for some generic drugs have increased in recent years, adversely affecting patients who rely on them. To determine the association between market competition levels and the change in generic drug prices in the United States. Retrospective cohort study. Prescription claims from commercial health plans between 2008 and 2013. The 5.5 years of data were divided into 11 study periods of 6 months each. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)-calculated by summing the squares of individual manufacturers' market shares, with higher values indicating a less competitive market-and average drug prices were estimated for the generic drugs in each period. The HHI value estimated in the baseline period (first half of 2008) was modeled as a fixed covariate. Models estimated price changes over time by level of competition, adjusting for drug shortages, market size, and dosage forms. From 1.08 billion prescription claims, a cohort of 1120 generic drugs was identified. After adjustment, drugs with quadropoly (HHI value of 2500, indicating relatively high levels of competition), duopoly (HHI value of 5000), near-monopoly (HHI value of 8000), and monopoly (HHI value of 10 000) levels of baseline competition were associated with price changes of -31.7% (95% CI, -34.4% to -28.9%), -11.8% (CI, -18.6% to -4.4%), 20.1% (CI, 5.5% to 36.6%), and 47.4% (CI, 25.4% to 73.2%), respectively, over the study period. Study findings may not be generalizable to drugs that became generic after 2008. Market competition levels were associated with a change in generic drug prices. Such measurements may be helpful in identifying older prescription drugs at higher risk for price change in the future. None.

  11. Urinary Excretion of Sodium, Nitrogen, and Sugar Amounts Are Valid Biomarkers of Dietary Sodium, Protein, and High Sugar Intake in Nonobese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori B; Liu, Sarah V; Halliday, Tanya M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents.Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents.Methods: In a crossover controlled feeding study design, 33 adolescents [12-18 y of age, 47 ± 25th percentile (mean ± SD) of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) for age] consumed 5% AS [low added sugars (LAS)] and 25% AS [high added sugars (HAS)] isocaloric, macronutrient-matched (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 15% protein) diets for 7 d each, in a randomly assigned order, with a 4-wk washout period between diets. On the final 2 d of each diet period, 24-h urine samples were collected. Thirty-two adolescents completed all measurements (97% retention).Results: Urinary sodium was not different from the expected 90% recovery (mean ± SD: 88% ± 18%, P = 0.50). Urinary nitrogen was correlated with protein intake (r = 0.69, P nitrogen is associated with protein intake, but nitrogen excretion rates were less than previously reported for adults, possibly owing to adolescent growth rates. TS excretion reflects AS at 25% AS intake and was responsive to the change in AS intake. Thus, urinary biomarkers are promising objective indicators of dietary intake in adolescents, although larger-scale feeding trials are needed to confirm these findings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02455388. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Pricing and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We experimentally examine the effects of flexible and fixed prices in markets for experience goods in which demand is driven by trust. With flexible prices, we observe low prices and high quality in competitive (oligopolistic) markets, and high prices coupled with low quality in non-competitive (......We experimentally examine the effects of flexible and fixed prices in markets for experience goods in which demand is driven by trust. With flexible prices, we observe low prices and high quality in competitive (oligopolistic) markets, and high prices coupled with low quality in non...

  13. Medium- to long-run implications of high food prices for global nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The combined food, fuel, and financial crises of 2007-2009 had severe and widespread negative impacts around the world. Two key questions challenging governments were: how long would the high prices last and with what effects on food security and nutrition over the longer run? This paper considers the drivers of the crisis and explores if, unlike past shocks, the recent price increases reflect structural changes in food price formation that will have lasting global implications. New cross-commodity relationships allowed prices to spike, although there was no shortage of food at the global level nor indeed a significant downturn in recent yields. Yet recent record levels of farm production were also mirrored by growing numbers of people chronically undernourished and/or micronutrient deficient. The gap between supply and need was underpinned by growing urban demand, consumption of processed and higher-value foods (including meat), biofuel policy, and purchasing power erosion, but also by short-term market-distorting policies implemented by governments responding to perceived shortages of food. Thus, the impact of future food price crises will depend largely on what policymakers chose to do in response to the peaks and what they do not do during the troughs. Appropriate investments are urgently needed not just in smallholder developing country agriculture, but in effective food policies and targeted programming that can reverse the recent negative trends in nutrition and that support access globally to improved diet quality as well as food quantity.

  14. Evaluation of the fermentation of high gravity thick sugar beet juice worts for efficient bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugar beet and intermediates of sugar beet processing are considered to be very attractive feedstock for ethanol production due to their content of fermentable sugars. In particular, the processing of the intermediates into ethanol is considerably facilitated because it does not require pretreatment or enzymatic treatment in contrast to production from starch raw materials. Moreover, the advantage of thick juice is high solid substance and saccharose content which eliminates problems with the storability of this feedstock. Results The objective of this study were to investigate bioethanol production from thick juice worts and the effects of their concentration, the type of mineral supplement, as well as the dose of yeast inoculum on fermentation dynamics and ethanol yield. The obtained results show that to ensure efficient ethanolic fermentation of high gravity thick juice worts, one needs to use a yeast strain with high ethanol tolerance and a large amount of inoculum. The highest ethanol yield (94.9 ± 2.8% of the theoretical yield) and sugars intake of 96.5 ± 2.9% were obtained after the fermentation of wort with an extract content of 250 g/kg supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate (0.3 g/L of wort) and inoculated with 2 g of Ethanol Red dry yeast per L of wort. An increase in extract content in the fermentation medium from 250 g/L to 280 g/kg resulted in decreased efficiency of the process. Also the distillates originating from worts with an extract content of 250 g/kg were characterized by lower acetaldehyde concentration than those obtained from worts with an extract content of 280 g/kg. Conclusions Under the favorable conditions determined in our experiments, 38.9 ± 1.2 L of 100% (v/v) ethyl alcohol can be produced from 100 kg of thick juice. The obtained results show that the selection of process conditions and the yeast for the fermentation of worts with a higher sugar content can improve the economic performance of the

  15. RNA-Sequencing of Drosophila melanogaster Head Tissue on High-Sugar and High-Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Wayne; Rivera, Osvaldo; Talbert, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein, or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline. We subjected flies to variants of the high-sugar diet, high-fat diet, or normal (control) diet, followed by a total RNA extraction from fly heads of each diet group for the purpose of Poly-A selected RNA-Sequencing. Our objective was to identify the effects of obesogenic diets on transcriptome patterns, how they differed between obesogenic diets, and identify genes that may relate to pathogenesis accompanying an obesity-like state. Gene ontology analysis indicated an overrepresentation of affected genes associated with immunity, metabolism, and hemocyanin in the high-fat diet group, and CHK, cell cycle activity, and DNA binding and transcription in the high-sugar diet group. Our results also indicate differences in the effects of the high-fat diet and high-sugar diet on expression profiles in head tissue of flies, despite the reportedly similar phenotypic impacts of the diets. The impacted genes, and how they may relate to pathogenesis in the Drosophila obesity-like state, warrant further experimental investigation. PMID:29141990

  16. RNA-Sequencing of Drosophila melanogaster Head Tissue on High-Sugar and High-Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Hemphill

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein, or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline. We subjected flies to variants of the high-sugar diet, high-fat diet, or normal (control diet, followed by a total RNA extraction from fly heads of each diet group for the purpose of Poly-A selected RNA-Sequencing. Our objective was to identify the effects of obesogenic diets on transcriptome patterns, how they differed between obesogenic diets, and identify genes that may relate to pathogenesis accompanying an obesity-like state. Gene ontology analysis indicated an overrepresentation of affected genes associated with immunity, metabolism, and hemocyanin in the high-fat diet group, and CHK, cell cycle activity, and DNA binding and transcription in the high-sugar diet group. Our results also indicate differences in the effects of the high-fat diet and high-sugar diet on expression profiles in head tissue of flies, despite the reportedly similar phenotypic impacts of the diets. The impacted genes, and how they may relate to pathogenesis in the Drosophila obesity-like state, warrant further experimental investigation.

  17. Starch and Free Sugars during Kernel Development of Bomi Barley and its High-Lysine Mutant 1508

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreis, Michael

    1978-01-01

    At maturity the high-lysine barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Ris0 mutants 1508, 527 and 29 kernels contained about 20% less starch and twice as much free sugars as the parent varieties Bomi and Carlsberg II. An enhanched effect on starch reduction and free sugar accumulation was observed during kernel...... on the additive effect of the individual high-lysine genes in the double mutants, it is concluded that the influences of these genes on prolamin and starch synthesis are independent....

  18. STUDY OF THE PREPARATION OF SUGAR FROM HIGH-LIGNIN LIGNOCELLULOSE APPLYING SUBCRITICAL WATER AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS: SYNTHESIS AND CONSUMABLE COST EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANNY F. SANGIAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study concern sugars hydrolyzed from the high-lignin coconut coir dust using moderate subcritical water (SCW hydrolysis at pressures 20-40 bar for 1 h and to evaluate the consumable costs driver generated. The SCW method produced two products, sugar liquid and solid (SCW-treated substrate. The solid was proceeded to prepare the sugar via enzymatic hydrolysis using pure cellulase. Yield of sugar hydrolyzed from lignocellulose by SCW technique was 0.25 gram sugar/gram cellulose +hemicellulose, or 0.09-gram sugar/gram lignocellulose at 160 °C and 40 bar. While, the maximum yield of sugar liberated enzymatically from SCW-treated solid was 0.35-gram sugar/gram cellulose+hemicellulose, or 0.13-gram sugar/gram SCW-treated solid. It was found that carbon dioxide gas was the highest cost driving in SCW hydrolysis.

  19. Child-targeted TV advertising and preschoolers' consumption of high-sugar breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Harris, Jennifer; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013. Parents reported their child's consumption of SBC brands; whether their child had watched any of 11 kids' channels in the past week; their child's TV viewing time; and socio-demographics. Children's exposure to child-targeted SBC TV ads was calculated by combining TV channel and viewing time with advertising data for SBC ads aired on kids' TV channels during the same timeframe. Five hundred forty-eight parents completed surveys; 52.7% had an annual household income of $50,000 or less. Children's mean age was 4.4 years, 51.6% were female, and 72.5% were non-Hispanic white. In the past week, 56.9% (N = 312) of children ate SBCs advertised on kids' channels. Overall, 40.6% of children were exposed to child-targeted SBC TV ads in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the number of SBC brands children consumed was positively associated with their exposure to child-targeted SBC ads. Children consumed 14% (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27) more SBC brands for every 10 SBC ads seen in the past 7 days. Exposure to child-targeted SBC TV advertising is positively associated with SBC brand consumption among preschool-aged children. These findings support recommendations to limit the marketing of high-sugar foods to young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impacts of Sugar Import Policy on Sugar Production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suryantoro, Agustinus; Susilo, Albertus Magnus; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Production of sugar unful lled consumption of Indonesia society. The lack of consumption and productionhave ful lled by import. Assumption national consumption 2,7 million ton, Indonesia will import sugar in 2013predicted about 300.000 ton (Tempo.co, August, 21, 2012).The aims in general of this research are to understand the impact of sugar import policy on sugar production.Especially (1) to understand the factors that in uence sugar import price, (2) to understand impact of sugarimport pric...

  1. Tracking the behavior of Maillard browning in lysine/arginine-sugar model systems under high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Jin-Yan; Tong, Ping; Li, Xin; Chen, Hong-Bing

    2017-12-01

    High-pressure processing is gaining popularity in the food industry. However, its effect on the Maillard reaction during high-pressure-assisted pasteurization and sterilization is not well documented. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the Maillard reaction during these processes using amino acid (lysine or arginine)-sugar (glucose or fructose) solution models. High pressure retarded the intermediate and final stages of the Maillard reaction in the lysine-sugar model. For the lysine-glucose model, the degradation rate of Amadori compounds was decelerated, while acceleration was observed in the arginine-sugar model. Increased temperature not only accelerated the Maillard reaction over time but also formed fluorescent compounds with different emission wavelengths. Lysine reacted with the sugars more readily than arginine under the same conditions. In addition, it was easier for lysine to react with glucose, whereas arginine reacted more readily with fructose under high pressure. High pressure exerts different effects on lysine-sugar and arginine-sugar models. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Highly efficient solid-phase derivatization of sugar phosphates with titanium-immobilized hydrophilic polydopamine-coated silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qian; Wang, Bohong; Chang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Zhihui; Shi, Xianzhe; Xu, Guowang

    2016-07-29

    Sugar phosphates are a type of key metabolic intermediates of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and pentose phosphate pathway, which can regulate tumor energetic metabolism. Due to their low endogenous concentrations, poor chromatographic retention properties as well as ionization suppression from complex matrix interference, the determination of sugar phosphates in biological samples is very difficult. In this study, titanium-immobilized hydrophilic polydopamine-coated silica microspheres (SiO2@PD-Ti(4+)) were synthesized for highly efficient solid-phase derivatization of sugar phosphates. Sugar phosphates were selectively captured onto the surface of the SiO2@PD-Ti(4+) microspheres by chelating with phosphate groups, and then reacted with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole via reductive amination based on solid-phase derivatization, which could not only increase the retention and resolution of sugar phosphates on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), but also improve the mass spectrometry (MS) sensitivity of sugar phosphates. The adsorption capacity of SiO2@PD-Ti(4+) microspheres towards glucose-6-phosphate is 0.76mg/g, which is much larger than that of commercial TiO2. Compared with the traditional liquid-phase derivatization, the solid-phase derivatization based on the SiO2@PD-Ti(4+) microspheres displayed several superiorities including shorter derivatization time (within 10min), higher product purity and much lower limit of detection (up to 38pmol/L). In addition, good linearity (R(2)≥0.99), excellent recovery (80.6-118%) and high precision (RSDs with 2.8-7.8%) were obtained when the developed method was used for quantitative analysis of sugar phosphates. Finally, the SiO2@PD-Ti(4+) microspheres combined with RPLC-MS were successfully applied to the determination of sugar phosphates from hepatocarcinoma cell lines and could even detect the trace sugar phosphates in thousands of cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 1 Determinants of Sugar Market Performance under Imperfect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Abstract. This study investigates market (supply and demand) factors causing high pricing, which influences ... developing countries participating in trade blocs arrangements, Kenya has experienced an influx of ... critical for academia and policy makers in the sugar sub-sector in the East. African region and ...

  4. 1 Determinants of Sugar Market Performance under Imperfect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Abstract. This study investigates market (supply and demand) factors causing high pricing, which influences performance of the locally manufactured sugar from the six (n=6) manufacturing firms in Kenya. The study was based on. Industry competitiveness model (Siggel, 1995, Markusen, 1992 and;.

  5. Targeted advertising, promotion, and price for menthol cigarettes in California high school neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Schleicher, Nina C; Dauphinee, Amanda L; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    To describe advertising, promotions, and pack prices for the leading brands of menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes near California high schools and to examine their associations with school and neighborhood demographics. In stores (n = 407) within walking distance (0.8 km [1/2 mile]) of California high schools (n = 91), trained observers counted ads for menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes and collected data about promotions and prices for Newport and Marlboro, the leading brand in each category. Multilevel modeling examined the proportion of all cigarette advertising for any menthol brand, the proportion of stores with sales promotions, and the lowest advertised pack price in relation to store types and school/neighborhood demographics. For each 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of Black students, the proportion of menthol advertising increased by 5.9 percentage points (e.g., from an average of 25.7%-31.6%), the odds of a Newport promotion were 50% higher (95% CI = 1.01, 2.22), and the cost of Newport was 12 cents lower (95% CI = -0.18, -0.06). By comparison, the odds of a promotion and the price for Marlboro, the leading brand of nonmenthol cigarettes, were unrelated to any school or neighborhood demographics. In high school neighborhoods, targeted advertising exposes Blacks to more promotions and lower prices for the leading brand of menthol cigarettes. This evidence contradicts the manufacturer's claims that the availability of its promotions is not based on race/ethnicity. It also highlights the need for tobacco control policies that would limit disparities in exposure to retail marketing for cigarettes.

  6. THE LIME PURIFICATION OF SUGAR –CONTAINING SOLUTION USING HIGH VISCOSITY COLLOIDAL SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work was to determine the efficiency of combined application of lime and high-viscous suspensions, containing the aluminium nanoparticles as a precursor in treatment of sugar-containing solutions. At the first stage the aluminium nanopowder, encapsulated into a salt matrix, was produced by the combined precipitation from a gas phase of metal and halogenide of alkali metal (NaCl. For the long-term stabilization of aluminum nanoparticles the method, developed by the authors, for dispersing these powders in the composition of polyethylene glycols was used, providing the colloidal solution of high viscosity (gel. At the second stage, as an object of investigation a juice of sugar beet, produced in the laboratory conditions by water extracting from the beet chips, was applied. In the produced juice the main characteristics of its quality were determined: the content of solids, sucrose, its purity was calculated (ratio of sucrose to solids content, in%. The content of protein and pectin components was also determined (as the main components of the colloidal fraction of the diffusion juice. Conventionally, as a basic reagent for the process of a lime pretreatment a lime milk of 1.18 g/cm3 density, prepared by liming the burned lime using hot water, was used. During the experiments the effectiveness of reagents, containing aluminum in nanoform, on the degree of removal of the colloidal dispersion substances in the process of juice purification in sugar beet production and improvement of its quality, is shown. However, the obtained results show that, depending on the method of producing, the additional reagents with aluminium nanoparticles have different effect on change of diffusion juice purity in the process of its treatment by the lime milk.

  7. A common genetic influence on human intensity ratings of sugars and high-potency sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Liang-Dar; Zhu, Gu; Breslin, Paul A S; Reed, Danielle R; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J

    2015-08-01

    The perception of sweetness varies among individuals but the sources of this variation are not fully understood. Here, in a sample of 1,901 adolescent and young adults (53.8% female; 243 MZ and 452 DZ twin pairs, 511 unpaired individuals; mean age 16.2±2.8, range 12–26 years), we studied the variation in the perception of sweetness intensity of two monosaccharides and two high-potency sweeteners: glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC), and aspartame. Perceived intensity for all sweeteners decreased with age (2–5% per year) and increased with the history of otitis media (6–9%). Males rated aspartame slightly stronger than females (7%). We found similar heritabilities for sugars (glucose: h2=0.31, fructose: h2=0.34) and high-potency sweeteners (NHDC: h2=0.31, aspartame: h2=0.30); all were in the modest range. Multivariate modeling showed that a common genetic factor accounted for >75% of the genetic variance in the four sweeteners, suggesting that individual differences in perceived sweet intensity, which are partly due to genetic factors, may be attributed to a single set of genes. This study provided evidence of the shared genetic pathways between the perception of sugars and high-potency sweeteners.

  8. Influence of high intensity sweeteners and sugar alcohols on a beverage microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Julien; Wolfrum, Stefan; Touraud, Didier; Kunz, Werner

    2015-12-15

    The present paper shows the effects of added sugars and sweeteners on the clearing temperature of a highly water dilutable fatty acid salt microemulsion used as a model of a beverage concentrate. There is a twofold interest in this work. The first one is practical and relates to the fact that many fatty acid salt surfactants can be used in food without major regulatory restrictions. As is shown here, they allow making highly stable microemulsions even at neutral and acidic pH. The second one is more of scientific interest. The model system can be used to study the effect of sugars and sweeteners on the formulation stability depending on their charges, amphiphilic properties, and localization in the microemulsion interfacial film. An important practical result is the discovery of the possibility to formulate highly dilutable microemulsions at neutral or slightly acid pH with a good taste in presence of sucralose. Further, a significant decrease of the pKA of the fatty acid is observed in presence of stevia, thus allowing transparent, fairly stable systems at neutral pH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pulp & paper markets cope with high energy prices and growth in Asia : markets for paper, paperboard and woodpulp, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2006-01-01

    \\tPulp and paper markets in the UNECE region were influenced by higher energy prices and demand growth in Asia in 2005 and 2006. Important developments in Europe included the launching of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, which was followed by substantial increases in electrical energy prices. High global energy prices pushed up costs of production and prices for pulp...

  10. Effect of Ramping Requirement and Price Cap on Energy Price in a System with High Wind Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Sebastián; Smeers, Yves; Aguado, José de

    2015-01-01

    The European power market is currently retiring or mothballing large capacities of conventional plants, and at the same time incorporating a significant amount of non-dispatchable renewable generation, in particular wind. We analyse the mothballing process (and the resulting system) and study how they are affected by a price cap implemented in the energy only market, and by a possible implementation of ramping products in the system. Sebastian Martin, Yves Smeers, and Jose Aguado. Effect o...

  11. High-throughput colorimetric assays for nucleotide sugar formation and glycosyl transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Richard W; Thorson, Jon S

    2012-01-01

    Glycosyltransferases are ubiquitous in nature, catalyzing glycosidic bond formation in the context of an enormous range of substrates, which include all major classes of biological molecules. Because this wide range of substrates lacks a shared, distinguishable feature that can be altered by glycosyl transfer, general assays for detection of glycosyltransferase activity have long been largely limited to low-throughput methods. Of those high-throughput assays reported in the literature, many are confined to specific glycosyl transfer reactions with modified aglycon acceptors selected for their unique analytical properties. Herein are described a series of protocols centered on the use of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl glycoside donors and the reversibility of glycosyltransferase-catalyzed reactions to enable a colorimetric assay for the formation of sugar nucleotides, coupled reaction systems for the glycodiversification of small molecules, and a general colorimetric assay for glycosyltransfer, applicable to drug discovery, protein engineering, and other fundamental sugar nucleotide-dependent investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genotypic and phenotypic evolution of yeast interspecies hybrids during high-sugar fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopandic, Ksenija; Pfliegler, Walter P; Tiefenbrunner, Wolfgang; Gangl, Helmut; Sipiczki, Matthias; Sterflinger, Katja

    2016-07-01

    The yeasts of the Saccharomyces genus exhibit a low pre-zygotic barrier and readily form interspecies hybrids. Following the hybridization event, the parental genomes undergo gross chromosomal rearrangements and genome modifications that may markedly influence the metabolic activity of descendants. In the present study, two artificially constructed hybrid yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae x Saccharomyces kudriavzevii) were used in order to evaluate the influence of high-sugar wine fermentation on the evolution of their genotypic and phenotypic properties. It was demonstrated that the extent of genomic modifications differs among the hybrids and their progeny, but that stress should not always be a generator of large genomic disturbances. The major genome changes were observed after meiosis in the F1 segregants in the form of the loss of different non-S. cerevisiae chromosomes. Under fermentation condition, each spore clone from a tetrad developed a mixed population characterized by different genotypic and phenotypic properties. The S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum spore clones revealed large modifications at the sequence level of the S. cerevisiae sub-genome, and some of the clones lost a few additional S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum chromosomes. The S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii segregants were subjected to consecutive loss of the S. kudriavzevii markers and chromosomes. Both the hybrid types showed increased ethanol and glycerol production as well as better sugar consumption than their parental strains. The hybrid segregants responded differently to stress and a correlation was found between the observed genotypes and fermentation performances.

  13. Urban food insecurity in the context of high food prices: a community based cross sectional study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Birhane, Tesfay; Shiferaw, Solomon; Hagos, Seifu; Mohindra, Katia Sarla

    2014-01-01

    .... This study aims to address this gap by investigating the food insecurity situation in urban Ethiopia -a country experiencing sustained high food prices, high rates of urban poverty, and a growing urban population...

  14. Impact of liver fat on the differential partitioning of hepatic triacylglycerol into VLDL subclasses on high and low sugar diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umpleby, A Margot; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Fielding, Barbara; Li, Xuefei; Marino, Andrea; Alsini, Najlaa; Isherwood, Cheryl; Jackson, Nicola; Ahmad, Aryati; Stolinski, Michael; Lovegrove, Julie A; Johnsen, Sigurd; Jeewaka R Mendis, A S; Wright, John; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Hovorka, Roman; Bell, Jimmy D; Thomas, E Louise; Frost, Gary S; Griffin, Bruce A

    2017-11-01

    Dietary sugars are linked to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidaemia, but it is unknown if NAFLD itself influences the effects of sugars on plasma lipoproteins. To study this further, men with NAFLD ( n = 11) and low liver fat 'controls' ( n = 14) were fed two iso-energetic diets, high or low in sugars (26% or 6% total energy) for 12 weeks, in a randomised, cross-over design. Fasting plasma lipid and lipoprotein kinetics were measured after each diet by stable isotope trace-labelling.There were significant differences in the production and catabolic rates of VLDL subclasses between men with NAFLD and controls, in response to the high and low sugar diets. Men with NAFLD had higher plasma concentrations of VLDL 1 -triacylglycerol (TAG) after the high ( P liver fat accumulation leads to a differential partitioning of hepatic TAG into large and small VLDL subclasses, in response to high and low intakes of sugars. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. A material political economy: Automated Trading Desk and price prediction in high-frequency trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Donald

    2017-04-01

    This article contains the first detailed historical study of one of the new high-frequency trading (HFT) firms that have transformed many of the world's financial markets. The study, of Automated Trading Desk (ATD), one of the earliest and most important such firms, focuses on how ATD's algorithms predicted share price changes. The article argues that political-economic struggles are integral to the existence of some of the 'pockets' of predictable structure in the otherwise random movements of prices, to the availability of the data that allow algorithms to identify these pockets, and to the capacity of algorithms to use these predictions to trade profitably. The article also examines the role of HFT algorithms such as ATD's in the epochal, fiercely contested shift in US share trading from 'fixed-role' markets towards 'all-to-all' markets.

  16. E-cigarette price sensitivity among middle- and high-school students: evidence from monitoring the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Huang, Jidong; Johnston, Lloyd D; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-11-29

    We estimated associations between e-cigarette prices (both disposable and refill) and e-cigarette use among middle and high-school students in the United States. We also estimated associations between cigarette prices and e-cigarette use. We used regression models to estimate the associations between e-cigarette and cigarette prices and e-cigarette use. In our regression models, we exploited changes in e-cigarette and cigarette prices across four periods of time and across 50 markets. We report the associations as price elasticities. In our primary model, we controlled for socio-demographic characteristics, cigarette prices, tobacco control policies, market fixed effects and year-quarter fixed effects. United States of America. A total of 24 370 middle- and high-school students participating in the Monitoring the Future Survey in years 2014 and 2015. Self-reported e-cigarette use over the last 30 days. Average quarterly cigarette prices, e-cigarette disposable prices and e-cigarette refill prices were constructed from Nielsen retail data (inclusive of excise taxes) for 50 US markets. In a model with market fixed effects, we estimated that a 10% increase in e-cigarette disposable prices is associated with a reduction in the number of days vaping among e-cigarette users by approximately 9.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) = -17.7 to 1.8%; P = 0.02] and is associated with a reduction in the number of days vaping by the full sample by approximately 17.9% (95% CI = -31.5 to -4.2%; P = 0.01). Refill e-cigarette prices were not statistically significant predictors of vaping. Cigarette prices were not associated significantly with e-cigarette use regardless of the e-cigarette price used. However, in a model without market fixed effects, cigarette prices were a statistically significant positive predictor of total e-cigarette use. Higher e-cigarette disposable prices appear to be associated with reduced e-cigarette use among adolescents in the US. © 2017 Society

  17. Clinical evaluation of unadapted sheep submited to sudden intake of melon with high levels of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leonardo Costa Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the clinical effects of two different amounts of melon, with a high sugar content, suddenly offered to unadapted sheep. Twelve rumem cannulated crossbred 8-months-old sheep , weighing 25 kg each, were used. These sheep had never been fed with food concentrated with sugar or fruits. The animals were kept in collective pens with a basal diet of roughage and then randomly divided into two equal groups. The sheep in the two groups received 25% and 75% of dry matter (DM of the diet the crushed melon, administered by the rumen cannula. Physical examination and measurement of rumen fluid pH was performed at the following times: 0, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. The animals of G25% did not present clinical signs despite subacute acidosis expected after administration of the melon. However, in the G75%, sheep developed clinical manifestation indicative of lactic acidosis with rumen fluid pH lower than 5.0 from T6h, but did not present with dehydration. In sheep from G75 %, tachycardia was observed at 3 h and continued until the end of the study; tachypnea was also observed at 3 h, which was caused by increased abdominal circumference. Based on the results obtained, the supplementation of high amounts of melon (75% DM in the diet is not recommended for sheep, although the use of 25% DM is safe. However, greater amounts of this fruit could be used in the diet of sheep with gradual adaptation to the substrate.

  18. Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chien-Chiang, E-mail: cclee@cm.nsysu.edu.tw; Chiu, Yi-Bin

    2011-03-15

    This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

  19. A Highly Sensitive Diagnostic System for Detecting Dengue Viruses Using the Interaction between a Sulfated Sugar Chain and a Virion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Saksono

    Full Text Available We propose a novel method of detecting trace amounts of dengue virus (DENVs from serum. Our method is based on the interaction between a sulfated sugar chain and a DENV surface glycoprotein. After capturing DENV with the sulfated sugar chain-immobilized gold nanoparticles (SGNPs, the resulting complex is precipitated and viral RNA content is measured using the reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction SYBR Green I (RT-qPCR-Syb method. Sugar chains that bind to DENVs were identified using the array-type sugar chain immobilized chip (Sugar Chip and surface plasmon resonance (SPR imaging. Heparin and low-molecular-weight dextran sulfate were identified as binding partners, and immobilized on gold nanoparticles to prepare 3 types of SGNPs. The capacity of these SGNPs to capture and concentrate trace amounts of DENVs was evaluated in vitro. The SGNP with greatest sensitivity was tested using clinical samples in Indonesia in 2013-2014. As a result, the novel method was able to detect low concentrations of DENVs using only 6 μL of serum, with similar sensitivity to that of a Qiagen RNA extraction kit using 140 μL of serum. In addition, this method allows for multiplex-like identification of serotypes of DENVs. This feature is important for good healthcare management of DENV infection in order to safely diagnose the dangerous, highly contagious disease quickly, with high sensitivity.

  20. Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Laaksonen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake on metabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugar intake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammation markers, and on all-cause mortality, through a systematic review of prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled intervention studies published between January 2000 and search dates. The methods adopted were as follows: the first search was run in PubMed in October 2010. A second search with uric acid as risk marker was run in April 2011. The total search strategy was rerun in April 2011 in SveMed+. An update was run in PubMed in January 2012. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 2,743 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. The outcome was that out of the 17 studies extracted, 15 were prospective cohort studies and two were randomised controlled crossover trials. All of the studies included only adults. With respect to incident type 2 diabetes (nine studies, four of six prospective cohort studies found a significant positive association for sugar-sweetened beverage intake. In general, larger cohort studies with longer follow-up more often reported positive associations, and BMI seemed to mediate part of the increased risk. For other metabolic or cardiovascular risk factors or outcomes, too few studies have been published to draw conclusions. In conclusion, data from prospective cohort studies published in the years 2000–2011 suggest that sugar-sweetened beverages probably increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. For related metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality and other types of sugars, too few studies

  1. Global Trends in the Affordability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, 1990-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Evan; Liber, Alex C; Drope, Jeffrey M; Nguyen, Binh; Stoklosa, Michal

    2017-05-04

    The objective of this study was to quantify changes in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, a product implicated as a contributor to rising rates of obesity worldwide, as a function of product price and personal income. We used international survey data in a retrospective analysis of 40 high-income and 42 low-income and middle-income countries from 1990 to 2016. Prices of sugar-sweetened beverages were from the Economist Intelligence Unit's World Cost of Living Survey. Income and inflation data were from the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Database. The measure of affordability was the average annual percentage change in the relative-income price of sugar-sweetened beverages, which is the annual rate of change in the proportion of per capita gross domestic product needed to purchase 100 L of Coca-Cola in each country in each year of the study. In 79 of 82 countries, the proportion of income needed to purchase sugar-sweetened beverages declined on average (using annual measures) during the study period. This pattern, described as an increase in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, indicated that sugar-sweetened beverages became more affordable more rapidly in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries, a fact largely attributable to the higher rate of income growth in those countries than to a decline in the real price of sugar-sweetened beverages. Without deliberate policy action to raise prices, sugar-sweetened beverages are likely to become more affordable and more widely consumed around the world.

  2. Global Trends in the Affordability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, 1990–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Evan; Liber, Alex C.; Nguyen, Binh; Stoklosa, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to quantify changes in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, a product implicated as a contributor to rising rates of obesity worldwide, as a function of product price and personal income. Methods We used international survey data in a retrospective analysis of 40 high-income and 42 low-income and middle-income countries from 1990 to 2016. Prices of sugar-sweetened beverages were from the Economist Intelligence Unit’s World Cost of Living Survey. Income and inflation data were from the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook Database. The measure of affordability was the average annual percentage change in the relative-income price of sugar-sweetened beverages, which is the annual rate of change in the proportion of per capita gross domestic product needed to purchase 100 L of Coca-Cola in each country in each year of the study. Results In 79 of 82 countries, the proportion of income needed to purchase sugar-sweetened beverages declined on average (using annual measures) during the study period. This pattern, described as an increase in the affordability of sugar-sweetened beverages, indicated that sugar-sweetened beverages became more affordable more rapidly in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries, a fact largely attributable to the higher rate of income growth in those countries than to a decline in the real price of sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusion Without deliberate policy action to raise prices, sugar-sweetened beverages are likely to become more affordable and more widely consumed around the world. PMID:28472607

  3. Development of high-performance supercapacitor electrode derived from sugar industry spent wash waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahto, Ashesh; Gupta, Rajeev; Ghara, Krishna Kanta; Srivastava, Divesh N; Maiti, Pratyush; D, Kalpana; Rivera, Paul-Zavala; Meena, R; Nataraj, S K

    2017-10-15

    This study aims at developing supercapacitor materials from sugar and distillery industry wastes, thereby mediating waste disposal problem through reuse. In a two-step process, biomethanated spent wash (BMSW) was acid treated to produce solid waste sludge and waste water with significantly reduced total organic carbon (TOC) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) content. Further, waste sludge was directly calcined in presence of activating agent ZnCl2 in inert atmosphere resulting in high surface area (730-900m2g-1) carbon of unique hexagonal morphology. Present technique resulted in achieving two-faceted target of liquid-solid waste remediation and production of high-performance carbon material. The resulted high surface area carbon was tested in both three and two electrode systems. Electrochemical tests viz. cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and impedance measurement were carried out in aqueous KOH electrolyte yielding specific capacitance as high as 120Fg-1, whereas all solid supercapacitor devised using PVA/H3PO4 polyelectrolyte showed stable capacitance of 105Fg-1 at 0.2Ag-1. The presence of transition metal particles and hetero-atoms on carbon surface were confirmed by XPS, EDX and TEM analysis which enhanced the conductivity and imparted pseudocapacitance to some extent into the working electrode. The present study successfully demonstrated production of high-performance electrode material from dirtiest wastewater making process green, sustainable and economically viable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effects of Tobacco Taxation and Pricing on Smoking Behavior in High Risk Populations: A Knowledge Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Boisclair

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco taxation is an essential component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. However, to fully realize the benefits it is vital to understand the impact of increased taxes among high-risk subpopulations. Are they influenced to the same extent as the general population? Do they need additional measures to influence smoking behavior? The objectives of this study were to synthesize the evidence regarding differential effects of taxation and price on smoking in: youth, young adults, persons of low socio-economic status, with dual diagnoses, heavy/long-term smokers, and Aboriginal people. Using a better practices approach, a knowledge synthesis was conducted using a systematic review of the literature and an expert advisory panel. Experts were involved in developing the study plan, discussing findings, developing policy recommendations, and identifying priorities for future research. Most studies found that raising cigarette prices through increased taxes is a highly effective measure for reducing smoking among youth, young adults, and persons of low socioeconomic status. However, there is a striking lack of evidence about the impact of increasing cigarette prices on smoking behavior in heavy/long-term smokers, persons with a dual diagnosis and Aboriginals. Given their high prevalence of smoking, urgent attention is needed to develop effective policies for the six subpopulations reviewed. These findings will be of value to policy-makers and researchers in their efforts to improve the effectiveness of tobacco control measures, especially with subpopulations at most risk. Although specific studies are needed, tobacco taxation is a key policy measure for driving success.

  5. Determinants of contractor pricing strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Moses, O. Douglas

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates pricing strategies used by major defense contractors. Two pricing strategies are identified and discussed: penetration, which calls for a relatively low initial price followed by little reduction in price over time, and skimming, which calls for a relatively high initial price coupled with greater reduction in price over time. It is argued that contractor pricing strategy will depend on features of the defense program under consideration and featur...

  6. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...... and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue...... that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates...

  7. From quantum mechanics to finance: Microfoundations for jumps, spikes and high volatility phases in diffusion price processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Christof

    2017-03-01

    We present an agent behavior based microscopic model that induces jumps, spikes and high volatility phases in the price process of a traded asset. We transfer dynamics of thermally activated jumps of an unexcited/excited two state system discussed in the context of quantum mechanics to agent socio-economic behavior and provide microfoundations. After we link the endogenous agent behavior to price dynamics we establish the circumstances under which the dynamics converge to an Itô-diffusion price processes in the large market limit.

  8. The effect of high-sugar grass on predicted nitrogen excretion and milk yield simulated using a dynamic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Parsons, A.J.; Rasmussen, S.; Edwards, G.R.; Kebreab, E.; France, J.

