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Sample records for high sucrose media

  1. Biosynthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides by Sporotrichum thermophile during submerged batch cultivation in high sucrose media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katapodis, P.; Kalogeris, E.; Kekos, D.

    2004-01-01

    /l. The FOS mixture obtained was composed of three sugars, which were isolated by size-exclusion chromatography. They were characterized by acid hydrolysis and HPLC as 1-kestose, 6-kestose and neokestose. The mechanism of osmotic adaptation of S. thermophile was investigated and sugars and amino acids were...... found to be the predominant compatible solutes. The fungus accumulated glutamic acid, arginine, alanine, leucine and lysine, in order to balance the outer osmotic pressure. Fatty acid analysis of the membrane lipids showed a relatively high percentage of unsaturated lipids, which is known...

  2. Sucrose Fermentation by Brazilian Ethanol Production Yeasts in Media Containing Structurally Complex Nitrogen Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Junior, Messias [UNESP; Batistote, Margareth [UNESP; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud [UNESP; Ernandes, Jose Roberto [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Four Saccharomyces cerevisiae Brazilian industrial ethanol production strains were grown, under shaken and static conditions, in media containing 22% (w/v) sucrose supplemented with nitrogen sources varying from a single ammonium salt (ammonium sulfate) to free amino acids (casamino acids) and peptides (peptone). Sucrose fermentations by Brazilian industrial ethanol production yeasts strains were strongly affected by both the structural complexity of the nitrogen source and the availability o...

  3. Alveolar wound healing in rats fed on high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, María A; Rocamundi, Marina R; Viotto, Javier O; Ferreyra, Ruth S

    2013-01-01

    The potential for bone repair is influenced by various biochemical, biomechanical, hormonal, and pathological mechanisms and factors such as diet and its components, all of which govern the behavior and function of the cells responsible for forming new bone. Several authors suggest that a high sucrose diet could change the calcium balance and bone composition in animals, altering hard tissue mineralization. The mechanism by which it occurs is unclear. Alveolar healing following tooth extraction has certain characteristics making this type of wound unique, in both animals and humans. The general aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the biological response during alveolar healing following tooth extraction in rats fed on high sucrose diets, by means of osteocyte lacunae histomorphometry, counting empty lacunae and measuring areas of bone quiescence, formation and resorption. Forty-two Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into two groups: an experimental group fed on modified Stephan Harris diet (43% sucrose) and a control group fed on standard balanced diet. The animals were anesthetized and their left and right lower molars extracted. They were killed at 0 hours, 14, 28, 60 and 120 days. Samples were fixed, decalcified in EDTA and embedded in paraffin to prepare sections for optical microscopy which were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant differences in the size of osteocyte lacunae between groups at 28 and 60 days, with the experimental group having larger lacunae. There were more empty lacunae in the experimental group at 14 days, and no significant difference in the areas of bone activity. A high sucrose diet could modify the morphology and quality of bone tissue formed in the alveolus following tooth extraction.

  4. Comparison of sucrose and trehalose media modification as an update of oocyte vitrification: A study of apoptotic level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Silvia W.; Fitriyah, Nurin N.; Pangestu, Mulyoto; Pratama, Gita; Margiana, Ria

    2018-02-01

    Number of women who are not being able to have offspring in their reproductive life is increasing which might be influenced by several factors. As a consequence, oocyte cryopreservation could be an ensuring solution for women fertility preservation. A good vitrification could be conducted by combining an appropriate of type and concentration of cryoprotectants. One of the marks of successful vitrification is the vitrified oocytes could avoid apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the modification of cryoprotectant media as un update of oocyte vitrification as follow: the combination and the concentration of cryoprotectant media of oocytes vitrification, based on their effects on the apoptosis or DNA damage of oocytes. A total of 84 MII stage oocytes from adult female Deutschland, Denken and Yoken (DDY) mice (7-8 weeks old) were used in this study. Vitrification procedure was performed by using VS1 contained 15% EG, 15% DMSO, 0.5 mol/l sucrose (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) and VS2 contained 15% EG, 15% DMSO, 0.5 mol/l trehalose (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) in HM. Furthermore, warming solution (WS) was divided into four groups. There were: WS1a contained 0.3 mol/l sucrose, WS1b contained 0.15 mol/l sucrose, WS2a contained 0.3 mol/l trehalose, and WS2b contained 0.15 mol/l trehalose. Apoptotic level was performed by staining the oocytes with TUNEL and propidium iodide (PI) based on Brison and Schultz method then examined under confocal microscope. The rate of apoptosis in oocytes after vitrification and warming was higher compared to the fresh control oocytes. Furthermore, the rate of apoptosis in the vitrified oocytes by sucrose media (28%) was higher compared to the vitrified oocytes by trehalose media (16%). The results of this study indicated that vitrification increased apoptosis in the vitrified oocytes related to the oocyte injury after vitrification. Moreover, the vitrification increased apoptosis more in the vitrified oocytes by sucrose media than the vitrified

  5. Rats' preferences for high fructose corn syrup vs. sucrose and sugar mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2011-03-28

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose in many food products, which has prompted research comparing these two sweeteners in rodents. The present study examined the relative palatability of HFCS and sucrose for rats, offering 11% carbohydrate solutions to match the content of common beverages for human consumption. The animals initially preferred HFCS to sucrose but after separate experience with each solution they switched to sucrose preference. Approximating the composition of HFCS with a mixture of fructose and glucose (55:45) yielded a solution that was less attractive than sucrose or HFCS. However, HFCS contains a small amount of glucose polymers, which are very attractive to rats. A 55:42:3 mixture of fructose, glucose and glucose polymers (Polycose) was equally preferred to HFCS and was treated similarly to HFCS in comparisons vs. sucrose. Post-oral effects of sucrose, which is 50% fructose and 50% glucose, may be responsible for the shift in preference with experience. This shift, and the relatively small magnitude of differences in preference for HFCS and sucrose, suggest that palatability factors probably do not contribute to any possible difference in weight gain responses to these sweeteners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic high-sucrose diet increases fibroblast growth factor 21 production and energy expenditure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Ryuya; Seino, Yusuke; Ogata, Hidetada; Murase, Masatoshi; Iida, Atsushi; Hosokawa, Kaori; Joo, Erina; Harada, Norio; Tsunekawa, Shin; Hamada, Yoji; Oiso, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Excess carbohydrate intake causes obesity in humans. On the other hand, acute administration of fructose, glucose or sucrose in experimental animals has been shown to increase the plasma concentration of anti-obesity hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which contribute to reducing body weight. However, the secretion and action of GLP-1 and FGF21 in mice chronically fed a high-sucrose diet has not been investigated. To address the role of anti-obesity hormones in response to increased sucrose intake, we analyzed mice fed a high-sucrose diet, a high-starch diet or a normal diet for 15 weeks. Mice fed a high-sucrose diet showed resistance to body weight gain, in comparison with mice fed a high-starch diet or control diet, due to increased energy expenditure. Plasma FGF21 levels were highest among the three groups in mice fed a high-sucrose diet, whereas no significant difference in GLP-1 levels was observed. Expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), FGF receptor 1c (FGFR1c) and β-klotho (KLB) mRNA in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in high sucrose-fed mice, suggesting increases in FGF21 sensitivity and energy expenditure. Expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) mRNA in liver and brown adipose tissue was also increased in high sucrose-fed mice. These results indicate that FGF21 production in liver and brown adipose tissue is increased in high-sucrose diet and participates in resistance to weight gain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Moderate High Fat Diet Increases Sucrose Self-Administration In Young Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Figlewicz, Dianne P.; Jay, Jennifer L.; Acheson, Molly A.; Magrisso, Irwin J.; West, Constance H.; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C.; Davis, Jon F.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However...

  8. Moderate high fat diet increases sucrose self-administration in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlewicz, Dianne P; Jay, Jennifer L; Acheson, Molly A; Magrisso, Irwin J; West, Constance H; Zavosh, Aryana; Benoit, Stephen C; Davis, Jon F

    2013-02-01

    We have previously reported that a moderately high fat diet increases motivation for sucrose in adult rats. In this study, we tested the motivational, neurochemical, and metabolic effects of the high fat diet in male rats transitioning through puberty, during 5-8 weeks of age. We observed that the high fat diet increased motivated responding for sucrose, which was independent of either metabolic changes or changes in catecholamine neurotransmitter metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. However, AGRP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly elevated. We demonstrated that increased activation of AGRP neurons is associated with motivated behavior, and that exogenous (third cerebroventricular) AGRP administration resulted in significantly increased motivation for sucrose. These observations suggest that increased expression and activity of AGRP in the medial hypothalamus may underlie the increased responding for sucrose caused by the high fat diet intervention. Finally, we compared motivation for sucrose in pubertal vs. adult rats and observed increased motivation for sucrose in the pubertal rats, which is consistent with previous reports that young animals and humans have an increased preference for sweet taste, compared with adults. Together, our studies suggest that background diet plays a strong modulatory role in motivation for sweet taste in adolescent animals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaumontet, C.; Even, P.C.; Schwarz, Jessica; Simonin-Foucault, A.; Piedcoq, J.; Fromentin, G.; Tomé, D.; Azzout-Marniche, D.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the

  10. A Novel Production Method for High-Fructose Glucose Syrup from Sucrose-Containing Biomass by a Newly Isolated Strain of Osmotolerant Meyerozyma guilliermondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Sadat Mohammad Rezq; Kodaki, Tsutomu

    2016-04-28

    One osmotolerant strain from among 44 yeast isolates was selected based on its growth abilities in media containing high concentrations of sucrose. This selected strain, named SKENNY, was identified as Meyerozyma guilliermondii by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer regions and partial D1/D2 large-subunit domains of the 26S ribosomal RNA. SK-ENNY was utilized to produce high-fructose glucose syrup (HFGS) from sucrose-containing biomass. Conversion rates to HFGS from 310-610 g/l of pure sucrose and from 75-310 g/l of sugar beet molasses were 73.5-94.1% and 76.2-91.1%, respectively. In the syrups produced, fructose yields were 89.4-100% and 96.5-100% and glucose yields were 57.6-82.5% and 55.3-79.5% of the theoretical values for pure sucrose and molasses sugars, respectively. This is the first report of employing M. guilliermondii for production of HFGS from sucrose-containing biomass.

  11. Ketoprofen and antinociception in hypo-oestrogenic Wistar rats fed on a high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Morales, Osmar Antonio; Espinosa-Juárez, Josué Vidal; García-Martínez, Betzabeth Anali; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-05

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ketoprofen are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of pain. However, no studies have evaluated the analgesic response to ketoprofen in conditions of obesity. The aim of this study was to analyse the time course of nociceptive pain in Wistar rats with and without hypo-oestrogenism on a high sucrose diet and to compare the antinociceptive response using ketoprofen. Hypo-oestrogenic and naïve rats received a hyper caloric diet (30% sucrose) or water ad libitum for 17 weeks, the thermal nociception ("plantar test" method) and body weight were tested during this period. A biphasic response was observed: thermal latency decreased in the 4th week (hyperalgesia), while from 12th to 17th week, thermal latency increased (hypoalgesia) in hypo-oestrogenic rats fed with high sucrose diet compared with the hypo-oestrogenic control group. At 4th and 17th weeks, different doses of ketoprofen (1.8-100mg/kg p.o.), were evaluated in all groups. The administration of ketoprofen at 4th and 17th weeks showed dose-dependent effects in the all groups; however, a greater pharmacological efficacy was observed in the 4th week in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that received sucrose. Nevertheless, in all the groups significantly diminish the antinociceptive effects in the 17th week. Our data showed that nociception was altered in the hypo-oestrogenic animals that were fed sucrose (hyperalgesia and hypoalgesia). Ketoprofen showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect at both time points. However, hypo-oestrogenism plus high-sucrose diet modifies the antinociceptive effect of ketoprofen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuous production of glycerol by catalytic high pressure hydrogenolysis of sucrose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ling, Gerrit; Driessen, Alfons J.; Piet, Arie C.; Vlugter, Jozef C.

    1970-01-01

    Several continuous reactor systems have been discussed for the catalytic high pressure hydrogenolysis of sucrose to glycerol. Theoretically and actually, continuous reactors lead to lower glycerol yields than in a batch process. Two continuous stirred tank reactors in cascade constitute a reasonable

  13. Interaction of dietary sucrose and fiber on serum lipids in healthy young men fed high carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M J; Ullrich, I H

    1986-03-01

    High sucrose diets may cause increased serum triglycerides and decreased high density lipoprotein concentration. To determine whether dietary fiber protects against these effects, four groups of six healthy young men were assigned to one of four very high carbohydrate diets providing 0, 18, 36, or 52% of calories as sucrose. Each diet was fed in both low (less than 14 g) and high (greater than 34 g) levels of dietary fiber for 10 days each. Triglycerides increased during the 36 and 52% sucrose diets compared to 0 and 18% sucrose diets, and fiber protected partially against this rise. Serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were lower during the 0 and 18% sucrose diets than the 36 or 52% sucrose diets but fiber had no effect. HDL cholesterol decreased during all low fat diets, with a trend toward a greater decrease during the high sucrose diets. The results suggest that fiber protects against carbohydrate-induced lipemia but has no effect on cholesterol during very high carbohydrate diets.

  14. Diet-dependent gene expression in honey bees: honey vs. sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Marsha M; Robinson, Gene E

    2014-07-17

    Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture.

  15. Protein carbonylation associated to high-fat, high-sucrose diet and its metabolic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lucía; Pazos, Manuel; Molinar-Toribio, Eunice; Sánchez-Martos, Vanesa; Gallardo, José M; Rosa Nogués, M; Torres, Josep L; Medina, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    The present research draws a map of the characteristic carbonylation of proteins in rats fed high-caloric diets with the aim of providing a new insight of the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases derived from the high consumption of fat and refined carbohydrates. Protein carbonylation was analyzed in plasma, liver and skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet by a proteomics approach based on carbonyl-specific fluorescence-labeling, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Oxidized proteins along with specific sites of oxidative damage were identified and discussed to illustrate the consequences of protein oxidation. The results indicated that long-term HFHS consumption increased protein oxidation in plasma and liver; meanwhile, protein carbonyls from skeletal muscle did not change. The increment of carbonylation by HFHS diet was singularly selective on specific target proteins: albumin from plasma and liver, and hepatic proteins such as mitochondrial carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (ammonia), mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, argininosuccinate synthetase, regucalcin, mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase subunit beta, actin cytoplasmic 1 and mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase 1. The possible consequences that these specific protein carbonylations have on the excessive weight gain, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease resulting from HFHS diet consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of early-life stress and chronic high-sucrose diet on metabolic outcomes in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher P; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress affects metabolic outcomes and choice of diet influences the development of metabolic disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic sugar intake exacerbates metabolic deficits induced by early-life stress. Early-life stress was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats using limited nesting material in early lactation (LN, postnatal days 2-9), and siblings were given chow alone or with additional sucrose post weaning (n = 9-17 per group). Female control and LN siblings had unlimited access to either chow plus water, or chow and water plus 25% sucrose solution (Sucrose), from 3-15 weeks of age. Weekly body weight and food intake were measured. Glucose and insulin tolerance were tested at 13 and 14 weeks of age, respectively. Rats were killed at 15 weeks. Hepatic triglyceride and markers of lipid synthesis - fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha and oxidation - and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (Pgc-1α) were examined. Mediators of hepatic glucocorticoid metabolism, specifically 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11βHSD-1), 5-α reductase, and glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNAs were also measured. Sucrose increased caloric intake in both groups, but overall energy intake was not altered by LN exposure. LN exposure had no further impact on sucrose-induced glucose intolerance and increased plasma and liver triglycerides. Hepatic markers of fat synthesis and oxidation were concomitantly activated and 11βHSD-1 mRNA expression was increased by 53% in LN-Sucrose versus Con-Sucrose rats. Adiposity was increased by 26% in LN-Sucrose versus Con-Sucrose rats. Thus, LN exposure had minimal adverse metabolic effects despite high-sugar diet postweaning.

  17. High-fat but not sucrose intake is essential for induction of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Højland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Rolin, Bidda

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia are closely related. Diet plays an important role in the progression of these diseases, but the role of specific dietary components is not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of dietary sucrose and fat....../cholesterol on the development of dyslipidemia and NAFLD. Methods Seventy female guinea pigs were block-randomized (based on weight) into five groups and fed a normal chow diet (control: 4 % fat), a very high-sucrose diet (vHS: 4 % fat, 25 % sucrose), a high-fat diet (HF: 20 % fat, 0.35 % cholesterol), a high......-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHS: 20 % fat, 15 % sucrose, 0.35 % cholesterol) or a high-fat/very high-sucrose diet (HFvHS: 20 % fat, 25 % sucrose, 0.35 % cholesterol) for 16 and 25 weeks. Results All three high-fat diets induced dyslipidemia with increased concentrations of plasma cholesterol (p 

  18. Interactive effects of chronic stress and a high-sucrose diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Pérez, Adriana; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Cuevas-Romero, Estela; Luna-Moreno, Dalia; Valente-Godínez, Héctor; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2017-11-01

    Glucocorticoids have been implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). The influence of a palatable diet on the response to stress is controversial. This study explored whether a high-sucrose diet could protect from hepatic steatosis induced by chronic restraint stress in young adult rats. Male Wistar rats aged 21 days were allocated into four groups (n = 6-8 per group): control, chronic restraint stress, 30% sucrose diet, and 30% sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress. After being exposed to either tap water or sucrose solution during eight weeks, half of the rats belonging to each group were subject or not to repeated restraint stress (1 h per day, 5 days per week) during four weeks. Triacylglycerol (TAG), oxidative stress, activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD-1), infiltration of immune cells, and glycogen amount in the liver were quantified. Serum concentrations of corticosterone and testosterone were also measured. The stressed group showed normal serum concentrations of corticosterone and did not have hepatic steatosis. However, this group showed increased glycogen, inflammation, mild fibrosis, oxidative stress, and a high activity of 11β-HSD-1 in the liver. The group exposed to the high-sucrose diet had lower concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis and moderate fibrosis. The group subject to high-sucrose diet plus chronic restraint stress showed low concentrations of corticosterone, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, and high concentrations of testosterone. Thus, restraint stress and a high-sucrose diet each generate different components of nonalcoholic fatty liver in young adult rats. The combination of both the factors could promote a faster development of NAFLD.

  19. Cell culture media supplementation of uncommonly used sugars sucrose and tagatose for the targeted shifting of protein glycosylation profiles of recombinant protein therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossler, Patrick; McDermott, Sean; Racicot, Christopher; Chumsae, Christopher; Raharimampionona, Haly; Zhou, Yu; Ouellette, David; Matuck, Joseph; Correia, Ivan; Fann, John; Li, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an important post-translational modification toward the structure and function of recombinant therapeutics. The addition of oligosaccharides to recombinant proteins has been shown to greatly influence the overall physiochemical attributes of many proteins. It is for this reason that protein glycosylation is monitored by the developer of a recombinant protein therapeutic, and why protein glycosylation is typically considered a critical quality attribute. In this work, we highlight a systematic study toward the supplementation of sucrose and tagatose into cell culture media for the targeted modulation of protein glycosylation profiles on recombinant proteins. Both sugars were found to affect oligosaccharide maturation resulting in an increase in the percentage of high mannose N-glycan species, as well as a concomitant reduction in fucosylation. The latter effect was demonstrated to increase antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity for a recombinant antibody. These aforementioned results were found to be reproducible at different scales, and across different Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Through the selective supplementation of these described sugars, the targeted modulation of protein glycosylation profiles is demonstrated, as well as yet another tool in the cell culture toolbox for ensuring product comparability. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. High-field/ high-frequency EPR study on stable free radicals formed in sucrose by gamma-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Elka R; Pardi, Luca; Jeschke, Gunnar; Gatteschi, Dante; Sorace, Lorenzo; Yordanov, Nicola D

    2006-06-01

    The EPR spectrum of sucrose irradiated by high-energy radiation is complex due to the presence of more than one radical species. In order to decompose the spectrum and elucidate the radical magnetic parameters a high-field (HF(-)EPR) study on stable free radicals in gamma-irradiated polycrystalline sucrose (table sugar) was performed at three different high frequencies--94, 190 and 285 GHz as well as at the conventional X-band. We suggest a presence of three stable radicals R1, R2 and R3 as the main radical species. Due to the increase of g-factor resolution at high fields the g-tensors of these radicals could be extracted by accurate simulations. The moderate g-anisotropy suggests that all three radicals are carbon-centred. Results from an earlier ENDOR study on X-irradiated sucrose single crystals (Vanhaelewyn et al., Appl Radiat Isot, 52, 1221 (2000)) were used for analyzing of the spectra in more details. It was confirmed that the strongest hyperfine interaction has a relatively small anisotropy, which indicates either the absence of alpha-protons or a strongly distorted geometry of the radicals.

  1. Effect of Arctium Lappa Root Extract on Glucose Levels and Insulin Resistance in Rats with High Sucrose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ahangarpour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a growing health problem in all over the world. Arctium Lappa has been used therapeutically in Europe, North America and Asia. Antioxidants and antidiabetic compounds have been found in the root of Arctium Lappa. This study intends to investigate the effects of Arctium Lappa root aqueous extract on glucose, insulin levels and Fasting Insulin Resistance Index in female rats with high sucrose diet. Methods: 40 female Wistar rats weighting 150-250(g were applied. After having a diet induced by sucrose 50% in drinking water for 5 weeks, the animals were randomly divided into two groups of control, sucrose induced, and three groups of sucrose induced along with Arctium Lappa root aqueous extract (50,100,200 mg/Kg (8 rats in each group. Treatment by extracts was used during 2 weeks (i.p. and 24 hours after the last treatment, heart blood samples were gathered. After Blood samples were centrifuged, fasting plasma glucose (12 h was determined by kit and fasting insulin concentration was assayed by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa methods. Result: Glucose levels, insulin and FIRI in sucrose group significantly increased in comparison with control group. Glucose levels in aqueous extract groups; 50 mg/kg (116.14±16.64mg/dl and 200 mg/kg (90.66±22.58 mg/dl in comparison with sucrose group (140.5±18.73 mg/dl significantly decreased. Insulin level and FIRI in all of aqueous extract groups were significantly decreased (P<0.001 in comparison with sucrose group. Conclusions: Arctium Lappa root aqueous extracts in animal model has revealed significant decrease in blood glucose and insulin levels.

  2. EPR response of sucrose and microcrystalline cellulose to measure high doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torijano, E.; Cruz, L.; Gutierrez, G.; Azorin, J.; Aguirre, F.; Cruz Z, E.

    2015-10-01

    Solid dosimeters of sucrose and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel Ph-102) were prepared, following the same process, in order to compare their EPR response against that of the l-alanine dosimeters considered as reference. All lots of dosimeters were irradiated with gamma radiation in Gamma beam irradiator with 8 kGy/h of the Nuclear Sciences Institute of UNAM. Doses ranged from 1 to 10 kGy respectively. We found that both the response of sucrose as microcrystalline cellulose were linear; however, the response intensity was, on average, twenty times more for sucrose. Comparing this against the EPR response of l-alanine in the range of doses, it was found that the response to sucrose is a third part; and microcrystalline cellulose is a sixtieth, approximately. The results agree with those found in the literature for sucrose, leaving open the possibility of investigating other dosage ranges for cellulose. (Author)

  3. No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2007-12-01

    It is unclear whether energy-containing drinks, especially those sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), promote positive energy balance and thereby play a role in the development of obesity. The objective was to examine the satiating effects of HFCS and sucrose in comparison with milk and a diet drink. The effects of four 800-mL drinks [corrected] containing no energy or 1.5 MJ from sucrose, HFCS, or milk on satiety were assessed, first in 15 men and 15 women with a mean (+/-SD) body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 22.1 +/- 1.9 according to visual analogue scales (VAS) and blood variables and second in 20 men and 20 women (BMI: 22.4 +/- 2.1) according to ingestion of a standardized ad libitum meal (granola cereal + yogurt, 10.1 kJ/g). Fifty minutes after consumption of the 1.5-MJ preload drinks containing sucrose, HFCS, or milk, 170%-mm VAS changes in satiety were observed. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (P glucose, GLP-1, and ghrelin concentrations. Changes in appetite VAS ratings were a function of changes in GLP-1, ghrelin, insulin, and glucose concentrations. Energy balance consequences of HFCS-sweetened soft drinks are not different from those of other isoenergetic drinks, eg, a sucrose-drink or milk.

  4. Sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose, their metabolism and potential health effects: what do we really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2013-03-01

    Both controversy and confusion exist concerning fructose, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) with respect to their metabolism and health effects. These concerns have often been fueled by speculation based on limited data or animal studies. In retrospect, recent controversies arose when a scientific commentary was published suggesting a possible unique link between HFCS consumption and obesity. Since then, a broad scientific consensus has emerged that there are no metabolic or endocrine response differences between HFCS and sucrose related to obesity or any other adverse health outcome. This equivalence is not surprising given that both of these sugars contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose, contain the same number of calories, possess the same level of sweetness, and are absorbed identically through the gastrointestinal tract. Research comparing pure fructose with pure glucose, although interesting from a scientific point of view, has limited application to human nutrition given that neither is consumed to an appreciable degree in isolation in the human diet. Whether there is a link between fructose, HFCS, or sucrose and increased risk of heart disease, metabolic syndrome, or fatty infiltration of the liver or muscle remains in dispute with different studies using different methodologies arriving at different conclusions. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to resolve many of these issues. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the metabolism, endocrine responses, and potential health effects of sucrose, HFCS, and fructose.

  5. Sucrose, High-Fructose Corn Syrup, and Fructose, Their Metabolism and Potential Health Effects: What Do We Really Know?12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M.; Angelopoulos, Theodore J.

    2013-01-01

    Both controversy and confusion exist concerning fructose, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) with respect to their metabolism and health effects. These concerns have often been fueled by speculation based on limited data or animal studies. In retrospect, recent controversies arose when a scientific commentary was published suggesting a possible unique link between HFCS consumption and obesity. Since then, a broad scientific consensus has emerged that there are no metabolic or endocrine response differences between HFCS and sucrose related to obesity or any other adverse health outcome. This equivalence is not surprising given that both of these sugars contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose, contain the same number of calories, possess the same level of sweetness, and are absorbed identically through the gastrointestinal tract. Research comparing pure fructose with pure glucose, although interesting from a scientific point of view, has limited application to human nutrition given that neither is consumed to an appreciable degree in isolation in the human diet. Whether there is a link between fructose, HFCS, or sucrose and increased risk of heart disease, metabolic syndrome, or fatty infiltration of the liver or muscle remains in dispute with different studies using different methodologies arriving at different conclusions. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to resolve many of these issues. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the metabolism, endocrine responses, and potential health effects of sucrose, HFCS, and fructose. PMID:23493540

  6. Effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup consumption on spatial memory function and hippocampal neuroinflammation in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ted M; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Taing, Lilly; Usui, Ryan; Kayser, Brandon D; Goran, Michael I; Kanoski, Scott E

    2015-02-01

    Excessive consumption of added sugars negatively impacts metabolic systems; however, effects on cognitive function are poorly understood. Also unknown is whether negative outcomes associated with consumption of different sugars are exacerbated during critical periods of development (e.g., adolescence). Here we examined the effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) intake during adolescence or adulthood on cognitive and metabolic outcomes. Adolescent or adult male rats were given 30-day access to chow, water, and either (1) 11% sucrose solution, (2) 11% HFCS-55 solution, or (3) an extra bottle of water (control). In adolescent rats, HFCS-55 intake impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory in a Barne's maze, with moderate learning impairment also observed for the sucrose group. The learning and memory impairment is unlikely based on nonspecific behavioral effects as adolescent HFCS-55 consumption did not impact anxiety in the zero maze or performance in a non-spatial response learning task using the same mildly aversive stimuli as the Barne's maze. Protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6, interleukin 1β) was increased in the dorsal hippocampus for the adolescent HFCS-55 group relative to controls with no significant effect in the sucrose group, whereas liver interleukin 1β and plasma insulin levels were elevated for both adolescent-exposed sugar groups. In contrast, intake of HFCS-55 or sucrose in adults did not impact spatial learning, glucose tolerance, anxiety, or neuroinflammatory markers. These data show that consumption of added sugars, particularly HFCS-55, negatively impacts hippocampal function, metabolic outcomes, and neuroinflammation when consumed in excess during the adolescent period of development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. STUDIES REGARDING THE CRIOPROTECTIVE PROPRIETIES OF THE VITRIFICATION MEDIA, WITH ETHYLENE GLYCOL, SUCROSE, FICOLL 70 AND GALACTOSE USED IN MAMMALIAN EMBRYO CRYOPRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADA CEAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Crioprotectors are the main component of any vitrification media. The penetrant crioprotectors are essential for cell dehydration and for the decrease of the freezing point of the solution, allowing a longer time for dehydration to set in. The aim of our paper was to make a series of experiments in order to determine the concentration at which four cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol, sucrose, Ficoll 70 and galactose singly and in pairs would vitrify on plunging into liquid nitrogen and remain vitreous when thawed in water bath. A total of 156 solutions were tested. During freezing, vitrification was evidenced by the formation of transparent glass when the unsealed straws were plunged into liquid nitrogen, at -196°C. Crystallization (ice formation resulted in a milky appearance. Solutions that vitrify on freezing were tested if they remain vitreous on thawing. For thawing we tested three temperatures 20°C, 25°C and 37°C. During thawing, solutions that did not devitrified were transformed from solid clear state to the liquid state without evidence of a milky appearance. From the combinations of two cryoprotectors were tested a number of 51 solutions vitrify on freezing (19 solutions with ethylene glycol and galactose; 19 solutions with ethylene glycol and sucrose; 13 solutions with ethylene glycol and Ficoll. The ethylene glycol and galacose pair give the best results on thawing (3 combinations remained vitreous on thawing at 37°C.

  8. STUDIES REGARDING THE CRIOPROTECTIVE PROPRIETIES OF THE VITRIFICATION MEDIA, WITH ETHYLENE GLYCOL, SUCROSE, FICOLL 70 AND GALACTOSE USED IN MAMMALIAN EMBRYO CRYOPRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRA BOLEMAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Crioprotectors are the main component of any vitrification media. The penetrant crioprotectors areessential for cell dehydration and for the decrease of the freezing point of the solution, allowing a longertime for dehydration to set in. The aim of our paper was to make a series of experiments in order todetermine the concentration at which four cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol, sucrose, Ficoll 70 andgalactose singly and in pairs would vitrify on plunging into liquid nitrogen and remain vitreous whenthawed in water bath. A total of 156 solutions were tested. During freezing, vitrification was evidenced bythe formation of transparent glass when the unsealed straws were plunged into liquid nitrogen, at -196°C. Crystallization (ice formation resulted in a milky appearance. Solutions that vitrify on freezingwere tested if they remain vitreous on thawing. For thawing we tested three temperatures 20°C, 25°C and37°C. During thawing, solutions that did not devitrified were transformed from solid clear state to theliquid state without evidence of a milky appearance. From the combinations of two cryoprotectors weretested a number of 51 solutions vitrify on freezing (19 solutions with ethylene glycol and galactose; 19solutions with ethylene glycol and sucrose; 13 solutions with ethylene glycol and Ficoll. The ethyleneglycol and galacose pair give the best results on thawing (3 combinations remained vitreous on thawingat 37°C.

  9. Anti-obesity effect of Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 in high-sucrose diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kang

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 (BNR17, a probiotic strain isolated from human breast milk, inhibited increases in body weight and adipocyte tissue weight in high-sucrose diet-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and reduced glucose levels in type 2 diabetes mice. In the current study, we conducted further experiments to extend these observations and elucidate the mechanism involved. C57BL/6J mice received a normal diet, high-sucrose diet or high-sucrose diet containing L. gasseri BNR17 (10(9 or 10(10 CFU for 10 weeks. The administration of L. gasseri BNR17 significantly reduced the body weight and white adipose tissue weight regardless of the dose administered. In BNR17-fed groups, mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes (ACO, CPT1, PPARα, PPARδ were significantly higher and those of fatty acid synthesis-related genes (SREBP-1c, ACC were lower compared to the high-sucrose-diet group. The expression of GLUT4, main glucose transporter-4, was elevated in BNR17-fed groups. L. gasseri BNR17 also reduced the levels of leptin and insulin in serum. These results suggest that the anti-obesity actions of L. gasseri BNR17 can be attributed to elevated expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and reduced levels of leptin. Additionally, data suggested the anti-diabetes activity of L. gasseri BNR17 may be to due elevated GLUT4 and reduced insulin levels.

  10. High-fructose corn syrup and sucrose have equivalent effects on energy-regulating hormones at normal human consumption levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiping; Lowndes, Joshua; Rippe, James

    2013-12-01

    Intake of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity, whereas a number of studies and organizations have reported metabolic equivalence between HFCS and sucrose. We hypothesized that HFCS and sucrose would have similar effects on energy-regulating hormones and metabolic substrates at normal levels of human consumption and that these values would not change over a 10-week, free-living period at these consumption levels. This was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, parallel group study in which 138 adult men and women consumed 10 weeks of low-fat milk sweetened with either HFCS or sucrose at levels of the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentile population consumption of fructose (the equivalent of 40, 90, or 150 g of sugar per day in a 2000-kcal diet). Before and after the 10-week intervention, 24-hour blood samples were collected. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, insulin, leptin, active ghrelin, triglyceride, and uric acid was measured. There were no group differences at baseline or posttesting for all outcomes (interaction, P > .05). The AUC response of glucose, active ghrelin, and uric acid did not change between baseline and posttesting (P > .05), whereas the AUC response of insulin (P < .05), leptin (P < .001), and triglyceride (P < .01) increased over the course of the intervention when the 6 groups were averaged. We conclude that there are no differences in the metabolic effects of HFCS and sucrose when compared at low, medium, and high levels of consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel high-affinity sucrose transporter is required for virulence of the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Wahl

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogenic fungi cause massive yield losses and affect both quality and safety of food and feed produced from infected plants. The main objective of plant pathogenic fungi is to get access to the organic carbon sources of their carbon-autotrophic hosts. However, the chemical nature of the carbon source(s and the mode of uptake are largely unknown. Here, we present a novel, plasma membrane-localized sucrose transporter (Srt1 from the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis and its characterization as a fungal virulence factor. Srt1 has an unusually high substrate affinity, is absolutely sucrose specific, and allows the direct utilization of sucrose at the plant/fungal interface without extracellular hydrolysis and, thus, without the production of extracellular monosaccharides known to elicit plant immune responses. srt1 is expressed exclusively during infection, and its deletion strongly reduces fungal virulence. This emphasizes the central role of this protein both for efficient carbon supply and for avoidance of apoplastic signals potentially recognized by the host.

  12. Twenty-four-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup-, sucrose-, fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L; Griffen, Steven C; Bair, Brandi R; Swarbrick, Michael M; Keim, Nancy L; Havel, Peter J

    2008-05-01

    We have reported that, compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose as the predominant sweetener in beverages in the United States. We compared the metabolic/endocrine effects of HFCS with sucrose and, in a subset of subjects, with pure fructose and glucose. Thirty-four men and women consumed 3 isocaloric meals with either sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened beverages, and blood samples were collected over 24 h. Eight of the male subjects were also studied when fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages were consumed. In 34 subjects, 24-h glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and TG profiles were similar between days that sucrose or HFCS was consumed. Postprandial TG excursions after HFCS or sucrose were larger in men than in women. In the men in whom the effects of 4 sweeteners were compared, the 24-h glucose and insulin responses induced by HFCS and sucrose were intermediate between the lower responses during consumption of fructose and the higher responses during glucose. Unexpectedly, postprandial TG profiles after HFCS or sucrose were not intermediate but comparably high as after pure fructose. Sucrose and HFCS do not have substantially different short-term endocrine/metabolic effects. In male subjects, short-term consumption of sucrose and HFCS resulted in postprandial TG responses comparable to those induced by fructose.

  13. Fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates high-safflower oil-induced fatty liver in ddy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Nakamori, Akiko; Sasaki, Eriko; Wada, Satoshi; Ezaki, Osamu

    2007-12-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). We analyzed the effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver induced by sucrose, safflower oil, and butter in ddY mice. In experiment I, mice were fed a high-starch diet [70 energy% (en%) starch] plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in the drinking water or fed a high-safflower oil diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Fish oil (10 en%) was either supplemented or not. Mice supplemented with sucrose or fed safflower oil showed a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold increased liver triglyceride content, respectively, compared with that of control mice. Fish oil completely prevented sucrose-induced fatty liver, whereas it exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver. Sucrose increased SREBP-1c and target gene messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and fish oil completely inhibited these increases. In experiment II, mice were fed a high-safflower oil or a high-butter diet, with or without fish oil supplementation. Fish oil exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver but did not affect butter-induced fatty liver. Fish oil increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and target CD36 mRNA in safflower oil-fed mice. These increases were not observed in sucrose-supplemented or butter-fed mice. The effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver differ according to the cause of fatty liver; fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates safflower oil-induced fatty liver. The exacerbation of fatty liver may be due, at least in part, to increased expression of liver PPARgamma.

  14. High-saturated fat-sucrose feeding affects lactation energetics in control mice and mice selectively bred for high wheel-running behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guidotti, Stefano; Jonas, Izabella; Schubert, Kristin A.; Garland, Theodore; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Scheurink, Anton J. W.; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    Feeding a diet high in fat and sucrose (HFS) during pregnancy and lactation is known to increase susceptibility to develop metabolic derangements later in life. A trait for increased behavioral activity may oppose these effects, since this would drain energy from milk produced to be made available

  15. A high-performance liquid chromatography-based radiometric assay for sucrose-phosphate synthase and other UDP-glucose requiring enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvucci, M.E.; Crafts-Brandner, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for product analysis that eliminates a problematic step in the radiometric sucrose-phosphate synthase assay is described. The method uses chromatography on a boronate-derivatized high-performance liquid chromatography column to separate the labeled product, [14C]sucrose phosphate, from unreacted uridine 5'-diphosphate-[14C]glucose (UDP-Glc). Direct separation of these compounds eliminates the need for treatment of the reaction mixtures with alkaline phosphatase, thereby avoiding the problem of high background caused by contaminating phosphodiesterase activity in alkaline phosphatase preparations. The method presented in this paper can be applied to many UDP-Glc requiring enzymes; here the authors show its use for determining the activities of sucrose-phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, and uridine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase in plant extracts

  16. Deregulation of arginase induces bone complications in high-fat/high-sucrose diet diabetic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Anil; Sangani, Rajnikumar; Kolhe, Ravindra; Toque, Haroldo A; Cain, Michael; Wong, Abby; Howie, Nicole; Shinde, Rahul; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Yao, Lin; Chutkan, Norman; Hunter, Monty; Caldwell, Ruth B; Isales, Carlos; Caldwell, R William; Fulzele, Sadanand

    2016-02-15

    A balanced diet is crucial for healthy development and prevention of musculoskeletal related diseases. Diets high in fat content are known to cause obesity, diabetes and a number of other disease states. Our group and others have previously reported that activity of the urea cycle enzyme arginase is involved in diabetes-induced dysregulation of vascular function due to decreases in nitric oxide formation. We hypothesized that diabetes may also elevate arginase activity in bone and bone marrow, which could lead to bone-related complications. To test this we determined the effects of diabetes on expression and activity of arginase, in bone and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). We demonstrated that arginase 1 is abundantly present in the bone and BMSCs. We also demonstrated that arginase activity and expression in bone and bone marrow is up-regulated in models of diabetes induced by HFHS diet and streptozotocin (STZ). HFHS diet down-regulated expression of healthy bone metabolism markers (BMP2, COL-1, ALP, and RUNX2) and reduced bone mineral density, bone volume and trabecular thickness. However, treatment with an arginase inhibitor (ABH) prevented these bone-related complications of diabetes. In-vitro study of BMSCs showed that high glucose treatment increased arginase activity and decreased nitric oxide production. These effects were reversed by treatment with an arginase inhibitor (ABH). Our study provides evidence that deregulation of l-arginine metabolism plays a vital role in HFHS diet-induced diabetic complications and that these complications can be prevented by treatment with arginase inhibitors. The modulation of l-arginine metabolism in disease could offer a novel therapeutic approach for osteoporosis and other musculoskeletal related diseases. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Adipose tissue redistribution caused by an early consumption of a high sucrose diet in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Jankiewicz, Ashley Kate; Rodríguez Peredo, Sofía Montserrat; Cardoso Saldaña, Guillermo; Díaz Díaz, Eulises; Tejero Barrera, María Elizabeth; del Bosque Plata, Laura; Carbó Zabala, Roxana

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem worldwide. The quantity and site of accumulation of adipose tissue is of great importance for the physiopathology of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a high carbohydrate diet on adipose tissue distribution. Male Wistar rats, control (CONT) and high sucrose diet (HSD; 30% sucrose in their drinking water), were monitored during 24 weeks and total energy and macronutrient intake were estimated by measuring daily average consumption. A bioelectrical impedance procedure was performed at 22 weeks of treatment to assess body compartments and systolic arterial blood pressure was measured. Serum was obtained and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was collected and weighed. HSD ingested less pellets and beverage, consuming less lipids and proteins than CONT, but the same amount of carbohydrates. Retroperitoneal adipose tissue was more abundant in HSD. Both groups were normoglycemic; triglycerides, adiponectin and leptin levels were higher, while total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were lower in HSD; insulin, HOMA index and systolic blood pressure had a tendency of being higher in HSD. This model presents dyslipidemia and a strong tendency for insulin resistance and hypertension. Even though there was no difference in body compartments between groups, retroperitoneal adipose tissue was significantly increased in HSD. This suggests that a rearrangement of adipose tissue distribution towards the abdominal cavity takes place as a result of chronic high sucrose consumption, which contributes to a higher risk of suffering from metabolic and chronic degenerative diseases. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. High sucrose consumption induces memory impairment in rats associated with electrophysiological modifications but not with metabolic changes in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, C; Rial, D; Gonçalves, F Q; Pires, J; Silva, H B; Matheus, F C; da Silva, A C; Marques, J M; Rodrigues, R J; Jarak, I; Prediger, R D; Reis, F; Carvalho, R A; Pereira, F C; Cunha, R A

    2016-02-19

    High sugar consumption is a risk factor for metabolic disturbances leading to memory impairment. Thus, rats subject to high sucrose intake (HSu) develop a metabolic syndrome and display memory deficits. We now investigated if these HSu-induced memory deficits were associated with metabolic and electrophysiological alterations in the hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were submitted for 9 weeks to a sucrose-rich diet (35% sucrose solution) and subsequently to a battery of behavioral tests; after sacrifice, their hippocampi were collected for ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) metabolic characterization and electrophysiological extracellular recordings in slices. HSu rats displayed a decreased memory performance (object displacement and novel object recognition tasks) and helpless behavior (forced swimming test), without altered locomotion (open field). HRMAS analysis indicated a similar hippocampal metabolic profile of HSu and control rats. HSu rats also displayed no change of synaptic transmission and plasticity (long-term potentiation) in hippocampal Schaffer fibers-CA1 pyramid synapses, but had decreased amplitude of long-term depression in the temporoammonic (TA) pathway. Furthermore, HSu rats had an increased density of inhibitory adenosine A1 receptors (A1R), that translated into a greater potency of A1R in Schaffer fiber synapses, but not in the TA pathway, whereas the endogenous activation of A1R in HSu rats was preserved in the TA pathway but abolished in Schaffer fiber synapses. These results suggest that HSu triggers a hippocampal-dependent memory impairment that is not associated with altered hippocampal metabolism but is probably related to modified synaptic plasticity in hippocampal TA synapses. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Lowndes, Joshua; Kawiecki, Diana; Pardo, Sabrina; Nguyen, Von; Melanson, Kathleen J; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Methods This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after ...

  20. Sucrose Phosphate Synthase and Sucrose Accumulation at Low Temperature 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Charles L.; Huber, Joan L. A.; Huber, Steven C.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of growth temperature on the free sugar and sucrose phosphate synthase content and activity of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaf tissue was studied. When plants were grown at 25°C for 3 weeks and then transferred to a constant 5°C, sucrose, glucose, and fructose accumulated to high levels during a 14-d period. Predawn sugar levels increased from 14- to 20-fold over the levels present at the outset of the low-temperature treatment. Sucrose was the most abundant free sugar before, during, and after exposure to 5°C. Leaf sucrose phosphate synthase activity was significantly increased by the low-temperature treatment, whereas sucrose synthase and invertases were not. Synthesis of the sucrose phosphate synthase subunit was increased during and after low-temperature exposure and paralleled an increase in the steady-state level of the subunit. The increases in sucrose and its primary biosynthetic enzyme, sucrose phosphate synthase, are discussed in relation to adjustment of metabolism to low nonfreezing temperature and freezing stress tolerance. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16652990

  1. Consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup does not increase liver fat or ectopic fat deposition in muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Stephen; Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James

    2013-06-01

    It has been postulated that fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis is augmented when accompanied by glucose. Chronic elevations could lead to excess fat accumulation in the liver and ectopic fat deposition in muscles, which in turn could contribute to the induction of abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the addition of commonly consumed fructose- and (or) glucose-containing sugars in the usual diet on liver fat content and intramuscular adipose tissue. For 10 weeks, 64 individuals (mean age, 42.16 ± 11.66 years) consumed low-fat milk sweetened with either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose; the added sugar matched consumption levels of fructose in the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of the population. The fat content of the liver was measured with unenhanced computed tomography imaging, and the fat content of muscle was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. When the 6 HFCS and sucrose groups were averaged, there was no change over the course of 10 weeks in the fat content of the liver (13.32% ± 10.49% vs. 13.21% ± 10.75%; p > 0.05), vastus lateralis muscle (3.07 ± 0.74 g per 100 mL vs. 3.15 ± 0.84 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05), or gluteus maximus muscle (4.08 ± 1.50 g per 100 mL vs. 4.24 ± 1.42 g per 100 mL; p > 0.05). Group assignment did not affect the result (interaction > 0.05). These data suggest that when fructose is consumed as part of a typical diet in normally consumed sweeteners, such as sucrose or HFCS, ectopic fat storage in the liver or muscles is not promoted.

  2. Adiponectin gene therapy ameliorates high-fat, high-sucrose diet-induced metabolic perturbations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, A D; Sung, M M; Boisvenue, J J; Barr, A J; Dyck, J R B

    2012-09-10

    Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted primarily from adipose tissue that can influence circulating plasma glucose and lipid levels through multiple mechanisms involving a variety of organs. In humans, reduced plasma adiponectin levels induced by obesity are associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, suggesting that low adiponectin levels may contribute the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether gene therapy designed to elevate circulating adiponectin levels is a viable strategy for ameliorating insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet. Electroporation-mediated gene transfer of mouse adiponectin plasmid DNA into gastrocnemius muscle resulted in elevated serum levels of globular and high-molecular weight adiponectin compared with control mice treated with empty plasmid. In comparison to HFHS-fed mice receiving empty plasmid, mice receiving adiponectin gene therapy displayed significantly decreased weight gain following 13 weeks of HFHS diet associated with reduced fat accumulation, and exhibited increased oxygen consumption and locomotor activity as measured by indirect calorimetry, suggesting increased energy expenditure in these mice. Consistent with improved whole-body metabolism, mice receiving adiponectin gene therapy also had lower blood glucose and insulin levels, improved glucose tolerance and reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis compared with control mice. Furthermore, immunoblot analysis of livers from mice receiving adiponectin gene therapy showed an increase in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin signaling proteins. Based on these data, we conclude that adiponectin gene therapy ameliorates the metabolic abnormalities caused by feeding mice a HFHS diet and may be a potential therapeutic strategy to improve obesity-mediated impairments in insulin sensitivity.

  3. Consumption of sucrose, but not high fructose corn syrup, leads to increased adiposity and dyslipidaemia in the pregnant and lactating rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toop, C R; Muhlhausler, B S; O'Dea, K; Gentili, S

    2015-02-01

    Excess consumption of added sugars, including sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55), have been implicated in the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate and compare the impact of maternal consumption of sucrose or HFCS-55 during pregnancy and lactation on the metabolic health of the dam and her offspring at birth. Female Albino Wistar rats were given access to chow and water, in addition to a sucrose or HFCS-55 beverage (10% w/v) before, and during pregnancy and lactation. Maternal glucose tolerance was determined throughout the study, and a postmortem was conducted on dams following lactation, and on offspring within 24 h of birth. Sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased total energy intake compared with controls, however the increase from sucrose consumption was accompanied by a compensatory decrease in chow consumption. There was no effect of sucrose or HFCS-55 consumption on body weight, however sucrose consumption resulted in increased adiposity and elevated total plasma cholesterol in the dam, while HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased plasma insulin and decreased plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Maternal HFCS-55 consumption was associated with decreased relative liver weight and plasma NEFA in the offspring at birth. There was no effect of either treatment on pup weight at birth. These findings suggest that both sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption during pregnancy and lactation have the potential to impact negatively on maternal metabolic health, which may have adverse consequences for the long-term health of the offspring.