    2011-01-01

    High-sugar grass varieties have received considerable attention for their potential to reduce nitrogen (N) excretion and increase milk yield in cattle. However, considerable variation exists in the magnitude of response in published results. The purpose of this study is to explain the variation in

  9. Investigations into the stabilization of drugs by sugar glasses : III. The influence of various high-pH buffers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, Jonas H C; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; de Jong, Gerhardus J; Somsen, Govert W; Frijlink, Henderik W

    PURPOSE: To study the effect of the high-pH buffers ammediol, borax, CHES, TRIS, and Tricine on the glass transition temperature of the freeze concentrated fraction (Tg') of trehalose/buffer and inulin/buffer solutions at pH 6.0 and pH 9.8. Also, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of sugar

  10. Introduction and Utilization of High Priced HCV Medicines across Europe; Implications for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Winnie; Ibáñez, Cristina; Frisk, Pia; Bak Pedersen, Hanne; Alkan, Ali; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Brkičić, Ljiljana S.; Bucsics, Anna; Dedet, Guillaume; Eriksen, Jaran; Fadare, Joseph O.; Fürst, Jurij; Gallego, Gisselle; Godói, Isabella P.; Guerra Júnior, Augusto A.; Gürsöz, Hakkı; Jan, Saira; Jones, Jan; Joppi, Roberta; Kerman, Saim; Laius, Ott; Madzikwa, Newman; Magnússon, Einar; Maticic, Mojca; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; Massele, Amos; Ogunleye, Olayinka; O'Leary, Aisling; Piessnegger, Jutta; Sermet, Catherine; Simoens, Steven; Tiroyakgosi, Celda; Truter, Ilse; Thyberg, Magnus; Tomekova, Kristina; Wladysiuk, Magdalena; Vandoros, Sotiris; Vural, Elif H.; Zara, Corinne; Godman, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infection with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a widespread transmittable disease with a diagnosed prevalence of 2.0%. Fortunately, it is now curable in most patients. Sales of medicines to treat HCV infection grew 2.7% per year between 2004 and 2011, enhanced by the launch of the protease inhibitors (PIs) boceprevir (BCV) and telaprevir (TVR) in addition to ribavirin and pegylated interferon (pegIFN). Costs will continue to rise with new treatments including sofosbuvir, which now include interferon free regimens. Objective: Assess the uptake of BCV and TVR across Europe from a health authority perspective to offer future guidance on dealing with new high cost medicines. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of medicines to treat HCV (pegIFN, ribavirin, BCV and TVR) among European countries from 2008 to 2013. Utilization measured in defined daily doses (DDDs)/1000 patients/quarter (DIQs) and expenditure in Euros/DDD. Health authority activities to influence treatments categorized using the 4E methodology (Education, Engineering, Economics and Enforcement). Results: Similar uptake of BCV and TVR among European countries and regions, ranging from 0.5 DIQ in Denmark, Netherlands and Slovenia to 1.5 DIQ in Tayside and Catalonia in 2013. However, different utilization of the new PIs vs. ribavirin indicates differences in dual vs. triple therapy, which is down to factors including physician preference and genotypes. Reimbursed prices for BCV and TVR were comparable across countries. Conclusion: There was reasonable consistency in the utilization of BCV and TVR among European countries in comparison with other high priced medicines. This may reflect the social demand to limit the transmission of HCV. However, the situation is changing with new curative medicines for HCV genotype 1 (GT1) with potentially an appreciable budget impact. These concerns have resulted in different prices across countries, with their impact on budgets and patient outcomes

  11. Introduction and utilisation of high priced HCV medicines across Europe; implications for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie de Bruijn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV is a widespread transmittable disease with a diagnosed prevalence of 2.0%. Fortunately, it is now curable in most patients. Sales of medicines to treat HCV infection grew 2.7% per year between 2004 and 2011, enhanced by the launch of the protease inhibitors (PIs boceprevir (BCV and telaprevir (TVR in addition to ribavirin and pegylated interferon (pegIFN. Costs will continue to rise with new treatments including sofosbuvir, which now include interferon free regimens. Objective: Assess the uptake of BCV and TVR across Europe from a health authority perspective to offer future guidance on dealing with new high cost medicines. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of medicines to treat HCV (pegIFN, ribavirin, BCV and TVR among European countries from 2008 to 2013. Utilisation measured in defined daily doses (DDDs/ 1000 patients/ quarter (DIQs and expenditure in Euros/ DDD. Health authority activities to influence treatments categorised using the 4E methodology (Education, Engineering, Economics and Enforcement. Results: Similar uptake of BCV and TVR among European countries and regions, ranging from 0.5 DIQ in Denmark, Netherlands and Slovenia to 1.5 DIQ in Tayside and Catalonia in 2013. However, different utilisation of the new PIs versus ribavirin indicates differences in dual versus triple therapy, which is down to factors including physician preference and genotypes. Reimbursed prices for BCV and TVR were comparable across countries. Conclusion: There was reasonable consistency in the utilisation of BCV and TVR among European countries in comparison with other high priced medicines. This may reflect the social demand to limit the transmission of HCV. However, the situation is changing with new curative medicines for HCV genotype 1 (GT1 with potentially an appreciable budget impact. These concerns have resulted in different prices negotiations across countries, with their impact

  12. Factors associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake among United States high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Brener, Nancy; O'Toole, Terrence

    2012-02-01

    This cross-sectional study examined associations of demographic characteristics, weight status, availability of school vending machines, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, both overall and by type of SSB, among a nationally representative sample of high school students. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study data for 11,209 students (grades 9-12) were used. SSB intake was based on intake of 4 nondiet beverages [soda, other (i.e., fruit-flavored drinks, sweetened coffee/tea drinks, or flavored milk), sports drinks, and energy drinks]. Nationwide, 64.9% of high school students drank SSB ≥1 time/d, 35.6% drank SSB ≥2 times/d, and 22.2% drank SSB ≥3 times/d. The most commonly consumed SSB was regular soda. Factors associated with a greater odds for high SSB intake (≥3 times/d) were male gender [OR = 1.66 (95% CI = 1.41,1.95); P 2 h/d [OR = 1.70 (95% CI = 1.44, 2.01); P < 0.05]. Non-Hispanic other/multiracial [OR = 0.67 (95% CI = 0.47, 0.95); P < 0.05] and being physically active ≥60 min/d on <5 d/wk were associated with a lower odds for high SSB intake [OR = 0.85 (95% CI = 0.76, 0.95); P < 0.05]. Weight status was not associated with SSB intake. Differences in predictors by type of SSB were small. Our findings of significant associations of high SSB intake with frequent fast-food restaurant use and sedentary behaviors may be used to tailor intervention efforts to reduce SSB intake among high-risk populations.

  13. Tailoring Wet Explosion Process Parameters for the Pretreatment of Cocksfoot Grass for High Sugar Yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    glucose release with low formation of by-products. Under these conditions, the cellulose and hemicellulose sugar recovery was 94 % and 70 %, respectively. The efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose under these conditions was 91 %. On the other hand, the release of pentose sugars was higher......The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is crucial for efficient subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. In this study, wet explosion (WEx) pretreatment was applied to cocksfoot grass and pretreatment conditions were tailored for maximizing the sugar yields using response...... when applying less severe pretreatment conditions C (160 °C, 5 min, 0.2 % dilute sulfuric acid). Therefore, the choice of the most suitable pretreatment conditions is depending on the main target product, i.e., hexose or pentose sugars....

  14. The effect of high-temperature on sugar transport in grape cells

    OpenAIRE

    Noronha, Henrique Luis Silva de

    2010-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Fisiologia Molecular de Plantas Vitis vinifera is a major crop worldwide and in Portugal. Berry content in sugars, organic acids, phenolics and aroma compounds are fundamental for fruit and wine quality. These compounds are accumulated/metabolized during the development of the berry. In particular, berry sugar content is directly related to the final alcoholic content of wine, and regulates the development of its aromatic and organoleptic properties. ...

  15. Adverse effect of high added sugar consumption on dietary intake in American preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Mitchell, Diane

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effect of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)-recommended added sugar intake levels on nutrient and food group consumption by preschoolers. This was a cross-sectional study of 2- to 5-year-olds in the United States Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII), 1994 to 1996, and 1998 (n = 5437). Main food sources of added sugar were established. For five categories (25%), mean nutrient and food group consumption and proportion of children not meeting the DRI were ascertained. The nonparametric test for trend indicated significance of changes. Analysis was stratified by age (2- to 3-year-olds versus 4- to 5-year-olds), and survey design corrected to maintain the nationally representative character of the data. The majority of children consumed less than 25% of energy from added sugar; the main sources were fruit and or soft drinks and desserts. Increasing added sugar consumption was paralleled by decreasing nutrient and food group intakes and increasing proportions of children with intakes below the DRI. Calcium intake was insufficient in large proportions of children consuming 16% or more from added sugar. In preschoolers, the new DRI for added sugar are reason for concern. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of the DRI on diet quality, body weight, and health status in young children.

  16. Effect of School District Policy Change on Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among High School Students, Boston, Massachusetts, 2004-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Cradock, Angie L.; McHugh, Anne; Mont-Ferguson, Helen; Grant, Linda; Barrett, Jessica L; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Wang, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased among youth in recent decades, accounting for approximately 13% of total calories consumed. The Boston Public Schools passed a policy restricting sale of sugar-sweetened beverages in Boston schools in June 2004. The objective of this study was to determine whether high school students' consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages declined after this new policy was implemented. Methods We conducted a quasi-experimental evaluation ...

  17. Molecular identification and osmotolerant profile of wine yeasts that ferment a high sugar grape must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Di Fabio, Federico; Schirone, Maria; Felis, Giovanna E; Torriani, Sandra; Paparella, Antonello; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2009-04-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast populations involved in a spontaneous fermentation of a traditional high sugar must (Vino cotto) produced in central Italy. Molecular identification of a total of 78 isolates was achieved by a combination of PCR-RFLP of the 5.8S ITS rRNA region and sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. In addition, the isolates were differentiated by RAPD-PCR. Only a restricted number of osmotolerant yeast species, i.e. Candida apicola, Candida zemplinina and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were found throughout all the fermentation process, while Saccharomyces cerevisiae prevailed after 15 days of fermentation. A physiological characterization of isolates was performed in relation to the resistance to osmotic stress and ethanol concentration. The osmotolerant features of C. apicola, C. zemplinina and Z. bailii were confirmed, while S. cerevisiae strains showed three patterns of growth in response to different glucose concentrations (2%, 20%, 40% and 60% w/v). The ability of some C. apicola and C. zemplinina strains to grow at 14% v/v ethanol is noteworthy. The finding that some yeast biotypes with higher multiple stress tolerance can persist in the entire winemaking process suggests possible future candidates as starter for Vino cotto production.

  18. Environmentally friendly technologies for obtaining high sugars concentrations from invasive woody species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gullón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficient utilization and conversion of inexpensive invasive raw materials into bioethanol following a biorefinery approach is a priority in the research field of renewable fuel. With this purpose, Acacia dealbata wood samples were pretreated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate under optimized conditions, and the resulting solids were employed as a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Enzymatic assays were performed according to a complete factorial experimental design, in which the effects of two independent variables (liquor to solid ratio and enzyme to substrate ratio on the kinetics and yields of the xylan and cellulose saccharification were assessed. The Response Surface Methodology was employed for optimizing the experimental conditions. High sugar concentrations (around 80 g/L, and favorable polysaccharide conversions (CCG = 79.4% and XnCX = 77.9%. were predicted by the model under the selected operational conditions (6 g liquor/g substrate, 22 FPU/g. The results reported in this work compare well with other studies dealing with either other ionic liquids or classical pretreatments, using the same raw material or other woody substrates.

  19. Effects of high food prices on consumption pattern of Saudi consumers: A case study of Al Riyadh city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad E. Abdel Karim Yousif

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how urban households in Riyadh city, capital of Saudi Arabia, coped with higher food prices depending on a survey for selected group of households. The primary data were obtained in a survey from a sample of 286 household heads. Before analysis, the collected data were first grouped and classified according to the income level of respondents and then descriptive statistics and analysis of variance were applied. The results showed that the consumption quantities of major food commodities decrease due to high prices and at the same time expenditure increases, which lead to erosion of some of the consumers’ savings. High food expenditure makes lower income group more fragile and sensitive for any future increase in food prices. The perception of consumers for price increase in the future is also registered which reflects the lower consumer confidence in the food markets. The respondents iterate the absence of the role of the government to control the food market that may reduce the impact of higher food prices. Therefore, the paper recommends that government should intervene through food policy to mitigate the effects of food price volatility.

  20. Effects of High-sugar and High-fat Diet on Fat Deposition and Blood Vessel Wall on Sprague Dawley Rats Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Citra Setiawan Hoei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available People nowadays tend to consume more fast food and sweetened beverages. These foods usually contain high amount sugar and fat that have effects on the body including liver.This study was conducted to explore the effects of extensive intake of sugar and fat on blood glucose and  cholesterol level as well as changes in liver. Research was conducted with experimental method using 20 Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into 4 groups; 2 controls and 2 treatments. Rats were given 5 ml sugar or lard alternatively every 2 consecutive days for 1-month and 2-month respectively. Data was retrieved include blood glucose and cholesterol level, fatty liver percentage and blood vessel thickening after intervention through HE staining. The results showed that both 1-month and 2-month intervention group has significant increase in blood glucose and cholesterol level. However, the enhancement of fatty liver percentage and number of thickened blood vessels (p<0.05 were only foundsignificant (p<0.05 in 1-month intervention group.  We concluded that high intake of sugar and fat within 1-monthintervention have significant effects on the rat body including liver. Nevertheless, it was not found significant in 2-months intervention. Further studies are still needed to analyze this incongruent result.Key words: high-sugar diet, high-fat diet, fatty liver, atherosclerosis 

  1. Taxonomic analysis of the microbial community in stored sugar beets using high-throughput sequencing of different marker genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Sebastian; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Post-harvest colonization of sugar beets accompanied by rot development is a serious problem due to sugar losses and negative impact on processing quality. Studies on the microbial community associated with rot development and factors shaping their structure are missing. Therefore, high-throughput sequencing was applied to describe the influence of environment, plant genotype and storage temperature (8°C and 20°C) on three different communities in stored sugar beets, namely fungi (internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2), Fusarium spp. (elongation factor-1α gene fragment) and oomycetes (internal transcribed spacers 1). The composition of the fungal community changed during storage mostly influenced by the storage temperature followed by a weak environmental effect. Botrytis cinerea was the prevalent species at 8°C whereas members of the fungal genera Fusarium and Penicillium became dominant at 20°C. This shift was independent of the plant genotype. Species richness within the genus Fusarium also increased during storage at both temperatures whereas the oomycetes community did not change. Moreover, oomycetes species were absent after storage at 20°C. The results of the present study clearly show that rot development during sugar beet storage is associated with pathogens well known as causal agents of post-harvest diseases in many other crops. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Fermentation performance of lager yeast in high gravity beer fermentations with different sugar supplementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hongjie; Xu, Huaide; Feng, Li; Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Mouming

    2016-11-01

    The effects of glucose, sucrose and maltose supplementations on the fermentation performance and stress tolerance of lager yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) during high gravity (18°P) and very high gravity (24°P) fermentations were studied. Results showed that throughout 18°P wort fermentation, fermentation performance of lager yeast was significantly improved by glucose or sucrose supplementation, compared with maltose supplementation, especially for sucrose supplementation increasing wort fermentability and ethanol production by 6% and 8%, respectively. However, in the later stage of 24°P wort fermentation, fermentation performance of lager yeast was dramatically improved by maltose supplementation, which increased wort fermentability and ethanol production by 14% and 10%, respectively, compared with sucrose supplementation. Furthermore, higher HSP12 expression level and more intracellular trehalose accumulation in yeast cells were observed by maltose supplementation with increase of the wort gravity from 18°P to 24°P, indicating higher stress response of yeast cells. The excretion of Gly and Ala, and the absorption of Pro in the later stage of fermentation were promoted by maltose supplementation. In addition, with increase of the wort gravity from 18°P to 24°P, higher alcohols level was decreased with maltose supplementation, while esters formation was increased significantly with glucose supplementation. This study suggested that the choice of optimal fermentable sugars maintaining better fermentation performance of lager yeast should be based on not only strain specificity, but also wort gravity. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Perinatal exposure to a diet high in saturated fat, refined sugar and cholesterol affects behaviour, growth, and feed intake in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J.J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal

  4. Differential modulation of arcuate nucleus and mesolimbic gene expression levels by central leptin in rats on short-term high-fat high-sugar diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, José K; Eggels, Leslie; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.; Adan, Roger A H; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Leptin resistance is a common hallmark of obesity. Rats on a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet are resistant to peripherally administered leptin. The aim of this study was to investigate feeding responses to central leptin as well as the associated changes in mRNA levels in

  5. The snacking rat as model of human obesity: effects of a free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet on meal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Fleur, S E; Luijendijk, M C M; van der Zwaal, E M; Brans, M A D; Adan, R A H

    2014-05-01

    Rats subjected to a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet persistently overeat, exhibit increased food-motivated behavior and become overtly obese. Conversely, several studies using a non-choice (nc) high-energy diet showed only an initial increase in food intake with unaltered or reduced food-motivated behavior. This raises the question of the importance of choice in the persistence of hyperphagia in rats on a fcHFHS diet. Meal patterns, food intake and body weight gain were studied in male Wistar rats on free-choice diets with fat and/or sugar and in rats on nc diets with fat and sugar (custom made with ingredients similar to the fcHFHS diet). Rats on a ncHFHS diet initially overconsumed, but reduced intake thereafter, whereas rats on a fcHFHS diet remained hyperphagic. Because half of the sugar intake in the fcHFHS group occurred during the inactive period, we next determined whether sugar intake during the light phase was a necessary requirement for hyperphagia, by restricting access to liquid sugar to either the light or dark period with unlimited access to fat and chow. Results showed that hyperphagia occurred irrespective of the timing of sugar intake. Meal pattern analysis revealed consumption of larger but fewer meals in the ncHFHS group, as well as the fcHF group. Interestingly, meal number was increased in all rats drinking liquid sugar (whether on a fcHFHS or a fcHS diet), whereas a compensatory decrease in meal size was only observed in the fcHS group, but not the fcHFHS group. We hereby show the importance of choice in the observation of fcHFHS diet-induced hyperphagia, which results in increases in meal number due to sugar drinking without any compensatory decrease in meal size. We thus provide a novel dietary model in rats that mimics important features of human overconsumption that have been ignored in rodent models of obesity.

  6. Separation and determination of alditols and sugars by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Sørensen, A.

    2000-01-01

    Carbohydrates such as alditols (polyols or sugar alcohols), monosaccharides and disaccharides are separated as anions by anion-exchange chromatography with a sodium hydroxide eluent, MA1 CarboPac column and pulsed amperometric detection. We report a high-pH anion-exchange chromatographic-pulsed a......Carbohydrates such as alditols (polyols or sugar alcohols), monosaccharides and disaccharides are separated as anions by anion-exchange chromatography with a sodium hydroxide eluent, MA1 CarboPac column and pulsed amperometric detection. We report a high-pH anion-exchange chromatographic...... demonstrated by the analysis of 46 relevant samples and by participation twice in the Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) testing programme for food additives. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science BN. All rights reserved....

  7. A comparative study of the sodium content and calories from sugar in toddler foods sold in low- and high-income New York City supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey Hannah; Samuel, Benny

    2014-05-07

    Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among "side dishes" and "meals." The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among "snacks and yogurt blends" in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and "breakfast foods and cereals" in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in "breakfast foods and cereals" sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase.

  8. Evaluation quality of sugar beet grown on soils highly infected with rhizomania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došenović Irena S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A field trial study with sugar beet varieties having different resistances to Rhizomania was conducted at two test sites in 2004. The field trials were located at Ruma (the Agricultural station and at Sremska Mitrovica (the Institute of Agriculture. At both locations, twenty-one sugar beet varieties and a control variety (intolerant to the disease were planted. The selected varieties were provided from several seed companies distributing seed material in Serbia. At Ruma, the difference between the first-ranked variety Alvira (100.82 t/ha and the control variety (61.63 t/ha was 39.19 t/ha or 38.87%. But, significant variability in processing quality within varieties and the control variety was observed. For example, the difference between root sugar contents of the first-ranked variety and the control one amounted to 4.64% absolute. At Sremska Mitrovica, significant variability of the observed parameters within varieties was also found. The highest sugar yielding variety was Leila (15.66% producing better results for 3.42% absolute in comparison to the control variety. This variety produced good stands for the other parameters, too.

  9. High-Fat, High-Sugar Diet Disrupts the Preovulatory Hormone Surge and Induces Cystic Ovaries in Cycling Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Katrina M; Pogrebna, Veronika V; Roberts, Jackson A; Zachry, Jennifer E; Blythe, Sarah N; Toporikova, Natalia

    2017-12-01

    Diet-induced obesity has been associated with various metabolic and reproductive disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome. However, the mechanisms by which obesity influences the reproductive system are still not fully known. Studies have suggested that impairments in hormone signaling are associated with the development of symptoms such as acyclicity and ovarian cysts. However, these studies have often failed to address how these hormonal changes arise and how they might contribute to the progression of reproductive diseases. In the present study, we used a high-fat, high-sugar (HFHS) diet to induce obesity in a female rodent model to determine the changes in critical reproductive hormones that might contribute to the development of irregular estrous cycling and reproductive cycle termination. The HFHS animals exhibited impaired estradiol, progesterone (P4), and luteinizing hormone (LH) surges before ovulation. The HFHS diet also resulted in altered basal levels of testosterone (T) and LH. Furthermore, alterations in the basal P4/T ratio correlated strongly with ovarian cyst formation in HFHS rats. Thus, this model provides a method to assess the underlying etiology of obesity-related reproductive dysfunction and to examine an acyclic reproductive phenotype as it develops.

  10. Hedonic analysis of ultra-high-temperature-treated milk prices in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bimbo, Francesco; Bonanno, Alessandro; Liu, Xuan; Viscecchia, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    The Italian market for UHT milk has been growing thanks to both consumers' interest in products with an extended shelf life and to the lower prices of these products compared with refrigerated, pasteurized milk. However, because the lower prices of UHT milk can hinder producers' margins,

  11. A High-Dimensional, Multivariate Copula Approach to Modeling Multivariate Agricultural Price Relationships and Tail Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan Chi; Barry Goodwin

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and temporal relationships among agricultural prices have been an important topic of applied research for many years. Such research is used to investigate the performance of markets and to examine linkages up and down the marketing chain. This research has empirically evaluated price linkages by using correlation and regression models and, later, linear and...

  12. Effects of the addition of different nitrogen sources in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of the addition of different nitrogen sources at high sugar concentration in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were performed at high sugar concentration (170 g l(-1)) using Agave tequilana Weber blue variety with and without added nitrogen from different sources (ammonium sulfate; glutamic acid; a mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids) during the exponential phase of growth. All the additions increased the fermentation rate and alcohol efficiency. The level of synthesis of volatile compounds depended on the source added. The concentration of amyl alcohols and isobutanol were decreased while propanol and acetaldehyde concentration increased. The most efficient nitrogen sources for fermentation rate were ammonium sulfate and the mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids. The level of volatile compounds produced depended upon types of nitrogen. The synthesis of some volatile compounds increased while others decreased with nitrogen addition. The addition of nitrogen could be a strategy for improving the fermentation rate and efficiency in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar Agave tequilana concentration. Furthermore, the sensory quality of the final product may change because the synthesis of the volatile compounds is modified.

  13. Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G

    2013-02-01

    Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. ALTERNATE PRICING STRATEGIES IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mochtar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research findings on pricing strategies both in general and in construction are reviewed and explored. First%2C pricing strategy in general%2C mostly in the manufacturing industry%2C is reviewed. It includes the concepts of pricing strategy%2C predatory pricing%2C price wars%2C and price policy development. Second%2C pricing strategy in construction is explored. It includes various pricing models for bid price determination%2C such as the Friedman-Gates models%2C expected utility models%2C risk-pricing model%2C and the crew-day%2C multiple regression%2C and fuzzy-set pricing models. In conclusion%2C pricing strategies in construction are still predominantly based on a cost-based approach. More recent models try to close the gap between the models and the real life conditions of a bidder%5C%27s decision-making process. It appears that there are more problems in cost-based pricing as opposed to market-based pricing. Consequently%2C it is highly recommended that%2C alternative pricing approach such as that are closer to the proposed market-based pricing model need to be explored and developed for use in the construction industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pricing+strategy%2C+cost-based+pricing%2C+market-based+pricing.

  15. Preferential Price and Trade Tied Aid in Fiji: Implications on Price ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I examine these three aspects in detail with respect to the price subsidy that Fiji's sugar industry has been receiving over the last three decades. Price stability is measured by examining the conditional variance by estimating a GARCH (1,1) model and price certainty aspect is examined by testing if the forecast ...

  16. Pricing Perishables

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Robert D.; Moon, Yongma

    2011-01-01

    A key feature of food products is their perishability. Within the short marketing window that characterizes most food and ag products, demand is typically highly stochastic and difficult to predict. This combination of features poses substantial challenges to retailers when pricing products and has implications for performance that ripples through vertical food chains. For many food products, processing to forms that can be preserved and held in inventory has traditionally been used as a mean...

  17. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: The HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Stronks, K.; Snijder, M.B.; Schene, A.H.; Lok, A.; Vries, J.H. de; Visser, M.; Brouwer, I.A.; Nicolaou, M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. DESIGN: We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy

  18. Trade diversion and high food prices - The impact of the Russian pig meat import ban

    OpenAIRE

    Djuric, Ivan; Götz, Linde; Glauben, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the impact of the Russian ban on import of pig meat originating in the EU on the domestic pig meat price developments in Russia. We use a regime-switching price transmission model in order to identify possible changes in the long-run equilibrium between the pig meat prices of Russia and its main non-EU trading partners. Our results indicate the reduction of transaction costs in pig meat trade between Russia and its main non-EU trading partners, followed by the increas...

  19. A free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet induces glucose intolerance and insulin unresponsiveness to a glucose load not explained by obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Fleur, S E; Luijendijk, M C M; van Rozen, A J; Kalsbeek, A; Adan, R A H

    2011-04-01

    In diet-induced obesity, it is not clear whether impaired glucose metabolism is caused directly by the diet, or indirectly via obesity. This study examined the effects of different free-choice, high-caloric, obesity-inducing diets on glucose metabolism. In these free-choice diets, saturated fat and/or a 30% sugar solution are provided in an addition to normal chow pellets. In the first experiment, male rats received a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (HFHS), free-choice high-fat (HF) or a chow diet. In a second experiment, male rats received a free-choice high-sugar (HS) diet or chow diet. For both experiments, after weeks 1 and 4, an intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed. Both the HFHS and HF diets resulted in obesity with comparable plasma concentrations of free fatty acids. Interestingly, the HF diet did not affect glucose metabolism, whereas the HFHS diet resulted in hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and in glucose intolerance because of a diminished insulin response. Moreover, adiposity in rats on the HF diet correlated positively with the insulin response to the glucose load, whereas adiposity in rats on the HFHS diet showed a negative correlation. In addition, total caloric intake did not explain differences in glucose tolerance. To test whether sugar itself was crucial, we next performed a similar experiment in rats on the HS diet. Rats consumed three times as much sugar when compared with rats on the HFHS diet, which resulted in obesity with basal hyperinsulinemia. Glucose tolerance, however, was not affected. Together, these results suggest that not only obesity or total caloric intake, but the diet content also is crucial for the glucose intolerance that we observed in rats on the HFHS diet.

  20. Locational Pricing to Mitigate Voltage Problems Caused by High PV Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Weckx; Reinhilde D'hulst; Johan Driesen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a locational marginal pricing algorithm is proposed to control the voltage in unbalanced distribution grids. The increasing amount of photovoltaic (PV) generation installed in the grid may cause the voltage to rise to unacceptable levels during periods of low consumption. With locational prices, the distribution system operator can steer the reactive power consumption and active power curtailment of PV panels to guarantee a safe network operation. Flexible loads also respond to...

  1. How intrinsic values influence wines prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gál Péter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hedonic price indices is quite common in the wine economics literature, yet they mainly include scores of organoleptic tests and some dummy variables representing varieties and quality signs as geographical indications. This study focuses on the relation between the composition and the price of wines on the example of Hungarian wines. In Hungary, the wine law renders chemical analysis compulsory for all wines released to the market. The study includes five main compounds: actual alcoholic strength, total sugars, total acidity, sugar free extract and pH value and is based on hedonic price indices calculated on a sample of 2,453 wines. Results of several regressions – using different model specifications – consistently show that actual alcoholic strength, sugar content, sugar free extract and pH value are related with the price. Some characteristics have an optimal level, while in other cases the relation is linear.

  2. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  3. Modulation of the Gut Microbiota by Krill Oil in Mice Fed a High-Sugar High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Lu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the gut microbiota plays vital roles in metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia. Previous studies have confirmed that krill oil can alleviate hyperlipidemia, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To discern whether krill oil changes the structure of the gut microbiota during the hyperlipidemia treatment, 72 mice were acclimatized with a standard chow diet for 2 weeks and then randomly allocated to receive a standard chow diet (control group, n = 12 or a high-sugar-high-fat (HSHF diet supplemented with a low (100 μg/g·d, HSHF+LD group, n = 12, moderate (200 μg/g·d, HSHF+MD group, n = 12 or high dosage of krill oil (600 μg/g·d, HSHF+HD group, n = 12, simvastatin (HSHF+S group, n = 12 or saline (HSHF group, n = 12 continuously for 12 weeks. The resulting weight gains were attenuated, the liver index and the low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations showed a stepwise reduction in the treated groups compared with those of the control group. A dose-dependent modulation of the gut microbiota was observed after treatment with krill oil. Low- and moderate- doses of krill oil increased the similarity between the composition of the HSHF diet-induced gut microbiota and that of the control, whereas the mice fed the high-dose exhibited a unique gut microbiota structure that was different from that of the control and HSHF groups. Sixty-five key operational taxonomic units (OTUs that responded to the krill oil treatment were identified using redundancy analysis, of which 26 OTUs were increased and 39 OTUs were decreased compared with those of the HSHF group. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study suggest that the structural alterations in the gut microbiota induced by krill oil treatment were dose-dependent and associated with the alleviation of hyperlipidemia. Additionally, the high-dose krill oil treatment showed combined effects on the alleviation of

  4. Modulation of the Gut Microbiota by Krill Oil in Mice Fed a High-Sugar High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chenyang; Sun, Tingting; Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Dijun; Zhou, Jun; Su, Xiurong

    2017-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the gut microbiota plays vital roles in metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia. Previous studies have confirmed that krill oil can alleviate hyperlipidemia, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To discern whether krill oil changes the structure of the gut microbiota during the hyperlipidemia treatment, 72 mice were acclimatized with a standard chow diet for 2 weeks and then randomly allocated to receive a standard chow diet (control group, n = 12) or a high-sugar-high-fat (HSHF) diet supplemented with a low (100 μg/g·d, HSHF+LD group, n = 12), moderate (200 μg/g·d, HSHF+MD group, n = 12) or high dosage of krill oil (600 μg/g·d, HSHF+HD group, n = 12), simvastatin (HSHF+S group, n = 12) or saline (HSHF group, n = 12) continuously for 12 weeks. The resulting weight gains were attenuated, the liver index and the low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations showed a stepwise reduction in the treated groups compared with those of the control group. A dose-dependent modulation of the gut microbiota was observed after treatment with krill oil. Low- and moderate- doses of krill oil increased the similarity between the composition of the HSHF diet-induced gut microbiota and that of the control, whereas the mice fed the high-dose exhibited a unique gut microbiota structure that was different from that of the control and HSHF groups. Sixty-five key operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that responded to the krill oil treatment were identified using redundancy analysis, of which 26 OTUs were increased and 39 OTUs were decreased compared with those of the HSHF group. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study suggest that the structural alterations in the gut microbiota induced by krill oil treatment were dose-dependent and associated with the alleviation of hyperlipidemia. Additionally, the high-dose krill oil treatment showed combined effects on the alleviation of hyperlipidemia and

  5. High dwelling vacancy rate and high prices of housing in Malta : A mediterranean phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakili-Zad, C.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Current data from South European countries, especially Malta, indicates the existence of some contradictory forces in the housing market that defy the law of supply and demand and require explanation. In a ‘normal’ housing market, it can be expected that a high dwelling vacancy rate would help keep

  6. Sugar beet-associated bacterial and fungal communities show a high indigenous antagonistic potential against plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze microbial communities in/on sugar beet with special focus on antagonists toward plant pathogens. For this purpose, the composition of microorganisms isolated from the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, endorhiza, and endosphere of field-grown sugar beet plants was analyzed by a multiphasic approach at three different plant development stages at six locations in Europe. The analysis of microbial communities by Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) of 16S/18S rRNA clearly revealed the existence of discrete microenvironment- and site-specific patterns. A total of 1952 bacterial and 1344 fungal isolates screened by dual testing for antagonism toward the pathogens Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani resulted in 885 bacterial (=45%) and 437 fungal (=33%) antagonists. In general, the indigenous antagonistic potential was very high and influenced by (a) the location, (b) the plant developmental stage, and (3) the microenvironment. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that the antagonistic potential was highly specific for each target pathogen. The majority of antagonistic microorganisms suppressed only one pathogen (bacteria: 664 = 75%; fungi: 256 = 59%), whereas the minority showed a broad host range (bacteria: 4 = 0.5%; fungi: 7 = 1.6%). The bacterial communities harbored the highest antagonistic potential against P. ultimum, whereas the fungal communities contained more antagonists against A. cochlioides and R. solani. In contrast to their high proportion, only a low diversity of antagonists at genotypic and species level was found. Novel antagonistic species, e.g., Subtercola pratensis or Microbacterium testaceum were found in the internal part of the sugar beet body.

  7. Prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Effects of foods and beverages that are sweet or high in sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, A M; Bonnlander, H

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether certain foods and beverages that are high in sugar content or taste sweet are related to the prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Specifically, we sought to evaluate whether consumption of "junk foods", chocolate, caffeine-free cola, fruit juices or alcoholic beverages might exert an effect on the premenstrual syndrome apart from any effects of daily consumption of beverages that are high in caffeine (caffeine-containing coffee, tea and colas). The study was based on 853 responses to a questionnaire probing menstrual and premenstrual health and certain daily dietary practices; it was mailed to female university students in Oregon. An analysis of the data revealed that the consumption of chocolate, but not of other junk foods, was related to the prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome among women with more severe premenstrual symptoms. Likewise, the consumption of alcoholic beverages (all alcoholic beverages and beer only) was related to the prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome among women with more severe symptoms, as were both fruit juice and caffeine-free soda. None of the associations was substantially altered when the daily consumption of beverages high in caffeine content was controlled for. Taken together, these data suggest that the consumption of foods and beverages that are high in sugar content or taste sweet is associated with prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome.

  8. Diet-induced impulsivity: Effects of a high-fat and a high-sugar diet on impulsive choice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catherine C; Pirkle, Jesseca R A; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Impulsive choice is a common charactertistic among individuals with gambling problems, obesity, and substance abuse issues. Impulsive choice has been classified as a trans-disease process, and understanding the etiology of trait impulsivity could help to understand how diseases and disorders related to impulsive choice are manifested. The Western diet is a possible catalyst of impulsive choice as individuals who are obese and who eat diets high in fat and sugar are typically more impulsive. However, such correlational evidence is unable to discern the direction and causal nature of the relationship. The present study sought to determine how diet may directly contribute to impulsive choice. After 8 weeks of dietary exposure (high-fat, high-sugar, chow), the rats were tested on an impulsive choice task, which presented choices between a smaller-sooner reward (SS) and a larger-later reward (LL). Then, the rats were transferred to a chow diet and retested on the impulsive choice task. The high-sugar and high-fat groups made significantly more impulsive choices than the chow group. Both groups became more self-controlled when they were off the diet, but there were some residual effects of the diet on choice behavior. These results suggest that diet, specifically one high in processed fat or sugar, induces impulsive choice. This diet-induced impulsivity could be a precursor to other disorders that are characterized by impulsivity, such as diet-induced obesity, and could offer potential understanding of the trans-disease nature of impulsive choice.

  9. Limits to Arbitrage in Sovereign Bonds Price and Liquidity Discovery in High Frequency Quote Driven Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    therefore, the limits to arbitrage) between the prices of the futures contract and the cash bond that is cheapest to deliver. However, the European Central Bank (ECB) intervention through the Long Term Refinancing Operations (LTRO) had an effect on the arbitrage relationship, fostering the convergence......, the transmission of liquidity between markets linked to each other through arbitrage, such as cash bond and futures markets, which we term liquidity discovery, is likely to be even stronger. This paper investigates the microstructure of the relationship between price discovery, the transmission of price shocks...... between markets, and liquidity discovery, the transmission of liquidity shocks, through changes in the quotes posted by market makers and the reactions of arbitrageurs. Our analysis is in the context of the Italian sovereign bond cash and future markets, during the recent Euro-zone sovereign bond crisis...

  10. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar in soda. However, popular "vitamin-type" waters, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks also contain a ... water instead of regular soda, "vitamin-type" water, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks. Eat less candy ...

  11. A Comparative Study of the Sodium Content and Calories from Sugar in Toddler Foods Sold in Low- and High-Income New York City Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey; Samuel, Benny

    2014-01-01

    Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among “side dishes” and “meals.” The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among “snacks and yogurt blends” in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and “breakfast foods and cereals” in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in “breakfast foods and cereals” sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase. PMID:25168992

  12. Minimum prices in a model with search frictions and price posting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, X.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I consider the effects of a minimum price (maximum wage) in a random search model with price (wage) posting. I show that with a minimum price, the price distribution will have a mass point. If the minimum price is sufficiently high, the price distribution will become degenerate.

  13. Usual Intake of Added Sugars and Saturated Fats Is High while Dietary Fiber Is Low in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olmedo, Nancy; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Espinosa-Montero, Juan; Hernández-Barrera, Lucia; Campirano, Fabricio; Martínez-Tapia, Brenda; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    The Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) was carried out in 2012. Information from the survey is used to design and evaluate food and nutrition policies in Mexico. The objective of this study was to estimate the usual intake of energy and macronutrients in the Mexican population by using the ENSANUT 2012. Twenty-four-hour recall interviews were administered to a nationally representative subsample of 10,096 individuals aged ≥1 y from the ENSANUT 2012. Usual intake distributions and the prevalence of inadequate intakes were estimated by using the Iowa State University method. Student's t tests and tests on the equality of proportions were used to compare usual intakes and prevalence of inadequacy across socioeconomic status, area (rural or urban), and region of residence (North, Center, or South). Energy and macronutrient intakes and indicators of dietary adequacy are presented for children (ages 1-4 y and 5-11 y), adolescents (12-19 y), and adults (≥20 y). At the national level, the estimated mean fiber intake was below the Adequate Intake for all population subgroups, suggesting inadequacies. The estimated proportion with a usual added sugars intake of >10% of total energy intake was >64% in all age groups. The proportion with a usual saturated fat intake of >10% of total energy intake was estimated to be >78% in children, >66% in adolescents, and >50% in adults. Overall, fiber intake was lower and intakes of saturated fat and added sugars were higher in urban compared with rural areas, in the North compared with South regions, and among those with high compared with low socioeconomic status (P Fiber intake is lower and added sugar and saturated fat intakes are higher than recommended for >50% of the Mexican population aged ≥1 y. These results highlight the importance of improving the diets of the overall population to reduce the risk of noncommunicable chronic diseases. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Accumulation of soluble sugars in peel at high temperature leads to stay-green ripe banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotang; Pang, Xuequn; Xu, Lanying; Fang, Ruiqiu; Huang, Xuemei; Guan, Peijian; Lu, Wangjin; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2009-01-01

    Bananas (Musa acuminata, AAA group) fail to develop a yellow peel and stay green when ripening at temperatures >24 degrees C. The identification of the mechanisms leading to the development of stay-green ripe bananas has practical value and is helpful in revealing pathways involved in the regulation of chlorophyll (Chl) degradation. In the present study, the Chl degradation pathway was characterized and the progress of ripening and senescence was assessed in banana peel at 30 degrees C versus 20 degrees C, by monitoring relevant gene expression and ripening and senescence parameters. A marked reduction in the expression levels of the genes for Chl b reductase, SGR (Stay-green protein), and pheophorbide a oxygenase was detected for the fruit ripening at 30 degrees C, when compared with fruit at 20 degrees C, indicating that Chl degradation was repressed at 30 degrees C at various steps along the Chl catabolic pathway. The repressed Chl degradation was not due to delayed ripening and senescence, since the fruit at 30 degrees C displayed faster onset of various ripening and senescence symptoms, suggesting that the stay-green ripe bananas are of similar phenotype to type C stay-green mutants. Faster accumulation of high levels of fructose and glucose in the peel at 30 degrees C prompted investigation of the roles of soluble sugars in Chl degradation. In vitro incubation of detached pieces of banana peel showed that the pieces of peel stayed green when incubated with 150 mM glucose or fructose, but turned completely yellow in the absence of sugars or with 150 mM mannitol, at either 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C. The results suggest that accumulation of sugars in the peel induced by a temperature of 30 degrees C may be a major factor regulating Chl degradation independently of fruit senescence.