  4. High-sucrose diets in male rats disrupt aspects of decision making tasks, motivation and spatial memory, but not impulsivity measured by operant delay-discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alanna; Dogra, Vimi R; Reichelt, Amy C

    2017-06-01

    Excessive consumption of sugar sweetened drinks is proposed to produce functional changes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, leading to perturbations in behavioural control. Impairments in behavioural control have been observed in obese people on tasks that involve making choices, including delay-discounting, indicative of increased impulsivity. In this study we examined the impact of 2h daily access to 10% sucrose (or no sucrose in controls) in young male rats on behavioural tasks reliant on hippocampal function including delay-discounting, T-maze forced choice alternation and place recognition memory, as well as progressive ratio to measure motivation. We observed deficits in place recognition memory and T-maze forced choice alternation, indicative of hippocampal deficits in rats with a history of sucrose consumption. Moreover, rats with a history of sucrose consumption were less motivated to lever press for rewards on a progressive ratio schedule. However, rats with a history of sucrose consumption performed equally to control animals during the delay-discounting task, suggesting that they discounted for reward size over a delay in a manner comparable to control animals. These findings indicate that high-sucrose diets impact on spatial and working memory processes, but do not induce impulsive-like choice behaviours in rats, suggesting that unhealthy diet choices may not influence this aspect of decision-making behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Glucose and Lipid Dysmetabolism in a Rat Model of Prediabetes Induced by a High-Sucrose Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgeiro, Ana; Cerqueira, Manuela G.; Varela-Rodríguez, Bárbara M.; Nunes, Sara; Neto, Paula; Pereira, Frederico C.; Reis, Flávio; Carvalho, Eugénia

    2017-01-01

    Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity are key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but their molecular nature during the early stages of the disease remains to be elucidated. We aimed to characterize glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-target organs (liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue) in a rat model treated with a high-sucrose (HSu) diet. Two groups of 16-week-old male Wistar rats underwent a 9-week protocol: HSu diet (n = 10)—received 35% of sucrose in drinking water; Control (n = 12)—received vehicle (water). Body weight, food, and beverage consumption were monitored and glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles were measured. Serum and liver triglyceride concentrations, as well as the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis were assessed. The insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis were also measured in freshly isolated adipocytes. Even in the absence of obesity, this rat model already presented the main features of prediabetes, with fasting normoglycemia but reduced glucose tolerance, postprandial hyperglycemia, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, as well as decreased insulin sensitivity (resistance) and hypertriglyceridemia. In addition, impaired hepatic function, including altered gluconeogenic and lipogenic pathways, as well as increased expression of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 1 and fatty acid synthase in the liver, were observed, suggesting that liver glucose and lipid dysmetabolism may play a major role at this stage of the disease. PMID:28635632

  6. Weekend ethanol consumption and high-sucrose diet: resveratrol effects on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, lipid profile, oxidative stress and hepatic energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Katiucha Karolina Honório Ribeiro; Souza, Gisele Aparecida; Seiva, Fábio Rodrigues Ferreira; Ebaid, Geovana Xavier; Novelli, Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    The present study analyzed the association between weekend ethanol and high-sucrose diet on oxygen consumption, lipid profile, oxidative stress and hepatic energy metabolism. Because resveratrol (RS, 3,5,4'-trans-trihydroxystilbene) has been implicated as a modulator of alcohol-independent cardiovascular protection attributed to red wine, we also determined whether RS could change the damage done by this lifestyle. Male Wistar 24 rats receiving standard chow were divided into four groups (n = 6/group): (C) water throughout the experimental period; (E) 30% ethanol 3 days/week, water 4 days/week; (ES) a mixture of 30% ethanol and 30% sucrose 3 days/week, drinking 30% sucrose 4 days/week; (ESR) 30% ethanol and 30% sucrose containing 6 mg/l RS 3 days/week, drinking 30% sucrose 4 days/week. After 70 days the body weight was highest in ESR rats. E rats had higher energy expenditure (resting metabolic rate), oxygen consumption (VO(2)), fat oxidation, serum triacylglycerol (TG) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) than C. ES rats normalized calorimetric parameters and enhanced carbohydrate oxidation. ESR ameliorated calorimetric parameters, reduced TG, VLDL and lipid hydroperoxide/total antioxidant substances, as well enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL/TG ratio. Hepatic hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase (OHADH)/citrate synthase ratio was lower in E and ES rats than in C. OHADH was highest in ESR rats. The present study brought new insights on weekend alcohol consumption, demonstrating for the first time, that this pattern of ethanol exposure induced dyslipidemic profile, calorimetric and hepatic metabolic changes which resemble that of the alcoholism. No synergistic effects were found with weekend ethanol and high-sucrose intake. RS was advantageous in weekend drinking and high-sucrose intake condition ameliorating hepatic metabolism and improving risk factors for cardiovascular damage.

  7. Glucose, fructose and sucrose increase the solubility of protein-tannin complexes and at high concentration, glucose and sucrose interfere with bisulphite bleaching of wine pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbertson, James F; Yuan, Chunlong; Mireles, Maria S; Hanlin, Rachel L; Downey, Mark O

    2013-05-01

    Wines were modified with increasing sugar concentrations and decreasing tannin concentrations and analysed by a combination of protein precipitation and bisulphite bleaching. Increasing sugar concentration decreased the precipitation of tannin and protein-precipitable polymeric pigments (PPP). The use of a hydrogen bond disruptor (urea) to reduce protein-tannin and protein-pigment complex formation showed that the effect of sugar concentration occurred by increasing the solubility of the tannin-protein complex, not by interfering with protein-tannin complex formation. By increasing the solubility of pigment-protein complexes, non-protein-precipitable polymeric pigments (nPPP) appeared to increase. There was also an increase in total polymeric pigments at each tannin concentration with increasing glucose and sucrose concentration, indicating that sugar concentration might also affect bisulphite bleaching of wine pigments. While a significant effect of sugar concentration on tannin-protein complex solubility was observed, these effects were greatest at sugar concentrations far in excess of normal wine making conditions. Under normal wine making conditions, sugar concentration will have a negligible effect on protein-precipitable tannin, PPP and nPPP concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High School Students’ Social Media Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz, Levent; Gürültü, Ercan

    2018-01-01

    Theaim of this study is to investigate high school students’ social mediaaddiction. The study was conducted with 473 students who were educated in2014-2015 academic year at 6 different schools in İstanbul, Eyüp disctrict.‘Social Media Addiction Scale’ developed by Tutgun, Ünal and Deniz (2015) wasused to determine the students’ social media addiction. The results in general showedthat high school students have a medium level social media addiction. Besides,it was also concluded that high scho...

  9. High-Throughput Analysis of Sucrose Fatty Acid Esters by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Katsuhito; Tsumura, Kazunobu; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was applied to the profiling of sucrose fatty acid esters (SEs). The SFC conditions (column and modifier gradient) were optimized for the effective separation of SEs. In the column test, a silica gel reversed-phase column was selected. Then, the method was used for the detailed characterization of commercial SEs and the successful analysis of SEs containing different fatty acids. The present method allowed for fast and high-resolution separation of monoesters to tetra-esters within a shorter time (15 min) as compared to the conventional high-performance liquid chromatography. The applicability of our method for the analysis of SEs was thus demonstrated. PMID:26819875

  10. The Arabidopsis transcription factor ANAC032 represses anthocyanin biosynthesis in response to high sucrose and oxidative and abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Mahmood

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of anthocyanins is one of the adaptive responses employed by plants during stress conditions. During stress, anthocyanin biosynthesis is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level via a complex interplay between activators and repressors of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. In this study, we investigated the role of a NAC transcription factor, ANAC032, in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during stress conditions. ANAC032 expression was found to be induced by exogenous sucrose as well as high light stress. Using biochemical, molecular and transgenic approaches, we show that ANAC032 represses anthocyanin biosynthesis in response to sucrose treatment, high light and oxidative stress. ANAC032 was found to negatively affect anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis (DFR, ANS/LDOX and positive regulatory (TT8 genes as demonstrated in overexpression line (35S:ANAC032 compared to wild-type under high light stress. The chimeric repressor line (35S:ANAC032-SRDX exhibited the opposite expression patterns for these genes. The negative impact of ANAC032 on the expression of DFR, ANS/LDOX and TT8 was found to be correlated with the altered expression of negative regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, AtMYBL2 and SPL9. In addition to this, ANAC032 also repressed the MeJA- and ABA-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. As a result, transgenic lines overexpressing ANAC032 (35S:ANAC032 produced drastically reduced levels of anthocyanin pigment compared to wild-type when challenged with salinity stress. However, transgenic chimeric repressor lines (35S:ANAC032-SRDX exhibited the opposite phenotype. Our results suggest that ANAC032 functions as a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana during stress conditions.

  11. High vitamin A intake during pregnancy modifies dopaminergic reward system and decreases preference for sucrose in Wistar rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Reza-López, Sandra A; Pausova, Zdenka; Bazinet, Richard P; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-01-01

    High multivitamin (HV) content in gestational diets has long-term metabolic effects in rat offspring. These changes are associated with in utero modifications of gene expression in hypothalamic food intake regulation. However, the role of fat-soluble vitamins in mediating these effects has not been explored. Vitamin A is a plausible candidate due to its role in gene methylation. Vitamin A intake above requirements during pregnancy affects the development of neurocircuitries involved in food intake and reward regulation. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed AIN-93G diets with the following content: recommended multivitamins (1-fold multivitamins: RV), high vitamin A (10-fold vitamin A: HA) or HV with only recommended vitamin A (10-fold multivitamins, 1-fold vitamin A: HVRA). Body weight, food intake and preference, mRNA expression and DNA methylation of hippocampal dopamine-related genes were assessed in male offspring brains at different developmental windows: birth, weaning and 14weeks postweaning. HA offspring had changes in dopamine-related gene expression at all developmental windows and DNA hypermethylation in the dopamine receptor 2 promoter region compared to RV offspring. Furthermore, HA diet lowered sucrose preference but had no effect on body weight and expression of hypothalamic genes. In contrast, HVRA offspring showed only at adulthood changes in expression of hippocampal genes and a modest effect on hypothalamic genes. High vitamin A intake alone in gestational diets has long-lasting programming effects on the dopaminergic system that are further translated into decreased sucrose preference but not food intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose, or high-fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2008-12-01

    Our laboratory has investigated 2 hypotheses regarding the effects of fructose consumption: 1) the endocrine effects of fructose consumption favor a positive energy balance, and 2) fructose consumption promotes the development of an atherogenic lipid profile. In previous short- and long-term studies, we showed that consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with 3 meals results in lower 24-h plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and leptin in humans than does consumption of glucose-sweetened beverages. We have also tested whether prolonged consumption of high-fructose diets leads to increased caloric intake or decreased energy expenditure, thereby contributing to weight gain and obesity. Results from a study conducted in rhesus monkeys produced equivocal results. Carefully controlled and adequately powered long-term studies are needed to address these hypotheses. In both short- and long-term studies, we showed that consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages substantially increases postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations compared with glucose-sweetened beverages. In the long-term studies, apolipoprotein B concentrations were also increased in subjects consuming fructose, but not in those consuming glucose. Data from a short-term study comparing consumption of beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, and sucrose suggest that high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose increase postprandial triacylglycerol to an extent comparable with that induced by 100% fructose alone. Increased consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages along with increased prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes underscore the importance of investigating the metabolic consequences of fructose consumption in carefully controlled experiments.

  13. Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose on the pharmacokinetics of fructose and acute metabolic and hemodynamic responses in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Myphuong T; Frye, Reginald F; Rivard, Christopher J; Cheng, Jing; McFann, Kim K; Segal, Mark S; Johnson, Richard J; Johnson, Julie A

    2012-05-01

    It is unclear whether high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which contains a higher amount of fructose and provides an immediate source of free fructose, induces greater systemic concentrations of fructose as compared with sucrose. It is also unclear whether exposure to higher levels of fructose leads to increased fructose-induced adverse effects. The objective was to prospectively compare the effects of HFCS- vs sucrose-sweetened soft drinks on acute metabolic and hemodynamic effects. Forty men and women consumed 24 oz of HFCS- or sucrose-sweetened beverages in a randomized crossover design study. Blood and urine samples were collected over 6 hours. Blood pressure, heart rate, fructose, and a variety of other metabolic biomarkers were measured. Fructose area under the curve and maximum concentration, dose-normalized glucose area under the curve and maximum concentration, relative bioavailability of glucose, changes in postprandial concentrations of serum uric acid, and systolic blood pressure maximum levels were higher when HFCS-sweetened beverages were consumed as compared with sucrose-sweetened beverages. Compared with sucrose, HFCS leads to greater fructose systemic exposure and significantly different acute metabolic effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of high fructose corn syrup and sucrose on the pharmacokinetics of fructose and acute metabolic and hemodynamic responses in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, MyPhuong T.; Frye, Reginald F.; Rivard, Christopher J.; Cheng, Jing; McFann, Kim K.; Segal, Mark S.; Johnson, Richard J.; Johnson, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is unclear whether high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which contains a higher amount of fructose and provides an immediate source of free fructose, induces greater systemic concentrations of fructose as compared to sucrose. It is also unclear whether exposure to higher levels of fructose leads to increased fructose-induced adverse effects. The objective was to prospectively compare the effects of HFCS- versus sucrose-sweetened soft drinks on acute metabolic and hemodynamic effects. Materials/Methods Forty men and women consumed 24 oz of HFCS- or sucrose-sweetened beverages in a randomized crossover design study. Blood and urine samples were collected over 6 hr. Blood pressure, heart rate, fructose, and a variety of other metabolic biomarkers were measured. Results Fructose area under the curve and maximum concentration, dose normalized glucose area under the curve and maximum concentration, relative bioavailability of glucose, changes in postprandial concentrations of serum uric acid, and systolic blood pressure maximum levels were higher when HFCS-sweetened beverages were consumed as compared to sucrose-sweetened beverages. Conclusions Compared to sucrose, HFCS leads to greater fructose systemic exposure and significantly different acute metabolic effects. PMID:22152650

  15. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor ANAC032 Represses Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Response to High Sucrose and Oxidative and Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Kashif; Xu, Zhenhua; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Casaretto, José A; Rothstein, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Production of anthocyanins is one of the adaptive responses employed by plants during stress conditions. During stress, anthocyanin biosynthesis is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level via a complex interplay between activators and repressors of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. In this study, we investigated the role of a NAC transcription factor, ANAC032, in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during stress conditions. ANAC032 expression was found to be induced by exogenous sucrose as well as high light (HL) stress. Using biochemical, molecular and transgenic approaches, we show that ANAC032 represses anthocyanin biosynthesis in response to sucrose treatment, HL and oxidative stress. ANAC032 was found to negatively affect anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis ( DFR, ANS/LDOX) and positive regulatory ( TT8) genes as demonstrated in overexpression line (35S:ANAC032) compared to wild-type under HL stress. The chimeric repressor line (35S:ANAC032-SRDX) exhibited the opposite expression patterns for these genes. The negative impact of ANAC032 on the expression of DFR, ANS/LDOX and TT8 was found to be correlated with the altered expression of negative regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, AtMYBL2 and SPL9 . In addition to this, ANAC032 also repressed the MeJA- and ABA-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. As a result, transgenic lines overexpressing ANAC032 (35S:ANAC032) produced drastically reduced levels of anthocyanin pigment compared to wild-type when challenged with salinity stress. However, transgenic chimeric repressor lines (35S:ANAC032-SRDX) exhibited the opposite phenotype. Our results suggest that ANAC032 functions as a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana during stress conditions.

  16. Efficient transformation of sucrose into high pullulan concentrations by Aureobasidium melanogenum TN1-2 isolated from a natural honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Xue, Si-Jia; Li, Yan-Feng; Liu, Guang-Lei; Chi, Zhen-Ming; Hu, Zhong; Chi, Zhe

    2018-08-15

    A very high pullulan producing yeast-like fungus, Aureobasidium melanogenum TN1-2 isolated from a natural honey was found to be able to produce 97.0 g/L of pullulan from 140.0 g/L sucrose at a flask level while it could yield 114.0 g/L of pullulan within 134 h during a 10-liter fermentation, the yield was 0.81 g/g and the productivity was 0.86 g/L/h. The high ability to biosynthesize pullulan by this yeast-like fungal strain TN1-2 was related to high glucosyltransferase activity, high phosphofructo-2-kinase activity, high content of its cellular glycerol and low glucose repressor. The Mw of the produced pullulan was 1.42 × 10 5  g/mol. The low Mw may be due to the high α-amylase, glucoamylase and isopullulanase activities. The intracellular level of trehalose had no influence on high pullulan production by the yeast-like fungal strain TN1-2. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Lactose and sucrose aqueous solutions for high-dose dosimetry with 10-MeV electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amraei, R.; Kheirkhah, M.; Raisali, G.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, dosimetric characterisation of aqueous solutions of lactose and sucrose was analysed by UV spectrometry following irradiation using 10-MeV electron beam at doses between 0.5 and 10.5 kGy. As a dosimetric index, absorbance is selected at 256 and 264 nm for lactose and sucrose aqueous solutions, respectively. The intensity of absorbance for irradiated solutions depends on the pre-irradiation concentration of lactose and sucrose. The post-irradiation stability of both solutions was investigated at room temperature for a measurement period of 22 d. (authors)

  18. Impact of perinatal exposure to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) on adiposity and hepatic lipid composition in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toop, Carla R; Muhlhausler, Beverly S; O'Dea, Kerin; Gentili, Sheridan

    2017-07-01

    Fructose-containing sugars, including sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), have been implicated in the epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Few studies have evaluated the impact of perinatal exposure to these sugars on metabolic and physiological outcomes in the offspring. Using a rat model, offspring exposed to a maternal sucrose or HFCS diet during the prenatal and/or suckling periods were found to have altered adiposity and liver fat content and composition at weaning. Plasma levels of free fatty acids remained elevated in young adulthood, but consumption of a control diet following weaning appeared to ameliorate most other effects of perinatal exposure to a maternal high-sugar diet. Guidelines for maternal nutrition should advise limiting consumption of fructose-containing sugars, and it is particularly important that these recommendations include maternal nutrition during lactation. Perinatal exposure to excess maternal intake of added sugars, including fructose and sucrose, is associated with an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adult life. However, it is unknown to what extent the type of sugar and the timing of exposure affect these outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of exposure to maternal consumption of a 10% (w/v) beverage containing sucrose or high fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) during the prenatal and/or suckling periods on offspring at 3 and 12 weeks, utilising a cross-fostering approach in a rodent model. Perinatal sucrose exposure decreased plasma glucose concentrations in offspring at 3 weeks, but did not alter glucose tolerance. Increased adiposity was observed in 3-week-old offspring exposed to sucrose or HFCS-55 during suckling, with increased hepatic fat content in HFCS-55-exposed offspring. In terms of specific fatty acids, hepatic monounsaturated (omega-7 and -9) fatty acid content was elevated at weaning, and was most pronounced in sucrose offspring exposed during both the prenatal and

  19. Glycyrrhizic Acid Can Attenuate Metabolic Deviations Caused by a High-Sucrose Diet without Causing Water Retention in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish Alexander Fernando

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizic acid (GA ameliorates many components of the metabolic syndrome, but its potential therapeutic use is marred by edema caused by inhibition of renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2. We assessed whether 100 mg/kg per day GA administered orally could promote metabolic benefits without causing edema in rats fed on a high-sucrose diet. Groups of eight male rats were fed on one of three diets for 28 days: normal diet, a high-sucrose diet, or a high-sucrose diet supplemented with GA. Rats were then culled and renal 11β-HSD2 activity, as well as serum sodium, potassium, angiotensin II and leptin levels were determined. Histological analyses were performed to assess changes in adipocyte size in visceral and subcutaneous depots, as well as hepatic and renal tissue morphology. This dosing paradigm of GA attenuated the increases in serum leptin levels and visceral, but not subcutaneous adipocyte size caused by the high-sucrose diet. Although GA decreased renal 11β-HSD2 activity, it did not affect serum electrolyte or angiotensin II levels, indicating no onset of edema. Furthermore, there were no apparent morphological changes in the liver or kidney, indicating no toxicity. In conclusion, it is possible to reap metabolic benefits of GA without edema using the current dosage and treatment time.

  20. Maternal and post-weaning high-fat, high-sucrose diet modulates glucose homeostasis and hypothalamic POMC promoter methylation in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2015-10-01

    Substantial evidence demonstrated that maternal dietary nutrients can significantly determine the susceptibility to developing metabolic disorders in the offspring. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the later-life effects of maternal and postweaning diets interaction on epigenetic modification of the central nervous system in the offspring. We examined the effects of dams fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (FS) diet during pregnancy and lactation and weaned to FS diet continuously until 32 weeks of age. Then, DNA methylation and gene expressions of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) were determined in the offspring. Offspring of FS diet had heavier body weight, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity and higher serum leptin level at 32-week age (p diet during gestation, lactation and into 32-week age (p diet offspring (p fat diet predisposes the offspring for obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in later life. Our findings can advance our thinking around the DNA methylation status of the promoter of the POMC and MC4R genes between long-term high-fat, high-sucrose diet and glucose homeostasis in mouse.

  1. The health implications of sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose: what do we really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M

    2010-07-01

    The epidemic of obesity and related metabolic diseases continues to extract an enormous health toll. Multiple potential causes for obesity have been suggested, including increased fat consumption, increased carbohydrate consumption, decreased physical activity, and, most recently, increased fructose consumption. Most literature cited in support of arguments suggesting a link between obesity and fructose consumption is epidemiologic and does not establish cause and effect. The causes of obesity are well-known and involve the overconsumption of calories from all sources. Research employing a pure fructose model distorts the real-world situation of fructose consumption, which predominantly comes from sweeteners containing roughly equal proportions of glucose and fructose. The fructose hypothesis has the potential to distract us from further exploration and amelioration of known causes of obesity. Randomized prospective trials of metabolic consequences of fructose consumption at normal population levels and from sources typically found in the human diet such as sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup are urgently needed. 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Hypocaloric high-protein diet improves fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia in sucrose-fed obese rats via two pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebanso, Takashi; Taketani, Yutaka; Fukaya, Makiko; Sato, Kazusa; Takei, Yuichiro; Sato, Tadatoshi; Sawada, Naoki; Amo, Kikuko; Harada, Nagakatsu; Arai, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    The mechanism by which replacement of some dietary carbohydrates with protein during weight loss favors lipid metabolism remains obscure. In this study, we investigated the effect of an energy-restricted, high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet on lipid metabolism in obese rats. High-sucrose-induced obese rats were assigned randomly to one of two energy-restricted dietary interventions: a carbohydrate-based control diet (CD) or a high-protein diet (HPD). Lean rats of the same age were assigned as normal control. There was significantly greater improvement in fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia with the HPD diet relative to the CD diet. Expression of genes regulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) and involved in liver lipolysis and lipid utilitization, such as lipase and acyl-CoA oxidase, increased in obese rats fed the HPD. Furthermore, there was an inverse correlation between levels of FGF21 gene expression (regulated by glucagon/insulin balance) and increased triglyceride concentrations in liver from obese rats. Expression of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), regulated primarily by the dietary carbohydrate, was also markedly reduced in the HPD group (similar to plasma triglyceride levels in fasting animals) relative to the CD group. In conclusion, a hypocaloric high-protein diet improves fatty liver and hypertriglyceridemia effectively relative to a carbohydrate diet. The two cellular pathways at work behind these benefits include stimulation of hepatic lipolysis and lipid utilization mediated by FGF21 and reduction of hepatic VLDL-TG production by SCD1 regulation.

  3. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed

  4. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T. [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1986-03-15

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed.

  5. The Probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 produces high-molecular-mass inulin from sucrose by using an inulosucrase enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anwar, Munir A.; Kralj, Slavko; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    Fructansucrase enzymes polymerize the fructose moiety of sucrose into levan or inulin fructans, with beta(2-6) and beta(2-1) linkages, respectively. The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii strain NCC 533 possesses a single fructansucrase gene (open reading frame AAS08734) annotated as a

  6. Elution strategies for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers with charged aerosol detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Aleksander; Pedersen, Lars Haastrup

    2013-01-01

    A broad range of elution strategies for RP-HPLC analysis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers with CAD was systematically evaluated. The HPLC analyses were investigated using design-of-experiments methodology and analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression modelling. Isocratic elutions, ...

  7. Adiponectin induced AMP-activated protein kinase impairment mediates insulin resistance in Bama mini-pig fed high-fat and high-sucrose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Niu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Adipose tissue is no longer considered as an inert storage organ for lipid, but instead is thought to play an active role in regulating insulin effects via secretion adipokines. However, conflicting reports have emerged regarding the effects of adipokines. In this study, we investigated the role of adipokines in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obese Bama mini-pigs. Methods An obesity model was established in Bama mini-pigs, by feeding with high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 30 weeks. Plasma glucose and blood biochemistry levels were measured, and intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed. Adipokines, including adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, resistin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and glucose-induced insulin secretion were also examined by radioimmunoassay. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, which is a useful insulin resistance marker, was examined by immunoblotting. Additionally, associations of AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adipokines and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index were assessed by Pearce’s correlation analysis. Results Obese pigs showed hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, and insulin resistance. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05 and IL-6 amounts dramatically increased (p<0.05 in obese pigs both in serum and adipose tissue, corroborating data from obese mice and humans. However, circulating resistin and TNF-α showed no difference, while the values of TNF-α in adipose tissue were significantly higher in obese pigs, also in agreement with data from obese humans but not rodent models. Moreover, strong associations of skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adiponectin and HOMA-IR index were obtained. Conclusion AMPK impairment induced by adiponectin decrease mediates insulin resistance in high-fat and high-sucrose diet induction. In addition, Bama mini-pig has the possibility of a conformable

  8. Dissecting genomic hotspots underlying seed protein, oil, and sucrose content in an interspecific mapping population of soybean using high-density linkage mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Vuong, Tri D; Kale, Sandip; Valliyodan, Babu; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Zhu, Chengsong; Wu, Xiaolei; Bai, Yonghe; Yungbluth, Dennis; Lu, Fang; Kumpatla, Siva; Grover Shannon, J; Varshney, Rajeev K; Nguyen, Henry T

    2018-04-04

    The cultivated [Glycine max (L) Merr.] and wild [Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc.] soybean species comprise wide variation in seed composition traits. Compared to wild soybean, cultivated soybean contains low protein, high oil and high sucrose. In this study, an inter-specific population was derived from a cross between G. max (Williams 82) and G. soja (PI 483460B). This recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 188 lines was sequenced at 0.3x depth. Based on 91,342 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), recombination events in RILs were defined, and a high-resolution bin map was developed (4,070 bins). In addition to bin mapping, QTL analysis for protein, oil and sucrose was performed using 3,343 polymorphic SNPs (3K-SNP), derived from Illumina Infinium BeadChip sequencing platform. The QTL regions from both platforms were compared and a significant concordance was observed between bin and 3K-SNP markers. Importantly, the bin map derived from next generation sequencing technology enhanced mapping resolution (from 1325 Kb to 50 Kb). A total of 5, 9 and 4 QTLs were identified for protein, oil and sucrose content, respectively and some of the QTLs coincided with soybean domestication related genomic loci. The major QTL for protein and oil was mapped on Chr. 20 (qPro_20) and suggested negative correlation between oil and protein. In terms of sucrose content, a novel and major QTL was identified on Chr. 8 (qSuc_08) and harbors putative genes involved in sugar transport. In addition, genome-wide association (GWAS) using 91,342 SNPs confirmed the genomic loci derived from QTL mapping. A QTL based haplotype using whole genome resequencing of 106 diverse soybean lines identified unique allelic variation in wild soybean that could be utilized to widen the genetic base in cultivated soybean. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Methods This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after the completion of 12 weeks following a hypocaloric diet. The average caloric deficit achieved on the hypocaloric diets was 309 kcal. Results Reductions were observed in all measures of adiposity including body mass, BMI,% body fat, waist circumference and fat mass for all four hypocaloric groups, as well as reductions in the exercise only group for body mass, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions Similar decreases in weight and indices of adiposity are observed when overweight or obese individuals are fed hypocaloric diets containing levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup typically consumed by adults in the United States. PMID:22866961

  10. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowndes Joshua

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Methods This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after the completion of 12 weeks following a hypocaloric diet. The average caloric deficit achieved on the hypocaloric diets was 309 kcal. Results Reductions were observed in all measures of adiposity including body mass, BMI,% body fat, waist circumference and fat mass for all four hypocaloric groups, as well as reductions in the exercise only group for body mass, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions Similar decreases in weight and indices of adiposity are observed when overweight or obese individuals are fed hypocaloric diets containing levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup typically consumed by adults in the United States.

  11. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Kawiecki, Diana; Pardo, Sabrina; Nguyen, Von; Melanson, Kathleen J; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James M

    2012-08-06

    The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after the completion of 12 weeks following a hypocaloric diet. The average caloric deficit achieved on the hypocaloric diets was 309 kcal. Reductions were observed in all measures of adiposity including body mass, BMI,% body fat, waist circumference and fat mass for all four hypocaloric groups, as well as reductions in the exercise only group for body mass, BMI and waist circumference. Similar decreases in weight and indices of adiposity are observed when overweight or obese individuals are fed hypocaloric diets containing levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup typically consumed by adults in the United States.

  12. Effects of Quartz Particle Size and Sucrose Addition on Melting Behavior of a Melter Feed for High-Level Waste Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcial, Jose; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Swearingen, Kevin J.; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E.; Henager, Samuel H.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming additives) during waste-glass processing has a significant impact on the rate of the vitrification process. We studied the effects of silica particle size and sucrose addition on the volumetric expansion (foaming) of a high-alumina feed and the rate of dissolution of silica particles in feed samples heated at 5 C/min up to 1200 C. The initial size of quartz particles in feed ranged from 5 to 195 (micro)m. The fraction of the sucrose added ranged from 0 to 0.20 g per g glass. Extensive foaming occurred only in feeds with 5-(micro)m quartz particles; particles (ge) 150 (micro)m formed clusters. Particles of 5 (micro)m completely dissolved by 900 C whereas particles (ge) 150 (micro)m did not fully dissolve even when the temperature reached 1200 C. Sucrose addition had virtually zero impact on both foaming and the dissolution of silica particles.

  13. The Effect of Normally Consumed Amounts of Sucrose or High Fructose Corn Syrup on Lipid Profiles, Body Composition and Related Parameters in Overweight/Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist on longer-term metabolic effects when sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS, the principal sources of added dietary sugars, are consumed at levels typical of the general population. Sixty five overweight and obese individuals were placed on a eucaloric (weight stable diet for 10-weeks, which incorporated sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 10% or 20% of calories in a randomized, double-blinded study. All groups responded similarly (interaction p > 0.05. There was no change in body weight in any of the groups over the 10-week study, or in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Likewise, there were no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or apolipoprotein B (Apo B. We conclude that (1 when consumed as part of a eucaloric diet fructose—when given with glucose (as normally consumed does not promote weight gain or an atherogenic lipid profile even when consumed at two to four times the level recently recommended by the AHA. (2 There were no differences between HFCS and sucrose on these parameters.

  14. The effect of normally consumed amounts of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on lipid profiles, body composition and related parameters in overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Pardo, Sabrina; Nguyen, Von T; Melanson, Kathleen J; Yu, Zhiping; Lowther, Britte E; Rippe, James M

    2014-03-17

    The American Heart Association (AHA) has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist on longer-term metabolic effects when sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS), the principal sources of added dietary sugars, are consumed at levels typical of the general population. Sixty five overweight and obese individuals were placed on a eucaloric (weight stable) diet for 10-weeks, which incorporated sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 10% or 20% of calories in a randomized, double-blinded study. All groups responded similarly (interaction p > 0.05). There was no change in body weight in any of the groups over the 10-week study, or in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Likewise, there were no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or apolipoprotein B (Apo B). We conclude that (1) when consumed as part of a eucaloric diet fructose--when given with glucose (as normally consumed) does not promote weight gain or an atherogenic lipid profile even when consumed at two to four times the level recently recommended by the AHA. (2) There were no differences between HFCS and sucrose on these parameters.

  15. Varying effects of calcium on the oxidation of palmitate and alpha-ketoglutarate in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated in KCl-based and sucrose-based media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrebaek, B; Dolva, K; Singh, B

    1984-01-01

    Isolated mitochondria from rat liver were incubated in the presence of [U-14C]palmitate, ATP, CoA, carnitine, EGTA (ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N'-tetraacetic acid) and varying amounts of calcium. When a KC1-based incubation medium was used, the oxidation of palmitate was inhibited when the concentration of free calcium was increased from about 0.1-10 microM. When a sucrose-based incubation medium was used, the basal rate of palmitate oxidation was about half of that observed with the KC1-medium and calcium had a stimulatory effect. With the KC1-medium the rate of oxygen consumption was inhibited by calcium with alpha-ketoglutarate as well as palmitate as the respiratory substrate. No inhibitory effect of calcium was observed with succinate or beta-hydroxybutyrate. With the KC1-medium and with alpha-ketoglutarate as the respiratory substrate, state 3 respiration but not state 4 respiration was inhibited by calcium. When the sucrose-medium was used, state 3 respiration was first inhibited by calcium, but this inhibition was gradually relieved and the respiratory rate finally became higher than it was before calcium addition.

  16. A safflower oil-based high fat/high-sucrose diet modulates the gut microbiota and liver phospholipid profiles associated with early glucose intolerance in the absence of tissue inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos; Andersen, Daniel; Radulescu, Ilinca Daria

    2017-01-01

    n-6 PUFA-rich diets are generally considered obesogenic in rodents. Here we examined how long-term intake of a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet based on safflower oil affected metabolism, inflammation and gut microbiota composition. We fed male C57BL/6J mice a HF/HS diet based on safflower oil...

  17. Development of chocolate dairy dessert with addition of prebiotics and replacement of sucrose with different high-intensity sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, E C; Morais, A R; Cruz, A G; Bolini, H M A

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to optimize the formulation of a prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert and assess the extent to which sensory properties were affected by adding different concentrations of prebiotics (inulin and fructooligosaccharides) combined with different levels of xanthan and guar gums, and (2) to analyze the ideal and relative sweetness of prebiotic chocolate milk dessert sweetened with different artificial and natural sweeteners. Acceptability was evaluated by 100 consumers using a 9-cm hedonic scale, and the level of sample creaminess was evaluated using a 9-point just-about-right (JAR) scale. Data were subjected to a multivariate regression analysis and fitted to a model provided by response surface methodology. The optimal concentrations were 7.5% (wt/wt) prebiotic and 0.20% (wt/wt) gum (guar and xanthan, in a 2:1 ratio). The ideal sweetness analysis revealed that the ideal concentration of sucrose was 8.13%. The relative sweetness analysis showed that Neotame (NutraSweet Corp., Chicago, IL) had the highest sweetening power compared with the prebiotic chocolate dairy dessert containing 8% sucrose, followed by sucralose, aspartame, and stevia. The study of sweetness in this product is important because consumers desire healthier functional products with no added sugar. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mei; Ma, Jiantao; Patel, Kamal; Berger, Samantha; Lau, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    Concerns have been raised about the concurrent temporal trend between simple sugar intakes, especially of fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the United States. We examined the effect of different amounts and forms of dietary fructose on the incidence or prevalence of NAFLD and indexes of liver health in humans. We conducted a systematic review of English-language, human studies of any design in children and adults with low to no alcohol intake and that reported at least one predetermined measure of liver health. The strength of the evidence was evaluated by considering risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision. Six observational studies and 21 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall strength of evidence for observational studies was rated insufficient because of high risk of biases and inconsistent study findings. Of 21 intervention studies, 19 studies were in adults without NAFLD (predominantly healthy, young men) and 1 study each in adults or children with NAFLD. We found a low level of evidence that a hypercaloric fructose diet (supplemented by pure fructose) increases liver fat and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in healthy men compared with the consumption of a weight-maintenance diet. In addition, there was a low level of evidence that hypercaloric fructose and glucose diets have similar effects on liver fat and liver enzymes in healthy adults. There was insufficient evidence to draw a conclusion for effects of HFCS or sucrose on NAFLD. On the basis of indirect comparisons across study findings, the apparent association between indexes of liver health (ie, liver fat, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, alanine aminotransferase, AST, and γ-glutamyl transpeptase) and fructose or sucrose intake appear to be confounded by excessive energy intake. Overall, the available evidence is not sufficiently robust to draw conclusions regarding effects of fructose

  19. Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mei; Ma, Jiantao; Patel, Kamal; Berger, Samantha; Lau, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been raised about the concurrent temporal trend between simple sugar intakes, especially of fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the United States. Objective: We examined the effect of different amounts and forms of dietary fructose on the incidence or prevalence of NAFLD and indexes of liver health in humans. Design: We conducted a systematic review of English-language, human studies of any design in children and adults with low to no alcohol intake and that reported at least one predetermined measure of liver health. The strength of the evidence was evaluated by considering risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision. Results: Six observational studies and 21 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall strength of evidence for observational studies was rated insufficient because of high risk of biases and inconsistent study findings. Of 21 intervention studies, 19 studies were in adults without NAFLD (predominantly healthy, young men) and 1 study each in adults or children with NAFLD. We found a low level of evidence that a hypercaloric fructose diet (supplemented by pure fructose) increases liver fat and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in healthy men compared with the consumption of a weight-maintenance diet. In addition, there was a low level of evidence that hypercaloric fructose and glucose diets have similar effects on liver fat and liver enzymes in healthy adults. There was insufficient evidence to draw a conclusion for effects of HFCS or sucrose on NAFLD. Conclusions: On the basis of indirect comparisons across study findings, the apparent association between indexes of liver health (ie, liver fat, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, alanine aminotransferase, AST, and γ-glutamyl transpeptase) and fructose or sucrose intake appear to be confounded by excessive energy intake. Overall, the available evidence is not sufficiently robust

  20. Anti-diabetic effects of DA-11004, a synthetic IDPc inhibitor in high fat high sucrose diet-fed C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chang Yell; Jung, Mi Young; Lee, In Ki; Son, Miwon; Kim, Dong Sung; Lim, Joong In; Kim, Soon Hoe; Yoo, Moohi; Huh, Tae Lin; Sohn, Young Taek; Kim, Won Bae

    2004-01-01

    DA-11004 is a synthetic, potent NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) inhibitor where IC50 for IDPc is 1.49 microM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DA-11004 on the high fat high sucrose (HF)-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice. After completing a 8-week period of experimentation, the mice were sacrificed 1 hr after the last DA-11004 treatment and their blood, liver, and adipose tissues (epididymal and retroperitoneal fat) were collected. There was a significant difference in the pattern of increasing body weight between the HF control and the DA-11004 group. In the DA-11004 (100 mg/kg) treated group the increase in body weight significantly declined and a content of epididymal fat and retroperitoneal fat was also significantly decreased as opposed to the HF control. DA-11004 (100 mg/ kg) inhibited the IDPc activity, and thus, NADPH levels in plasma and the levels of free fatty acid (FFA) or glucose in plasma were less than the levels of the HF control group. In conclusion, DA-11004 inhibited the fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissues via IDPc inhibition, and it decreased the plasma glucose levels and FFA in HF diet-induced obesity of C57BL/6J mice.

  1. Modified High-Sucrose Diet-Induced Abdominally Obese and Normal-Weight Rats Developed High Plasma Free Fatty Acid and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW individuals have metabolic features of overt obesity, and abdominal adiposity is common in them. Animal models of MONW individuals are lacking. We aimed to develop an abdominally obese and normal-weight (AONW rat model. Methods and Results. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or a modified high-sucrose (HS diet for 20 weeks. The HS diet induced increased visceral adipose tissue without increased body weight, reduced glucose disposal rates, and increased hepatic glucose output during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, increased plasma glucose during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and increased plasma free fatty acids. Hepatic lipidosis and hepatocyte mitochondria swelling were found in HS rats through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; similar impairments were not observed in muscle. RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α increased in muscle of HS rats, while expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, glucose transporter type 4, and insulin receptor substrate-1 did not change significantly. Conclusion. AONW rats developed metabolic disorders seen in MONW individuals. Steatosis, mitochondrial morphologic changes, and insulin resistance were more serious in liver than in muscle. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function changed in less impaired muscle.

  2. Modified high-sucrose diet-induced abdominally obese and normal-weight rats developed high plasma free fatty acid and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Liu, Xuehui; Cao, Hongyi; Lv, Qingguo; Tong, Nanwei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW) individuals have metabolic features of overt obesity, and abdominal adiposity is common in them. Animal models of MONW individuals are lacking. We aimed to develop an abdominally obese and normal-weight (AONW) rat model. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or a modified high-sucrose (HS) diet for 20 weeks. The HS diet induced increased visceral adipose tissue without increased body weight, reduced glucose disposal rates, and increased hepatic glucose output during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, increased plasma glucose during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, and increased plasma free fatty acids. Hepatic lipidosis and hepatocyte mitochondria swelling were found in HS rats through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; similar impairments were not observed in muscle. RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α increased in muscle of HS rats, while expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A, glucose transporter type 4, and insulin receptor substrate-1 did not change significantly. AONW rats developed metabolic disorders seen in MONW individuals. Steatosis, mitochondrial morphologic changes, and insulin resistance were more serious in liver than in muscle. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial function changed in less impaired muscle.

  3. Evaluation of antidiabetic property of Andrographis paniculata powder in high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic adult male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Williams Augustine

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic effect of the aerial part of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata powder (500 mg/kg body weight in high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rat model. Methods: The fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, serum insulin, lipid profile, mRNA and protein levels of insulin signaling molecules, 14C-2 deoxy glucose uptake and 14C glucose oxidation in liver were checked. Results: In the type-2 diabetes-induced group, the fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, serum insulin, lipid profile, glucose uptake and oxidation, Akt and glucose transporter 2 mRNA, insulin receptor and glucose transporter 2 protein (both cytosolic and plasma membrane and phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 and Akt were impaired. A. paniculata was able to successfully reinstate this impairment. In addition to this, A. paniculata did not cause a hypoglycemic condition in normal rat, affirming its activity in hyperglycemic state alone. Conclusions: A. paniculata possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities in high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rat and the molecular actions at the level of insulin signaling molecules in liver reinforce it.

  4. Nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) protects from metabolic endotoxemia by modifying gut microbiota in obese rats fed high fat/sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Pérez-Cruz, Claudia; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; Wang, Mei; Donovan, Sharon M; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe

    2017-07-05

    Current efforts are directed to reducing the gut dysbiosis and inflammation produced by obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether consuming nopal, a vegetable rich in dietary fibre, vitamin C, and polyphenols can reduce the metabolic consequences of obesity by modifying the gut microbiota and preventing metabolic endotoxemia in rats fed a high fat and sucrose diet. With this aim, rats were fed a high fat diet with 5% sucrose in the drinking water (HFS) for 7 months and then were fed for 1 month with HFS + 5% nopal (HFS + N). The composition of gut microbiota was assessed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Nopal modified gut microbiota and increased intestinal occludin-1 in the HFS + N group. This was associated with a decrease in metabolic endotoxemia, glucose insulinotropic peptide, glucose intolerance, lipogenesis, and metabolic inflexibility. These changes were accompanied by reduced hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in adipose tissue and brain, and improved cognitive function, associated with an increase in B. fragilis. This study supports the use of nopal as a functional food and prebiotic for its ability to modify gut microbiota and to reduce metabolic endotoxemia and other obesity-related biochemical abnormalities.

  5. Effect of sucrose concentrations on Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni tissue culture and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, T; Kahrizi, D; Saeidi, M; Arji, I

    2017-08-30

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni is known as sweet plant which it contains a high level of steviol glycosides in the leaves.  This plant has been used from centuries ago as a sweetener for tea. One of the most important steviol glycosides is stevioside that is attractive for diabetic persons. Tissue culture is the only rapid process for the mass propagation of stevia. One of the most important factors in the medium is sucrose that is a necessary for plant growth. In the present study, we use nodal segments of the stem as explants in mediums with different sucrose concentration (50 mM, 100mM and 150mM). Several morphological traits were measured in a 28 day period. Results analysis showed a significant variation between treatments. The highest growth rate, rooting and leaf production was obtained in medium with 100mM sucrose. The correlation between measured traits was significant at the 0.01 level. To investigation of UGT74G1, UGT76G1, UGT85C2 and KS genes expression that are involved in the synthesis of SGs, RT- PCR was done with the housekeeping gene of as internal control. There were significant differences between all media. The results showed thatsucrose 100 mM containing media was more desirable than others for expression of UGT76G1 and UGT85C2 genes. Whereas, the best medium for expression of UGT74G1 was sucrose 150 mM and sucrose 50 mM for KS gene. Totally, it seems that sucrose at a concentration of 100 mMprovides the best condition for stevia growth and steviol glycosides production.

  6. Sucrose accumulation in watermelon fruits: genetic variation and biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yativ, Merav; Harary, Idan; Wolf, Shmuel

    2010-05-15

    Sugar accumulation, the key process determining fruit quality, is controlled by both the translocation of sugars and their metabolism in developing fruits. Sugar composition in watermelon, as in all cucurbit fruits, includes sucrose, fructose and glucose. The proportions of these three sugars are determined primarily by three enzyme families: invertases, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs). The goal of the present research was to explore the process of sugar metabolism in watermelon fruits. Crosses between the domestic watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and three wild species provided a wide germplasm to explore genetic variability in sugar composition and metabolism. This survey demonstrated great genetic variability in sugar content and in the proportions of sucrose, glucose and fructose in mature fruits. Genotypes accumulating high and low percentage of sucrose provided an experimental system to study sugar metabolism in developing fruits. Insoluble invertase activity was high and constant throughout fruit development in control lines and in genotypes accumulating low levels of sucrose, while in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose, activity declined sharply 4 weeks after pollination. Soluble acid invertase activity was significantly lower in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose than in low-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. Conversely, activities of SuSy and SPS were higher in the high-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. The present results establish that, within the genus Citrullus, there are genotypes that accumulate a high percentage of sucrose in the fruit, while others accumulate high percentages of glucose and fructose. The significant negative correlation between insoluble invertase activity and fruit sucrose level suggests that sucrose accumulation is affected by both phloem unloading and sugar metabolism. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptome analysis on the inflammatory cell infiltration of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in bama minipigs induced by a long-term high-fat, high-sucrose diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihan Xia

    Full Text Available Long-term adherence to a high-fat, high-calorie diet influences human health and causes obesity, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Inflammation plays a key role in the development of NASH; however, the mechanism of inflammation induced by over-nutrition remains largely unknown. In this study, we fed Bama minipigs a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD for 23 months. The pigs exhibited characteristics of metabolic syndrome and developed steatohepatitis with greatly increased numbers of inflammatory cells, such as lymphocytes (2.27-fold, P<0.05, Kupffer cells (2.59-fold, P<0.05, eosinophils (1.42-fold, P<0.05 and neutrophils (2.77-fold, P<0.05. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq was performed to explore the systemic transcriptome of the pig liver during inflammation. Approximately 18.2 gigabases of raw sequence data were generated, and over 303 million high-quality reads were assembled into 21,126 unigenes. RNA-seq data analysis showed that 822 genes were differentially expressed in liver (P<0.05 between the HFHSD and control groups. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis showed that the process of inflammation involved the inflammatory signal transduction-related toll-like receptor, MAPK, and PPAR signaling pathways; the cytokine-related chemokine signaling, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and IL2, IL4, IL6, and IL12 signaling pathways; the leukocyte receptor signaling-related T cell, B cell, and natural killer cell signaling pathways; inflammatory cell migration and invasion- related pathways; and other pathways. Moreover, we identified several differentially expressed inflammation-related genes between the two groups, including FOS, JUN, TLR7, MYC, PIK3CD, VAV3, IL2RB and IL4R, that could be potential targets for further investigation. Our study suggested that long-term HFHSD induced obesity and liver inflammation, providing basic insight into the molecular mechanism of this condition and

  8. Sucrose assimilation and the role of sucrose transporters in plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (25), pp. ... Review. Sucrose assimilation and the role of sucrose transporters in plant wound response. Omodele ... Key words: Sucrose transporters, Plasma membrane, carbohydrate, sieve element, source-sink. ... pathogens (Paul et al., 2000) and results in a severe.

  9. The effects of selected dietary bioflavonoid supplementation on dental caries in young rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nelson

    2007-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that certain bioflavonoids reduce dental caries and cariogenic bacteria incidence. The present study evaluates two separate, but related, dietary trials -- trial 1, 0.09%, 0.18%, 0.36%, and 0.72% dietary naringenin (NAR) supplementation; and trial 2, 0.57% dietary rutin (R), quercetin (Q), and naringin (N) supplementation-on dental caries formation in 40 different male albino rats, at the expense of dextrose, for periods of 42 days. All rats were fed 40% sucrose. In dietary trial 1, rats were evaluated for dental caries, dental plaque accumulation, and saliva flow rates using oneway analysis of variance, post hoc Tukey's test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman's correlations. In dietary trial 2, rats were evaluated for occlusal dental caries only using a Kruskal-Wallis H test and analysis of variance. A 5% level of statistical significance was adopted throughout. In dietary trial 1, NAR showed a statistically significant effect on dental caries, plaque, and saliva flow rate reduction compared with the control group (P < .05-.01). An inverse dose-dependent relationship was established among the NAR experimental groups and control group. Dietary NAR supplementation significantly reduced dental caries formation, possibly because of reduced dental plaque accumulation. In dietary trial 2, statistically significant reductions in occlusal caries were observed for R, Q, and N in the maxillary molars and for Q and N in the mandibular molars compared with the control group (P < .05). Significant associations were observed among the experimental groups and maxillary (P < .05) and mandibular (P < .01) occlusal dental caries. Hence, selected bioflavonoids may show promise as an alternative means of reducing dental caries.

  10. A study of spin-lattice relaxation rates of glucose, fructose, sucrose and cherries using high-T c SQUID-based NMR in ultralow magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Hsien; Wu, Pei-Che

    2017-08-01

    We study the concentration dependence of spin-lattice relaxation rates, T 1 -1, of glucose, fructose, sucrose and cherries by using high-T c SQUID-based NMR at magnetic fields of ˜97 μT. The detected NMR signal, Sy (T Bp), is fitted to [1 - exp(-T Bp/T 1)] to derive T 1 -1, where Sy (T Bp) is the strength of the NMR signal, T Bp is the duration of pre-polarization and T 1 -1 is the spin-lattice relaxation rate. It was found that T 1 -1 increases as the sugar concentrations increase. The increased T 1 -1 is due to the presence of more molecules in the surroundings, which increases the spin-lattice interaction and in turn enhances T 1 -1. The T 1 -1 versus degrees Brix curve provides a basis for determining unknown Brix values for cherries as well as other fruits.

  11. Investigation of the Influence of Sucrose and Cholesterol on the Phase Transition Temperature of nanoliposomal formulation besides using particle size Reduction Techniques (Ultrasonication/High Pressure Homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Malaei-Balasi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The successful application of nanoliposoms as an effective drug delivery system depends on their stability in the medium. In this article, influence of additive materials such as cholesterol and sucrose besides two natural and synthesized phospholipids have been investigated. Methods: In the present study, designing and synthesis of nanoliposomal formulations were prepared using thin film method. This liposomal suspension was downsized by two methods, the high-pressure homogenizer and ultrasound to form small unilamellar vesicles. The size distributions, zeta potentials and phase transition temperature of formulations were all determined by a zetasizer and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC. In addition, the contribution of nanoliposomal formulation has been investigated by HPLC and FTIR methods. Results: Results of the DSC measurments indicated that incorporation of unsaturated phospholipid (SOY PC may cause phase separation with partial miscibility in the liposome bilayer containing of DPPG. The optimal nanoliposomal formulation was composed of (DPPC: CHOL: mPEG2000-DSPE with the mole percents equal to (83:15:2, respectively. In addition, sucrose has been used in the formulation with a total amounts six times greater than that of the lipids. The properties of optimized nanoliposome have been shown as the size average 104nm, zeta potential 8.04mv and phase transition temperature of lipid less than 37°C which were stable enough to be utilized for loading and releasing bioactives in body temperature. Conclusion: Finally the produced nanoliposomes were stable vesicles in the proper size, phase transition temperature and surface charge without any aggregation and fusion.

  12. Oligosaccharides Derived from Sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsan, Pierre F.; Ouarné, Francois

    Sucrose is a non-reducing disaccharide, consisting of an α-D-glucopyranosyl residue and a β-D-fructofuranosyl residue linked covalently by their respective anomeric carbons (α-D-glucopyranosyl-1,2-β-D-fructofuranoside). It is not just a simple disaccharide, among others: in fact, the energy of its glycosidic bond is higher than that of a usual glycosidic bond. It is equal to 27.6 kJ/mol, which is similar to the energy of a nucleotide-sugar bond as in UDP-glucose or ADP-glucose. This means that sucrose is a protected and activated form of D-glucose (as well as of D-fructose), which plays a key role in the metabolism of plants, for a wide variety of synthesis reactions.

  13. Sucrose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking hexose transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Anderson S; Miletti, Luiz C; Stambuk, Boris U

    2004-01-01

    Sucrose is the major carbon source used by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during production of baker's yeast, fuel ethanol and several distilled beverages. It is generally accepted that sucrose fermentation proceeds through extracellular hydrolysis of the sugar, mediated by the periplasmic invertase, producing glucose and fructose that are transported into the cells and metabolized. In the present work we analyzed the contribution to sucrose fermentation of a poorly characterized pathway of sucrose utilization by S. cerevisiae cells, the active transport of the sugar through the plasma membrane and its intracellular hydrolysis. A yeast strain that lacks the major hexose transporters (hxt1-hxt7 and gal2) is incapable of growing on or fermenting glucose or fructose. Our results show that this hxt-null strain is still able to ferment sucrose due to direct uptake of the sugar into the cells. Deletion of the AGT1 gene, which encodes a high-affinity sucrose-H(+) symporter, rendered cells incapable of sucrose fermentation. Since sucrose is not an inducer of the permease, expression of the AGT1 must be constitutive in order to allow growth of the hxt-null strain on sucrose. The molecular characterization of active sucrose transport and fermentation by S. cerevisiae cells opens new opportunities to optimize yeasts for sugarcane-based industrial processes.

  14. Analysis and protease-catalysed synthesis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the presented research were to develop quantifiable methods for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers and to investigate the activity and regioisomeric distribution in the biocatalytic esterification of sucrose with vinyl laur...... in the reaction mixture appeared to be catalysed by the presence of aluminosilicate molecular sieves in the reaction medium. Mass spectrometry analysis of sucrose laurate product confirmed the molecular mass.......The aims of the presented research were to develop quantifiable methods for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers and to investigate the activity and regioisomeric distribution in the biocatalytic esterification of sucrose with vinyl...... laurate in DMF using serine proteases and a metalloprotease. A broad range of elution strategies for the chromatographic analysis of sucrose alkanoate regioisomers was systematically investigated using design of experiments strategies and statistical and multivariate analysis and modelling. Efficiency...

  15. A safflower oil based high-fat/high-sucrose diet modulates the gut microbiota and liver phospholipid profiles associated with early glucose intolerance in the absence of tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos; Andersen, Daniel; Radulescu, Ilinca Daria; Normann-Hansen, Ann; Brejnrod, Asker; Kragh, Marie; Madsen, Tobias; Nielsen, Christian; Josefsen, Knud; Fretté, Xavier; Fjaere, Even; Madsen, Lise; Hellgren, Lars I; Brix, Susanne; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-05-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) PUFA-rich diets are generally considered obesogenic in rodents. Here, we examined how long-term intake of a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet based on safflower oil affected metabolism, inflammation, and gut microbiota composition. We fed male C57BL/6J mice a HF/HS diet based on safflower oil-rich in n-6 PUFAs-or a low-fat/low-sucrose diet for 40 wk. Compared to the low-fat/low-sucrose diet, intake of the safflower-based HF/HS diet only led to moderate weight gain, while glucose intolerance developed at week 5 prior to signs of inflammation, but concurrent with increased levels of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid in hepatic phospholipids. Intake of the HF/HS diet resulted in early changes in the gut microbiota, including an increased abundance of Blautia, while late changes coincided with altered inflammatory profiles and increased fasting plasma insulin. Analysis of immune cells in visceral fat and liver revealed no differences between diets before week 40, where the number of immune cells decreased in the liver of HF/HS-fed mice. We suggest that a diet-dependent increase in the n-6 to omega-3 (n-3) PUFA ratio in hepatic phospholipids together with gut microbiota changes contributed to early development of glucose intolerance without signs of inflammation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Short-term high temperature growth conditions during vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition irreversibly compromise cell wall invertase-mediated sucrose catalysis and microspore meiosis in grain sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) crop yield is significantly compromised by high temperature stress-induced male sterility, and is attributed to reduced cell wall invertase (CWI)-mediated sucrose hydrolysis in microspores and anthers leading to altered carbohydrate metabolism and starch def...

  17. Consumption of Honey, Sucrose, and High-Fructose Corn Syrup Produces Similar Metabolic Effects in Glucose-Tolerant and -Intolerant Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Public health recommendations call for a reduction in added sugars; however, controversy exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. The objective was to compare the effects of the chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners [honey, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup containing 55% fructose (HFCS55)] on circulating glucose, insulin, lipids, and inflammatory markers; body weight; and blood pressure in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (GT) and those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In a crossover design, participants consumed daily, in random order, 50 g carbohydrate from assigned sweeteners for 2 wk with a 2- to 4-wk washout period between treatments. Participants included 28 GT and 27 IGT volunteers with a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.6 y and 52.1 ± 2.7 y, respectively, and a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26 ± 0.8 and 31.5 ± 1.0, respectively. Body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum inflammatory markers, lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, and oral-glucose-tolerance tests (OGTTs) were completed pre- and post-treatment. The OGTT incremental areas under the curve (iAUCs) for glucose and insulin were determined and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were calculated. Body weight and serum glucose, insulin, inflammatory markers, and total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the IGT group than in the GT group at baseline. Glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and the OGTT iAUC for glucose or insulin did not differ by treatment, but all responses were significantly higher in the IGT group compared with the GT group. Body weight was unchanged by treatment. Systolic BP was unchanged, whereas diastolic BP was significantly lower in response to sugar intake across all treatments. An increase in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was observed in the IGT group in response to all sugars. No treatment effect was observed for interleukin 6. HDL cholesterol did not

  18. Design of highly oriented (HOR) media for extremely high density recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee, C.H.; Wang, J.P.; Chong, T.C.; Low, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic properties and recording performance of highly oriented (HOR) longitudinal media are systematically studied via micromagnetic simulation. It was found that highly oriented longitudinal media could be achieved by controlling the anisotropy axes distribution. The effect of anisotropy constant, saturated magnetization and exchange coupling constants on the hysteresis loops are presented. It was further found that highly oriented media show an ultra-low transition noise. Another interesting observation made was that increasing M s for the HOR media decreases the coercivity, which suggests practical usage of this media with current head field. A 500 Gbit/in 2 recording media is simulated to support the application of the highly oriented longitudinal media for ultra high density recording

  19. Combination Therapy with Losartan and Pioglitazone Additively Reduces Renal Oxidative and Nitrative Stress Induced by Chronic High Fat, Sucrose, and Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Kong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that combination therapy with losartan and pioglitazone provided synergistic effects compared with monotherapy in improving lesions of renal structure and function in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat, high-sodium diet and 20% sucrose solution. This study was designed to explore the underlying mechanisms of additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy. Losartan, pioglitazone, and their combination were orally administered for 8 weeks. The increased level of renal malondialdehyde and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47phox and nitrotyrosine as well as the decreased total superoxide dismutase activity and copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase expression were tangible evidence for the presence of oxidative and nitrative stress in the kidney of model rats. Treatment with both drugs, individually and in combination, improved these abnormal changes. Combination therapy showed synergistic effects in reducing malondialdehyde level, p47phox, and nitrotyrosine expression to almost the normal level compared with monotherapy. All these results suggest that the additive renoprotection provided by combination therapy might be attributed to a further reduction of oxidative and nitrative stress.

  20. Obesity and type 2 diabetes, not a diet high in fat, sucrose, and cholesterol, negatively impacts bone outcomes in the hyperphagic Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Laura C; Linden, Melissa A; Dirkes, Rebecca; Rector, R Scott; Hinton, Pamela S

    2017-12-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) increase fracture risk; however, the association between obesity/T2D may be confounded by consumption of a diet high in fat, sucrose, and cholesterol (HFSC). The study objective was to determine the main and interactive effects of obesity/T2D and a HFSC diet on bone outcomes using hyperphagic Otuska Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and normophagic Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) controls. At 8weeks of age, male OLETF and LETO rats were randomized to either a control (CON, 10 en% from fat as soybean oil) or HFSC (45 en% from fat as soybean oil/lard, 17 en% sucrose, and 1wt%) diet, resulting in four treatment groups. At 32weeks, total body bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) and body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, followed by euthanasia and collection of blood and tibiae. Bone turnover markers and sclerostin were measured using ELISA. Trabecular microarchitecture of the proximal tibia and geometry of the tibia mid-diaphysis were measured using microcomputed tomography; whole-bone and tissue-level biomechanical properties were evaluated using torsional loading of the tibia. Two-factor ANOVA was used to determine main and interactive effects of diet (CON vs. HFSC) and obesity/T2D (OLETF vs. LETO) on bone outcomes. Hyperphagic OLEFT rats had greater final body mass, body fat, and fasting glucose than normophagic LETO, with no effect of diet. Total body BMC and serum markers of bone formation were decreased, and bone resorption and sclerostin were increased in obese/T2D OLETF rats. Trabecular bone volume and microarchitecture were adversely affected by obesity/T2D, but not diet. Whole-bone and tissue-level biomechanical properties of the tibia were not affected by obesity/T2D; the HFSC diet improved biomechanical properties only in LETO rats. Obesity/T2D, regardless of diet, negatively impacted the balance between bone formation and resorption and trabecular bone volume and

  1. A maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet has sex-specific effects on fetal glucocorticoids with little consequence for offspring metabolism and voluntary locomotor activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice H Chin

    Full Text Available Maternal overnutrition and obesity during pregnancy can have long-term effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. These developmental programming effects may be mediated by fetal exposure to glucocorticoids, which is regulated in part by placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD type 1 and 2. We tested whether a maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet would alter expression of placental 11β-HSD1 and 2, thereby increasing fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, with downstream effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS diet or a nutrient-matched low-fat, no-sucrose control diet prior to and during pregnancy and lactation. At day 17 of gestation, HFHS dams had ~20% lower circulating corticosterone levels than controls. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between maternal diet and fetal sex for circulating corticosterone levels in the fetuses, whereby HFHS males tended to have higher corticosterone than control males, with no effect in female fetuses. However, placental 11β-HSD1 or 11β-HSD2 expression did not differ between diets or show an interaction between diet and sex. To assess potential long-term consequences of this sex-specific effect on fetal corticosterone, we studied locomotor activity and metabolic traits in adult offspring. Despite a sex-specific effect of maternal diet on fetal glucocorticoids, there was little evidence of sex-specific effects on offspring physiology or behaviour, although HFHS offspring of both sexes had higher circulating corticosterone at 9 weeks of age. Our results suggest the existence of as yet unknown mechanisms that mitigate the effects of altered glucocorticoid exposure early in development, making offspring resilient to the potentially negative effects of a HFHS maternal diet.

  2. High-sucrose diet induces diabetic-like phenotypes and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster: Protective role of Syzygium cumini and Bauhinia forficata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Assis; Gonzaga, Thallita Karla Silva do Nascimento; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Santos, Matheus Mulling Dos; Loreto, Julia Sepel; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Meinerz, Daiane Francine; Lugokenski, Thiago Henrique; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira da; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2017-05-01

    Diet is a key component for development and longevity of organisms. Here, the fruit fly was used to evaluate the detrimental effects caused by consumption of high-sucrose diets (HSD), namely phenotypic responses linked to insulin signaling and oxidative stress. The protective effects of extracts from medicinal plants Syzygium cumini and Bauhinia forficata were investigated. HSD intake (15% and 30%) delayed the time to pupation and reduced the number of white pupae. In adult flies, the intake of diets was associated with mortality and increased levels of glucose+trehalose, triacylglycerols and hydrogen peroxide. Indeed, 30% HSD induced body-weight loss, mitochondrial dysfunction and changes in acetylcholinesterase, δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase and antioxidant enzymes activity. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, keap1, HSP70, dILP-5 and Insulin receptor mRNA levels were over-expressed in flies emerged from 30% HSD. The extract treatments blunted the developmental alterations elicited by diets. Syzygium cumini extract was more efficient than B. forficata in reducing hyperglycaemia, redox disturbances and the changes in mRNA expression of insulin receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Sucrose Treated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Yarns and Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Consolidated carbon nanotube or graphene yarns and woven sheets are consolidated through the formation of a carbon binder formed from the dehydration of sucrose. The resulting materials, on a macro-scale are lightweight and of a high specific modulus and/or strength. Sucrose is relatively inexpensive and readily available, and the process is therefore cost-effective.

  4. Mediating the media discourse of health with high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Caetano da Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is the result of a completed dissertation held in the Physical Education Post Graduate Program at UFSC, in which goal was to reflect on the media discourse about health and physical activity among young high school students, in Physical Education, from a education intervention. The study was based on methodological elements of action research and was attended by 22 students. The intervention was carried out on the basis of school mediation strategies, along with the teacher who is responsible for the class. As a conclusion, the study indicates that media education can be associated to any knowledge of school culture, in a longitudinal basis, starting from students’ knowledge about the content transmitted by the media and the effort of a media education cannot be overlooked.

  5. High dietary fat and sucrose results in an extensive and time-dependent deterioration in health of multiple physiological systems in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, James G; Kebede, Melkam A; Meoli, Christopher C; Stöckli, Jacqueline; Whitworth, P Tess; Wright, Amanda L; Hoffman, Nolan J; Minard, Annabel Y; Ma, Xiuquan; Krycer, James R; Nelson, Marin E; Tan, Shi-Xiong; Yau, Belinda; Thomas, Kristen C; Wee, Natalie K Y; Khor, Ee-Cheng; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Vissel, Bryce; Biden, Trevor J; Baldock, Paul A; Hoehn, Kyle L; Cantley, James; Cooney, Gregory J; James, David E; Fazakerley, Daniel J

    2018-04-13

    Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and with disorders such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and neurodegeneration. Typically, these pathologies are examined in discrete model systems and with limited temporal resolution, and whether these disorders co-occur is therefore unclear. To address this question, here we examined multiple physiological systems in male C57BL/6J mice following prolonged exposure to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHSD). HFHSD-fed mice rapidly exhibited metabolic alterations, including obesity, hyperleptinemia, physical inactivity, glucose intolerance, peripheral insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycemia, ectopic lipid deposition, and bone deterioration. Prolonged exposure to HFHSD resulted in morbid obesity, ectopic triglyceride deposition in liver and muscle, extensive bone loss, sarcopenia, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired short-term memory. Although many of these defects are typically associated with aging, HFHSD did not alter telomere length in white blood cells, indicating that this diet did not generally promote all aspects of aging. Strikingly, glucose homeostasis was highly dynamic. Glucose intolerance was evident in HFHSD-fed mice after 1 week and was maintained for 24 weeks. Beyond 24 weeks, however, glucose tolerance improved in HFHSD-fed mice, and by 60 weeks, it was indistinguishable from that of chow-fed mice. This improvement coincided with adaptive β-cell hyperplasia and hyperinsulinemia, without changes in insulin sensitivity in muscle or adipose tissue. Assessment of insulin secretion in isolated islets revealed that leptin, which inhibited insulin secretion in the chow-fed mice, potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the HFHSD-fed mice after 60 weeks. Overall, the excessive calorie intake was accompanied by deteriorating function of numerous physiological systems. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. High Pressure Multicomponent Adsorption in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1999-01-01

    We analyse adsorption of a multicomponent mixture at high pressure on the basis of the potential theory of adsorption. The adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external field produced by a solid adsorbent. we derive an analytical equation for the thickness of a multicomponent fi...... close to a dew point. This equation (asymptotic adsorption equation, AAE) is a first order approximation with regard to the distance from a phase envelope....

  7. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletti Luiz C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. Results We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Conclusion Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by

  8. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badotti, Fernanda; Dário, Marcelo G; Alves, Sergio L; Cordioli, Maria Luiza A; Miletti, Luiz C; de Araujo, Pedro S; Stambuk, Boris U

    2008-02-27

    Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L) initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by effectively reducing sucrose uptake by the yeast cells

  9. Effects of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose consumption on circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin and on appetite in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen J; Zukley, Linda; Lowndes, Joshua; Nguyen, Von; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Rippe, James M

    2007-02-01

    Fructose has been implicated in obesity, partly due to lack of insulin-mediated leptin stimulation and ghrelin suppression. Most work has examined effects of pure fructose, rather than high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), the most commonly consumed form of fructose. This study examined effects of beverages sweetened with HFCS or sucrose (Suc), when consumed with mixed meals, on blood glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and appetite. Thirty lean women were studied on two randomized 2-d visits during which HFCS- and Suc-sweetened beverages were consumed as 30% of energy on isocaloric diets during day 1 while blood was sampled. On day 2, food was eaten ad libitum. Subjects rated appetite at designated times throughout visits. No significant differences between the two sweeteners were seen in fasting plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin (P > 0.05). The within-day variation in all four items was not different between the two visits (P > 0.05). Net areas under the curve were similar for glucose, insulin, and leptin (P > 0.05). There were no differences in energy or macronutrient intake on day 2. The only appetite variable that differed between sweeteners was desire to eat, which had a higher area under the curve the day after Suc compared with HFCS. These short-term results suggest that, when fructose is consumed in the form of HFCS, the measured metabolic responses do not differ from Suc in lean women. Further research is required to examine appetite responses and to determine if these findings hold true for obese individuals, males, or longer periods.

  10. Prenatal stress increases the obesogenic effects of a high-fat-sucrose diet in adult rats in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternain, L; de la Garza, A L; Batlle, M A; Milagro, F I; Martínez, J A; Campión, J

    2013-03-01

    Stress during pregnancy can induce metabolic disorders in adult offspring. To analyze the possible differential response to a high-fat-sucrose (HFS) diet in offspring affected by prenatal stress (PNS) or not, pregnant Wistar rats (n = 11) were exposed to a chronic mild stress during the third week of gestation. The aim of this study was to model a chronic depressive-like state that develops over time in response to exposure of rats to a series of mild and unpredictable stressors. Control dams (n = 11) remained undisturbed. Adult offspring were fed chow or HFS diet (20% protein, 35% carbohydrate, 45% fat) for 10 weeks. Changes in adiposity, biochemical profile, and retroperitoneal adipose tissue gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction were analyzed. An interaction was observed between HFS and PNS concerning visceral adiposity, with higher fat mass in HFS-fed stressed rats, statistically significant only in females. HFS modified lipid profile and increased insulin resistance biomarkers, while PNS reduced insulin concentrations and the homeostasis model assessment index. HFS diet increased gene (mRNA) expression for leptin and apelin and decreased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A and fatty acid synthase (Fasn), whereas PNS increased Fasn and stearoyl-CoA desaturase1. An interaction between diet and PNS was observed for adiponutrin (Adpn) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator1-α (Ppargc1a) gene expression: Adpn was increased by the PNS only in HFS-fed rats, whereas Ppargc1a was increased by the PNS only in chow-fed rats. From these results, it can be concluded that experience of maternal stress during intrauterine development can enhance predisposition to obesity induced by a HFS diet intake.

  11. High job control enhances vagal recovery in media work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Harri; Sinisalo, Juha; Ahlberg, Jari; Jahkola, Antti; Partinen, Markku; Hublin, Christer; Savolainen, Aslak

    2009-12-01

    Job strain has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In modern media work, time pressures, rapidly changing situations, computer work and irregular working hours are common. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been widely used to monitor sympathovagal balance. Autonomic imbalance may play an additive role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. To study the effects of work demands and job control on the autonomic nervous system recovery among the media personnel. From the cross-sectional postal survey of the employees in Finnish Broadcasting Company (n = 874), three age cohorts (n = 132) were randomly selected for an analysis of HRV in 24 h electrocardiography recordings. In the middle-aged group, those who experienced high job control had significantly better vagal recovery than those with low or moderate control (P work rather than low demands seemed to enhance autonomic recovery in middle-aged media workers. This was independent of poor health habits such as smoking, physical inactivity or alcohol consumption.

  12. Liver imaging with MDCT and high concentration contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielmann, Audrey L.

    2003-01-01

    Liver imaging has advanced greatly over the last 10 years with helical CT capability and more recently the addition of multidetector-row CT (MDCT). Multidetector CT technology facilitates imaging at faster speeds with improved image quality and less breathing artifact [Abdom. Imaging 25 (2000) 643]. Exquisite three-dimensional data sets can be obtained with thin collimation providing improved lesion detection, multiplanar imaging, and the ability to perform CT angiography of the liver and mesenteric vessels. New challenges arise with this advance in technology including safety considerations. The radiation dose to the patient has increased with MDCT and this is compounded by the ability to perform multi-phase liver imaging. Furthermore, issues of contrast media administration require reconsideration including optimal timing and rate of administration, the total volume of contrast needed and the ideal iodine concentration of the contrast media. Recently, the use of high concentration contrast media (HCCM) has been explored and study results to date will be reviewed

  13. SOCIAL MEDIA ADDICTION AND STUDY HABITS OF SENIOR HIGH STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandrino, Mara Philia R; Catipay, Jerico D; Concepcion, Prince Vincent Ace T; Flores, Sally Mae C; Palicte, Cherry Mae D; Seguiro, Arlene C

    2018-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the significant influence of social media addiction on the study habits of the senior high students in selected school of Agusan del Sur. The researchers used a descriptive correlation method of research which involved the survey of a total of 150 senior high students. Questionnaires were the research instrument used in the gathering of data and was presented to the research adviser for approval and content validity. Mean, Pearson Product Moment Correl...

  14. Influence of concentration of sucrose on the acetone-butanol fermentation by different strains of Clostridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadue, K; Saroj, K K

    1959-01-01

    To culture media containing (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (0.34 g) and MgSO/sub 4/ (0.16 g), were added 5, 10, and 20% sucrose, respectively; the pH was adjusted to 6.4 with KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/-NaOH buffer; the volume of each medium was made up to 200 ml. The media were sterilized. After cooling, the media at the 5, 10, 20% sucrose levels were inoculated separately with C. butyricum, C. butyricum 6084, C. acetobutylicum NRRL B-527, C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598, C. butylicus NRRL B-592, and C. pasteurianum ATCC 6013. The cultures were incubated for 20 days at 35 degrees. For maximum butanol yield the 5% sucrose level was optimum for all the strains tested. At the 10% sucrose level great increase in sugar consumption occurred with C. butyricum Frolund, C. pasteurianum ATCC-6013, and C. butylicus IAL 15-152. Twice as much sucrose was consumed with C. acetobutylicum ATCC 6013, and NRRL B-572, and C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598. The increased sucrose consumption did not result in increased production of butanol or acetone. No acetone or butanol was formed with C. butyricum Frolund when the sucrose concentration was increased from 5 to 10%. With the increase in sucrose concentration, the formation of butanol and acetone decreased; acid formation was also inhibited.

  15. Influence of concentration of sucrose on the acetone-butanol fermentation by different strains of Clostridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, K; Saroj, K K

    1959-01-01

    To culture media containing (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (0.34 g) and MgSO/sub 4/ (0.16 g), were added 5, 10, and 20% sucrose, respectively; the pH was adjusted to 6.4 with KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/-NaOH buffer; the volume of each medium was made up to 200 ml. The media were sterilized. After cooling, the media at the 5, 10, 20% sucrose levels were inoculated separately with C. butyricum, C. butyricum 6084, C. acetobutylicum NRRL B-527, C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598, C. butylicus NRRL B-592, nd C. pasteurianum ATCC 6013. The cultures were incubated for 20 days at 35/sup 0/. For maximum BuOH yield the 5% sucrose level was optimum for all the strains tested. At the 10% sucrose level great increase in sugar consumption occurred with C. butyricum Frolund, C. pasteurianum ATCC-6013, and C. butylicus IAL 15-152. Twice as much sucrose was consumed with C. acetobutylicum ATCC 10132, and NRRL B-572, and C. pasteurianum NRRL B-598. The increased sucrose consumption did not result in increased production of BuOH or acetone. No acetone or BuOH was formed with C. butyricum Frolund when the sucrose concentration was increased from 5 to 10%. With the increase in sucrose concentration, the formation of BuH and acetone decreased; acid formation was also inhibited.

  16. Sucrose and color profiles in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) juice analyzed by UFLC-ELSD and Synapt High-Definition Mass Spectrometry during radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Roberta B.; Lima de Aguiar, Claudio; Galaverna, Renan; Baptista, Antonio S.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Arthur, Valter

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of electron beam irradiation (E-beam) on sugarcane juice and compared the results with preliminary tests performed on sugarcane juice treated with gamma irradiation. The samples were irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 kGy doses and results were compared wile control samples without irradiation. The results showed a significant increase (p≤0.05) of phenolic compounds in both treatments. We also observed increased contents of reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) for the samples irradiated with gamma rays and E-beam measured by the DNS methods. However, there was no significant difference of sugars content measured by chromatographic analyses performed in the sugarcane juice treated with E-beam. Therefore reducing sugars content could be overestimated by the DNS method because salts in sugarcane juice. The treatments were able to reduce sugarcane juice ICUMSA color intensity in both treatments with irradiation. E-beam reduced sugarcane juice color by roughly 49% compared the control, while gamma irradiation reduced it by 30%. - Highlights: • E-beam and γ-radiation were evaluated on color reduction of sugarcane juice. • Any severe degradation of sucrose content was perceived by E-beam or γ-radiation. • Little degradation of sucrose was associated to the increase on radiation doses. • Average color reduction was found to be 49% with E-beam and 30% with γ-radiation. • Synapt HDMS was able to confirm the presence of sucrose, glucose and fructose.

  17. Effect of Sucrose and Growth Regulator’s Level on Ginger Micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resham Babu Amgai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ginger is most important cash crop of the hilly region of Nepal. However, availability of disease free planting material (rhizome is the major problem faced by Nepalese farmers. Tissue culture is the only option to produce disease free rhizome of ginger. Suitable culture media combination is most important for the production of planting material in ginger through tissue culture. Therefore, effect of different level of sucrose and growth regulators on micro-propagation of ginger was studied using local collection ‘Kaski Local’. Early stage bud was used as explant. MS basal media with different level of sucrose and growth regulators was used as tissue culture media. 30 g/L sucrose, 30 g/L sucrose+5mg/L BA, 30 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA+0.5 mg/L NAA, 60 g/L sucrose+5mg/L BA, 60 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA+0.5mg/L NAA, 90 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA was used in this study. The explants were surface sterilized, cultured and incubated at 25±2°C, 90-95% relative humidity and 14:10 hours light:dark photoperiod for 8 weeks. Increased level of the sucrose increased the rhizome weight, however, addition of NAA produced more positive effect for this. MS basal media with 60 g/L sucrose+5 mg/L BA+0.5 mg/L NAA produced higher rhizome weight.

  18. Sucrose tricarboxylate by sonocatalysed TEMPO-mediated oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, S; Thomazeau, C; Joannard, D; Trombotto, S; Descotes, G; Bouchu, A; Queneau, Y

    2000-06-16

    Oxidation of sucrose by the NaOCl/TEMPO system provided sucrose tricarboxylate without the addition of sodium bromide as co-catalyst when high-frequency (500 kHz) ultrasound was applied, in contrast to very limited conversion without sonication. In the presence of sodium bromide, sonication also caused acceleration of the oxidation. The rate increase due to sonication of the oxidant system prior to sucrose addition suggests that ultrasound acts at the level of the formation of the nitrosonium ion, the active oxidising species in the catalytic cycle.

  19. Tuberculous otitis media: findings on high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungenschmid, D.; Buchberger, W.; Schoen, G.; Schoepf, R.; Mihatsch, T.; Birbamer, G.; Wicke, K.

    1993-01-01

    We describe two cases of tuberculous otitis media studied with high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Findings included extensive soft tissue densities with fluid levels in the tympanic cavity, the antrum, the mastoid and petrous air cells. Multifocal bony erosions and reactive bone sclerosis were seen as well. CT proved valuable for planning therapy by accurately displaying the involvement of the various structures of the middle and inner ear. However, the specific nature of the disease could only be presumed. (orig.)

  20. Characterization of Sugar Contents and Sucrose Metabolizing Enzymes in Developing Leaves of Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinheng Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in plant leaves have hitherto been investigated mainly in temperate plants, and rarely conducted in tandem with gene expression and sugar analysis. Here, we investigated the sugar content, gene expression, and the activity of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in the leaves of Hevea brasiliensis, a tropical tree widely cultivated for natural rubber. Sucrose, fructose and glucose were the major sugars detected in Hevea leaves at four developmental stages (I to IV, with starch and quebrachitol as minor saccharides. Fructose and glucose contents increased until stage III, but decreased strongly at stage IV (mature leaves. On the other hand, sucrose increased continuously throughout leaf development. Activities of all sucrose-cleaving enzymes decreased markedly at maturation, consistent with transcript decline for most of their encoding genes. Activity of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS was low in spite of its high transcript levels at maturation. Hence, the high sucrose content in mature leaves was not due to increased sucrose-synthesizing activity, but more to the decline in sucrose cleavage. Gene expression and activities of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in Hevea leaves showed striking differences compared with other plants. Unlike in most other species where vacuolar invertase predominates in sucrose cleavage in developing leaves, cytoplasmic invertase and sucrose synthase (cleavage direction also featured prominently in Hevea. Whereas SPS is normally responsible for sucrose synthesis in plant leaves, sucrose synthase (synthesis direction was comparable or higher than that of SPS in Hevea leaves. Mature Hevea leaves had an unusually high sucrose:starch ratio of about 11, the highest reported to date in plants.

  1. Web-Based Media Literacy to Prevent Tobacco Use among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps-Tschang, Jane S.; Miller, Elizabeth; Rice, Kristen; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Facilitator-led smoking media literacy (SML) programs have improved media literacy and reduced intention to smoke. However, these programs face limitations including high costs and barriers to standardization. We examined the efficacy of a Web-based media literacy program in improving smoking media literacy skills among adolescents. Sixty-six 9th…

  2. The genes and enzymes of sucrose metabolism in moderately thermophilic methanotroph Methylocaldum szegediense O12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    But, Sergey Y; Solntseva, Natalia P; Egorova, Svetlana V; Mustakhimov, Ildar I; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Reshetnikov, Alexander; Trotsenko, Yuri A

    2018-05-01

    Four enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism: sucrose phosphate synthase (Sps), sucrose phosphate phosphatase (Spp), sucrose synthase (Sus) and fructokinase (FruK), were obtained as his-tagged proteins from the moderately thermophilic methanotroph Methylocaldum szegediense O12. Sps, Spp, FruK and Sus demonstrated biochemical properties similar to those of other bacterial counterparts, but the translated amino acid sequences of Sps and Spp displayed high divergence from the respective microbial enzymes. The Sus of M. szegediense O12 catalyzed the reversible reaction of sucrose cleavage in the presence of ADP or UDP and preferred ADP as a substrate, thus implying a connection between sucrose and glycogen metabolism. Sus-like genes were found only in a few methanotrophs, whereas amylosucrase was generally used in sucrose cleavage in this group of bacteria. Like other microbial fructokinases, FruK of M. szegediense O12 showed a high specificity to fructose.

  3. Selective solubilization of membrane proteins differentially labeled by p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid in the presence of sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M'Batchi, B.; Pichelin, D.; Delrot, S.

    1987-01-01

    Broadbean (Vicia faba L.) leaf discs have been incubated with the slowly permeant thiol reagent [ 203 Hg]-para-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS) in the presence or in the absence of sucrose, and the release of PCMBS-labeled proteins has been monitored in media containing various concentrations of urea, ethylene glycol-bis-(β-aminoethyl ether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), sodium cholate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, octylglucoside or (3-[3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio] 1-propane-sulfonate)(CHAPS). The proteins differentially labeled by PCMBS in the presence of sucrose which, on the basis of previous results, are assumed to included the sucrose carrier, were preferentially solubilized by 1% CHAPS, 1% octylglucoside, or 1% Triton X-100. Other PCMBS-labeled proteins (background proteins) could be partially removed by EGTA, urea, or 0.1% cholate. Sequential treatment by 10 mM EGTA and 1% CHAPS was found to give a fraction highly enriched in the differentially labeled proteins. Analysis of the specific activity of microsomal pellets suggests that the results obtained with leaf discs give a good account of what is occurring at the plasma membrane level. These data, which suggest that the proteins differentially labeled, by PCMBS in the presence of sucrose are intrinsic membrane proteins, can be used to solubilize these proteins from microsomal fractions

  4. Sucrose or sucrose and caffeine differentially impact memory and anxiety-like behaviours, and alter hippocampal parvalbumin and doublecortin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tanya J; Reichelt, Amy C

    2018-04-11

    Caffeinated sugar-sweetened "energy" drinks are a subset of soft drinks that are popular among young people worldwide. High sucrose diets impair cognition and alter aspects of emotional behaviour in rats, however, little is known about sucrose combined with caffeine. Rats were allocated to 2 h/day 10% sucrose (Suc), 10% sucrose plus 0.04% caffeine (CafSuc) or control (water) conditions. The addition of caffeine to sucrose appeared to increase the rewarding aspect of sucrose, as the CafSuc group consumed more solution than the Suc group. After 14 days of intermittent Suc or CafSuc access, anxiety was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) prior to their daily solution access, whereby CafSuc and Suc rats spent more time in the closed arms, indicative of increased anxiety. Following daily solution access, CafSuc, but not Suc, rats showed reduced anxiety-like behaviour in the open-field. Control and CafSuc rats displayed intact place and long-term object memory, while Suc showed impaired memory performance. Sucrose reduced parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, but no differences were observed between Control and CafSuc conditions. Parvalbumin reactivity in the basolateral amygdala did not differ between conditions. Reduced doublecortin immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus relative to controls was seen in the CafSuc, but not Suc, treatment conditions. These findings indicate that the addition of caffeine to sucrose attenuated cognitive deficits. However, the addition of caffeine to sucrose evoked anxiety-like responses under certain testing conditions, suggesting that frequent consumption of caffeinated energy drinks may promote emotional alterations and brain changes compared to standard soft drinks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann; Vasilaras, Tatjana H; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of appetite studies in free-living subjects supplying the habitual diet with either sucrose or artificially sweetened beverages and foods. Furthermore, the focus of artificial sweeteners has only been on the energy intake (EI) side of the energy-balance equation. The data are from...

  6. SYNTHESIS OF HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL FROM SUCROSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from sucrose was investigated in the ... It was concluded that IL 1-(3-sulfonic acid)-propyl-3- ... imidazolium chloride was also used as both solvent and catalyst for the reactions of fructose and.

  7. Sucrose ingestion causes opioid analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. Segato

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The intake of saccharin solutions for relatively long periods of time causes analgesia in rats, as measured in the hot-plate test, an experimental procedure involving supraspinal components. In order to investigate the effects of sweet substance intake on pain modulation using a different model, male albino Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g received either tap water or sucrose solutions (250 g/l for 1 day or 14 days as their only source of liquid. Each rat consumed an average of 15.6 g sucrose/day. Their tail withdrawal latencies in the tail-flick test (probably a spinal reflex were measured immediately before and after this treatment. An analgesia index was calculated from the withdrawal latencies before and after treatment. The indexes (mean ± SEM, N = 12 for the groups receiving tap water for 1 day or 14 days, and sucrose solution for 1 day or 14 days were 0.09 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0.15 ± 0.08 and 0.49 ± 0.07, respectively. One-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference (F(3,47 = 9.521, P<0.001 and the Tukey multiple comparison test (P<0.05 showed that the analgesia index of the 14-day sucrose-treated animals differed from all other groups. Naloxone-treated rats (N = 7 receiving sucrose exhibited an analgesia index of 0.20 ± 0.10 while rats receiving only sucrose (N = 7 had an index of 0.68 ± 0.11 (t = 0.254, 10 degrees of freedom, P<0.03. This result indicates that the analgesic effect of sucrose depends on the time during which the solution is consumed and extends the analgesic effects of sweet substance intake, such as saccharin, to a model other than the hot-plate test, with similar results. Endogenous opioids may be involved in the central regulation of the sweet substance-produced analgesia.

  8. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) generated in the DOE complex is stored in tanks at several sites, but predominantly it is found at the Hanford reservation. Much of the material has been exposed to high pHs, consequently the waste exists in a complex, poorly understood mixture of solids, gels and solutions. The final waste remediation plan may involve chemical separation of fractions and a suitable, well developed molecular chemistry basis for performing these separations is not available. Indeed, the fundamental chemical behavior of most radioactive nuclides in basic media is not known. The goal of this project is to undertake fundamental studies of the coordination chemistry of f-element species in basic aqueous solutions containing common waste treatment ions (e.g., NO3 -, CO3 2-, organic carboxylates, and EDTA), as well as new waste scrubbing chelators produced in this study. The experimental agenda includes: 1. Studies of the speciation of Sr and Ln ions in basic solutions wit h and without common counterions; 2. Preparations of new multifunctional ligands that may act as strong, ion-specific chelators for Sr and/or Ln ions in basic media; and 3. Studies of the coordination and dissolution behavior of oxide-hydroxide species, as well as in insoluble sols, gels, and precipitates in combination with new chelating ligands. It is anticipated that this coordination chemistry will facilitate the design of advanced separation schemes required for handling the complex waste matrices found at the Hanford HLW facility

  9. Obesity induced by a pair-fed high fat sucrose diet: methylation and expression pattern of genes related to energy homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campión Javier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of some genes controlling energy homeostasis could be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms that may play a role in body weight regulation. Thus, it is known that various nutritional factors affect DNA methylation. In order to assess whether the macronutrient composition of the diet could be related to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and with obesity development, we investigated the effects on methylation and expression patterns of two pair-fed isocaloric diets in rats: control (rich in starch and HFS (rich in fat and sucrose. Results The pair-fed HFS diet induced higher weight gain and adiposity as compared to the controls as well as liver triglyceride accumulation and oxidative stress. Feeding the HFS diet impaired glucose tolerance and serum triglycerides and cholesterol. Liver glucokinase expression, a key glycolytic gene, remained unaltered, as well as the mRNA values of fatty acid synthase and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone 1 beta subcomplex, 6 (NDUFB6 in liver and visceral adipocytes, which regulate lipogenesis and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, respectively. Liver expression of hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HADHB, a key gene of β-oxidation pathway, was higher in the HFS-fed animals. However, the methylation status of CpG islands in HADHB and glucokinase genes remained unchanged after feeding the HFS diet. Conclusions These results confirm that the distribution and type of macronutrients (starch vs. sucrose, and percent of fat influence obesity onset and the associated metabolic complications. HFS diets produce obesity independently of total energy intake, although apparently no epigenetic (DNA methylation changes accompanied the modifications observed in gene expression.

  10. High School Students' Social Media Usage Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezci, Erdogan; Içen, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Social media which is an important product of Computer and Internet Technologies has a growing usage level day by day. Increasing social media usage level gives opportunity for new software developments and making investments in this area. From this aspect, therefore, social media has not only economic function but also make persons participate in…

  11. A maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet alters insulin sensitivity and expression of insulin signalling and lipid metabolism genes and proteins in male rat offspring: effect of folic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Candace E; Foster, Jerome E; Ramdath, D Dan

    2017-10-01

    A maternal high-fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diet alters offspring glucose and lipid homoeostasis through unknown mechanisms and may be modulated by folic acid. We investigated the effect of a maternal HFS diet on glucose homoeostasis, expression of genes and proteins associated with insulin signalling and lipid metabolism and the effect of prenatal folic acid supplementation (HFS/F) in male rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly fed control (CON), HFS or HFS/F diets. Offspring were weaned on CON; at postnatal day 70, fasting plasma insulin and glucose and liver and skeletal muscle gene and protein expression were measured. Treatment effects were assessed by one-way ANOVA. Maternal HFS diet induced higher fasting glucose in offspring v. HFS/F (P=0·027) and down-regulation (Pinsulin resistance v. CON (P=0·030) and HFS/F was associated with higher insulin (P=0·016) and lower glucose (P=0·025). Maternal HFS diet alters offspring insulin sensitivity and de novo hepatic lipogenesis via altered gene and protein expression, which appears to be potentiated by folate supplementation.

  12. X-ray diffraction studies of sucrose and sucrose irradiated with γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Mahendra

    1981-01-01

    In order to understand and solve numerous problems related to sugar quality and its storage life, X-ray diffraction studies of sucrose and sucrose irradiated with γ-radiation have been made. It is observed that the interplanar spacing 'd' in irradiated sucrose is reduced indicating the partial damage of sucrose lattice. (author)

  13. Developing android-based science instructional media to improve scientific literacy of junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida, I. I.; Jumadi; Wilujeng; Senam

    2018-04-01

    The aims of this study are: to develop android-based science instructional media and to reveal the characteristic, the quality, and the effectiveness of android-based science instructional media with global warming topic to increase junior high school students’ scientific literacy. This study is a development research. The instructional media were reviewed by a media expert, a material expert, science teachers, peer reviewers, and students. The data was collected using media evaluation questionnaires. The results of the study showed that: (1) the android-based science instructional media has characteristics including interesting visualization, easy to use, flexible, and practical, (2) the android-based science instructional media was appropriate for teaching, in terms of material evaluation aspects, media evaluation aspects, and based on student test results, and (3) the android-based science instructional media can effectively used for teaching.

  14. Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modify phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity and lipid synthesis from glucose in adipose tissue of rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Lisiane G; Rieger, Débora K; Hansen, Fernanda; Silveira, Simone L; Martins, Tiago L; Lulhier, Francisco; da Silva, Roselis S; Souza, Diogo O; Perry, Marcos L S; de Assis, Adriano M

    2013-12-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) have hypolipidemic effects and modulate intermediary metabolism to prevent or reverse insulin resistance in a way that is not completely elucidated. Here, effects of these fatty acids on the lipid profile, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity, lipid synthesis from glucose in epididymal adipose tissue (Ep-AT) and liver were investigated. Male rats were fed a high-sucrose diet (SU diet), containing either sunflower oil or a mixture of sunflower and fish oil (SU-FO diet), and the control group was fed a standard diet. After 13 weeks, liver, adipose tissue and blood were harvested and analysed. The dietary n-3 LCPUFAs prevented sucrose-induced increase in adiposity and serum free fat acids, serum and hepatic triacylglycerol and insulin levels. Furthermore, these n-3 LCPUFAs decreased lipid synthesis from glucose and increased PEPCK activity in the Ep-AT of rats fed the SU-FO diet compared to those fed the SU diet, besides reducing lipid synthesis from glucose in hepatic tissue. Thus, the inclusion of n-3 LCPUFAs in the diet may be beneficial for the prevention or attenuation of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and for reducing the risk of related chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Magnetostructural study of iron sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Lucia; Puerto Morales, Maria del; Jose Lazaro, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic and structural analyses have been performed on an iron sucrose complex used as a haematinic agent. The system contains two-line ferrihydrite particles of about 5 nm that are superparamagnetic above approximately 50 K. The observed low-temperature magnetic dynamics of this compound is closer to simple models than in the case of other iron-containing drugs for intravenous use like iron dextran

  16. Pontine and Thalamic Influences on Fluid Rewards: I. Operant Responding for Sucrose and Corn Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Freet, Christopher S.; Grigson, Patricia S; Norgren, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The reward strength of orosensory sucrose and corn oil was measured using fixed and progressive ratio operant schedules. Because the orosensory effects of the stimuli were of interest, Experiment 1 compared operant responses for sucrose in sham and real feeding rats. The results demonstrated that rats would work for sucrose solutions without the accompanying postingestive effects. Furthermore, the break points for high concentrations of sucrose (1.0 M or 2.0 M) were significantly higher in sham feeding rats than in real feeding controls. Experiment 2 investigated the role of the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) and of the thalamic orosensory area (TOA) in sucrose and corn oil reward. During free access, rats with PBN lesions (PBNx) licked significantly less sucrose solution than their controls, but both groups ingested a similar volume of corn oil emulsion. When an operant was imposed, these same PBNx rats failed to respond for sucrose and continued only modestly for corn oil. In contrast, the TOA lesioned rats (TOAx) showed no impairment in responding for sucrose or corn oil during either the free access or operant sessions. Furthermore, rats with TOA lesions demonstrated significantly higher break points for sucrose than did their controls. Together, the data imply that the PBN but not the TOA is critical for the perception of, or responding to the reward value of sucrose and corn oil. PMID:21703290

  17. A sucrose-rich diet induces mutations in the rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L.O.; Daneshvar, B.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    A sucrose-rich diet has repeatedly been observed to have cocarcinogenic actions in the colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate whether sucrose-rich diets might directly increase the genotoxic response in the rat colon or liver, we have...... or in blood plasma. We conclude that a sucrose-rich diet directly or indirectly increases the mutation frequency in rat colon in a dose-dependent manner and concomitantly decreases the level of background DNA adducts, without a direct effect on the expression of major DNA repair enzyme systems. We also...... conclude that an oxidative mechanism for this effect of sucrose is unlikely. This is the first demonstration of a genotoxic action of increased dietary sucrose in vivo. Both sucrose intake and colon cancer rates are high in the Western world, and our present results call for an examination of a possible...

  18. SUCROSE SYNTHASE: ELUCIDATION OF COMPLEX POST-TRANSLATIONAL REGULATORY MECHANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven C. Huber

    2009-05-12

    Studies have focused on the enzyme sucrose synthase, which plays an important role in the metabolism of sucrose in seeds and tubers. There are three isoforms of SUS in maize, referred to as SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2. SUS is generally considered to be tetrameric protein but recent evidence suggests that SUS can also occur as a dimeric protein. The formation of tetrameric SUS is regulated by sucrose concentration in vitro and this could also be an important factor in the cellular localization of the protein. We found that high sucrose concentrations, which promote tetramer formation, also inhibit the binding of SUS1 to actin filaments in vitro. Previously, high sucrose concentrations were shown to promote SUS association with the plasma membrane. The specific regions of the SUS molecule involved in oligomerization are not known, but we identified a region of the SUS1 moelcule by bioinformatic analysis that was predicted to form a coiled coil. We demonstrated that this sequence could, in fact, self-associate as predicted for a coiled coil, but truncation analysis with the full-length recombinant protein suggested that it was not responsible for formation of dimers or tetramers. However, the coiled coil may function in binding of other proteins to SUS1. Overall, sugar availability may differentially influence the binding of SUS to cellular structures, and these effects may be mediated by changes in the oligomeric nature of the enzyme.

  19. Innovative Uses of Social Media in High Schools. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravender, Marlena

    2010-01-01

    The use of social media is a phenomenon that is changing the way people communicate. Along with the Internet, social media provide unparalleled opportunity for schools to interact with students, families and community. They also provide incredible resources for improving curricular experiences and improving instruction. Because the growth of…

  20. Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Bonnie; Yamada, Janet; Ohlsson, Arne; Haliburton, Sarah; Shorkey, Allyson

    2016-07-16

    heterogeneity by the I(2) test. We assessed the risk of bias of included trials using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE system. Seventy-four studies enrolling 7049 infants were included. Results from only a few studies could be combined in meta-analyses and for most analyses the GRADE assessments indicated low- or moderate-quality evidence. There was high-quality evidence for the beneficial effect of sucrose (24%) with non-nutritive sucking (pacifier dipped in sucrose) or 0.5 mL of sucrose orally in preterm and term infants: Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) 30 s after heel lance WMD -1.70 (95% CI -2.13 to -1.26; I(2) = 0% (no heterogeneity); 3 studies, n = 278); PIPP 60 s after heel lance WMD -2.14 (95% CI -3.34 to -0.94; I(2) = 0% (no heterogeneity; 2 studies, n = 164). There was high-quality evidence for the use of 2 mL 24% sucrose prior to venipuncture: PIPP during venipuncture WMD -2.79 (95% CI -3.76 to -1.83; I(2) = 0% (no heterogeneity; 2 groups in 1 study, n = 213); and intramuscular injections: PIPP during intramuscular injection WMD -1.05 (95% CI -1.98 to -0.12; I(2) = 0% (2 groups in 1 study, n = 232). Evidence from studies that could not be included in RevMan-analyses supported these findings. Reported adverse effects were minor and similar in the sucrose and control groups. Sucrose is not effective in reducing pain from circumcision. The effectiveness of sucrose for reducing pain/stress from other interventions such as arterial puncture, subcutaneous injection, insertion of nasogastric or orogastric tubes, bladder catherization, eye examinations and echocardiography examinations are inconclusive. Most trials indicated some benefit of sucrose use but that the evidence for other painful procedures is of lower quality as it is based on few studies of small sample sizes. The effects of sucrose on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes are unknown. Sucrose is effective for reducing procedural pain from single

  1. Sucrose substitutes affect the cariogenic potential of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, S C; Vieira, L M; Cruz, J N S; Azevedo, C S; Rodrigues, P H; Simionato, M R L

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and contributes significantly to the virulence of dental plaque, especially in the presence of sucrose. To avoid the role of sucrose on the virulence factors of S. mutans, sugar substitutes are commonly consumed because they lead to lower or no production of acids and interfere with biofilm formation. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of sugar substitutes in the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Thus, in the presence of sucrose, glucose, sucralose and sorbitol, the biofilm mass was quantified up to 96 h, the pH of the spent culture media was measured, the expression of biofilm-related genes was determined, and demineralization challenge experiments were conduct in enamel fragments. The presence of sugars or sugar substitutes profoundly affected the expression of spaP, gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, ftf, vicR and vicX in either biofilm or planktonic cells. The substitution of sucrose induced a down-regulation of most genes involved in sucrose-dependent colonization in biofilm cells. When the ratio between the expression of biofilm and planktonic cells was considered, most of those genes were down-regulated in biofilm cells in the presence of sugars and up-regulated in the presence of sugar substitutes. However, sucralose but not sorbitol fulfilled the purpose of reducing the cariogenic potential of the diet since it induced the biofilm formation with the lowest biomass, did not change the pH of the medium and led to the lowest lesion depth in the cariogenic challenge.

  2. Sucrose delays senescence and preserves functional compounds in Asparagus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Me-Hea

    2016-11-11

    The high metabolic rate of harvested asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.) causes rapid deterioration. To extend shelf life, we investigated the effect of sucrose treatment on asparagus during storage. Asparagus spears were treated with 3%, 5%, and 10% sucrose and stored at 2 °C for 20 h. Cellular respiration decreased, but other processes were unaltered by exogenous sucrose. The overall appearance of asparagus treated with 3% sucrose and stored at 2 °C for 18 days was rated as good and excellent, unlike that of untreated spears. Asparagus treated with sucrose maintained firmness for 15 days, while untreated spears lost firmness and showed increased water-soluble pectin content during storage. Carbohydrate levels were also higher in sucrose-treated than in control samples. Transcript levels of cell-wall-related genes, including xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET)1, XET2, and peroxidase (prx)1, prx2, and prx3 were upregulated by sucrose. Cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside and rutin levels immediately increased upon addition of sucrose and remained high relative to the control during storage. Thus, sucrose modulates asparagus cell wall components and maintains the functionality of important compounds during storage, thus effectively prolonging shelf life. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    A large body of data has been collected over the last fifty years on the chemical behavior of f-element ions. The ions undergo rapid hydrolysis reactions in neutral or basic aqueous solutions that produce poorly understood oxide-hydroxide species; therefore, most of the fundamental f-element solution chemistry has allowed synthetic and separations chemists to rationally design advanced organic chelating ligands useful for highly selective partitioning and separation of f-element ions from complex acidic solution matrices. These ligands and new examples under development allow for the safe use and treatment of solutions containing highly radioactive species. This DOE/EMSP project was undertaken to address the following fundamental objectives: (1) study the chemical speciation of Sr and lanthanide (Ln) ions in basic aqueous media containing classical counter anions found in waste matrices; (2) prepare pyridine N-oxide phosphonates and phosphonic acids that might act as selective chelators for Ln ions in model basic pH waste streams; (3) study the binding of the new chelators toward Ln ions and (4) examine the utility of the chelators as decontamination and dissolution agents under basic solution conditions. The project has been successful in attacking selected aspects of the very difficult problems associated with basic pH solution f-element waste chemistry. In particular, the project has (1) shed additional light on the initial stages of Ln ion sol-gel-precipitate formulation under basic solution conditions; (2) generated new families of pyridine phosphonic acid chelators; (3) characterized the function of the chelators and (4) examined their utility as oxide-hydroxide dissolution agents. These findings have contributed significantly to an improved understanding of the behavior of Ln ions in basic media containing anions found in typical waste sludges as well as to the development of sludge dissolution agents. The new chelating reagents are easily made and could be

  4. EPR response of sucrose and microcrystalline cellulose to measure high doses of gamma radiation; Respuesta EPR de sacarosa y celulosa micro cristalina para medir altas dosis de radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torijano, E.; Cruz, L.; Gutierrez, G.; Azorin, J.; Aguirre, F. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Cruz Z, E., E-mail: eftc@xanum.uam.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Solid dosimeters of sucrose and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel Ph-102) were prepared, following the same process, in order to compare their EPR response against that of the l-alanine dosimeters considered as reference. All lots of dosimeters were irradiated with gamma radiation in Gamma beam irradiator with 8 kGy/h of the Nuclear Sciences Institute of UNAM. Doses ranged from 1 to 10 kGy respectively. We found that both the response of sucrose as microcrystalline cellulose were linear; however, the response intensity was, on average, twenty times more for sucrose. Comparing this against the EPR response of l-alanine in the range of doses, it was found that the response to sucrose is a third part; and microcrystalline cellulose is a sixtieth, approximately. The results agree with those found in the literature for sucrose, leaving open the possibility of investigating other dosage ranges for cellulose. (Author)

  5. The apo structure of sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris shows an open active-site groove

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Champion, Elise; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Skov, Lars Kobberøe

    2009-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH-13) mainly contains starch-degrading or starch-modifying enzymes. Sucrose hydrolases utilize sucrose instead of amylose as the primary glucosyl donor. Here, the catalytic properties and X-ray structure of sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris...... of GH-13. Comparisons with structures of the highly similar sucrose hydrolase from X. axonopodis pv. glycines most notably showed that residues Arg516 and Asp138, which form a salt bridge in the X. axonopodis sucrose complex and define part of the subsite -1 glucosyl-binding determinants...