  15. Effect of added sugar and ascorbic acid on the anthocyanin content of high pressure processed strawberry juices during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, B.; Farkas, V.; Kenesei, Gy; Dalmadi, I.

    2017-10-01

    Berries have high nutritional value and can be processed in many kinds of ways. Their pigments (anthocyanins, flavonoids, carotenoids) have antioxidant properties, effectively neutralize the health-damaging free radicals. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology is a minimal processing technique which is a promising alternative solution instead of traditional preservation technologies. Low molecular weight materials such as colour pigments are well preserved by application of HHP. However, the effect can be influenced by the composition of the treated food matrix. The available scientific information related to the impact of sugar and ascorbic acid content on the preservation of anthocyanins in the samples is controversial. Thus, the aim of our study was to determine the effect of HHP treatment parameters (pressure, treatment time) on the preservation of the anthocyanin content of strawberry juice supplemented by different amounts of sugar and ascorbic acid. 2n type factorial experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of four factors (refraction index, ascorbic acid, pressure, treatment time) on the residual content of total anthocyanins immediately after HHP treatment and after 21 days storage at room temperature.

  16. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  17. Increasing fermentation efficiency at high sugar concentrations by supplementing an additional source of nitrogen during the exponential phase of the tequila fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Gschaedler, Anne

    2002-11-01

    In the tequila industry, fermentation is traditionally achieved at sugar concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 g x L(-1). In this work, the behaviour of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (isolated from the juices of the Agave tequilana Weber blue variety) during the agave juice fermentation is compared at different sugar concentrations to determine if it is feasible for the industry to run fermentation at higher sugar concentrations. Fermentation efficiency is shown to be higher (above 90%) at a high concentration of initial sugar (170 g x L(-1)) when an additional source of nitrogen (a mixture of amino acids and ammonium sulphate, different than a grape must nitrogen composition) is added during the exponential growth phase.

  18. Maternal educational level and preschool children's consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages: mediation by the family food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Jansen, Pauline W; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein

    2013-11-01

    To examine the associations between maternal educational level and preschoolers' consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages, and to assess the mediating effects of variables relating to the family food environment. We analyzed data from 2814 native Dutch preschoolers enrolled in a birth cohort study in Rotterdam (the Netherlands), between 2002 and 2006. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios of snacking ≥ 2 times/day and consuming sugar-containing beverages ≥ 3 glasses/day for children of mothers with low, mid-low, and mid-high educational levels (reference group: high educational level), before and after adjustment for mediators. Children of low and mid-low educated mothers were significantly more likely to consume excessive amounts of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages compared with children of high educated mothers, with the highest odds in children of low educated mothers (OR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.84, 3.23 and OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.87, 3.24 respectively). Parental feeding practices, parental consumption of sugar-containing beverages, and children's television time partly explained these associations. Maternal educational level is inversely related to preschoolers' consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages. Targeting the family food environment may be an effective way of reducing educational inequalities in children's unhealthy dietary behaviors. © 2013.

  19. High-throughput Screening of Recalcitrance Variations in Lignocellulosic Biomass: Total Lignin, Lignin Monomers, and Enzymatic Sugar Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Stephen R.; Sykes, Robert W.; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Lupoi, Jason S.; Doepkke, Crissa; Tucker, Melvin P.; Schuster, Logan A.; Mazza, Kimberly; Himmel, Michael E.; Davis, Mark F.; Gjersing, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels, chemicals, and other commodities has been explored as one possible pathway toward reductions in the use of non-renewable energy sources. In order to identify which plants, out of a diverse pool, have the desired chemical traits for downstream applications, attributes, such as cellulose and lignin content, or monomeric sugar release following an enzymatic saccharification, must be compared. The experimental and data analysis protocols of the standard methods of analysis can be time-consuming, thereby limiting the number of samples that can be measured. High-throughput (HTP) methods alleviate the shortcomings of the standard methods, and permit the rapid screening of available samples to isolate those possessing the desired traits. This study illustrates the HTP sugar release and pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry pipelines employed at the National Renewable Energy Lab. These pipelines have enabled the efficient assessment of thousands of plants while decreasing experimental time and costs through reductions in labor and consumables. PMID:26437006

  20. High-throughput Screening of Recalcitrance Variations in Lignocellulosic Biomass: Total Lignin, Lignin Monomers, and Enzymatic Sugar Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Stephen R; Sykes, Robert W; Turner, Geoffrey B; Lupoi, Jason S; Doepkke, Crissa; Tucker, Melvin P; Schuster, Logan A; Mazza, Kimberly; Himmel, Michael E; Davis, Mark F; Gjersing, Erica

    2015-09-15

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels, chemicals, and other commodities has been explored as one possible pathway toward reductions in the use of non-renewable energy sources. In order to identify which plants, out of a diverse pool, have the desired chemical traits for downstream applications, attributes, such as cellulose and lignin content, or monomeric sugar release following an enzymatic saccharification, must be compared. The experimental and data analysis protocols of the standard methods of analysis can be time-consuming, thereby limiting the number of samples that can be measured. High-throughput (HTP) methods alleviate the shortcomings of the standard methods, and permit the rapid screening of available samples to isolate those possessing the desired traits. This study illustrates the HTP sugar release and pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry pipelines employed at the National Renewable Energy Lab. These pipelines have enabled the efficient assessment of thousands of plants while decreasing experimental time and costs through reductions in labor and consumables.

  1. High-Throughput Screening of Recalcitrance Variations in Lignocellulosic Biomass: Total Lignin, Lignin Monomers, and Enzymatic Sugar Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Stephen R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sykes, Robert W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turner, Geoffrey B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lupoi, Jason S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doepkke, Crissa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schuster, Logan A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mazza, Kimberly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davis, Mark F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gjersing, Erica [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels, chemicals, and other commodities has been explored as one possible pathway toward reductions in the use of non-renewable energy sources. In order to identify which plants, out of a diverse pool, have the desired chemical traits for downstream applications, attributes, such as cellulose and lignin content, or monomeric sugar release following an enzymatic saccharification, must be compared. The experimental and data analysis protocols of the standard methods of analysis can be time-consuming, thereby limiting the number of samples that can be measured. High-throughput (HTP) methods alleviate the shortcomings of the standard methods, and permit the rapid screening of available samples to isolate those possessing the desired traits. This study illustrates the HTP sugar release and pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry pipelines employed at the National Renewable Energy Lab. These pipelines have enabled the efficient assessment of thousands of plants while decreasing experimental time and costs through reductions in labor and consumables.

  2. Predicting the Effects of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes on Food and Beverage Demand in a Large Demand System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Chen; Finkelstein, Eric A; Nonnemaker, James; Karns, Shawn; Todd, Jessica E

    2014-01-01

    A censored Exact Affine Stone Index incomplete demand system is estimated for 23 packaged foods and beverages and a numéraire good. Instrumental variables are used to control for endogenous prices. A half-cent per ounce increase in sugar-sweetened beverage prices is predicted to reduce total calories from the 23 foods and beverages but increase sodium and fat intakes as a result of product substitution. The predicted decline in calories is larger for low-income households than for high-income households, although welfare loss is also higher for low-income households. Neglecting price endogeneity or estimating a conditional demand model significantly overestimates the calorie reduction.

  3. Relation Between Past and Present Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries in A High Caries Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Malek Mohammadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate relationship between re-ported dietary habits and dental caries in five and six-year-old children referred for dental extractions.Materials and Methods: Two hundred children were examined using standard caries di-agnostic criteria. The numbers of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth were re-corded. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each child and analyzedthrough weighting the cariogenic potentialby the frequency of consumption, and summing the two scores.Results: The mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft was 7.1 (SD=3.29. There was no statistically significant correlation between the reported dietary intake and the caries rate in the study population P=0.07.Use of bottles with sugared drinks during infancy was associated with increased caries levels (P<0.01.Conclusion: Poor infant feeding practices promote caries in childhood. A method of diet assessment which would evaluate diet-related health education is required.

  4. High efficiency joint CZE determination of sugars and acids in vegetables and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebolla-Cornejo, Jaime; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Roselló, Salvador; Nuez, Fernando

    2012-08-01

    In this work, an improved CE method for the medium-throughput determination of main organic acids (oxalate, malate, citrate), the amino acid glutamate and the sugars fructose, glucose and sucrose in several food matrices is described. These compounds have been identified as key components in the taste intensity of fruit and vegetable crops. Using a running buffer with 20 mM 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid pH 12.1 and 0.1% hexadimethrine bromide, replacing it every 5 h to avoid pH decrease, and optimizing capillary conditioning between runs with 58 mM SDS during 2 min at 20 psi, it is possible to effectively quantify these compounds while increasing medium throughput repeatability. This procedure resolves problems such as increases in migration time and reduction of resolution between problematic peaks (malate/citrate and fructose/glucose) detected in a previous method. The new procedure even considerably reduced time analysis down to 12 min. Under optimal conditions, a large number of injections (200) could be administered without any disturbances in the same capillary. The reliability of the proposed method was further investigated with several food matrix samples, including tomato, pepper, muskmelon, winter squash, and orange. This method is recommended for routine analysis of large number of samples typical of production quality systems or plant breeding programs. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Pharmaceutical Pricing: The Use of External Reference Pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Kai; Nolte, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    External reference pricing, or international price comparison, is a common strategy to control prices of pharmaceuticals that are protected by intellectual property rights and benefit from a legal monopoly (in-patent drugs). In the UK negotiations are under way that seek to define new arrangements for the pricing of branded (new) medicines from 2014. The pharmaceutical market in the UK only accounts for a small proportion of global sales; however, UK prices are important as many countries reference their prices against those in the UK. This article seeks to contribute to our understanding of approaches to pharmaceutical pricing in high-income countries and the role of reference pricing as a means to determining pharmaceutical prices. Reviewing experiences in Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, we find high variability of external reference pricing across different settings and of the relative importance of this approach in comparison with other pricing strategies. There was also considerable variation in the terminology and practices used, and understanding the complexities of countries included in reference baskets for external pricing requires considerable semantic clarification. There was considerable overlap between countries that cross-reference, and it remains challenging to estimate the direct, immediate impact on external reference baskets. This review suggests that the international impact of pricing changes in the UK is likely to be minimal or indirect, largely because of the diverse ways in which reference pricing is implemented in the countries examined.

  6. Ablation of insulin-producing cells prevents obesity but not premature mortality caused by a high-sugar diet in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saud, Sara Naif; Summerfield, Adam C; Alic, Nazif

    2015-02-07

    Ageing can be modulated by genetic as well as nutritional interventions. In female Drosophila melanogaster, lifespan is maximized at intermediate concentrations of sucrose as the carbohydrate source, and yeast as the protein source. Dampening the signal through the insulin/IGF signalling (IIS) pathway, by genetic ablation of median neurosecretory cells (mNSCs) that produce insulin-like peptides, extends lifespan and counteracts the detrimental effects of excess yeast. However, how IIS reduction impacts health on a high-sugar diet remains unclear. We find that, while the ablation of the mNSCs can extend lifespan and delay the age-related decline in the health of the neuromuscular system irrespective of the amount of dietary sugar, it cannot rescue the lifespan-shortening effects of excess sugar. On the other hand, ablation of mNSCs can prevent adult obesity resulting from excess sugar, and this effect appears independent from the canonical effector of IIS, dfoxo. Our study indicates that while treatments that reduce IIS have anti-ageing effects irrespective of dietary sugar, additional interventions may be required to achieve full benefits in humans, where excessive sugar consumption is a growing problem. At the same time, pathways regulated by IIS may be suitable targets for treatment of obesity.

  7. Financial Flexibility in Highly Regulated Market: Indonesian Telecommunication Case during Tariff Pricing War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Arief Rijanto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In year 2008, regulation of Indonesian telecommunicationindustries changes due the tariff pricing war within Telecommunication operator. This regulation tie up the telecommunication operator and affect operating revenue margin.The needs of financial flexibility within tele communication firm is increased.Capex, operating revenue and reinvestment needs to be flexible must be inline with competition and change of technology. This paper goals is measuring financial flexibility based on Capex, operating revenue and re-investment needs.Re-investment needs by Telecommunication operator can be financed with or without financial flexibility. Data from year 2007 up to 2014 is selected to accommodate before and after changes of telecommunication regulation. The regulation effect to financial flexibility of telecommunication firm is still relevantbecause telecommunication industries by nature needs larger capital to re-new the telecommunication technology. Real options method will be used to measure financial flexibility.Keywords: Financial flexibility, Price war, Telecommunication Regulation, Real Option

  8. Do High Oil Prices Matter? – Evidence on the Mobility Behavior of German Households

    OpenAIRE

    Frondel, Manuel; Vance, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on travel survey data from Germany, this paper investigates the determinants of automobile travel, with the specific aim of quantifying the effects of fuel prices and fuel economy. The analysis is predicated on the notion that car mileage is a two-stage decision process, comprising the discrete choice of whether to own a car and the continuous choice of distance traveled. To capture this process, we employ censored regression models consisting of Probit and OLS estimators, which allo...

  9. THE TASTE OF SUGARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Sugars evoke a distinctive perceptual quality (“sweetness” in humans) and are generally highly preferred. The neural basis for these phenomena is reviewed for rodents, in which detailed electrophysiological measurements have been made. A receptor has been identified that binds sweeteners and activates G-protein-mediated signaling in taste receptor cells, which leads to changes in neural firing rates in the brain, where perceptions of taste quality, intensity, and palatability are generated. Most cells in gustatory nuclei are broadly-tuned, so quality perception presumably arises from patterns of activity across neural populations. However, some manipulations affect only the most sugar-oriented cells, making it useful to consider them as a distinct neural subtype. Quality perception may also arise partly due to temporal patterns of activity to sugars, especially within sugar-oriented cells that give large but delayed responses. Non-specific gustatory neurons that are excited by both sugars and unpalatable stimuli project to ventral forebrain areas, where neural responses provide a closer match with behavioral preferences. This transition likely involves opposing excitatory and inhibitory influences by different subgroups of gustatory cells. Sweeteners are generally preferred over water, but the strength of this preference can vary across time or between individuals, and higher preferences for sugars are often associated with larger taste-evoked responses. PMID:18499254

  10. A holistic high-throughput screening framework for biofuel feedstock assessment that characterises variations in soluble sugars and cell wall composition in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Antony P; Palmer, William M; Byrt, Caitlin S; Furbank, Robert T; Grof, Christopher Pl

    2013-12-23

    A major hindrance to the development of high yielding biofuel feedstocks is the ability to rapidly assess large populations for fermentable sugar yields. Whilst recent advances have outlined methods for the rapid assessment of biomass saccharification efficiency, none take into account the total biomass, or the soluble sugar fraction of the plant. Here we present a holistic high-throughput methodology for assessing sweet Sorghum bicolor feedstocks at 10 days post-anthesis for total fermentable sugar yields including stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall saccharification efficiency. A mathematical method for assessing whole S. bicolor stalks using the fourth internode from the base of the plant proved to be an effective high-throughput strategy for assessing stalk biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall composition and allowed calculation of total stalk fermentable sugars. A high-throughput method for measuring soluble sucrose, glucose, and fructose using partial least squares (PLS) modelling of juice Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be highly accurate with each sugar attaining a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.99 with a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 11.93, 5.52, and 3.23 mM for sucrose, glucose, and fructose, respectively, which constitutes an error of <4% in each case. The sugar PLS model correlated well with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and brix measures. Similarly, a high-throughput method for predicting enzymatic cell wall digestibility using PLS modelling of FTIR spectra obtained from S. bicolor bagasse was developed. The PLS prediction was shown to be accurate with an R2 of 0.94 and RMSEP of 0.64 μg.mgDW-1.h-1. This methodology has been demonstrated as an efficient and effective way to screen large biofuel feedstock populations for biomass, soluble sugar concentrations, and cell wall digestibility simultaneously allowing a

  11. Optimization of fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse for high-concentration sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yueshu; Xu, Jingliang; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yunyun; Liang, Cuiyi

    2014-09-01

    Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis process from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was investigated to increase solids loading, produce high-concentration fermentable sugar and finally to reduce the cost of the production process. The optimal initial solids loading, feeding time and quantities were examined. The hydrolysis system was initiated with 12% (w/v) solids loading in flasks, where 7% fresh solids were fed consecutively at 6h, 12h, 24h to get a final solids loading of 33%. All the requested cellulase loading (10 FPU/g substrate) was added completely at the beginning of hydrolysis reaction. After 120 h of hydrolysis, the maximal concentrations of cellobiose, glucose and xylose obtained were 9.376 g/L, 129.50 g/L, 56.03 g/L, respectively. The final total glucan conversion rate attained to 60% from this fed-batch process. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Does Accessibility to the Central Business District (CBD Have an Impact on High-Rise Condominium Price Gradient in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziauddin Mohd Faris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a spatial econometric method known as Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR to investigate the impact of accessibility to the CBD on the high-rise condominium price gradient in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Using a GWR method, after having controlled other factors, this study clearly reveal the impact of accessibility to the CBD on high-rise condominium varying prices across the study area, having a much larger positive impact in some areas but less and counterintuitive impact in others. In general, the results from this study show accessibility to the CBD measured by the travel times does affect high-rise condominium prices (high-rise condominium prices decrease as travel times to the CBD increase in most part of the areas, hence proved Alonso, Muth and Mills were still right.

  13. Adolescent maturational transitions in the prefrontal cortex and dopamine signalling as a risk factor for the development of obesity and high fat / high sugar diet induced cognitive deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Claire Reichelt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence poses as both a transitional period in neurodevelopment and lifestyle practices. In particular, the developmental trajectory of the prefrontal cortex, a critical region for behavioural control and self-regulation, is enduring, not reaching functional maturity until the early 20s in humans. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter dopamine is particularly abundant during adolescence, tuning the brain to rapidly learn about rewards and regulating aspects of neuroplasticity. Thus, adolescence is proposed to represent a period of vulnerability towards reward-driven behaviours such as the consumption of palatable high fat and high sugar diets. This is reflected in the increasing prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents as they are the greatest consumers of junk foods. Excessive consumption of diets laden in saturated fat and refined sugars not only leads to weight gain and the development of obesity, but experimental studies with rodents indicate they evoke cognitive deficits in learning and memory process by disrupting neuroplasticity and altering reward processing neurocircuitry. Consumption of these high fat and high sugar diets have been reported to have a particularly pronounced impact on cognition when consumed during adolescence, demonstrating a susceptibility of the adolescent brain to enduring cognitive deficits. The adolescent brain, with heightened reward sensitivity and diminished behavioural control compared to the mature adult brain, appears to be a risk for aberrant eating behaviours that may underpin the development of obesity. This review explores the neurodevelopmental changes in the prefrontal cortex and mesocortical dopamine signalling that occur during adolescence, and how these potentially underpin the overconsumption of palatable food and development of obesogenic diet induced cognitive deficits.

  14. Natural gas market review 2008 - optimising investments and ensuring security in a high-priced environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-18

    Over the last 18 months, natural gas prices have continued to rise steadily in all IEA markets. What are the causes of this steady upward trend? Unprecedented oil and coal prices which have encouraged power generators to switch to gas, together with tight supplies, demand for gas in new markets and delayed investments all played a role. Investment uncertainties, cost increases and delays remain major concerns in most gas markets and are continuing to constitute a threat to long-term security of supply. A massive expansion in LNG production is expected in the short term to 2012, but the lag in LNG investment beyond 2012 is a concern for all gas users in both IEA and non-IEA markets. Despite this tight market context, regional markets continue on their way to globalisation. This tendency seems irreversible, and it impacts even the most independent markets. Price linkages and other interactions between markets are becoming more pronounced. This publication addresses these major developments, assessing investment in natural gas projects (LNG, pipelines, upstream), escalating costs, the activities of international oil and gas companies, and gas demand in the power sector. In addition, the publication includes data and forecasts on OECD and non-OECD regions to 2015 and in-depth reviews of five OECD countries and regions including the European Union. It also provides analysis of 34 non-OECD countries in South America, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia, including a detailed assessment of the outlook for gas in Russia, as well as insights on new technologies to deliver gas to markets.

  15. An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Seyed Soleimany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.

  16. Price Regulations in a Multi-unit Uniform Price Auction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette

    Inspired by recent regulations in the New York ICAP market we examine the effect of different price regulations on a multi-unit uniform price auction. We investigate a bid cap and a bid foor. Given suffciently high total capacities general bid caps always ensure that the market price does...

  17. Energy recovery from effluents of sugar processing industries in the UASB reactors seeded with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, D.M.; Rubindamayugi, M.S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Dept. of Botany, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The digestion of wastewater from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactor was evaluated by a step wise increase in organic loading rate. This study was conducted to compare the treatability of effluents from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactors inoculated with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ions. At OLR of 11.34 g COD/l/day and HRT of 16 hours, UASB reactor R2 attained a COD removal efficiency of 90% with a maximum methane production rate of 3 l/l/day. From the results, the digestion of the wastewater from sugar industries in the UASB reactor inoculated with granular sludge developed under high calcium ion concentration seem feasible with regard to COD removal efficiency and methane production rate. (au) 24 refs.

  18. Free Sugar Profile in Cycads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  19. Effects of a free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet on brain PER2 and BMAL1 protein expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea; la Fleur, Susanne E; Mendoza, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) times the daily rhythms of behavioral processes including feeding. Beyond the SCN, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), involved in feeding regulation and metabolism, and the epithalamic lateral habenula (LHb), implicated in reward processing, show circadian rhythmic activity. These brain oscillators are functionally coupled to coordinate the daily rhythm of food intake. In rats, a free choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet leads to a rapid increase of calorie intake and body weight gain. Interestingly, under a fcHFHS condition, rats ingest a similar amount of sugar during day time (rest phase) as during night time (active phase), but keep the rhythmic intake of regular chow-food. The out of phase between feeding patterns of regular (chow) and highly rewarding food (sugar) may involve alterations of brain circadian oscillators regulating feeding. Here, we report that the fcHFHS diet is a successful model to induce calorie intake, body weight gain and fat tissue accumulation in mice, extending its effectiveness as previously reported in rats. Moreover, we observed that whereas in the SCN the day-night difference in the PER2 clock protein expression was similar between chow-fed and fcHFHS-fed animals, in the LHb, this day-night difference was altered in fcHFHS-exposed animals compared to control chow mice. These findings confirm previous observations in rats showing disrupted daily patterns of feeding behavior under a fcHFHS diet exposure, and extend our insights on the effects of the diet on circadian gene expression in brain clocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intake and performance of feedlot cattle fed diets based on high and low Brix sugar cane with or without calcium oxide and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate low and high Brix diets, treated or not with 5 g of calcium oxide per kg of natural matter, and corn silage on intake, digestibility and performance of beef cattle. Forty cattle with initial body weight (BW of 350 kg were used: five composed the control group, 30 were distributed into random blocks (control and the other five were distributed in a 5 × 5 incomplete Latin square, with the objective of determining digestibility. The 30 animals evaluated for performance were slaughtered and empty body weight (EPW, carcass dressing and meat cuts were determined. The diet with corn silage (CS presented the best intake of the other ingredients and the best weight gain, except for neutral detergent fiber intake in g/kg of BW. Only carcass dressing, in relation to BW and EBW, was not affected by the treatments, and the others were greater for animals fed diets with sugar cane silage. Animals fed diets with high brix sugar cane silage and treated high brix sugar cane silage presented lower intake of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (g/kg of BW in relation to diets with low and high brix sugar cane silage, respectively. Animals fed diets with corn silage presented higher digestibility, except for crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Animals subjected to diets with corn silage presented low excretion of nitrogen compounds and higher microbial crude protein synthesis. Animals fed sugar cane silage present greater intake, performance and digestibility. The use of lime during 15 or 20º Brix sugar cane ensilage does not alter intake, digestibility or performance of beef cattle.

  1. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...

  2. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of α-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity.

  3. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  4. Comparative Study of the Preparation of Reducing Sugars Hydrolyzed from High-Lignin Lignocellulose Pretreated with Ionic Liquid, Alkaline Solution and Their Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanny F. Sangian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ionicliquid [MMIM][DMP] was synthesized from the reactants methyl imidazole [MIM] and trimethylphosphate [TMP] and verified using 1HNMR and FTIR. Coconut coir dust was pretreated with a 1% alkaline solution.Its crystalline structure increased significantly due to the dissolution of lignin and hemicelluloses under alkaline conditions, exposing the cellulose. After NaOH and IL were employed, the XRD showed that peak (002 decreased significantly and peak (101 almost vanished. This significant decrease in crystallinity was related to the alteration of the substrate from the cellulose I structure to the cellulose II structure. The pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed to convert them to reducing sugars by pure cellulase and xylanase,and the reaction was conducted at 60°C, pH 3, for 12 or 48 hours. The yields of sugar hydrolyzed from untreated and NaOH-pretreated substrates were 0.07 and 0.12 g sugar/g lignocellulose, respectively. Pretreatment with IL or the combination of NaOH+IL resulted in yields of reducing sugars of 0.11 and 0.13 g/g, respectively. These findings showed that IL pretreatment of the high-lignin lignocellulose is a new prospect for the economical manufacture of reducing sugars and bioethanol in the coming years.

  5. Price promotions and marketing within points of sale around high schools in Greece during the 2012 economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charis Girvalaki

    2015-12-01

    Price promotions were noted within the majority of POS close to schools. Aggressive promotional activities may hinder efforts to de-normalize tobacco use, especially during financial crisis when price promotions may pose as more attractive to potential consumers.

  6. The relation between food price, energy density and diet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Bolarić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low energy density diet, high in fruits and vegetables, is related to lower obesity risk and to better health status, but is more expensive. High energy density diet, high in added sugar and fats, is more affordable, but is related to higher obesity and chronic diseases risk. The aim of this study was to report prices according to energy density (low vs. high of food items and to show how food affordability could affect food choice and consumers’ health. Data was collected for 137 raw and processed foods from three purchase sites in Zagreb (one representative for supermarket, one smaller shop and green market. Results showed that low energy density food is more expensive than high energy density food (for example, the price of 1000 kcal from green zucchini (15 kcal/100 g is 124.20 kn while the price of 1000 kcal from sour cream (138 kcal/100 g is 13.99 kn. Food energy price was significantly different (p<0.05 between food groups with highest price for vegetable products (159.04 ± 36.18 kn/1000 kcal and raw vegetables (97.90 ± 50.13 kn/1000 kcal and lowest for fats (8.49 ± 1.22 kn/1000 kcal and cereals and products (5.66 ± 0.76 kn/1000 kcal. Negative correlation (Spearman r=-0.72, p<0.0001 was observed for energy density (kcal/100 g and price of 1000 kcal. Therefore, it is advisable to develop strategies in order to reduce price of low energy density food and encourage its intake since it would improve diet quality, which could lead to better costumers’ health.

  7. Price Regulations in a Multi-unit Uniform Price Auction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette

    not exceed the price cap whereas a selective bid cap for only the larger firms, does not guarantee this outcome. A sufficiently high bid floor always destroys pure strategy equilibria with equilibrium prices above the marginal costs, no matter whether the floor applies to all or only to relatively small......Inspired by recent regulations in the New York ICAP market we examine the effect of different price regulations on a multi-unit uniform price auction. We investigate a bid cap and a bid foor. Given suffciently high total capacities general bid caps always ensure that the market price does...

  8. Price Regulations in a Multi-unit Uniform Price Auction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette

    Inspired by recent regulations in the New York ICAP market we examine the effect of different price regulations on a multi-unit uniform price auction. We investigate a bid cap and a bid foor. Given suffciently high total capacities general bid caps always ensure that the market price does...... not exceed the price cap whereas a selective bid cap for only the larger firms, does not guarantee this outcome. A sufficiently high bid floor always destroys pure strategy equilibria with equilibrium prices above the marginal costs, no matter whether the floor applies to all or only to relatively small...

  9. Highly diastereoselective conjugate addition of nitroalkanes to α,β-unsaturated sugar lactones for the efficient synthesis of chiral 2-pyrrolidones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Ping; Li, Zhong-Jun; Meng, Xiang-Bao

    2011-09-27

    A series of 4,5-substituted chiral γ-lactams were synthesized through a highly diastereoselective addition-rearrangement approach from 2,3-unsaturated sugar lactones. The single-crystal X-ray structure of one product indicated that the sugar ring was attacked from the axial side. Partial reduction of the nitro group produced N-hydroxy-γ-lactams, which were further reduced with TiCl(3) to yield the 4,5-substituted chiral γ-lactams. The absolute configuration of C5 of the γ-lactam was determined by NOESY spectra. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The organization of sex work in low- and high-priced venues with a focus on the experiences of ethnic minority women working in these venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Zhuang, Kongshao; Henderson, Gail E; Shenglong, Quzhen; Fang, Jingwen; Yao, Huiqin; Qin, Jingxin; Yang, Yanzhen; Abler, Laurie

    2014-02-01

    Prior research on female sex workers (FSW) in China, and their risk for HIV and STI, neglects the nuanced experiences of ethnic minority FSW. We conducted participant observations and in-depth interviews with 33 FSW and six venue bosses to describe the experiences of FSW and management structures in low and high-priced sex work venues in Liuzhou, China. In low-priced venues, FSW had more autonomy and stronger relationships with their ethnic minority peers. Mid- and high-priced venues had more formal management structures. Ethnic minority FSW working in higher priced venues experienced less support and kinship with their peers. HIV/STI prevention outreach activities occurred in all of the venues, but they were not tailored for different venue types or for ethnic minority FSW. Our findings provide guidance for tailoring public health programs that meet the needs of ethnic minority women working in different types of sex work venues.

  11. The organization of sex work in low and high-priced venues with a focus on the experiences of ethnic minority women working in these venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liu; Zhuang, Kongshao; Henderson, Gail E.; Shenglong, Quzhen; Fang, Jingwen; Yao, Huiqin; Qin, Jingxin; Yang, Yanzhen; Abler, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Prior research on female sex workers (FSW) in China, and their risk for HIV and STI, neglects the nuanced experiences of ethnic minority FSW. We conducted participant observations and in-depth interviews with 33 FSW and six venue bosses to describe the experiences of FSW and management structures in high and low-priced sex work venues in Liuzhou, China. In low-priced venues, FSW had more autonomy and stronger relationships with their ethnic minority peers. Mid and high-priced venues had more formal management structures. Ethnic minority FSW working in higher priced venues experienced less support and kinship with their peers. HIV/STI prevention outreach activities occurred in all of the venues, but they were not tailored for different venue types or for ethnic minority FSW. Our findings provide guidance for tailoring public health programs that meet the needs of ethnic minority women working in different types of sex work venues. PMID:23912337

  12. Financial Flexibility in Highly Regulated Market: Indonesian Telecommunication Case during Tariff Pricing War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Arief Rijanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In year 2008, regulation of Indonesian telecommunicationindustries changes due the tariff pricing war within Telecommunication opera-tor. This regulation tie up the telecommunication operator and affect operating revenue margin.The needs of financial flexibility within tele-communication firm is increased.Capex, operating revenue and reinvestment needs to be flexible must be inline with competition and change of technology. This paper goals is measuring financial flexibility based on Capex, operating revenue and re-investment needs.Reinvestment needs by Telecommunication operator can be financed with or without financial flexibility. Data from year 2007 up to 2014 is selec-ted to accommodate before and after changes of telecommunication regulation. The regulation effect to financial flexibility of telecommu-nication firm is still relevantbecause telecommunication industries by nature needs larger capital to re-new the telecommunication technology. Real options method will be used to measure financial flexibility.

  13. India's grain security policy in the era of high food prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Bandara, Jayatilleke

    2017-01-01

    consumers and producers and restricting exports entailed huge fiscal costs and equally large welfare costs to India, an outcome that is almost always the worst as compared to the alternative policy mixes examined in this study. While the most market-oriented domestic and trade policy alternatives that would......This study uses a computable general equilibrium model to evaluate the fiscal and welfare costs of the market stabilisation and insulating food policy of India during the 2007-08 global food crisis. We demonstrate that domestic food grain price stabilisation through simultaneously subsidising...... generate better welfare effects and the least fiscal costs may not be feasible due to political economy considerations, we argue that there exist some 'middle-ground' policy mixes featuring partial relaxations of domestic subsidies on either food grains or fertilisers and/or less restrictive border...

  14. Cardiovascular risk in Gullah African Americans with high familial risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: project SuGAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kelly J; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Spruill, Ida; Teklehaimanot, Abeba A; Garvey, W Timothy; Sale, Michèle; Fernandes, Jyotika

    2014-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, levels of cardiovascular risk factors, and extent of preventive care in Gullah African Americans with a high familial risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Between 1995 and 2003, 1321 Gullah African Americans with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus from the South Carolina Sea Islands consented to and enrolled in the Sea Islands Genetic African American Registry (Project SuGAR). A cross-sectional analysis of cardiometabolic risk, preventive care, and self-reported cardiovascular disease was conducted. Cardiometabolic risk factor levels were high and vascular disease was prevalent. Among the subjects with diabetes mellitus, the mean disease duration was 10.5 years; approximately one-third reported reduced vision or blindness; and >80% reported numbness, pain, or burning in their feet. Preventive diabetes care was limited, with <60%, <25%, and <40% seeing an ophthalmologist, podiatrist, and dentist, respectively, within the past year. Only 54.4% of women and 39.3% of men reported daily glucose monitoring. As the largest existing study of Gullah individuals, our study offers insight into not only the level of cardiovascular risk in this population but also the pathophysiological mechanisms central to ancestral differences in cardiometabolic risk in the broader African American population.

  15. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Fadel, M.; Keera, Abeer A.; Mouafi, Foukia E.; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300?L, 3?m3, and 12?m3 fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65?m3 working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sul...

  16. Effect of sugar-free Red Bull energy drink on high-intensity run time-to-exhaustion in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candow, Darren G; Kleisinger, Amanda K; Grenier, Stephanie; Dorsch, Kim D

    2009-07-01

    Consuming sugar-free Red Bull energy drink before exercise has become increasingly popular among exercising individuals. The main purported active ingredient in sugar-free Red Bull is caffeine, which has been shown to increase aerobic exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sugar-free Red Bull energy drink on high-intensity run time-to-exhaustion in young adults. Physically active university students (n = 17, 9 men, 8 woman; 21 +/- 4 years, 73.4 +/- 3.1 kg, 175.1 +/- 3.2 cm) participated in a double-blind, crossover, repeated-measures study where they were randomized to supplement with sugar-free Red Bull (2 mg x kg(-1) body mass caffeine or approximately 147 mg caffeine; 4 kcal/250 mL) and noncaffeinated, sugar-free placebo (lemon-lime flavored soft drink, tonic water, lime juice; 4 kcal/250 mL) separated by 7 days. Exercise capacity was assessed by a run time-to-exhaustion test at 80% Vo2max, perceived exertion was assessed immediately after exercise, and blood lactate was measured before and after exercise. There were no differences in run time-to-exhaustion (Red Bull: 12.6 +/- 3.8 minutes, placebo: 11.8 +/- 3.4 minutes), perceived exertion (Red Bull: 17.1 +/- 2.0, placebo: 16.6 +/- 1.8), or blood lactate between groups. In conclusion, sugar-free Red Bull energy drink did not influence high-intensity run time-to-exhaustion in young adults.

  17. The effect of high-sugar grass on predicted nitrogen excretion and milk yield simulated using a dynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J L; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A; Parsons, A J; Rasmussen, S; Edwards, G R; Kebreab, E; France, J

    2011-06-01

    High-sugar grass varieties have received considerable attention for their potential to reduce nitrogen (N) excretion and increase milk yield in cattle. However, considerable variation exists in the magnitude of response in published results. The purpose of this study is to explain the variation in response using a dynamic mechanistic model to predict observed N and milk yield results from the literature, and from simulated data. Examined effects were (1) water-soluble carbohydrate [WSC; g/kg of dry matter (DM)] increase; (2) change in crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of the plant with WSC increase; and (3) the level of N fertilization. The database for evaluation of model N and milk yield predictions consisted of 4 published studies with 28 treatment means for which high-sugar grasses were being evaluated. Water-soluble carbohydrate content of the diets ranged from 95 to 248 g/kg of DM, CP content ranged from 115 to 263 g/kg of DM, and the NDF content ranged from 400 to 568 g/kg of DM. Urine N, milk N, and total N excretion were predicted well by the model and followed the directional pattern of observed values within each study. Simulation results showed that the N utilization ratio increased as the WSC content of the diet increased, but to varying degrees depending on the grass scenario examined. The greatest benefit in terms of N utilization ratio and urine N levels were seen when the WSC content of grass increased at the expense of CP, followed by a 50:50 CP and NDF mix, followed by a trade for NDF. Simulated milk yield decreased slightly when WSC increased at the expense of CP, increased slightly when it increased at the expense of a CP and NDF mix, and increased most when WSC increased at the expense of NDF. Results were amplified slightly under conditions of low-N fertilization and in the absence of grain feeding. Overall, modeling is useful as an explanatory tool. The variation from results in the literature with high-WSC grass

  18. Dynamic Price Dispersion of Storable Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2014-01-01

    consists of one-time price reductions and several consecutive periods in which all retailers offer the regular price. The model predicts that competition is the hardest when consumer inventories are zero, and that at high inventory levels the probability of holding a sale is low.......In this paper I provide an analytical model for the rationale behind supermarket pricing patterns characterized by long-term high prices and temporary price reductions. The model is based on the understanding that temporary price reductions serve the role of price discrimination between consumers...... with different search costs and willingness to wait. I demonstrate that the high-price-low-price pattern is rational for storable goods. In a Markov-perfect equilibrium, agents’ actions depend on consumer inventory, and purchase decisions are characterized by a critical price. The equilibrium price series...

  19. Mind your pricing cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric; Simester, Duncan

    2003-09-01

    For most of the items they buy, consumers don't have an accurate sense of what the price should be. Ask them to guess how much a four-pack of 35-mm film costs, and you'll get a variety of wrong answers: Most people will underestimate; many will only shrug. Research shows that consumers' knowledge of the market is so far from perfect that it hardly deserves to be called knowledge at all. Yet people happily buy film and other products every day. Is this because they don't care what kind of deal they're getting? No. Remarkably, it's because they rely on retailers to tell them whether they're getting a good price. In subtle and not-so-subtle ways, retailers send signals to customers, telling them whether a given price is relatively high or low. In this article, the authors review several common pricing cues retailers use--"sale" signs, prices that end in 9, signpost items, and price-matching guarantees. They also offer some surprising facts about how--and how well--those cues work. For instance, the authors' tests with several mail-order catalogs reveal that including the word "sale" beside a price can increase demand by more than 50%. The practice of using a 9 at the end of a price to denote a bargain is so common, you'd think customers would be numb to it. Yet in a study the authors did involving a women's clothing catalog, they increased demand by a third just by changing the price of a dress from $34 to $39. Pricing cues are powerful tools for guiding customers' purchasing decisions, but they must be applied judiciously. Used inappropriately, the cues may breach customers' trust, reduce brand equity, and give rise to lawsuits.

  20. High food prices and the global financial crisis have reduced access to nutritious food and worsened nutritional status and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Henk-Jan; de Pee, Saskia; Sanogo, Issa; Subran, Ludovic; Bloem, Martin W

    2010-01-01

    A global economic and financial crisis is engulfing the developing world, coming on top of high food and fuel prices. This paper assesses the impact of the crises on food consumption, nutrition, and health. Several methods were applied, including risk analysis using the cost of the food basket, assessment surveys, simulations, regression analysis using a food consumption score (FCS), reflecting diet frequency and diversity, and a review of the impact of such dietary changes on nutritional status and health. The cost of the food basket increased in several countries, forcing households to reduce quality and quantity of food consumed. The FCS, which is a measure of diet diversity, is negatively correlated with food prices. Simulations show that energy consumption declined during 2006-2010 in nearly all developing regions, resulting potentially in an additional 457 million people (of 4.5 billion) at risk of being hungry and many more unable to afford the dietary quality required to perform, develop, and grow well. As a result of the crises, large numbers of vulnerable households have reduced the quality and quantity of foods they consume and are at risk of increased malnutrition. Population groups most affected are those with the highest requirements, including young children, pregnant and lactating women, and the chronically ill (particularly people with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis). Because undernutrition during the first 2 y of life has life-long consequences, even short-term price rises will have long-term effects. Thus, measures to mitigate the impact of the crises are urgently required.

  1. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  2. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  3. Three-dimensional strutted graphene grown by substrate-free sugar blowing for high-power-density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuebin; Zhang, Yuanjian; Zhi, Chunyi; Wang, Xi; Tang, Daiming; Xu, Yibin; Weng, Qunhong; Jiang, Xiangfen; Mitome, Masanori; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional graphene architectures in the macroworld can in principle maintain all the extraordinary nanoscale properties of individual graphene flakes. However, current 3D graphene products suffer from poor electrical conductivity, low surface area and insufficient mechanical strength/elasticity; the interconnected self-supported reproducible 3D graphenes remain unavailable. Here we report a sugar-blowing approach based on a polymeric predecessor to synthesize a 3D graphene bubble network. The bubble network consists of mono- or few-layered graphitic membranes that are tightly glued, rigidly fixed and spatially scaffolded by micrometre-scale graphitic struts. Such a topological configuration provides intimate structural interconnectivities, freeway for electron/phonon transports, huge accessible surface area, as well as robust mechanical properties. The graphene network thus overcomes the drawbacks of presently available 3D graphene products and opens up a wide horizon for diverse practical usages, for example, high-power high-energy electrochemical capacitors, as highlighted in this work. PMID:24336225

  4. Glycemic effect of nutritive sweeteners: Honey, sugar and high fructose corn syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controversy currently exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. Using a randomized, crossover design we evaluated the effects of chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners (honey, sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)) on glucose tolerance in overweigh...

  5. Elimination of high-refined-sugar diet as treatment strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the potency of ampicillin in altering gut flora in the presence of a high-sucrose diet in rat pups, and to determine its effect on selected neurotransmitters and a cytokine as markers of the persistent autistic features repeatedly induced in orally administered propionic acid rat pups.. Methods: ...

  6. Elimination of high-refined-sugar diet as treatment strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the potency of ampicillin in altering gut flora in the presence of a high-sucrose diet in rat pups, ..... brain axis. Imbalances in the composition of gut microbiota in PPA or ampicillin-treated rats are observed as the overgrowth of K. pneumonia and P. vulgaris, ... groups demonstrated altered intestinal.

  7. High beverage sugar as well as high animal protein intake at infancy may increase overweight risk at 8 years: a prospective longitudinal pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Baar Nicolien M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combined effects of early exposure to beverage sugar and animal protein and later life overweight risk have not been studied. Methods A prospective longitudinal study was initiated in 2001 with 226 infants between 4 and 13 months of age. Dietary intake was assessed with a 2 day food record. Also information on infant body weight and socio-economic status was obtained at baseline. At 8 year follow-up in 2009, children were surveyed again. Main outcome measure was overweight at 8 years as defined by BMIsds > = +1.0. Also maternal BMI, present dietary intake and physical activity, were obtained by questionnaire and 2-day food record. Results At the 8 year follow up, 120 children (53% were surveyed again. Of those, questionnaires and food records were completed for 63 children, for the other 57 children only weight and height at 8 years was available; 20 out of 120 children (17% were self-reported overweight at 8 years of age. Unadjusted odds ratios (ORs; 95% CI for overweight at 8 years were 1.10 (1.02, 1.18 for beverage sugar intake per one percent of energy intake and 4.06 (1.50, 11.00 for the highest tertile of animal protein intake at infancy compared to the lowest two tertiles. After adjustment for sex, age, infant weight, breastfed at intake assessment, and socio-economic status, odds ratios were 1.13 (1.03, 1.24 for beverage sugar, and 9.67 (2.56, 36.53 for highest tertile of animal protein intake. In the subgroup with completed questionnaire (n = 63 ORs were also adjusted for current maternal overweight, more than 2 months full breastfeeding, physical activity, and energy intake, but ORs remained significantly associated with overweight at 8 years. Conclusions A high intake of sugar containing beverages as well as animal protein in the first year of life may increase the risk of overweight at 8 years. The results of this pilot investigation should be confirmed in a larger cohort.

  8. Antimicrobial price variation: Conundrum of medical profession!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rataboli P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacoeconomics plays a pivotal role in clinical practice. High medicine prices can adversely affect a patient′s finances and compliance. The Indian pharmaceutical industry has become a cornucopia of medicines with wide variation in prices for the same medicine marketed under different brand names. Price list of available antimicrobial brands was procured from a commercial drug directory. Average price of widely prescribed oral antimicrobials was found and price variation between different brands was calculated. The variation in medicine prices was found to be from 95% lower to more than 350% higher than the average price. Implications of price variation in clinical practice are discussed and remedial measures suggested.

  9. ACREAGE RESPONSE OF SUGARCANE TO PRICE AND NON PRICE FACTORS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saddiq

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed 42 years’ time series data from 1970-2011 for the acreage response of sugarcane to price and non-price factors in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Data was tested for major expected problems of time series i.e. Autocorrelation and Stationarity. For autocorrelation Durban h statistics was used and the value (0.539 indicates no serial Autocorrelation in the data set. While Augmented Dickey Fuller test was used for detection of Stationarity and the data was stationary at lag one. The study follows Nerlovian Partial Adjustment linear and non-linear models for acreage response. While Vector Auto Regression technique was used to estimate the effect of price and non-price factors on acreage allocation decisions of the farmers for sugarcane in the study area. The empirical results show that short run and long run elastisities are inelastic for all the variables and statistically significant at 5% significance level except average rainfall. Further, the influence of price, yield, and lag area are positive and significant in affecting acreage allocation decision. This means that if price, yield and lag area are enhanced, the acreage allocation of sugarcane might improve in-elastically. The relatively low values of coefficients obtained from the regression analysis indicates that sugarcane producers in making acreage allocation influenced more by their ideas of expected price than by previous year price. Similarly the magnitude of the linear and log coefficient of yield (0.676 and (0.208 suggesting that if rising trend in sugarcane yield persists it will help farmers’ expansion of sugarcane cultivation in future. Further, the relatively high value of the coefficients of lagged area (0.300 and (0.298 of sugarcane suggests that their area allocation adjust quickly for changes in expected profit. As the literature shows that mostly price is the main factors in shifting the area allocation of any crop while this paper shows that lag area was a main

  10. Price performance following stock's IPO in different price limit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yue; Li, Ming-Xia

    2018-01-01

    An IPO burst occurred in China's stock markets in 2015, while price limit trading rules usually help to reduce the short-term trading mania on individual stocks. It is interesting to make clear the function of the price limits after IPOs. We firstly make a statistical analysis based on all the IPO stocks listed from 1990 to 2015. A high dependency exists between the activities in stock's IPO and various market environment. We also focus on the price dynamics in the first 40 trading days after the stock listed. We find that price limit system will delay the price movement, especially for the up-trend movements, which may lead to longer continuous price limit hits. Similar to our previous work, many results such as ;W; shape can be also observed in the future daily return after the price limit open. At last, we find most IPO measures show evident correlations with the following price limit hits. IPO stocks with lower first-day turnover and earning per share will be followed with a longer continuous price limit hits and lower future daily return under the newest trading rules, which give us a good way to estimate the occurrence of price limit hits and the following price dynamics. Our analysis provides a better understanding of the price dynamics after IPO events and offers potential practical values for investors.

  11. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, M; Keera, Abeer A; Mouafi, Foukia E; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300 L, 3 m(3), and 12 m(3) fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65 m(3) working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18% (w/v), inoculum size of 20% (v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 10(8)/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10 kg/65 m(3) working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4 g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved.

  12. Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyo-Seok; Kim, Chulki; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Taikjin; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Q-Han; Seo, Minah

    2015-01-01

    Molecular recognition and discrimination of carbohydrates are important because carbohydrates perform essential roles in most living organisms for energy metabolism and cell-to-cell communication. Nevertheless, it is difficult to identify or distinguish various carbohydrate molecules owing to the lack of a significant distinction in the physical or chemical characteristics. Although there has been considerable effort to develop a sensing platform for individual carbohydrates selectively using chemical receptors or an ensemble array, their detection and discrimination limits have been as high in the millimolar concentration range. Here we show a highly sensitive and selective detection method for the discrimination of carbohydrate molecules using nano-slot-antenna array-based sensing chips which operate in the terahertz frequency range. This THz metamaterial sensing tool recognizes various types of carbohydrate molecules over a wide range of molecular concentrations. Strongly localized and enhanced terahertz t...

  13. Analysis of minimum target prices for production of entecavir to treat hepatitis B in high- and low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew; Gotham, Dzintars; Cooke, Graham; Bhagani, Sanjay; Andrieux-Meyer, Isabelle; Cohn, Jennifer; Fortunak, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    In 2013, an estimated 686,000 people died from hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection worldwide. Mass treatment programmes for hepatitis B will require very low drug costs. International treatment guidelines recommend first-line monotherapy with either entecavir or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). While the basic patent on TDF expires in 2017/8, entecavir is already generic in several countries, including the US. The chemical structure of entecavir is related to abacavir, which costs expiry dates were analysed for entecavir and TDF. Costs of sustainable, generic production were calculated for entecavir, and compared with published originator and generic prices in high- and low-income countries. With a daily dose of 0.5 mg, one year's supply of entecavir treatment requires expiry in 2017. Given differences in daily dosing, production volumes for entecavir would be 600 times lower than TDF (300 mg once daily) for treating the same numbers of patients. Mass treatment for hepatitis B with generic entecavir could be achieved at very low cost in all countries, provided that important projections can be met in terms of pricing for the API and finished dosage form.

  14. [Faecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening: high quality for a good price].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veldhuizen, Harriët; Bonfrer, J M G Hans; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) awarded the immunochemical faecal occult blood test (IFOBT) to FOB Gold of Sentinel following a European call for tenders. The contract-awarding procedure included the application of quality knock-out criteria, which were met by two suppliers. The decisive factor was the best price/quality ratio. A recent review indicated that, at present, no single IFOBT is better than any other. The decision to opt for a test manufactured by a different supplier than was used in the previous screening pilots made it necessary to re-determine the cut-off value. This value has now been set (88 ng/ml) and is confirmed by a laboratory test. Colonoscopy-related capacity planning, as well as its diagnostic yield, depends on numerous factors; therefore, the RIVM is currently monitoring the referral percentage and number of adenomas detected and is collaborating on quality terms. Any necessary adjustments are to be made during the introduction of the screening test.

  15. Study of factors affecting demand and supply of sugar in Indonesia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at determining: (a) the factors influencing the demand of national sugar, and the price elasticity of demand (ep) and; (b) the factors influencing the supply of national sugar, and the price elasticity of supply (es). The data comprised a time series of 1990-2006, taken from the Central Statistics Bureau, The ...

  16. 78 FR 45494 - Notice of Second Sugar Purchase and Exchange for Re-export Program Credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... sugar purchase. CCC will then post a catalog listing the available sugar quantities. The purchase invitation and catalog will be placed on the Farm Service Agency (FSA) Commodity Operations Web site at http... pricing, CCC will permit sugarcane processors to provide price offers to the catalog to coincide with the...

  17. Endogenous price leadership

    OpenAIRE

    van Damme, E.E.C.; Hurkens, S.

    2004-01-01

    We consider a linear price setting duopoly game with differentiated products and determine endogenously which of the players will lead and which will follow. While the follower role is most attractive for each firm, we show that waiting is more risky for the low cost firm so that, consequently, risk dominance considerations, as in Harsanyi and Selten (1988), allow the conclusion that only the high cost firm will choose to wait. Hence, the low cost firm will emerge as the endogenous price leader.

  18. Comparison of sugar molecule decomposition through glucose and fructose: a high-level quantum chemical study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2012-02-01

    Efficient chemical conversion of biomass is essential to produce sustainable energy and industrial chemicals. Industrial level conversion of glucose to useful chemicals, such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid, is a major step in the biomass conversion but is difficult because of the formation of undesired products and side reactions. To understand the molecular level reaction mechanisms involved in the decomposition of glucose and fructose, we have carried out high-level quantum chemical calculations [Gaussian-4 (G4) theory]. Selective 1,2-dehydration, keto-enol tautomerization, isomerization, retro-aldol condensation, and hydride shifts of glucose and fructose molecules were investigated. Detailed kinetic and thermodynamic analyses indicate that, for acyclic glucose and fructose molecules, the dehydration and isomerization require larger activation barriers compared to the retro-aldol reaction at 298 K in neutral medium. The retro-aldol reaction results in the formation of C2 and C4 species from glucose and C3 species from fructose. The formation of the most stable C3 species, dihydroxyacetone from fructose, is thermodynamically downhill. The 1,3-hydride shift leads to the cleavage of the C-C bond in the acyclic species; however, the enthalpy of activation is significantly higher (50-55 kcal/mol) than that of the retro-aldol reaction (38 kcal/mol) mainly because of the sterically hindered distorted four-membered transition state compared to the hexa-membered transition state in the retro-aldol reaction. Both tautomerization and dehydration are catalyzed by a water molecule in aqueous medium; however, water has little effect on the retro-aldol reaction. Isomerization of glucose to fructose and glyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone proceeds through hydride shifts that require an activation enthalpy of about 40 kcal/mol at 298 K in water medium. This investigation maps out accurate energetics of the decomposition of glucose and fructose molecules

  19. The Effects of Different High-Protein Low-Carbohydrates Proprietary Foods on Blood Sugar in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Alessandra; Karsten, Bettina; Bosco, Gerardo; Gómez-López, Manuel; Brandão, Paula Paraguassú; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects on blood sugar concentrations through the calculation of the glycemic score (GS) of 10 different high-protein low-carbohydrates (CHOs) proprietary foods that are commonly used as meals during very low-CHO ketogenic diets or during low-CHO diets. Fourteen healthy females were tested for their glycemic response curve elicited by 1000 kJ of glucose three times within a 3-week period (one test each week) compared with one of 10 test foods once on separate days twice a week. After determining the GS of each food in each individual, the mean GS of each test food was calculated. All test foods, compared with glucose, produced a significantly lower glycemic response. The GS of all test food resulted in being lower than 25 and the difference between the mean glycemia after the intake of glucose (mean 122 ± 15 mg/dL) and after the intake of the sweet test foods (mean 89 ± 7 mg/dL) was 33 mg/dL (P test foods (mean 91 ± 8 mg/dL) was of 31 mg/dL (P < .001). The reformulation of ultraprocessed ready-to-consume foods in a low-CHO, high-protein version can produce a significantly lower glycemic response whilst maintaining the valued ready-to-use format and high palatability demanded by consumers. The low impact on postprandial glycemia and the nutritional characteristics of these proprietary foods makes them useful in both weight control management strategies and in the care management of diabetes.

  20. The impact of price reductions on individuals' choice of healthy meals away from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    -labelled meals. A Keyhole-labelled meal is particularly low in calories, fat, sugar and salt, but particularly high in fibre. The results suggest that to get the majority of individuals to choose the healthy option regularly it would be necessary to alter the relative price between healthy and less healthy meals....... Generally groups of individuals with a poor nutritional intake require a larger compensation (subsidy) before they choose the healthy alternative. About one third of respondents would choose the healthy option regularly if the prices for a healthy and less healthy meal were the same. In particular groups...

  1. Price Fairness versus Pricing Fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Chapuis, Jean Michel

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This research note discusses the distinction between these two concepts of perceptions of fairness, based on the theory of distributive justice and procedural justice, in order to helps understand consumer behavior. With a sample of 250 tourists in French Polynesia and a structural equation model, tourists do not confuse price fairness and pricing fairness. The theoretical implications are that future research should use two distinct scales. For managers, the study sug...

  2. Protein Immobilization Capabilities of Sucrose and Trehalose Glasses: The Effect of Protein/Sugar Concentration Unraveled by High-Field EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malferrari, Marco; Savitsky, Anton; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Möbius, Klaus; Venturoli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Disaccharide glasses are increasingly used to immobilize proteins at room temperature for structural/functional studies and long-term preservation. To unravel the molecular basis of protein immobilization, we studied the effect of sugar/protein concentration ratios in trehalose or sucrose matrixes, in which the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center (RC) was embedded as a model protein. The structural, dynamical, and H-bonding characteristics of the sugar-protein systems were probed by high-field W-band EPR of a matrix-dissolved nitroxide radical. We discovered that RC immobilization and thermal stabilization, being independent of the protein concentration in trehalose, occur in sucrose only at sufficiently low sugar/protein ratios. EPR reveals that only under such conditions does sucrose form a microscopically homogeneous matrix that immobilizes, via H-bonds, the nitroxide probe. We conclude that the protein immobilization capability depends critically on the propensity of the glass-forming sugar to create intermolecular H-bond networks, thus establishing long-range, homogeneous connectivity within the matrix.

  3. Analytical Method for Sugar Profile in Pet Food and Animal Feeds by High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, David J; Anderson, Phillip; Berg, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for a standardized, accurate, rugged, and consistent method to measure for sugars in pet foods and animal feeds. Many traditional standard sugar methods exist for other matrixes, but when applied in collaborative studies there was poor agreement and sources of error identified with those standard methods. The advancement in technology over the years has given us the ability to improve on these standard methods of analysis. A method is described here that addresses these common issues and was subjected to a single-laboratory validation to assess performance on a wide variety of pet foods and animal feeds. Of key importance to the method performance is the sample preparation before extraction, type of extraction solvent, postextraction cleanup, and, finally, optimized chromatography using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The results obtained from the validation demonstrate how typical issues seen with these matrixes can influence performance of sugar analysis. The results also demonstrate that this method is fit-for-purpose and can meet the challenges of sugar analysis in pet food and animal feeds to lay the foundation for a standardized method of analysis.

  4. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Gulati; Anoop Misra

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdom...

  5. Patients' views on price shopping and price transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semigran, Hannah L; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Sinaiko, Anna D; Cowling, David; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the growth of high deductibles and price transparency initiatives, patients are being encouraged to search for prices before seeking care, yet few do so. To understand why this is the case, we interviewed individuals who were offered access to a widely used price transparency website through their employer. Qualitative interviews. We interviewed individuals enrolled in a preferred provider organization product through their health plan about their experience using the price transparency tool (if they had done so), their past medical experiences, and their opinions on shopping for care. All interviews were transcribed and manually coded using a thematic coding guide. In general, respondents expressed frustration with healthcare costs and had a positive opinion of the idea of price shopping in theory, but 2 sets of barriers limited their ability to do so in reality. The first was the salience of searching for price information. For example, respondents recognized that due to their health plan benefits design, they would not save money by switching to a lower-cost provider. Second, other factors were more important than price for respondents when choosing a provider, including quality and loyalty to current providers. We found a disconnect between respondents' enthusiasm for price shopping and their reported use of a price transparency tool to shop for care. However, many did find the tool useful for other purposes, including checking their claims history. Addressing the barriers to price shopping identified by respondents can help inform ongoing and future price transparency initiatives.

  6. Myanmar Sugar SMEs: History, Technology, Location and Government Policy

    OpenAIRE

    San, Thein; KUDO, TOSHIHIRO

    2008-01-01

    Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) engaged in sugar processing in Myanmar appeared in the last decade of the socialist era. An acute sugar deficit, restricted trade in white sugar, and high demand from the conventional dairy business led to the growth of sugar SMEs by appropriate blending of semi-finished products (syrup) in the fields, which were then processed in vacuum pans and centrifugals to obtain white sugar. This became a tradable commodity and sugar SMEs grew in clusters in big citi...

  7. Addressing the challenge of high-priced prescription drugs in the era of precision medicine: A systematic review of drug life cycles, therapeutic drug markets and regulatory frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gronde, Toon; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A.

    2017-01-01

    Context Recent public outcry has highlighted the rising cost of prescription drugs worldwide, which in several disease areas outpaces other health care expenditures and results in a suboptimal global availability of essential medicines. Method A systematic review of Pubmed, the Financial Times, the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal and the Guardian was performed to identify articles related to the pricing of medicines. Findings Changes in drug life cycles have dramatically affected patent medicine markets, which have long been considered a self-evident and self-sustainable source of income for highly profitable drug companies. Market failure in combination with high merger and acquisition activity in the sector have allowed price increases for even off-patent drugs. With market interventions and the introduction of QALY measures in health care, governments have tried to influence drug prices, but often encounter unintended consequences. Patent reform legislation, reference pricing, outcome-based pricing and incentivizing physicians and pharmacists to prescribe low-cost drugs are among the most promising short-term policy options. Due to the lack of systematic research on the effectiveness of policy measures, an increasing number of ad hoc decisions have been made with counterproductive effects on the availability of essential drugs. Future challenges demand new policies, for which recommendations are offered. Conclusion A fertile ground for high-priced drugs has been created by changes in drug life-cycle dynamics, the unintended effects of patent legislation, government policy measures and orphan drug programs. There is an urgent need for regulatory reform to curtail prices and safeguard equitable access to innovative medicines. PMID:28813502

  8. Addressing the challenge of high-priced prescription drugs in the era of precision medicine: A systematic review of drug life cycles, therapeutic drug markets and regulatory frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronde, Toon van der; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A; Pieters, Toine

    2017-01-01

    Recent public outcry has highlighted the rising cost of prescription drugs worldwide, which in several disease areas outpaces other health care expenditures and results in a suboptimal global availability of essential medicines. A systematic review of Pubmed, the Financial Times, the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal and the Guardian was performed to identify articles related to the pricing of medicines. Changes in drug life cycles have dramatically affected patent medicine markets, which have long been considered a self-evident and self-sustainable source of income for highly profitable drug companies. Market failure in combination with high merger and acquisition activity in the sector have allowed price increases for even off-patent drugs. With market interventions and the introduction of QALY measures in health care, governments have tried to influence drug prices, but often encounter unintended consequences. Patent reform legislation, reference pricing, outcome-based pricing and incentivizing physicians and pharmacists to prescribe low-cost drugs are among the most promising short-term policy options. Due to the lack of systematic research on the effectiveness of policy measures, an increasing number of ad hoc decisions have been made with counterproductive effects on the availability of essential drugs. Future challenges demand new policies, for which recommendations are offered. A fertile ground for high-priced drugs has been created by changes in drug life-cycle dynamics, the unintended effects of patent legislation, government policy measures and orphan drug programs. There is an urgent need for regulatory reform to curtail prices and safeguard equitable access to innovative medicines.

  9. High pressure membrane foulants of seawater, brackish water and river water: Origin assessed by sugar and bacteriohopanepolyol signatures

    KAUST Repository

    Mondamert, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the origin of foulant material recovered on membranes used in water treatment. Firstly, sugar signatures were assessed from the monosaccharide composition. As results were not conclusive, a statistical approach using discriminant analysis was applied to the sugar data set in order to predict the origin of the foulant material. Three groups of various origins (algal, microbial, continental dissolved organic matter) were used as sugar references for the prediction. The results of the computation showed that the origin of reverse osmosis (RO) seawater foulant material is influenced by both the location of the water sources and the season. RO brackish water and nanofiltration river water foulant materials had a terrestrial origin. Secondly, bacteriohopanepolyol signatures indicated that RO seawater foulant material had a marine signature, RO brackish water foulant material had both a marine and a terrestrial origin and the nanofiltration river water foulant material contained only a terrestrial signature. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  10. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... about how often you should check your blood sugar. Not everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. ...

  11. Physical activity prevents alterations in mitochondrial ultrastructure and glucometabolic parameters in a high-sugar diet model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Barbosa de Queiroz

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise is a remarkable intervention for the treatment of many diseases. Mitochondrial changes on skeletal muscle are likely important for many of the benefits provided by exercise. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects that a regular physical activity (swimming without workload has on mitochondrial morphological alterations and glucometabolic parameters induced by a high-sugar diet (HSD. Weaned male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet or a HSD (68% carbohydrate were subjected to 60 minutes of regular physical activity by swimming (without workload for four- (20 sessions or eight-week (40 sessions periods. After training, animals were euthanized and the sera, adipose tissues, and skeletal muscles were collected for further analysis. The HSD increased body weight after an 8-week period; it also increased the fat pads and the adipose index, resulting in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance (IR. Transmission electron microscopy showed an increase in alterations of mitochondrial ultrastructure in the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and an increase in protein carbonylation. Regular physical activity partially reverted these alterations in rats fed a HSD, preventing mitochondrial morphological alterations and IR. Moreover, we observed a decrease in Pgc1α expression (qPCR analysis in STD-EXE group and a less pronounced reduction in HSD-EXE group after an 8-week period. Thus, regular physical activity (swimming without workload in rats fed a HSD can prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and IR, highlighting the crucial role for physical activity on metabolic homeostasis.

  12. Influence of lignocellulose and low or high levels of sugar beet pulp on nutrient digestibility and the fecal microbiota in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, S; Vahjen, W; Zentek, J

    2017-04-01

    Lignocellulose is an alternative fiber source for dogs; however, it has not yet been studied as a feed ingredient for the nutrition of dogs. Eight adult Beagles were involved in the study, which consisted of 3 feeding periods of 8 to 12 wk each. All dogs received 3 different diets, which either had the same concentration of fiber sources (2.7% sugar beet pulp or lignocellulose) or were formulated for a similar concentration of approximately 3% crude fiber: 12% sugar beet pulp (highSBP; 3.1% crude fiber), 2.7% sugar beet pulp (lowSBP; 0.96% crude fiber), or 2.7% lignocellulose (LC; 2.4% crude fiber). Feces samples were collected at the end of each feeding period, and the apparent nutrient digestibility, daily amount, and DM content of feces and fecal cell numbers of relevant bacteria were analyzed. The daily feces amount was lower and the feces DM was higher when dogs were fed the LC diet and the lowSBP diet compared with the highSBP diet ( dogs fed LC and lowSBP had lower concentrations of acetate ( dogs fed highSBP. The concentration of -butyrate was higher in the feces of dogs fed with LC compared with dogs fed high and low sugar beet pulp (SBP; dogs was highest followed by lowSBP- and highSBP-fed dogs ( dog feed has different impacts on the fecal microbiota and the apparent digestibility of nutrients. Therefore, different areas of application should be considered.

  13. Price duration versus trading volume in high-frequency data for selected DAX companies

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Mitterer; Henryk Gurgul; Robert Syrek

    2016-01-01

    The properties of the time series of durations between consecutive trades of a particular stock have been studied by many contributors in the literature of financial econometrics. Among them are highly prominent scientists like Engle (2000) and Gourieroux and Jasiak (2001). The importance of this topic, accompanied by the growing availability of (ultra-)high-frequency data, has prompted an increase of contributions in recent years. Intensive research based on high-frequency data has several ...

  14. Sugar and Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Michael E J; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, has been widely held responsible by the media for the global rise in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Systematic reviews and dietary guidelines relating dietary sugars to T2DM. Weight gain and T2DM incidence are associated with diet and lifestyle patterns characterized by high consumptions of any sweetened beverages. High sugar intakes impair risk factors for macrovascular complications of T2DM. Much of the association between sugars and T2DM is eliminated by adjusting data for body mass index (BMI). However, BMI adjustment does not fully account for adiposity (r 2 =0.65-0.75). Excess sugar can promote weight gain, thus T2DM, through extra calories, but has no unique diabetogenic effect at physiological levels. Ethical concerns about caffeine added to sweetened beverages, undetectable by consumers, to increase consumption. Evidence needed for limiting dietary sugar below 10% energy intake. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population: the HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B; Schene, Aart H; Lok, Anja; de Vries, Jeanne H; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Nicolaou, Mary

    2017-09-01

    To identify a high-sugar (HS) dietary pattern, a high-saturated-fat (HF) dietary pattern and a combined high-sugar and high-saturated-fat (HSHF) dietary pattern and to explore if these dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms. We used data from the HELIUS (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting) study and included 4969 individuals aged 18-70 years. Diet was assessed using four ethnic-specific FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived using reduced rank regression with mono- and disaccharides, saturated fat and total fat as response variables. The nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depressive symptoms by using continuous scores and depressed mood (identified using the cut-off point: PHQ-9 sum score ≥10). The Netherlands. Three dietary patterns were identified; an HSHF dietary pattern (including chocolates, red meat, added sugars, high-fat dairy products, fried foods, creamy sauces), an HS dietary pattern (including sugar-sweetened beverages, added sugars, fruit (juices)) and an HF dietary pattern (including high-fat dairy products, butter). When comparing extreme quartiles, consumption of an HSHF dietary pattern was associated with more depressive symptoms (Q1 v. Q4: β=0·18, 95 % CI 0·07, 0·30, P=0·001) and with higher odds of depressed mood (Q1 v. Q4: OR=2·36, 95 % CI 1·19, 4·66, P=0·014). No associations were found between consumption of the remaining dietary patterns and depressive symptoms. Higher consumption of an HSHF dietary pattern is associated with more depressive symptoms and with depressed mood. Our findings reinforce the idea that the focus should be on dietary patterns that are high in both sugar and saturated fat.

  16. Impacts of Retailers’ Pricing Strategies for Produce Commodities on Farmer Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chenguang; Sexton, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    The typical model of retail pricing for produce products assumes retailers set price equal to the farm price plus a certain markup. However, observations from scanner data indicate a large degree of price dispersion in the grocery retailing market. In addition to markup pricing behavior, we document three alternative leading pricing patterns: fixed (constant) pricing, periodic sale, and high-low pricing. Retail price variations under these alternative pricing regimes in general have little co...

  17. Retail Pricing Behavior for Perishable Produce Products in the US with Implications for Farmer Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chenguang; Sexton, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    The typical model of retail pricing for produce products assumes retailers set price equal to the farm price plus a certain markup. However, observations from scanner data indicate a large degree of price dispersion in the grocery retailing market. In addition to markup pricing behavior, we document three alternative leading pricing patterns: fixed (constant) pricing, periodic sale, and high-low pricing. Retail price variations under these alternative pricing regimes in general have little co...

  18. A genetic map of melon highly enriched with fruit quality QTLs and EST markers, including sugar and carotenoid metabolism genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel-Beja, R; Tzuri, G; Portnoy, V; Lotan-Pompan, M; Lev, S; Cohen, S; Dai, N; Yeselson, L; Meir, A; Libhaber, S E; Avisar, E; Melame, T; van Koert, P; Verbakel, H; Hofstede, R; Volpin, H; Oliver, M; Fougedoire, A; Stalh, C; Fauve, J; Copes, B; Fei, Z; Giovannoni, J; Ori, N; Lewinsohn, E; Sherman, A; Burger, J; Tadmor, Y; Schaffer, A A; Katzir, N

    2010-08-01

    A genetic map of melon enriched for fruit traits was constructed, using a recombinant inbred (RI) population developed from a cross between representatives of the two subspecies of Cucumis melo L.: PI 414723 (subspecies agrestis) and 'Dulce' (subspecies melo). Phenotyping of 99 RI lines was conducted over three seasons in two locations in Israel and the US. The map includes 668 DNA markers (386 SSRs, 76 SNPs, six INDELs and 200 AFLPs), of which 160 were newly developed from fruit ESTs. These ESTs include candidate genes encoding for enzymes of sugar and carotenoid metabolic pathways that were cloned from melon cDNA or identified through mining of the International Cucurbit Genomics Initiative database (http://www.icugi.org/). The map covers 1,222 cM with an average of 2.672 cM between markers. In addition, a skeleton physical map was initiated and 29 melon BACs harboring fruit ESTs were localized to the 12 linkage groups of the map. Altogether, 44 fruit QTLs were identified: 25 confirming QTLs described using other populations and 19 newly described QTLs. The map includes QTLs for fruit sugar content, particularly sucrose, the major sugar affecting sweetness in melon fruit. Six QTLs interacting in an additive manner account for nearly all the difference in sugar content between the two genotypes. Three QTLs for fruit flesh color and carotenoid content were identified. Interestingly, no clear colocalization of QTLs for either sugar or carotenoid content was observed with over 40 genes encoding for enzymes involved in their metabolism. The RI population described here provides a useful resource for further genomics and metabolomics studies in melon, as well as useful markers for breeding for fruit quality.

  19. Decreases in high-fat and/or high added sugar food group intake occur when a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed within a lifestyle intervention: a secondary cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshani, Vaishali Deepak; Sheikh, Vaishali Keshani; Raynor, Hollie Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, intake of currently consumed foods can decrease, foods naturally low in fat and/or added sugar may increase, or fat- or sugar-modified foods may increase. Objective Examine food group intake change and its relation to reductions in energy and fat intake, and weight during a lifestyle intervention. Design Secondary cohort analysis. Participants One hundred sixty-nine participants (52.0 ± 8.6 years, 34.9 ± 4.5 kg/m2, 92% white, 97.6% non-Hispanic, and 56.8% female) with complete data at 0 and 6 months collected in a research setting. Main Outcome Measures From 3, 24-hr phone dietary recalls, 165 food groups from NDSR software were coded into 25 larger food groups assessing intake of higher fat and/or added sugar food groups vs. naturally lower fat and/or added sugar food groups and into 17 larger food groups assessing intake of non-modified vs. fat- and/or sugar-modified food groups. Statistical Analyses Performed Repeated measures analyses of covariance (intervention group: covariate) assessed changes from 0 to 6 months. Hierarchical regressions examined changes in food group intake and changes in energy intake, percent energy from fat intake, and weight from 0 to 6 months. Results Significant reductions (p < 0.05) in intake of high-fat and/or high-added sugar food groups (Higher Fat Dairy, Higher Fat Eggs, Higher Fat Fats, Higher Fat Fruit, Higher Fat Meat, Non-Modified Higher Fat Fats Oils and Sweets, Non-Modified Higher Fat Sugar Sweetened Fats Oils and Sweets, Non-Modified Regular Fat Dairy, Non-Modified Regular Fat Sugar Sweetened Dairy) occurred. Decreases in Higher Fat Meat were significantly (p < 0.05) related to decreases in energy intake, percent energy from fat intake, and weight. Conclusion When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, reductions in high-fat and/or high-added sugar food groups occur. Targeting reductions in high-fat meats may improve outcomes. PMID:27436530

  20. Urinary Sugars--A Biomarker of Total Sugars Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha

    2015-07-15

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and recommends directions for future research. Recently, 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were suggested as a predictive biomarker for total sugars intake, based on findings from three highly controlled feeding studies conducted in the United Kingdom. From this work, a calibration equation for the biomarker that provides an unbiased measure of sugars intake was generated that has since been used in two US-based studies with free-living individuals to assess measurement error in dietary self-reports and to develop regression calibration equations that could be used in future diet-disease analyses. Further applications of the biomarker include its use as a surrogate measure of intake in diet-disease association studies. Although this biomarker has great potential and exhibits favorable characteristics, available data come from a few controlled studies with limited sample sizes conducted in the UK. Larger feeding studies conducted in different populations are needed to further explore biomarker characteristics and stability of its biases, compare its performance, and generate a unique, or population-specific biomarker calibration equations to be applied in future studies. A validated sugars biomarker is critical for informed interpretation of sugars-disease association studies.