  6. Biosynthesis of sucrose and mannitol as a function of leaf age in celery (Apium graveolens L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.M.; Fellman, J.K.; Loescher, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    In celery (Apium graveolens L.), the two major translocated carbohydrates are sucrose and the acyclic polyol mannitol. Their metabolism, however, is different and their specific functions are uncertain. To compare their roles in carbon partitioning and sink-source transitions, developmental changes in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling, pool sizes, and key enzyme activities in leaf tissues were examined. The proportion of label in mannitol increased dramatically with leaf maturation whereas that in sucrose remained fairly constant. Mannitol content, however, was high in all leaves and sucrose content increased as leaves developed. Activities of mannose-6-P reductase, cytoplasmic and chloroplastic fructose-1,6-bis-phosphatases, sucrose phosphate synthase, and sucrose synthase increased with leaf maturation and decreased as leaves senesced. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and nonreversible glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase activities rose as leaves developed but did not decrease. Thus, sucrose is produced in all photosynthetically active leaves whereas mannitol is synthesized primarily in mature leaves and stored in all leaves. Onset of sucrose export in celery may result from sucrose accumulation in expanding leaves, but mannitol export is clearly unrelated to mannitol concentration. Mannitol export, however, appears to coincide with increased mannitol biosynthesis. Although mannitol and sucrose arise from a common precursor in celery, subsequent metabolism and transport must be regulated separately.

  7. Body weight manipulation, reinforcement value and choice between sucrose and wheel running: a behavioral economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2009-02-01

    Twelve female Long-Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable (VR) ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement (Sucrose VR 10 Wheel VR 10; Sucrose VR 5 Wheel VR 20; Sucrose VR 20 Wheel VR 5) with predetermined budgets (number of responses). The allocation of lever pressing to the sucrose and wheel-running alternatives was assessed at high and low body weights. Results showed that wheel-running rate and lever-pressing rates for sucrose and wheel running increased, but the choice of wheel running decreased at the low body weight. A regression analysis of relative consumption as a function of relative price showed that consumption shifted toward sucrose and interacted with price differences in a manner consistent with increased substitutability. Demand curves showed that demand for sucrose became less elastic while demand for wheel running became more elastic at the low body weight. These findings reflect an increase in the difference in relative value of sucrose and wheel running as body weight decreased. Discussion focuses on the limitations of response rates as measures of reinforcement value. In addition, we address the commonalities between matching and demand curve equations for the analysis of changes in relative reinforcement value.

  8. Deregulation of sucrose-controlled translation of a bZIP-type transcription factor results in sucrose accumulation in leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Thalor

    Full Text Available Sucrose is known to repress the translation of Arabidopsis thaliana AtbZIP11 transcript which encodes a protein belonging to the group of S (S--stands for small basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP-type transcription factor. This repression is called sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT. It is mediated through the sucrose-controlled upstream open reading frame (SC-uORF found in the AtbZIP11 transcript. The SIRT is reported for 4 other genes belonging to the group of S bZIP in Arabidopsis. Tobacco tbz17 is phylogenetically closely related to AtbZIP11 and carries a putative SC-uORF in its 5'-leader region. Here we demonstrate that tbz17 exhibits SIRT mediated by its SC-uORF in a manner similar to genes belonging to the S bZIP group of the Arabidopsis genus. Furthermore, constitutive transgenic expression of tbz17 lacking its 5'-leader region containing the SC-uORF leads to production of tobacco plants with thicker leaves composed of enlarged cells with 3-4 times higher sucrose content compared to wild type plants. Our finding provides a novel strategy to generate plants with high sucrose content.

  9. Deregulation of sucrose-controlled translation of a bZIP-type transcription factor results in sucrose accumulation in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalor, Sunil Kumar; Berberich, Thomas; Lee, Sung Shin; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhu, Xujun; Imai, Ryozo; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose is known to repress the translation of Arabidopsis thaliana AtbZIP11 transcript which encodes a protein belonging to the group of S (S--stands for small) basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factor. This repression is called sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT). It is mediated through the sucrose-controlled upstream open reading frame (SC-uORF) found in the AtbZIP11 transcript. The SIRT is reported for 4 other genes belonging to the group of S bZIP in Arabidopsis. Tobacco tbz17 is phylogenetically closely related to AtbZIP11 and carries a putative SC-uORF in its 5'-leader region. Here we demonstrate that tbz17 exhibits SIRT mediated by its SC-uORF in a manner similar to genes belonging to the S bZIP group of the Arabidopsis genus. Furthermore, constitutive transgenic expression of tbz17 lacking its 5'-leader region containing the SC-uORF leads to production of tobacco plants with thicker leaves composed of enlarged cells with 3-4 times higher sucrose content compared to wild type plants. Our finding provides a novel strategy to generate plants with high sucrose content.

  10. Using social media in a high school physics classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In today's classrooms students have ever increasing access to technology and social media. Rather than try and suppress the use of it in my classroom, I have embraced it and use it as a tool to foster collaboration and science writing with my physics students. There are many platforms to engage your students online, from simple and free to dynamic and costly, but the benefits of using social media for your students is worth giving it try.

  11. Production of 16% ethanol from 35% sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breisha, Gaber Z.

    2010-01-01

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which showed marked fermentation activity, ethanol and temperature tolerance and good flocculation ability, was selected for ethanol production. A stuck fermentation occurred at sucrose concentration of 25%. Increasing the yeast inoculum volume from 3% to 6% showed positive effects on fermentation from 25% sucrose. The ratio of added nitrogen to sucrose, which gave the best results (for the selected yeast strain), was determined. It was concluded that this ratio (nitrogen as ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5 mg g -1 of consumed sucrose) is constant at various sugar concentrations. Addition of nitrogen at this ratio produced 11.55% ethanol with complete consumption of 25% sucrose after 48 h of fermentation. However fermentation of 30% sucrose at the above optimum conditions was not complete. Addition of yeast extract at a level of 6 g l -1 together with thiamine at a level of 0.2 g l -1 led to complete utilization of 30% sucrose with resultant 14% ethanol production. However the selected yeast strain was not able to ferment 35% sucrose at the same optimum conditions. Addition of air at a rate of 150 dm 3 min -1 m 3 of reactor volume during the first 12 h of fermentation led to complete consumption of 35% sucrose and 16% ethanol was produced. This was approximately the theoretical maximum for ethanol production.

  12. Production of 16% ethanol from 35% sucrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breisha, Gaber Z. [Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Minia (Egypt)

    2010-08-15

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which showed marked fermentation activity, ethanol and temperature tolerance and good flocculation ability, was selected for ethanol production. A stuck fermentation occurred at sucrose concentration of 25%. Increasing the yeast inoculum volume from 3% to 6% showed positive effects on fermentation from 25% sucrose. The ratio of added nitrogen to sucrose, which gave the best results (for the selected yeast strain), was determined. It was concluded that this ratio (nitrogen as ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5 mg g{sup -1} of consumed sucrose) is constant at various sugar concentrations. Addition of nitrogen at this ratio produced 11.55% ethanol with complete consumption of 25% sucrose after 48 h of fermentation. However fermentation of 30% sucrose at the above optimum conditions was not complete. Addition of yeast extract at a level of 6 g l{sup -1} together with thiamine at a level of 0.2 g l{sup -1} led to complete utilization of 30% sucrose with resultant 14% ethanol production. However the selected yeast strain was not able to ferment 35% sucrose at the same optimum conditions. Addition of air at a rate of 150 dm{sup 3} min{sup -1} m{sup 3} of reactor volume during the first 12 h of fermentation led to complete consumption of 35% sucrose and 16% ethanol was produced. This was approximately the theoretical maximum for ethanol production. (author)

  13. Offspring from rat mothers fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet during gestation and lactation accumulate free fatty acids in the liver when exposed to high fat diet as adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Ingvorsen, Camilla

    Introduction: Maternal diet during gestation and lactation has been implicated as a factor that modifies the risk of developing metabolic diseases later in life. Hepatic lipid accumulation is strongly linked to development of metabolic diseases. Free fatty acids induce ER stress, mitochondrial...... in adult life. In this poster, we report data on hepatic lipid content. Methods: Rat dams were fed a 60 E% fat diet and given 15% sucrose (HFHS) in the drinking water or chow and pure water (C) six weeks before mating as well as during gestation and lactation. After birth, male pups was cross......-fostered by the dams, so that half of the pups born by HFHS mothers was lactated by C dams and vice versa, generating four groups; CC, CH, HC and HH (first letter maternal diet during pregnancy and the second diet during lactation). At weaning all pups were transferred to chow-diet and kept on this diet until the age...

  14. Attitudes, Values and Background of High School Journalists Compared with the Media Elite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sammye

    To compare attitudes, values, and background of high school journalists with those of the media elite (journalists already working in the media), a survey was administered to 132 public and private high school students attending the Trinity University Journalism Institute during June 5-9, 1983. These students were the editors of their newspapers,…

  15. Double dose: High family conflict enhances the effect of media violence exposure on adolescents’ aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Weeda, W.D.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how exposure to media violence and family conflict affects adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior. We expected a double dose effect, meaning that high media violence exposure would lead to higher levels of aggression for adolescents in high conflict families compared to low

  16. Double Dose: High Family Conflict Enhances the Effect of Media Violence Exposure on Adolescents’ Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti M. Valkenburg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how exposure to media violence and family conflict affects adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior. We expected a double dose effect, meaning that high media violence exposure would lead to higher levels of aggression for adolescents in high conflict families compared to low conflict families. A total of 499 adolescents (aged 10 to 14, 48% girls participated in a two-wave longitudinal survey (4-month interval. Survey questions assessed their exposure to violence on television and in electronic games, family conflict, and aggressive behavior. Analyses revealed a significant interaction between media violence and family conflict. In families with higher conflict, higher media violence exposure was related to increased subsequent aggression. This study is the first to show a double dose effect of media violence and family conflict on adolescents’ aggression. These findings underscore the important role of the family in shaping the effects of adolescents’ media use on their social development.

  17. High-frequency homogenization for travelling waves in periodic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Davit; Milton, Graeme W; Craster, Richard V

    2016-07-01

    We consider high-frequency homogenization in periodic media for travelling waves of several different equations: the wave equation for scalar-valued waves such as acoustics; the wave equation for vector-valued waves such as electromagnetism and elasticity; and a system that encompasses the Schrödinger equation. This homogenization applies when the wavelength is of the order of the size of the medium periodicity cell. The travelling wave is assumed to be the sum of two waves: a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector [Formula: see text] and frequency ω 1 plus a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector [Formula: see text] and frequency ω 2 . We derive effective equations for the modulating functions, and then prove that there is no coupling in the effective equations between the two different waves both in the scalar and the system cases. To be precise, we prove that there is no coupling unless ω 1 = ω 2 and [Formula: see text] where Λ =(λ 1 λ 2 …λ d ) is the periodicity cell of the medium and for any two vectors [Formula: see text] the product a ⊙ b is defined to be the vector ( a 1 b 1 , a 2 b 2 ,…, a d b d ). This last condition forces the carrier waves to be equivalent Bloch waves meaning that the coupling constants in the system of effective equations vanish. We use two-scale analysis and some new weak-convergence type lemmas. The analysis is not at the same level of rigour as that of Allaire and co-workers who use two-scale convergence theory to treat the problem, but has the advantage of simplicity which will allow it to be easily extended to the case where there is degeneracy of the Bloch eigenvalue.

  18. High resolution imaging of colliding blast waves in cluster media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Roland A [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Lazarus, James [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hohenberger, Matthias [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Marocchino, Alberto [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Robinson, Joseph S [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Chittenden, Jeremy P [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Moore, Alastair S [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Gumbrell, Edward T [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dunne, Mike [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    Strong shocks and blast wave collisions are commonly observed features in astrophysical objects such as nebulae and supernova remnants. Numerical simulations often underpin our understanding of these complex systems, however modelling of such extreme phenomena remains challenging, particularly so for the case of radiative or colliding shocks. This highlights the need for well-characterized laboratory experiments both to guide physical insight and to provide robust data for code benchmarking. Creating a sufficiently high-energy-density gas medium for conducting scaled laboratory astrophysics experiments has historically been problematic, but the unique ability of atomic cluster gases to efficiently couple to intense pulses of laser light now enables table top scale (1 J input energy) studies to be conducted at gas densities of >10{sup 19} particles cm{sup -3} with an initial energy density >5 x 10{sup 9} J g{sup -1}. By laser heating atomic cluster gas media we can launch strong (up to Mach 55) shocks in a range of geometries, with and without radiative precursors. These systems have been probed with a range of optical and interferometric diagnostics in order to retrieve electron density profiles and blast wave trajectories. Colliding cylindrical shock systems have also been studied, however the strongly asymmetric density profiles and radial and longitudinal mass flow that result demand a more complex diagnostic technique based on tomographic phase reconstruction. We have used the 3D magnetoresistive hydrocode GORGON to model these systems and to highlight interesting features such as the formation of a Mach stem for further study.

  19. Effects of dietary inulin, statin, and their co-treatment on hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis and changes in drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugatani Junko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (HF diet develop hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia. There are several reports that a change in nutritional status affects hepatic levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Synthetic inulin is a dietary component that completely evades glucide digestion. Supplementing a HF diet with inulin ameliorates hypertriglycemia and hepatic steatosis, but not hypercholesterolemia. This study aimed at distinguishing the effects of synthetic inulin and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin, which inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. Methods We examined effects of co-treatment with synthetic inulin (5% and fluvastatin (0, 4, and 8 mg/kg, per os on body weight, epidydimal white adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, and hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP mRNA and protein profiles in rats fed a standard diet or a HF diet for 3 weeks. Results Treatment with the synthetic inulin (5% or fluvastatin at 4 mg/kg (lethal dose in rats fed the HF diet, 8 mg/kg ameliorated the elevation in hepatic triacylglycerol and total cholesterol levels in rats fed the HF diet. Whereas co-treatment with the inulin (5% and fluvastatin (4 mg/kg had a tendency to more strongly suppress the elevation in serum levels of very low density lipoprotein triacylglycerol than either treatment alone, no additive or synergistic effect was found in decrease in hepatic lipid levels. Hepatic levels of CYP1A1/2 and CYP2E1 mRNA and protein and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities were reduced in rats fed the HF diet. The synthetic inulin alleviated the reduction in hepatic levels of CYP1A1/2 and CYP2E1 mRNA and protein more strongly than fluvastatin, and no synergistic effects were observed on co-treatment. Furthermore, hepatic levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor mRNA were decreased in rats fed the HF diet and recovered to near normal values with the intake of dietary inulin

  20. High intensive short laser pulse interaction with submicron clusters media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A. Ya

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of short intense laser pulses with structured targets, such as clusters, exhibits unique features, stemming from the enhanced absorption of the incident laser light compared to solid targets. Due to the increased absorption, these targets are heated significantly, leading to enhanced emission of x rays in the keV range and generation of electrons and multiple charged ions with kinetic energies from tens of keV to tens of MeV. Possible applications of these targets can be an electron/ion source for a table top accelerator, a neutron source for a material damage study, or an x ray source for microscopy or lithography. The overview of recent results, obtained by the high intensive short laser pulse interaction with different submicron clusters media will be presented. High resolution K and L shell spectra of plasma generated by superintense laser irradiation of micron sized Ar, Kr and Xe clusters have been measured with intensity 10"17"-10"19"W/cm"2"and a pulse duration of 30-1000fs. It is found that hot electrons produced by high contrast laser pulses allow the isochoric heating of clusters and shift the ion balance toward the higher charge states, which enhances both the X ray line yield and the ion kinetic energy. Irradiation of clusters, produced from such gas mixture, by a fs Ti:Sa laser pulses allows to enhance the soft X ray radiation of Heβ(665.7eV)and Lyα(653.7eV)of Oxygen in 2-8 times compare with the case of using as targets pure CO"2"or N"2"O clusters and reach values 2.8x10"10"(∼3μJ)and 2.7x10"10"(∼2.9μJ)ph/(sr·pulse), respectively. Nanostructure conventional soft X ray images of 100nm thick Mo and Zr foils in a wide field of view (cm"2"scale)with high spatial resolution (700nm)are obtained using the LiF crystals as soft X ray imaging detectors. When the target used for the ion acceleration studies consists of solid density clusters embedded into the background gas, its irradiation by high intensity laser light makes the target

  1. Stable and high order accurate difference methods for the elastic wave equation in discontinuous media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth; Virta, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions

  2. A gestational diet high in fat-soluble vitamins alters expression of genes in brain pathways and reduces sucrose preference, but not food intake, in Wistar male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Pausova, Zdenka; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-04-01

    High intakes of multivitamins (HV) during pregnancy by Wistar rats increase food intake, body weight, and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in male offspring. In this study, high-fat soluble vitamins were fed in combination during gestation to test the hypothesis that they partially account for the effects of the HV diet. Pregnant Wistar rats (14-16/group) were fed a recommended multivitamin diet (1-fold all vitamins) or high-fat soluble vitamin diet (HFS; 10-fold vitamins A, D, E, and K) during pregnancy. Offspring body weight, food intake, and preference as well as expression of selected genes in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were evaluated at birth, weaning, and 14 weeks postweaning. Body weight and food intake were not affected but sucrose preference decreased by 4% in those born to dams fed the HFS gestational diet. Gene expressions of the hypothalamic anorexogenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) and orexogenic neuropeptide Y (Npy) (∼30% p = 0.008, ∼40% p = 0.007) were increased in weaning and adult rats, respectively. Hippocampal dopaminergic genes (35%-50% p vitamins A, D, E, and K does not show the effects of the HV diet on body weight or food intake but may affect the development of higher hedonic regulatory pathways associated with food preference.

  3. Social Media Use, Loneliness, and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study with Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…

  4. Building an Understanding of the Role of Media Literacy for Latino/a High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boske, Christa; McCormack, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Popular media is a social phenomenon, especially for young audiences. This qualitative study examined how eleven Latino/a high school students and a Latino teacher understood the impact of media messages in an animated children's film. Findings suggest participants identified negative cultural messages embedded throughout the film regarding…

  5. Carbon source-sink relationship in Arabidopsis thaliana: the role of sucrose transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Mickaël; Mainson, Dany; Porcheron, Benoît; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi; Pourtau, Nathalie

    2018-03-01

    The regulation of source-to-sink sucrose transport is associated with AtSUC and AtSWEET sucrose transporters' gene expression changes in plants grown hydroponically under different physiological conditions. Source-to-sink transport of sucrose is one of the major determinants of plant growth. Whole-plant carbohydrates' partitioning requires the specific activity of membrane sugar transporters. In Arabidopsis thaliana plants, two families of transporters are involved in sucrose transport: AtSUCs and AtSWEETs. This study is focused on the comparison of sucrose transporter gene expression, soluble sugar and starch levels and long distance sucrose transport, in leaves and sink organs (mainly roots) in different physiological conditions (along the plant life cycle, during a diel cycle, and during an osmotic stress) in plants grown hydroponically. In leaves, the AtSUC2, AtSWEET11, and 12 genes known to be involved in phloem loading were highly expressed when sucrose export was high and reduced during osmotic stress. In roots, AtSUC1 was highly expressed and its expression profile in the different conditions tested suggests that it may play a role in sucrose unloading in roots and in root growth. The SWEET transporter genes AtSWEET12, 13, and 15 were found expressed in all organs at all stages studied, while differential expression was noticed for AtSWEET14 in roots, stems, and siliques and AtSWEET9, 10 expressions were only detected in stems and siliques. A role for these transporters in carbohydrate partitioning in different source-sink status is proposed, with a specific attention on carbon demand in roots. During development, despite trophic competition with others sinks, roots remained a significant sink, but during osmotic stress, the amount of translocated [U- 14 C]-sucrose decreased for rosettes and roots. Altogether, these results suggest that source-sink relationship may be linked with the regulation of sucrose transporter gene expression.

  6. Evidence for the presence of a sucrose carrier in immature sugar-beet roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, R.; Daie, J.; Wyse, R.

    1987-01-01

    Unlike in mature sugar-beet roots, sucrose is assumed to be hydrolyzed by a wall-bound invertase prior to uptake by immature roots. To test this hypothesis, they used a sucrose analog, 1'fluorosucrose which is recognized by the carrier but is a poor substrate for invertases. Asymmetrically labeled sucrose ( 3 H-fructose) 1'fluorosucrose ( 14 C-glucose) were applied at 10 mM ( 3 H/ 14 C=1) to an attached source leaf. After 6 h, sugars from plant parts in the translocation path were separated on HPLC. 14 C-1'fluorosucrose was translocated and accumulated in the root at a higher rate than 3 H-sucrose due to greater metabolism of 3 H-sucrose in the shoot (indicated by the presence of 3 H in hexose fractions and loss of asymmetry). In the root 25% of the 3 H-sucrose was hydrolyzed to hexoses whereas no 14 C was detected in hexose fractions. The data indicate that despite high cell-wall invertase and cytoplasmic sucrose synthase activities, young sugar-beet roots import and store sucrose without hydrolysis. Therefore, the function of a group translocator at the tonoplast is unclear

  7. Isolation, Fractionation, and Identification of Sucrose Esters from Various Oriental Tobaccos Employing Supercritical Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf-Khorassani M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolation, fractionation, and identification of sucrose esters from aged oriental tobacco employing supercritical fluids have been completed. Underivatized sucrose ester-rich extracts were obtained using supercritical CO2 at densities greater than 0.73 g/mL. Lower density CO2 provided extracts with notable amounts of tobacco derived material; yet, no detectable sucrose ester content. Preparative supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC provided for an additional purification of the sucrose ester-enriched fraction after column optimization. Structural assignments of the SFC fractions were facilitated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS accompanied by N, O-bis(trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide-dimethylformamide (BSTFA-DMF derivatization of the free hydroxyl groups and high performance-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS. From a relative quantitative perspective regardless of tobacco type, sucrose esters having an acetyl group on C6 of the glucose function (Group III were in higher concentration compared to both the concentration observed for sucrose ester of Group I (acetyl group on C3 of fructose and sucrose ester of Group II (no acetyl group on either glucose or fructose. Saturated fatty acid constituents were found to range from a maximum total of 18 carbons to a minimum total of 13 carbons. Unsaturated and isomeric fatty acid homologues were detected within the Group II sucrose ester.

  8. Effectiveness of sucrose during the frozen storage of arazá (Eugenia stipitata Mc. Vaugh pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Johanna Silva-Bustos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sucrose on the quality of frozen arazá pulp were investigated. Five levels of sucrose (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30% were evaluated in combination with freezing at low speed, storage during one month, and thawing at two different speeds. Sensory quality and water loss after centrifugation (WLAC were evaluated in the samples. Before freezing sucrose addition (5-30% to the pulp did not affect the sensory quality of the samples, but a negative effect on WLAC at 5-10% sucrose was observed. Furthermore, addition of 20-30% sucrose to arazá pulp, in combination with low speed-freezing, frozen storage, and low-speed-thawing, can be a useful technique to preserve the texture of arazá pulp. The described treatment gave results comparable to those obtained for the fresh pulp and much better than those obtained when freezing was done at high speed

  9. [14C]-Sucrose uptake by guard cell protoplasts of pisum sativum, argenteum mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrig, K.; Raschke, K.

    1991-01-01

    Guard cells rely on import for their supply with reduced carbon. The authors tested by silicone oil centrifugation the ability of guard cell protoplasts to accumulated [ 14 C]-sucrose. Uptake rates were corrected after measurement of 14 C-sorbitol and 3 H 2 O spaces. Sucrose uptake followed biphasic kinetics, with a high-affinity component below 1 mM external sucrose (apparent K m 0.8 mM at 25C) and a low-affinity nonsaturable component above. Uptake depended on pH (optimum at pH 5.0). Variations in the concentrations of external KCl, CCCP, and valinomycin indicated that about one-half of the sucrose uptake rate could be related to an electrochemical gradient across the plasmalemma. Total uptake rates measured at 5 mM external sucrose seem to be sufficient to replenish emptied plastids with starch within a few hours

  10. [Sucrose reward promotes rats' motivation for cocaine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Qing; LE, Qiu-Min; Yu, Xiang-Chen; Ma, Lan; Wang, Fei-Fei

    2016-06-25

    Caloric diet, such as fat and sugar intake, has rewarding effects, and has been indicated to affect the responses to addictive substances in animal experiments. However, the possible association between sucrose reward and the motivation for addictive drugs remains to be elucidated. Thus, we carried out behavioral tests after sucrose self-administration training to determine the effects of sucrose experience on rats' motivation for cocaine, locomotor sensitivity to cocaine, basal locomotor activity, anxiety level, and associative learning ability. The sucrose-experienced (sucrose) group exhibited higher lever press, cocaine infusion and break point, as well as upshift of cocaine dose-response curve in cocaine self-administration test, as compared with the control (chow) group. Additionally, despite similar locomotor activity in open field test and comparable score in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, the sucrose group showed higher cocaine-induced locomotor sensitivity as compared with the chow group. The anxiety level and the performance in vocal-cue induced fear memory were similar between these two groups in elevated plus maze and fear conditioning tests, respectively. Taken together, our work indicates that sucrose experience promotes the rats' motivation for cocaine.

  11. The catalytic effect of honey on formation of reducing sugars during sucrose hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Mirjana N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In commercial apiculture, beekepers usually remove honey from hives and replenish food reserves with sugar syrup. When honeybees use sugar syrup (sucrose solution, they break down sucrose into glucose and fructose. These processes exhaust and weaken bees. In order to prevent bee exhaustion resulting from this processing, bees should preferably be supplied with ready made food before winter, i.e., with syrup in which sucrose has already been inverted. Feeding with inverted syrups is the most popular way of honeybee feeding. Beekeepers usually prepare inverted syrups by adding a weak organic acid (citric, oxalic, acetic or lactic acid to sucrose solution at elevated temperatures. Inverted syrup production under uncontrolled pH, temperature and time conditions can cause the formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF, a compound harmful to bees. High quality inverted syrup can be obtained through the hydrolytic decomposition of sucrose by the enzyme invertase. Due to its invertase content, honey can be used as a biocatalyst for sucrose inversion. Invertase activity depends on the type, method and time of honey storage. This study evaluates the catalytic effect of acacia honey on formation of reducing sugars during hydrolysis of 50 wt.% sucrose solution. The ratio of reducing sugars and sucrose at 40°C, after 5 days of hydrolysis at a concentration of honey and 10 wt.% was 0.30 g reducing sugars/g of sucrose. The highest content of reducing sugars was achieved at a temperature of 35°C, after 48 h of invertion. In all samples of hydrolysates obtained at different temperatures (35–65°C, HMF was detected at concentrations of less than 4.32 mg kg–1. A high degree of negative correlation (coefficient of linearity –0.94 was established between parameters of volumetric and polarimetric measurements during the hydrolysis of sucrose. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 46010

  12. Food combination based on a pre-hispanic Mexican diet decreases metabolic and cognitive abnormalities and gut microbiota dysbiosis caused by a sucrose-enriched high-fat diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Nava, Azalia; Noriega, Lilia G; Tovar, Armando R; Granados, Omar; Perez-Cruz, Claudia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Torres, Nimbe

    2017-01-01

    There is few information about the possible health effects of a food combination based on a pre-hispanic Mexican diet (PMD). This diet rich in fiber, polyphenols, a healthy ratio of omega 6/omega 3 fatty acids, and vegetable protein could improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, gut microbiota and cognitive function. We examined the effect of a PMD in a sucrose enriched high-fat model. The PMD contains corn, beans, tomato, nopal, chia and pumpkin seeds in dehydrated form. Following induction of obesity, rats were fed PMD. PMD consumption decreased glucose intolerance, body weight gain, serum and liver triglycerides and leptin. In addition, PMD decreased the size of the adipocytes, and increased the protein abundance of UCP-1, PPAR-α, PGC1-α and Tbx-1 in white adipose tissue. Finally, the PMD significant decreased hepatic levels of ROS, oxidized proteins and GSSG/GSH ratio and an increase in the relative abundance of Bifidobacteria and the improvement of cognitive function. Consumption of a PMD decreased the glucose intolerance and the biochemical abnormalities caused by the obesity by increasing the abundance of proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation, decreasing the oxidative stress and modifying the gut microbiota. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Diurnal fluctuations in cotton leaf carbon export, carbohydrate content, and sucrose synthesizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, D L; Huber, S C

    1986-06-01

    In fully expanded leaves of greenhouse-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., cv Coker 100) plants, carbon export, starch accumulation rate, and carbon exchange rate exhibited different behavior during the light period. Starch accumulation rates were relatively constant during the light period, whereas carbon export rate was greater in the afternoon than in the morning even though the carbon exchange rate peaked about noon. Sucrose levels increased throughout the light period and dropped sharply with the onset of darkness; hexose levels were relatively constant except for a slight peak in the early morning. Sucrose synthase, usually thought to be a degradative enzyme, was found in unusually high activities in cotton leaf. Both sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthetase activities were found to fluctuate diurnally in cotton leaves but with different rhythms. Diurnal fluctuations in the rate of sucrose export were generally aligned with sucrose phosphate synthase activity during the light period but not with sucrose synthase activity; neither enzyme activity correlated with carbon export during the dark. Cotton leaf sucrose phosphate synthase activity was sufficient to account for the observed carbon export rates; there is no need to invoke sucrose synthase as a synthetic enzyme in mature cotton leaves. During the dark a significant correlation was found between starch degradation rate and leaf carbon export. These results indicate that carbon partitioning in cotton leaf is somewhat independent of the carbon exchange rate and that leaf carbon export rate may be linked to sucrose formation and content during the light period and to starch breakdown in the dark.

  14. Sucrose transporters in two members of the Scrophulariaceae with different types of transport sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, C; Voitsekhovskaja, O; Lohaus, G

    2001-05-01

    In order to study differences between sugar transport in oligosaccharide-translocating and sucrose-translocating species, two members of the Scrophulariaceae, Asarina barclaiana Pennell and Alonsoa meridionalis O. Kuntze, were analysed regarding minor-vein anatomy, sugar concentrations in leaves and phloem sap, and expression of sucrose transporters. The minor veins of Asarina barclaiana possess mainly transfer cells and modified intermediary cells and those of Alonsoa meridionalis have intermediary cells and ordinary companion cells. Phloem sap from these plants was collected by the laser-aphid-stylet technique. The main carbon transport forms in Asarina were sucrose and in Alonsoa raffinose and stachyose. The sum of the carbohydrate concentrations in the phloem sap of both species was as high as that in apoplastic phloem loaders. In Asarina the ratio of the sucrose concentration in the phloem to that in the cytosol of source cells was about 35 and the corresponding ratio in Alonsoa was about two. Sucrose transporter cDNAs were isolated from leaves of both species. By means of semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sucrose transporter mRNA was detected in different organs and also in the phloem sap. This is the first time that sucrose transporters have been found in oligosaccharide-translocating species and that the mRNA of these sucrose transporters has been localized directly in the phloem sap. Taken together, our observations indicate that Asarina is an apoplastic phloem loader, while the results for Alonsoa are ambiguous: some properties are typical of the symplastic phloem-loading mechanism, but probably a sucrose transporter is involved in loading and/or retrieval of sucrose into the phloem.

  15. An Investigation of the Complexity of Maillard Reaction Product Profiles from the Thermal Reaction of Amino Acids with Sucrose Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Golon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment of food changes its chemical composition drastically with the formation of “so-called” Maillard reaction products, being responsible for the sensory properties of food, along with detrimental and beneficial health effects. In this contribution, we will describe the reactivity of several amino acids, including arginine, lysine, aspartic acid, tyrosine, serine and cysteine, with carbohydrates. The analytical strategy employed involves high and ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry followed by chemometric-type data analysis. The different reactivity of amino acids towards carbohydrates has been observed with cysteine and serine, resulting in complex MS spectra with thousands of detectable reaction products. Several compounds have been tentatively identified, including caramelization reaction products, adducts of amino acids with carbohydrates, their dehydration and hydration products, disproportionation products and aromatic compounds based on molecular formula considerations.

  16. The Use of Geometry Learning Media Based on Augmented Reality for Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohendi, D.; Septian, S.; Sutarno, H.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the geometry especially of three-dimensional space is still considered difficult by some students. Therefore, a learning innovation is required to overcome students’ difficulties in learning geometry. In this research, we developed geometry learning media based on augmented reality in android flatform’s then it was implemented in teaching three-dimensional objects for some junior high school students to find out: how is the students response in using this new media in geometry and is this media can solve the student’s difficulties in understanding geometry concept. The results showed that the use of geometry learning media based on augmented reality in android flatform is able to get positive responses from the students in learning geometry concepts especially three-dimensional objects and students more easy to understand concept of diagonal in geometry than before using this media.

  17. Gain media edge treatment to suppress amplified spontaneous emission in a high power laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Soules, Thomas F.; Fochs, Scott N.; Rotter, Mark D.; Letts, Stephan A.

    2008-12-09

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. By roughening one or more peripheral edges of a solid-state crystal or ceramic laser gain media and by bonding such edges using a substantially high index bonding elastomer or epoxy to a predetermined electromagnetic absorbing arranged adjacent to the entire outer surface of the peripheral edges of the roughened laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

  18. Structural development of sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Marianna Rousseva; Terzieva, Vesselina Velichkova; Panchev, Ivan Nedelchev

    2003-06-01

    The influence of sucrose, wheat starch and sorbitol upon the heat- and mass-exchanging processes forming the structure of sponge cake was studied. Under the influence of wheat starch and sorbitol the structure of the sucrose-free sponge cake was formed at more uniform total moisture release. This process was done at lower temperatures and smoother change of the sponge cake height with respect to the sucrose-sweetened sponge cake. The porous and steady structure of both cakes was finally formed at identical time--between 18th and 19th minute, at the applied conditions for baking of each batter (metal pan with diameter 15.4 cm and depth 6.2 cm containing 300 g of batter and placed in an electric oven "Rahovetz-02", Bulgaria for 30 min at 180 degrees C). The water-losses at the end of baking (10.30% and 10.40% for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) and the final temperatures reached in the crumb central layers (96.6 degrees C and 96.3 degrees C for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) during baking of both samples were not statistically different. The addition of wheat starch and sorbitol in sucrose-free sponge cake lead to the statistically different values for the porosity (76.15% and 72.98%) and the volume (1014.17 cm3 and 984.25 cm3) of the sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes, respectively. As a result, the sucrose-free sponge cake formed during baking had a more homogeneous and finer microstructure with respect to that ofthe sucrose-sweetened one.

  19. Sucrose, Its Proprieties and the New Sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Monique Manhani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to review the literature on sucrose, commonly known as table sugar; to report as it appeared in Brazil and in the world; to discuss the differences between crystal and refined sucrose; to show the harmful effects of overconsumption; and to list their main sweeteners. Sucrose appeared over 7000 years ago and since then it has actively participated in the creation of new forms of food consumption, in the development of societies and in the social and political relations. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the body and considering that they are present in different foods, their consumption in excess can cause diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The amount of processed products with sucrose in its composition is uncountable and overconsumption has caused concern in the medical field. The manufacture of sugar is a process that involves a series of operations to obtain the final product. There are several kinds of sucrose that are available according to its use (domestic and industrial. The sweeteners can be used to sweeten, and may replace sucrose. Some of these compounds are known as intense sweeteners, being used in very small quantities, are indicated to people who have a disorder in the metabolism of sugars (diabetics or consumers who are in search of products of low calorific value.

  20. High resolution computed tomography of chronic otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahata, Yuichi; Tachibana, Toshiro; Fukami, Masaya; Onishi, Toshiro; Doi, Osamu

    1986-01-01

    Seventy six patients with chronic otitis media were examined by CT. Using 3 dried skulls, the epitympanum was impacted with a piece of paraffin containing of 2 % iodine, and studied with CT-scan (Toshiba 60A-30) to clarify whether or not the paraffin could produce a soft tissue density on CT which was similar to that of cholesteatoma in the middle ear. The results showed that computed tomography was excellent in demonstrating a soft tissue mass in the middle ear with inflammatory disease. When the middle ear infection with granulation tissue or cholesteatoma existed, the resulting soft tissue mass was indistinguishable. CT scanning was useful for accurate determination of location of bone destruction in the middle ear as well as of the ossicles. (author)

  1. Neutron transport simulation in high speed moving media using Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G.; Ciungu, B.; Harrisson, G.; Rogge, R. B.; Tun, Z.; van der Ende, B. M.; Zwiers, I.

    2017-12-01

    A method using Geant4 to simulate neutron transport in moving media is described. The method is implanted in the source code of the software since Geant4 does not intrinsically support a moving object. The simulation utilizes the existing physical model and data library in Geant4, combined with frame transformations to account for the effect of relative velocity between neutrons and the moving media. An example is presented involving a high speed rotating cylinder to verify this method and show the effect of moving media on neutron transport.

  2. Sucrose metabolic pathways in sweetgum and pecan seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.S. Sung; P.P. Kormanik; D.P. Xu; C.C. Black

    1989-01-01

    Sucrose metabolism and glycolysis were studied in one- to two-year-old seedlings of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch). The sucrose synthase pathway was identified as the dominant sucrose metabolic activity in sucrose sink tissues such as terminal buds and the root cambial...

  3. High speed color imaging through scattering media with a large field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Huichang; He, Hexiang; Xie, Xiangsheng; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-09-01

    Optical imaging through complex media has many important applications. Although research progresses have been made to recover optical image through various turbid media, the widespread application of the technology is hampered by the recovery speed, requirement on specific illumination, poor image quality and limited field of view. Here we demonstrate that above-mentioned drawbacks can be essentially overcome. The realization of high speed color imaging through turbid media is successfully carried out by taking into account the media memory effect, the point spread function, the exit pupil of the optical system, and the optimized signal to noise ratio. By retrieving selected speckles with enlarged field of view, high quality image is recovered with a responding speed only determined by the frame rates of the image capturing devices. The immediate application of the technique is expected to register static and dynamic imaging under human skin to recover information with a wearable device.

  4. Multiscale modeling of high contrast brinkman equations with applications to deformable porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald

    2013-06-18

    Simulating porous media flows has a wide range of applications. Often, these applications involve many scales and multi-physical processes. A useful tool in the analysis of such problems in that of homogenization as an averaged description is derived circumventing the need for complicated simulation of the fine scale features. In this work, we recall recent developments of homogenization techniques in the application of flows in deformable porous media. In addition, homogenization of media with high-contrast. In particular, we recall the main ideas of the homogenization of slowly varying Stokes flow and summarize the results of [4]. We also present the ideas for extending these techniques to high-contrast deformable media [3]. These ideas are connected by the modeling of multiscale fluid-structure interaction problems. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  5. Feasibility study of sucrose and fat replacement using inulin and rebaudioside A in cake formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoobi, Mahsa; Mohammadi, Mahshid; Mesbahi, Gholamreza; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2018-02-20

    Cake is a popular food around the world, however, it is considered as unhealthy due to its high fat and sucrose content. To satisfy customers' demand for a low fat and sucrose cake, in this research both sucrose and fat content of the cake were reduced by using rebaudioside A (Reb A; as a natural sucrose replacer) and inulin (as a natural fat replacer) at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. The water content of different formulation was adjusted to obtain a constant batter viscosity similar to the control (3,757 cP). By reducing sucrose and fat content up to 50%, water activity increased and the cakes became more asymmetrical. However, other physical properties including baking weight loss, height, volume, crust color, and texture were similar to those of the control. Higher levels of replacement (75% and 100%) resulted in remarkable loss of different quality attributes. These samples showed higher water activity and baking loss, lower volume, harder texture, darker color, and highly asymmetrical shape. Thus, successful reduction of both fat and sucrose in cakes is possible by using inulin and Reb A at replacement levels no more than 50%. Customers' demand for healthy and yet tasty and high-quality foods is increasing around the world. Therefore, finding applicable and safe methods to produce such products is of great interest in the food manufacturing to satisfy customers. Health conscious customers avoid consumption of cakes because it contains high sucrose and fat content. Many studies have been performed to reduce either fat or sucrose content, while a few studies are available to show the reduction of both fat and sucrose in the same product. This study indicates the results of an applicable method to reduce fat and sucrose content of cakes simultaneously. Using rebaudioside A (as a natural sucrose replacer) and inulin (as a natural fat replacer) up to 50% of sucrose and fat content of cakes were reduced and the resulting cake had very similar physical properties to

  6. Effect of sucrose concentration and gamma irradiation on growth and essential oil composition of spearmint plant through tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharnouby, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    In vitro culture of spearmint plant (Mentha spicata L) using different sucrose concentrations and different gamma irradiation treatments was investigated. The shoot tips of spearmint plant were cultured on MS medium without hormones and supplemented with different concentrations of sucrose (10, 20, 30 and 40 g/l) then exposed to different gamma irradiation treatments (2,4,6 and 8 Krad) to determine their effects on growth and chemical composition in different sub-culturing media . The data showed that culturing shoots of Mentha spicata on MS medium containing 10 g/l sucrose produced the highest values of callus than other treatments and the maximum number of shoots was produced on MS medium supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose. Irradiation of spearmint shoots at 8 Krad when cultured on MS medium containing 30 or 40 g/l sucrose caused minimum number of shoots, whereas the longest shoots were produced with MS medium containing 20 g/l sucrose after irradiation at 60 Gy gamma dose. Treating shoots of Mentha spicata by gamma irradiation at 8 Krad and culturing on MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose produced all sub-cultures in shortest length of shoots. Moreover, adding 40 g/l of sucrose in MS medium gave the highest number of leaves than other treatments. Exposing shoots of spearmint plant to gamma irradiation at 8 Krad decreased the number of leaves when culturing on MS medium containing 10 or 30 g/l sucrose. Furthermore, the selected samples showed many differences on spearmint oil composition and proline content regarding sucrose levels and gamma irradiation doses

  7. Judicial Perceptions of Media Portrayals of Offenders with High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Berryessa, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, sensational media reporting focusing on crimes committed by those diagnosed with or thought to have High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders (hfASDs) has caused societal speculation that there is a link between the disorder and violent criminality. No research exists on how and if the judiciary understands and is affected by this coverage. Therefore this study aims to examine how judges perceive and are influenced by media attention surrounding hfASDs and criminality. Sem...

  8. Family history of alcoholism and the human brain response to oral sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiler, William J A; Dzemidzic, Mario; Soeurt, Christina M; Carron, Claire R; Oberlin, Brandon G; Considine, Robert V; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Kareken, David A

    2018-01-01

    A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP) or negative (FHN) for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men) rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during oral delivery of water, 0.83 M, and 0.10 M sucrose. Sucrose compared to water produced robust activation in primary gustatory cortex, ventral insula, amygdala, and ventral striatum. FHP subjects displayed greater bilateral amygdala activation than FHN subjects in the low sucrose concentration (0.10 M). In secondary analyses, the right amygdala response to the 0.10 M sucrose was greatest in FHP women. When accounting for group differences in drinks per week, the family history groups remained significantly different in their right amygdala response to 0.10 M sucrose. Our findings suggest that the brain response to oral sucrose differs with a family history of alcoholism, and that this response to a mildly reinforcing primary reward might be an endophenotypic marker of alcoholism risk.

  9. Family history of alcoholism and the human brain response to oral sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.A. Eiler, II

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP or negative (FHN for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during oral delivery of water, 0.83 M, and 0.10 M sucrose. Sucrose compared to water produced robust activation in primary gustatory cortex, ventral insula, amygdala, and ventral striatum. FHP subjects displayed greater bilateral amygdala activation than FHN subjects in the low sucrose concentration (0.10 M. In secondary analyses, the right amygdala response to the 0.10 M sucrose was greatest in FHP women. When accounting for group differences in drinks per week, the family history groups remained significantly different in their right amygdala response to 0.10 M sucrose. Our findings suggest that the brain response to oral sucrose differs with a family history of alcoholism, and that this response to a mildly reinforcing primary reward might be an endophenotypic marker of alcoholism risk.

  10. Violent Media, Guns and Moral Panics: The Columbine High School Massacre, 20 April 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springhall, John

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to place the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in a historical perspective. Describes the shootings in Littleton and the high school shootings since 1996. Interprets the possible reasons for the Columbine shootings, such as the role of the high school, access to guns, and violence in the mass media. (CMK)

  11. Structural analyses of sucrose laurate regioisomers by mass spectrometry techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Aleksander; Stensballe, Allan; Pedersen, Lars Haastrup

    2015-01-01

    6- And 6′-O-lauroyl sucrose were isolated and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), Orbitrap high-resolution (HR) MS, and electrospray-ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The analyses aimed to explore the physic......6- And 6′-O-lauroyl sucrose were isolated and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), Orbitrap high-resolution (HR) MS, and electrospray-ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The analyses aimed to explore.......8, respectively, and Orbitrap HRMS confirmed the mass of [M+Na]+ (m/z 547.2712). ESI-MS/MS on the precursor ion [M+Na]+ resulted in product ion mass spectra showing two high-intensity signals for each sample. 6-O-Lauroyl sucrose produced signals located at m/z 547.27 and m/z 385.21, corresponding to the 6-O...

  12. Structural rearrangements of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis during sucrose conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Osman; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Sprogøe, Desiree

    2006-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BiSP) was studied by site-directed mutagenesis and x-ray crystallography. An inactive mutant of BiSP (E232Q) was co-crystallized with sucrose. The structure revealed a substrate-binding mode comparable with that se...

  13. Sucrose-Metabolizing Enzymes in Transport Tissues and Adjacent Sink Structures in Developing Citrus Fruit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Cadance A.; Tomlinson, Patricia T.; Koch, Karen E.

    1989-01-01

    Juice tissues of citrus lack phloem; therefore, photosynthates enroute to juice sacs exit the vascular system on the surface of each segment. Areas of extensive phloem unloading and transport (vascular bundles + segment epidermis) can thus be separated from those of assimilate storage (juice sacs) and adjacent tissues where both processes occur (peel). Sugar composition, dry weight accumulation, and activities of four sucrose-metabolizing enzymes (soluble and cell-wall-bound acid invertase, alkaline invertase, sucrose synthase, and sucrose phosphate synthase) were measured in these transport and sink tissues of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) to determine more clearly whether a given enzyme appeared to be more directly associated with assimilate transport versus deposition or utilization. Results were compared at three developmental stages. Activity of sucrose (per gram fresh weight and per milligram protein) extracted from zones of extensive phloem unloading and transport was significantly greater than from adjacent sink tissues during the stages (II and III) when juice sacs grow most rapidly. In stage II fruit, activity of sucrose synthase also significantly surpassed that of all other sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in extracts from the transport tissues (vascular bundles + segment epidermis). In contrast, sucrose phosphate synthase and alkaline invertase at this stage of growth were the most active enzymes from adjacent, rapidly growing, phloem-free sink tissues (juice sacs). Activity of these two enzymes in extracts from juice sacs was significantly greater than that form the transport tissues (vascular bundles + segment epidermis). Soluble acid invertase was the most active enzyme in extracts from all tissues of very young fruit (stage I), including nonvascular regions, but nearly disappeared prior to the onset of juice sac sugar accumulation. The physiological function of high sucrose synthase activity in the transport tissues during rapid sucrose import

  14. A Precision Microbiome Approach Using Sucrose for Selective Augmentation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Fermentation against Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis, but not P. acnes. A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes. The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes, mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS. The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2 and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis, holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne.

  15. Improvements in gastric diagnosis by using high density contrast media with low viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toischer, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    In a retrospective clinical study, 150 unselected double contrast examinations of the stomach using conventional contrast media (100 g/100 ml barium sulphate) were compared with a similar number of examinations using a high density contrast medium of flow viscosity (250 g/100 ml barium sulphate). The high density contrast medium was distinctly better for demonstrating detail of the gastric mucosa. The uneveness of coating and instability of the older high density contrast media was observed in 15.5% of cases and, in no instance, did this make it impossible to reach a diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  16. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root architecture and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee-Ho, E.; Walton, L.J.; Reid, D.M.; Yeung, E.C.; Kurepin, L.V.

    2007-01-01

    Plant root growth is known to be influenced by higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Roots of some species grown in hydroponics under elevated CO 2 concentrations may be more competitive sinks for photosynthetic assimilates than roots grown under lower CO 2 conditions. Root branching patterns may also be influenced by elevated CO 2 concentrations. Studies have also shown that factors such as soil compaction, salinity and the availability of nitrate, phosphorous, oxygen and water also influence root growth, and the effects of higher CO 2 on roots can be confounded by such environmental factors. This study evaluated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root growth, morphology, and architecture. Both ambient and elevated CO 2 levels were used along with various sucrose concentrations. The study revealed that A. thaliana plants grown on a phytagar medium in small chambers with elevated CO 2 had longer roots, more lateral root growth than plants grown in ambient CO 2 . Roots in elevated CO 2 were found to have wider root diameters, and more secondary growth. The addition of sucrose to the media closely resembled the effects of elevated CO 2 . In addition, the increase in sucrose concentration had a bigger effect on root morphology under ambient, than elevated CO 2 . Therefore, both elevated CO 2 and increased sucrose concentrations promote root growth by increasing their number, length, and diameter. The dichotomy branching index (DBI) also dropped resulting in a more dichotomous branching pattern. 34 refs., 5 figs

  17. Screening of hydrogen storage media applying high pressure thermogravimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J.J.; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, J.

    2001-01-01

    A number of commercially available hydride-forming alloys of the MmNi5–xSnx (Mm=mischmetal, a mixture of lanthanides) type were examined using a high pressure, high temperature microbalance,scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Activation conditions, reversible storage capacity...

  18. Sucrose synthase: A unique glycosyltransferase for biocatalytic glycosylation process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmölzer, Katharina; Gutmann, Alexander; Diricks, Margo; Desmet, Tom; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) is a glycosyltransferase (GT) long known from plants and more recently discovered in bacteria. The enzyme catalyzes the reversible transfer of a glucosyl moiety between fructose and a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) (sucrose+NDP↔NDP-glucose+fructose). The equilibrium for sucrose conversion is pH dependent, and pH values between 5.5 and 7.5 promote NDP-glucose formation. The conversion of a bulk chemical to high-priced NDP-glucose in a one-step reaction provides the key aspect for industrial interest. NDP-sugars are important as such and as key intermediates for glycosylation reactions by highly selective Leloir GTs. SuSy has gained renewed interest as industrially attractive biocatalyst, due to substantial scientific progresses achieved in the last few years. These include biochemical characterization of bacterial SuSys, overproduction of recombinant SuSys, structural information useful for design of tailor-made catalysts, and development of one-pot SuSy-GT cascade reactions for production of several relevant glycosides. These advances could pave the way for the application of Leloir GTs to be used in cost-effective processes. This review provides a framework for application requirements, focusing on catalytic properties, heterologous enzyme production and reaction engineering. The potential of SuSy biocatalysis will be presented based on various biotechnological applications: NDP-sugar synthesis; sucrose analog synthesis; glycoside synthesis by SuSy-GT cascade reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Social Media Usage and Academic Performance in Public and Private Senior High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingle, Jeffrey; Adams, Musah; Adjei, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The study comparatively analyzed social media usage and academic performance in public and private senior high schools. The issue of social media and academic performance has been a very debatable topic with regard to its effect. This study further explores the relation between private and public schools in relation to social media use and…

  20. Mass Media Strategies Targeting High Sensation Seekers: What Works and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine strategies for using the mass media effectively in drug prevention campaigns targeting high sensation seekers. Methods: Both experimental lab and field studies were used to develop a comprehensive audience segmentation strategy targeting high sensation seekers. Results: A 4-pronged targeting strategy employed in an…

  1. High ethanol yields using Aspergillus oryzae koji and corn media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziffer, J.; Iosif, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    High ethanol and stillage solids were achieved using whole corn mashes. Ethanol yields of 14% (98.5% of theory) and stillage levels of approximately 23% were obtained in 74-90 hours using mild acid pretreatment with A. oryzae wheat bran koji saccharification. High ethanol yields were also obtained with bacterial amylase, instead of the acid treatment, when the sterilization step was omitted. The implications of ethanol fermentation process modifications are explored.

  2. Stable and high order accurate difference methods for the elastic wave equation in discontinuous media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, we develop a stable and systematic procedure for numerical treatment of elastic waves in discontinuous and layered media. We consider both planar and curved interfaces where media parameters are allowed to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions at layer interfaces are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving lower bounds of the penalty strength and constructing discrete energy estimates we prove time stability. We present numerical experiments in two space dimensions to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method for simulations involving typical interface phenomena in elastic materials. The numerical experiments verify high order accuracy and time stability.

  3. Judicial Perceptions of Media Portrayals of Offenders with High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryessa, Colleen M

    In recent years, sensational media reporting focusing on crimes committed by those diagnosed with or thought to have High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders (hfASDs) has caused societal speculation that there is a link between the disorder and violent criminality. No research exists on how and if the judiciary understands and is affected by this coverage. Therefore this study aims to examine how judges perceive and are influenced by media attention surrounding hfASDs and criminality. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 California Superior Court Judges, including questions on media portrayal. Judges perceived general media portrayals of hfASDs in both positive and negative ways. However, almost all judges who had experienced media coverage surrounding hfASDs and criminality identified it as misleading and harmful to public perceptions of the disorder. These findings suggest judges are not exempt from media attention surrounding violence and hfASDs, and they recognize the potential adverse effects of this negative coverage. Although judges' report their opinions are not affected, the results demonstrate that judges are worried that the public and potentially other criminal justice actors are adversely affected and will continue to be moving forward.

  4. Daily Access to Sucrose Impairs Aspects of Spatial Memory Tasks Reliant on Pattern Separation and Neural Proliferation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C.; Morris, Margaret J.; Westbrook, Reginald Frederick

    2016-01-01

    High sugar diets reduce hippocampal neurogenesis, which is required for minimizing interference between memories, a process that involves "pattern separation." We provided rats with 2 h daily access to a sucrose solution for 28 d and assessed their performance on a spatial memory task. Sucrose consuming rats discriminated between objects…

  5. MediaCommons for cultural heritage: Applied mixed media visualization storytelling for high resolution collaborative cyberarchaeological displays

    KAUST Repository

    Mangan, John

    2013-10-01

    Archaeology is a discipline that studies time through an understanding of space and objects in that space; archaeology is ultimately, therefore, an intersection where the visualization of space and the visualization of time meet. Archaeology has long utilized visualization as a technique to analyze and disseminate information; however, comprehensive and collaborative analysis and storytelling with this visual data has always been limited by the capacity of the systems, which create and display it. To present the most complete narrative of the past, one must seek the \\'big picture\\' by assembling the disparate pieces of data, which reflect the lives of the humans we study. This paper presents a framework for the visualization of and interaction with rich data collections in high resolution, networked, tiled-display environments, called the MediaCommons Framework. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. High pressure studies of fluorenone emission in plastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.J.; Schuster, G.B.; Drickamer, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The energy and the quantum efficiency for fluorenone fluorescence in the crystalline state and in polymeric matrices was measured as a function of external pressure over the range 0--140 kbar. The application of high pressure induces changes in the quantum yield, which ranges from 0.001 at low pressure to a maximum of approx.0.1 at high pressure in hydrocarbon plastics. These results are interpreted as arising from the decrease in the energy of the lowest ππ excited singlet state relative to other relevant states as the external pressure is increased

  7. Starch and sucrose synthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris as affected by light, CO2, and abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkey, T.D.; Berry, J.A.; Raschke, K.

    1985-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. leaves were subjected to various light, CO 2 , and O 2 levels and abscisic acid, then given a 10 minute pulse of 14 CO 2 followed by a 5 minute chase with unlabeled CO 2 . After the chase period, very little label remained in the ionic fractions except at low CO 2 partial pressure. Most label was found in the neutral, alcohol soluble fraction or in the insoluble fraction digestable by amyloglucosidase. Sucrose formation was linearly related to assimilation rate. Starch formation increased linearly with assimilation rate, but did not occur if the assimilation rate was below 4 micromoles per square meter per second. Neither abscisic acid, nor high CO 2 in combination with low O 2 caused significant perturbations of the sucrose/starch formation ratio. These studies indicate that the pathways for starch and sucrose synthesis both are controlled by the rate of net CO 2 assimilation, with sucrose the preferred product at very low assimilation rates

  8. High and low osmolar contrast media: Who pays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethlin, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    To possibly avoid a case of contrast medium-related death in Norway every second or third year will mean a cost of many millions of dollars. It is not feasible without many patients being deprived of diagnostic possibilities. The solution is at present to use LOCM in high risk patients and small children until sufficient data (large, controlled series) can give a reliable answer to if or when LOCM should be used. (orig.)

  9. Are media still the message? A comparative study of high and low involvement brands in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Neda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the importance of media choice for branding of high and low involvement products. Given the magnitude of branding today and the complexity of the media environment, the lack of modern studies comparing different media from the consumers' perspective especially in different cultural settings, is both profound and surprising. Studies of Larkin (1978 and Stephens (1981 are not only outdated but also US-specific. Furthermore, although McLuhan (2002 has famously claimed that the medium is the message, there is no contemporary marketing study examining this claim in relation to major branding elements such as brand awareness perceived quality, brand attitude, and brand image. The study's major contribution is that it attempts to fill in this research gap by investigating if and how consumers differentiate brands, with respect to the media that they appear in. A comparison between low and high involvement brands was considered apparent for a more comprehensive research approach. This study is a deductive and a quantitative one. Sample consisted of 160 respondents in Serbia, ranging from 18 to 59 years old, and the data collection method was a self-administered e-mail questionnaire. Major findings suggest that different media indeed affect various aspects of branding, with magazines favoring most of brand image characteristics, and television favoring brand awareness. However, analysis also indicated a clustering of television, magazine, and outdoor as media with similar scores in almost every aspect. This clustering has the potential to affect both branding and media planning decisions. Internet is found to be a promising medium for the future in Serbia but not so much for the present.

  10. Modeled effects on permittivity measurements of water content in high surface area porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.B.; Or, Dani

    2003-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) has become an important measurement technique for determination of porous media water content and electrical conductivity due to its accuracy, fast response and automation capability. Water content is inferred from the measured bulk dielectric constant based on travel time analysis along simple transmission lines. TDR measurements in low surface area porous media accurately describe water content using an empirical relationship. Measurement discrepancies arise from dominating influences such as bound water due to high surface area, extreme aspect ratio particles or atypical water phase configuration. Our objectives were to highlight primary factors affecting dielectric permittivity measurements for water content determination in porous mixtures, and demonstrate the influence of these factors on mixture permittivity as predicted by a three-phase dielectric mixture model. Modeled results considering water binding, higher porosity, constituent geometry or phase configuration suggest any of these effects individually are capable of causing permittivity reduction, though all likely contribute in high surface area porous media

  11. Investigation of melt agglomeration process with a hydrophobic binder in combination with sucrose stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Wong, Tin Wui; Cheong, Wai See

    2003-08-01

    The melt agglomeration process of lactose powder with hydrogenated cottonseed oil (HCO) as the hydrophobic meltable binder was investigated by studying the physicochemical properties of molten HCO modified by sucrose stearates S170, S770 and S1570. The size, size distribution, micromeritic and adhesion properties of agglomerates as well as surface tension, contact angle, viscosity and specific volume of molten HCO, with and without sucrose stearates, were examined. The viscosity, specific volume and surface tension of molten HCO were found to be modified to varying extents by sucrose stearates which are available in different HLB values and melt properties. The growth of melt agglomerates was promoted predominantly by an increase in viscosity, an increase in specific volume or a decrease in surface tension of the molten binding liquid. The agglomerate growth propensity was higher with an increase in inter-particulate binding strength, agglomerate surface wetness and extent of agglomerate consolidation which enhanced the liquid migration from agglomerate core to periphery leading to an increased surface plasticity for coalescence. The inclusion of high concentrations of completely meltable sucrose stearate S170 greatly induced the growth of agglomerates through increased specific volume and viscosity of the molten binding liquid. On the other hand, the inclusion of incompletely meltable sucrose stearates S770 and S1570 promoted the agglomeration mainly via the reduction in surface tension of the molten binding liquid with declining agglomerate growth propensity at high sucrose stearate concentrations. In addition to being an agglomeration modifier, sucrose stearate demonstrated anti-adherent property in melt agglomeration process. The properties of molten HCO and melt agglomerates were dependent on the type and concentration of sucrose stearate added.

  12. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristianne R M Frazier

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  13. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Cristianne R M; Mason, Peggy; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Beeler, Jeff A

    2008-09-17

    The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  14. Sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) in soybean seeds as influenced by genotype and growing location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita; Goyal, Lokesh; Dixit, Amit Kumar; Manjaya, J G; Dev, Jai; Swamy, M

    2010-04-28

    Sucrose content in soybean seeds is desired to be high because as a sweetness-imparting component, it helps in wider acceptance of soy-derived food products. Conversely, galactosyl derivatives of sucrose, that is, raffinose and stachyose, which are flatulence-inducing components, need to be in low concentration in soybean seeds not only for augmenting utilization of the crop in food uses but also for delivering soy meal with improved metabolizable energy for monogastric animals. In the present study, analysis of 148 soybean genotypes for sucrose and total raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) contents revealed a higher variation (4.80-fold) for sucrose than for RFOs content (2.63-fold). High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed ranges of 0.64-2.53 and 2.09-7.1 mmol/100 g for raffinose and stachyose contents, respectively. As information concerning the environmental effects on the sucrose and RFOs content in soybean seeds is not available, we also investigated a set of seven genotypes raised at widely different geographical locations for these quality traits. Sucrose content was found to be significantly higher at cooler location (Palampur); however, differences observed for raffinose and stachyose contents across the growing locations were genotype-dependent. The results suggest that soybean genotypes grown at cooler locations may be better suited for processing soy food products with improved taste and flavor.

  15. Scallop protein with endogenous high taurine and glycine content prevents high-fat, high-sucrose-induced obesity and improves plasma lipid profile in male C57BL/6J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Keenan, Alison H.; Madsen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    High-protein diets induce alterations in metabolism that may prevent diet-induced obesity. However, little is known as to whether different protein sources consumed at normal levels may affect diet-induced obesity and associated co-morbidities. We fed obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice high-fat, high......-fed mice, but otherwise no changes in lean body mass were observed between the groups. Feed efficiency and apparent nitrogen digestibility were reduced in scallop-fed mice suggesting alterations in energy utilization and metabolism. Overnight fasted plasma triacylglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids......, glycerol and hydroxy-butyrate levels were significantly reduced, indicating reduced lipid mobilization in scallop-fed mice. The plasma HDL-to-total-cholesterol ratio was higher, suggesting increased reverse cholesterol transport or cholesterol clearance in scallop-fed mice in both fasted and non-fasted...

  16. Effect of exogenous phytohormones and sucrose on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of exogenous phytohormones and sucrose on micropropagation and microtuberization from nodal cuttings of Manihot esculenta was studied. Direct and indirect organogeneses were established from these explants. When nodal cuttings were cultured in the presence of 0.01 to 0.1 mg.L-1 of BAP or NAA there was ...

  17. Chronic sucrose intake decreases concentrations of n6 fatty acids, but not docosahexaenoic acid in the rat brain phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašek, Tomislav; Starčević, Kristina

    2017-07-13

    We investigated the influence of high sucrose intake, administered in drinking water, on the lipid profile of the brain and on the expression of SREBP1c and Δ-desaturase genes. Adult male rats received 30% sucrose solution for 20 weeks (Sucrose group), or plain water (Control group). After the 20th week of sucrose treatment, the Sucrose group showed permanent hyperglycemia. Sucrose treatment also increased the amount of total lipids and fatty acids in the brain. The brain fatty acid profile of total lipids as well as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin of the Sucrose group was extensively changed. The most interesting change was a significant decrease in n6 fatty acids, including the important arachidonic acid, whereas the content of oleic and docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. RT-qPCR revealed an increase in Δ-5-desaturase and SREBP1c gene expression. In conclusion, high sucrose intake via drinking water extensively changes rat brain fatty acid profile by decreasing n6 fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. In contrast, the content of docosahexaenoic acid remains constant in the brain total lipids as well as in phospholipids. Changes in the brain fatty acid profile reflect changes in the lipid metabolism of the rat lipogenic tissues and concentrations in the circulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential host media for a high-level waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustrulid, W

    1982-01-01

    Earlier studies of burial of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories had concentrated on salt formations for well-publicized reasons. However, under the Carter administration, significant changes were made in the US nuclear waste management program. Changes which were made were: (1) expansion of the number of rock types under consideration; (2) adoption of the multiple-barrier approach to waste containment; (3) additional requirements for waste retrieval; and (4) new criteria proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the isolation of high-level waste in geologic repositories. Results of the studies of different types of rocks as repository sites are summarized herein. It is concluded that each generic rock type has certain advantages and disadvantages when considered from various aspects of the waste disposal problem and that characteristics of rocks are so varied that a most favorable or least favorable rock type cannot be easily identified. This lack of definitive characteristics of rocks makes site selection and good engineering barriers very important for containment of the wastes. (BLM)

  19. Theory of Pulsed Neutron Experiments in Highly Heterogeneous Multiplying Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, S.E.

    1965-01-01

    In this work we investigate the time and space dependence of the neutron flux within a highly heterogeneous assembly, in which pulsed or sinusoidally modulated neutrons are injected. We consider, for the sake of simplicity, a device consisting of a cylindrical block of heavy moderator, along the axis of which a line-shaped region of fissionable material is located. The driving neutron source is assumed to be located on one of the end faces of the cylinder. The extent of the fissionable region allows us to deal with it as with an absorbing and multiplying singularity of the neutron field. As our attention is mostly concentrated on space and time variation of the neutron flux, rather crude approximations are assumed as far as the energy dependence of the neutron population is concerned. Within the limits of the age-diffusion theory, the response of the device to any neutron excitation may be found in closed form. For a sinusoidally modulated source of given frequency, it may easily be shown that, if the axial singularity were a purely absorbing one, the neutron waves being propagated along the device would possess a phase shift; a wavelength and an attenuation constant depending on the absorbing properties of the singularity. This picture becomes more and more complicated when neutron multiplication occurs. For this general case the solution derived in our paper obviously turns out to be dependent on both absorption and multiplication properties of the singularity. This circumstance suggests, among others, the idea of using a device of the type described above for testing fuel elements of heterogeneous reactors. (author) [fr

  20. The 3D Digital Story-telling Media on Batik Learning in Vocational High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiaty, I.; Achdiani, Y.; Kuntadi, I.; Mubaroq, S. R.; Zakaria, D.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research is to make 3D digital Story-telling Media on Batik Learning in Vocational High School. The digital story-telling developed in this research is focused on 3D-based story-telling. In contrast to the digital story-telling that has been developed in existing learning, this research is expected to be able to improve understanding of vocational students about the value of local wisdom batik more meaningful and “live”. The process of making 3D digital story-telling media consists of two processes, namely the creation of 3D objects and the creation of 3D object viewer.

  1. High-order FDTD methods for transverse electromagnetic systems in dispersive inhomogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan

    2011-08-15

    This Letter introduces a novel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) formulation for solving transverse electromagnetic systems in dispersive media. Based on the auxiliary differential equation approach, the Debye dispersion model is coupled with Maxwell's equations to derive a supplementary ordinary differential equation for describing the regularity changes in electromagnetic fields at the dispersive interface. The resulting time-dependent jump conditions are rigorously enforced in the FDTD discretization by means of the matched interface and boundary scheme. High-order convergences are numerically achieved for the first time in the literature in the FDTD simulations of dispersive inhomogeneous media. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  2. Minimization of sucrose losses in sugar industry by pH and temperature optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panpae, Kornvalai; Jaturonrusmee, Wasna; Mingvanish, Withawat; Santudrob, Kittisak; Triphanpitak, Siriphan

    2008-01-01

    Invert sugar has several disadvantage properties that play an important role in many food applications. It has a high affinity for water and is the cause of making products retain moisture. Invert sugar also affects the carmelization process, producing a browning effect. In this study, the possibility of minimization of sucrose inversion during the industrial production of sugar cane was investigated by the variation of the important parameters, i.e. temperature and pH of sugar cane juice for each of samples. The amounts of sucrose and reducing sugar alerting during the sucrose inversion process were determined by the values of % Pol and % reducing sugar (% RS), respectively. Starting with the study of temperature and pH effects of the sucrose solution with the concentration of 16 Brix, used as a sample model, it was found that no change in amounts of reducing sugar and sucrose was observed at room temperature (34 degree Celsius) in the pH range of 5-11. At pH 3, the amounts of reducing sugar increased and the amount of sucrose decreased as the time increased. These indicated that the process of sucrose inversion should better occur in more acidic solutions. Compared to the room temperature, it was found that the increment of temperature led to enhance the process of sucrose inversion. This was depicted by higher values of % RS and lower value of % Pol as the temperatures were elevated. The experiments were also done with real sugar cane juice, i.e. first, last, and mixed juice. The tendency of changes of the amounts of reducing sugar and sucrose in sugar cane samples by varying temperature and pH were found to resemble to those for the sample model. The increment of temperatures have also affected on a reduction of amounts of sucrose in each sugar cane juice. In addition, it could be concluded that the acidity of the solution affects sucrose easier to be broken down to glucose and fructose molecules. (author)

  3. Pontine and Thalamic Influences on Fluid Rewards: III. Anticipatory Contrast for Sucrose and Corn Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Norgren, Ralph; Grigson, Patricia S

    2011-01-01

    An anticipatory contrast effect (ACE) occurs when, across daily trials, an animal comes to respond less than normally to a first stimulus when it is followed shortly by a second, more preferred solution. Classically, ACE is studied using a low (L) concentration of saccharin or sucrose, followed by access to a higher (H) concentration of sucrose. Subjects in the control condition have two bouts of access to the weaker solution presented on the same schedule. The ACE is measured by the difference in intake of the first bout low solution between subjects in the low-low (L-L) vs. the low-high (L-H) conditions. Here we used this paradigm with sham feeding rats and determined that nutritional feedback was unnecessary for the development of ACE with two concentrations of sucrose or with two concentrations of corn oil. Next we showed that ibotenic acid lesions centered in the orosensory thalamus spared ACEs for both sucrose and corn oil. In contrast, lesions of the pontine parabrachial nuclei (PBN), the second central relay for taste in the rat, disrupted ACEs for both sucrose and corn oil. Although the sensory modalities needed for the oral detection of fats remain controversial, it appears that the PBN is involved in processing the comparison of disparate concentrations of sucrose and oil reward. PMID:21703289

  4. A study on alfalfa-dodder relationships by 14C-sucrose incorporation in their tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsenova, M.

    1975-01-01

    Plant-parasite relationships between lesser-dodder (Cuscuta epithymum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) are investigated. 14 C-sucrose was incorporated via the cut stems of host and parasite into their tissues and the content of the free sugars, keto acids and free amino acids are determined. 14 C-sucrose was introduced also in lesser-dodder previously taken from the host-plant and immersed directly into radioactive sucrose. It is shown that the parasite intensively absorbs sucrose from the host-plant tissues using it as a source of energy and as a substrat for different synthetic processes. In the case when the parasite was previously taken away from the host-plant 14 C-sucrose taken up directly from the solution was used for the synthesis of various compounds (carbohydrates, amino- and keto acids). The suggestion was made that the respective enzyme systems are present in dodder tissues. The 14 C-glucose and 14 C-fructose content is an evidence for high invertase hydrolytic activity. The presence of 14 C-keto acids shows that the 14 C-sucrose incorporated in lesser-dodder tissues without the mediation of the host-plant was used as a respiratory substrate by the degradation following Krebs cycle. (author)

  5. Nectar secretion requires sucrose phosphate synthases and the sugar transporter SWEET9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I Winnie; Sosso, Davide; Chen, Li-Qing; Gase, Klaus; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Kessler, Danny; Klinkenberg, Peter M; Gorder, Molly K; Hou, Bi-Huei; Qu, Xiao-Qing; Carter, Clay J; Baldwin, Ian T; Frommer, Wolf B

    2014-04-24

    Angiosperms developed floral nectaries that reward pollinating insects. Although nectar function and composition have been characterized, the mechanism of nectar secretion has remained unclear. Here we identify SWEET9 as a nectary-specific sugar transporter in three eudicot species: Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica rapa (extrastaminal nectaries) and Nicotiana attenuata (gynoecial nectaries). We show that SWEET9 is essential for nectar production and can function as an efflux transporter. We also show that sucrose phosphate synthase genes, encoding key enzymes for sucrose biosynthesis, are highly expressed in nectaries and that their expression is also essential for nectar secretion. Together these data are consistent with a model in which sucrose is synthesized in the nectary parenchyma and subsequently secreted into the extracellular space via SWEET9, where sucrose is hydrolysed by an apoplasmic invertase to produce a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose. The recruitment of SWEET9 for sucrose export may have been a key innovation, and could have coincided with the evolution of core eudicots and contributed to the evolution of nectar secretion to reward pollinators.

  6. The role of mass media campaigns in reducing high-risk drinking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William

    2002-03-01

    This article categorizes and describes current media campaigns to reduce college student drinking, reviews key principles of campaign design and outlines recommendations for future campaigns. The article describes three types of media campaigns on student drinking: information, social norms marketing, and advocacy. Key principles of campaign design are derived from work in commercial marketing, advertising, and public relations and from evaluations of past public health campaigns. Information campaigns on the dangers of high-risk drinking are common, but none has been rigorously evaluated. Quasi-experimental studies suggest that social norms marketing campaigns, which correct misperceptions of campus drinking norms, may be effective, but more rigorous research is needed. As of this writing, only one major media campaign has focused on policy advocacy to reduce college student drinking, but it is still being evaluated. Lessons for campaign design are organized as a series of steps for campaign development, implementation and assessment: launch a strategic planning process, select a strategic objective, select the target audience, develop a staged approach, define the key promise, avoid fear appeals, select the right message source, select a mix of media channels, maximize media exposure, conduct formative research, and conduct process and outcome evaluations. Future campaigns should integrate information, social norms marketing, and advocacy approaches to create a climate of support for institutional, community and policy changes that will alter the environment in which students make decisions about their alcohol consumption.

  7. Retention of Viability of Salmonella in Sucrose as Affected by Type of Inoculum, Water Activity, and Storage Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Mann, David A; Kelly, Christine A; Ortega, Ynes R

    2017-09-01

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis have been associated with consumption of high-sugar, low-water activity (a w ) foods. The study reported here was focused on determining the effect of storage temperature (5 and 25°C) on survival of initially high and low levels of Salmonella in dry-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.26 ± 0.01 to 0.54 ± 0.01) and wet-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.24 ± 0.01 to 0.44 ± 0.04) over a 52-week period. With the exception of dry-inoculated sucrose at a w 0.26, Salmonella survived for 52 weeks in dry- and wet-inoculated sucrose stored at 5 and 25°C. Retention of viability was clearly favored in sucrose stored at 5°C compared with 25°C, regardless of level or type of inoculum or a w . Survival at 5°C was not affected by a w . Initial high-inoculum counts of 5.18 and 5.25 log CFU/g of dry-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.26 and 0.54, respectively) stored for 52 weeks at 5°C decreased by 0.56 and 0.53 log CFU/g; counts decreased by >4.18 and >4.25 log CFU/g in samples stored at 25°C. Inactivation rates in wet-inoculated sucrose were similar to those in dry-inoculated sucrose; however, a trend toward higher persistence of Salmonella in dry- versus wet-inoculated sucrose suggests there was a higher proportion of cells in the wet inoculum with low tolerance to osmotic stress. Survival patterns were similar in sucrose initially containing a low level of Salmonella (2.26 to 2.91 log CFU/g). The pathogen was recovered from low-inoculated sucrose stored at 5°C for 52 weeks regardless of type of inoculum or a w and from dry-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.54) and wet-inoculated sucrose (a w 0.24) stored at 25°C for 12 and 26 weeks, respectively. Results emphasize the importance of preventing contamination of sucrose intended for use as an ingredient in foods not subjected to a treatment that would be lethal to Salmonella.

  8. Determining sucrose recovery in Saccarrum officinarum L. using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation for sucrose content on single factor basis was caused by tillers, therefore, this character was the most important to increase overall sucrose of S. officinarum L. However, second variable model exhibited that tillers and internodal length were important traits for increasing overall sucrose in sugarcane.

  9. Dynamic Viscosity and Compensation Effect in Hydrocarbon Media with a High Content of Resins and Paraffins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitsova, A. A.; Kondrasheva, N. K.; Dolomatov, M. Yu.

    2017-11-01

    Linear dependences have been obtained for multicomponent hydrocarbon media (oils and high-boiling fractions), which relate the preexponent and the activation energy of viscous flow in the Arrhenius equation. A distinctive feature of the established kinetic compensation effect is it existing before and after the phase-transition temperature. The obtained results have been confirmed by statistical data and make it possible to predict the dynamic viscosity of multicomponent hydrocarbon systems, such as oil and high-boiling fractions.

  10. New Innovations in Highly Ion Specific Media for Recalcitrant Waste stream Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, M. S.; Wilson, J.; Ahrendt, M.; Bostick, W. D.; DeSilva, F.; Meyers, P.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) outage cycle and recovery (four months), was the down-select and development of a number of highly ion specific media for the specific removal of such elusive isotopes. Over three dozen media including standard cation and anion ion exchangers, specialty IX, standard carbons, and, finally, chemically doped media (e.g., carbon and alumina substrates). The latter involved doping with iron, manganese, and even metals. The media down-select was carried out on actual plant waste streams so that all possible outage affects were accounted for, and distribution coefficients (Kd's) were determined (vs. decontamination factors, DF's, or percent removals). Such Kd's, in milliliters of solution per gram of media (mug), produce data indicative of the longevity of the media in that particular waste stream. Herein, the down-select is reported in Pareto (decreasing order) tables. Further affects such as the presence of high cobalt concentrations, high boron concentrations, the presence of hydrazine and chelating agents, and extreme pH conditions. Of particular importance here is to avoid the affinity of competing ions (e.g., a Sb specific media having more than a slight affinity for Co). The latter results in the snow-plow effect of sloughing off 3 to 4 times the cobalt into the effluent as was in the feed upon picking up the Sb. The study was quite successful and resulted in the development of and selection of a resin-type and two granular media for antimony removal, and two resin-types and a granular media for cobalt removal. The decontamination factors for both media were hundreds to thousands of times that of the full filtration and de-min. (authors)

  11. High-order dynamic lattice method for seismic simulation in anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2018-03-01

    The discrete particle-based dynamic lattice method (DLM) offers an approach to simulate elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media by calculating the anisotropic micromechanical interactions between these particles based on the directions of the bonds that connect them in the lattice. To build such a lattice, the media are discretized into particles. This discretization inevitably leads to numerical dispersion. The basic lattice unit used in the original DLM only includes interactions between the central particle and its nearest neighbours; therefore, it represents the first-order form of a particle lattice. The first-order lattice suffers from numerical dispersion compared with other numerical methods, such as high-order finite-difference methods, in terms of seismic wave simulation. Due to its unique way of discretizing the media, the particle-based DLM no longer solves elastic wave equations; this means that one cannot build a high-order DLM by simply creating a high-order discrete operator to better approximate a partial derivative operator. To build a high-order DLM, we carry out a thorough dispersion analysis of the method and discover that by adding more neighbouring particles into the lattice unit, the DLM will yield different spatial accuracy. According to the dispersion analysis, the high-order DLM presented here can adapt the requirement of spatial accuracy for seismic wave simulations. For any given spatial accuracy, we can design a corresponding high-order lattice unit to satisfy the accuracy requirement. Numerical tests show that the high-order DLM improves the accuracy of elastic wave simulation in anisotropic media.

  12. The analysis of mathematics literacy on PMRI learning with media schoology of junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardono; Mariani, S.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia as a developing country in the future will have high competitiveness if its students have high mathematics literacy ability. The current reality from year to year rankings of PISA mathematics literacy Indonesian students are still not good. This research is motivated by the importance and low ability of the mathematics literacy. The purpose of this study is to: (1) analyze the effectiveness of PMRI learning with media Schoology, (2) describe the ability of students' mathematics literacy on PMRI learning with media Schoology which is reviewed based on seven components of mathematics literacy, namely communication, mathematizing, representation, reasoning, devising strategies, using symbols, and using mathematics tool. The method used in this research is the method of sequential design method mix. Techniques of data collection using observation, interviews, tests, and documentation. Data analysis techniques use proportion test, appellate test, and use descriptive analysis. Based on the data analysis, it can be concluded; (1) PMRI learning with media Schoology effectively improve the ability of mathematics literacy because of the achievement of classical completeness, students' mathematics literacy ability in PMRI learning with media Schoology is higher than expository learning, and there is increasing ability of mathematics literacy in PMRI learning with media Schoology of 30%. (2) Highly capable students attain excellent mathematics literacy skills, can work using broad thinking with appropriate resolution strategies. Students who are capable of achieving good mathematics literacy skills can summarize information, present problem-solving processes, and interpret solutions. low-ability students have reached the level of ability of mathematics literacy good enough that can solve the problem in a simple way.

  13. Mode decomposition methods for flows in high-contrast porous media. A global approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi; Calo, Victor M.; Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2014-01-01

    We apply dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) methods to flows in highly-heterogeneous porous media to extract the dominant coherent structures and derive reduced-order models via Galerkin projection. Permeability fields with high contrast are considered to investigate the capability of these techniques to capture the main flow features and forecast the flow evolution within a certain accuracy. A DMD-based approach shows a better predictive capability due to its ability to accurately extract the information relevant to long-time dynamics, in particular, the slowly-decaying eigenmodes corresponding to largest eigenvalues. Our study enables a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the applicability of these techniques for flows in high-contrast porous media. Furthermore, we discuss the robustness of DMD- and POD-based reduced-order models with respect to variations in initial conditions, permeability fields, and forcing terms. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  14. High-Dose Amoxicillin with Clavulanate for the Treatment of Acute Otitis Media in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Huei Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study uses the acute otitis media clinical practice guideline proposed in 2004 as a reference to evaluate whether antibiotics doses that are in line with the recommendations lead to better prognosis. The study also attempts to clarify possible factors that influence the outcome. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. Subjects and Methods. A total of 400 children with acute otitis media were enrolled. The dosage of amoxicillin was considered to be appropriate when in accord with clinical practice guidelines, that is, 80–90 mg/kg/day. The outcome was defined according to the description of tympanic membrane on medical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between antibiotic dosage and prognosis after adjusting for baseline factors. Results. The majority of prescriptions were under dosage (89.1% but it was not noticeably associated with outcome (P= 0.41. The correlation between under dosage and poor prognosis was significant in children below 20 kg with bilateral acute otitis media (odds ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.02–2.59, P=0.04. Conclusion. Treating acute otitis media in children, high-dose amoxicillin with clavulanate as recommended in the clinical practice guideline was superior to conventional doses only in children under 20 kg with bilateral diseases.

  15. Overexpression of a Grapevine Sucrose Transporter (VvSUC27 in Tobacco Improves Plant Growth Rate in the Presence of Sucrose In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeng Cai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The import of sugar from source leaves and it further accumulation in grape berries are considerably high during ripening, and this process is mediated via sucrose transporters. In this study, a grape sucrose transporter (SUT gene, VvSUC27, located at the plasma membrane, was transferred to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum. The transformants were more sensitive to sucrose and showed more rapid development, especially roots, when cultured on MS agar medium containing sucrose, considering that the shoot/root dry weight ratio was only half that of the control. Moreover, all transformed plants exhibited light-colored leaves throughout their development, which indicated chlorosis and an associated reduction in photosynthesis. The total sugar content in the roots and stems of transformants was higher than that in control plants. No significant difference was observed in the leaves between the transformants and control plants. The levels of growth-promoting hormones were increased, and those of stress-mediating hormones were reduced in transgenic tobacco plants. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of VvSUC27 was 1,000 times higher than that of the autologous tobacco sucrose transporter, which suggested that the markedly increased growth rate of transformants was because of the heterogeneously expressed gene. The transgenic tobacco plants showed resistance to abiotic stresses. Strikingly, the overexpression of VvSUC27 leaded to the up regulation of most reactive oxygen species scavengers and abscisic acid-related genes that might enable transgenic plants to overcome abiotic stress. Taken together, these results revealed an important role of VvSUC27 in plant growth and response to abiotic stresses, especially in the presence of sucrose in vitro.

  16. Solving radiative transfer problems in highly heterogeneous media via domain decomposition and convergence acceleration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previti, Alberto; Furfaro, Roberto; Picca, Paolo; Ganapol, Barry D.; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with finding accurate solutions for photon transport problems in highly heterogeneous media fastly, efficiently and with modest memory resources. We propose an extended version of the analytical discrete ordinates method, coupled with domain decomposition-derived algorithms and non-linear convergence acceleration techniques. Numerical performances are evaluated using a challenging case study available in the literature. A study of accuracy versus computational time and memory requirements is reported for transport calculations that are relevant for remote sensing applications.

  17. Preparation of Fe-Pt perpendicular double-layered media with high electric resistivity backlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Masaru; Suzuki, Toshio; Ouchi, Kazuhiro

    2001-01-01

    High electric resistivity materials, oxide-added Fe-Si, were investigated as a soft-magnetic backlayer for Fe-Pt perpendicular double-layered media. It was found that there is a possibility of using (Fe-Si)-MgO as a backlayer. To promote a hetero-epitaxial growth of ordered Fe-Pt FCT(0 0 1), the backlayer needed a BCC(2 0 0) crystal orientation, in a situation where surface topology also played an important role

  18. CHANGES OF SUCROSE CONTENT AND INVERTASE ACTIVITY DURING SUGARCANE STEM STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Agus Siswoyo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Invertases (beta-D-fructofuranosidase, E.C. 3.2.1.26 are the key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in sugarcane plants. They are highly correlated with sucrose and reducing sugar contents during plant growth. The sugarcane plants have two kinds of invertases, namely neutral invertase (NI and acid invertase (AI. They have different function in sucrose accumulation. The research aimed to study the role of AI and NI in accumulation of reducing sugar during storage of sugarcane stems. Plant materials of 18-month-old field grown sugarcane of the commercial variety R-579 (wet-land and M 442-51 (dry-land were used. Three internodes were sampled to represent immature (internode 1-8/F1, maturing (internode 9-16/F2, and mature (internode 17-24/F3 stem tissues. All tissues were stored for 0-9 days at room temperature (28-32oC and each day, the samplewas extracted to determine invertase activity, total soluble protein, and sugar contents. This observation was valid for invertase activity expressed on a protein basis. At the initiateharvested (0-3 days, NI had a higher specific activity than AI in the sucrose-accumulating region of the sugarcane stems. Negative significant correlation was found between NI specific activity and sucrose accumulation (r2 = 0.41, P < 0.05. AI showed a higher specific activity after 4 days harvested and had negative correlation with sucrose accumulation (r2 = 0.40, P < 0.05. These results showed that NI could be more  responsible in sucrose hydrolisis than AI at early storage of sugarcane stems.

  19. Analysis of sucrose-induced small RNAs in Streptococcus mutans in the presence of different sucrose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan Shan; Zhu, Wen Hui; Zhi, Qing Hui; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yan; Lin, Huan Cai

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the major pathogen contributing to dental caries. Sucrose is an important carbohydrate source for S. mutans and is crucial for dental caries. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are key post-transcriptional regulators of stress adaptation and virulence in bacteria. Here, for the first time, we created three replicate RNA libraries exposed to either 1 or 5% sucrose. The expression levels of sRNAs and target genes (gtfB, gtfC, and spaP) related to virulence were assessed. In addition, some phenotypic traits were evaluated. We obtained 2125 sRNA candidates with at least 100 average reads in 1% sucrose or 5% sucrose. Of these candidates, 2 were upregulated and 20 were downregulated in 1% sucrose. Six of these 22 differentially expressed sRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The expression level of target gene gtfB was higher in 1% sucrose. The adherence ratio of S. mutans was higher in 1% sucrose than in 5% sucrose. The synthesis of water-insoluble glucans (WIGs) was significantly higher in 5% sucrose than in 1% sucrose. These data suggest that a series of sRNAs can be induced in response to sucrose, and that some sRNAs might be involved in the regulation of phenotypes, providing new insight into the prevention of caries.

  20. EPR of gamma irradiated solid sucrose and UV spectra of its solution. An attempt for calibration of solid state/EPR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, N.D.; Karakirova, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A simple new approach for independent calibration of solid state/EPR (SS/EPR) dosimetry system is reported. It is based on the fact that: (i) gamma-irradiation of solid sucrose (sugar) induces stable EPR detectable free radicals accompanied by UV detectable brown colour stable in the solid state and in solution; (ii) both the EPR intensity of gamma-irradiated solid sucrose and its solution UV absorbance linearly depend on the absorbed dose high energy radiation and may be independently used for dosimetric purpose; (iii) UV spectrometers are calibrated. The correlation between EPR response and absorbed dose radiation of solid sucrose and UV absorption of its solutions is used in the present communication for calibration purpose. The procedure of sucrose extraction from sucrose-paraffin dosimeters is described. The calibration procedure may be applied to any other (alanine, self-calibrated, etc.) SS/EPR dosimeters, simultaneously irradiated with sucrose

  1. "Kalosara" Revitalization as an Ethno-Pedagogical Media in the Development of Character of Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar; Suardika, I. Ketut; Mursidin, T.; Suleiman, Abdul Rauf; Syukur, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    The aims of the research are (1) to identify types of character through "kalosara" revitalization as an ethno-pedagogical media in social sciences (IPS) learning at junior high school (SMP), (2) to develop strategy of "kalosara" revitalization as an ethno-pedagogical media in the development of characters of students, and (3)…

  2. Development of an Android Application in the Form of a Simulation Lab as Learning Media for Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astra, I Made; Nasbey, Hadi; Nugraha, Aditiya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to create learning media for senior high school students through an android application in the form of a simulation lab. The method employed in the study is research and development. A simulation lab which has been made subsequently validated by concept and media experts, further empirical testing by teachers and…

  3. The Impact of High-Profile Sexual Abuse Cases in the Media on a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Dustin D; Stephens, Clare L; Thompson, Amy D

    2016-01-01

    High-profile media cases of sexual abuse may encourage disclosures of abuse from victims of unrelated assaults and also influence parental concerns, leading to increased emergency department visits. In the region of the study authors' institution, there are two recent high-profile sexual abuse cases with media coverage: Earl Bradley, a Delaware pediatrician, and Jerry Sandusky, a Pennsylvania college football coach. This is a retrospective cohort study of children evaluated for sexual abuse at a pediatric emergency department. Patients were classified as either presenting during a media period or non-media period. The media periods were one-month periods immediately following breaking news reports, when the cases were highly publicized in the media. The non-media periods were the 12-month periods directly preceding the first reports. The median number of emergency department visits per month during a non-media period was 9 visits (interquartile range 6-10). There were 11 visits in the month following the Sandusky case and 13 visits following the Bradley case. There was no statistical difference in number of emergency department visits for sexual abuse between the periods (p = .09). These finding have implications regarding use of resources in pediatric EDs after high-profile sexual abuse cases.

  4. Sucrose and warmth for analgesia in healthy newborns: an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Larry; Garza, Elizabeth; Zageris, Danielle; Heilman, Keri J; Porges, Stephen W

    2015-03-01

    Increasing data suggest that neonatal pain has long-term consequences. Nonpharmacologic techniques (sucrose taste, pacifier suckling, breastfeeding) are effective and now widely used to combat minor neonatal pain. This study examined the analgesic effect of sucrose combined with radiant warmth compared with the taste of sucrose alone during a painful procedure in healthy full-term newborns. A randomized, controlled trial included 29 healthy, full-term newborns born at the University of Chicago Hospital. Both groups of infants were given 1.0 mL of 25% sucrose solution 2 minutes before the vaccination, and 1 group additionally was given radiant warmth from an infant warmer before the vaccination. We assessed pain by comparing differences in cry, grimace, heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia), and heart rate between the groups. The sucrose plus warmer group cried and grimaced for 50% less time after the vaccination than the sucrose alone group (P < .05, respectively). The sucrose plus warmer group had lower heart rate and heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia) responses compared with the sucrose alone group (P < .01), reflecting a greater ability to physiologically regulate in response to the painful vaccination. The combination of sucrose and radiant warmth is an effective analgesic in newborns and reduces pain better than sucrose alone. The ready availability of this practical nonpharmacologic technique has the potential to reduce the burden of newborn pain. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root architecture and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee-Ho, E.; Walton, L.J.; Reid, D.M.; Yeung, E.C.; Kurepin, L.V. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2007-03-15

    Plant root growth is known to be influenced by higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Roots of some species grown in hydroponics under elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations may be more competitive sinks for photosynthetic assimilates than roots grown under lower CO{sub 2} conditions. Root branching patterns may also be influenced by elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations. Studies have also shown that factors such as soil compaction, salinity and the availability of nitrate, phosphorous, oxygen and water also influence root growth, and the effects of higher CO{sub 2} on roots can be confounded by such environmental factors. This study evaluated the effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sucrose concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana root growth, morphology, and architecture. Both ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} levels were used along with various sucrose concentrations. The study revealed that A. thaliana plants grown on a phytagar medium in small chambers with elevated CO{sub 2} had longer roots, more lateral root growth than plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. Roots in elevated CO{sub 2} were found to have wider root diameters, and more secondary growth. The addition of sucrose to the media closely resembled the effects of elevated CO{sub 2}. In addition, the increase in sucrose concentration had a bigger effect on root morphology under ambient, than elevated CO{sub 2}. Therefore, both elevated CO{sub 2} and increased sucrose concentrations promote root growth by increasing their number, length, and diameter. The dichotomy branching index (DBI) also dropped resulting in a more dichotomous branching pattern. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Production of 5-ketofructose from fructose or sucrose using genetically modified Gluconobacter oxydans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemen, Anna; Kosciow, Konrad; Schweiger, Paul; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2018-02-01

    The growing consumer demand for low-calorie, sugar-free foodstuff motivated us to search for alternative non-nutritive sweeteners. A promising sweet-tasting compound is 5-keto-D-fructose (5-KF), which is formed by membrane-bound fructose dehydrogenases (Fdh) in some Gluconobacter strains. The plasmid-based expression of the fdh genes in Gluconobacter (G.) oxydans resulted in a much higher Fdh activity in comparison to the native host G. japonicus. Growth experiments with G. oxydans fdh in fructose-containing media indicated that 5-KF was rapidly formed with a conversion efficiency of 90%. 5-KF production from fructose was also observed using resting cells with a yield of about 100%. In addition, a new approach was tested for the production of the sweetener 5-KF by using sucrose as a substrate. To this end, a two-strain system composed of the fdh-expressing strain and a G. oxydans strain that produced the sucrose hydrolyzing SacC was developed. The strains were co-cultured in sucrose medium and converted 92.5% of the available fructose units into 5-KF. The glucose moiety of sucrose was converted to 2-ketogluconate and acetate. With regard to the development of a sustainable and resource-saving process for the production of 5-KF, sugar beet extract was used as substrate for the two-strain system. Fructose as product from sucrose cleavage was mainly oxidized to 5-KF which was detected in a concentration of over 200 mM at the end of the fermentation process. In summary, the two-strain system was able to convert fructose units of sugar beet extract to 5-KF with an efficiency of 82 ± 5%.

  7. Experimental demonstration of OpenFlow-enabled media ecosystem architecture for high-end applications over metro and core networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntofon, Okung-Dike; Channegowda, Mayur P; Efstathiou, Nikolaos; Rashidi Fard, Mehdi; Nejabati, Reza; Hunter, David K; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2013-02-25

    In this paper, a novel Software-Defined Networking (SDN) architecture is proposed for high-end Ultra High Definition (UHD) media applications. UHD media applications require huge amounts of bandwidth that can only be met with high-capacity optical networks. In addition, there are requirements for control frameworks capable of delivering effective application performance with efficient network utilization. A novel SDN-based Controller that tightly integrates application-awareness with network control and management is proposed for such applications. An OpenFlow-enabled test-bed demonstrator is reported with performance evaluations of advanced online and offline media- and network-aware schedulers.

  8. Effect of Incubation Time and Sucrose Addition on the Characteristics of Cheese Whey Yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Nursiwi, A.; Sari, A. M.; Widowati, E.; Sanjaya, A. P.; Esnadewi, E. A.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of incubation time and concentration of sucrose addition on the characteristics of cheese whey yogurt (lactic acid content, pH, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, viscosity) and sensory characteristics (color, odor, flavor, consistency, and overalls) were investigated. The cheese whey yogurt fermentation process was carried out for 24h and 36h with the addition of sucrose 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) of total solid, respectively. The results showed that the lactic acid content, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and viscosity of cheese whey yogurt were affected by the incubation time and sucrose addition. The level of pH of yogurt which was incubated at 24h and 36h were relatively in the same levels, which were 4.51 up to 4.63. Due the sensory characteristic of cheese whey yogurt the panellists gave the high score for the cheese whey yogurt which was incubated at 24h and sucrose addition 12% (w/w) of total solid. The cheese whey yogurt has 0.41% lactic acid content; pH 4.51; 7.09 log total lactic acid bacteria cells / ml; 5.78% antioxidant activity; and 5.97 cP viscosity. The best sensory and physico-chemical characteristic of cheese whey yogurt was achieved by 24h incubation time and 12% concentration of sucrose addition.

  9. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Hedge, R; Dixit, U

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on salivary pH, following sucrose clearance. Salivary sucrose determination was done by using the anthrone technique. A Digital MHOS pH meter estimated the salivary pH. Presence of plaque increased the salivary sucrose clearance time and decreased the salivary pH at various time intervals. The microbial etiology of dental caries is the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota, dietary carbohydrates, saliva and pH lowering, and the cariogenic potential of the dental plaque. Caries occur preferentially in the dentition sites characterized by high exposure to carbohydrate and diminished salivary effect.

  10. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on salivary pH, following sucrose clearance. Materials and Methods: Salivary sucrose determination was done by using the anthrone technique. A Digital MHOS pH meter estimated the salivary pH. Results: Presence of plaque increased the salivary sucrose clearance time and decreased the salivary pH at various time intervals. Conclusions: The microbial etiology of dental caries is the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota, dietary carbohydrates, saliva and pH lowering, and the cariogenic potential of the dental plaque. Caries occur preferentially in the dentition sites characterized by high exposure to carbohydrate and diminished salivary effect.