  1. Energy drinks available in Ireland: a description of caffeine and sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaver, Laura; Gilpin, Susannah; Fernandes da Silva, Joana Caldeira; Buckley, Claire; Foley-Nolan, Cliodhna

    2017-06-01

    To describe the caffeine and sugar content of all energy drinks available on the island of Ireland. Two retail outlets were selected from each of: multinational, convenience and discount stores in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, and all available single-serve energy drinks were purchased. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in February 2015 and brand name, price, volume, caffeine and sugar content were recorded for each product. Descriptive analysis was performed. Seventy-eight products were identified on the island of Ireland (regular, n 59; diet/sugar-free/light, n 19). Caffeine and sugar content was in the range of 14-35 mg and 2·9-15·6 g per 100 ml, respectively. Mean caffeine content of 102·2 mg per serving represents 25·6 % of the maximum intake advised for adults by the European Food Safety Authority. Per serving, mean sugar content of regular energy drinks was 37 g. This exceeds WHO recommendations for maximum daily sugar intake of energy intake (25 g for adults consuming 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) diet). If displaying front-of-pack labelling, fifty-seven of the fifty-nine regular energy drinks would receive a Food Standards Agency 'red' colour-coded label for sugar. Energy drinks are freely available on the island of Ireland and all products surveyed can be defined as highly caffeinated products. This has potential health issues particularly for children and adolescents where safe limits of caffeine have not been determined. Energy drinks surveyed also contained high levels of sugar and could potentially contribute to weight gain and adverse dental health effects.

  2. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Johnway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood, and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood. Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate

  3. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy's sugar process (CLE Sugar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway; Anderson, Dwight; Levie, Benjamin

    2013-01-28

    Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy's Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has

  4. Decreases in High-Fat and/or High-Added-Sugar Food Group Intake Occur when a Hypocaloric, Low-Fat Diet Is Prescribed Within a Lifestyle Intervention: A Secondary Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Vaishali Keshani; Raynor, Hollie A

    2016-10-01

    When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, intake of currently consumed foods can decrease, foods naturally low in fat and/or added sugar may increase, or fat- or sugar-modified foods may increase. To examine food group intake change and its relation to reductions in energy and fat intake and weight during a lifestyle intervention. Secondary cohort analysis. One hundred sixty-nine participants (aged 52.0±8.6 years, body mass index 34.9±4.5, 92% white, 97.6% non-Hispanic, and 56.8% women) with complete data at 0 and 6 months collected in a research setting. From three 24-hour telephone dietary recalls, 165 food groups from Nutrition Data System for Research software were coded into 25 larger food groups assessing intake of higher-fat and/or added-sugar food groups vs naturally lower-fat and/or added-sugar food groups and into 17 larger food groups assessing intake of nonmodified vs fat- and/or sugar-modified food groups. Repeated measures analyses of covariance (intervention group: covariate) assessed changes from 0 to 6 months. Hierarchical regressions examined changes in food group intake and changes in energy intake, percent energy from fat intake, and weight from 0 to 6 months. Significant reductions (Pfat and/or high-added-sugar food groups (Higher-Fat Dairy; Higher-Fat Eggs; Higher-Fat Fats; Higher-Fat Fruit; Higher-Fat Meat; Nonmodified Higher-Fat Fats, Oils, and Sweets; Nonmodified Higher-Fat Sugar-Sweetened Fats, Oils, and Sweets; Nonmodified Regular-Fat Dairy; and Nonmodified Regular-Fat Sugar-Sweetened Dairy) occurred. Decreases in the Higher-Fat Meat group were significantly (Pfat intake, and weight. When a hypocaloric, low-fat diet is prescribed, reductions in high-fat and/or high-added-sugar food groups occur. Targeting reductions in high-fat meats may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors related to the high cesarean section rate and their effects on the "price transparency policy" in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xie

    2007-07-01

    In urban China, many non-clinically indicated cesarean sections (NCSs) are performed, resulting in an unnaturally high cesarean section (CS) rate. NCSs represent CSs without any specific medical indications. The demand for NCS may be due to women's preference for CS and their belief in its safety and comfortableness. In addition, CS is more profitable for the supply side than vaginal delivery, which results in a continued rise in delivery expenditures. As a result, the so-called "price transparency policy", which forces hospitals to declare their average hospital charges, was adopted to control the delivery expenditures in the ongoing Chinese healthcare reform policy. The purpose of this study is to prove that the supply and demand factors affect the choice of delivery modes and more resources are consumed in NCS. The data of 680 live deliveries were collected from three hospitals in Beijing. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the factors related to choosing NCS, and ANOVA and ANCOVA were used to compare the charges, proxy for resource utilization, among the delivery modes or hospitals. The results showed that the high NCS rate (37.7%) might be predicted not only based on the demand factors (region of residence, parity, maternal age and weight gain) but also on the supply factors (hospital dummy, revenue-staff ratio, bed turnover rate and obstetric medical staffs-delivery ratio), suggesting that such induced NCSs result in an unnecessarily high resource consumption. These data suggest that the present Chinese policy fails to control delivery expenditures.

  6. Price duration versus trading volume in high-frequency data for selected DAX companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Mitterer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the time series of durations between consecutive trades of a particular stock have been studied by many contributors in the literature of financial econometrics. Among them are highly prominent scientists like Engle (2000 and Gourieroux and Jasiak (2001. The importance of this topic, accompanied by the growing availability of (ultra-high-frequency data, has prompted an increase of contributions in recent years. Intensive research based on high-frequency data has several financial motivations. First of all, it is linked with microstructure theory. Secondly, it contributes to the literature on stochastic time deformation. But the most important need for research on the dynamics of trade durations is the necessity to manage liquidity risk. The reason is that durations between the following trades are a widely accepted measures of market liquidity. In addition, their volatility reflects the liquidity risk.

  7. A deficiency of manganese ions in the presence of high sugar concentrations is the critical parameter for achieving high yields of itaconic acid by Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaffa, Levente; Díaz, Rafael; Papp, Benedek; Fekete, Erzsébet; Sándor, Erzsébet; Kubicek, Christian P

    2015-10-01

    Itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid with a high potential as a platform for chemicals derived from sugars, is industrially produced by large-scale submerged fermentation by Aspergillus terreus. Although the biochemical pathway and the physiology leading to IA is almost the same as that leading to citric acid production in Aspergillus niger, published data for the volumetric (g L(-1)) and the specific yield (mol/mol carbon source) of IA are significantly lower than for citric acid. Citric acid is known to accumulate to high levels only when a number of nutritional parameters are carefully adjusted, of which the concentration of the carbon source and that of manganese ions in the medium are particularly important. We have therefore investigated whether a variation in these two parameters may enhance IA production and yield by A. terreus. We show that manganese ion concentrations parameters are varied in citric acid production by A. niger, thus showing that the physiology of both processes is widely identical. Consequently, applying the fermentation technology established for citric acid production by A. niger citric acid production to A. terreus should lead to high yields of IA, too.

  8. Simultaneous determination of sugars and picrosides in Picrorhiza species using ultrasonic extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pamita; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Kaul, Vijay K

    2008-06-20

    Sugars play a critical role in regulating overall cellular metabolism in high altitude growing plants. These plants are shown to have high levels of sugars to enhance their tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought and freezing temperature. In the present study, a simple, sensitive, selective and reliable HPLC method based on ultrasonic extraction and evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of important sugars (xylose, xylitol, mannitol, glucose and sucrose) and picrosides (picroside-I and picroside-II) in two species Picrorhiza kurroa and P. scrophulariiflora. The analysis was carried out on a Zorbax amino column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm) with isocratic elution of acetonitrile:water (78:22, v/v). The method was validated for accuracy, precision, limit of detection and quantification according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The drift tube temperature of the ELSD system was set to 81 degrees C and nitrogen flow rate was 2.0 standard liter per minute (SLM). The regression equation revealed a good linear relationship (r(2)=0.9997+/-0.0012) within test ranges. The limit of detection and quantification for seven analytes in ELSD were less than 0.98 and 2.95 microg, respectively. The method showed good reproducibility for the quantification of seven analytes in Picrorhiza species with intra- and inter-day variation of less than 2.0%.

  9. Price generating process and volatility in the Nigerian agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the price generating process and volatility of Nigerian agricultural commodities market using secondary data for price series on meat, cereals, sugar, dairy and food for the period of January 1990 to February 2014. The data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive ...

  10. S-shape relationship between customer satisfaction and willingness to pay premium prices for high quality cured pork products in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotes-Torres, Alejandro; Muñoz-Gallego, Pablo A; Cotes-Torres, José Miguel

    2012-03-01

    This paper explores 2 different probabilistic models explaining willingness to pay premium prices for high-quality cured products from the swine industry. Seven cured pork products (sausage, fuet, ham, loin, shoulder, salami and pepperoni) were studied in 9 food-stores in Valladolid, Spain. Consumers of the products were interviewed (686 completed surveys). It was found by using mixed effect statistical models that the relationship between willingness to pay a premium price and customer satisfaction had nonlinear behavior, following an S-shape with inverted slope which was the first empirical evidence of this type of behavior in meat products in real market conditions. It was also established that the interaction between satisfaction and current expenditure on the product was significant and indispensable for explaining consumers' willingness to pay premium price for cured pork products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Access price regulation facilitates strategic transfer pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Fjell, Kenneth; Foros, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    Access price regulation is used in telecommunications to prevent that a vertically integrated firm, that controls an essential input, raises the rivals` costs. When the authorities remove the access price as a strategic tool, they at the same time make it optimal for the vertically integrated firm to reorganize from centralized pricing to decentralized pricing in order to use the transfer price as an alternative strategic device. To implement access price regulation, authorities use accountin...

  12. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  13. Price Asynchronization and Price Level Inertia

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, Olivier J.

    1982-01-01

    If price decisions are taken neither continuously nor in perfect synchronization, the process of adjustment of all prices to a new nominal level will imply temporary movements in relative prices. It might then well be that, to avoid these movements in relative prices, each price setter will want to move his own price slowly compared to others. The result will be a slow movement of all prices to their new nominal level, and substantial inertia of the price level. This paper formalizes this int...

  14. Freemium Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Julian; Wagner, Stefan; Claussen, Jörg

    into a stylized framework. We apply the proposed framework in the analysis of a field experiment that contrasts three variations of a freemium pricing scheme and comprises about 300,000 users of a software application. Our findings indicate that a reduction of free product features increases conversion as well...... as viral activity, but reduces usage – which is in line with the framework’s predictions. Additional back-of-the-envelope profit estimations suggest that managers were overly optimistic about positive externalities from usage and viral activity in their choice of pricing scheme, leading them to give too...... much of their product away for free. Our framework and its exemplary application can be a remedy....

  15. Price Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Margianti, E.S.; Saptariani, Trini; Sirongoringo, Hotniar

    2008-01-01

    This research is intended to investigate consumer price perception which is set up by two (2) big retail chains. However, research variable is subjected to consumer opinion, so that survey research was deployed to gather data needed. Questionnaire, as research instrument, was distributed to consumers who perform convenience shopping goods at two chains, i.e. Carrefour and Giant in Depok city. As research variables are latent in nature, multilevel structural equation modeling was used to analy...

  16. Trade Policy and Food Security : Improving Access to Food in Developing Countries in the Wake of High World Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Gillson, Ian; Fouad, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Based on forecasts of global population growth, food security will remain an important economic development issue over the next several decades. In addition, real food prices have risen in recent years after decades of decline, bringing the issue of food security even further into the public spotlight. However, there is no global food shortage: the problem is one of moving food, often across borders, from surplus production areas to deficit ones at prices that low-income consumers in developi...

  17. Enhancing medicine price transparency through price information mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsch, Michael; Kaddar, Miloud; Schmitt, Sarah

    2014-05-08

    Medicine price information mechanisms provide an essential tool to countries that seek a better understanding of product availability, market prices and price compositions of individual medicines. To be effective and contribute to cost savings, these mechanisms need to consider prices in their particular contexts when comparing between countries. This article discusses in what ways medicine price information mechanisms can contribute to increased price transparency and how this may affect access to medicines for developing countries. We used data collected during the course of a WHO project focusing on the development of a vaccine price and procurement information mechanism. The project collected information from six medicine price information mechanisms and interviewed data managers and technical experts on key aspects as well as observed market effects of these mechanisms.The reviewed mechanisms were broken down into categories including objective and target audience, as well as the sources, types and volumes of data included. Information provided by the mechanisms was reviewed according to data available on medicine prices, product characteristics, and procurement modalities. We found indications of positive effects on access to medicines resulting from the utilization of the reviewed mechanisms. These include the uptake of higher quality medicines, more favorable results from contract negotiations, changes in national pricing policies, and the decrease of prices in certain segments for countries participating in or deriving data from the various mechanisms. The reviewed mechanisms avoid the methodological challenges observed for medicine price comparisons that only use national price databases. They work with high quality data and display prices in the appropriate context of procurement modalities as well as the peculiarities of purchasing countries. Medicine price information mechanisms respond to the need for increased medicine price transparency and have the

  18. High Cell Density Process for Constitutive Production of a Recombinant Phytase in Thermotolerant Methylotrophic Yeast Ogataea thermomethanolica Using Table Sugar as Carbon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenrat, Theppanya; Antimanon, Sompot; Kocharin, Kanokarn; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Roongsawang, Niran

    2016-12-01

    The yeast Ogataea thermomethanolica has recently emerged as a potential host for heterologous protein expression at elevated temperature. To evaluate the feasibility of O. thermomethanolica as heterologous host in large-scale fermentation, constitutive production of fungal phytase was investigated in fed-batch fermentation. The effect of different temperatures, substrate feeding strategies, and carbon sources on phytase production was investigated. It was found that O. thermomethanolica can grow in the temperature up to 40 °C and optimal at 34 °C. However, the maximum phytase production was observed at 30 °C and slightly decreased at 34 °C. The DOT stat control was the most efficient feeding strategy to obtain high cell density and avoid by-product formation. The table sugar can be used as an alternative substrate for phytase production in O. thermomethanolica. The highest phytase activity (134 U/mL) was obtained from table sugar at 34 °C which was 20-fold higher than batch culture (5.7 U/mL). At a higher cultivation temperature of 38 °C, table sugar can be used as a low-cost substrate for the production of phytase which was expressed with an acceptable yield (85 U/mL). Lastly, the results from this study reveal the industrial favorable benefits of employing O. thermomethanolica as a host for heterologous protein production.

  19. Effect of Continuous Fermentation of High-Sugar Fruit Must on the Viability and Morphology of Immobilized Yeast on White Foam Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Skwira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of continuous fermentation of high-sugar fruit must (containing about 320 g/L of total sugars on the viability and morphology of yeast cells. The process was carried out for 2.5 months in a 4-column bioreactor at 22 °C, using the Saccharomyces bayanus S.o./1AD wine yeast strain, which was immobilized on cubes of white foam glass. During the time of continuous fermentation, the apple wine contained 11.4–16.8 % (by volume of alcohol and a total sugar concentration of 49.2–115.4 g/L. Yeast cells isolated from the carrier at the end of continuous fermentation were bigger than the cells before immobilization and were characterized by various shapes, e.g. they were elongated, large and round or pear-shaped. Some cells were connected to other cells in the form of aggregates. Some yeast cells from the second, third and fourth columns showed a substantial number of wrinkles or folds. Moreover, it was observed that yeast from the carrier in the first column was characterized by the highest viability, 70 %. In the fourth column, the percentage of viable cells was only 11 %.

  20. High temperature and low acid pretreatment and agarase treatment of agarose for the production of sugar and ethanol from red seaweed biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Taek; Yun, Eun Ju; Wang, Damao; Chung, Jae Hyuk; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2013-05-01

    To obtain fermentable sugar from agarose, pretreatment of agarose by using acetic acid was conducted for short durations (10-30 min) at low acid concentrations (1-5% (w/v)) and high temperatures (110-130 °C). On testing the pretreated agarose by using an endo-β-agarase I (DagA), an exo-β-agarase II (Aga50D), and neoagarobiose hydrolase (NABH), we observed that the addition of the endo-type agarase did not increase the sugar yield. Use of the crude enzyme of Vibrio sp. EJY3 in combination with Aga50D and NABH including acetic acid pretreatment resulted in a 1.3-fold increase in the final reducing sugar yield (62.8% of theoretical maximum based on galactose and 3,6-anhydrogalactose in the initial agarose), compared to those obtained using Aga50D and NABH only after acetic acid pretreatment. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of pretreated agarose yielded ethanol of 37.1% theoretical maximum yield from galactose contained in the pretreated agarose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comportamento dos preços dos insumos agrícolas da cana-de-açúcar: safra 2016/17 = Agricultural inputs prices behavior of sugar cane: harvest 2016/17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bigaton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Esta publicação apresenta as variações de preços dos produtos utilizados como insumos agrícolas na produção de cana-de-açúcar nas principais regiões produtoras do estado de São Paulo, entre os meses de dezembro de 2016 e janeiro de 2016. As variações de preços mais expressivas foram representadas pela classe dos inseticidas, no painel de Barretos e pelos corretivos, no painel de Araçatuba. Apesar disso, a classe de fertilizantes também apresenta variações expressivas em todos os painéis, sendo que estes insumos foram os mais representativos na composição dos custos de produção. A representatividade dos custos com insumos para a produção da cultura com relação ao total recebido por hectare apresentou uma média próxima dos 14%, sendo a região de Paulo de Faria a que apresenta maior representatividade (25%. = This publication presents the price variations of the products used as agricultural inputs in the production of sugarcane in the main producing regions of the state of São Paulo, between December 2016 and January 2016. The most significant price variations were represented by the class of insecticides, in the panel of Barretos and by the corrective ones, in the panel of Araçatuba. Nevertheless, the fertilizer class also presents significant variations in all panels, and these inputs are the most representative in the composition of production costs. The representativeness of input costs for crop production in relation to the total received per hectare showed an average around 14%, with the region of Paulo de Faria being the most representative (25%.

  2. Long-term memory and volatility clustering in high-frequency price changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2008-02-01

    We studied the long-term memory in diverse stock market indices and foreign exchange rates using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). For all high-frequency market data studied, no significant long-term memory property was detected in the return series, while a strong long-term memory property was found in the volatility time series. The possible causes of the long-term memory property were investigated using the return data filtered by the AR(1) model, reflecting the short-term memory property, the GARCH(1,1) model, reflecting the volatility clustering property, and the FIGARCH model, reflecting the long-term memory property of the volatility time series. The memory effect in the AR(1) filtered return and volatility time series remained unchanged, while the long-term memory property diminished significantly in the volatility series of the GARCH(1,1) filtered data. Notably, there is no long-term memory property, when we eliminate the long-term memory property of volatility by the FIGARCH model. For all data used, although the Hurst exponents of the volatility time series changed considerably over time, those of the time series with the volatility clustering effect removed diminish significantly. Our results imply that the long-term memory property of the volatility time series can be attributed to the volatility clustering observed in the financial time series.

  3. The cost of choice: a price too high in the triple screen for Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, T E; Brown, D

    1993-09-01

    At US national medical society meetings in 1992, researchers from a major university presented their data on a triple screen of maternal serum tests for the detection of trisomy 21 or fetal Down syndrome. Low maternal serum levels of estriol and alpha-fetoprotein, along with a high level of human chorionic gonadotropin can predict pregnancies at risk. The authors claimed that a person with Down syndrome costs approximately $196,000 including health, education, and residential costs. Simple economic costs about persons with Down syndrome in the cost analysis seem unbalanced. Some recent studies show no increase in divorce rates for families including persons with Down syndrome. In a 1971 review of 104 brothers and sisters of persons with Down syndrome, no specific behavioral disturbances were noted. Among complex costs triple screening threatens the integrity of the medical profession. Genetics counselors promoting nondirective informed consent, but the cost analysis description of Down syndrome are in the mild-to-moderate mental retardation range consistent with a 3rd-9th grade reading level. Less than 1% have leukemia, and less than 3% have in operable cardiac disease. Another cost that is difficult to measure includes the value placed on the maternal, paternal, and familial anxiety caused by genetic screening tests. Triple screening for Down syndrome is about societal concerns and social character. Many methods of health care rationing await the American medical system. A large number of factors must be considered before any system of limiting costs and choices is selected in a pluralistic society. Accepting the fact that limitations to choice must occur is the first step toward future rationality in genetic counseling.

  4. Effect of Gamma-Oryzanol as Therapeutic Agent to Prevent Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome in Animals Submitted to High Sugar-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Valentini Francisqueti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high consumption of fat and sugar contributes to the development of obesity and co-morbidities, such as diabetes, and cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Different strategies have been used to prevent these diseases associated with obesity, such as changes in eating habits and/or the addition of dietary components with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, such as gamma-oryzanol (γOz present mainly in bran layers and rice germ. Methods: Animals were randomly divided into four experimental groups and fed ad libitum for 20 weeks with control diet (C, n = 8, control diet + γOz (C + γOz, n = 8, high-sugar and high-fat diet (HSF, n = 8, and high-sugar and high-fat diet + γOz (HSF + γOz, n = 8. HSF groups also received water + sucrose (25%. The dose of γOz was added to diets to reach 0.5% of final concentration (w/w. Evaluation in animals included food and caloric intake, body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid, HOMA-IR, glomerular filtration rate, protein/creatinine ratio, systolic blood pressure, and Doppler echocardiographic. Results: Animals that consumed the HSF diet had weight gain compared to group C, increased insulin, HOMA, glucose and triglycerides, there were also atrial and ventricular structural alterations, deterioration of systolic and diastolic function, decreased glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria. Gamma-oryzanol is significantly protective against effects on body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, renal damage, and against structural and functional alteration of the heart. Conclusion: Gamma-oryzanol shows potential as a therapeutic to prevent Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome.

  5. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  6. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  7. Does a High Sugar High Fat Dietary Pattern Explain the Unequal Burden in Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in a Multi-Ethnic Population in The Netherlands? The HELIUS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel J.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Vermeulen, Esther; Muilwijk, Mirthe; Snijder, Marieke B.; Nicolaou, Mary N.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.

    2018-01-01

    The risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in ethnic minorities in Europe is higher in comparison with their European host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (HSHF dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for T2D. Information on

  8. Does a high sugar high fat dietary pattern explain the unequal burden in prevalence of type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population in the Netherlands? : The Helius study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Vermeulen, Esther; Muilwijk, Mirthe; Snijder, Marieke; Nicolaou, Mary; Van Valkengoed, Irene

    2018-01-01

    The risk for type 2 diabetes (t2d) in ethnic minorities in europe is higher in comparison with their european host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (hshf dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for t2d. Information on

  9. Does a high sugar high fat dietary pattern explain the unequal burden in prevalence of type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population in the Netherlands? The HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel J.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Vermeulen, Esther; Muilwijk, Mirthe; Snijder, Marieke B.; Nicolaou, Mary N.; Valkengoed, Van Irene G.M.

    2018-01-01

    The risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in ethnic minorities in Europe is higher in comparison with their European host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (HSHF dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for T2D. Information on

  10. Anaerobic treatment of sugar beet pulps for biogas production in a sugar beet factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, L.; Parravicini, V.; Svardal, K.; Kroiss, H. [Institute for Water Quality, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Prendl, L. [BPE Technisches Buro Dr. Prendl, Am Kellerberg 31, 2325 Himberg-Pellendorf (Austria); Gaschler, E. [Agrana Beteiligungs-AG, Donau-City-Strasse 9, 1220 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    Sugar beet press pulp accumulates as a by-product in sugar factories. Rising energy prices and the opening of the European Union sugar market has put pressure on the manufactures to find alternatives for energy supply. The aim of this project was to develop a technology in the treatment of sugar beet press pulp that would lead to savings in energy consumption, decline of treatment costs and to a more competitive production. These goals were met by the anaerobic digestion of SBP for biogas production. In the first implementation step at a Hungarian sugar factory half of the SBP (800 t/d, 22%TS) was converted into biogas, which could substitute about 40% of the natural gas required for the thermal energy supply within a sugar campaign. Lab-scale experiments were performed to gain basic information about the suitability of sugar beet press pulp as substrate for anaerobic bacteria and the stability of the anaerobic process. Pilot-scale experiments focused on process optimization and procedures for a quick start up and operational control. The results of the experiments led to the implementation of a fullscale biogas plant, which has been put in operation during the sugar campaign 2007. The maximum input load of press pulp was about 925 t/d (9.3 kgCSB/m{sup 3}.d), with a biogas production of 125,000 Nm{sup 3}/d.

  11. Price of Prejudice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Morten; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2017-01-01

    We present a new type of field experiment to investigate ethnic prejudice in the workplace. Our design allows us to study how potential discriminators respond to changes in the cost of discrimination. We find that ethnic discrimination is common but highly responsive to the “price of prejudice”, i...

  12. Price competition in the Chinese pharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Richard

    2006-06-01

    We study price competition between high-quality global products and low-quality local products in a developing country, i.e., China, Nearly all previous studies on pharmaceutical price competition focused on developed countries with bioequivalent generics. In China, local generic products are not bioequivalent and are deemed of lower quality, while global products in the same class are considered similar in quality and better substitutes. We hypothesize that local generic competition drives down local product price but not global product price. In addition, we hypothesize that therapeutic competition among similar global products lowers global product price. Our empirical results support both hypotheses. Number of local generic competitors has a significantly negative effect on local product price but no effect on global product price, while number of global therapeutic competitors has a significantly negative effect on global product price. Policy changes that encourage bioequivalent local products and accelerate global product approvals will enhance price competition in China.

  13. Differential modulation of arcuate nucleus and mesolimbic gene expression levels by central leptin in rats on short-term high-fat high-sugar diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José K van den Heuvel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Leptin resistance is a common hallmark of obesity. Rats on a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS diet are resistant to peripherally administered leptin. The aim of this study was to investigate feeding responses to central leptin as well as the associated changes in mRNA levels in hypothalamic and mesolimbic brain areas. DESIGN AND METHODS: Rats on a CHOW or fcHFHS diet for 8 days received leptin or vehicle intracerebro(lateralventricularly (ICV and food intake was measured 5 h and 24 h later. Four days later, rats were sacrificed after ICV leptin or vehicle and mRNA levels were quantified for hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC and neuropeptide Y (NPY and for preproenkephalin (ppENK in nucleus accumbens and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in ventral tegmental area (VTA. RESULTS: ICV leptin decreased caloric intake both in CHOW and fcHFHS rats. In fcHFHS, leptin preferentially decreased chow and fat intake. Leptin increased POMC and decreased NPY mRNA in CHOW, but not in fcHFHS rats. In CHOW rats, leptin had no effect on ppENK mRNA and decreased TH mRNA. In fcHFHS, leptin decreased ppENK mRNA and increased TH mRNA. CONCLUSION: Despite peripheral and arcuate leptin resistance, central leptin suppresses feeding in fcHFHS rats. As the VTA and nucleus accumbens are still responsive to leptin, these brain areas may therefore, at least partly, account for the leptin-induced feeding suppression in rats on a fcHFHS diet.

  14. Propolis, a Constituent of Honey, Inhibits the Development of Sugar Cataracts and High-Glucose-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species in Rat Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppei Shibata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study investigated the effects of oral propolis on the progression of galactose-induced sugar cataracts in rats and the in vitro effects of propolis on high-glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS and cell death in cultured rat lens cells (RLECs. Methods. Galactose-fed rats and RLECs cultured in high glucose (55 mM medium were treated with propolis or vehicle control. Relative lens opacity was assessed by densitometry and changes in lens morphology by histochemical analysis. Intracellular ROS levels and cell viability were measured. Results. Oral administration of propolis significantly inhibited the onset and progression of cataract in 15% and 25% of galactose-fed rats, respectively. RLECs cultured with high glucose showed a significant increase in ROS expression with reduced cell viability. Treatment of these RLECs with 5 and 50 μg/mL propolis cultured significantly reduced ROS levels and increased cell viability, indicating that the antioxidant activity of propolis protected cells against ROS-induced damage. Conclusion. Propolis significantly inhibited the onset and progression of sugar cataract in rats and mitigated high-glucose-induced ROS production and cell death. These effects may be associated with the ability of propolis to inhibit hyperglycemia-evoked oxidative or osmotic stress-induced cellular insults.

  15. Propolis, a Constituent of Honey, Inhibits the Development of Sugar Cataracts and High-Glucose-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species in Rat Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Teppei; Shibata, Shinsuke; Shibata, Naoko; Kiyokawa, Etsuko; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Singh, Dhirendra P; Kubo, Eri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigated the effects of oral propolis on the progression of galactose-induced sugar cataracts in rats and the in vitro effects of propolis on high-glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in cultured rat lens cells (RLECs). Methods. Galactose-fed rats and RLECs cultured in high glucose (55 mM) medium were treated with propolis or vehicle control. Relative lens opacity was assessed by densitometry and changes in lens morphology by histochemical analysis. Intracellular ROS levels and cell viability were measured. Results. Oral administration of propolis significantly inhibited the onset and progression of cataract in 15% and 25% of galactose-fed rats, respectively. RLECs cultured with high glucose showed a significant increase in ROS expression with reduced cell viability. Treatment of these RLECs with 5 and 50 μg/mL propolis cultured significantly reduced ROS levels and increased cell viability, indicating that the antioxidant activity of propolis protected cells against ROS-induced damage. Conclusion. Propolis significantly inhibited the onset and progression of sugar cataract in rats and mitigated high-glucose-induced ROS production and cell death. These effects may be associated with the ability of propolis to inhibit hyperglycemia-evoked oxidative or osmotic stress-induced cellular insults.

  16. Practices and preferences: Exploring the relationships between food-related parenting practices and child food preferences for high fat and/or sugar foods, fruits, and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Baietto, Jamey

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between food-related parenting practices and child fruit, vegetable, and high fat/sugar food preferences. Parents (n = 148) of children (3-7 years old) completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ), the Preschool Adapted Food Liking Scale (PALS), and answered demographic questions. Separate linear regressions were conducted to test relationships between the different food categories on PALS (fruits, vegetables, and high fat/sugar foods) and each food-related parenting practice using race, ethnicity, and income level, and child age and gender as covariates. It was found that when a parent allows a child to control eating, it was negatively associated with a child's preference for fruit (β = -0.15, p = 0.032) and parent encouragement of child involvement in meal preparation was positively related to child preference for vegetables (β = 0.14, p = 0.048). Children preferred high fat and sugar foods more if parents used food to regulate child emotions (β = 0.24, p = 0.007), used food as a reward (β = 0.32, p food (β = 0.16, p = 0.045), and restricted unhealthy food (β = 0.20, p = 0.024). Conversely, children preferred high fat and sugar foods less if parents made healthy food available in the home (β = -0.13, p = 0.05), modeled healthy eating in front of the child (β = -0.21, p = 0.021), and if parents explained why healthy foods should be consumed (β = -0.24, p = 0.011). Although it cannot be determined if the parent is influencing the child or vice versa, this study provides some evidence that coercive feeding practices are detrimental to a child's food preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Clouard

    Full Text Available The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age, piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age, all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age, response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT. During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06, but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05 than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05, and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10. Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by

  18. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the diet. The intake of the postnatal HFS diet drastically reduced feed intake, but improved feed

  19. MARKET ECONOMICS PRICING PARTICULARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Parshin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The price performs several economic functions: accounting, stimulation, distribution, demand and offer balancing, serving as production site rational choice criterion, information. Most important pricing principles are: price scientific and purpose-aimed substantiation, single pricing and price control process. Pricing process factors are external, internal, basic (independent on money-market, market-determined and controlling. Different pricing methods and models are to be examined, recommendations on practical application of those chosen are to be written.

  20. The efficacy of sugar labeling formats: Implications for labeling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlee, Lana; White, Christine M; Bordes, Isabelle; Hobin, Erin P; Hammond, David

    2015-12-01

    To examine knowledge of sugar recommendations and test the efficacy of formats for labeling total and added sugar on pre-packaged foods. Online surveys were conducted among 2008 Canadians aged 16-24. Participants were asked to identify recommended limits for total and added sugar consumption. In Experiment 1, participants were randomized to one of six labeling conditions with varying information for total sugar for a high- or low-sugar product and were asked to identify the relative amount of total sugar in the product. In Experiment 2, participants were randomized to one of three labels with different added sugar formats and were asked if the product contained added sugar and the relative amount of added sugar. Few young people correctly identified recommendations for total sugar (5%) or added sugar (7%). In Experiment 1, those who were shown percent daily value information were more likely to correctly identify the relative amount of total sugar (P sugar information were more likely to correctly identify that the product contained added sugar and the relative amount of added sugar in the product (P sugars in food products. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. Determination of endotoxins in sugar with the Limulus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskå, G; Nystrand, R

    1979-01-01

    The Limulus amebocyte lysate test has been used for determination of pyrogens in sugar of different qualities. All the samples of domestic white sugar and beet raw sugar produced in Sweden during 1976 had a very low content of endotoxins, less than 10 ng/g of sugar. Imported cane raw sugar was, however, highly contaminated. The highest value obtained corresponds to about 100 mg of Escherichia coli endotoxin per g of raw sugar. Such crude sugar cannot, even after refining, be used for medical purposes. Instead, Swedish beet sugar is used as the raw material for production of invert sugar solutions for parenteral administration. The amount of endotoxin in this sugar is less than 1 ng/g. PMID:526016

  2. 2009 Outlook of the U.S. and World Sugar Markets, 2008-2018

    OpenAIRE

    Won W. KOO; Taylor, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    This report evaluates the U.S. and world sugar markets for 2008-2018 using the Global Sugar Policy Simulation Model. This analysis is based on assumptions about general economic conditions, agricultural policies, population growth, weather conditions, and technological changes. Both the U.S. and world sugar economies are predicted to remain stable over the next ten years in spite of the 2007-08 surge in world oil prices. That increase in price caused an increase in the conversion of sugar int...

  3. Effects of Low versus High Glycemic Index Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Postprandial Vasodilatation and Inactivity-Induced Impairment of Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Judith; Kahlhöfer, Julia; Peter, Andreas; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-10

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may contribute to cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether functional sugars with low compared to high glycemic index (GI) have beneficial effects on arterial stiffness during a period of low-physical activity. In a controlled cross-over dietary intervention (55% CHO, 30% fat, 15% protein), 13 healthy men (age: 23.7 ± 2.2 years, body mass index: 23.6 ± 1.9 kg/m²) completed 2 × 1 week of low physical activity following 1 week of normal physical activity (2363 ± 900 vs. 11,375 ± 3124 steps/day). During inactive phases participants consumed either low-GI (isomaltulose) or high-GI SSB (maltodextrin-sucrose), providing 20% of energy requirements. Postprandial vasodilatation (augmentation index, AIx), insulin sensitivity (IS) and Glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) responses were measured during a meal test before and after SSB-intervention. Compared to maltodextrin-sucrose-SSB, postprandial vasodilatation was prolonged (AIx after 120 min: 9.9% ± 4.3% vs. 11.4% ± 3.7%, p 0.05). Higher postprandial GLP-1 secretion after intake of low compared to high-GI beverages may contribute to improved postprandial vasodilatation. Although one week of low-physical activity led to marked impairment in IS, it had no effect on arterial stiffness in healthy men.

  4. Low blood sugar - newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal ...

  5. Hyperactivity and sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002426.htm Hyperactivity and sugar To use the sharing features on this page, ... more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts ...

  6. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... day Your blood sugar level The amount of carbohydrates you ate The type and dose of your diabetes medicine The type of any exercise you do ...

  7. Price controls and international petroleum product prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deacon, R.T.; Mead, W.J.; Agarwal, V.B.

    1980-02-01

    The effects of Federal refined-product price controls upon the price of motor gasoline in the United States through 1977 are examined. A comparison of domestic and foreign gasoline prices is made, based on the prices of products actually moving in international trade. There is also an effort to ascribe US/foreign market price differentials to identifiable cost factors. Primary emphasis is on price comparisons at the wholesale level, although some retail comparisons are presented. The study also examines the extent to which product price controls are binding, and attempts to estimate what the price of motor gasoline would have been in the absence of controls. The time period under consideration is from 1969 through 1977, with primary focus on price relationships in 1970-1971 (just before US controls) and 1976-1977. The foreign-domestic comparisons are made with respect to four major US cities, namely, Boston, New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles. 20 figures, 14 tables.

  8. Anaerobic Treatment of Cane Sugar Effluent from Muhoroni Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cane sugar mill effluent is characterized by high COD, BOD and Suspended Solids (SS) contents and its treatment by aerobic biological methods is usually difficult. Due to the high content of lignin-cellulose in the SS of the wastewater, its pH falls rapidly during treatment to low levels, which is adverse to microorganisms.

  9. High-Speed Rail Train Timetabling Problem: A Time-Space Network Based Method with an Improved Branch-and-Price Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisheng He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A time-space network based optimization method is designed for high-speed rail train timetabling problem to improve the service level of the high-speed rail. The general time-space path cost is presented which considers both the train travel time and the high-speed rail operation requirements: (1 service frequency requirement; (2 stopping plan adjustment; and (3 priority of train types. Train timetabling problem based on time-space path aims to minimize the total general time-space path cost of all trains. An improved branch-and-price algorithm is applied to solve the large scale integer programming problem. When dealing with the algorithm, a rapid branching and node selection for branch-and-price tree and a heuristic train time-space path generation for column generation are adopted to speed up the algorithm computation time. The computational results of a set of experiments on China’s high-speed rail system are presented with the discussions about the model validation, the effectiveness of the general time-space path cost, and the improved branch-and-price algorithm.

  10. Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

    2012-11-01

    An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sugar and other sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar and starch are among the abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from sugarcane and sugar beet) in 2015/2016 was approximately 176 million metric tons, raw value, with...

  12. Carbon prices for the next hundred years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, Reyer; Liski, M.

    This paper examines the socially optimal pricing of carbon emissions over time when climate-change impacts are unknown, potentially high-consequence events. The carbon price tends to increase with income. But learning about impacts, or their absence, decouples the carbon price from income growth.

  13. Carbon prices for the next hundred years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, Reyer; Liski, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the socially optimal pricing of carbon emissions over time when climate-change impacts are unknown, potentially high-consequence events. The carbon price tends to increase with income. But learning about impacts, or their absence, decouples the carbon price from income growth.

  14. European attitudes to water pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kejser

    2016-01-01

    as is affordability concern, which may be explained by expectations of inequity measures to come in place in parallel with increasing water prices. Overall these results support the hypothesis that lack of information and affordability concern could lead to resistance towards efficient water pricing among the general......Efficient use of the water resource requires internalization of all costs in the price of water, including environmental and resource costs. However, water resource management tends to be highly political and increasing water prices are a sensitive and complicated policy matter. Hence......, there is a need for increased understanding of the implementation process and the attitudes towards implementation among the general public. This paper explores the spatial heterogeneity in the public attitude towards internalizing environmental and resource costs in the price of water across the EU regions...

  15. Vertical price transmission in the Danish food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Møller, Anja Skadkær

    2005-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to investigate price transmission patterns through selected Danish food chains – from primary production to processing, from processing to wholesale and from wholesale to retail prices. Specifically, the study addresses the following research questions: To what extent...... are commodity prices transmitted from one stage to another in the food chain? What is the time horizon in the price transmission? Is price transmission symmetric – in the short run and in the long run? Is the degree of price transmission affected by the degree of concentration in the supply and demand stage...... considered? These questions are analysed theoretically and empirically using econometric analysis. 6 food chains are investigated: pork, chicken, eggs, milk, sugar and apples. Preliminary empirical results suggest that for most commodities, price transmission tends to be upward asymmetric, i.e. stronger...

  16. Effect of Substitution of Sugar by High Fructose Corn Syrup on the Physicochemical Properties of Bakery and Dairy Products: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollaah Zargaraan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High fructose corn syrup (HFCS is commonly found in soft drinks and juice beverages, as well as in many pre-packaged foods such as breakfast cereals, baked goods and dairy desserts. Historically, sucrose (table sugar was primarily added to processed foods and beverages as the sweetening agent. In recent years, the use of HFCS has significantly increased in popularity due to its sweetness, ability to enhance flavor and shelf life, and its low cost. HFCF made by enzymatic isomerization of glucose to fructose was introduced as HFCS-42 (42% fructose and HFCS-55 (55% fructose and opened a new frontier for the sweetener and soft drink industries. Using a glucose isomerase, the starch in corn can be efficiently converted into glucose and then to various amounts of fructose. Hydrolysis of sucrose produces a 50:50 molar mixture of fructose and glucose. The primary difference is that these monosaccharides exist free in solution in HFCS, but in sucrose bonded together. The disaccharide sucrose is easily cleaved in the small intestine, so free fructose and glucose are absorbed from both sucrose and HFCS. The advantage to food manufacturers is that the free monosaccharide in HFCS provides better flavor enhancement, stability, freshness, texture, color, pourability, and consistency in foods in comparison to sucrose. The development of these inexpensive, sweet corn-based syrups made it profitable to replace sucrose (sugar and simple sugars with HFCS in our diet. In the present study, the replacement of sucrose with HFCS and its effect on the functionality and organoleptic properties of different food products were reviewed.

  17. Determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in high-sugar-content traditional Turkish foods by affinity column cleanup and LC fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyuva, Hamide Z; Cimen, Dilek; Gilbert, John

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of an affinity column cleanup procedure followed by LC with fluorescence detection was established for the determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in high-sugar-content traditional Turkish foods. Traditional foods, such as baklava (finely layered pastry filled with nuts and steeped in syrup), halvah (containing sesame paste and pistachios), cevizli sucuk (a confection made of grape juice boiled and dried on strings of nuts), Turkish delight (containing hazelnuts, pistachios, or walnuts), and pişmaniye (candy made of sugar, butter, and flour), were tested, and the performance of the method was established with spiked samples. To examine the robustness of the methodology, baklava was prepared from raw materials and spiked at the initial stage of dry ingredients and through subsequent stages of preparation of dough, after cooking, and after addition of syrup and nuts. For all products, the analytical method required grinding the composite foodstuff under liquid nitrogen to form a fine powder, which was then thoroughly mixed before subsampling. After vortex extraction into methanol-water (aflatoxins) and aqueous sodium bicarbonate (ochratoxin A), the sample was filtered, diluted with phosphate-buffered saline, and then passed through either an aflatoxin or ochratoxin A affinity column before HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection (using post-column bromination for the aflatoxins). In all the traditional Turkish products, the recovery of aflatoxin B1 ranged from 77 to 98%, and LODs were traditional Turkish foods, which frequently contain products from sugar caramelization, there was no evidence of any interfering co-extractives, and the method has proved to be robust enough to be used for food control purposes.

  18. Jerusalem artichoke powder: a useful material in producing high-optical-purity l-lactate using an efficient sugar-utilizing thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Xue, Zhangwei; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Bo; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-02-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is a low-requirement crop, which does not interfere with food chain, and is a promising carbon source for industrial fermentation. Microbial conversion of such a renewable raw material to useful products, such as lactic acid, is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. In this study, high-optical-purity l-lactate was efficiently produced from the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke powder by a thermophilic bacterium, Bacillus coagulans XZL4. High l-lactate production (134gl(-1)) was obtained using 267gl(-1) Jerusalem artichoke powder (total reducing sugars of 140gl(-1)) and 10gl(-1) of corn steep powder in fed-batch fermentation, with an average productivity of 2.5gl(-1)h(-1) and a yield of 0.96gg(-1) reducing sugars. The final product optical purity is 99%, which meets the requirement of lactic acid polymerization. Our study represents a cost-effective and promising method for polymer-grade l-lactate production using a cheap raw bio-resource. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Import price elasticities: reconsidering the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Hélène Erkel-Rousse; Daniel Mirza

    2002-01-01

    Recent economic geography and trade empirical studies based on monopolistic competition suggest high levels of trade price elasticities (between 3 and 11). However, price elasticity estimations in trade equations using unit values as price proxies usually lead to lower values of around unity. We show that those inconclusive results may be due to some misspecification in these equations as well as measurement errors in prices. When suitable instrumental variables are used, within a panel of in...

  20. Consumers' Imperfect Information and Price Rigidities

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Paul L'Huillier

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a model of price rigidities and information diffusion in decentralized markets with private information. First, I provide a strategic microfoundation for price rigidities, by showing that firms are better off delaying the adjustment of prices when they face a high number of uninformed consumers. Second, in an environment where consumers learn from firms' prices, the diffusion of information follows a Bernoulli differential equation. Therefore, learning follows nonlinear dy...

  1. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  2. Molecular mobility in sugar glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, van den I.J.

    2000-01-01

    Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar

  3. Sugar intake, obesity, and diabetes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-12-22

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing "epidemic" of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased.

  4. Total, free, and added Sugar consumption and adherence to guidelines: the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Lee, van L.; Engelen, A.I.P.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars,

  5. Estimated burden of cardiovascular disease and value-based price range for evolocumab in a high-risk, secondary-prevention population in the US payer context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter P; Danese, Mark; Villa, Guillermo; Qian, Yi; Beaubrun, Anne; Lira, Armando; Jansen, Jeroen P

    2017-06-01

    To estimate real-world cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden and value-based price range of evolocumab for a US-context, high-risk, secondary-prevention population. Burden of CVD was assessed using the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) in order to capture complete CV burden including CV mortality. Patients on standard of care (SOC; high-intensity statins) in CPRD were selected based on eligibility criteria of FOURIER, a phase 3 CV outcomes trial of evolocumab, and categorized into four cohorts: high-risk prevalent atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) cohort (n = 1448), acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (n = 602), ischemic stroke (IS) (n = 151), and heart failure (HF) (n = 291) incident cohorts. The value-based price range for evolocumab was assessed using a previously published economic model. The model incorporated CPRD CV event rates and considered CV event reduction rate ratios per 1 mmol/L reduction in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) from a meta-analysis of statin trials by the Cholesterol Treatment Trialists Collaboration (CTTC), i.e. CTTC relationship. Multiple-event rates of composite CV events (ACS, IS, or coronary revascularization) per 100 patient-years were 12.3 for the high-risk prevalent ASCVD cohort, and 25.7, 13.3, and 23.3, respectively, for incident ACS, IS, and HF cohorts. Approximately one-half (42%) of the high-risk ASCVD patients with a new CV event during follow-up had a subsequent CV event. Combining these real-world event rates and the CTTC relationship in the economic model, the value-based price range (credible interval) under a willingness-to-pay threshold of $150,000/quality-adjusted life-year gained for evolocumab was $11,990 ($9,341-$14,833) to $16,856 ($12,903-$20,678) in ASCVD patients with baseline LDL-C levels ≥70 mg/dL and ≥100 mg/dL, respectively. Real-world CVD burden is substantial. Using the observed CVD burden in CPRD and the CTTC relationship, the cost-effectiveness analysis showed

  6. Analyses of Indole Compounds in Sugar Cane (Saccharum officinarum L. Juice by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry after Solid-Phase Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Wan Hong Yong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous quantitative analysis of 10 indole compounds, including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, one of the most important naturally occurring auxins and some of its metabolites, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS after solid-phase extraction (SPE was reported for the first time. The analysis was carried out using a reverse phase HPLC gradient elution, with an aqueous mobile phase (containing 0.1% formic acid modified by methanol. Furthermore, a novel SPE procedure was developed for the pre-concentration and purification of indole compounds using C18 SPE cartridges. The combination of SPE, HPLC, and LC-MS was applied to screen for the indole compounds present in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L. juice, a refreshing beverage with various health benefits. Finally, four indole compounds were successfully detected and quantified in sugar cane juice by HPLC, which were further unequivocally confirmed by LC-MS/MS experiments operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode.

  7. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... III price; (4) The Class III skim milk price; (5) The Class IV price; (6) The Class IV skim milk price... the following month: (1) The Class I price; (2) The Class I skim milk price; (3) The Class I butterfat price; (4) The Class II skim milk price; (5) The Class II nonfat solids price; and (6) The advanced...

  8. The Triggers, Timing and Speed of New Product Price Landings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hernández-Mireles (Carlos); D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMany high-tech products and durable goods exhibit exactly one significant price cut some time after their launch. We call this sudden transition from high to low prices the price landing. In this paper we present a new model that describes two important features of price landings: their

  9. Price and availability survey of essential medicines in the Harare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: In both sectors, availability of the selected medicines (Low Priced Generics) was high (>80%). Fewer innovator brands were found for the selected medicines. Median Price Ratios (MPR) of Lowest Priced Generics (LPG) showed better access to essential medicines is hindered by the high prices obtaining in the ...

  10. Measuring micronutrient intakes at different levels of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-28

    Oct 28, 2011 ... urbanisation that can negatively affect health. Traditional ... sugar intakes that provided between 5-16% of dietary energy did not have a ...... white high school pupils in relation to sugar intake and snack habits. Community ...

  11. Production of Malt Flavoured Low-Sugar Drink from Banana ( Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amyloglucosidase were also evaluated. The pH and percentage sugar ... This malt flavoured low-sugar drink could thus help reduce health complications in conditions associated with high sugar consumption. The use of additional enzymes in ...

  12. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  13. Role of sugars under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Fareen; Yusuf, Mohammad; Faizan, Mohammad; Faraz, Ahmad; Hayat, Shamsul

    2016-12-01

    Sugars are the most important regulators that facilitate many physiological processes, such as photosynthesis, seed germination, flowering, senescence, and many more under various abiotic stresses. Exogenous application of sugars in low concentration promote seed germination, up regulates photosynthesis, promotes flowering, delayed senescence under various unfavorable environmental conditions. However, high concentration of sugars reverses all these physiological process in a concentration dependent manner. Thus, this review focuses the correlation between sugars and their protective functions in several physiological processes against various abiotic stresses. Keeping in mind the multifaceted role of sugars, an attempt has been made to cover the role of sugar-regulated genes associated with photosynthesis, seed germination and senescence. The concentration of sugars determines the expression of these sugar-regulated genes. This review also enlightens the interaction of sugars with several phytohormones, such as abscisic acid, ethylene, cytokinins and gibberellins and its effect on their biosynthesis under abiotic stress conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from management accounting aspects to show out the role of the accounting system in the short term and long term pricing and transfer pricing decisions.

  15. 2011 Outlook of the U.S. and World Sugar Markets, 2010-2020

    OpenAIRE

    Won W. KOO; Taylor, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    This report evaluates the U.S. and world sugar markets for 2010-2020 using the Global Sugar Policy Simulation Model. This analysis is based on assumptions about general economic conditions, agricultural policies, population growth, weather conditions, and technological changes. Both the U.S. and world sugar economies are predicted to remain stable over the next ten years. Sugar prices were increased from 18.7 cents/ lb in 2009 to 27 cents/lb in 2010. World sugar production increased in 2010 a...

  16. 2012 Outlook of the U.S. and World Sugar Markets, 2011-2021

    OpenAIRE

    Won W. KOO; Taylor, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This report evaluates the U.S. and world sugar markets for 2011-2021 using the Global Sugar Policy Simulation Model. This analysis is based on assumptions about general economic conditions, agricultural policies, population growth, weather conditions, and technological changes. Both the U.S. and world sugar economies are predicted to remain stable over the next ten years. Sugar prices increased from 18.7 cents/ lb in 2009, 27 cents/lb in 2010 and 32 cent/lb in 2011. World sugar production inc...

  17. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  18. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  19. Heterogeneity and option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, Simon; Mayshar, Joram

    2000-01-01

    An economy with agents having constant yet heterogeneous degrees of relative risk aversion prices assets as though there were a single decreasing relative risk aversion pricing representative agent. The pricing kernel has fat tails and option prices do not conform to the Black-Scholes formula.

  20. The association between food prices and the blood glucose level of US adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekwe, Tobenna D; Rahkovsky, Ilya

    2014-04-01

    We estimated the association between the price of healthy and less-healthy food groups and blood sugar among US adults with type 2 diabetes. We linked 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey health information to food prices contained in the Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database. We regressed blood sugar levels on food prices from the previous calendar quarter, controlling for market region and a range of other covariates. We also examined whether the association between food prices and blood sugar varies among different income groups. The prices of produce and low-fat dairy foods were associated with blood sugar levels of people with type 2 diabetes. Specifically, higher prices for produce and low-fat dairy foods were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose 3 months later. Food prices had a greater association with blood sugar for low-income people than for higher-income people, and in the expected direction. Higher prices of healthy foods were associated with increased blood sugar among people with type 2 diabetes. The association was especially pronounced among low-income people with type 2 diabetes.

  1. Opportunities for small-scale biorefinery for production of sugar and ethanol in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolfschoten, R.C.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Developments such as the Common Agricultural Policy reform, growth of the bio-based economy, increasing energy prices, increasing sustainability demands, and expected growth of global sugar demand change the environment in which the sugar producing industry operates. In order to remain competitive

  2. Transport of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Qing; Cheung, Lily S; Feng, Liang; Tanner, Widmar; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-01-01

    Soluble sugars serve five main purposes in multicellular organisms: as sources of carbon skeletons, osmolytes, signals, and transient energy storage and as transport molecules. Most sugars are derived from photosynthetic organisms, particularly plants. In multicellular organisms, some cells specialize in providing sugars to other cells (e.g., intestinal and liver cells in animals, photosynthetic cells in plants), whereas others depend completely on an external supply (e.g., brain cells, roots and seeds). This cellular exchange of sugars requires transport proteins to mediate uptake or release from cells or subcellular compartments. Thus, not surprisingly, sugar transport is critical for plants, animals, and humans. At present, three classes of eukaryotic sugar transporters have been characterized, namely the glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs), and SWEETs. This review presents the history and state of the art of sugar transporter research, covering genetics, biochemistry, and physiology-from their identification and characterization to their structure, function, and physiology. In humans, understanding sugar transport has therapeutic importance (e.g., addressing diabetes or limiting access of cancer cells to sugars), and in plants, these transporters are critical for crop yield and pathogen susceptibility.

  3. Price volatility in wind dominant electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    electricity markets. High price volatility is unappreciated because it imposes high financial risk levels to both electricity consumers and producers. Additionally high price variations impede tracking price signals by consumers in future smart grid and jeopardize implementation of demand response concepts......High penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources causes price volatility in future electricity markets. This is specially the case in European countries that plan high penetration levels. This highlights the necessity for revising market regulations and mechanisms in accordance....... The main contribution of this paper is to quantify volatility patterns of electricity price, as penetration level of wind power increases. Results explain a direct relationship between wind penetration and electricity price volatility in a quantitative manner....

  4. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm

  5. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul K. Suarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the “sugar oxidation cascade”, the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  6. Sustainability Issues and Opportunities in the Sugar and Sugar-Bioproduct Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Eggleston

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues and opportunities. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum and reduce greenhouse gases, water- and energy-intensive factories and refineries, and increased consumer demands for sustainably manufactured products are putting pressure on the industries to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, including sugar and energy cane (Saccharum officinarum, sugar and energy beets (Beta vulgaris, and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, are excellent, renewable biomass feedstocks because of their availability, their being amongst the plants that give the highest yields of carbohydrates per hectare, and high sugar contents. While much research has been focused on conversion technologies for advanced biofuels and bioproducts, attention is now focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for the new, flexible biorefineries, with customers wanting maximum feedstock reliability and quality, while minimizing cost. All biomass from sugar crops are potential feedstocks. The cogeneration of bioelectricity from bagasse and leaf residues is being increasingly manufactured in more countries and, due to the high carbon content of bagasse and leaves, can also be converted into value-added products such as biochar. Sugar crops are superior feedstocks for the production of platform chemicals for the manufacture of a range of end-products, e.g., bioplastics, chemicals, and biomaterials. In several countries and regions, green sustainability criteria are now in place and have to be met to count against national biofuel targets. Processes to convert high-fiber sugar crop biomass into biofuel have been developed but there has only been limited commercialization at the large-scale.

  7. Impact of regulated price adjustments on price variability in a very low inflation transition economy: Case of Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghassi Mkrtchyan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of monetary policy and administrative price adjustments on price variability in a low inflation economy characterized by relatively frequent administrative price adjustments. Fluctuations of market determined prices, prices of agricultural goods in particular, are linked to poor synchronization between administrative price changes and monetary policy. If monetary policy does not account for expected changes in administrative prices, demand for free goods shifts, causing fluctuation of prices for agricultural goods, because the supply of these goods is highly inelastic in Armenia. The findings contribute to a better understanding of agricultural price variability during 1998-2002. The impact of macroeconomic policy and structural adjustments on income distribution and rural poverty incidence are also examined. This research has immediate policy implications, since Armenia will continue to undergo major upward price adjustments of regulated prices, which may have a negative impact on income distribution unless aggregate demand management is changed.

  8. Accounting Aspects of Pricing and Transfer Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from m...

  9. Dealing with uncertainty and high prices of new medicines: a comparative analysis of the use of managed entry agreements in Belgium, England, the Netherlands and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Alessandra; Kanavos, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Managed entry agreements are a set of instruments used to reduce the impact of uncertainty and high prices when introducing new medicines. This study develops a conceptual framework for these agreements and tests it by exploring variations in their implementation in Belgium, England, the Netherlands and Sweden and over time as well as their governance structures. Using publicly available data from HTA agencies and survey data from the European Medicines Information Network, a database of agreements implemented between 2003 and 2012 was developed. A review of governance structures was also undertaken. In December 2012 there were 133 active MEAs for different medicine-indications across the four countries. These corresponded to 110 unique medicine-indications. Over time there has been a steady growth in the number of agreements implemented, with the highest number in the Netherlands in 2012. The number of new agreements introduced each year followed a different pattern. In Belgium and England it increased over time, while it decreased in the Netherlands and fluctuated in Sweden. Only 18 (16%) of the unique medicine-indication pairs identified were part of an agreement in two or more countries. England uses mainly discounts and free doses to influence prices. The Netherlands and Sweden have focused more on addressing uncertainties through coverage with evidence development and, in Sweden, on monitoring use and compliance with restrictions through registries. Belgium uses a combination of the above. Despite similar reasons being cited for managed entry agreements implementation, only in a minority of cases have countries implemented an agreement for the same medicine-indication; when they do, a different agreement type is often implemented. Differences in governance across countries partly explain such variations. However, more research is needed to understand whether e.g. risk-perception and/or notion of what constitutes a high price differ between these countries

  10. 'The university should promote health, but not enforce it': opinions and attitudes about the regulation of sugar-sweetened beverages in a university setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Elly; Freeman, Becky; Wu, Jason H Y; Rooney, Kieron

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to determine the opinions and attitudes of a university population regarding the regulation of sugar-sweetened beverages in a university setting, primarily looking at differences in opinion between younger adults (under 30 years of age) and older adults (30 years of age or older). An online survey was conducted at an Australian university in April-May 2016 using a convenience sample of students and staff between the ages of 16 and 84 years. The survey included questions about consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and level of agreement and support of proposed sugar-sweetened beverage interventions. Quantitative response data and qualitative open-ended response data were analysed. Nine hundred thirteen responses from students and staff were analysed. In this population, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was low and awareness of the health risks of sugar-sweetened beverages was high. Overall, the surveyed population indicated more support for interventions that require higher levels of personal responsibility. The population did support some environment-centred, population-based interventions, such as increasing access to drinking water and reducing the price of healthier beverage alternatives. However there was less support for more restrictive interventions such as removing sugar-sweetened beverages from sale. Young adults tended to be less supportive of most interventions than older adults. These findings indicate there is some support for environment-centred, population-based approaches to reduce the availability and appeal of sugar-sweetened beverages in an adult environment such as a university setting. However these results suggest that public health may need to focus less on educating populations about the harms associated with sugar-sweetened beverages. Instead, there should be greater emphasis on explaining to populations and communities why environment-centred approaches relating to the sale and promotion of sugar

  11. Exporter Price Premia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan

    This paper provides new evidence on manufacturing firms' output prices: in Denmark, on average, exported varieties are sold at a lower price (i.e. a negative exporter price premium) relative to only domestically sold varieties. This finding stands in sharp contrast to previous studies, which have...... found positive exporter price premia. We also document that the exporter price premium varies substantially across products (both in terms of sign and magnitude). We show that in a standard heterogeneous firms model with heterogeneity in quality as well as production efficiency there is indeed no clear......-cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...

  12. THE FACTORS FORMING QUALITY OF GRANULATED SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, with good taste and high caloric, is one of the most popular human food. Consumers sugar must be sure that the sugar under normal conditions of use is of high quality and is not harmful to the health of the product. One reason for the decline in the quality of sugar is bacterial contamination. This is because the sugar industry products are good targets for the development of different groups of microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and others. These organisms are affected with beets, and then with sugar beet chips and diffusion juice fall into the processing line of sugar production. Their number in the diffusion juice varies and depends on many facto rs such as the quality of raw materials, the quality of cleaning beet root colonization of transporter-washing and the supply of water to the diffusion process, the temperature of the diffusion and others. In the diffusion unit has the most favorable conditions for the development of micro-organisms. Some of them, especially resistant bacteria and thermophilic bacteria or their spores, forming a capsule which protects against external influences occur in the final product sugar. When injected into the fresh crop of product (juice, syrup, they begin to multiply rapidly, causing difficulties in the process. The higher seeding beet microorganisms, the more they decompose and emit sucrose metabolism byproducts. To reduce the negative impact of microbiological and reduce losses from decomposition of sucrose conducted research on the possibility of using chlorine-containing substances in the sugar industry. It was established experimentally that the investigated chlorinated drug has bacteriostatic action and can be recommended for use in sugar beet production.

  13. 2010 Outlook of the U.S. and World Sugar Markets, 2009-2019

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Richard D.; Won W. KOO

    2010-01-01

    This report evaluates the U.S. and world sugar markets for 2009-2019 using the Global Sugar Policy Simulation Model. This analysis is based on assumptions about general economic conditions, agricultural policies, population growth, weather conditions, and technological changes. Both the U.S. and world sugar economies are predicted to remain stable over the next ten years in spite of the 2007-08 increase in world oil prices. That increase in oil price caused an increase in the conversion of su...

  14. Dietary sources of sugars in adolescents' diet: the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesana, M I; Hilbig, A; Androutsos, O; Cuenca-García, M; Dallongeville, J; Huybrechts, I; De Henauw, S; Widhalm, K; Kafatos, A; Nova, E; Marcos, A; González-Gross, M; Molnar, D; Gottrand, F; Moreno, L A

    2016-11-29

    To report dietary sugars consumption and their different types and food sources, in European adolescents. Food consumption data of selected groups were obtained from 1630 adolescents (45.6% males, 12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA study using two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls. Energy intake, total sugars and free sugars were assessed using the HELENA-DIAT software. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for relevant confounders. Total sugars intake (137.5 g/day) represented 23.6% and free sugars (110.1 g/day), 19% of energy intake. Girls had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrates, total sugars and free sugars. 94% of adolescents had a consumption of free sugars above 10% of total energy intake. The main food contributor to free sugars was 'carbonated, soft and isotonic drinks,' followed by 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey, jam and syrup.' Older boys and girls had significantly higher intakes of free sugars from 'cakes, pies and biscuits.' Free sugars intake was negatively associated with low socioeconomic status for 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey and jam' groups; with low maternal educational level for carbonated and 'soft drinks,' 'sugar, honey and jam,' 'cakes and pies' and 'breakfast cereals' groups; and with high paternal educational level for 'carbonated and soft drinks' and 'chocolates' group. The majority (94%) of studied adolescents consumed free sugars above 10% of daily energy intake. Our data indicate a broad variety in foods providing free sugars. Continued efforts are required at different levels to reduce the intake of free sugars, especially in families with a low educational level.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Induced by Low and High Potassium Levels Provides Insight into Fruit Sugar Metabolism of Pear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changwei; Wang, Jie; Shi, Xiaoqian; Kang, Yalong; Xie, Changyan; Peng, Lirun; Dong, Caixia; Shen, Qirong; Xu, Yangchun

    2017-01-01

    Potassium (K) deficiency is a common abiotic stress that can inhibit the growth of fruit and thus reduce crop yields. Little research has been conducted on pear transcriptional changes under low and high K conditions. Here, we performed an experiment with 7-year-old pot-grown “Huangguan” pear trees treated with low, Control or high K levels (0, 0.4, or 0.8 g·K2O/kg soil, respectively) during fruit enlargement and mature stages. We identified 36,444 transcripts from leaves and fruit using transcriptome sequencing technology. From 105 days after full blooming (DAB) to 129 DAB, the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in leaves and fruit in response to low K increased, while in response to high K, the number of DEGs in leaves and fruit decreased. We selected 17 of these DEGs for qRT-PCR analysis to confirm the RNA sequencing results. Based on GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis, we found that low-K treatment significantly reduced K nutrient and carbohydrate metabolism of the leaves and fruit compared with the Control treatment. During the fruit development stages, AKT1 (gene39320) played an important role on K+ transport of the leaves and fruit response to K stress. At maturity, sucrose and acid metabolic pathways were inhibited by low K. The up-regulation of the expression of three SDH and two S6PDH genes involved in sorbitol metabolism was induced by low K, promoting the fructose accumulation. Simultaneously, higher expression was found for genes encoding amylase under low K, promoting the decomposition of the starch and leading the glucose accumulation. High K could enhance leaf photosynthesis, and improve the distribution of the nutrient and carbohydrate from leaf to fruit. Sugar components of the leaves and fruit under low K were regulated by the expression of genes encoding 8 types of hormone signals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our data revealed the gene expression patterns of leaves and fruit in response to different K levels during

  16. Adolescent Maturational Transitions in the Prefrontal Cortex and Dopamine Signaling as a Risk Factor for the Development of Obesity and High Fat/High Sugar Diet Induced Cognitive Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence poses as both a transitional period in neurodevelopment and lifestyle practices. In particular, the developmental trajectory of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a critical region for behavioral control and self-regulation, is enduring, not reaching functional maturity until the early 20 s in humans. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter dopamine is particularly abundant during adolescence, tuning the brain to rapidly learn about rewards and regulating aspects of neuroplasticity. Thus, adolescence is proposed to represent a period of vulnerability towards reward-driven behaviors such as the consumption of palatable high fat and high sugar diets. This is reflected in the increasing prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents as they are the greatest consumers of “junk foods”. Excessive consumption of diets laden in saturated fat and refined sugars not only leads to weight gain and the development of obesity, but experimental studies with rodents indicate they evoke cognitive deficits in learning and memory process by disrupting neuroplasticity and altering reward processing neurocircuitry. Consumption of these high fat and high sugar diets have been reported to have a particularly pronounced impact on cognition when consumed during adolescence, demonstrating a susceptibility of the adolescent brain to enduring cognitive deficits. The adolescent brain, with heightened reward sensitivity and diminished behavioral control compared to the mature adult brain, appears to be a risk for aberrant eating behaviors that may underpin the development of obesity. This review explores the neurodevelopmental changes in the PFC and mesocortical dopamine signaling that occur during adolescence, and how these potentially underpin the overconsumption of palatable food and development of obesogenic diet-induced cognitive deficits. PMID:27790098

  17. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin [Lakewood, CO; Elander, Richard [Evergreen, CO; Hennessey, Susan M [Avondale, PA

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  18. 99 cent: Price points in e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Hackl, Franz; Kummer, Michael E.; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Basu (2006) argues that the prevalence of 99 cent prices in shops can be explained with rational consumers who disregard the rightmost digits of the price. This bounded rational behaviour leads to a Bertrand equi- librium with positive markups. We use data from an Austrian price com- parison site and find results highly compatible with Basu's theory. We can show that price points - in particular prices ending in 9 - are preva- lent and have significant impact on consumer demand. Moreover, the...

  19. CO-PROCESSING BEET AND CANE RAW SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golybin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many sugar factories of the Russian Federation sugar and white sugar is produced not only from sugar beet, but also from raw sugar. To do this, the technological scheme of the plants provide mostly separate processing beet and raw sugar. This paper proposes a joint processing. With the aim of improving the quality of syrup, improving the filtration properties of the juice II saturation with joint processing beet and raw sugar was proposed clarification raw sugar to conduct the filtered juice I saturation with the addition of bleach in the amount of 0.05-0.10 % by weight of raw sugar and fine clay powder in the amount of 0.3-0.5 % by weight of raw sugar. Introduction chlorine is in the process of clarification raw sugar partly to carry out the depolymerization of highmolecular compounds, including polysaccharide dextran, and to adsorb the resulting fragments of high molecular compounds and pigments on fine particles of clay powder. Similar results were obtained when changing the costs of expanded clay powder. At a flow rate less than 0.3 %, there is a lack of adsorption of the surface to remove the degradation products of high -molecular compounds, which degrades the quality characteristics of the mixture of woodworking and furniture production of raw sugar and juice I carbon ation, and at a rate clay powder more than 0.5 % is irrational, since the cleaning effect is increased slightly. Suggested ways of coprocessing beet and raw sugar allow without significant cost effective processing of raw sugar factories. When beet low techn ological quality of these methods will increase the cleanliness of the production of sugar solutions and improve conditions for obtaining sugar of standard quality with the normative content of sucrose in molasses.

  20. PRICE ON THE ORGANIC FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE ATANASOAIE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present prices on PAE market (PAE- organic foods market. Prices are analyzed in terms of importance and the main factors that contribute to their establishment (quality of products, distribution channels, certification and eco-labeling system, customer segments and market development stage. This paper is based on the investigation of secondary sources, of specialized literature related to PAE consumers. The paper shows that are used three strategic options of prices: prices with high rigidity located in a low or high level and fluctuating prices, characterized by variations on short periods of time. Price is a very important barrier to market development but this importance can be mitigated through appropriate communication policies with the market, which are essential especially for markets in early stages of development.

  1. RICE PRICE VOLATILITY IN EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wati R.Y.E.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is analyzing the volatility and volatility spillover of monthly price of paddy at the level of farmers and consumers in 2010-2016. ARCH/GARCH used to analyze volatility and GARCH BEKK-model is used to analyze the volatility spillover. The results of the analysis show that price volatility at the farmer level is very high (extremely high volatility, price volatility at the consumer level is low (low volatility, and volatility spillover does not occur between the farmers and the consumers market. The need to guarantee an effective floor price as well as information disclosure related to the market commodity prices so that the pattern of prices transmission among interrelated markets can be symmetrical.

  2. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  3. PRICES IN COMPETITIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADUVA MARIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of competitive market determine rules for determining prices and their dynamics. Orientation prices to competition (competitive pricing is the strategy most frequently used in countries with market economies and especially for exports. Moreover, in an economy dominated by market competition it cannot be ignored without certain risks the prices resulting from competition between products bidders. Companies that use this type of strategy seek to maintain a level of prices linked to that charged by other competitors (or exporting producers generally no longer covering production costs or demand, relying on the assumption that the average market price is a reasonable basis of costs. But the way how practical guidance and reporting to the competition in every price strategy, will be determined by the company's market position, by the available power and enjoyed prestige, objectives and prospects of its market share etc. according to these elements, there may be several versions of pricing strategies oriented to competitors.

  4. [International reference prices and cost minimization analysis for the regulation of medicine prices in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Caludia; Acosta, Angela; Rodriguez, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    To suggest a scheme of decision making on pricing for medicines that are part of Free Regulated Regime, a regulation way of the pharmaceutical pricing policy in Colombia. It includes two regulation tools: international reference prices and a cost minimization analysis methodology. Following the current pricing policy, international reference prices were built with data from five countries for selected medicines, which are under Free Regulated Regime. The cost minimization analysis methodology includes selection of those medicines under Free Regulated Regime with possible comparable medicines, selection of comparable medicines, and treatment costs evaluation. As a result of the estimate of International Reference Prices, four medicines showed in the domestic pharmaceutical market a bigger price than the Reference Price. A scheme of decision-making was design containing two possible regulation tools for medicines that are part of Free Regulated Regime: estimate of international reference prices and cost minimization analysis methodology. This diagram would be useful to assist the pricing regulation of Free Regulated Regime in Colombia. As present results shows, international reference prices make clear when domestic prices are higher than those of reference countries. In the current regulation of pharmaceutical prices in Colombia, the international reference price has been applied for four medicines. Would be suitable to extend this methodology to other medicines of high impact on the pharmaceutical expenditure, in particular those covered by public funding. The availability of primary sources about treatment costs in Colombia needs to be improved as a requirement to develop pharmaco-economic evidence. SISMED is an official database that represents an important primary source of medicines prices in Colombia. Nevertheless, having into account that SISMED represents an important advantage of transparency in medicines prices, it needs to be improved in quality and data

  5. Northern contaminant mixtures induced morphological and functional changes in human coronary artery endothelial cells under culture conditions typifying high fat/sugar diet and ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Maria; Yan, Jin; Ulhaq, Saad; Coughlan, Melanie; Laziyan, Mahemuti; Willmore, William; Jin, Xiaolei

    2013-11-16

    It has been reported that Northern populations are exposed to mixtures of various environmental contaminants unique to the Arctic (Northern contaminant mixtures - NCM) at a large range of concentrations, depending on their geological location, age, lifestyle and dietary habits. To determine if these contaminants may contribute to a cardiovascular health risk, especially when combined with a high fat and sugar diet and ethanol exposure, we treated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with two mixtures of 4 organic (NCM1) or 22 organic and inorganic (NCM2) chemicals detected in Northerners' blood during 2004-2005 in the presence or absence of low-density lipoprotein (1.5mg/ml), very-low-density lipoprotein (1.0mg/ml) and glucose (10mmol/L) (LVG), and in the absence or presence of 0.1% ethanol. After 24h of exposure, cell morphology and markers of cytotoxicity and endothelial function were examined. NCM1 treatment did not affect cell viability, but increased cell size, disrupted cell membrane integrity, and decreased cell density, uptake of small peptides, release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), while causing no changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression and nitric oxide (NO) release. In contrast, NCM2 decreased cell viability, total protein yield, uptake of small peptides, eNOS protein expression, and NO release and caused membrane damage, but caused no changes in the secretion of ET-1, prostacyclin and PAI. The presence of LVG and/or alcohol did or did not influence the effects of NCM1 or NCM2 depending on the endpoint and the mixture examined. These results suggested that the effects of one or one group of contaminants may be altered by the presence of other contaminants, and that with or without the interaction of high fat and sugar diet and/or ethanol exposure, NCMs at the concentrations used caused endothelial dysfunction in vitro. It remains to be investigated if these effects of NCMs also

  6. Three studies of retail gasoline pricing dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Benjamin James

    In many Canadian cities, retail gasoline prices appear to cycle, rising by large amounts in one or two days followed by several days of small consecutive price decreases. While many empirical studies examine such markets, certain questions cannot b e properly answered without high frequency, station-specific price data for an entire market. Thus, the first paper in this thesis uses bi-hourly price data collected for 27 stations in Guelph, Ontario, eight tunes per day for 103 days to examine several basic predictions of the Edgeworth cycle theory. The results are largely consistent with this theory. However, most independent firms do not tend to undercut their rivals' prices, contrary to previous findings. Furthermore, the tuning, sizes and leaders of price increases appear to be very predictable, and a specific pattern of price movements has been detected on days when prices increase. These findings suggest that leading a price increase might not be as risky as one may expect. The second paper uses these same data to examine the implications o f an informal theory of competitive gasoline pricing, as advanced by industry and government. Consistent with this theory, stations do tend to set prices to match (or set a small positive or negative differential with) a small number of other stations, which are not necessarily the closest stations. Also, while retailers frequently respond to price changes within two hours, many take considerably longer to respond than is predicted by the theory. Finally, while price decreases do ripple across the market like falling dominos, increases appear to propagate based more on geographic location and source of price control than proximity to the leaders. The third paper uses both these data and Guelph price data collected every 12 hours during the same 103 days from OntarioGasPrices.com to examine the sample selection biases that might exist in such Internet price data, as well as their implications for empirical research. It is

  7. A Case Study of Pharmaceutical Pricing in China: Setting the Price for Off-Patent Originators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shanlian; Zhang, Yabing; He, Jiangjiang; Du, Lixia; Xu, Mingfei; Xie, Chunyan; Peng, Ying; Wang, Linan

    2015-08-01

    This article aims to define a value-based approach to pricing and reimbursement for off-patent originators using a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach centered on a systematic analysis of current pricing and reimbursement policies in China. A drug price policy review was combined with a quantitative analysis of China's drug purchasing database. Policy preferences were identified through a MCDA performed by interviewing well-known academic experts and industry stakeholders. The study findings indicate that the current Chinese price policy includes cost-based pricing and the establishment of maximum retail prices and premiums for off-patent originators, whereas reference pricing may be adopted in the future. The literature review revealed significant differences in the dissolution profiles between originators and generics; therefore, dissolution profiles need to be improved. Market data analysis showed that the overall price ratio of generics and off-patent originators was around 0.54-0.59 in 2002-2011, with a 40% price difference, on average. Ten differentiating value attributes were identified and MCDA was applied to test the impact of three pricing policy scenarios. With the condition of implementing quality consistency regulations and controls, a reduction in the price gap between high-quality off-patent products (including originator and generics) seemed to be the preferred policy. Patents of many drugs will expire within the next 10 years; thus, pricing will be an issue of importance for off-patent originators and generic alternatives.

  8. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug pr...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  9. Dynamic leverage asset pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian,Tobias; Moench, Emanuel; Shin, Hyun Song

    2013-01-01

    We investigate intermediary asset pricing theories empirically and find strong support for models that have intermediary leverage as the relevant state variable. A parsimonious model that uses detrended dealer leverage as a price-of-risk variable, and innovations to dealer leverage as a pricing factor, is shown to perform well in time series and cross-sectional tests of a wide variety of equity and bond portfolios. The model outperforms alternative specifications of intermediary pricing model...