  11. Metabolic activity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and gene expression during exposure to xylitol and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Eva-Maria; Klein, Christian; Schwindt, Dimitri; von Ohle, Christiane

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse Streptococcus mutans biofilms grown under different dietary conditions by using multifaceted methodological approaches to gain deeper insight into the cariogenic impact of carbohydrates. S. mutans biofilms were generated during a period of 24 h in the following media: Schaedler broth as a control medium containing endogenous glucose, Schaedler broth with an additional 5% sucrose, and Schaedler broth supplemented with 1% xylitol. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)-based analyses of the microbial vitality, respiratory activity (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride, CTC) and production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were performed separately in the inner, middle and outer biofilm layers. In addition to the microbiological sample testing, the glucose/sucrose consumption of the biofilm bacteria was quantified, and the expression of glucosyltransferases and other biofilm-associated genes was investigated. Xylitol exposure did not inhibit the viability of S. mutans biofilms, as monitored by the following experimental parameters: culture growth, vitality, CTC activity and EPS production. However, xylitol exposure caused a difference in gene expression compared to the control. GtfC was upregulated only in the presence of xylitol. Under xylitol exposure, gtfB was upregulated by a factor of 6, while under sucrose exposure, it was upregulated by a factor of three. Compared with glucose and xylitol, sucrose increased cell vitality in all biofilm layers. In all nutrient media, the intrinsic glucose was almost completely consumed by the cells of the S. mutans biofilm within 24 h. After 24 h of biofilm formation, the multiparametric measurements showed that xylitol in the presence of glucose caused predominantly genotypic differences but did not induce metabolic differences compared to the control. Thus, the availability of dietary carbohydrates in either a pure or combined form seems to affect the

  12. Metabolic activity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and gene expression during exposure to xylitol and sucrose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva-Maria Decker; Christian Klein; Dimitri Schwindt; Christiane von Ohle

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse Streptococcus mutans biofilms grown under different dietary conditions by using multifaceted methodological approaches to gain deeper insight into the cariogenic impact of carbohydrates. S. mutans biofilms were generated during a period of 24 h in the following media:Schaedler broth as a control medium containing endogenous glucose, Schaedler broth with an additional 5%sucrose, and Schaedler broth supplemented with 1%xylitol. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)-based analyses of the microbial vitality, respiratory activity (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride, CTC) and production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were performed separately in the inner, middle and outer biofilm layers. In addition to the microbiological sample testing, the glucose/sucrose consumption of the biofilm bacteria was quantified, and the expression of glucosyltransferases and other biofilm-associated genes was investigated. Xylitol exposure did not inhibit the viability of S. mutans biofilms, as monitored by the following experimental parameters:culture growth, vitality, CTC activity and EPS production. However, xylitol exposure caused a difference in gene expression compared to the control. GtfC was upregulated only in the presence of xylitol. Under xylitol exposure, gtfB was upregulated by a factor of 6, while under sucrose exposure, it was upregulated by a factor of three. Compared with glucose and xylitol, sucrose increased cell vitality in all biofilm layers. In all nutrient media, the intrinsic glucose was almost completely consumed by the cells of the S. mutans biofilm within 24 h. After 24 h of biofilm formation, the multiparametric measurements showed that xylitol in the presence of glucose caused predominantly genotypic differences but did not induce metabolic differences compared to the control. Thus, the availability of dietary carbohydrates in either a pure or combined form seems to affect the cariogenic potential

  13. Domain Decomposition Preconditioners for Multiscale Flows in High-Contrast Media

    KAUST Repository

    Galvis, Juan; Efendiev, Yalchin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study domain decomposition preconditioners for multiscale flows in high-contrast media. We consider flow equations governed by elliptic equations in heterogeneous media with a large contrast in the coefficients. Our main goal is to develop domain decomposition preconditioners with the condition number that is independent of the contrast when there are variations within coarse regions. This is accomplished by designing coarse-scale spaces and interpolators that represent important features of the solution within each coarse region. The important features are characterized by the connectivities of high-conductivity regions. To detect these connectivities, we introduce an eigenvalue problem that automatically detects high-conductivity regions via a large gap in the spectrum. A main observation is that this eigenvalue problem has a few small, asymptotically vanishing eigenvalues. The number of these small eigenvalues is the same as the number of connected high-conductivity regions. The coarse spaces are constructed such that they span eigenfunctions corresponding to these small eigenvalues. These spaces are used within two-level additive Schwarz preconditioners as well as overlapping methods for the Schur complement to design preconditioners. We show that the condition number of the preconditioned systems is independent of the contrast. More detailed studies are performed for the case when the high-conductivity region is connected within coarse block neighborhoods. Our numerical experiments confirm the theoretical results presented in this paper. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  14. Characterization of highly scattering media by measurement of diffusely backscattered polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Mourant, Judith R.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for recording spatially dependent intensity patterns of polarized light that is diffusely backscattered from highly scattering media are described. These intensity patterns can be used to differentiate different turbid media, such as polystyrene-sphere and biological-cell suspensions. Polarized light from a He-Ne laser (.lambda.=543 nm) is focused onto the surface of the scattering medium, and a surface area of approximately 4.times.4 cm centered on the light input point is imaged through polarization analysis optics onto a CCD camera. A variety of intensity patterns may be observed by varying the polarization state of the incident laser light and changing the analyzer configuration to detect different polarization components of the backscattered light. Experimental results for polystyrene-sphere and Intralipid suspensions demonstrate that the radial and azimuthal variations of the observed pattern depend on the concentration, size, and anisotropy factor, g, of the particles constituting the scattering medium. Measurements performed on biological cell suspensions show that intensity patterns can be used to differentiate between suspensions of cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Introduction of the Mueller-matrix for diffusely backscattered light, permits the selection of a subset of measurements which comprehensively describes the optical properties of backscattering media.

  15. Potential media influence on the high incidence of medical disputes from the perspective of plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiehfeng; Lin, Ching-Feng; Chen, Cha-Chun; Chiu, Shih-Feng; Shih, Fuh-Yuan; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Lee, Ming-Been

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of medical disputes among plastic surgeons in Taiwan and to elucidate their perspectives regarding the influence of medical litigation media coverage on the physician-patient relationship. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among plastic surgeons attending a series of continuing education training lectures organized by the Taiwan Society of Plastic Surgery in 2015. Of the 109 respondents, over a third (36.4%) had previously experienced a medical dispute. The vast majority of both physicians who had medical disputes (77.1%) and those who did not (72.1%) felt that the media tends to be supportive of patients in their reporting, and 37.1% of all plastic surgeons felt that the media always portrays the patient as a victim. Respondents who experienced medical disputes in this study felt that the top five leading causes of the high incidence of medical disputes were patient disappointment with procedure results (81.1%), insufficient patient psychological preparation or emotional instability (61.7%), inadequate risk communication on the part of the physician (64.9%), patient uneasiness with the procedure or perception of carelessness (60.6%), and insufficient physician training or incorrect medical evaluation (57.4%). Over a third of the respondents had previously experienced a medical dispute. This study highlights the perception among plastic surgeons that the media reporting of medical disputes and medical litigation is biased in favor of the patients, with 37.1% of the plastic surgeons surveyed opining that patients are always cast as victims. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. MAP3D: a media processor approach for high-end 3D graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsa, Lucia; Stadnicki, Steven; Basoglu, Chris

    1999-12-01

    Equator Technologies, Inc. has used a software-first approach to produce several programmable and advanced VLIW processor architectures that have the flexibility to run both traditional systems tasks and an array of media-rich applications. For example, Equator's MAP1000A is the world's fastest single-chip programmable signal and image processor targeted for digital consumer and office automation markets. The Equator MAP3D is a proposal for the architecture of the next generation of the Equator MAP family. The MAP3D is designed to achieve high-end 3D performance and a variety of customizable special effects by combining special graphics features with high performance floating-point and media processor architecture. As a programmable media processor, it offers the advantages of a completely configurable 3D pipeline--allowing developers to experiment with different algorithms and to tailor their pipeline to achieve the highest performance for a particular application. With the support of Equator's advanced C compiler and toolkit, MAP3D programs can be written in a high-level language. This allows the compiler to successfully find and exploit any parallelism in a programmer's code, thus decreasing the time to market of a given applications. The ability to run an operating system makes it possible to run concurrent applications in the MAP3D chip, such as video decoding while executing the 3D pipelines, so that integration of applications is easily achieved--using real-time decoded imagery for texturing 3D objects, for instance. This novel architecture enables an affordable, integrated solution for high performance 3D graphics.

  17. Sucrose, glucose and fructose have similar genotoxicity in the rat colon and affect the metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Baunsgaard, D.; Autrup, H.

    2008-01-01

    We have shown previously that a high sucrose intake increases the background level of somatic mutations and the level of bulky DNA adducts in the colon epithelium of rats. The mechanism may involve either glucose or fructose formed by hydrolysis of sucrose. Male Big Blue (R) rats were fed 30......% sucrose, glucose, fructose or potato starch as part of the diet. Mutation rates and bulky DNA adduct levels were determined in colon and liver. The concentration of short-chain fatty acids and pH were deter-mined in caecum, C-peptide was determined in plasma, biomarkers for oxidative damage....... The metabonomic studies indicated disturbed amino acid metabolism and decrease in plasma and urinary acetate as a common feature for all sugars and confirmed triglyceridemic effects of fructose. In conclusion, the genotoxicity may be related to the altered chemical environment in the caecum and thereby also...

  18. Improving axial resolution in confocal microscopy with new high refractive index mounting media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Coralie; Gilles, Jean-François; Heck, Nicolas; Dos Santos, Marc; Schwartzmann, Richard; Cannaya, Vidjeacoumary; Morel, Marie-Pierre; Davidson, Robert Stephen; Trembleau, Alain; Bolte, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Resolution, high signal intensity and elevated signal to noise ratio (SNR) are key issues for biologists who aim at studying the localisation of biological structures at the cellular and subcellular levels using confocal microscopy. The resolution required to separate sub-cellular biological structures is often near to the resolving power of the microscope. When optimally used, confocal microscopes may reach resolutions of 180 nm laterally and 500 nm axially, however, axial resolution in depth is often impaired by spherical aberration that may occur due to refractive index mismatches. Spherical aberration results in broadening of the point-spread function (PSF), a decrease in peak signal intensity when imaging in depth and a focal shift that leads to the distortion of the image along the z-axis and thus in a scaling error. In this study, we use the novel mounting medium CFM3 (Citifluor Ltd., UK) with a refractive index of 1.518 to minimize the effects of spherical aberration. This mounting medium is compatible with most common fluorochromes and fluorescent proteins. We compare its performance with established mounting media, harbouring refractive indices below 1.500, by estimating lateral and axial resolution with sub-resolution fluorescent beads. We show furthermore that the use of the high refractive index media renders the tissue transparent and improves considerably the axial resolution and imaging depth in immuno-labelled or fluorescent protein labelled fixed mouse brain tissue. We thus propose to use those novel high refractive index mounting media, whenever optimal axial resolution is required.

  19. Improving axial resolution in confocal microscopy with new high refractive index mounting media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Fouquet

    Full Text Available Resolution, high signal intensity and elevated signal to noise ratio (SNR are key issues for biologists who aim at studying the localisation of biological structures at the cellular and subcellular levels using confocal microscopy. The resolution required to separate sub-cellular biological structures is often near to the resolving power of the microscope. When optimally used, confocal microscopes may reach resolutions of 180 nm laterally and 500 nm axially, however, axial resolution in depth is often impaired by spherical aberration that may occur due to refractive index mismatches. Spherical aberration results in broadening of the point-spread function (PSF, a decrease in peak signal intensity when imaging in depth and a focal shift that leads to the distortion of the image along the z-axis and thus in a scaling error. In this study, we use the novel mounting medium CFM3 (Citifluor Ltd., UK with a refractive index of 1.518 to minimize the effects of spherical aberration. This mounting medium is compatible with most common fluorochromes and fluorescent proteins. We compare its performance with established mounting media, harbouring refractive indices below 1.500, by estimating lateral and axial resolution with sub-resolution fluorescent beads. We show furthermore that the use of the high refractive index media renders the tissue transparent and improves considerably the axial resolution and imaging depth in immuno-labelled or fluorescent protein labelled fixed mouse brain tissue. We thus propose to use those novel high refractive index mounting media, whenever optimal axial resolution is required.

  20. Sucrose in the concentrated solution or the supercooled “State”: A review of caramelisation reactions and physical behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Quintas, M. A. C.; Fundo, J. F.; Silva, C. L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Sucrose is probably one of the most studied molecules by food scientists, since it plays an important role as an ingredient or preserving agent in many formulations and technological processes. When sucrose is present in a product with a concentration near or greater than the saturation point—i.e. in the supercooled state—it possesses high potentialities for the food industry in areas as different as pastry industry, dairy and frozen desserts or films and coatings production. This paper prese...

  1. The penetration, diffusion and energy deposition of high-energy photon in layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhengming, Luo; Chengjun, Gou; Laub, Wolfram

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory for calculating the transport of high-energy photons and their secondary charged particles. We call this new algorithm characteristic line method, which is completely analytic. Using this new method we can not only accurately calculate the transport behavior of energetic photons, but also precisely describes the transport behavior and energy deposition of secondary electrons, photoelectrons, Compton recoil electrons and positron-electron pairs. Its calculation efficiency is much higher than the Monte Carlo method's. The theory can be directly applied to layered media situation and obtain a pencil-beam-modeled solution. Therefore, it may be applied to clinical applications for radiation therapy

  2. Highly clickable web banner ads for customers of Advertising Media Finland OY

    OpenAIRE

    Deresse, Filagot Gizaw

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to do a research and suggest ways how “Advertising Media Finland OY” can provide high click through rates for its customer ads. The background information was based on the meeting with the commissionaire, it was decided that I should focus on banner advertising, colors, sizes, timing, product decision, and price. At the last chapter, I was to give campaign ideas and suggested some points based up on desktop research, e-books, books and journals. The main results t...

  3. The effect of injection of high K+ solution into scala media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, T; Ohmura, M; Yagi, N

    1987-01-01

    Thirty guinea pig ears were studied to investigate the effect of endolymphatic hydrops on the cochlea. High K+ solution was injected into the scala media, and cochlear microphonics (CM) and endocochlear potential (EP) were observed before, during and after the injection. The CM amplitude decreased rapidly after injection, ending in a depressed plateau value. By contrast, EP remained almost unchanged. By changing the composition of the solution it was suggested that the effect of the injection was mechanical one, rather than biochemical. In three ears, spontaneous recovery of CM was observed during a relatively long interval after the injection. The meaning of these findings for the hearing loss in Meniere's disease is discussed.

  4. An analysis of superluminal propagation becoming subluminal in highly dispersive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, L.

    2018-05-01

    In this article the time-moments of the Poynting vector associated with an electromagnetic pulse are used to characterize the traversal time and the pulse width as the pulse propagates through highly dispersive media. The behaviour of these quantities with propagation distance is analyzed in two physical cases: Lorentz absorptive medium, and Raman gain doublet amplifying medium. It is found that the superluminal pulse propagation in these two cases with anomalous dispersion is always accompanied by pulse compression and eventually the pulse becomes subluminal with increasing distance of propagation.

  5. Functional characterization of sucrose phosphorylase and scrR, a regulator of sucrose metabolism in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Januana S; Abdi, Reihaneh; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri harbours alternative enzymes for sucrose metabolism, sucrose phosphorylase, fructansucrases, and glucansucrases. Sucrose phosphorylase and fructansucrases additionally contribute to raffinose metabolism. Glucansucrases and fructansucrases produce exopolysaccharides as alternative to sucrose hydrolysis. L. reuteri LTH5448 expresses a levansucrase (ftfA) and sucrose phosphorylase (scrP), both are inducible by sucrose. This study determined the contribution of scrP to sucrose and raffinose metabolism in L. reuteri LTH5448, and elucidated the role of scrR in regulation sucrose metabolism. Disruption of scrP and scrR was achieved by double crossover mutagenesis. L. reuteri LTH5448, LTH5448ΔscrP and LTH5448ΔscrR were characterized with respect to growth and metabolite formation with glucose, sucrose, or raffinose as sole carbon source. Inactivation of scrR led to constitutive transcription of scrP and ftfA, demonstrating that scrR is negative regulator. L. reuteri LTH5448 and the LTH5448ΔscrP or LTH5448ΔscrR mutant strains did not differ with respect to glucose, sucrose or raffinose utilization. However, L. reuteri LTH5448ΔscrP produced more levan, indicating that the lack of sucrose phosphorylase is compensated by an increased metabolic flux through levansucrase. In conclusion, the presence of alternate pathways for sucrose and raffinose metabolism and their regulation indicate that these substrates, which are abundant in plants, are preferred carbohydrate sources for L. reuteri. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High Frequency Asymptotic Methods for Traveltimes and Anisotropy Parameter Estimation in Azimuthally Varying Media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil

    2014-05-01

    Traveltimes are conventionally evaluated by solving the zero-order approximation of the Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin (WKB) expansion of the wave equation. This high frequency approximation is good enough for most imaging applications and provides us with a traveltime equation called the eikonal equation. The eikonal equation is a non-linear partial differential equation which can be solved by any of the familiar numerical methods. Among the most popular of these methods is the method of characteristics which yields the ray tracing equations and the finite difference approaches. In the first part of the Master Thesis, we use the ray tracing method to solve the eikonal equation to get P-waves traveltimes for orthorhombic models with arbitrary orientation of symmetry planes. We start with a ray tracing procedure specified in curvilinear coordinate system valid for anisotropy of arbitrary symmetry. The coordinate system is constructed so that the coordinate lines are perpendicular to the symmetry planes of an orthorohombic medium. Advantages of this approach are the conservation of orthorhombic symmetry throughout the model and reduction of the number of parameters specifying the model. We combine this procedure with first-order ray tracing and dynamic ray tracing equations for P waves propagating in smooth, inhomogeneous, weakly anisotropic media. The first-order ray tracing and dynamic ray tracing equations are derived from the exact ones by replacing the exact P-wave eigenvalue of the Christoffel matrix by its first-order approximation. In the second part of the Master Thesis, we compute traveltimes using the fast marching method and we develop an approach to estimate the anisotropy parameters. The idea is to relate them analytically to traveltimes which is challenging in inhomogeneous media. Using perturbation theory, we develop traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with horizontal symmetry axis (HTI) as explicit functions of the

  7. Large scale modulation of high frequency acoustic waves in periodic porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Claude; Rallu, Antoine; Hans, Stephane

    2012-12-01

    This paper deals with the description of the modulation at large scale of high frequency acoustic waves in gas saturated periodic porous media. High frequencies mean local dynamics at the pore scale and therefore absence of scale separation in the usual sense of homogenization. However, although the pressure is spatially varying in the pores (according to periodic eigenmodes), the mode amplitude can present a large scale modulation, thereby introducing another type of scale separation to which the asymptotic multi-scale procedure applies. The approach is first presented on a periodic network of inter-connected Helmholtz resonators. The equations governing the modulations carried by periodic eigenmodes, at frequencies close to their eigenfrequency, are derived. The number of cells on which the carrying periodic mode is defined is therefore a parameter of the modeling. In a second part, the asymptotic approach is developed for periodic porous media saturated by a perfect gas. Using the "multicells" periodic condition, one obtains the family of equations governing the amplitude modulation at large scale of high frequency waves. The significant difference between modulations of simple and multiple mode are evidenced and discussed. The features of the modulation (anisotropy, width of frequency band) are also analyzed.

  8. Mode decomposition methods for flows in high-contrast porous media. Global-local approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi; Presho, Michael; Calo, Victor M.; Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we combine concepts of the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) and mode decomposition methods to construct a robust global-local approach for model reduction of flows in high-contrast porous media. This is achieved by implementing Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) techniques on a coarse grid computed using GMsFEM. The resulting reduced-order approach enables a significant reduction in the flow problem size while accurately capturing the behavior of fully-resolved solutions. We consider a variety of high-contrast coefficients and present the corresponding numerical results to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. This paper is a continuation of our work presented in Ghommem et al. (2013) [1] where we examine the applicability of POD and DMD to derive simplified and reliable representations of flows in high-contrast porous media on fully resolved models. In the current paper, we discuss how these global model reduction approaches can be combined with local techniques to speed-up the simulations. The speed-up is due to inexpensive, while sufficiently accurate, computations of global snapshots. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Mode decomposition methods for flows in high-contrast porous media. Global-local approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we combine concepts of the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) and mode decomposition methods to construct a robust global-local approach for model reduction of flows in high-contrast porous media. This is achieved by implementing Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) techniques on a coarse grid computed using GMsFEM. The resulting reduced-order approach enables a significant reduction in the flow problem size while accurately capturing the behavior of fully-resolved solutions. We consider a variety of high-contrast coefficients and present the corresponding numerical results to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. This paper is a continuation of our work presented in Ghommem et al. (2013) [1] where we examine the applicability of POD and DMD to derive simplified and reliable representations of flows in high-contrast porous media on fully resolved models. In the current paper, we discuss how these global model reduction approaches can be combined with local techniques to speed-up the simulations. The speed-up is due to inexpensive, while sufficiently accurate, computations of global snapshots. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  10. Sucrose transport and phloem unloading in stem of Vicia faba: possible involvement of a sucrose carrier and osmotic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloni, B.; Wyse, R.E.; Griffith, S.

    1986-01-01

    After pulse labeling of a source leaf with 14 CO 2 , stem sections of Vicia faba plants were cut and the efflux characteristics of 14 C-labeled sugars into various buffered solutions were determined. Radiolabeled sucrose was shown to remain localized in the phloem and adjacent phloem parenchyma tissues after a 2-hour chase. Therefore, sucrose leakage from stem segments prepared following a 75-minute chase period was assumed to be characteristic of phloem unloading. The efflux of 14 C assimilates from the phloem was enhanced by 1 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) and by 5 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenly hydrazone (CCCP). However, PCMBS inhibited and CCCP enhanced general leakage of nonradioactive sugars from the stem segments. Sucrose at concentrations of 50 millimolar in the free space increased efflux of [ 14 C]sucrose, presumably through an exchange mechanism. This exchange was inhibited by PCMBS and abolished by 0.2 molar mannitol. Increasing the osmotic concentration of the efflux medium with mannitol reduced [ 14 C]sucrose efflux. However, this inhibition seems not to be specific to sucrose unloading since leakage of total sugars, nonlabeled sucrose, glucose, and amino acids from the bulk of the tissue was reduced in a similar manner. The data suggest that phloem unloading in cut stem segments is consistent with passive efflux of sucrose from the phloem to the apoplast and that sucrose exchange via a membrane carrier may be involved

  11. Compartmentation of sucrose during radial transfer in mature sorghum culm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vietor Donald M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sucrose that accumulates in the culm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and other large tropical andropogonoid grasses can be of commercial value, and can buffer assimilate supply during development. Previous study conducted with intact plants showed that sucrose can be radially transferred to the intracellular compartment of mature ripening sorghum internode without being hydrolysed. In this study, culm-infused radiolabelled sucrose was traced between cellular compartments and among related metabolites to determine if the compartmental path of sucrose during radial transfer in culm tissue was symplasmic or included an apoplasmic step. This transfer path was evaluated for elongating and ripening culm tissue of intact plants of two semidwarf grain sorghums. The metabolic path in elongating internode tissue was also evaluated. Results On the day after culm infusion of the tracer sucrose, the specific radioactivity of sucrose recovered from the intracellular compartment of growing axillary-branch tissue was greater (nearly twice than that in the free space, indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through symplasmic routes. In contrast, the sucrose specific radioactivity in the intracellular compartment of the mature (ripening culm tissue was probably less (about 3/4's than that in free space indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through routes that included an apoplasmic step. In growing internodes of the axillary branch of sorghum, the tritium label initially provided in the fructose moiety of sucrose molecules was largely (81% recovered in the fructose moiety, indicating that a large portion of sucrose molecules is not hydrolysed and resynthesized during radial transfer. Conclusion During radial transfer of sucrose in ripening internodes of intact sorghum plants, much of the sucrose is transferred intact (without hydrolysis and resynthesis and primarily through a path that includes an

  12. Impact of Adolescent Sucrose Access on Cognitive Control, Recognition Memory, and Parvalbumin Immunoreactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C.; Killcross, Simon; Hambly, Luke D.; Morris, Margaret J.; Westbrook, R. Fred

    2015-01-01

    In this study we sought to determine the effect of daily sucrose consumption in young rats on their subsequent performance in tasks that involve the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. High levels of sugar consumption have been associated with the development of obesity, however less is known about how sugar consumption influences behavioral…

  13. Injectable Colloidal Gold in a Sucrose Acetate Isobutyrate Gelating Matrix with Potential Use in Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølck, Rasmus Irming; Binderup, Tina; Hansen, Anders Elias

    2014-01-01

    and sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) with improved properties compared to current solid fiducial markers. The developed nanogel is investigated in vitro and subsequently evaluated in vivo in immunocompetent NMRI mice. The nanogel shows high CT-contrast and excellent stability in vivo over a period of 12...

  14. Sugar-Mediated Acclimation: The Importance of Sucrose Metabolism in Meristems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentier, S.C.; Vertommen, A.; Swennen, R.; Witters, E.; Fortes, C.; Souza, M.T.; Panis, B.

    2010-01-01

    We have designed an in vitro experimental setup to study the role of sucrose in sugar-mediated acclimation of banana meristems using established highly proliferating meristem cultures. It is a first step toward the systems biology of a meristem and the understanding of how it can survive severe

  15. Trans-generational desensitization and within-generational resensitization of a sucrose-best neuron in the polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Tang, Qingbo; Zhang, Xuening; Zhao, Xincheng; Yan, Fengming; van Loon, Joop J A

    2016-12-14

    Dietary exposure of insects to a feeding deterrent substance for hours to days can induce habituation and concomitant desensitization of the response of peripheral gustatory neurons to such a substance. In the present study, larvae of the herbivore Helicoverpa armigera were fed on diets containing either a high, medium or low concentration of sucrose, a major feeding stimulant. The responsiveness of the sucrose-best neuron in the lateral sensilla styloconica on the galea was quantified. Results showed the response of the sucrose-best neuron exposed to high-sucrose diets decreased gradually over successive generations, resulting in complete desensitization in the 5 th and subsequent generations. However, the sensitivity was completely restored in the ninth generation after neonate larvae were exposed to low-sucrose diet. These findings demonstrate phenotypic plasticity and exclude inadvertent artificial selection for low sensitivity to sucrose. No significant changes were found in the sensitivity of caterpillars which experienced low- or medium-sucrose diets over the same generations. Such desensitization versus re-sensitization did not generalise to the phagosimulant myo-inositol-sensitive neuron or the feeding deterrent-sensitive neuron. Our results demonstrate that under conditions of high sucrose availability trans-generational desensitization of a neuron sensitive to this feeding stimulant becomes more pronounced whereas re-sensitization occurs within one generation.

  16. A constrained Delaunay discretization method for adaptively meshing highly discontinuous geological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Ma, Guowei; Ren, Feng; Li, Tuo

    2017-12-01

    A constrained Delaunay discretization method is developed to generate high-quality doubly adaptive meshes of highly discontinuous geological media. Complex features such as three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFNs), tunnels, shafts, slopes, boreholes, water curtains, and drainage systems are taken into account in the mesh generation. The constrained Delaunay triangulation method is used to create adaptive triangular elements on planar fractures. Persson's algorithm (Persson, 2005), based on an analogy between triangular elements and spring networks, is enriched to automatically discretize a planar fracture into mesh points with varying density and smooth-quality gradient. The triangulated planar fractures are treated as planar straight-line graphs (PSLGs) to construct piecewise-linear complex (PLC) for constrained Delaunay tetrahedralization. This guarantees the doubly adaptive characteristic of the resulted mesh: the mesh is adaptive not only along fractures but also in space. The quality of elements is compared with the results from an existing method. It is verified that the present method can generate smoother elements and a better distribution of element aspect ratios. Two numerical simulations are implemented to demonstrate that the present method can be applied to various simulations of complex geological media that contain a large number of discontinuities.

  17. DEVELOPING OF INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA-BASED ANIMATION VIDEO ON ENZYME AND METABOLISM MATERIAL IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mustofa Yusuf

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to product a learning material related to animation video on enzyme and metabolism material for high school student which is validated by media and material experts, educational practition and student legibility. Research and development model is ADDIE with quantitative-qualitative data analyzing methode. Data collection was obtained from validation results by media and material experts, educational partition and student legibility. The validation results were scores and suggestion. The percentage of product from expert media validation (100%, expert material validation (89,58%, educational practition (84,61%, and student legibility (81,91% showed valid of the criteria and feasible to use after revision.

  18. Highly organic natural media as permeable reactive barriers: TCE partitioning and anaerobic degradation profile in eucalyptus mulch and compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Zuhal; Tansel, Berrin; Katsenovich, Yelena; Sukop, Michael; Laha, Shonali

    2012-10-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted with eucalyptus mulch and commercial compost to evaluate suitability of highly organic natural media to support anaerobic decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. Experimental data for TCE and its dechlorination byproducts were analyzed with Hydrus-1D model to estimate the partitioning and kinetic parameters for the sequential dechlorination reactions during TCE decomposition. The highly organic natural media allowed development of a bioactive zone capable of decomposing TCE under anaerobic conditions. The first order TCE biodecomposition reaction rates were 0.23 and 1.2d(-1) in eucalyptus mulch and compost media, respectively. The retardation factors in the eucalyptus mulch and compost columns for TCE were 35 and 301, respectively. The results showed that natural organic soil amendments can effectively support the anaerobic bioactive zone for remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater. The natural organic media are effective environmentally sustainable materials for use in permeable reactive barriers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sequence analysis of cereal sucrose synthase genes and isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... sequencing of sucrose synthase gene fragment from sor- ghum using primers designed at their conserved exons. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Multiple sequence alignment. Sucrose synthase gene sequences of various cereals like rice, maize, and barley were accessed from NCBI Genbank database.

  20. Comparative Sucrose Responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana Foragers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Kuang, Haiou; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhenhong; Tian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zachary Y.; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER) assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources. PMID:24194958

  1. Comparative sucrose responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Kuang, Haiou; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhenhong; Tian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zachary Y; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER) assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources.

  2. Comparative sucrose responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana foragers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Yang

    Full Text Available In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources.

  3. Functionality of Inulin as a Sucrose Replacer in Cookie Baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin was evaluated as a sucrose replacer for healthy cookie production with benefits of low glycemic impact and prebiotic soluble fiber. Sucrose (as a reference) and three inulin products of different concentrations (as soluble fibers) were used to explore the effects of sugar-replacer type on so...

  4. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of sucrose esters on the physicochemical properties of wheat starch. Methods: Sucrose ester was mixed with wheat starch extracted from normal soft wheat cultivars and heated. Change in starch properties arising from the interaction between were assessed for starch blue value, viscosity ...

  5. Sucrose and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a relationship most sweet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Raghavendran, Vijayendran; Stambuk, Boris Ugarte; Gombert, Andreas Karoly

    2016-02-01

    Sucrose is an abundant, readily available and inexpensive substrate for industrial biotechnology processes and its use is demonstrated with much success in the production of fuel ethanol in Brazil. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which naturally evolved to efficiently consume sugars such as sucrose, is one of the most important cell factories due to its robustness, stress tolerance, genetic accessibility, simple nutrient requirements and long history as an industrial workhorse. This minireview is focused on sucrose metabolism in S. cerevisiae, a rather unexplored subject in the scientific literature. An analysis of sucrose availability in nature and yeast sugar metabolism was performed, in order to understand the molecular background that makes S. cerevisiae consume this sugar efficiently. A historical overview on the use of sucrose and S. cerevisiae by humans is also presented considering sugarcane and sugarbeet as the main sources of this carbohydrate. Physiological aspects of sucrose consumption are compared with those concerning other economically relevant sugars. Also, metabolic engineering efforts to alter sucrose catabolism are presented in a chronological manner. In spite of its extensive use in yeast-based industries, a lot of basic and applied research on sucrose metabolism is imperative, mainly in fields such as genetics, physiology and metabolic engineering. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Citrate increases glass transition temperature of vitrified sucrose preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.; Lipelaar, P.J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Vromans, H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium citrate on the properties of dried amorphous sucrose glasses. Addition of sodium citrate to a sucrose solution followed by freeze-drying or convective drying resulted in a glass transition temperature (T-g) that was higher than the

  7. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To understand the role of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system in the biomineralization process, we have tested the influence of different concentration of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin (BSA) on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. The CaCO3 crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscope ...

  8. Additive effects of CuSO4 and aromatic compounds on laccase production by Pleurotus sajor-caju PS-2001 using sucrose as a carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bettin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Laccase enzymes are now commercially available, and a laccase/mediator combination is currently marketed for indigo dye bleaching in textile manufacturing; replacing traditional chemical-based processes with enzymatic technology reduces the need for effluent treatment. However, an inexpensive source of these enzymes will be needed to enable wider application of this technology. In the present work, the main objective was to increase laccase production by the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju strain PS-2001 grown on sucrose derived from sugar cane, one of most economical carbon sources known, by the addition of compounds that are known to affect laccase production. High laccase activities (45-62 U mL-1 were obtained with additions of syringaldazine, benzoic acid, gallic acid, and vanillin. When CuSO4 was used in conjunction with these aromatic compounds, the levels of laccase activity were further improved, reaching 58-80 U mL-1. These laccase activities indicate the potential of this strain as an enzyme producer, which has also been detected in media containing glucose, but with activity lower than that observed with sucrose.

  9. Kestose:sucrose fructosyl transfer - a potential problem in the investigation of fructan and sucrose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanabus, J.; Carpita, N.C.; Housley, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    Wheat leaves can be induced by excision to produce fructans. Fructose residues of newly made oligofructans in leaves labeled in vivo with 14 CO 2 are not equally labeled. We report here on a fructosyl transferase activity in wheat leaves catalyzing the reaction: G * -F * + G-F-F = G * -F * -F + G-F. This activity, described previously in J. artichoke was attributed to fructan:fructan fructosyl transferase (FFT). The rate of this reaction in vitro is much higher than that of net kestose synthesis by SST. Hence, appearance of labeled 1-kestose from sucrose may not be an accurate measure of SST, but a curious reshuffling of hexoses between pools of 1-kestose and sucrose

  10. Effect of sucrose concentration on the products of Kombucha fermentation on molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbaša, R; Lončar, E; Djurić, M; Došenović, I

    2008-06-01

    Fermentation of 1.5g/l of Indian black tea, sweetened with adequate quantities of molasses (containing approx. 70g/l, 50g/l and 35g/l of sucrose), was conducted using domestic Kombucha. Inoculation was performed with 10% of fermentation broth from a previous process. The fermentation in cylindrical vessels containing 2l of liquid phase, was carried out at 22±1°C for 14 days, with periodical sampling, to measure pH, content of acids (total, acetic and l-lactic), content of remaining sucrose, and the yield of biomass at the end of fermentation. A product with 70g/l sucrose from molasses corresponds to an optimal concentration of carbon source, which provided metabolites with high pH, a low content of less desired acetic acid, a high content of highly desired l-lactic acid, an acceptable content of total acids and the highest possible level of utilisation of sucrose. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Going against the Grain: Gender-Specific Media Education in Catholic High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapayese, Yvette V.

    2012-01-01

    The Catholic Church has addressed the power of media, as well as the critical importance of understanding and educating Catholic youth on the media's role and place in modern culture. In this article, the narratives of female Catholic teachers are prioritized to illustrate how gender-specific media education influences the schooling experiences of…

  12. In vitro Dendrobium nobile plant growth and rooting in different sucrose concentrations Crescimento e enraizamento in vitro de plântulas de Dendrobium nobile sob diversas concentrações de sacarose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo T. de Faria

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose is a very important component in in vitro culture media, serving as a source of carbon and energy. In this paper, the rooting and in vitro growth of Dendrobium nobile Lindl (Orchidaceae were studied using different sucrose concentrations (0 g L-1; 5 g L-1; 10 g L-1; 20 g L-1; 30 g L-1 and 60 g L-1, in a modified MS medium containing half the regular concentration of macronutrients at pH 5.8. Greater increases in plant height (4.21±0.6 cm and high seedling multiplication (1:4 were observed in the 60 g L-1 sucrose treatment, even without the addition of plant hormones. Sucrose concentration in the culture medium did not influence in vitro plant rooting.A sacarose é um componente muito importante no meio de cultura servindo como fonte de carbono e energia. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o crescimento e enraizamento in vitro de plântulas de Dendrobium nobile Lindl. (Orchidaceae cultivadas em diferentes concentrações de sacarose (0 g L-1, 5 g L-1; 10 g L-1; 20 g L-1; 30 g L-1 e 60 g L-1, utilizando como base o meio MS com metade da concentração de macronutrientes e pH 5,8. No tratamento com 60 g L-1 de sacarose observou-se maior crescimento em altura (4,21 ± 0,9 cm assim como uma alta taxa de multiplicação de mudas (1:4 mesmo sem adição de fitorreguladores. O acréscimo de sacarose no meio de cultura não influenciou o enraizamento in vitro das plantas.

  13. Multi-scale high-performance fluid flow: Simulations through porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Perović, Nevena

    2016-08-03

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations on geometrically complex domains such as porous media require high geometric discretisation for accurately capturing the tested physical phenomena. Moreover, when considering a large area and analysing local effects, it is necessary to deploy a multi-scale approach that is both memory-intensive and time-consuming. Hence, this type of analysis must be conducted on a high-performance parallel computing infrastructure. In this paper, the coupling of two different scales based on the Navier–Stokes equations and Darcy\\'s law is described followed by the generation of complex geometries, and their discretisation and numerical treatment. Subsequently, the necessary parallelisation techniques and a rather specific tool, which is capable of retrieving data from the supercomputing servers and visualising them during the computation runtime (i.e. in situ) are described. All advantages and possible drawbacks of this approach, together with the preliminary results and sensitivity analyses are discussed in detail.

  14. High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Kondo, Takao; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Furuki, Motohiro; Takeda, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Shimouma, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2004-09-01

    We developed a high density near field optical recording disc system with a solid immersion lens and two laser sources. In order to realize the near field optical recording, we used a phase change recording media and a molded polycarbonate substrate. The near field optical pick-up consists of a solid immersion lens with numerical aperture of 1.84. The clear eye pattern of 90.2 GB capacity (160nm track pitch and 62 nm per bit) was observed. The jitter using a limit equalizer was 10.0 % without cross-talk. The bit error rate using an adaptive PRML with 8 taps was 3.7e-6 without cross-talk. We confirmed that the near field optical disc system is a promising technology for a next generation high density optical disc system.

  15. Cover-layer with High Refractive Index for Near-Field Recording Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jun-Seok

    2007-06-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles are added into UV-curable resin to increase the refractive index of the cover-layer laminated for cover-layer incident near-field recording media. A high refractive index is required for the cover-layer operating with an optical head with a high numerical aperture. The eye pattern from a cover-layer coated 20 GB read-only memory disc in which the refractive index of the cover-layer is 1.75 is achieved, but the gap servo is unstable owing to the rough surface of the cover-layer. Even though the light loss due to the nanoparticles is negligible, a rough microstructure is developed by adding the nanoparticles into an organic binder material. To achieve a smooth surface for a stable gap servo, the solubility of the nanoparticles should be enhanced by the optimization of the surface of the nanoparticles.

  16. Multi-scale high-performance fluid flow: Simulations through porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Perović, Nevena; Frisch, Jé rô me; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu; Rank, Ernst; Mundani, Ralf Peter

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations on geometrically complex domains such as porous media require high geometric discretisation for accurately capturing the tested physical phenomena. Moreover, when considering a large area and analysing local effects, it is necessary to deploy a multi-scale approach that is both memory-intensive and time-consuming. Hence, this type of analysis must be conducted on a high-performance parallel computing infrastructure. In this paper, the coupling of two different scales based on the Navier–Stokes equations and Darcy's law is described followed by the generation of complex geometries, and their discretisation and numerical treatment. Subsequently, the necessary parallelisation techniques and a rather specific tool, which is capable of retrieving data from the supercomputing servers and visualising them during the computation runtime (i.e. in situ) are described. All advantages and possible drawbacks of this approach, together with the preliminary results and sensitivity analyses are discussed in detail.

  17. F-Element ion chelation in highly basic media. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    'A large percentage of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) produced in the DOE complex over the last thirty years temporarily resides in storage tanks maintained at highly basic pH. The final permanent waste remediation plan will probably require that liquid and solid fractions be chemically treated in order to partition and concentrate the dominate hazardous emitters from the bulk of the waste. This is no small task. Indeed, there does not exist a well developed molecular chemistry knowledge base to guide the development of suitable separations for actinide and fission products present in the strongly basic media. The goal of this project is to undertake fundamental studies of the coordination chemistry of f-element ions and their species formed in basic aqueous solutions containing common waste treatment ions (e.g., NO 3 - , CO 3 2- , organic carboxylates, and EDTA), as well as new waste scrubbing chelators produced in this study.'

  18. Media coverage of violence against women in India: a systematic study of a high profile rape case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mark; Mostofian, Fargol; Jetly, Rajeev; Puthukudy, Nazar; Madden, Kim; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-01-22

    On December 16, 2012 a 23 year old female was gang-raped on a bus in Delhi. We systematically reviewed professional online media sources used to inform the timing, breadth of coverage, opinions and consistency in the depiction of events surrounding the gang-rape. We searched two news databases (LexisNexis Academic and Factivia) and individual newspapers for English-language published media reports covering the gang-rape. Two reviewers screened the media reports and extracted data regarding the time, location and content of each report. Results were summarized qualitatively. We identified 534 published media reports. Of these, 351 met our eligibility criteria. Based on a time chart, the total number of reports published increased steadily through December, but plateaued to a steady rate of articles per day by the first week of January. Content analysis revealed significant discrepancies between various media reports. From the 57 articles which discussed opinions about the victim, 56% applauded her bravery, 40% discussed outrage over the events and 11% discussed cases of victim-blaming. The global media response of the December 16th gang-rape in India resulted in highly inconsistent depiction of the events. These findings suggest that although the spread of information through media is fast, it has major limitations.

  19. Time-resolved diffusion tomographic 2D and 3D imaging in highly scattering turbid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Robert R. (Inventor); Cai, Wei (Inventor); Gayen, Swapan K. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method for imaging objects in highly scattering turbid media. According to one embodiment of the invention, the method involves using a plurality of intersecting source/detectors sets and time-resolving equipment to generate a plurality of time-resolved intensity curves for the diffusive component of light emergent from the medium. For each of the curves, the intensities at a plurality of times are then inputted into the following inverse reconstruction algorithm to form an image of the medium: wherein W is a matrix relating output at source and detector positions r.sub.s and r.sub.d, at time t, to position r, .LAMBDA. is a regularization matrix, chosen for convenience to be diagonal, but selected in a way related to the ratio of the noise, to fluctuations in the absorption (or diffusion) X.sub.j that we are trying to determine: .LAMBDA..sub.ij =.lambda..sub.j .delta..sub.ij with .lambda..sub.j =/ Y is the data collected at the detectors, and X.sup.k is the kth iterate toward the desired absorption information. An algorithm, which combines a two dimensional (2D) matrix inversion with a one-dimensional (1D) Fourier transform inversion is used to obtain images of three dimensional hidden objects in turbid scattering media.

  20. The role of microRNA399 and sucrose in physiological responses to phosphate deficiency in Arabidopsis thalina plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Mohammadsaleh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are noncoding small RNAs that generally function as posttranscriptional negative regulators. The miRNAs play a direct role in plant responses to many types of environmental stresses. For example miR399 had a role in response to Pi deficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR399 and sucrose in some physiological responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to phosphate deficiency. Therefore, miR399-overexpressing transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis plants were used. The plant seeds were cultured on the Suc+Pi+ (S+P+, Suc-Pi+ (S-P+, Suc+Pi- (S+P- and Suc-Pi- (S-P- media. Pi+ and Pi- refer to 1.2 mM and 10 µM Pi, respectively and Suc+ or Suc- are media culture with 1% sucrose or without. The results showed that sucrose and miR399 had a dramatic effect on root architecture so that primary root length and its branches on S-P+ medium were significantly reduced in over expressed as compared with wild type plants. The highest anthocyanin and starch accumulation was achieved in S+P- media in both plant types. However, miR399 over expression was resulted in significant rise in anthocyanin accumulation on S-P- medium in transgenic relative to wild type plants. In addition, miR399 was resulted in significant rise in free phosphorous level in all types' media. compared to wild type. These results were probably due to the role of sucrose and miR399 in signalling pathway during phosphate starvation in Arabidopsis plant.

  1. Kinetically Determined Hygroscopicity and Efflorescence of Sucrose-Ammonium Sulfate Aerosol Droplets under Lower Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Na; Cai, Chen; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2017-09-14

    Organic aerosols will likely form in semisolid, glassy, and high viscous state in the atmosphere, which show nonequilibrium kinetic characteristics at low relative humidity (RH) conditions. In this study, we applied optical tweezers to investigate the water transport in a sucrose/(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 droplet with high organic to inorganic mole ratio (OIR). The characteristic time ratio between the droplet radius and the RH was used to describe the water mass transfer difference dependent on RH. For OIR greater than 1:1 in sucrose/(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 droplets, the characteristic time ratio at low RH (∼60%). We also coupled vacuum FTIR spectrometer and a high-speed photography to study the efflorescence process in sucrose/(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 droplets with low OIR. The crystalline fraction of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 was used to understand efflorescence behavior when the RH was linearly decreasing with a velocity of 1.2% RH min -1 . Because of suppression of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 nucleation by addition of sucrose, the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 decrease from the range of ∼48.2% to ∼36.1% for pure (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 droplets to from ∼44.7% to ∼25.4%, from ∼43.2% to ∼21.2%, and from ∼41.7% to ∼21.1% for the mixed droplets with OIR of 1:4, 1:3, and 1:2, respectively. No crystallization was observed when the OIR is higher than 1:1. Suppression of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 crystal growth was also observed under high viscous sucrose/(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 droplets at lower RH.

  2. Low osmolar (non-ionic) contrast media versus high osmolar (ionic) contrast media in intravenous urography and enhanced computerized tomography: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsuphachart, S

    1991-12-01

    The cost-effectiveness of three alternative policies for the use of intravenous contrast media for urography and enhanced computerized tomography (CT) are analyzed. Alternative #1 is to use high osmolar contrast media (HOCM) in all patients, the historical policy. Alternative #2 is to replace it with low osmolar contrast media (LOCM) in all patients. Alternative #3 is to use LOCM only in the high risk patients. Data on the 6,242 patients who underwent intravenous urography and enhanced CT at the Department of Radiology, Chulalongkorn Hospital in 1989 were used. Both societal and hospital viewpoints were analyzed. The incremental cost-effectiveness (ICE) between #2 and #1 was 26,739 Baht (US$1,070) per healthy day saved (HDS), while the ICE between #3 and #1 was 12,057 Baht (US$482) per HDS. For fatal cases only, ICE between #2 and #1 was 35,111 Baht (US$1,404) per HDS, while the ICE between #3 and #1 was 18,266 Baht (US$731) per HDS. The incremental cost (IC) per patient was 2,341 Baht (US$94) and 681 Baht (US$27) respectively. For the hospital viewpoint the ICE between #2 and #1 was 13,744 (US$550) and between #3 and #1 was 6,127 Baht (US$245) per HDS. The IC per patient was 1,203 Baht (US$48) and 346 Baht (US$14), respectively. From the sensitivity analysis, #3 should be used if the LOCM price is reduced more than 75% (equal to 626 Baht or less) and more than 80% of the patients are able to pay for the contrast media.

  3. Failure of sucrose replacement with the non-nutritive sweetener erythritol to alter GLP-1 or PYY release or test meal size in lean or obese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, Joost; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Medic, Nenad; Henning, Elana; Keogh, Julia M; Forsyth, Faye; Stephenson, Cheryl; Kanning, Marja W; Ruijschop, Rianne M A J; Farooqi, I Sadaf; van der Klaauw, Agatha A

    2016-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the effect of foods containing high intensity sweeteners on satiation. However, less is known about low-calorie bulk sweeteners such as erythritol. In this randomized three-way crossover study, we studied 10 lean and 10 obese volunteers who consumed three test meals on separate occasions: (a) control sucrose meal; (b) isovolumic meal with partial replacement of sucrose by erythritol; (c) isocaloric meal which contained more erythritol but equivalent calories to the control meal. We measured gut hormone levels, hunger and satiety scores, ad libitum food intake, sucrose preference and intake after the manipulations. There was a greater post-prandial excursion in glucose and insulin levels after sucrose than after the erythritol meals. There was no difference in GLP-1/PYY levels or subsequent energy intake and sucrose preference between sucrose control and isovolumic erythritol meals. In lean (but not obese) participants, hunger decreased to a greater extent after the isocaloric erythritol meal compared to the control meal (p = 0.003) reflecting the larger volume of this meal. Replacing sucrose with erythritol leads to comparable hunger and satiety scores, GLP-1 and PYY levels, and subsequent sucrose preference and intake. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiscale Lattice Boltzmann method for flow simulations in highly heterogenous porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for flow simulations in highly heterogeneous porous media at both pore and Darcy scales is proposed in the paper. In the pore scale simulations, flow of two phases (e.g., oil and gas) or two immiscible fluids (e.g., water and oil) are modeled using cohesive or repulsive forces, respectively. The relative permeability can be computed using pore-scale simulations and seamlessly applied for intermediate and Darcy-scale simulations. A multiscale LBM that can reduce the computational complexity of existing LBM and transfer the information between different scales is implemented. The results of coarse-grid, reduced-order, simulations agree very well with the averaged results obtained using fine grid.

  5. Protection against fire and high temperature by using porous media and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, T.; Ochi, M.; Snya, S.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the protection method against the fire and high temperature under the disaster environments is developed and examined by utilizing the transpiration cooling to maintain the objectives at the room temperature. A room model installed by thermal protection panel for security heaven to which the people are able to escape from the fire in safety. The cooling structure is mainly composed of porous media which is made by thin ceramic paper, and the reinforced ceramic paper. The experimental verification of the room and cable models shows that the thermal protection by transpiration of water have good ability to keep inside at the room temperature even if in the violent fire. It is also clarified that the thermal protection technology by transpiration is expective to defend the room, building, cable, safety equipment, information system and etc., from the fire

  6. The structures and stability of media intended for the immobilization of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempest, P.A.

    1979-05-01

    High level radioactive waste contains about 40 different elements and, in time, many of these elements are transformed by radioactive decay into different-sized atoms with new chemical properties. The suitability of ordered crystal structures and unordered glass structures as media for immobilising the waste elements is compared. The structural properties of a mixture of synthetic minerals (SYNROC) are described and the various minerals' ability to accommodate ions of different radii and charge assessed. Similary the unordered structure of glass is examined and the probability of the glass remaining non-crystalline during manufacture and storage taken into account. Alternative glassification technologies in the form of the French AVM continuous process and the UK HARVEST batch processes are described and compared, and their likely effect on the structural properties of the final solid glass block considered. (author)

  7. Variational Multiscale Finite Element Method for Flows in Highly Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Iliev, O.; Lazarov, R.; Willems, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a two-scale finite element method (FEM) for solving Brinkman's and Darcy's equations. These systems of equations model fluid flows in highly porous and porous media, respectively. The method uses a recently proposed discontinuous Galerkin FEM for Stokes' equations by Wang and Ye and the concept of subgrid approximation developed by Arbogast for Darcy's equations. In order to reduce the "resonance error" and to ensure convergence to the global fine solution, the algorithm is put in the framework of alternating Schwarz iterations using subdomains around the coarse-grid boundaries. The discussed algorithms are implemented using the Deal.II finite element library and are tested on a number of model problems. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  8. INTRAVAL test case 13: Brine transport in porous media at high salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fein, E.

    1991-02-01

    In a two-dimensional vertical column filled with a synthetic porous media sweet water is displaced by salt water. Starting with salt water of very low concentration the concentration of the displacing salt water was increased in various experiments up to approximately saturation. In courses of these experiments breakthrough curves at different locations within the column are monitored with respect to time. It was the idea of validation to determine the system parameters like porosity, dispersion length, permeability etc. from experiments at low concentrations. Afterwards the validity of the physical assumptions should be proved by using these parameters to predict results of experiments with high concentrations like the salt water overlying the Gorleben salt dome. (orig./DG)

  9. Time moments of the energy flow of optical pulses in highly dispersive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Lipsa; Wanare, Harshawardhan; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2010-01-01

    We use the time moments of the Poynting vector associated with an electromagnetic pulse to characterize the traversal times and temporal pulse widths as the pulse propagates in highly dispersive media. The behaviour of these quantities with the propagation distance is analysed in three canonical cases: Lorentz absorptive medium, a Raman gain doublet amplifying medium and a medium exhibiting electromagnetically induced transparency. We find that superluminal pulse propagation in the first two cases with anomalous dispersion is usually accompanied by pulse compression and eventually the pulse becomes subluminal with increasing distance of propagation. In a medium with electromagnetically induced transparency with large normal dispersion, we identify a range of frequencies for which the pulse undergoes minimal temporal expansion while propagating with ultra-slow speed.

  10. Variational Multiscale Finite Element Method for Flows in Highly Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Iliev, O.