  10. Delegating Pricing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Bhardwaj

    2001-01-01

    An outstanding problem in marketing is why some firms in a competitive market delegate pricing decisions to agents and other firms do not. This paper analyzes the impact of competition on the delegation decision and, in turn, the impact of delegation on prices and incentives. The theory builds on the simplest framework of competition in two dimensions: prices and (sales agents') effort. Specifically, we are interested in answering the following questions: (1) Does competition affect the price...

  11. Consequences of long-term power outages and high electricity prices lasting for months; Konsekvenser av langvarige stroemutfall og hoeye kraftpriser i flere maaneder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Several areas in the world have experienced electricity outages for longer periods of time, but the consequences of these are sparsely documented. There is a need for further analysis of the socioeconomic consequences of the outages. In addition to KILE (Quality adjusted revenue framework for un supplied energy) costs one has to take into account that the costs often increase proportionally with the durance of the outage, and that KILE tariffs do not reflect lost consumer's surplus for products that are not produced during an outage. A good example is the public underground transport, where the company's economical loss can be significantly smaller than the loss of utility value for the travellers. If the authorities act with reasonability it is difficult to see that periods with very high prices represent a big problem. The most important problems are related to diffused effects, especially for households with a weak economy. These problems can be solved with improved contractual forms (price guarantees) or by transfers to the households, without weakening the incentives for electricity economising (ml)

  12. Import Price-Elastcities: Reconsidering the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Helene Erkel-Rousse; Daniel Mirza

    2000-01-01

    Recent geography and trade empirical studies based on monopolistic competition [Hummels, 1998; Hanson, 1999; Head and Ries, 1999] suggest high levels of trade price-elasticities (between 3 and 11). However, direct estimations of price-elasticities in trade equations, using price indexes at the aggregate or industry levels, lead to much lower values than those predicted by the prior studies and the theory (usually around unity). In this article, we show that these inconclusive results may be d...

  13. Sugar in Infants, Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... with a desirable goal of children and adolescents aged ≥ 2-18 years. Intakes should probably be even lower in infants and toddlers ... or unsweetened milk drinks. National Authorities should adopt policies aimed at reducing the intake of free sugars in infants, children and adolescents. This may include education, improved labelling, restriction of advertising, introducing standards for kindergarten and school meals, and fiscal measures...

  14. Sugar in infants, children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... with a desirable goal of children and adolescents aged ≥ 2-18 years. Intakes should probably be even lower in infants and toddlers ... or unsweetened milk drinks. National Authorities should adopt policies aimed at reducing the intake of free sugars in infants, children and adolescents. This may include education, improved labelling, restriction of advertising, introducing standards for kindergarten and school meals, and fiscal measures...

  15. IMPORTANCE OF SORT SELECTION AND FUNGICIDES APPLICATION IN CERCOSPORA BETICOLA SACC. SUGAR BEET LEAF SPOT PREVENTION AND QUALITY ROOT HIGH YIELD ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kristek

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet hybrids value as well as their tolerance to the leaf spot agent (Cercospora beticola Sacc. were researched in the natural infection conditions with and without fungicides application on two locations (Topolje, Seleš in the two year period (2004, 2005. Evaluation has been done via root yield and quality, sugar yield as well as visual leaf damage estimation. The research comprised 26 sorts as either widely used in practice or to be introduced. The investigated sorts showed insufficient tolerance to C. beticola Sacc. Thus, fungicide application, compared to untreated trials, resulted in increased mean root yield by 11.07 t/ha (14.8%, sugar content by 1.00% (relative 7.1% and sugar yield by 2.08 t/ha (23.0%. The trials with fungicide application were characterized by the highest mean root yield obtained with the Libero hybrid (98.49 t/ha, sugar concentration with the Iris sort (16.23% and sugar yield with the Merak hybrid (12.67 t/ha.

  16. Sugar addiction: pushing the drug-sugar analogy to the limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Serge H; Guillem, Karine; Vandaele, Youna

    2013-07-01

    To review research that tests the validity of the analogy between addictive drugs, like cocaine, and hyperpalatable foods, notably those high in added sugar (i.e., sucrose). Available evidence in humans shows that sugar and sweetness can induce reward and craving that are comparable in magnitude to those induced by addictive drugs. Although this evidence is limited by the inherent difficulty of comparing different types of rewards and psychological experiences in humans, it is nevertheless supported by recent experimental research on sugar and sweet reward in laboratory rats. Overall, this research has revealed that sugar and sweet reward can not only substitute to addictive drugs, like cocaine, but can even be more rewarding and attractive. At the neurobiological level, the neural substrates of sugar and sweet reward appear to be more robust than those of cocaine (i.e., more resistant to functional failures), possibly reflecting past selective evolutionary pressures for seeking and taking foods high in sugar and calories. The biological robustness in the neural substrates of sugar and sweet reward may be sufficient to explain why many people can have difficultly to control the consumption of foods high in sugar when continuously exposed to them.

  17. Simulating Price-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Lucas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a price-takers' market simulation geared toward principles-level students. This simulation demonstrates that price-taking behavior is a natural result of the conditions that create perfect competition. In trials, there is a significant degree of price convergence in just three or four rounds. Students find this…

  18. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Méndez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find that...

  19. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Méndez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find that...

  20. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  1. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    the joint eects of this reform on prices and quantities. Prices decreased more than 26 percent due to the reform, which reduced patient and government expenditures by 3.0 percent and 5.6 percent, respectively, and producer revenues by 5.0 percent. The prices of expensive products decreased more than...

  2. The effect of real-time pricing on load shifting in a highly renewable power system dominated by generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Brown, Tom; Schlachtberger, David; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The supply-demand imbalance is a major concern in the presence of large shares of highly variable renewable generation from sources like wind and photovoltaics (PV) in power systems. Other than the measures on the generation side, such as flexible backup generation or energy storage, sector coupling or demand side management are the most likely option to counter imbalances, therefore to ease the integration of renewable generation. Demand side management usually refers to load shifting, which comprises the reaction of electricity consumers to price fluctuations. In this work, we derive a novel methodology to model the interplay of load shifting and provided incentives via real-time pricing in highly renewable power systems. We use weather data to simulate generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics, as well as historical load data, split into different consumption categories, such as, heating, cooling, domestic, etc., to model a simplified power system. Together with renewable power forecast data, a simple market model and approaches to incorporate sector coupling [1] and load shifting [2,3], we model the interplay of incentives and load shifting for different scenarios (e.g., in dependency of the risk-aversion of consumers or the forecast horizon) and demonstrate the practical benefits of load shifting. First, we introduce the novel methodology and compare it with existing approaches. Secondly, we show results of numerical simulations on the effects of load shifting: It supports the integration of PV power by providing a storage, which characteristics can be described as "daily" and provides a significant amount of balancing potential. Lastly, we propose an experimental setup to obtain empirical data on end-consumer load-shifting behaviour in response to price incentives. References [1] Brown, T., Schlachtberger, D., Kies. A., Greiner, M., Sector coupling in a highly renewable European energy system, Proc. of the 15th International Workshop on

  3. Low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider if wearing a continuous glucose monitor and sensor can help you detect when your blood sugar ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 47. Review Date 4/15/2017 Updated by: Robert Hurd, ...

  4. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood Sugar URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bloodsugar.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  5. Solutions for wood-based bio-energy price discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraes, Timo [FOEX Indexes Ltd., Helsinki (Finland)], e-mail: timo@foex.fi

    2012-11-01

    Energy prices are highly volatile. This volatility can have serious ill-effects on the profitability of companies engaged in the energy business. There are, however, a number of price risk management tools which can be used to reduce the problems caused by price volatility. International trade of wood pellets and wood chips is rapidly growing. A good price transparency helps in developing the trade further. In order to meet the renewable energy targets within the EU, further growth of volumes is needed, at least within Europe and from overseas supply sources to the European markets. Reliable price indices are a central element in price risk management and in general price discovery. Exchanges have provided, in the past, the most widely known price discovery systems. Since 1990's, an increasing number of price risk management tools has been based on cash settlement concept. Cash settlement requires high quality benchmark price indices. These have been developed by the exchanges themselves, by trade press and by independent price benchmark provider companies. The best known of these benchmarks in forest industry and now also in wood-based bioenergy products are the PIX indices, provided by FOEX Indexes Ltd. This presentation discusses the key requirements for a good price index and the different ways of using the indices. Price relationships between wood chip prices and pellet prices are also discussed as will be the outlook for the future volume growth and trade flows in woodchips and pellets mainly from the European perspective.

  6. Nine out of 10 food advertisements shown during Saturday morning children's television programming are for foods high in fat, sodium, or added sugars, or low in nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batada, Ameena; Seitz, Maia Dock; Wootan, Margo G; Story, Mary

    2008-04-01

    A 2005 review by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies concluded that food marketing influences children's food preferences, consumption, and health. Given the powerful influence of marketing on children's diets, this cross-sectional study examined the types of foods, the nutritional quality of those foods, and the marketing techniques and messages used in food advertising during Saturday morning children's television programming. During 27.5 hours of programming in May 2005, 49% of advertisements shown were for food (281 food advertisements out of 572 total advertisements). The most commonly advertised food categories were ready-to-eat breakfast cereal and cereal bars (27% of all food advertisements), restaurants (19% of food advertisements), and snack foods (18% of food advertisements). Ninety-one percent of food advertisements were for foods or beverages high in fat, sodium, or added sugars or were low in nutrients. Cartoon characters were used in 74% of food advertisements, and toy or other giveaways were used in 26% of food advertisements. About half of food advertisements contained health/nutrition or physical activity messages and 86% of food advertisements contained emotional appeals. This study provides food and nutrition professionals with information about the amount and types of food children are encouraged to eat during Saturday morning television programming. The findings can help food and nutrition professionals counsel children about healthful eating and/or develop programs or policies to balance those advertisements with healthful eating messages.

  7. Rare Sugar Syrup Containing d-Allulose but Not High-Fructose Corn Syrup Maintains Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Sensitivity Partly via Hepatic Glucokinase Translocation in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Tomoya; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Iida, Tetsuo; Nagata, Yasuo; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Toyoda, Yukiyasu

    2017-04-05

    Ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is associated with the risk of both diabetes and obesity. Rare sugar syrup (RSS) has been developed by alkaline isomerization of HFCS and has anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, the influence of RSS on glucose metabolism has not been explored. We investigated whether long-term administration of RSS maintains glucose tolerance and whether the underlying mechanism involves hepatic glucokinase translocation. Wistar rats were administered water, RSS, or HFCS in drinking water for 10 weeks and then evaluated for glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, liver glycogen content, and subcellular distribution of liver glucokinase. RSS significantly suppressed body weight gain and abdominal fat mass (p RSS group had significantly lower blood glucose levels from 90 to 180 min (p RSS group were significantly lower than those in the water group (p RSS group than that in the other groups. After glucose loading, the nuclear export of glucokinase was significantly increased in the RSS group compared to the water group. These results imply that RSS maintains glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, at least partly, by enhancing nuclear export of hepatic glucokinase.

  8. Frequent video-game playing in young males is associated with central adiposity and high-sugar, low-fibre dietary consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mario, Siervo; Hannah, Cameron; Jonathan, Wells C K; Jose, Lara

    2014-12-01

    Video-game playing is associated with an increased obesity risk. The association of video-game playing with body composition, physical activity and eating behaviour was investigated. A total of 45 young males (age range 18-27 years, BMI range 18.5-35.1 kg/m(2)) were recruited. Measurements of body composition and blood pressure were performed. The EPIC-FFQ questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. A questionnaire battery was administered to assess physical activity, eating behaviour, sleep quality and frequency of video-game playing (hours/week). Subjects were categorised into frequent (>7 h/week) and non-frequent (≤7 h/week) players. Frequent video-game players had greater waist circumference and fat mass. Video-game playing was significantly associated with high added sugar and low fibre consumption. A higher level of dietary restraint was observed in non-frequent video-game users. These preliminary results identify frequent video-game playing as an important lifestyle behaviour which may have important implications for understanding obesity risk in young male adults.

  9. Customer perspectives on district heating price models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Sernhed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden there has been a move towards more cost reflective price models for district heating in order to reduce economic risks that comes with variable heat demand and high shares of fixed assets. The keywords in the new price models are higher shares of fixed cost, seasonal energy prices and charging for capacity. Also components that are meant to serve as incentives to affect behaviour are introduced, for example peak load components and flow components. In this study customer responses to these more complex price models have been investigated through focus group interviews and through interviews with companies that have changed their price models. The results show that several important customer requirements are suffering with the new price models. The most important ones are when energy savings do not provide financial savings, when costs are hard to predict and are perceived to be out of control.

  10. THE PRICE ON THE ORGANIC PRODUCT MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATĂNĂSOAIE GEORGE SEBASTIAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present prices on PAE market (PAE- organic foods market. Prices areanalyzed in terms of importance and the main factors that contribute to their establishment (quality of products,distribution channels, certification and eco-labeling system, customer segments and market development stage.The paper shows that are used three strategic options of prices: prices with high rigidity located in a low or highlevel and fluctuating prices, characterized by variations on short periods of time. Price is a very importantbarrier to market development but this importance can be mitigated through appropriate communicationpolicies with the market, which are essential especially for markets in early stages of development

  11. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare eects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction t....... In the Bertrand case, welfare is the same with all or no consumers on smart meters.......We examine welfare eects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  12. Psychology of pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Bimaj, Arjola

    2012-01-01

    Price is the element of the marketing mix that has direct effect in the profits of a company. The right price can boost the profit and the wrong price can significantly shrink it. Thus, the businesses need to set the right price in order to maximize their revenues. However, the newest factors in the economic field, the continuous changes in the environment and the current financial situation in the world has eroded the pricing power and forces the managers to look in every direction in order ...

  13. Internet resource pricing models

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ke; He, Huan

    2013-01-01

    This brief guides the reader through three basic Internet resource pricing models using an Internet cost analysis. Addressing the evolution of service types, it presents several corresponding mechanisms which can ensure pricing implementation and resource allocation. The authors discuss utility optimization of network pricing methods in economics and underline two classes of pricing methods including system optimization and entities' strategic optimization. The brief closes with two examples of the newly proposed pricing strategy helping to solve the profit distribution problem brought by P2P

  14. Value-based pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  15. Wine market prices and investment under uncertainty: an econometric model for Bordeaux Crus Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gregory V.; Storchmann, Karl-Heinz

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an econometric assessment of wine market prices for 21 of the Crus Classes chateaux in the Bordeaux region of France. The model developed in the analysis attempts to define the relationship between factors that influence wine quality and those that influence wine prices. Characteristics of the models are: (1) climate influences on grape composition (acid and sugar levels), (2) grape composition influences on market prices, (3) subjective quality evaluations (Parker-points...

  16. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  17. The Sugar Tax in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajjaji, Fadoua

    2016-01-01

    This inquiry supports the theory of a sugar tax has a positive influence on the sugar consumption of Dutch individuals. Once a tax is implemented, the sugar consumption declines. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis claiming that children have a positive influence on their parental sugar

  18. A Simple Model of Intertemporal Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Mark D. White

    2004-01-01

    Many products are sold in identical form at different times and at different prices. Motion pictures are shown at most movie theaters at full price for weeks after initial release, after which they may be shown in bargain theaters for a much lower price. Upon initial release, compact discs are sold at retail outlets for a high price and several months later may be available through music clubs at significantly lower cost. Book clubs and movie clubs offer similar arrangements. At all times of ...

  19. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power......We examine welfare eects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...

  20. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power......We examine welfare e ects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...

  1. USE CELLULOSE FOR CLEANING CONCENTRATED SUGAR SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kul’neva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Producing high quality intermediate products in the boiling-crystallization station is an actual problem of sugar production. In the production of white sugar brown sugar syrup is not further purified that decreases the quality of the end product. Studies have been conducted using cellulose as an adsorbent for the purification of concentrated sugar solutions, having affinity to dyes and other impurities. Research have been carried out with the intermediate products of the Lebedyan sugar plant. Test results have shown cellulose ability to adsorb the dyes in sugar production. The influence of the adsorbent concentration and the mass fraction of solids in the syrup on the decolorization effect has been studied; rational process parameters have been obtained. It has been found that proceeding an additional adsorption purification of brown sugars syrup allows to reduce the solution color, increase the amount and quality of the end product. Adsorbing means, received from production wastes on the basis of organic resources, have many advantages: economical, environmentally friendly for disposal, safe to use, reliable and efficient in use. Conducted research on using cellulose as adsorbent for treatment of concentrated sugar solutions, having an affinity for colouring matter and other impurities. The experiments were carried out on the intermediates Lebedyanskiy sugar factory. The test results showed the ability of cellulose to adsorb coloring matter of sugar production. To evaluate the effect of bleaching depending on the mass fraction of dry substances prepared yellow juice filtration of sugar concentration of 55, 60, 65 % with subsequent adsorption purification of cellulose. The results of the experiment built adsorption isotherm of dyestuffs. The influence of the concentration of the adsorbent and a mass fraction of solids of juice filtration on the efficiency of decolorization obtained by rational parameters of the process. It is

  2. Alcohol prices, beverage quality, and the demand for alcohol: quality substitutions and price elasticities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenewald, Paul J; Ponicki, William R; Holder, Harold D; Romelsjö, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Although the published literature on alcohol beverage taxes, prices, sales, and related problems treats alcoholic beverages as a simple good, alcohol is a complex good composed of different beverage types (i.e., beer, wine, and spirits) and quality brands (e.g., high-, medium-, and low-quality beers). As a complex good, consumers may make substitutions between purchases of different beverage types and brands in response to price increases. For this reason, the availability of a broad range of beverage prices provides opportunities for consumers to mitigate the effects of average price increases through quality substitutions; a change in beverage choice in response to price increases to maintain consumption. Using Swedish price and sales data provided by Systembolaget for the years 1984 through 1994, this study assessed the relationships between alcohol beverage prices, beverage quality, and alcohol sales. The study examined price effects on alcohol consumption using seemingly unrelated regression equations to model the impacts of price increases within 9 empirically defined quality classes across beverage types. The models enabled statistical assessments of both own-price and cross-price effects between types and classes. The results of these analyses showed that consumers respond to price increases by altering their total consumption and by varying their brand choices. Significant reductions in sales were observed in response to price increases, but these effects were mitigated by significant substitutions between quality classes. The findings suggest that the net impacts of purposeful price policy to reduce consumption will depend on how such policies affect the range of prices across beverage brands.

  3. Crocins with high levels of sugar conjugation contribute to the yellow colours of early-spring flowering crocus tepals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Rubio Moraga

    Full Text Available Crocus sativus is the source of saffron spice, the processed stigma which accumulates glucosylated apocarotenoids known as crocins. Crocins are found in the stigmas of other Crocuses, determining the colourations observed from pale yellow to dark red. By contrast, tepals in Crocus species display a wider diversity of colours which range from purple, blue, yellow to white. In this study, we investigated whether the contribution of crocins to colour extends from stigmas to the tepals of yellow Crocus species. Tepals from seven species were analysed by UPLC-PDA and ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS revealing for the first time the presence of highly glucosylated crocins in this tissue. β-carotene was found to be the precursor of these crocins and some of them were found to contain rhamnose, never before reported. When crocin profiles from tepals were compared with those from stigmas, clear differences were found, including the presence of new apocarotenoids in stigmas. Furthermore, each species showed a characteristic profile which was not correlated with the phylogenetic relationship among species. While gene expression analysis in tepals of genes involved in carotenoid metabolism showed that phytoene synthase was a key enzyme in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in tepals. Expression of a crocetin glucosyltransferase, previously identified in saffron, was detected in all the samples. The presence of crocins in tepals is compatible with the role of chromophores to attract pollinators. The identification of tepals as new sources of crocins is of special interest given their wide range of applications in medicine, cosmetics and colouring industries.

  4. Less-healthy eating behaviors have a greater association with a high level of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among rural adults than among urban adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley R. Dean

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption is associated with the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States; however, little is known about how less-healthy eating behaviors influence high levels of SSB consumption among rural adults. Objective: We assessed the frequency of SSB consumption among rural and urban adults, examined the correlates of frequent SSB consumption, and determined difference in correlates between rural and urban adults in a large region of Texas. Design: A cross-sectional study using data on 1,878 adult participants (urban = 734 and rural = 1,144, who were recruited by random digit dialing to participate in the seven-county 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Data included demographic characteristics, eating behaviors (SSB consumption, frequency of fast-food meals, frequency of breakfast meals, and daily fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity. Results: The prevalence of any consumption of SSB and the prevalence of high consumption of SSB were significantly higher among rural adults compared with urban counterparts. The multivariable logistic regression models indicated that a high level of SSB consumption (≥3 cans or glasses SSB/day was associated with demographic characteristics (poverty-level income and children in the home, frequent consumption of fast-food meals, infrequent breakfast meals, low fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity especially among rural adults. Conclusions: This study provides impetus for understanding associations among multiple eating behaviors, especially among economically and geographically disadvantaged adults. New strategies are needed for educating consumers, not only about how to moderate their SSB intake, but also how to simultaneously disrupt the co-occurrence of undesirable eating and promote healthful eating.

  5. The Triggers, Timing and Speed of New Product Price Landings

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Mireles, Carlos; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMany high-tech products and durable goods exhibit exactly one significant price cut some time after their launch. We call this sudden transition from high to low prices the price landing. In this paper we present a new model that describes two important features of price landings: their timing and their speed. Prior literature suggests that prices might be driven by sales, product line pricing, competitor’s sales or simply by time. We propose a model using mixture components that ...

  6. Three essays on access pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

    In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of

  7. Price learning during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

  8. Do higher-priced generic medicines enjoy a competitive advantage under reference pricing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2012-11-01

    In many countries with generic reference pricing, generic producers and distributors compete by means of undisclosed discounts offered to pharmacies in order to reduce acquisition costs and to induce them to dispense their generic to patients in preference over others. The objective of this article is to test the hypothesis that under prevailing reference pricing systems for generic medicines, those medicines sold at a higher consumer price may enjoy a competitive advantage. Real transaction prices for 179 generic medicines acquired by pharmacies in Spain have been used to calculate the discount rate on acquisition versus reimbursed costs to pharmacies. Two empirical hypotheses are tested: the discount rate at which pharmacies acquire generic medicines is higher for those pharmaceutical presentations for which there are more generic competitors; and, the discount rate at which pharmacies acquire generic medicines is higher for those pharmaceutical forms for which the consumer price has declined less in relation to the consumer price of the brand drug before generic entry (higher-priced generic medicines). An average discount rate of 39.3% on acquisition versus reimbursed costs to pharmacies has been observed. The magnitude of the discount positively depends on the number of competitors in the market. The higher the ratio of the consumer price of the generic to that of the brand drug prior to generic entry (i.e. the smaller the price reduction of the generic in relation to the brand drug), the larger the discount rate. Under reference pricing there is intense price competition among generic firms in the form of unusually high discounts to pharmacies on official ex-factory prices reimbursed to pharmacies. However, this effect is highly distorting because it favours those medicines with a higher relative price in relation to the brand price before generic entry.

  9. TOURISM MARKET: PRICING ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kiseleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article retractedThe article is devoted to the actual topic of our time - the development of tourism services. The development of tourism is the leading technology trend dynamics maroon economic caused social restructuring of modern society. Macroeconomic Financial Statistics conrms the minimum amplitude of cyclical uctuations in the service sector, which turns it into countercyclical tool. In the Russian Federation the economic problem of a state policy in the sphere of tourist services is defined - to having turned tourism in competitive, innovative, countercyclical, and highly protable sector of national business. In article pricing factors are dened and are dened key of them, responsible for the cost of a tourist product. This work answers such questions of travel company as: denition of optimum group, formation of a transport tariff, structure of a tourist product on the main and accompanying services and their range, ways of sale. A practical advice by calculation of expenses is given. Correlation and regression and cluster analyses acted as research tools when performing work. In article the conclusion is drawn that the main methods of marketing management of pricing in the market of tourist services are: transition to the unified technology of granting a service on the basis of ISO; intensication and integration of the sphere of production and services

  10. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  11. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichiro

    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on nonlinear pricing in energy and environmental markets. The first investigates how consumers respond to multi-tier nonlinear price schedules for residential electricity. Chapter 2 asks a similar research question for residential water pricing. Finally, I examine the effect of nonlinear financial rewards for energy conservation by applying a regression discontinuity design to a large-scale electricity rebate program that was implemented in California. Economic theory generally assumes that consumers respond to marginal prices when making economic decisions, but this assumption may not hold for complex price schedules. The chapter "Do Consumers Respond to Marginal or Average Price? Evidence from Nonlinear Electricity Pricing" provides empirical evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal price when faced with nonlinear electricity price schedules. Nonlinear price schedules, such as progressive income tax rates and multi-tier electricity prices, complicate economic decisions by creating multiple marginal prices for the same good. Evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that consumers facing such price schedules may respond to average price as a heuristic. I empirically test this prediction using field data by exploiting price variation across a spatial discontinuity in electric utility service areas. The territory border of two electric utilities lies within several city boundaries in southern California. As a result, nearly identical households experience substantially different nonlinear electricity price schedules. Using monthly household-level panel data from 1999 to 2008, I find strong evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal or expected marginal price. I show that even though this sub-optimizing behavior has a minimal impact on individual welfare, it can critically alter the policy implications of nonlinear pricing. The second chapter " How Do

  12. Motor fuel prices in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    The world’s most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsi...

  13. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, S.-E.; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2003-01-01

    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available...

  14. 7 CFR 1124.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1124.53 Section 1124.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  15. 7 CFR 1030.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1030.53 Section 1030.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  16. 7 CFR 1033.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1033.53 Section 1033.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  17. 7 CFR 1006.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1006.53 Section 1006.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  18. 7 CFR 1005.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1005.53 Section 1005.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  19. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  20. 7 CFR 1131.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1131.53 Section 1131.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  1. 7 CFR 1126.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1126.53 Section 1126.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  2. 7 CFR 1001.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1001.53 Section 1001.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  3. 7 CFR 1007.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1007.53 Section 1007.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  4. Price, exclusivity and luxury: Exploring London's luxury hotels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-11

    licenses/by/4.0) ... industries are cataloguing their products around high price to capitalise on greater revenues and profits. ... London luxury hotel industry has and continues to grow, yet. Slattery (2012) insists prices for rooms ...

  5. Alcohol in Greenland 1951-2010: consumption, mortality, prices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aage, Hans

    2012-01-01

    ... in the 1980s - about twice as high as alcohol consumption in Denmark. Since then, consumption has declined, and current consumption is slightly below alcohol consumption in Denmark, while alcohol prices are far above Danish prices...

  6. Price of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survilo, Josifs; Boreiko, Dmitrijs

    2009-01-01

    There are watercourses on the globe which as yet do not deliver up their energy to the needs of the people. How much energy their waters bear, is it worth to take away this energy? Those and alike questions must be (and they are) answered before start to build hydro power station. Similar problems must be solved to control hydro power plants in most gainful way which is known as hydrothermal coordination. The notion of price of water can be met lately in technical literature as one of numerical indices of these issues. The gross price of water and net price of water are considered in this paper. Gross price of 1 t water is the price of electric energy obtained by conversion of potential energy of 1 t of water, lifted to a height of power station water head. Net price of water is the difference between gross price and total expenses determined by hydro power station building and its exploitation costs in a year related to 1 m3 of water. If net price of water is positive, it is worth building power station. The greater net price is, the more urgent is the building. Net price of water grows with water head but it continues only to some height of the dam because further increase of head sharply increases capital outlay and other exploitation expenses. To maximize net price of water, optimization of net price function can be done. Net price of water diminishes when some amount of water is diverted for other needs. When amount of diverted water is out of discussion, no controversy can emerge. However when by diverted water some goods with some monetary worth can be obtained, the task must be solved how much water can be diverted so that the water of watercourse be used to the maximum benefit. The environmental issues must be taken into account as well.

  7. Pricing in non-convex electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araoz Castillo, Veronica

    2012-07-01

    Deregulation of the electricity markets has brought several interesting topics to the research agenda. Switching from a monopoly based industry to the free market industry has not been straight forward. The competitive segments of the deregulated electricity markets, the wholesale market and the retail market, have evolved in different ways across the globe, and consequently there are different market designs and different pricing mechanisms. In a competitive market, the price is given by the intersection of supply and demand. However, electricity treated as a commodity, open to the market forces, has several characteristics that do not fit into the classic economic model where prices are set by the intersection of supply and demand. This is due to non-convexities. This can be a challenge for the price discovery process, since the supply and demand curves may not intersect; or if they intersect, the price found may not be high enough to cover the total cost of production. In the dissertation, Araoz Castillo review previous work on setting prices for the day-ahead electricity market in a power pool auction. In addition, an alternative pricing mechanism is proposed. This mechanism employs a Semi-Lagrangian relaxation technique. This technique provides a price that can be applied in the electricity pool markets. In this type of markets a central system operator decides who produces and how much they should produce. The proposed pricing approach not only accommodates the non-convexities that the electricity market has, but also provides a price for the day-ahead electricity. At this price, the demand is fulfilled at minimum cost and all generators are covering their fixed costs. The technique is applied to a model without networks constraint, with network constraints and also to obtain capacity prices.(Author)

  8. Performance of several Saccharomyces strains for the alcoholic fermentation of sugar-sweetened high-strength wastewaters: Comparative analysis and kinetic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelli, Raúl N; Seluy, Lisandro G; Isla, Miguel A

    2016-12-25

    This work focuses on the performance of ten commercial Saccharomyces yeast strains in the batch alcoholic fermentation of sugars contained in selected industrial wastewaters from the soft drink industry. Fermentation has been applied successfully to treat these effluents prior to their disposal. Although many strains were investigated, similar behaviour was observed between all of the Saccharomyces strains tested. When media were inoculated with 2gL -1 of yeast, all strains were able to completely consume the available sugars in less than 14h. Thus, any of the strains studied in this work could be used in non-conventional wastewater treatment processes based on alcoholic fermentation. However, ethanol production varied between strains, and these differences could be significant from a production point of view. Saccharomyces bayanus produced the most ethanol, with a mean yield of 0.44g ethanol g sugarconsumed -1 and an ethanol specific production rate of 5.96g ethanol (Lh) -1 . As the assayed soft drinks wastewaters contain about 105g sugar /L of fermentable sugars, the concentration of ethanol achieved after the fermentations process was 46.2g ethanol /L. A rigorous kinetic modelling methodology was used to model the Saccharomyces bayanus fermentation process. The kinetic model included coupled mass balances and a minimal number of parameters. A simple unstructured model based on the Andrews equation (substrate inhibition) was developed. This model satisfactorily described biomass growth, sugar consumption and bioethanol production. In addition to providing insights into the fermentative performance of potentially relevant strains, this work can facilitate the design of large-scale ethanol production processes that use wastewaters from the sugar-sweetened beverage industry as feedstock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors associated with sugar intake and sugar sources in European children from 1 to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawellek, I; Grote, V; Theurich, M; Closa-Monasterolo, R; Stolarczyk, A; Verduci, E; Xhonneux, A; Koletzko, B

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends to limit intake of free sugars to 5% of total energy per day because of the great impact of high sugar intake on body fat deposition, adiposity and dental caries. However, little data exist about total intake and sources of sugar in European children. Therefore, this paper aims to describe sugar intake and dietary sugar sources and associated factors. Three-day weighed dietary records were obtained at eight time points from children 1 to 8 years of age (n=995) in five European countries. Food items were classified into subgroups according to food composition. Linear mixed models were used to examine associated factors. Total sugar intake increased from 65 g/day (30.0% of energy intake (E%)) at 12 months of age to 83 g/day (20.9 E%) at 96 months of age. Around 80% of children's sugar intake was derived from the following sources: milk and dairy products, fruits and fruit products, confectionary and sugar sweetened beverages (SSB). Total sugar intake and dietary sugar sources varied significantly by country of residence. Boys had a significantly (P=0.003) higher total sugar consumption than girls.SSB consumption was significantly higher in children from young mothers while sugar intake from fruit products was lower in children from mothers with lower educational status and those with higher birth order. Sugar intake in our population was lower than in other studies. Total sugar intake was associated with country of residence and gender, while dietary sugar sources varied by country of residence, maternal age, education and birth order.

  10. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  11. A Vector Autoregressive Model for Electricity Prices Subject to Long Memory and Regime Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Nielsen, Frank; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    2007-01-01

    to occasional congestion periods. For a system of bilat- eral prices non-congestion means that electricity prices are identical whereas congestion makes prices depart. Hence, the joint price dynamics implies switching between essen- tially a univariate price process under non-congestion and a bivariate price...... process under congestion. At the same time it is an empirical regularity that electricity prices tend to show a high degree of fractional integration, and thus that prices may be fractionally cointegrated. An empirical analysis using Nord Pool data shows that even though the prices strongly co-move under...

  12. Valuation Struggles over Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Public policies such as feed-in tariffs have been widely introduced to stimulate the development of renewable energies, and sustain a decarbonisation of the electricity sector. Proponents argue that these governance instruments safeguard public goods such as the climate – yet they are accused...... of creating political markets, and political prices, here understood as market distortion. This paper studies the ‘politics’ of pricing by following the adoption of the first feed-in tariff in France. Pricing as a way of achieving non-economic ends, such as climate mitigation, brings the values of several...... public goods into play, all the while prompting a translation of these values into a single price. Following the struggles over the pricing of wind power in the early 2000s, the study illustrates that rather than a pollution of the market sphere by that of politics, a politics of pricing can be observed...

  13. STS pricing policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  14. Optimal Asset Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Turner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe an R package for determining the optimal price of an asset which is perishable in a certain sense, given the intensity of customer arrivals and a time-varying price sensitivity function which speci?es the probability that a customer will purchase an asset o?ered at a given price at a given time. The package deals with the case of customers arriving in groups, with a probability distribution for the group size being speci?ed. The methodology and software allow for both discrete and continuous pricing. The class of possible models for price sensitivity functions is very wide, and includes piecewise linear models. A mechanism for constructing piecewise linear price sensitivity functions is provided.

  15. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  16. Health benefits of reducing sugar-sweetened beverage intake in high risk populations of California: results from the cardiovascular disease (CVD policy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekeshe A Mekonnen

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB has risen over the past two decades, with over 10 million Californians drinking one or more SSB per day. High SSB intake is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD. Reduction of SSB intake and the potential impact on health outcomes in California and among racial, ethnic, and low-income sub-groups has not been quantified.We projected the impact of reduced SSB consumption on health outcomes among all Californians and California subpopulations from 2013 to 2022. We used the CVD Policy Model - CA, an established computer simulation of diabetes and heart disease adapted to California. We modeled a reduction in SSB intake by 10-20% as has been projected to result from proposed penny-per-ounce excise tax on SSB and modeled varying effects of this reduction on health parameters including body mass index, blood pressure, and diabetes risk. We projected avoided cases of diabetes and CHD, and associated health care cost savings in 2012 US dollars.Over the next decade, a 10-20% SSB consumption reduction is projected to result in a 1.8-3.4% decline in the new cases of diabetes and an additional drop of 0.5-1% in incident CHD cases and 0.5-0.9% in total myocardial infarctions. The greatest reductions are expected in African Americans, Mexican Americans, and those with limited income regardless of race and ethnicity. This reduction in SSB consumption is projected to yield $320-620 million in medical cost savings associated with diabetes cases averted and an additional savings of $14-27 million in diabetes-related CHD costs avoided.A reduction of SSB consumption could yield substantial population health benefits and cost savings for California. In particular, racial, ethnic, and low-income subgroups of California could reap the greatest health benefits.

  17. The impact of further tariff reduction on the EU sugar sector in the forthcoming multilateral round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. HUAN-NIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper indicates the need for reform in the EU sugar sector due to the erosion of "border protection" in the view of further reduction in import tariffs for sugar. Three tariff reduction methods are assessed to project the "border protection" for EU sugar: Swiss formula proposed by the Cairns Group, "Harbinson" Proposal by the World Trade Organization and Uruguay Round formula proposed by the EU. In the assumed forthcoming multilateral round for agriculture, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by 67%, if the Cairns Group tariff reduction method is used. However, if the "Harbinson" method is used, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by at least 35%. On the contrary, the EU may avoid lowering the support price for sugar with three conditions occurring simultaneously: 1 the Uruguay Round formula is used as the reduction method in the assumed new WTO round and the EU can use the minimum reduction rate of 15% for sugar

  18. The Hotel Pricing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Cibulková, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is an analysis of pricing strategy of Hotel Imperial and its evaluation, which should results in proposal of changes leading to increase of effectivity and hotel's income. The diploma thesis is divided into four main parts. The first two chapters are devoted to a theoretical description of pricing strategy and distribution channels used in hotel business. The third part is focused on the analysis of hotel itself and its pricing strategy. The final chapter summa...

  19. Employment and Asset Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Zoega, Gylfi

    2009-01-01

    A medium-term relationship exists between share prices, normalised by labour productivity, and the rate of unemployment in the OECD countries. A similar relationship appears to exist between unemployment and house prices. This helps explain decadal changes in mean unemployment, such as the shift to higher mean unemployment in the Continental European countries in the 1970s and 1980s that coincided with a fall in the level of share prices, as well as differences in mean unemployment between co...

  20. Pricing public transport services

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Jan Owen; Holmgren, Johan; Ljungberg, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This chapter aims at outlining pricing policy for public transport that maximizes the social surplus, that is, the sum of the producer surplus and the consumer surplus, while internalizing possible system-external costs. It starts by presenting the door-to-door transport cost as a key concept in price theory for public transport, and then first principles of optimal pricing valid for all modes of public transport are laid down. These principles are applied to urban (short-distance) public tra...

  1. Comparative proteomic analyses of the parietal lobe from rhesus monkeys fed a high-fat/sugar diet with and without resveratrol supplementation, relative to a healthy diet: Insights into the roles of unhealthy diets and resveratrol on function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swomley, Aaron M; Triplett, Judy C; Keeney, Jeriel T; Warrier, Govind; Pearson, Kevin J; Mattison, Julie A; de Cabo, Rafael; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Butterfield, D Allan

    2017-01-01

    A diet consisting of a high intake of saturated fat and refined sugars is characteristic of a Western-diet and has been shown to have a substantial negative effect on human health. Expression proteomics were used to investigate changes to the parietal lobe proteome of rhesus monkeys consuming either a high fat and sugar (HFS) diet, a HFS diet supplemented with resveratrol (HFS+RSV), or a healthy control diet for 2 years. Here we discuss the modifications in the levels of 12 specific proteins involved in various cellular systems including metabolism, neurotransmission, structural integrity, and general cellular signaling following a nutritional intervention. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which resveratrol functions through the up- or down-regulation of proteins in different cellular sub-systems to affect the overall health of the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Gulati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers, should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased.

  3. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

  4. Relating price strategies and price-setting practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This article addresses the relationship between price strategies and price-setting practices. The first derive from a normative tradition in the pricing literature and the latter from a descriptive tradition. Price strategies are visible in the market, whereas price-setting practices are

  5. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Carbohydrates and Diabetes Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Diabetes Control: Why It's Important Diabetes Center Blood Glucose ... Is Too Low Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Diabetes Control: Why It's Important Carbohydrates and Diabetes When ...

  6. Weight Changes and Metabolic Outcomes in Calorie-Restricted Obese Mice Fed High-Fat Diets Containing Corn or Flaxseed Oil: Physiological Role of Sugar Replacement with Polyphenol-Rich Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Hastimansooreh; Zamaninour, Negar; Djazayery, Abolghassem; Pishva, Hamideh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Dilmaghanian, Aydin; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Shidfar, Farzad

    2017-08-01

    Because diet components are important during dieting in obesity treatment, we examined possible beneficial effects of substituting corn oil and sugar with flaxseed oil and grape in calorie-restricted high-fat diets on weight changes as well as improvement in some metabolic markers and related gene expression. Seventy-five C57BL/6J male mice were given free access to a high-fat (36% of energy from fat) diet containing corn oil plus sugar (CO + S). After 11 weeks, 15 mice were sacrificed and another 60 were divided among 4 high-fat diet groups with 30% calorie restriction (CR) for the next 12 weeks. The diets contained corn oil (CO) or flaxseed oil (FO) with sugar (S) or grape (G). Despite CR, a weight loss trend was observed only during the first 4 weeks in all groups. CR did not significantly increase SIRT1 gene expression. Higher liver weight was observed in mice consuming FO (p oil with flaxseed oil in obese mice reduced fat mass, but even with no change in adiponectin levels it could not decrease insulin resistance. However, none of the food item combinations facilitated weight reduction in the long-term CR. Therefore, regardless of the total calorie intake, different diet components and fat contents may have unexpected effects on metabolic regulation.

  7. Intranational Price Convergence and Price Stickiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Heebøll, Christian; Hansen, Niels Lynggaard

    2017-01-01

    We show that estimates of the half-life of deviations from LOOP are biased when not taking into account the precision when aggregating over types of goods. Using a comprehensive dataset with monthly price data for 124 homogeneous products across regions in Denmark over the period 1997–2010 we find...... a large positive aggregation bias. On average, we find that the half-life is 8.4 months when taking the bias into account compared to 28.7 months when applying the standard method. The heterogeneity in estimated half-life can be explained by price stickiness, distance between regions and whether the good...

  8. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

    2007-08-01

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

  9. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP. In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m−3 in PM10 and 55 ng m−3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m−3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m−3.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2

  10. Sugar for wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, J

    2000-07-01

    Sugar in its pure form, or incorporated into a paste containing an adhesive hydropolymer (gum), is a non-toxic treatment for a variety of wounds. Not only does it provide a suitable clean environment for angiogenesis to take place, but it will debride the wound surface and reduce odour. The presence of an adhesive hydropolymer seems to prevent hypergranulation, scarring and contraction.

  11. Sugar Cane Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Nancy Alpert

    The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane…

  12. Possible space weather influence on the Earth wheat prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustil'Nik, L.; Yom Din, G.; Dorman, L.

    We present development of our study of possible influence of space weather modulated by cycle of solar activity on the price bursts in the Earth markets In our previous works 1 2 we showed that correspondent response may have place in the specific locations characterized by a high sensitivity of the weather cloudiness in particular to cosmic ray variation b risk zone agriculture c isolated wheat market with limited external supply of agriculture production We showed that in this situation we may wait specific price burst reaction on unfavorable phase of solar activity and space weather what lead to corresponding abnormalities in the local weather and next crop failure We showed that main types of manifestation of this connection are a Distribution of intervals between price bursts must be like to the distribution of intervals between correspondent extremes of solar activity minimums or maximums b price asymmetry between opposite states of solar activity price in the one type of activity state is systematically higher then in the opposite one We showed in our previous publications that this influence in interval distribution is detected with high reliability in Mediaeval England 1250-1700 both for wheat prices and price of consumables basket We showed that for period of Maunder Minimum price asymmetry of wheat prices observed all prices in minimum state of solar activity was higher the prices in the next maximum state We showed later that this price asymmetry had place in 20-th century in USA durum prices too In

  13. Effects of high energy prices on scenarios for greenhouse gas emissions. Final report; Energiepreise und Klimaschutz. Wirkung hoher Energietraegerpreise auf die CO{sub 2}-Emissionsminderung bis 2030. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix Christian; Graichen, Verena; Harthan, Ralph O.; Repenning, Julia [Oeko-Institut, Berlin (Germany); Horn, Manfred [DIW Berlin (Germany); Krey, Volker; Markewitz, Peter; Martinsen, Dag [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Programmgruppe STE

    2008-05-15

    Against the background of high increases in the prices of the primary energy carriers crude oil, natural gas and hard coal, which are traded on international markets, three scenarios of the price development of the most important energy carriers are developed. Using energy price assumptions, a scenario analysis is undertaken with regard to the development of CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany as a whole as well as in terms of the different energy sectors. The emission scenarios are analysed with respect to the electricity industry in Germany using both IKARUS, the energy system model geared towards macroeconomic optimisation, and ELIAS, the sector model based on microeconomic considerations. The model analyses are supplemented by an overview of literature with regard to similar model analyses. (orig.)

  14. Future sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like many other food and chemical industries, the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, the world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and reduce green house gases, and water- and ...

  15. Pricing of drugs and donations: options for sustainable equity pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Casas, C; Herranz, E; Ford, N

    2001-11-01

    Effective medicines exist to treat or alleviate many diseases which predominate in the developing world and cause high mortality and morbidity rates. Price should not be an obstacle preventing access to these medicines. Increasingly, drug donations have been established by drug companies, but these are often limited in time, place or use. Measures exist which are more sustainable and will have a greater positive impact on people's health. Principally, these are encouraging generic competition; adopting into national legislation and implementing TRIPS safeguards to gain access to cheaper sources of drugs; differential pricing; creating high volume or high demand through global and regional procurement; and supporting the production of quality generic drugs by developing countries through voluntary licenses if needed, and facilitating technology transfer.

  16. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  17. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  18. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...

  19. Essays on asset pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazliben, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    The dissertation consists of three chapters that represent separate papers in the area of asset pricing. The first chapter studies investors optimal asset allocation problem in which mean reversion in stock prices is captured by explicitly modeling transitory and permanent shocks. The second chapter

  20. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157222241

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently

  1. PRICING FINANCIAL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Valentine

    1998-01-01

    Deregulation of the financial system, and the significant heightening of competition that it produced, has directed attention to the way in which financial institutions price their products and services. Also, the loan losses of the nineties increased interest in the problems of pricing for risk.

  2. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household...

  3. Assessing Asset Pricing Anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. de Groot (Wilma)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOne of the most important challenges in the field of asset pricing is to understand anomalies: empirical patterns in asset returns that cannot be explained by standard asset pricing models. Currently, there is no consensus in the academic literature on the underlying causes of

  4. Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Lü, Deguo; Zhou, Chuansheng; Ou, Shiyi; Yang, Baoru

    2010-01-27

    Acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols in the fruits of 22 cultivars/origins of three species of hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Citric acid (2.0-8.4 g/100 g dry mass [DM]), quinic acid (0.5-5.6 g/100 g DM), malic acid (0.3-1.1 g/100 g DM), fructose (5.5-18.4 g/100 g DM), glucose (5.3-16.6 g/100 g DM), sorbitol (3.0-15.7 g/100 g DM), and myo-inositol (0.1-0.3 g/100 g DM) were found in all the samples. Sucrose was present only in C. scabrifolia and three cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major. C. scabrifolia differed from other species by its high content of quinic acid. The cultivars of C. pinnatifida var. major and C. brettschneideri had a higher content of total sugars and a higher sugar/acid ratio than the natural origins of C. pinnatifida and C. scabrifolia (P hawthorn samples analyzed fell into two groups rich in sugars and acids respectively. This is the first report of the profiles of sugars and sugar alcohols and the occurrence of quinic acid in hawthorn fruits.

  5. The Effect of Cigarette Prices on Youth Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Hana PhD; Chaloupka, Frank J. PhD

    2001-01-01

    Prior economic research provides mixed evidence on the impact of cigarette prices on youth smoking. This paper empirically tests the effects of various price measures on youth demand for cigarettes using data collected in a recent nationally representative survey of 17,287 high school students. In addition to commonly used cigarette price measures, the study also examined the effect of price as perceived by the students. This unique information permits the study of the effect of teen-specific...

  6. Fluctuating staple prices and household poverty in India

    OpenAIRE

    Shutes, L.J.; Ganesh-Kumar, A.; Meijerink, G.

    2012-01-01

    The general perception is that high food prices in India have increased poverty and that trade reforms will further worsen poverty. We compare Foster-Greer-Thorbecke poverty measures for various scenarios of grain price swings with and without trade reform, using price and income effects for 32 representative households computed from a global economic model and a model of India's economy. The results suggest that a rise in the global rice price actually provides strong opportunities for pover...

  7. The Dynamics of Price and Advertising as Signals of Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Ayar

    2007-01-01

    A monopolist introduces a new product of either low or high quality. It advertises to make consumers aware of the product and signals product quality using both price and advertising. When consumption does not re- veal product quality, price is higher and advertising is lower than they would be if product quality is observable. Price rises and advertising falls as the fraction of aware consumers increases. When consumption reveals product quality, price is higher and advertising is lower than...

  8. Price Formation by Bargaining and Posted Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kultti, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    We study markets with two types of agents. Sellers have an indivisible good for sale, and their reservation value is zero. Buyers are randomly matched with sellers, and they value the good at unity. Sellers may be matched with any positive number of buyers, and they may choose to determine the price

  9. Taxes on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages to Reduce Overweight and Obesity in Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon S Nakhimovsky

    Full Text Available The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs, which can lead to weight gain, is rising in middle-income countries (MICs. Taxing SSBs may help address this challenge. Systematic reviews focused on high-income countries indicate that taxing SSBs may reduce SSB consumption. Responsiveness to price changes may differ in MICs, where governments are considering the tax. To help inform their policy decisions, this review compiles evidence from MICs, assessing post-tax price increases (objective 1, changes in demand for SSBs and other products, overall and by socio-economic groups (objective 2, and effects on overweight and obesity prevalence (objective 3.We conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of SSB taxation in MICs (1990-2016 and identified nine studies from Brazil, Ecuador, India, Mexico, Peru, and South Africa. Estimates for own-price elasticity ranged from -0.6 to -1.2, and decreases in SSB consumption ranged from 5 to 39 kilojoules per person per day given a 10% increase in SSB prices. The review found that milk is a likely substitute, and foods prepared away from home, snacks, and candy are likely complements to SSBs. A quasi-experimental study and two modeling studies also found a negative relationship between SSB prices and obesity outcomes after accounting for substitution effects. Estimates are consistent despite variation in baseline obesity prevalence and per person per day consumption of SSBs across countries studied.The review indicates that taxing SSBs will increase the prices of SSBs, especially sugary soda, in markets with few producers. Taxing SSBs will also reduce net energy intake by enough to prevent further growth in obesity prevalence, but not to reduce population weight permanently. Additional research using better survey data and stronger study designs is needed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of an SSB tax on obesity prevalence in MICs.

  10. Coupons and `everyday low prices': price competition with multiple instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Lester Kwong

    2003-01-01

    A simple two-stage game is examined, where firms compete in prices by chosen pricing instruments. Those considered include a simple, uniform pricing technology and a promotional pricing technology like an advertised discount coupon. Consumers are separated by types, informed and uninformed. Therefore, a motive for price competition exists for the purpose of separating the two types of consumers. It is shown that the sustainability of an asymmetric choice of pricing instrument between the two ...

  11. Recent Dynamics of Crude Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine Krichene

    2006-01-01

    Crude oil prices have been on a run-up spree in recent years. Their dynamics were characterized by high volatility, high intensity jumps, and strong upward drift, indicating that oil markets were constantly out-of-equilibrium. An explanation of the oil price process in terms of the underlying fundamentals of oil markets and world economy was provided, viewing pressure on oil prices mainly as a result of rigid crude oil supply and an expanding world demand for crude oil. A change in the oil pr...

  12. The Earnings/Price Risk Factor in Capital Asset Pricing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Falcão Noda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article integrates the ideas from two major lines of research on cost of equity and asset pricing: multi-factor models and ex ante accounting models. The earnings/price ratio is used as a proxy for the ex ante cost of equity, in order to explain realized returns of Brazilian companies within the period from 1995 to 2013. The initial finding was that stocks with high (low earnings/price ratios have higher (lower risk-adjusted realized returns, already controlled by the capital asset pricing model's beta. The results show that selecting stocks based on high earnings/price ratios has led to significantly higher risk-adjusted returns in the Brazilian market, with average abnormal returns close to 1.3% per month. We design asset pricing models including an earnings/price risk factor, i.e. high earnings minus low earnings, based on the Fama and French three-factor model. We conclude that such a risk factor is significant to explain returns on portfolios, even when controlled by size and market/book ratios. Models including the high earnings minus low earnings risk factor were better to explain stock returns in Brazil when compared to the capital asset pricing model and to the Fama and French three-factor model, having the lowest number of significant intercepts. These findings may be due to the impact of historically high inflation rates, which reduce the information content of book values, thus making the models based on earnings/price ratios better than those based on market/book ratios. Such results are different from those obtained in more developed markets and the superiority of the earnings/price ratio for asset pricing may also exist in other emerging markets.

  13. Essays on pricing dynamics, price dispersion, and nested logit modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinda, Jeremy Alan

    The body of this dissertation comprises three standalone essays, presented in three respective chapters. Chapter One explores the possibility that local market power contributes to the asymmetric relationship observed between wholesale costs and retail prices in gasoline markets. I exploit an original data set of weekly gas station prices in Southern California from September 2002 to May 2003, and take advantage of highly detailed station and local market-level characteristics to determine the extent to which spatial differentiation influences price-response asymmetry. I find that brand identity, proximity to rival stations, bundling and advertising, operation type, and local market features and demographics each influence a station's predicted asymmetric relationship between prices and wholesale costs. Chapter Two extends the existing literature on the effect of market structure on price dispersion in airline fares by modeling the effect at the disaggregate ticket level. Whereas past studies rely on aggregate measures of price dispersion such as the Gini coefficient or the standard deviation of fares, this paper estimates the entire empirical distribution of airline fares and documents how the shape of the distribution is determined by market structure. Specifically, I find that monopoly markets favor a wider distribution of fares with more mass in the tails while duopoly and competitive markets exhibit a tighter fare distribution. These findings indicate that the dispersion of airline fares may result from the efforts of airlines to practice second-degree price discrimination. Chapter Three adopts a Bayesian approach to the problem of tree structure specification in nested logit modelling, which requires a heavy computational burden in calculating marginal likelihoods. I compare two different techniques for estimating marginal likelihoods: (1) the Laplace approximation, and (2) reversible jump MCMC. I apply the techniques to both a simulated and a travel mode

  14. A diet high in fat and sugar reverses anxiety-like behaviour induced by limited nesting in male rats: Impacts on hippocampal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher P; Le, Vivian; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-06-01

    Stress exposure during early development is known to produce long-term mental health deficits. Stress promotes poor lifestyle choices such as poor diet. Early life adversity and diets high in fat and sugar (HFHS) are known to affect anxiety and memory. However additive effects of HFHS and stress during early development are less explored. Here, we examined whether early life stress (ELS) simulated by limited nesting (LN) induces anxiety-like behaviour and cognitive deficits that are modulated by HFHS diet. We examined key hippocampal markers involved in anxiety and cognition, testing the hypothesis that post-weaning HFHS following ELS would ameliorate anxiety-like behaviour but worsen memory and associated hippocampal changes. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to LN, postnatal days 2-9, and at weaning, male siblings were given unlimited access to chow or HFHS resulting in (Con-Chow, Con-HFHS, LN-Chow, LN-HFHS, n=11-15/group). Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) at 10 weeks and spatial and object recognition tested at 11 weeks of age. Rats were culled at 13 weeks. Hippocampal mRNA expression was measured using TaqMan(®) Array Micro Fluidic cards (Life Technologies). As expected HFHS diet increased body weight; LN and control rats had similar weights at 13 weeks, energy intake was also similar across groups. LN-Chow rats showed increased anxiety-like behaviour relative to control rats, but this was reversed by HFHS diet. Spatial and object recognition memory were unaltered by LN exposure or consumption of HFHS diet. Hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein was not affected by LN exposure in chow rats, but was increased by 45% in HFHS rats relative to controls. Hippocampal genes involved in plasticity and mood regulation, GSKα and GSKβ were affected, with reductions in GSKβ under both diet conditions, and reduced GSKα only in LN-HFHS versus Con-HFHS. Interestingly, HFHS diet and LN exposure independently reduced expression of

  15. Evaluating drug prices, availability, affordability, and price components: implications for access to drugs in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ud Din Babar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaysia's stable health care system is facing challenges with increasing medicine costs. To investigate these issues a survey was carried out to evaluate medicine prices, availability, affordability, and the structure of price components. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO and Health Action International (HAI was used. Price and availability data for 48 medicines was collected from 20 public sector facilities, 32 private sector retail pharmacies and 20 dispensing doctors in four geographical regions of West Malaysia. Medicine prices were compared with international reference prices (IRPs to obtain a median price ratio. The daily wage of the lowest paid unskilled government worker was used to gauge the affordability of medicines. Price component data were collected throughout the supply chain, and markups, taxes, and other distribution costs were identified. In private pharmacies, innovator brand (IB prices were 16 times higher than the IRPs, while generics were 6.6 times higher. In dispensing doctor clinics, the figures were 15 times higher for innovator brands and 7.5 for generics. Dispensing doctors applied high markups of 50%-76% for IBs, and up to 316% for generics. Retail pharmacy markups were also high-25%-38% and 100%-140% for IBs and generics, respectively. In the public sector, where medicines are free, availability was low even for medicines on the National Essential Drugs List. For a month's treatment for peptic ulcer disease and hypertension people have to pay about a week's wages in the private sector. CONCLUSIONS: The free market by definition does not control medicine prices, necessitating price monitoring and control mechanisms. Markups for generic products are greater than for IBs. Reducing the base price without controlling markups may increase profits for retailers and dispensing doctors without reducing the price paid by end users. To increase access and

  16. 7 CFR 1030.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1030.50 Section 1030.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  17. 7 CFR 1124.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1124.50 Section 1124.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  18. Reduction in risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in response to a low-sugar, high-fiber dietary intervention in overweight Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Emily; Davis, Jaimie; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Alexander, Katharine; McClain, Arianna; Lane, Christianne Joy; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Weigensberg, Marc; Goran, Michael

    2009-04-01

    To examine if reductions in added sugar intake or increases in fiber intake in response to a 16-week intervention were related to improvements in metabolic outcomes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. Secondary analysis of a randomized control trial. Intervention classes at a lifestyle laboratory and metabolic measures at the General Clinical Research Center. Fifty-four overweight Latino adolescents (mean [SD] age, 15.5 [1] years). Intervention Sixteen-week study with 3 groups: control, nutrition, or nutrition plus strength training. Body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; visceral adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging; glucose and insulin incremental area under the curve by oral glucose tolerance test; insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response, and disposition index by intravenous glucose tolerance test; and dietary intake by 3-day records. Fifty-five percent of all participants decreased added sugar intake (mean decrease, 47 g/d) and 59% increased fiber intake (mean increase, 5 g/d), and percentages were similar in all intervention groups, including controls. Those who decreased added sugar intake had an improvement in glucose incremental area under the curve (-15% vs +3%; P = .049) and insulin incremental area under the curve (-33% vs -9%; P = .02). Those who increased fiber intake had an improvement in body mass index (-2% vs +2%; P = .01) and visceral adipose tissue (-10% vs no change; P = .03). Individuals who reduced added sugar intake by the equivalent of 1 can of soda per day or increased fiber intake by the equivalent of a cup of beans showed improvements in key risk factors for type 2 diabetes, specifically in insulin secretion and visceral fat. Improvements occurred independent of group assignment and were equally likely to occur in control group participants.

  19. The Combination Forecasting of Electricity Price Based on Price Spikes Processing: A Case Study in South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jianzhou; Xiao, Ling; Shi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Electricity price forecasting holds very important position in the electricity market. Inaccurate price forecasting may cause energy waste and management chaos in the electricity market. However, electricity price forecasting has always been regarded as one of the largest challenges in the electricity market because it shows high volatility, which makes electricity price forecasting difficult. This paper proposes the use of artificial intelligence optimization combination forecasting models b...

  20. Transfer Pricing Documentation - A Current Issue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Violeta Isai; Ramona Maxim

    2016-01-01

    .... With the adoption of the Fiscal Procedure Code and Order no. 442/2016 were founded transfer pricing procedures, denoting a means of making taxable transfer of a high tax country to a low tax country...

  1. The effect of sugar solution type, sugar concentration and viscosity on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Erika; Dey, Tania; Kevan, Peter G

    2013-09-01

    Nectar is an essential resource for bumblebees and many other flower-visiting insects. The main constituents of nectar are sugars, which vary in both composition and concentration between plant species. We assessed the influence of sugar concentration, sugar solution viscosity and sugar solution composition on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees, Bombus impatiens Cresson (Hymenoptera: Apidae). To do this, we measured their rate of solution intake for 49 different sugar solution treatments, which varied in both sugar composition and concentration. In general, the imbibition rates of bumblebees were found to increase with increasing sugar concentration, probably due to their preference for high sugar concentrations, up to a concentration of 27% (w/w), at which point solutions reached a threshold viscosity of approximately 1.5-1.6 mPa.s. Above this threshold, the increasing viscosity of the solutions physically inhibited the imbibition rates of bees, and imbibition rate began to decrease as the concentration increased. Nevertheless, bumblebee energy intake rate increased with increasing concentration up to about 42-56%. Although we found that sugar solution composition had an impact on both imbibition and energy intake rate, its effect was not as straightforward as that of sugar concentration and viscosity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative shotgun proteomics reveals extensive changes to the proteome of the orbitofrontal cortex in rats that are hyperactive following withdrawal from a high sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jane L; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Wearne, Travis A; Sauer, Melanie K; Homewood, Judi; Goodchild, Ann K; Haynes, Paul A; Cornish, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    In most Westernized societies, there has been an alarming increase in the consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks. For many adults these drinks represent a substantial proportion of their total daily caloric intake. Here we investigated whether extended exposure to sugar changes behavior and protein expression in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8 per group) were treated for 26 days with either water or a 10% sucrose solution. Locomotor behavior was measured on the first and last day of treatment, then 1 week after treatment. Following the 1-week period free from treatment, sucrose treated rats were significantly more active than the control. Two hours following final behavioral testing, brains were rapidly removed and prepared for proteomic analysis of the OFC. Label free quantitative shotgun proteomic analyses of three rats from each group found 290 proteins were differentially expressed in the sucrose treated group when compared to the control group. Major changes in the proteome were seen in proteins related to energy metabolism, mitochondrial function and the cellular response to stress. This research does not seek to suggest that sugar will cause specific neurological disorders, however similar changes in proteins have been seen in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing...) among the sugar beet processors and the cane sugar allotment of 4,316,778 STRV (45.65 percent of the OAQ... proportionate shares in Louisiana, the only State eligible for proportionate shares, in FY 2012. The cane sugar...

  4. An annual quasidifference approach to water price elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David R.; Griffin, Ronald C.

    2008-08-01

    The preferred price specification for retail water demand estimation has not been fully settled by prior literature. Empirical consistency of price indices is necessary to enable testing of competing specifications. Available methods of unbiasing the price index are summarized here. Using original rate information from several hundred Texas utilities, new indices of marginal and average price change are constructed. Marginal water price change is shown to explain consumption variation better than average water price change, based on standard information criteria. Annual change in quantity consumed per month is estimated with differences in climate variables and the new quasidifference marginal price index. As expected, the annual price elasticity of demand is found to vary with daily high and low temperatures and the frequency of precipitation.

  5. Quantification of transformation rates of soil amino sugars and amino acids by a novel isotope pool dilution approach via liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuntao; Zheng, Qing; Noll, Lisa; Zhang, Shasha; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Organic nitrogen transformation processes are the key driver of soil nitrogen availability, strongly affecting the nitrogen turnover and carbon cycling of terrestrial ecosystems. Low molecular weight organic nitrogen compounds (e.g. amino acids and amino sugars) that can be directly utilized by plants or microorganisms are released by the extracellular cleavage of high molecular weight organic nitrogen compounds (e.g. proteins, peptidoglycan, and chitin) by hydrolytic enzymes. This decomposition process is believed to be the rate-limiting step in the soil N cycle. Direct measurements of the in situ transformation rates of these small N compounds is highly challenging but can be realized by applying the isotope pool dilution (IPD) technique, in which the target compound pool is labeled with isotopic tracers and subsequently the dilution of the tracers is measured. We have recently pioneered the development of IPD assays to investigate the in situ flux of proteinaceous amino acids and glucose due to decomposition of organic matter and microbial utilization, but the roles of fluxes of amino sugars and amino acid enantiomers in soil nitrogen transformation processes are still unknown due to the lack of feasible extraction, purification, separation and detection methods. Here we developed a 15N IPD assay by utilizing a novel LC/HRMS (Orbitrap) platform, with the aim to measure transformation rates of amino sugars and amino acid enantiomers. After the tracer experiments soil extracts were purified by solid phase extraction prior to the analysis by MS. The utilization of Orbitrap-HRMS allowed us to resolve the mass signals of unlabeled analytes, and their 15N labeled (tracers) and 13C labeled (internal standards) analogues. The commercially unavailable 15N and 13C labeled amino sugars and amino acid enantiomers were produced from bacterial cell walls after batch culture in labeled growth media. This workflow was validated with soils from two sampling sites, allowing us to

  6. Entry Decision and Pricing Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Jorge; Cesaltina Pires

    2007-01-01

    We extend the analysis of the impact of firms' pricing policies upon entry to a framework where price competition and differentiated products are present. We consider a model where an incumbent serves two distinct and independent geographical markets and an entrant may enter in one of the markets. Entry under discriminatory pricing is more likely than under uniform pricing when entry is profitable under discriminatory pricing but unprofitable under uniform pricing. Our results show entry unde...

  7. Pricing of new vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  8. Can we use short rotation coppice poplar for sugar based biorefinery feedstock? Bioconversion of 2-year-old poplar grown as short rotation coppice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Chang; Marcondes, Wilian F; Djaja, Jessica E; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Feedstock cost is a substantial barrier to the commercialization of lignocellulosic biorefineries. Poplar grown using a short rotation coppice (SRC) system has the potential to provide a low-cost feedstock and economically viable sugar yields for fuels and chemicals production. In the coppice management regime, poplars are harvested after 2 years' growth to develop the root system and establish the trees. The biomass from these 2-year-old trees is very heterogeneous, and includes components of leaf, bark, branch, and wood chip. This material is quite different than the samples that have been used in most poplar bioconversion research, which come from mature trees of short rotation forestry (SRF) plantations. If the coppice management regime is to be used, it is important that feedstock growers maximize their revenue from this initial harvest, but the heterogeneous nature of the biomass may be challenging for bioconversion. This work evaluates bioconversion of 2-year-old poplar coppice and compares its performance to whitewood chips from 12-year-old poplar. The 2-year-old whole tree coppice (WTC) is comprised of 37% leaf, 9% bark, 12% branch, and 42% wood chip. As expected, the chemical compositions of each component were markedly different. The leaf has a low sugar content but is high in phenolics, ash, and extractives. By removing the leaves, the sugar content of the biomass increased significantly, while the phenolic, ash, and extractives contents decreased. Leaf removal improved monomeric sugar yield by 147 kg/tonne of biomass following steam pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Bioconversion of the no-leaf coppice (NLC) achieved a 67% overall sugar recovery, showing no significant difference to mature whitewood from forestry plantation (WWF, 71%). The overall sugar yield of NLC was 135 kg/tonne less than that of WWF, due to the low inherent sugar content in original biomass. An economic analysis shows the minimum ethanol selling price required to cover the

  9. Evolution of the Apicomplexan Sugar Transporter Gene Family Repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Ousman; Kissinger, Jessica C

    2017-01-01

    Apicomplexan protist parasites utilize host sugars transported into the parasite by sugar transporter proteins for use as an energy source. We performed a phylum-wide phylogenetic analysis of the apicomplexan sugar transporter repertoire. Phylogenetic analyses revealed six major subfamilies of apicomplexan sugar transporters. Transporters in one subfamily have undergone expansions in Piroplasma species and Gregarina niphandrodes, while other subfamilies are highly divergent and contain genes found in only one or two species. Analyses of the divergent apicomplexan subfamilies revealed their presence in ciliates, indicating their alveolate ancestry and subsequent loss in chromerids and many apicomplexans.

  10. Pricing strategies and levels and their impact on corporate profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonir De Toni

    Full Text Available Abstract Price policy definition is one of the most important decisions in management as it affects corporate profitability and market competitiveness. Despite the importance that prices take in organizations, it appears that this element has not received proper attention by many academics and marketers since it represents, according to estimates, less than 2% of the papers on leading journals in the field. Thus, the aim of this study was to propose and test a theoretical model showing the impacts of pricing policy on corporate profitability. To this end, 150 companies in the metal-mechanic sector situated in the Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil were studied, integrating customer value-based pricing strategies, competition-based pricing strategies and cost-based pricing strategies with price levels (high and low and performance with respect to profitability. The results indicate that the profitability of the surveyed companies is positively affected by value-based pricing strategy and high price levels while it is negatively affected by low price levels. Such findings indicate that pricing policies influence the profitability of organizations and therefore, a more strategic look at the pricing process may constitute one aspect that cannot be overlooked by managers.

  11. Pyrolysis of Table Sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Bulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52 wt% at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-α-d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C.

  12. Marginal Cost Pricing in a World without Perfect Competition: Implications for Electricity Markets with High Shares of Low Marginal Cost Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-02

    A common approach to regulating electricity is through auction-based competitive wholesale markets. The goal of this approach is to provide a reliable supply of power at the lowest reasonable cost to the consumer. This necessitates market structures and operating rules that ensure revenue sufficiency for all generators needed for resource adequacy purposes. Wholesale electricity markets employ marginal-cost pricing to provide cost-effective dispatch such that resources are compensated for their operational costs. However, marginal-cost pricing alone cannot guarantee cost recovery outside of perfect competition, and electricity markets have at least six attributes that preclude them from functioning as perfectly competitive markets. These attributes include market power, externalities, public good attributes, lack of storage, wholesale price caps, and ineffective demand curve. Until (and unless) these failures are ameliorated, some form of corrective action(s) will be necessary to improve market efficiency so that prices can correctly reflect the needed level of system reliability. Many of these options necessarily involve some form of administrative or out-of-market actions, such as scarcity pricing, capacity payments, bilateral or other out-of-market contracts, or some hybrid combination. A key focus with these options is to create a connection between the electricity market and long-term reliability/loss-of-load expectation targets, which are inherently disconnected in the native markets because of the aforementioned market failures. The addition of variable generation resources can exacerbate revenue sufficiency and resource adequacy concerns caused by these underlying market failures. Because variable generation resources have near-zero marginal costs, they effectively suppress energy prices and reduce the capacity factors of conventional generators through the merit-order effect in the simplest case of a convex market; non-convexities can also suppress prices.

  13. Identifying Financially Sustainable Pricing Interventions to Promote Healthier Beverage Purchases in Small Neighborhood Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Claudia; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Gittelsohn, Joel; Adam, Atif; Wong, Michelle S; Mui, Yeeli; Lee, Bruce Y

    2018-01-25

    Residents of low-income communities often purchase sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) at small, neighborhood "corner" stores. Lowering water prices and increasing SSB prices are potentially complementary public health strategies to promote more healthful beverage purchasing patterns in these stores. Sustainability, however, depends on financial feasibility. Because in-store pricing experiments are complex and require retailers to take business risks, we used a simulation approach to identify profitable pricing combinations for corner stores. The analytic approach was based on inventory models, which are suitable for modeling business operations. We used discrete-event simulation to build inventory models that use data representing beverage inventory, wholesale costs, changes in retail prices, and consumer demand for 2 corner stores in Baltimore, Maryland. Model outputs yielded ranges for water and SSB prices that increased water demand without loss of profit from combined water and SSB sales. A 20% SSB price increase allowed lowering water prices by up to 20% while maintaining profit and increased water demand by 9% and 14%, for stores selling SSBs in 12-oz cans and 16- to 20-oz bottles, respectively. Without changing water prices, profits could increase by 4% and 6%, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that stores with a higher volume of SSB sales could reduce water prices the most without loss of profit. Various combinations of SSB and water prices could encourage water consumption while maintaining or increasing store owners' profits. This model is a first step in designing and implementing profitable pricing strategies in collaboration with store owners.

  14. Price Competition on Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Heijnen, Pim; Soetevent, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. We derive an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. These graph models of price competition may lead to spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand. We show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs and conjecture that this non-existence result holds more general...

  15. Inflation and asset prices

    OpenAIRE

    Tatom, John

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the general level of prices and inflation have profound effects on asset prices. There are several reasons for these effects and the influence differs depending on the source of the inflation and whether it is expected or not. To understand these effects it is important to clarify what is meant by inflation, the pure theory of the sources of inflation, how inflation affects goods and services prices and how it affects the assets that are used to finance production, both equity pr...

  16. Housing Price Forecastability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2016-01-01

    We examine U.S. housing price forecastability using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), and sparse PLS (SPLS). We incorporate information from a large panel of 128 economic time series and show that macroeconomic fundamentals have strong predictive power for future...... movements in housing prices. We find that (S)PLS models systematically dominate PCA models. (S)PLS models also generate significant out-of-sample predictive power over and above the predictive power contained by the price-rent ratio, autoregressive benchmarks, and regression models based on small datasets....

  17. Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they`re rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears.

  18. Evaluating Drug Prices, Availability, Affordability, and Price Components: Implications for Access to Drugs in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Zaheer Ud Din; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Singh, Harpal; Bukahri, Nadeem Irfan; Creese, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Malaysia's stable health care system is facing challenges with increasing medicine costs. To investigate these issues a survey was carried out to evaluate medicine prices, availability, affordability, and the structure of price components. Methods and Findings The methodology developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Health Action International (HAI) was used. Price and availability data for 48 medicines was collected from 20 public sector facilities, 32 private sector retail pharmacies and 20 dispensing doctors in four geographical regions of West Malaysia. Medicine prices were compared with international reference prices (IRPs) to obtain a median price ratio. The daily wage of the lowest paid unskilled government worker was used to gauge the affordability of medicines. Price component data were collected throughout the supply chain, and markups, taxes, and other distribution costs were identified. In private pharmacies, innovator brand (IB) prices were 16 times higher than the IRPs, while generics were 6.6 times higher. In dispensing doctor clinics, the figures were 15 times higher for innovator brands and 7.5 for generics. Dispensing doctors applied high markups of 50%–76% for IBs, and up to 316% for generics. Retail pharmacy markups were also high—25%–38% and 100%–140% for IBs and generics, respectively. In the public sector, where medicines are free, availability was low even for medicines on the National Essential Drugs List. For a month's treatment for peptic ulcer disease and hypertension people have to pay about a week's wages in the private sector. Conclusions The free market by definition does not control medicine prices, necessitating price monitoring and control mechanisms. Markups for generic products are greater than for IBs. Reducing the base price without controlling markups may increase profits for retailers and dispensing doctors without reducing the price paid by end users. To increase access and affordability

  19. American option pricing with stochastic volatility processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping LI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of option pricing more perfectly, the option pricing problem with Heston stochastic volatility model is considered. The optimal implementation boundary of American option and the conditions for its early execution are analyzed and discussed. In view of the fact that there is no analytical American option pricing formula, through the space discretization parameters, the stochastic partial differential equation satisfied by American options with Heston stochastic volatility is transformed into the corresponding differential equations, and then using high order compact finite difference method, numerical solutions are obtained for the option price. The numerical experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical results and simulation. The two kinds of optimal exercise boundaries under the conditions of the constant volatility and the stochastic volatility are compared, and the results show that the optimal exercise boundary also has stochastic volatility. Under the setting of parameters, the behavior and the nature of volatility are analyzed, the volatility curve is simulated, the calculation results of high order compact difference method are compared, and the numerical option solution is obtained, so that the method is verified. The research result provides reference for solving the problems of option pricing under stochastic volatility such as multiple underlying asset option pricing and barrier option pricing.

  20. Relative ability of fat and sugar tastes to activate reward, gustatory, and somatosensory regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Burger, Kyle S; Yokum, Sonja

    2013-12-01

    Although the intake of high-fat and high-sugar food activates mesolimbic reward, gustatory, and oral somatosensory brain regions, contributing to overeating, few studies have examined the relative role of fat and sugar in the activation of these brain regions, which would inform policy, prevention, and treatment interventions designed to reduce obesity. We evaluated the effect of a high-fat or high-sugar equicaloric chocolate milkshake and increasing fat or sugar milkshake content on the activation of these regions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the neural response to the intake of high-fat/high-sugar, high-fat/low-sugar, low-fat/high-sugar, and low-fat/low-sugar chocolate milkshakes and a tasteless solution in 106 lean adolescents (mean ± SD age = 15.00 ± 0.88 y). Analyses contrasted the activation to the various milkshakes. High-fat compared with high-sugar equicaloric milkshakes caused greater activation in the bilateral caudate, postcentral gyrus, hippocampus, and inferior frontal gyrus. High-sugar compared with high-fat equicaloric milkshakes caused greater activation in the bilateral insula extending into the putamen, the Rolandic operculum, and thalamus, which produced large activation regions. Increasing sugar in low-fat milkshakes caused greater activation in the bilateral insula and Rolandic operculum; increasing fat content did not elicit greater activation in any region. Fat caused greater activation of the caudate and oral somatosensory regions than did sugar, sugar caused greater activation in the putamen and gustatory regions than did fat, increasing sugar caused greater activity in gustatory regions, and increasing fat did not affect the activation. Results imply that sugar more effectively recruits reward and gustatory regions, suggesting that policy, prevention, and treatment interventions should prioritize reductions in sugar intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as DK092468.