    2011-10-01

    We present a two-scale finite element method (FEM) for solving Brinkman\\'s and Darcy\\'s equations. These systems of equations model fluid flows in highly porous and porous media, respectively. The method uses a recently proposed discontinuous Galerkin FEM for Stokes\\' equations by Wang and Ye and the concept of subgrid approximation developed by Arbogast for Darcy\\'s equations. In order to reduce the "resonance error" and to ensure convergence to the global fine solution, the algorithm is put in the framework of alternating Schwarz iterations using subdomains around the coarse-grid boundaries. The discussed algorithms are implemented using the Deal.II finite element library and are tested on a number of model problems. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  11. KONSENTRASI DAN INTEGRASI KEPEMILIKAN PADA INDUSTRI MEDIA INTERNASIONAL DALAM PERANG FORMAT HIGH DEFINITION OPTICAL DISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajriannoor Fanani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High definition technology development in the entertainment industry, especially film industry, has produce classic problem about format consensus in the media industry. This situation eventually creates the so called “war of format” between the two most popular high definition formats, the Blu-ray from Sony/Hitachi and the HD DVD from Toshiba. Unlike the war of format before, for example is VHS versus Betamax war, that determinated mostly by the consumer, the format war between Blu-ray and HD DVD is strongly affect by the abilities of the companies behind the two format to consentrate and integrate their business moghul and also to make alliance between competitiors. Concentration of ownership is appears in the trend of holywood studios to merge with the bigger studios, which is creates a few conglomeration in the movie business. Integrations of business could be seen from the owners of the big studios that not only have the studios, but also many other business that relate or not with the entertainment business. And least, the alliance could be seen from this big studios alliance to support one of the format. Initially the HD DVD was on the fruitfull position because has been back up by the studios like Warner Bros, Paramount, and Universal that have more market share in US that the studios that support Blu-ray format, which is Sony, Walt Disneym and 20th Century Fox. Fortunately for Blu-ray, Sony already sells millions of PS 3 console that ingeniously could read Blu-ray disk; this means there’s already millions of Blu-ray reader device in the hand of consument, something that Toshiba could not generate. In the end, the victory of Blu-ray format is accelerate by the switching side of Warner Brothers studio to the Blu-ray follow by the others big studios. Conclusively, the success of a new technology, especially the media industry, is sometimes not depends on the quality of the technology itself. Often, the success is determined by the

  12. How static media is understood and used by high school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Miguel

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the role of static media in textbooks, as defined by Mayer (2001) in the form of printed images and text, and how these media are viewed and used by high school science teachers. Textbooks appeared in the United States in the late 1800s, and since then pictorial aids have been used extensively in them to support the teacher's work in the classroom (Giordano, 2003). According to Woodward, Elliott, and Nagel (1988/2013) the research on textbooks prior to the 1970s doesn't present relevant work related to the curricular role and the quality and instructional design of textbooks. Since then there has been abundant research, specially on the use of visual images in textbooks that has been approached from: (a) the text/image ratio (Evans, Watson, & Willows, 1987; Levin & Mayer, 1993; Mayer, 1993; Woodward, 1993), and (b) the instructional effectiveness of images (Woodward, 1993). The theoretical framework for this study comes from multimedia learning (Mayer, 2001), information design (Pettersson, 2002), and visual literacy (Moore & Dwyer, 1994). Data was collected through in-depth interviews of three high school science teachers and the graphic analyses of three textbooks used by the interviewed teachers. The interview data were compared through an analytic model developed from the literature, and the graphic analyses were performed using Mayer's multimedia learning principles (Mayer, 2001) and the Graphic Analysis Protocol (GAP) (Slough & McTigue, 2013). The conclusions of this study are: (1) pictures are specially useful for teaching science because science is a difficult subject to teach, (2) due this difficulty, pictures are very important to make the class dynamic and avoid students distraction, (3) static and dynamic media when used together can be more effective, (4) some specific type of graphics were found in the science textbooks used by the participants, in this case they were naturalistic drawings, stylized

  13. Quantum-mechanical elaboration for the description of low- and high-order harmonics generated by extended gas media: prospects to the efficiency enhancement in spatially modulated media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremoukhov, Sergey Yu; Andreev, Anatoly V.

    2018-03-01

    A simple model fully matching the description of the low- and high-order harmonic generation in extended media interacting with multicolor laser fields is proposed. The extended atomic media is modeled by a 1D chain of atoms, the number of atoms and the distance between them depend on the pressure of the gas and the length of the gas cell. The response of the individual atoms is calculated accurately in the frame of the non-perturbative theory where the driving field for each atom is calculated with account of dispersion properties of any multicolor field component. In spite of the simplicity of the proposed model it provides the detailed description of behaviour of harmonic spectra under variation of the gas pressure and medium length, it also predicts a scaling law for harmonic generation (an invariant). To demonstrate the wide range of applications of the model we have simulated the results of recent experiments dealing with spatially modulated media and obtained good coincidence between the numerical results and the experimental ones.

  14. Characterization of Sucrose Thin Films for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Iconaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose is a natural osmolyte accumulated in the cells of organisms as they adapt to environmental stress. In vitro sucrose increases protein stability and forces partially unfolded structures to refold. Thin films of sucrose (C12H22O11 were deposited on thin cut glass substrates by the thermal evaporation technique (P∼10−5 torr. Characteristics of thin films were put into evidence by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG/DTA. The experimental results confirm a uniform deposition of an adherent layer. In this paper we present a part of the characteristics of sucrose thin films deposited on glass in medium vacuum conditions, as a part of a culture medium for osteoblast cells. Osteoblast cells were used to determine proliferation, viability, and cytotoxicity interactions with sucrose powder and sucrose thin films. The osteoblast cells have been provided from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC Centre. The outcome of this study demonstrated the effectiveness of sucrose thin films as a possible nontoxic agent for biomedical applications.

  15. Sucrose and IQ induced mutations in rat colon by independent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Hald, M. T.; Autrup, H.

    2004-01-01

    Sucrose-rich diets have repeatedly been observed to have co-carcinogenic actions in colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate a possible interaction between sucrose and IQ...... on the genotoxicity in rat liver and colon, we gave Big Blue rats(TM) a diet containing sucrose (0%, 3.45% or 13.4% w/w) and/or IQ (70 ppm) for a period of 3 weeks. Sucrose and IQ increased the mutation frequency in the colon. The effect of combined treatments with IQ and sucrose on the mutation frequencies...... was additive indicating that sucrose and IQ act independently. This was supported by the mutation spectra where sucrose expands the background mutations in the colon, whereas IQ, in other studies, more specifically has induced G:C --> T:A transversions. In the liver IQ increased the mutation frequency, whereas...

  16. Biocatalytic Process for Production of α-Glucosylglycerol Using Sucrose Phosphorylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Luley-Goedl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylglycerols are powerful osmolytes, produced by various plants, algae and bacteria in adaptation to salt stress and drought. Among them, glucosylglycerol (2-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol; GG has attracted special attention for its promising application as a moisturizing agent in cosmetics. A biocatalytic process for the synthesis of GG as industrial fine chemical is described in which sucrose phosphorylase (from Leuconostoc mesenteroides catalyzes regioselective glucosylation of glycerol using sucrose as the donor substrate. The overall enzymatic conversion, therefore, is sucrose+glycerol→GG+D-fructose. Using a twofold molar excess of glycerol acceptor in highly concentrated substrate solution, GG yield was 90 % based on ≥250 g/L of converted sucrose. Enzymatic GG production was implemented on a multihundred kg-per-year manufacturing scale, and a commercial product for cosmetic applications is distributed on the market under the name Glycoin®. Technical features of the biotransformation that were decisive for a successful process development are elaborated. Stabilization of proteins is another interesting field of application for GG.

  17. Influence of pH, sucrose concentration and agitation speed on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 using coconut water as a raw material substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phisit Seesuriyachan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water (CW was used as a complex nitrogen source for exopolysaccharide (EPS production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 to reduce the cost of fermentation medium. EPS production was carried out in a bioreactor using (0.5× modified MRS-sucrose-CW medium, in which three relatively expensive complex nitrogen sources (peptone, yeast extract and beef extract were halved relative to those present in (1× modified MRS-sucrose medium. Fermentation parameters (pH, sucrose concentration and agitation speed were varied in the process of optimisation. Under an optimised condition (pH 5.5, sucrose concentration of 100 g/L and agitation rate of 50 rpm, the maximum EPS level of 38.2 g/L was produced at 35C after 30 h of cultivation. This EPS concentration (38.2 g/L from the (0.5× medium was higher than those produced in the (1× modified MRS-sucrose and (1× modified MRS-sucrose-CW media (21.3 and 31.5 g/L respectively, both having the original concentration of all three complex nitrogen sources. Thus, in a bioreactor where the pH level was properly controlled, the EPS production was greatly enhanced. Sugar concentration also played an important role in the production of EPS.

  18. Septal deviation and other factors increase the risk of barotitis media in high altitude high opening training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuar T. Sastranegara

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Barotitis media (BM frequently occurr in High Altitude High Opening (HAHO training simulation as a result from rapid change of pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate septal deviation and other risk factors that increase the risk of BM. This experimental study was conducted at the Indonesian Center for Aviation Medicine and Health (Lakespra Saryanto during May – July 2007 involving Indonesian Armed Forces (TNI HAHO training. Medical examinations were performed before and after training. An otolaryngologist confirm the diagnosis of BM. Cox regression analysis using STATA 9.0 program was performed to identify dominant risk factors for BM. A number of 177 subjects participated in this study. We found 56.5% had BM after training. Septal deviation was found in 28.8% of the subjects and it moderately increased the risk of BM by 23% than normal septum [adjusted relative risk (RRα = 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.95 – 1.60; p=0.123]. Those who have been smoking for 1-3 years had 70% increase risk for BM than non-smoking subjects (RRα= 1.68; 95% CI = 1.17 – 2.42. Those who have been in the force for 5 years or longer were 50% more at risk for BM than those who have been in the force less than 5 years. In addition, trainees had 40% higher risk than subjects with special qualifications for HAHO (RRα = 1.40; 95% CI = 0.99 – 1.97; p = 0.051. Special caution need to be applied for those who had septal deviation, longer working period, habit of smoking for 1-3 years, and trainees to minimize the risk of BM. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 37-42Keywords: barotitis media, septal deviation, HAHO training simulation

  19. Effects of sucrose concentration and water deprivation on Pavlovian conditioning and responding for conditioned reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Rayane I; Maddux, Jean-Marie N; Beharry, Priscilla F; Iannuzzi, Jessica; Chaudhri, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    An appetitive Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) can predict an unconditioned stimulus (US) and acquire incentive salience. We tested the hypothesis that US intensity and motivational state of the subject would influence Pavlovian learning and impact the attribution of incentive salience to an appetitive Pavlovian CS. To this end, we examined the effects of sucrose concentration and water deprivation on the acquisition of Pavlovian conditioning and responding for a conditioned reinforcer. Male Long-Evans rats (Harlan; 220-240 g) receiving 3% (3S) or 20% (20S) sucrose were either non-water deprived or given water for 1 hr per day. During Pavlovian conditioning sessions, half the rats in each concentration and deprivation condition received a 10-s CS paired with 0.2 ml of sucrose (16 trials/session; 3.2 ml/session). The remainder received unpaired CS and US presentations. Entries into a port where sucrose was delivered were recorded. Next, responding for conditioned reinforcement was tested, wherein pressing an active lever produced the CS and pressing an inactive lever had no consequences. CS-elicited port entries increased, and latency to the first CS-elicited port entry decreased across sessions in paired groups. Water deprivation augmented these effects, whereas sucrose concentration had no significant impact on behavior. Responding for conditioned reinforcement was observed in the 20S water-deprived, paired group. Thus, water deprivation can facilitate the acquisition of Pavlovian conditioning, potentially by enhancing motivational state, and a high-intensity US and a high motivational state can interact to heighten the attribution of incentive salience to an appetitive Pavlovian CS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Advanced high-temperature thermal energy storage media for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claar, T. D.; Waibel, R. T.

    1982-02-01

    An advanced thermal energy storage media concept based on use of carbonate salt/ceramic composite materials is being developed for industrial process and reject heat applications. The composite latent/sensible media concept and its potential advantages over state of the art latent heat systems is described. Media stability requirements, on-going materials development efforts, and planned thermal energy storage (TES) performance evaluation tests are discussed.

  1. Identification and root cause analysis of cell culture media precipitates in the viral deactivation treatment with high-temperature/short-time method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaolin; Stimpfl, Gregory; Wen, Zai-Qing; Frank, Gregory; Hunter, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    High-temperature/short-time (HTST) treatment of cell culture media is one of the proven techniques used in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing industry for the prevention and mitigation of media viral contamination. With the HTST method, the formulated media is pasteurized (virus-deactivated) by heating and pumping the media continuously through the preset high-temperature holding tubes to achieve a specified period of time at a specific temperature. Recently, during the evaluation and implementation of HTST method in multiple Amgen, Inc. manufacturing facilities, media precipitates were observed in the tests of HTST treatments. The media precipitates may have adverse consequences such as clogging the HTST system, altering operating conditions and compromising the efficacy of viral deactivation, and ultimately affecting the media composition and cell growth. In this study, we report the identification of the composition of media precipitates from multiple media HTST runs using combined microspectroscopic methods including Raman, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The major composition in the precipitates was determined to be metal phosphates, including calcium phosphate, magnesium phosphate, and iron (III) phosphate. Based on the composition, stoichiometry, and root-cause study of media precipitations, methods were implemented for the mitigation and prevention of the occurrence of the media precipitation. Viral contamination in cell culture media is an important issue in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing industry and may have serious consequences on product quality, efficacy, and safety. High-temperature/short-time (HTST) treatment of cell culture media is one of the proven techniques used in the industry for the prevention and mitigation of media viral contamination. With the HTST method, the formulated media is pasteurized (virus-deactivated) by heating at preset conditions. This

  2. Protein and Carbohydrate Accumulation in Normal and High-Lysine Barley in Spike Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mather, D.E; Giese, Nanna Henriette

    1984-01-01

    Spikes of barley cv. Bomi and high-lysine mutants Riso 1508 and Riso 56 were cultured on liquid media at varying N and sucrose levels. Bomi accumulated N in response to increasing N levels in the medium and a higher level was reached than in spikes of intact plants. The distribution of N in salt......-soluble, hordein, and non-protein N fractions appeared to be normal. Endosperm dry weight and starch were lower than in intact plants and declined at higher N levels. A linear relationship was observed between starch content and the concentration of sucrose in the endosperm water. Uptake of culture medium...

  3. Characteristics of Sucrose Transport through the Sucrose-Specific Porin ScrY Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping eSun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose-specific porin (ScrY is a transmembrane protein that allows for the uptake of sucrose under growth-limiting conditions. The crystal structure of ScrY was resolved before by X-ray crystallography, both in its uncomplexed form and with bound sucrose. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of the transport mechanism of ScrY. To date, there has not yet been any clear demonstration for sucrose transport through the ScrY.Here, the dynamics of the ScrY trimer embedded in a phospholipid bilayer as well as the characteristics of sucrose translocation were investigated by means of atomistic molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The potential of mean force (PMF for sucrose translocation through the pore showed two main energy barriers within the constriction region of ScrY. Energy decomposition allowed to pinpoint three aspartic acids as key residues opposing the passage of sucrose, all located within the L3 loop. Mutation of two aspartic acids to uncharged residues resulted in an accordingly modified electrostatics and decreased PMF barrier. The chosen methodology and results will aid in the design of porins with modified transport specificities.

  4. Molecular motions in sucrose-PVP and sucrose-sorbitol dispersions-II. Implications of annealing on secondary relaxations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sisir; Bhardwaj, Sunny P; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2014-10-01

    To determine the effect of annealing on the two secondary relaxations in amorphous sucrose and in sucrose solid dispersions. Sucrose was co-lyophilized with either PVP or sorbitol, annealed for different time periods and analyzed by dielectric spectroscopy. In an earlier investigation, we had documented the effect of PVP and sorbitol on the primary and the two secondary relaxations in amorphous sucrose solid dispersions (1). Here we investigated the effect of annealing on local motions, both in amorphous sucrose and in the dispersions. The average relaxation time of the local motion (irrespective of origin) in sucrose, decreased upon annealing. However, the heterogeneity in relaxation time distribution as well as the dielectric strength decreased only for β1- (the slower relaxation) but not for β2-relaxations. The effect of annealing on β2-relaxation times was neutralized by sorbitol while PVP negated the effect of annealing on both β1- and β2-relaxations. An increase in local mobility of sucrose brought about by annealing could be negated with an additive.

  5. Radiation propagation in random media: From positive to negative correlations in high-frequency fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Mineev-Weinstein, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    We survey research on radiation propagation or ballistic particle motion through media with randomly variable material density, and we investigate the topic with an emphasis on very high spatial frequencies. Our new results are based on a specific variability model consisting of a zero-mean Gaussian scaling noise riding on a constant value that is large enough with respect to the amplitude of the noise to yield overwhelmingly non-negative density. We first generalize known results about sub-exponential transmission from regular functions, which are almost everywhere continuous, to merely 'measurable' ones, which are almost everywhere discontinuous (akin to statistically stationary noises), with positively correlated fluctuations. We then use the generalized measure-theoretic formulation to address negatively correlated stochastic media without leaving the framework of conventional (continuum-limit) transport theory. We thus resolve a controversy about recent claims that only discrete-point process approaches can accommodate negative correlations, i.e., anti-clustering of the material particles. We obtain in this case the predicted super-exponential behavior, but it is rather weak. Physically, and much like the alternative discrete-point process approach, the new model applies most naturally to scales commensurate with the inter-particle distance in the material, i.e., when the notion of particle density breaks down due to Poissonian-or maybe not-so-Poissonian-number-count fluctuations occur in the sample volume. At the same time, the noisy structure must prevail up to scales commensurate with the mean-free-path to be of practical significance. Possible applications are discussed.

  6. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-tao; Zheng, Jin-xin; Yu, Zhi-jian; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Pan, Wei-guang; Yang, Wei-zhi; Wang, Hong-yan; Deng, Qi-wen; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2015-04-01

    Sucrose gel was used to treat bacterial vaginosis in a phase III clinical trial. However, the changes of vaginal flora after treatment were only examined by Nugent score in that clinical trial, While the vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques is characterized by anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, few lactobacilli, and pH levels above 4.6, similar to the microbiota of patients with bacterial vaginosis. This study is aimed to investigate the change of the vaginal microbiota of rehsus macaques after topical use of sucrose gel to reveal more precisely the bacterial population shift after the topical application of sucrose gel. Sixteen rhesus macaques were treated with 0.5 g sucrose gel vaginally and three with 0.5 g of placebo gel. Vaginal swabs were collected daily following treatment. Vaginal pH levels and Nugent scores were recorded. The composition of the vaginal micotbiota was tested by V3∼V4 16S rDNA metagenomic sequencing. Dynamic changes in the Lactobacillus genus were analyzed by qPCR. The vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques are dominated by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, with few lactobacilli and high pH levels above 4.6. After five days' treatment with topical sucrose gel, the component percentage of Lactobacillus in vaginal microbiota increased from 1.31% to 81.59%, while the component percentage of Porphyromonas decreased from 18.60% to 0.43%, Sneathia decreased from 15.09% to 0.89%, Mobiluncus decreased from 8.23% to 0.12%, etc.. The average vaginal pH values of 16 rhesus macaques of the sucrose gel group decreased from 5.4 to 3.89. There were no significant changes in microbiota and vaginal pH observed in the placebo group. Rhesus macaques can be used as animal models of bacterial vaginosis to develop drugs and test treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the topical application of sucrose gel induced the shifting of vaginal flora of rhesus macaques from a BV kind of flora to a lactobacilli-dominating flora. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  7. Bounds and Estimates for Transport Coefficients of Random and Porous Media with High Contrasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J G

    2004-01-01

    Bounds on transport coefficients of random polycrystals of laminates are presented, including the well-known Hashin-Shtrikman bounds and some newly formulated bounds involving two formation factors for a two-component porous medium. Some new types of self-consistent estimates are then formulated based on the observed analytical structure both of these bounds and also of earlier self-consistent estimates (of the CPA or coherent potential approximation type). A numerical study is made, assuming first that the internal structure (i.e., the laminated grain structure) is not known, and then that it is known. The purpose of this aspect of the study is to attempt to quantify the differences in the predictions of properties of a system being modeled when such organized internal structure is present in the medium but detailed spatial correlation information may or (more commonly) may not be available. Some methods of estimating formation factors from data are also presented and then applied to a high-contrast fluid-permeability data set. Hashin-Shtrikman bounds are found to be very accurate estimates for low contrast heterogeneous media. But formation factor lower bounds are superior estimates for high contrast situations. The new self-consistent estimators also tend to agree better with data than either the bounds or the CPA estimates, which themselves tend to overestimate values for high contrast conducting composites

  8. Acute effects of feeding fructose, glucose and sucrose on blood lipid levels and systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Faizan; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L

    2014-12-16

    Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between fructose consumption and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Mechanisms by which dietary fructose mediates metabolic changes are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of fructose, glucose and sucrose consumption on post-postprandial lipemia and low grade inflammation measured as hs-CRP. This was a randomized, single blinded, cross-over trial involving healthy subjects (n=14). After an overnight fast, participants were given one of 3 different isocaloric drinks, containing 50 g of either fructose or glucose or sucrose dissolved in water. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30, 60 and 120 minutes post intervention for the analysis of blood lipids, glucose, insulin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Glucose and sucrose supplementation initially resulted in a significant increase in glucose and insulin levels compared to fructose supplementation and returned to near baseline values within 2 hours. Change in plasma cholesterol, LDL and HDL-cholesterol (measured as area under curve, AUC) was significantly higher when participants consumed fructose compared with glucose or sucrose (PAUC for plasma triglyceride levels however remained unchanged regardless of the dietary intervention. Change in AUC for hs-CRP was also significantly higher in subjects consuming fructose compared with those consuming glucose (P<0.05), but not sucrose (P=0.07). This study demonstrates that fructose as a sole source of energy modulates plasma lipids and hsCRP levels in healthy individuals. The significance of increase in HDL-cholesterol with a concurrent increase in LDL-cholesterol and elevated hs-CRP levels remains to be delineated when considering health effects of feeding fructose-rich diets. ACTRN12614000431628.

  9. Getting a High-Speed Family Connection: Associations between Family Media Use and Family Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Fraser, Ashley M.

    2012-01-01

    The way families have used the media has substantially changed over the past decade. Within the framework of family systems theory, this paper examines the relations between family media use and family connection in a sample of 453 adolescents (mean age of child = 14.32 years, SD = 0.98, 52% female) and their parents. Results revealed that cell…

  10. EFFECTS OF SUCROSE AND VEGETABLE OIL ON PROPERTIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nindjin.c

    diameter) to minimize the formation of air bubbles included in the film. ..... polymeric chains was more difficult to make due to the molecule structure of ... observed during storage, due to sucrose addition to cassava starch-xanthan gum films,.

  11. Effects of salinity on sucrose metabolism during tomato fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... (fructose and glucose) accumulated to higher levels and the content of ... But the effects of salinity treatment on sucrose phosphate synthase activities were ... analysis. Sink strength was expressed as the dry matter accumu-.

  12. Effects of salinity on sucrose metabolism during tomato fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... But the effects of salinity treatment on sucrose phosphate synthase activities were weak under the ... The growth of different sink organs depends firstly on the use of ..... isoforms, location and regulatory mechanisms by endo-.

  13. Sucrose effect on broomrape (Orobanche crenata) development on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Key words: Sucrose, Orobanche crenata, Vicia narbonensis and broomrape control. INTRODUCTION ... and forage legume used for livestock feed in the .... the yield of faba bean significantly (Kukula and Masri, 1984). More-.

  14. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in .... 24, 701–713. Bate N. and Twell D. 1998 Functional architecture of a late pollen .... Manzara T. and Gruissem W. 1988 Organization and expression.

  15. Cloning and expression of pineapple sucrose- phosphate synthase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... phosphate; EDTA, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid; Ivr, invertase; SS .... phenolics, tannins and artifacts due to differences of tissue composition ..... Banana sucrose-phosphate synthase gene expression during fruit ripening.

  16. Design, Fabrication, Test Report of the Material Capsule(08M-10K) with Double Thermal Media for High-temperature Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, K. N.; Kang, Y. H.; Sohn, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.; Kim, B. G.; Oh, S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    To overcome the restriction of the irradiation test at a high temperature of the existing material capsule with Al thermal media, a capsule suitable for the irradiation at the high temperature was developed and the performance test was undertaken. The 08M-10K capsule was designed and fabricated as that with double thermal media to verify the structural and external integrity in the high-temperature irradiation higher than 500 .deg. C. The thermal performance test was undertaken at the out-pile test facility, and the soundness of the double thermal media was confirmed with the naked eye after disassembling the capsule. Though the temperatures of the specimens reach 500±20 .deg. C as a result maintaining the capsule during 5 hours after setting the specimens temperatures in the target range, the high-temperature thermal media with double structure was confirmed to maintain the soundness. And the specimens and the thermal media were heated to 600 .deg. C for about 3 minutes, but the thermal media were maintained sound. Especially, the Al thermal media were heated for 5 hours in range of 500±20 .deg. C and for 3 minutes at the temperature of 600 .deg. C. However, the thermal media were confirmed to maintain the soundness. Whether a capsule has only Al thermal media or the high-temperature thermal media with double structure, any capsule can be used in the range of 500±20 .deg. C as the result of this experiment maintaining the specimens high-temperature

  17. A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for wave propagation through coupled elastic-acoustic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Lucas C.; Stadler, Georg; Burstedde, Carsten; Ghattas, Omar

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (dG) scheme for the numerical solution of three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation problems in coupled elastic-acoustic media. A velocity-strain formulation is used, which allows for the solution of the acoustic and elastic wave equations within the same unified framework. Careful attention is directed at the derivation of a numerical flux that preserves high-order accuracy in the presence of material discontinuities, including elastic-acoustic interfaces. Explicit expressions for the 3D upwind numerical flux, derived as an exact solution for the relevant Riemann problem, are provided. The method supports h-non-conforming meshes, which are particularly effective at allowing local adaptation of the mesh size to resolve strong contrasts in the local wavelength, as well as dynamic adaptivity to track solution features. The use of high-order elements controls numerical dispersion, enabling propagation over many wave periods. We prove consistency and stability of the proposed dG scheme. To study the numerical accuracy and convergence of the proposed method, we compare against analytical solutions for wave propagation problems with interfaces, including Rayleigh, Lamb, Scholte, and Stoneley waves as well as plane waves impinging on an elastic-acoustic interface. Spectral rates of convergence are demonstrated for these problems, which include a non-conforming mesh case. Finally, we present scalability results for a parallel implementation of the proposed high-order dG scheme for large-scale seismic wave propagation in a simplified earth model, demonstrating high parallel efficiency for strong scaling to the full size of the Jaguar Cray XT5 supercomputer.

  18. Studies on the Effects of Media on Growth and Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different solutions and media on growth and nutrient composition of Pleurotus tuber-regium were investigated. The different solutions used are glucose, fructose, sucrose and Knop\\'s solutions. The media used are cassava agar, cocoyam agar, corn agar, potato agar and yam agar. Glucose solution produced ...

  19. Sucrose Improves Insecticide Activity Against Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Richard S; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Loeb, Gregory M; Elsensohn, Johanna E; Hesler, Steven P

    2015-04-01

    The addition of sucrose to insecticides targeting spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), enhanced lethality in laboratory, semifield, and field tests. In the laboratory, 0.1% sucrose added to a spray solution enhanced spotted wing drosophila feeding. Flies died 120 min earlier when exposed to spinosad residues at label rates enhanced with sucrose. Added sucrose reduced the LC50 for dried acetamiprid residues from 82 to 41 ppm in the spray solution. Laboratory bioassays of spotted wing drosophila mortality followed exposure to grape and blueberry foliage and/or fruit sprayed and aged in the field. On grape foliage, the addition of 2.4 g/liter of sugar with insecticide sprays resulted in an 11 and 6% increase of spotted wing drosophila mortality at 1 and 2 d exposures to residues, respectively, averaged over seven insecticides with three concentrations. In a separate experiment, spinetoram and cyantraniliprole reduced by 95-100% the larval infestation of blueberries, relative to the untreated control, 7 d after application at labeled rates when applied with 1.2 g/liter sucrose in a spray mixture, irrespective of rainfall; without sucrose infestation was reduced by 46-91%. Adding sugar to the organically acceptable spinosyn, Entrust, reduced larval infestation of strawberries by >50% relative to without sugar for five of the six sample dates during a season-long field trial. In a small-plot field test with blueberries, weekly applications in alternating sprays of sucrose plus reduced-risk insecticides, spinetoram or acetamiprid, reduced larval infestation relative to the untreated control by 76%; alternating bifenthrin and phosmet (without sucrose) reduced infestation by 65%. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. High-Performance Pyrochlore-Type Yttrium Ruthenate Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Acidic Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaemin [Department; Shih, Pei-Chieh [Department; Tsao, Kai-Chieh [Department; Pan, Yung-Tin [Department; Yin, Xi [Department; Sun, Cheng-Jun [X-ray; Yang, Hong [Department

    2017-08-17

    Development of acid-stable electrocatalysts with low overpotential for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a major challenge for the production of hydrogen directly from water. We report in this paper a pyrochlore yttrium ruthenate (Y2Ru2O7-δ) electrocatalyst that has significantly enhanced performance towards OER in acid media over the best-known catalysts, with an onset overpotential of 190 mV and high stability in 0.1-M perchloric acid solution. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) indicates Y2Ru2O7-δ electrocatalyst had a low valence state that favors the high OER activity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation shows this pyrochlore has lower band center energy for the overlap between Ru 4d and O 2p orbitals and therefore more stable Ru-O bond than RuO2, highlighting the effect of yttrium on the enhancement in stability. The Y2Ru2O7-δ pyrochlore is also free of expensive iridium metal, thus a cost-effective candidate for practical applications.

  1. Synthesis of highly luminescent Mn:ZnSe/ZnS nanocrystals in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zheng; Wu Ping; Zhong Xinhua; Yang Yongji

    2010-01-01

    High-quality water-dispersible Mn 2+ -doped ZnSe core/ZnS shell (Mn:ZnSe/ZnS) nanocrystals have been synthesized directly in aqueous media. Overcoating a high bandgap ZnS shell around the Mn:ZnSe cores can bring forward an efficient energy transfer from the ZnSe host nanocrystals to the dopant Mn. The quantum yields of the dopant Mn photoluminescence in the as-prepared water-soluble Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals can be up to 35 ± 5%. The optical features and structure of the obtained Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals have been characterized by UV-vis, PL spectroscopy, TEM, XRD and ICP elementary analysis. The influences of various experimental variables, including the Mn concentration, the Se/Zn molar ratio as well as the kind and amount of capping ligand used in the core production and shell deposition process, on the luminescent properties of the obtained Mn:ZnSe/ZnS nanocrystals have been systematically investigated.

  2. Complex three dimensional modelling of porous media using high performance computing and multi-scale incompressible approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R.; Orgogozo, L.; Noiriel, C. N.; Guibert, R.; Golfier, F.; Debenest, G.; Quintard, M.

    2013-05-01

    In the context of biofilm growth in porous media, we developed high performance computing tools to study the impact of biofilms on the fluid transport through pores of a solid matrix. Indeed, biofilms are consortia of micro-organisms that are developing in polymeric extracellular substances that are generally located at a fluid-solid interfaces like pore interfaces in a water-saturated porous medium. Several applications of biofilms in porous media are encountered for instance in bio-remediation methods by allowing the dissolution of organic pollutants. Many theoretical studies have been done on the resulting effective properties of these modified media ([1],[2], [3]) but the bio-colonized porous media under consideration are mainly described following simplified theoretical media (stratified media, cubic networks of spheres ...). Therefore, recent experimental advances have provided tomography images of bio-colonized porous media which allow us to observe realistic biofilm micro-structures inside the porous media [4]. To solve closure system of equations related to upscaling procedures in realistic porous media, we solve the velocity field of fluids through pores on complex geometries that are described with a huge number of cells (up to billions). Calculations are made on a realistic 3D sample geometry obtained by X micro-tomography. Cell volumes are coming from a percolation experiment performed to estimate the impact of precipitation processes on the properties of a fluid transport phenomena in porous media [5]. Average permeabilities of the sample are obtained from velocities by using MPI-based high performance computing on up to 1000 processors. Steady state Stokes equations are solved using finite volume approach. Relaxation pre-conditioning is introduced to accelerate the code further. Good weak or strong scaling are reached with results obtained in hours instead of weeks. Factors of accelerations of 20 up to 40 can be reached. Tens of geometries can now be

  3. Comparison Effects of Sucrose and Date Palm Syrup on Somatic Embryogenesis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L )

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullatif Alkhateeb

    2008-01-01

    The effect of different concentration of date palm syrup (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) and sucrose at concentration of 30 and 60 g/l in addition to the control (without carbon source) on the micro propagation of date palm "cv. Suckary" were investigated. The results indicated that date syrup was taken up from the media as shown by the increase in total dry weight of culture. Addition of sucrose at 60 g/l produced the highest number of somatic embryos and longest shoot equal to that produced by date sy...

  4. Evaluation and comparison of antinociceptive activity of aspartame with sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Seema; Gupta, Mahesh C

    2012-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are low-calorie substances used to sweeten a wide variety of foods. At present they are used increasingly not only by diabetics, but also by the general public as a mean of controlling the weight. This study was carried out to evaluate and compare antinociceptive activity of the artificial sweeteners, aspartame and sucrose and to study the mechanisms involved in this analgesic activity. Forty eight white albino Wistar rats were divided into two groups of 24 rats each. Group 1 received sucrose and group 2 received aspartame solution ad libitum for 14 days as their only source of liquid. On 14(th) day, both groups of rats were divided into 3 subgroups having 8 rats each. Group Ia and IIa served as control. Group Ib and IIb were given naloxone and Ic and IIc received ketanserin, the opioid and serotonergic receptor antagonists, respectively. Tail withdrawal latencies (tail flick analgesiometer) and paw licking/jumping latencies (Eddy's hot plate method) were increased significantly in both aspartame and sucrose group. The analgesia produced by aspartame was comparable with sucrose. The opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the 5-HT(2A/2C) serotonergic receptor antagonist ketanserin partly reversed the antinociceptive effect of these sweeteners. Thus, the artificial sweetening agent aspartame showed antinociceptive activity like sucrose in rats. Reduction in antinociceptive activity of aspartame and sucrose by opioid and serotoninergic antagonists demonstrate the involvement of both opioid and serotonergic system.

  5. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    A large body of data has been collected over the last fifty years on the chemical behavior of f-element ions. The ions undergo rapid hydrolysis reactions in neutral or basic aqueous solutions that produce poorly understood oxide-hydroxide species; therefore, most of the fundamental f-element solution chemistry has allowed synthetic and separations chemists to rationally design advanced organic chelating ligands useful for highly selective partitioning and separation of f-element ions from complex acidic solution matrices. These ligands and new examples under development allow for the safe use and treatment of solutions containing highly radioactive species. This DOE/EMSP project was undertaken to address the following fundamental objectives: (1) study the chemical speciation of Sr and lanthanide (Ln) ions in basic aqueous media containing classical counter anions found in waste matrices; (2) prepare pyridine N-oxide phosphonates and phosphonic acids that might act as selective chelator s for Ln ions in model basic pH waste streams; (3) study the binding of the new chelators toward Ln ions and (4) examine the utility of the chelators as decontamination and dissolution agents under basic solution conditions. The project has been successful in attacking selected aspects of the very difficult problems associated with basic pH solution f-element waste chemistry. In particular, the project has (1) shed additional light on the initial stages of Ln ion sol-gel-precipitate formulation under basic solution conditions; (2) generated new families of pyridine phosphonic acid chelators; (3) characterized the function of the chelators and (4) examined their utility as oxide-hydroxide dissolution agents. These findings have contributed significantly to an improved understanding of the behavior of Ln ions in basic media containing anions found in typical waste sludges as well as to the development of sludge dissolution agents. The new chelating reagents are easily made and could be

  6. High power diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser systems active media robust modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashef, Tamer M.; Mokhtar, Ayman M.; Ghoniemy, Samy A.

    2018-02-01

    Diode side-pumped solid-state lasers have the potential to yield high quality laser beams with high efficiency and reliability. This paper summarizes the results of simulation of the most predominant active media that are used in high power diode pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser systems. Nd:YAG, Nd:glass, and Nd:YLF rods laser systems were simulated using the special finite element analysis software program LASCAD. A performance trade off analysis for Nd:YAG, Nd:glass, and Nd:YLF rods was performed in order to predict the system optimized parameters and to investigate thermally induced thermal fracture that may occur due to heat load and mechanical stress. The simulation results showed that at the optimized values Nd:YAG rod achieved the highest output power of 175W with 43% efficiency and heat load of 1.873W/mm3. A negligible changes in laser output power, heat load, stress, and temperature distributions were observed when the Nd:YAG rod length was increased from 72 to 80mm. Simulation of Nd:glass at different rod diameters at the same pumping conditions showed better results for mechanical stress and thermal load than that of Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF which makes it very suitable for high power laser applications especially for large rod diameters. For large rod diameters Nd:YLF is mechanically weaker and softer crystal compared to Nd:YAG and Nd:glass due to its poor thermomechanical properties which limits its usage to only low to medium power systems.

  7. Impaired phloem loading in zmsweet13a,b,c sucrose transporter triple knock-out mutants in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrutczyk, Margaret; Hartwig, Thomas; Horschman, Marc; Char, Si Nian; Yang, Jinliang; Yang, Bing; Frommer, Wolf B; Sosso, Davide

    2018-04-01

    Crop yield depends on efficient allocation of sucrose from leaves to seeds. In Arabidopsis, phloem loading is mediated by a combination of SWEET sucrose effluxers and subsequent uptake by SUT1/SUC2 sucrose/H + symporters. ZmSUT1 is essential for carbon allocation in maize, but the relative contribution to apoplasmic phloem loading and retrieval of sucrose leaking from the translocation path is not known. Here we analysed the contribution of SWEETs to phloem loading in maize. We identified three leaf-expressed SWEET sucrose transporters as key components of apoplasmic phloem loading in Zea mays L. ZmSWEET13 paralogues (a, b, c) are among the most highly expressed genes in the leaf vasculature. Genome-edited triple knock-out mutants were severely stunted. Photosynthesis of mutants was impaired and leaves accumulated high levels of soluble sugars and starch. RNA-seq revealed profound transcriptional deregulation of genes associated with photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses may indicate that variability in ZmSWEET13s correlates with agronomical traits, especifically flowering time and leaf angle. This work provides support for cooperation of three ZmSWEET13s with ZmSUT1 in phloem loading in Z. mays. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Characteristics of off-waist incident anomalous vortex beams in highly nonlocal media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Feng Yang

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the effect of the off-waist incident condition on the propagation characteristics of anomalous vortex beams (AVBs in nonlocal media. An expression is derived mathematically in order to describe the propagation dynamics of AVBs in nonlocal media under the off-waist incident condition. Typical propagation characteristics induced by the off-waist incident condition are illustrated numerically. It is found that the propagation characteristics under the off-waist incident condition are much different from those under the on-waist incident condition. Keywords: Off-waist incidence, Anomalous vortex beam, Nonlocal media

  9. Untargeted LC-MS/MS Profiling of Cell Culture Media Formulations for Evaluation of High Temperature Short Time Treatment Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Patrick; McGillicuddy, Nicola; Albrecht, Simone; Morrissey, Brian; Kaisermayer, Christian; Lindeberg, Anna; Bones, Jonathan

    2017-09-19

    An untargeted LC-MS/MS platform was implemented for monitoring variations in CHO cell culture media upon exposure to high temperature short time (HTST) treatment, a commonly used viral clearance upstream strategy. Chemically defined (CD) and hydrolysate-supplemented media formulations were not visibly altered by the treatment. The absence of solute precipitation effects during media treatment and very modest shifts in pH values observed indicated sufficient compatibility of the formulations evaluated with the HTST-processing conditions. Unsupervised chemometric analysis of LC-MS/MS data, however, revealed clear separation of HTST-treated samples from untreated counterparts as observed from analysis of principal components and hierarchical clustering sample grouping. An increased presence of Maillard products in HTST-treated formulations contributed to the observed differences which included organic acids, observed particularly in chemically defined formulations, and furans, pyridines, pyrazines, and pyrrolidines which were determined in hydrolysate-supplemented formulations. The presence of Maillard products in media did not affect cell culture performance with similar growth and viability profiles observed for CHO-K1 and CHO-DP12 cells when cultured using both HTST-treated and untreated media formulations.

  10. High temperature dissolution of ferrites, chromites and bonaccordite in chelating media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyaseelan, V.S.; Subramanian, H.; Anupkumar, B.; Rufus, A.L.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V., E-mail: snv@igcar.gov.in [BARC Facilities, Water and Steam Chemistry Div., Tamilnadu (India)

    2010-07-01

    Different methods have been employed world wide for the decontamination of reactor coolant system surfaces. The success of a decontamination process mainly depends on the oxide dissolution efficiency of the decontamination formulation. Among the oxides, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} undergoes easy dissolution in organic acid media at normal temperatures. However, dissolution of chromites and mixed ferrites is not that easy in organic chelant media at normal temperatures even in the presence of redox reagents. Hence, a high temperature process was attempted for the dissolution of ferrites and chromites. A re-circulation system consisting of an autoclave, pump, heat exchanger etc. all lined with teflon was used for carrying out high temperature dissolution experiments. This study describes the high temperature dissolution kinetics of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), a well known solvent for metal oxides, was applied at temperatures ranging from 80 to 180{sup o}C. About six fold increase in dissolution rate was observed for Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in this temperature range. Effect of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} on oxide dissolution was studied. Lower dissolution rates were observed for Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} in the presence of hydrazine. Oxide dissolution efficiency of other chelating agents like EDTA, PDCA etc. and the effect of reducing agents like oxalic acid and ascorbic acid on high temperature dissolution also has been studied. The effect of incorporation of boron and zinc in the iron and chromium oxides has also been studied. Bonaccordite (Ni{sub 2}FeBO{sub 5}) has been observed in the fuel deposits of pressurized Water Reactors especially in the AOA affected plants. Zinc ferrite/chromite are formed in reactors adopting zinc injection passivation technique to control radiation field. Bonaccordite and zinc ferrite/chromite formed over the reactor coolant system structural materials are also difficult to dissolve

  11. Sucrose-supplemented distillery spent wash as a medium for production of ethanol at 45 C by free and alginate-immobilized preparations of Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, P.; Mulholland, H.; Barron, N.; Brady, D.; McHale, A.P. [Biotechnology Research Group, School of Applied Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Ulster (United Kingdom)

    1998-04-01

    Ethanol production by the thermotolerant, ethanol-producing yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3, was compared during growth on sucrose-supplemented laboratory-based media and distillery spent wash from the Old Bushmill`s Distillery Co., Ltd., Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland. Fermentations were carried out using preparations of the free and alginate-immobilized microorganism as inocula in media supplemented with 2 and 10% (w/v) sucrose. Maximum ethanol concentrations accounted for 75-99% of the maximum theoretical yield and in all cases maximum concentrations obtained using the spent wash were similar if not slightly higher than those obtained on the sucrose-supplemented yeast growth media. In addition, the highest concentrations of ethanol were produced by the alginate-immobilized biocatalyst on both types of media. Analysis of exhausted media in the spent wash-based systems demonstrated significant decreases in the total organic carbon content following fermentation. These results confirm our earlier suggestion that ethanol production based on this microorganism in a recycle system may provide a more cost-effective means of disposing of whiskey distillery spent wash. (orig.) With 1 tab., 8 refs.

  12. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effects of sucrose concentration and wheel-running reinforcer duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Hancock, Stephanie D

    2003-03-01

    Six male albino rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed-interval 30-s schedule of lever pressing that produced either a drop of sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for a fixed duration as reinforcers. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. In Experiment 1, the duration of running was held constant at 15 s while the concentration of sucrose solution was varied across values of 0, 2.5. 5, 10, and 15%. As concentration decreased, postreinforcement pause duration increased and local rates decreased in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. Consequently, the difference between responding in the presence of stimuli signaling wheel-running and sucrose reinforcers diminished, and at 2.5%, response functions for the two reinforcers were similar. In Experiment 2, the concentration of sucrose solution was held constant at 15% while the duration of the opportunity to run was first varied across values of 15, 45, and 90 s then subsequently across values of 5, 10, and 15 s. As run duration increased, postreinforcement pause duration in the presence of the wheel-running stimulus increased and local rates increased then decreased. In summary, inhibitory aftereffects of previous reinforcers occurred when both sucrose concentration and run duration varied; changes in responding were attributable to changes in the excitatory value of the stimuli signaling the two reinforcers.

  13. Cacao pod husks as a source of low-methoxyl, highly acetylated pectins able to gel in acidic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriesmann, Lúcia Cristina; de Oliveira Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia

    2017-08-01

    Cacao pod husks, the main by-product from cocoa production, have been investigated for pectin isolation. In the present study, the rheological properties of two low-methoxyl (LM) pectins isolated from cacao pod husks using different extraction conditions were evaluated. One pectin was obtained from optimized conditions employing aqueous nitric acid as an extractant, and the other one was extracted with boiling water. Pectin gels (0.99% galacturonic acid equivalent, w/w) were prepared at pH 2.5-3.0 in the presence of 60% sucrose (w/w) and subjected to rheological analysis. Dynamic oscillatory experiments at 25°C indicated that better gels were obtained at the lowest pH (2.5). Steady shear measurements revealed a shear-thinning behavior. The apparent viscosities of the samples increased as pH decreased. Gelation with calcium ions was not observed for either of the highly acetylated LM pectins analyzed. The rheological analysis results showed that despite their high acetyl content, LM pectins extracted by different methods from cacao pod husks were able to form gels at low pH under reduced water activity, suggesting a possible application in acidic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. THC-MP: High performance numerical simulation of reactive transport and multiphase flow in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohui; Li, Weishan; Tian, Hailong; Li, Hongliang; Xu, Haixiao; Xu, Tianfu

    2015-07-01

    The numerical simulation of multiphase flow and reactive transport in the porous media on complex subsurface problem is a computationally intensive application. To meet the increasingly computational requirements, this paper presents a parallel computing method and architecture. Derived from TOUGHREACT that is a well-established code for simulating subsurface multi-phase flow and reactive transport problems, we developed a high performance computing THC-MP based on massive parallel computer, which extends greatly on the computational capability for the original code. The domain decomposition method was applied to the coupled numerical computing procedure in the THC-MP. We designed the distributed data structure, implemented the data initialization and exchange between the computing nodes and the core solving module using the hybrid parallel iterative and direct solver. Numerical accuracy of the THC-MP was verified through a CO2 injection-induced reactive transport problem by comparing the results obtained from the parallel computing and sequential computing (original code). Execution efficiency and code scalability were examined through field scale carbon sequestration applications on the multicore cluster. The results demonstrate successfully the enhanced performance using the THC-MP on parallel computing facilities.

  15. High-power laser radiation in atmospheric aerosols: Nonlinear optics of aerodispersed media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, V. E.; Zemlianov, A. A.; Kopytin, Iu. D.; Kuzikovskii, A. V.

    The bulk of this book contains the results of investigations carried out at the Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, USSR Academy of Science with the participation of the authors. The microphysical and optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols are considered, taking into account light scattering by a single aerosol particle, light scattering by a system of particles, the scattering phase matrix, light scattering by clouds and fogs, light scattering by hazes, and scattering phase functions of polydispersed aerosols. Other topics studies are related to low-energy (subexplosive) effects of radiation on individual particles, the formation of clear zones in clouds and fogs due to the vaporization of droplets under regular regimes, self-action of a wave beam in a water aerosol under conditions of regular droplet vaporization, laser beam propagation through an explosively evaporating water-droplet aerosol, the propagation of high-power laser radiation through hazes, the ionization and optical breakdown in aerosol media, and laser monitoring of a turbid atmosphere using nonlinear effects.

  16. Robust Multiscale Iterative Solvers for Nonlinear Flows in Highly Heterogeneous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Y.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we study robust iterative solvers for finite element systems resulting in approximation of steady-state Richards\\' equation in porous media with highly heterogeneous conductivity fields. It is known that in such cases the contrast, ratio between the highest and lowest values of the conductivity, can adversely affect the performance of the preconditioners and, consequently, a design of robust preconditioners is important for many practical applications. The proposed iterative solvers consist of two kinds of iterations, outer and inner iterations. Outer iterations are designed to handle nonlinearities by linearizing the equation around the previous solution state. As a result of the linearization, a large-scale linear system needs to be solved. This linear system is solved iteratively (called inner iterations), and since it can have large variations in the coefficients, a robust preconditioner is needed. First, we show that under some assumptions the number of outer iterations is independent of the contrast. Second, based on the recently developed iterative methods, we construct a class of preconditioners that yields convergence rate that is independent of the contrast. Thus, the proposed iterative solvers are optimal with respect to the large variation in the physical parameters. Since the same preconditioner can be reused in every outer iteration, this provides an additional computational savings in the overall solution process. Numerical tests are presented to confirm the theoretical results. © 2012 Global-Science Press.

  17. Time-resolved diffusion tomographic imaging in highly scattering turbid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Robert R. (Inventor); Cai, Wei (Inventor); Liu, Feng (Inventor); Lax, Melvin (Inventor); Das, Bidyut B. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method for imaging objects in highly scattering turbid media. According to one embodiment of the invention, the method involves using a plurality of intersecting source/detectors sets and time-resolving equipment to generate a plurality of time-resolved intensity curves for the diffusive component of light emergent from the medium. For each of the curves, the intensities at a plurality of times are then inputted into the following inverse reconstruction algorithm to form an image of the medium: X.sup.(k+1).spsp.T =?Y.sup.T W+X.sup.(k).spsp.T .LAMBDA.!?W.sup.T W+.LAMBDA.!.sup.-1 wherein W is a matrix relating output at detector position r.sub.d, at time t, to source at position r.sub.s, .LAMBDA. is a regularization matrix, chosen for convenience to be diagonal, but selected in a way related to the ratio of the noise, to fluctuations in the absorption (or diffusion) X.sub.j that we are trying to determine: .LAMBDA..sub.ij =.lambda..sub.j .delta..sub.ij with .lambda..sub.j =/ Here Y is the data collected at the detectors, and X.sup.k is the kth iterate toward the desired absoption information.

  18. Infectious complications of pediatric cochlear implants are highly influenced by otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Peter M; Ghogomu, Nsangou T; Odom-John, Audrey R; Hullar, Timothy E; Hirose, Keiko

    2017-06-01

    Determine the incidence of ear infections in cochlear implant patients, evaluate the contribution of otitis media to complications, describe the bacteriology of otitis media in the cochlear implant population, the treatment provided at our center, and the long term outcome. Data collected included age at implantation, history of otitis media or ear tubes, etiology of hearing loss, inner ear anatomy, postoperative infections, time to infection, route of antibiotic administration, and interventions for infections. Categories of infection were acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, tube otorrhea, meningitis, scalp cellulitis, and infection at the implant site. Middle ear infections were diagnosed in 37% of implanted ears. Extension of middle ear infections into the implant site occurred in 2.8% of all implants (n = 16). Of the 16 infected devices, 10 were successfully treated with antibiotic therapy and did not require explantation. The retained implant group and explanted group both included some middle ear microbes such as Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as skin flora such as Staphylococcus aureus. Otitis media in pediatric cochlear implant patients is a common event and usually does not lead to complications of the cochlear implant. However, when the ear infection spreads to the scalp and the implant site, it is still possible to eliminate the infection using antibiotic therapy, particularly when treatment is directed to the specific organism that is recovered from the infected space and the duration and route of antibiotic treatment is carefully considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of different media on the in vitro growth of cactus (Opuntia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... The effect of media composition on the growth of cactus explants was investigated. Two media designated A and B were used in this study. Medium A contained basal Murashige Skoog salt (MS salt) and vitamins supplemented with 5% sucrose and 1% BAP (benzyl amino purines) and media B containing ...

  20. Impact of Sucrose Addition on the Physiochemical Properties and Volatile Compounds of “Shuangyou” Red Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available “Shuangyou,” a Vitis amurensis Rupr. variety, is widely cultivated in northeastern and western China. Its berries have high acidity and low sugar content. In this study, different proportions of sucrose were added to the must samples during fermentation to investigate the effect of sugar on the physicochemical properties and volatile compounds of “Shuangyou” wines. The addition of sucrose significantly improved yeast growth and alcohol production, altered the color qualities, and slightly decreased titratable acidity during fermentation. The highest tested proportion of added sucrose resulted in the highest maximum yeast counts and final ethanol concentrations. Moreover, 37 volatile compounds (esters, alcohols, fatty acids, ketones, and aldehydes were identified and quantified by solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of these compounds were correlated with the addition of sucrose. Furthermore, the addition of 100 g/L sucrose was sufficient for improving the concentrations of the aromatic compounds. The increase in ester, alcohol, and fatty acid concentration led to a positive OAVs impact (odor activity value > 1 at the end of fermentation.

  1. Sucrose acetate isobutyrate-based nanogels as liquid fiducial tissue markers with potential use in image guided radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Linda Maria; Schaarup-Jensen, Henrik; Jølck, Rasmus Irming

    The poster presents the development of a liquid fiducial tissue marker based on sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) and uniform, coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The PNIPAM-coated AuNP-SAIB gel provided high CT contrast and high in vivo stability and was assessed to be a suitable tissue marker f...

  2. A note on variational multiscale methods for high-contrast heterogeneous porous media flows with rough source terms

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2011-09-01

    In this short note, we discuss variational multiscale methods for solving porous media flows in high-contrast heterogeneous media with rough source terms. Our objective is to separate, as much as possible, subgrid effects induced by the media properties from those due to heterogeneous source terms. For this reason, enriched coarse spaces designed for high-contrast multiscale problems are used to represent the effects of heterogeneities of the media. Furthermore, rough source terms are captured via auxiliary correction equations that appear in the formulation of variational multiscale methods [23]. These auxiliary equations are localized and one can use additive or multiplicative constructions for the subgrid corrections as discussed in the current paper. Our preliminary numerical results show that one can capture the effects due to both spatial heterogeneities in the coefficients (such as permeability field) and source terms (e.g., due to singular well terms) in one iteration. We test the cases for both smooth source terms and rough source terms and show that with the multiplicative correction, the numerical approximations are more accurate compared to the additive correction. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Restricted use of electronic media, sleep, performance, and mood in high school athletes--a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anette; Gundersen, Hilde; Mørk-Andreassen, Pia; Thun, Eirunn; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-12-01

    The study aims to evaluate whether 4 weeks with restricted use of electronic media after 22:00 affects sleep, athletic performance, cognitive performance, and mood in high school athletes. Eighty-five athletes were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 44), who was instructed to not use any electronic media after 22:00, or a control condition (n = 41), where they could act as they preferred in terms of media use. Primary outcomes were sleep habits measured with a sleep diary. Secondary outcomes were (a) physical performance measured with a set of standardized tests (beep test, 20-m linear sprint, chin-up test, hanging sit-ups test, counter movement jump and sit-n-reach test); (b) cognitive performance (response time and response accuracy); and (c) positive and negative affect. Differences between groups were tested with mixed between-within subject analyses of variance. Thirty-five and 40 of the athletes in the intervention and control group, respectively, completed the study. Results showed that restricted use of electronic media after 22:00 did not improve sleep habits, athletic performance, cognitive performance, or mood in a group of high school top athletes with already good sleep habits. However, these findings give us knowledge about sleep habits and performance in this population that is of importance when designing future studies. Copyright © 2015 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High Stakes Principalship--Sleepless Nights, Heart Attacks and Sudden Death Accountabilities: Reading Media Representations of the United States Principal Shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pat; Blackmore, Jill; Sachs, Judyth; Tregenza, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Subjects a corpus of predominantly United States news articles to deconstructive narrative analysis and finds that the dominant media representation of principals' work is one of long hours, low salary, high stress, and sudden death from high stakes accountabilities. Notes that the media picture may perpetuate the problem, and that it is at odds…

  5. Volumetric, ultrasonic and viscometric studies of solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions of l-threonine in aqueous-sucrose solutions at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nain, Anil Kumar; Pal, Renu; Neetu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The study reports density, ultrasonic speed and viscosity data of l-threonine in aqueous-sucrose solutions. • The study elucidates interactions of l-threonine with sucrose in aqueous media. • Provides data to estimate physicochemical properties of proteins in these media. • Correlates physicochemical properties of l-threonine with its behaviour in aqueous-sucrose solutions. -- Abstract: Densities, ρ of solutions of l-threonine in aqueous-sucrose solvents 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of sucrose, w/w in water at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K; and ultrasonic speeds, u and viscosities, η of these solutions at 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15 K were measured at atmospheric pressure. From these experimental results, the apparent molar volume, V ϕ , limiting apparent molar volume, V ϕ ∘ and the slope, S v , apparent molar compressibility, K s,ϕ , limiting apparent molar compressibility, K s,ϕ ∘ and the slope, S k , transfer volume, V ϕ,tr ∘ , transfer compressibility, K s,ϕ,tr ∘ , limiting apparent molar expansivity, E ϕ ∘ , Hepler’s constant, (∂ 2 V ϕ ∘ /dT 2 ), Falkenhagen coefficient, A, Jones–Dole coefficient, B and hydration number, n H have been calculated. The results have been interpreted in terms of solute–solvent and solute–solute interactions in these systems. The Gibbs energies of activation of viscous flow per mole of solvent, Δμ 1 ∘number sign and per mole of solute, Δμ 2 ∘number sign were also calculated and discussed in terms of transition state theory. It has been observed that there exist strong solute–solvent interactions in these systems and these interactions increase with increase in sucrose concentration in solution

  6. Drinking sucrose enhances quinpirole-induced yawning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; Thomas, Yvonne M; France, Charles P

    2011-12-01

    Food and drugs can activate brain dopamine systems and sensitivity to the effects of drugs acting on those systems is influenced by amount and content of food consumed. This study examined the effects of drinking sucrose on behavioral effects of the direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6/group) had free access to water or 10% sucrose and quinpirole dose-response curves (yawning and hypothermia) were generated weekly for 8 weeks. Subsequently, all rats drank water for 8 weeks with quinpirole dose-response curves determined on weeks 9, 10, and 16. In rats drinking sucrose, the ascending (D3 receptor-mediated), but not descending (D2 receptor-mediated), limb of the yawning dose-response curve shifted leftward. The D3 receptor-selective antagonist PG01037 shifted the ascending limb of the dose-response curve to the right in all rats. When rats that previously drank sucrose drank water, their sensitivity to quinpirole did not return to normal. Quinpirole-induced hypothermia was not different between groups. These data show that drinking sucrose increases sensitivity to a dopamine D3, but not D2, receptor-mediated effect and that this change is long lasting. Dopamine receptors mediate the effects of many drugs and the actions of those drugs are likely impacted by dietary factors.

  7. Quantitative Fluorescence Sensing Through Highly Autofluorescent, Scattering, and Absorbing Media Using Mobile Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Göröcs, Zoltán

    2016-09-13

    Compact and cost-effective systems for in vivo fluorescence and near-infrared imaging in combination with activatable reporters embedded inside the skin to sample interstitial fluid or blood can enable a variety of biomedical applications. However, the strong autofluorescence of human skin creates an obstacle for fluorescence-based sensing. Here we introduce a method for quantitative fluorescence sensing through highly autofluorescent, scattering, and absorbing media. For this, we created a compact and cost-effective fluorescence microscope weighing <40 g and used it to measure various concentrations of a fluorescent dye embedded inside a tissue phantom, which was designed to mimic the optical characteristics of human skin. We used an elliptical Gaussian beam excitation to digitally separate tissue autofluorescence from target fluorescence, although they severely overlap in both space and optical spectrum. Using ∼10-fold less excitation intensity than the safety limit for skin radiation exposure, we successfully quantified the density of the embedded fluorophores by imaging the skin phantom surface and achieved a detection limit of ∼5 × 105 and ∼2.5 × 107 fluorophores within ∼0.01 μL sample volume that is positioned 0.5 and 2 mm below the phantom surface, corresponding to a concentration of 105.9 pg/mL and 5.3 ng/mL, respectively. We also confirmed that this approach can track the spatial misalignments of the mobile microscope with respect to the embedded target fluorescent volume. This wearable microscopy platform might be useful for designing implantable biochemical sensors with the capability of spatial multiplexing to continuously monitor a panel of biomarkers and chronic conditions even at patients’ home.

  8. Quantitative Fluorescence Sensing Through Highly Autofluorescent, Scattering, and Absorbing Media Using Mobile Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Gö rö cs, Zoltá n; Rivenson, Yair; Ceylan Koydemir, Hatice; Tseng, Derek; Troy, Tamara L.; Demas, Vasiliki; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    Compact and cost-effective systems for in vivo fluorescence and near-infrared imaging in combination with activatable reporters embedded inside the skin to sample interstitial fluid or blood can enable a variety of biomedical applications. However, the strong autofluorescence of human skin creates an obstacle for fluorescence-based sensing. Here we introduce a method for quantitative fluorescence sensing through highly autofluorescent, scattering, and absorbing media. For this, we created a compact and cost-effective fluorescence microscope weighing <40 g and used it to measure various concentrations of a fluorescent dye embedded inside a tissue phantom, which was designed to mimic the optical characteristics of human skin. We used an elliptical Gaussian beam excitation to digitally separate tissue autofluorescence from target fluorescence, although they severely overlap in both space and optical spectrum. Using ∼10-fold less excitation intensity than the safety limit for skin radiation exposure, we successfully quantified the density of the embedded fluorophores by imaging the skin phantom surface and achieved a detection limit of ∼5 × 105 and ∼2.5 × 107 fluorophores within ∼0.01 μL sample volume that is positioned 0.5 and 2 mm below the phantom surface, corresponding to a concentration of 105.9 pg/mL and 5.3 ng/mL, respectively. We also confirmed that this approach can track the spatial misalignments of the mobile microscope with respect to the embedded target fluorescent volume. This wearable microscopy platform might be useful for designing implantable biochemical sensors with the capability of spatial multiplexing to continuously monitor a panel of biomarkers and chronic conditions even at patients’ home.

  9. Use of high concentration contrast media (HCCM): principles and rationale--body CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous complex pharmacokinetic interrelationships affect the use of contrast media for computed tomography (CT) imaging. The volume, concentration, and rate of injection, all affect the degree of enhancement that is achieved with an injection of contrast material. In addition, the injection technique, whether the contrast is infused with a constant injection rate (uniphasic injection) or whether the rate is altered during the injection (multiphasic injection) also affect the magnitude and duration of contrast enhancement. In body CT imaging, the liver poses unique challenges in managing the use of intravenous contrast material because of its dual blood supply and the need to complete imaging before equilibrium occurs between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. The magnitude of hepatic enhancement that is ultimately achieved is related primarily to the amount of iodinated contrast material that accumulates in the extravascular space within the target organ, independent of the speed of the CT scanner. The key determinant of the onset of the equilibrium phase is the injection duration. Given that a high injection flow rate (4-5 ml/s) is desirable for arterial phase imaging, the injection duration is maintained with use of an appropriate contrast volume. Thus, modifications of total iodine dose are best done with alterations in contrast concentration. The magnitude of arterial enhancement that is achieved is related to both the concentration and rate of contrast administration. The speed of the scanner determines its ability to record image data during the most advantageous time period, the peak of arterial enhancement. Thus, rapid imaging is particularly advantageous for optimal contrast use in CT angiography as well as in multiphasic imaging of the parenchymal organs

  10. Examination of hepatic dynamic CT images following infusion of high-concentration contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeyama, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Takaki; Kinebuchi, Yuko; Kitahara, Tadashi; Ohbuchi, Masao; Shinjyo, Hidenori; Ohgiya, Yoshimitsu

    2008-01-01

    There are scarce examinations on the integrated effects of given iodine weight (mgI) and its rate (mgI/sec) on the quality and diagnostic accuracy in the hepatic contrast CT imaging while the former is known to affect the image of parenchyma and the latter, of arterial systems. The purpose of this study is to analyze and evaluate the effects qualitatively and quantitatively in hepatic dynamic CT images of patients with moderate body weight in whom different concentrations of I are given at the same flux rate and total weight. Patients having chronic hepatitis suspicious of carcinoma, or cirrhosis were 52-84 years old (M 50/F 55, b. wt. 50-65 kg) and were randomly divided in A and B group. A group received infusion of 25 sec in the right elbow vein of iopamidol, 300 mgI/100 mL, and B group, 370 mgI/80 mL: the I flux of ca. 1.2 gI/sec and total I of ca. 30 gI. Before and at 25 (early arterial phase), 40 (late art. phase), 70 (portal vein) and 180 (equilibrium) sec after infusion, CT images were obtained with the machine Light Speed select (GE Healthcare), Housfield Units before and after enhancing were used for quantitative evaluation, three experts qualitatively read images, and PACS system in Synapse 3.1.0 (Fuji Film Med.) was used for observation of tumor nodules if present. Neither qualitative nor quantitative differences were found in these CT images of the 4 phases and use of high-concentration contrast media was confirmed to be possible for lowered infusion rate. Authors also pointed out the importance of care for radiation exposure in this CT technique. (R.T.)

  11. Air filtration media from electrospun waste high-impact polystyrene fiber membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfi, Akmal; Miftahul Munir, Muhammad; Hapidin, Dian Ahmad; Rajak, Abdul; Edikresnha, Dhewa; Iskandar, Ferry; Khairurrijal, Khairurrijal

    2018-03-01

    Nanofiber membranes were synthesized from waste high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) using electrospinning method and then applied as air filtration media. The waste HIPS precursor solution with the concentration of 20 wt.% was prepared by dissolving waste HIPS into the mixture of d-limonene and DMF solvents. Beaded or fine nanofibers could be achieved by adjusting the ratio of solvents mixture (d-limonene and DMF). Using the ratios of solvents (d-limonene: DMF) of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3, it was obtained beaded HIPS nanofibers with the average diameter of 272 nm, beaded HIPS nanofibers with the average diameter of 937, and fine HIPS nanofibers with the average diameter of 621 nm, respectively. From the FTIR spectral analysis, it was found that the FTIR peaks of the HIPS nanofiber membranes are the same as those of the cleaned waste HIPS and there are no FTIR peaks of DMF and d-limonene solvents. These findings implied that the electrospinning process allows the recycling of waste HIPS into HIPS nanofibers without any trapped solvent phases or apparent degradation of the original material. From the contact angle measurement, it was confirmed that the HIPS nanofiber membranes are hydrophobic and the presence of the beads in the HIPS nanofiber membranes varies their contact angles. From the air-filtration test, it was shown that the fiber morphology (beaded or fine nanofibers) considerably affects the filtration performance of the membranes. The presence of beads increased the distance between the fibers so that the pressure drop decreased. Moreover, the basis weight of the membrane greatly affected the filtration efficiency. The HIPS nanofiber membrane with the basis weight of 12.22 g m‑2 had the efficiency greater than 99.999%, which was equivalent to that of the HEPA filter.

  12. Arabidopsis thaliana sucrose phosphate synthase (sps) genes are expressed differentially in organs and tissues, and their transcription is regulated by osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Guzmán, María Gloria; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo; López-Bucio, José; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; López-Meza, Joel Edmundo; Sánchez-Calderón, Lenin; Carreón-Abud, Yazmín; Martínez-Trujillo, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Sucrose is synthesized from UDP-Glc and Fru-6-phosphate via the activity of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) enzymes, which produce Suc-6-phosphate. Suc-6-phosphate is rapidly dephosphorylated by phosphatases to produce Suc and inorganic phosphate. Arabidopsis has four sps genes encoding SPS enzymes. Of these enzymes, AtSPS1F and AtSPS2F have been grouped with other dicotyledonous SPS enzymes, while AtSPS3F and AtSPS4F are included in groups with both dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous SPS enzymes. In this work, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana transformants containing the promoter region of each sps gene fused to gfp::uidA reporter genes. A detailed characterization of expression conferred by the sps promoters in organs and tissues was performed. We observed expression of AtSPS1F, AtSPS2F and AtSPS3F in the columella roots of the plants that support sucrose synthesis. Hence, these findings support the idea that sucrose synthesis occurs in the columella cells, and suggests that sucrose has a role in this tissue. In addition, the expression of AtSPS4F was identified in embryos and suggests its participation in this developmental stage. Quantitative transcriptional analysis of A. thaliana plants grown in media with different osmotic potential showed that AtSPS2F and AtSPS4F respond to osmotic stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sugars, sucrose and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka colorectal cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Morita, Makiko; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Ueki, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2014-05-01

    A diet high in sugars may promote colorectal carcinogenesis, but it remains uncertain whether high intake of sugars or sucrose confers increased risk of colorectal cancer. The authors investigated the associations of sugars and sucrose intake with colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study in Japan. The study subjects comprised 816 incident cases of colorectal cancer and 815 community controls. Consumption frequencies and portion sizes of 148 food and beverage items were ascertained by a computer-assisted interview. The authors used the consumption of 29 food items to estimate sugars and sucrose intake. The odds ratios of colorectal cancer risk according to intake categories were obtained using a logistic regression model with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Overall, intakes of sugars and sucrose were not related to colorectal cancer risk either in men or women. The association between sugars intake and colorectal cancer risk differed by smoking status and alcohol use in men, but not in women. In men, sugars intake tended to be associated with colorectal cancer risk inversely among never-smokers and positively among male ever-smokers (interaction p=0.01). Sugars intake was associated with an increased risk among men with no alcohol consumption, but was unrelated to the risk among male alcohol drinkers (interaction p=0.02). Body mass index did not modify the association with sugars intake in either men or women. Sugars intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer among smokers and non-alcohol drinkers in men selectively.

  14. The influence of sucrose and maltose on Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Ponomareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on the influence of fermentable carbohydrates concentration on yeast multiplication are widely represented in the literature. This study presents the results of experiments showing an influence of sucrose and maltose concentration on Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast multiplication. The objects of this research are bakery, beer, wine and alcohol yeast that are widely used in fermentation industry. Beet molasses and malt wort were chosen as nutrient medium for yeast breeding. Their basic sugars are mainly represented by sucrose and maltose. The concentration of sugars was 9, 12, 16 and 20%. The intensity of yeast multiplication was evaluated based on yeast cells concentration during their cultivation and the specific growth rate. Sugar concentrations causing an intensive accumulation of examined yeast strains were determined. This paper presents the experimental data that were received describing the influence of sucrose and maltose concentration on the duration of a lag phase period for different yeast strains. Specific growth rates of researched strains were determined for nutrient mediums with different glucose and maltose concentrations. It was found that the Crabtree effect, that is caused by high carbohydrates concentration in culture medium, is most pronounced when yeast cells grow on a sucrose medium. Brewer’s and baker's yeast are more adapted to high concentrations of carbohydrates. The obtained experimental data could be utilized to develop flow charts of growing a pure culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast to use at fermentation plants, including low power ones.

  15. MATHEMATICAL MODEL NON-ISOTHERMAL FLOW HIGHLY VISCOUS MEDIA CHANNELS MATRIX EXTRUDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sidorenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a one-dimensional steady flow of highly viscous medium in a cylindrical channel with Dissipation and dependence of the viscosity on the temperature. It is assumed that a relatively small intervals of temperature variation of the dynamic viscosity with a sufficient degree of accuracy can be assumed to be linear. The model was based on the equations of hydrodynamics and the heat transfer fluid. In the task channel wall temperature is assumed constant. An approximate solution of the problem, according to which the distribution of velocity, pressure and temperature is sought in the form of an expansion in powers of the dimensionless transverse coordinates. A special case, when the ratio of the velocity distribution, pressure and temperature is allowed to restrict the number of terms in the expansion as follows: for speed - the first 3 to the pressure - the first two for the temperature - the first 5. The expressions to determine the temperature profile of the medium in the channel and characterization dissipative heating. To simulate the process of heat transfer highly viscous media developed a program for personal electronic computers. The calculation was performed using experimental research data melt flow grain mixture of buckwheat and soybeans for the load speed of 0.08 mm / s. The method of computer simulation carried out checks on the adequacy of the solutions to the real process of heat transfer. Analysis of the results indicates that for small values of the length of the channel influence dissipation function appears mainly at the wall. By increasing the reduced length of this phenomenon applies to all section of the channel. At high temperature profile along the channel length is determined entirely by dissipation. In the case of heat transfer due to frictional heat only, the form of curves of temperature distribution is a consequence of the interaction effects of heating due to viscous shear effects cooling by conduction. The

  16. Gelling ability of kefiran in the presence of sucrose and fructose and physicochemical characterization of the resulting cryogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Lucía; Roberti, Paula; Piermaria, Judith A; Abraham, Analía G

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the influence of sucrose and fructose on the gel-forming capacity of kefiran was investigated as well as the physicochemical characteristics of the resulting gels. The addition of sugar to gel-forming solutions did not alter the pseudoplastic flow properties of kefiran solutions and after one freeze-thaw cycle translucent gels with high water-holding capability were obtained. A highly porous matrix was revealed by microscopy whose pore size varied with sugar concentration. Sucrose and fructose had different effects on the rheological characteristics of sugar-kefiran gels. An increment in the strength of the gels with progressive concentrations of sucrose was evidenced by an increase in the elastic modulus (G'), indicating that sucrose reinforces the binding interactions between the polymer molecules (p ≤ 0.05). A drastic reduction in elastic modulus occurred, however, when 50.0 % w/w sucrose was added to kefiran gels, resulting in less elasticity. In contrast, when fructose was added to kefiran gels, elastic modulus decreased slightly with progressive sugar concentrations up to 10 %, thereafter increasing up to 50 % (p ≤ 0.05). Supplementation with up to 30 % sugar contributed to water retention and increased the viscous modulus. The relative increment in the elastic and viscous moduli elevated the loss tangent (tanδ) depending on the type and concentration of sugar. Sugars (sucrose, fructose) present in the matrix of the polysaccharide networks modified water-polymer and polymer-polymer interactions and consequently changed the gels' physicochemical characteristics, thus allowing the possibility of selecting the appropriate formulation through tailor-made kefiran cryogels.

  17. Trans-generational desensitization and within-generational resensitization of a sucrose-best neuron in the polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Ma; Jingjing Li; Qingbo Tang; Xuening Zhang; Xincheng Zhao; Fengming Yan; Joop J. A. van Loon

    2016-01-01

    Dietary exposure of insects to a feeding deterrent substance for hours to days can induce habituation and concomitant desensitization of the response of peripheral gustatory neurons to such a substance. In the present study, larvae of the herbivore Helicoverpa armigera were fed on diets containing either a high, medium or low concentration of sucrose, a major feeding stimulant. The responsiveness of the sucrose-best neuron in the lateral sensilla styloconica on the galea was quantified. Resul...

  18. [Comparison of diagnostic quality in hysterosalpingography between iodinated non-ionic contrast media with low and high osmolarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccotti, K; Guida, D; Carbonetti, F; Stefanetti, L; Macioce, A; Cremona, A; David, V

    Comparison of diagnostic quality in hysterosalpingography between low and high-osmolality contrast media. We performed a retrospective evaluation of two cohorts of patients who underwent HSG using contrast media with different osmolarity: the first group ,47 patients, underwent hysterosalpingography in the period September 2011-December 2012 using Iopromide 370 mg/ml; the second group, 50 patients, underwent HSG from January 2013 to October 2013 using Iomeprol 400 mg/ml. Three radiologists, in consensus reading,, reviewed the radiographs by assessing the following four parameters: opacification of the uterine cavity, uterine profiles definition, Fallopian tubes visualization, contrast media spillage into peritoneum. A score-scale from 0 to 3 was assigned for each of the mentioned parameter (0 = minimum non-diagnostic exam, 1 = sufficient examination; 2 = good quality examination; maximum 3 = high quality images). We documented a statistically significant higher quality in displaying Fallopian tubes among patients studied through high osmolarity contrast medium (Iopromide 370 mg/ml) than what obtained through lower osmolarity contrast medium (Iomeprol 400 mg/ml). The use of high osmolarity contrast medium enabled better visualization of the tubes and a greater number of diagnoses of chronic aspecific salpigintis due to the increased osmolality and viscosity of Iomeprol 400 mg/ml. There were no significant differences between the two contrast agents in the evaluation of intra-uterine pathology and in the evaluation of the tubal patency.

  19. Anharmonicity and hydrogen bonding in electrooptic sucrose crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, M. M.; Giermańska, J.

    1990-03-01

    The polarized absorption spectra of the sucrose crystal in the 5300 - 7300 cm -1 region have been measured. The assignments of all the eight OH stretching overtones are proposed and their mechanical anharmonicities are estimated. The discrepancies from the oriented gas model (OGM) in the observed relative band intensities, especially of the -CH vibrations, are assumed to be connected with vibronic couplings enhanced by the helical arrangement of molecules joined by hydrogen bondings. It seems that this kind of interactions might be important for the second harmonic generation (SHG) by the sucrose crystal.

  20. Otitis Media in high-risk infants | Louw | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Delayed communication development is the most common symptom of developmental disability in children under three. Recurrent otitis media is an important contributing factor to a developmental communication delay. Young children under the age of three years who have a communication delay due to ...

  1. Monster High as a Virtual Dollhouse: Tracking Play Practices across Converging Transmedia and Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlwend, Karen E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Today, children play in transmedia franchises that bring together media characters, toys, and everyday consumer goods with games, apps, and websites in complex mergers of childhood cultures, digital literacies, consumer practices, and corporate agendas. Recent research on youth videogames and virtual worlds suggests the productive…

  2. Factors associated with high media coverage of the HIV epidemic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, journalists and editors are often consciously exploiting the mass media's potential agendasetting function in order to raise attention to HIV and AIDS. Although covering the HIV epidemic has become significantly easier in Lesotho because of government efforts, government and public officials are simultaneously ...

  3. High resolution magnetic force microscopy: instrumentation and application for recording media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porthun, Steffen; Porthun, S.

    This thesis describes aspects of the use of magnetic force microscopy for the study of magnetic recording media. The maximum achievable storage density in magnetic recording is limited by the magnetic reversal behaviour of the medium and by the stability of the written information. The shape and

  4. Political communication in a high-choice media environment: a challenge for democracy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aelst, P.; Strömbäck, J.; Aalberg, T.; Esser, F.; de Vreese, C.; Matthes, J.; Hopmann, D.; Salgado, S.; Hubé, N.; Stępińska, A.; Papathanassopoulos, S.; Berganza, R.; Legnante, G.; Reinemann, C.; Sheafer, T.; Stanyer, J.

    2017-01-01

    During the last decennia media environments and political communication systems have changed fundamentally. These changes have major ramifications for the political information environments and the extent to which they aid people in becoming informed citizens. Against this background, the purpose of

  5. INFLUENCE VARIOUS REAGENTS ON THE MOLECULAR DIFFUSION INDEX OF SUCROSE FROM BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food products from vegetable raw materials play a special role in the food industry. Sugar is one of the strategically important products. The significance of its is great due to its wide use in confectionery, bakery, liquor, canning, biochemical, pharmaceutical and other branches of human activity. Effective development of the domestic sugar industry depends on the terms of competition with European partners. Production of granulated sugar includes a significant amount of energy-intensive and technologically complex operations, one of which is the extraction of sucrose from beet chips by means of hot countercurrent extraction. The most important criterion for the extraction process efficiency evaluation is the coefficient of molecular diffusion. The efficiency of using of beet chips thermo chemical processing before extraction depending on the quality of processed beet was investigated. It was found out that when using a low quality beet the diffusion coefficient decreases compared to healthy beet. The use of solutio ns of some salts for beet chips heat treatment has an overall positive effect on the diffusion coefficient. A method for recovering sucrose from beet with the use of compounds of Al2(SO4, Ca(SO4, and (NH42SO4 as the extractants was proposed. It was found out that beet samples treatment with solutions of proposed salts provides a sucrose smooth transition from the pores of sugar beet tissue into the extractant due to intense convective washout. It is caused by the high degree of tissue cells plasmolysis achieved in its processing with solutions of proposed reagents. The results obtained indicate a significant increase of the sucrose diffusion coefficient in the ammonium sulfate solution used as the extractant.

  6. Acoustic and volumetric properties of betaine hydrochloride drug in aqueous D(+)-glucose and sucrose solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshetti, Suresh; Gupta, Akash; Tangeda, Savitha Jyostna; Gardas, Ramesh L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Density and speed of sound are measured for B.HCl drug in aq. D(+)-glucose and sucrose. • Solvation behavior of B.HCl drug studied in aqueous D(+)-glucose and sucrose. • Cosphere overlap model is used to understand the transfer partial molar volume. • Hepler’s constant indicated structure making ability of B.HCl drug in studied systems. - Abstract: The densities (ρ) and speeds of sound (u) of betaine hydrochloride (B.HCl) drug (0.01 to 0.06) mol · kg −1 in (0.10, 0.20 and 0.30) mol · kg −1 aqueous D(+)-glucose and sucrose solutions are reported as a function of temperature at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The values of density (ρ) and speed of sound (u) are obtained with high precision. These values have been used to estimate the apparent molar volume (V 2,ϕ ), partial molar volume (V 2 ∞ ), transfer partial molar volume (Δ t V 2 ∞ ), apparent molar isentropic compressibility (K s,2,ϕ ), partial molar isentropic compressibility (K s,2 ∞ ), transfer partial molar compressibility (Δ t K s,2 ∞ ), hydration number (N H ), partial molar expansion (E 2 ∞ ) and Hepler’s constant (∂ 2 V 2 ∞ /∂T 2 ) P . Furthermore, pair (V AB and K AB ) and triplet (V ABB and K ABB ) interaction coefficients have been computed from the values of Δ t V 2 ∞ and Δ t K s,2 ∞ . The co-sphere overlap model is used to understand the values of Δ t V 2 ∞ and Δ t K s,2 ∞ . The positive values of (∂ 2 V 2 ∞ /∂T 2 ) P indicate structure making ability of betaine hydrochloride in aqueous D(+)-glucose and sucrose solutions at the temperatures and compositions investigated

  7. Influence of sucrose ingestion on brainstem and hypothalamic intrinsic oscillations in lean and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Coveleskie, Kristen; Connolly, Lynn; Labus, Jennifer S; Ebrat, Bahar; Stains, Jean; Jiang, Zhiguo; Suyenobu, Brandall Y; Raybould, Helen E; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A

    2014-05-01

    The study of intrinsic fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging can provide insight into the effect of physiologic states on brain processes. In an effort to better understand the brain-gut communication induced by the absorption and metabolism of nutrients in healthy lean and obese individuals, we investigated whether ingestion of nutritive and non-nutritive sweetened beverages differentially engages the hypothalamus and brainstem vagal pathways in lean and obese women. In a 2-day, double-blind crossover study, 11 lean and 11 obese healthy women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans after ingestion of 2 beverages of different sucrose content, but identical sweetness. During scans, subjects rested with eyes closed. Blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations demonstrated significantly greater power in the highest frequency band (slow-3: 0.073-0.198 Hz) after ingestion of high-sucrose compared with low-sucrose beverages in the nucleus tractus solitarius for both groups. Obese women had greater connectivity between the right lateral hypothalamus and a reward-related brain region and weaker connectivity with homeostasis and gustatory-related brain regions than lean women. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we observed sucrose-related changes in oscillatory dynamics of blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in brainstem and hypothalamus in lean and obese women. The observed frequency changes are consistent with a rapid vagally mediated mechanism due to nutrient absorption, rather than sweet taste receptor activation. These findings provide support for altered interaction between homeostatic and reward networks in obese individuals. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Statistical media design for efficient polyhydroxyalkanoate production in Pseudomonas sp. MNNG-S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, V; Rajeswari, V; Abirami, P; Poornimakkani, K; Suguna, P; Shenbagarathai, R

    2016-07-03

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a promising polymer for various biomedical applications. There is a high need to improve the production rate to achieve end use. When a cost-effective production was carried out with cheaper agricultural residues like molasses, traces of toxins were incorporated into the polymer, which makes it unfit for biomedical applications. On the other hand, there is an increase in the popularity of using chemically defined media for the production of compounds with biomedical applications. However, these media do not exhibit favorable characteristics such as efficient utilization at large scale compared to complex media. This article aims to determine the specific nutritional requirement of Pseudomonas sp. MNNG-S for efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoate. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used in this study to statistically design for PHA production based on the interactive effect of five significant variables (sucrose; potassium dihydrogen phosphate; ammonium sulfate; magnesium sulfate; trace elements). The interactive effects of sucrose with ammonium sulfate, ammonium sulfate with combined potassium phosphate, and trace element with magnesium sulfate were found to be significant (p production more than fourfold (from 0.85 g L(-1) to 4.56 g L(-1)).

  9. Sucrose Sensitivity of Honey Bees Is Differently Affected by Dietary Protein and a Neonicotinoid Pesticide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien J Démares

    Full Text Available Over a decade, declines in honey bee colonies have raised worldwide concerns. Several potentially contributing factors have been investigated, e.g. parasites, diseases, and pesticides. Neonicotinoid pesticides have received much attention due to their intensive use in crop protection, and their adverse effects on many levels of honey bee physiology led the European Union to ban these compounds. Due to their neuronal target, a receptor expressed throughout the insect nervous system, studies have focused mainly on neuroscience and behaviour. Through the Geometric Framework of nutrition, we investigated effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on survival, food consumption and sucrose sensitivity of honey bees (Apis mellifera. Thiamethoxam did not affect protein and carbohydrate intake, but decreased responses to high concentrations of sucrose. Interestingly, when bees ate fixed unbalanced diets, dietary protein facilitated better sucrose detection. Both thiamethoxam and dietary protein influenced survival. These findings suggest that, in the presence of a pesticide and unbalanced food, honey bee health may be severely challenged. Consequences for foraging efficiency and colony activity, cornerstones of honey bee health, are also discussed.

  10. Water and sucrose diffusion coefficients during osmotic dehydration of sapodilla (Achras zapota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Muritiba Pereira de Lima Coimbra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sapodilla is an original fruit from Central America that is well adapted in all regions of the Brazilian territory. Despite its wide adaptation and acceptance in fruit markets, it is rare to find it outside tropical regions, partially because of its high perishability. The development of alternative, simple, and inexpensive methods to extend the conservation and marketing of these fruits is important, and osmotic dehydration is one of these methods. The main objective of this study was to determine the water and sucrose diffusion coefficients during the osmotic dehydration of sapodilla. This process was performed in short duration (up to 6h to evaluate detailed information on water loss and solids gain kinetics at the beginning of the process and in long duration (up to 60h to determine the equilibrium concentrations in sapodilla. The immersion time had greater influence on the water and sucrose diffusion coefficients (P<0.05; the maximum water loss (WL and solute gain (SG occurred in the osmotic solution at the highest concentration. Water and sucrose diffusion coefficients ranged from 0.00 x 10-10 m2/s to 1.858 x 10-10 m2/s, and from 0.00 x 10-10to 2.304 x 10-10 m2/s, respectively. Thus, understanding the WL and SG kinetics during the process of sapodilla osmotic dehydration could significantly contribute to new alternatives of preservation and commercialization of this fruit.

  11. Coal Fly Ash Ceramics: Preparation, Characterization, and Use in the Hydrolysis of Sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pires dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal ash is a byproduct of mineral coal combustion in thermal power plants. This residue is responsible for many environmental problems because it pollutes soil, water, and air. Thus, it is important to find ways to reuse it. In this study, coal fly ash, obtained from the Presidente Médici Thermal Power Plant, was utilized in the preparation of ceramic supports for the immobilization of the enzyme invertase and subsequent hydrolysis of sucrose. Coal fly ash supports were prepared at several compaction pressures (63.66–318.30 MPa and sintered at 1200°C for 4 h. Mineralogical composition (by X-ray diffraction and surface area were studied. The ceramic prepared with 318.30 MPa presented the highest surface area (35 m2/g and amount of immobilized enzyme per g of support (76.6 mg/g. In assays involving sucrose inversion, it showed a high degree of hydrolysis (around 81% even after nine reuses and 30 days’ storage. Therefore, coal fly ash ceramics were demonstrated to be a promising biotechnological alternative as an immobilization support for the hydrolysis of sucrose.

  12. Intravenous iron sucrose therapy for moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriplani, Alka; Mahey, Reeta; Dash, Biswa Bhusan; Kulshreshta, Vidushi; Agarwal, Nutan; Bhatla, Neerja

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in pregnancy. Prophylactic oral iron is recommended during pregnancy to meet the increased requirement. In India, women become pregnant with low baseline haemoglobin level resulting in high incidence of moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy where oral iron therapy cannot meet the requirement. Pregnant women with moderate anaemia are to be treated with parentral iron therapy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the response and effect of intravenous iron sucrose complex (ISC) given to pregnant women with IDA. A prospective study was conducted (June 2009 to June 2011) in the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. One hundred pregnant women with haemoglobin between 5-9 g% with diagnosed iron deficiency attending antenatal clinic were given intravenous iron sucrose complex in a dose of 200 mg twice weekly schedule after calculating the dose requirement. The mean haemoglobin raised from 7.63 ± 0.61 to 11.20 ± 0.73 g% (Panaemia. Intravenous iron sucrose can be used in hospital settings and tertiary urban hospitals where it can replace intramuscular therapy due to injection related side effects. Further, long-term comparative studies are required to recommend its use at peripheral level.

  13. Stratified premedication strategy for the prevention of contrast media hypersensitivity in high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suh-Young; Yang, Min Suk; Choi, Young-Hoon; Park, Chang Min; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang Heon; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2017-03-01

    Although the severity of hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media varies, it is well correlated with the severity of recurrent reactions; however, prophylaxis protocols are not severity-stratified. To assess the outcomes of tailored prophylaxis according to the severity of hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. Our premedication protocols were stratified based on the severity of previous reactions: (1) 4 mg of chlorpheniramine for mild reactions, (2) adding 40 mg of methylprednisolone for moderate reactions, and (3) adding multiple doses of 40 mg of methylprednisolone for severe index reactions. Cases of reexposure in patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions were routinely monitored and mandatorily recorded. Among a total of 850 patients who underwent enhanced computed tomography after severity-tailored prophylaxis, breakthrough reactions occurred in 17.1%, but most breakthrough reactions (89.0%) were mild and did not require medical treatment. Additional corticosteroid use did not reduce the breakthrough reaction rate in cases with a mild index reaction (16.8% vs 17.2%, P = .70). However, underpremedication with a single dose of corticosteroid revealed significantly higher rates of breakthrough reaction than did double doses of corticosteroid in cases with a severe index reaction (55.6% vs 17.4%, P = .02). Changing the iodinated contrast media resulted in an additional reduction of the breakthrough reaction rate overall (14.9% vs 32.1%, P = .001). In a total severity-based stratified prophylaxis regimens and changing iodinated contrast media can be considered in patients with a history of previous hypersensitivity reaction to iodinated contrast media to reduce the risk of breakthrough reactions. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of sucrose and methyl jasmonate on biomass and anthocyanin production in cell suspension culture of Melastoma malabathricum (Melastomaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koay Suan See

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma malabathricum, belongs to the Melastomaceae family, is an important medicinal plant widely distributed from Madagascar to Australia, that is used in traditional remedies for the treatment of variousailments. Besides its medicinal properties, it has been identified as a potential source of anthocyanin production.The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of sucrose and methyl jasmonate and feeding time oncell biomass yield and anthocyanin production in cell suspension culture of M. malabathricum. Addition of differentconcentrations of sucrose into the cell culture of M. malabathricum influenced cell biomass and pigment accumulation. The addition of methyl jasmonate was found to have no effect on cell biomass but the presence of higher amount (12.5-50mg/L had caused a reduction in anthocyanin production and accumulation. MS medium supplemented with 30g/L sucrose and 3.5 mg/L of MeJA added on cero day and 3rd day produced high fresh cell mass at the end of nine days of culture but did not support the production of anthocyanins. However, cells cultured in the medium supplemented with 45g/L sucrose without MeJA showed the highest pigment content (0.69±0.22Cv/g-FCM. The cells cultured in MS medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose with 3.5mg/L MeJA added on the 3rd and 6th day of culture, showed the lowest pigment content (0.37-0.40Cv/g-FCM. This study indicated that MeJA was not necessary but sucrose was needed for the enhancement of cell growth and anthocyanin production in M. malabathricum cell cultures. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 597-606. Epub 2011 June 01.

  15. Evaluation of a new solid media specimen transport card for high risk HPV detection and cervical cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Kathryn; Luo, Hongxue; Shen, Zhiyong; Wang, Guixiang; Du, Hui; Wang, Chun; Liu, Xiaobo; Wang, Xiamen; Qu, Xinfeng; Wu, Ruifang; Belinson, Jerome

    2016-03-01

    Solid media transport can be used to design adaptable cervical cancer screening programs but currently is limited by one card with published data. To develop and evaluate a solid media transport card for use in high-risk human papillomavirus detection (HR-HPV). The Preventative Oncology International (POI) card was constructed using PK 226 paper(®) treated with cell-lysing solution and indicating dye. Vaginal samples were applied to the POI card and the indicating FTA (iFTA) elute card. A cervical sample was placed in liquid media. All specimens were tested for HR-HPV. Color change was assessed at sample application and at card processing. Stability of the POI card and iFTA elute card was tested at humidity. 319 women were enrolled. Twelve women had at least one insufficient sample with no difference between media (p=0.36). Compared to liquid samples, there was good agreement for HR-HPV detection with kappa of 0.81 (95% CI 0.74-0.88) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.62-0.79) for the POI and iFTA elute card respectively. Sensitivity for ≥CIN2 was 100% (CI 100-100%), 95.1% (CI 92.7-97.6%), and 93.5% (CI 90.7-96.3%) for the HR-HPV test from the liquid media, POI card, and iFTA elute card respectively. There was no color change of the POI card noted in humidity but the iFTA elute card changed color at 90% humidity. The POI card is suitable for DNA transport and HR-HPV testing. This card has the potential to make cervical cancer screening programs more affordable worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sucrose counteracts the anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil in adipose tissue and increases obesity development in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Tao; Liaset, Bjørn; Hao, Qin

    2011-01-01

    Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are reported to protect against high fat diet-induced obesity and inflammation in adipose tissue. Here we aimed to investigate if the amount of sucrose in the background diet influences the ability of n-3 PUFAs to protect against diet-induced obesity, a...

  17. Potassium co-transport and antiport during the uptake of sucrose and glutamic acid from the xylem vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, A.J.E. van; Erven, A.J. van

    Perfusion experiments with excised internodes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Moneymaker) showed that the uptake of glutamic acid and sucrose from the xylem vessels is accompanied with coupled proton co-transport and potassium antiport at low pH (<5.5). At high pH (5.5) both proton and

  18. Stochastic porous media modeling and high-resolution schemes for numerical simulation of subsurface immiscible fluid flow transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantson, Eric Thompson; Ju, Binshan; Wu, Dan; Gyan, Patricia Semwaah

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes stochastic petroleum porous media modeling for immiscible fluid flow simulation using Dykstra-Parson coefficient (V DP) and autocorrelation lengths to generate 2D stochastic permeability values which were also used to generate porosity fields through a linear interpolation technique based on Carman-Kozeny equation. The proposed method of permeability field generation in this study was compared to turning bands method (TBM) and uniform sampling randomization method (USRM). On the other hand, many studies have also reported that, upstream mobility weighting schemes, commonly used in conventional numerical reservoir simulators do not accurately capture immiscible displacement shocks and discontinuities through stochastically generated porous media. This can be attributed to high level of numerical smearing in first-order schemes, oftentimes misinterpreted as subsurface geological features. Therefore, this work employs high-resolution schemes of SUPERBEE flux limiter, weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme (WENO), and monotone upstream-centered schemes for conservation laws (MUSCL) to accurately capture immiscible fluid flow transport in stochastic porous media. The high-order schemes results match well with Buckley Leverett (BL) analytical solution without any non-oscillatory solutions. The governing fluid flow equations were solved numerically using simultaneous solution (SS) technique, sequential solution (SEQ) technique and iterative implicit pressure and explicit saturation (IMPES) technique which produce acceptable numerical stability and convergence rate. A comparative and numerical examples study of flow transport through the proposed method, TBM and USRM permeability fields revealed detailed subsurface instabilities with their corresponding ultimate recovery factors. Also, the impact of autocorrelation lengths on immiscible fluid flow transport were analyzed and quantified. A finite number of lines used in the TBM resulted into visual

  19. Improved fed-batch production of high-purity PHB (poly-3 hydroxy butyrate) by Cupriavidus necator (MTCC 1472) from sucrose-based cheap substrates under response surface-optimized conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pinaki; Rangarajan, Vivek

    2017-10-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out for Cupriavidus necator (MTCC 1472)-based improved production of poly-3 hydroxy butyrate (PHB) through induced nitrogen limiting fed-batch cultivation strategies. Initially Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology were implemented to optimize most influencing process parameters. With optimized process parameter values, continuous feeding strategies ware applied in a 5-l fermenter with table sugar concentration of 100 g/l, nitrogen concentration of 0.12 g/l for fed-batch fermentation with varying dilution rates of 0.02 and 0.046 1/h. To get enriched production of PHB, concentration of the sugar was further increased to 150 and 200 g/l in feeding. Maximum concentrations of PHB achieved were 22.35 and 23.07 g/l at those dilution rates when sugar concentration maintains at 200 g/l in feeding. At maximum concentration of PHB (23.07 g/l), productivity of 0.58 g/l h was achieved with maximum PHB accumulation efficiency up to 64% of the dry weight of biomass. High purity of PHB, close to medical grade was achieved after surfactant hypochlorite extraction method, and it was further confirmed by SEM, EDX, and XRD studies.

  20. Effects of Sucrose, Phosphate, and Calcium Carbonate on the Production of Pikromycin from Streptomyces venezuelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jeong Sang; Kim, Min-Suk; Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2015-04-01

    Polyketide secondary metabolites share common precursor pools, acyl-CoA. Thus, the effects of engineering strategies for heterologous and native secondary metabolite production are often determined by the measurement of pikromycin in Streptomyces venezuelae. It is hard to compare the effectiveness of engineering targets among published data owing to the different pikromycin production media used from one study to the other. To determine the most important nutritional factor and establish optimal culture conditions, medium optimization of pikromycin from Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439 was studied with a statistical method, Plackett-Burman design. Nine variables (glucose, sucrose, peptone, (NH4)2SO4, K2HPO4, KH2PO4, NaCl, MgSO4·7H2O, and CaCO3) were analyzed for their effects on a response, pikromycin. Glucose, K2HPO4, and CaCO3 were determined to be the most significant factors. The path of the steepest ascent and response surface methodology about the three selected components were performed to study interactions among the three factors, and the fine-tune concentrations for maximized product yields. The significant variables and optimal concentrations were 139 g/1 sucrose, 5.29 g/l K2HPO4, and 0.081 g/l CaCO3, with the maximal pikromycin yield of 35.5 mg/l. Increases of the antibiotics production by 1.45-fold, 1.3-fold, and 1.98-fold, compared with unoptimized medium and two other pikromycin production media SCM and SGGP, respectively, were achieved.

  1. Growth of the mycelium of different basidiomycetes on various media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreen, Z.; Kausar, T.; Baig, S.; Bajwa, R.

    2008-01-01

    Potato dextrose extract as solid or liquid static media was found best medium tested for both rate and amount of fungal growth of Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma lucidum, Coriolus versicolor and Schizophyllum commune strains. Malt, Yeast and kirk + glucose making second and third respectively, for rate and amount of fungal growth. Kirk+ molasses was the fourth best medium. Addition of sucrose, glucose and molasses as carbon sources, increased the mycelial growth in each fungal species. Similarly, the Highest fresh and dry weight in submerged fermentation was observed for P.ostreatus, G.lucidum. C.versicolor and S.commune in sucrose and glucose as compared to molasses media. (author)

  2. Use of Nonspecific, Glutamic Acid-Free, Media and High Glycerol or High Amylase as Inducing Parameters for Screening Bacillus Isolates Having High Yield of Polyglutamic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxi, Nandita N

    2014-01-01

    Out of fifty-five Bacillus isolates obtained from ten different regional locations and sources, seven showed the ability to consistently produce specific extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) on rich as well as synthetic but nonspecific media which did not contain glutamic acid. The isolates were identified as either Bacillus licheniformis or Bacillus subtilis. The EPS from all isolates was resistant to alpha protease, proteinase K, and was thus of high molecular weight. Further it was detected after SDS-PAGE by methylene blue but not by coomassie blue R staining as in case of proteins with high proportion of acidic amino acids. Cell-free EPS, after acid hydrolysis, showed absence of carbohydrates and presence of only glutamic acid. Thus the native the EPS from all seven isolates was confirmed to be gamma polyglutamic acid (PGA) and not exopolysaccharide. The Bacillus isolate T which produced maximum polymer on all media tested had higher amylase: protease activity as compared to other strains. If inoculum was developed in rich medium as compared to synthetic medium, the PGA produced increased by twofold in the subsequent synthetic production medium. Similarly, use of inoculum consisting of young and vegetative cells also increased the PGA production by twofold though amount of inoculum did not affect yield of PGA. Though PGA was produced in even in the absence of glutamic acid supplementation in the production medium by all isolates, the yield of PGA increased by fourfold in the presence glutamic acid and the maximum yield was 30 g/l for isolate K. The supplementation of glutamine instead of glutamic acid into the medium caused an increase in the viscosity of the non-Newtonian solution of PGA.

  3. Prediction of Flow and Temperature Distributions in a High Flux Research Reactor Using the Porous Media Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanfang Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High thermal neutron fluxes are needed in some research reactors and for irradiation tests of materials. A High Flux Research Reactor (HFRR with an inverse flux trap-converter target structure is being developed by the Reactor Engineering Analysis Lab (REAL at Tsinghua University. This paper studies the safety of the HFRR core by full core flow and temperature calculations using the porous media approach. The thermal nonequilibrium model is used in the porous media energy equation to calculate coolant and fuel assembly temperatures separately. The calculation results show that the coolant temperature keeps increasing along the flow direction, while the fuel temperature increases first and decreases afterwards. As long as the inlet coolant mass flow rate is greater than 450 kg/s, the peak cladding temperatures in the fuel assemblies are lower than the local saturation temperatures and no boiling exists. The flow distribution in the core is homogeneous with a small flow rate variation less than 5% for different assemblies. A large recirculation zone is observed in the outlet region. Moreover, the porous media model is compared with the exact model and found to be much more efficient than a detailed simulation of all the core components.

  4. Variability in Phytochemicals, Á-Galactosides, Sucrose Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro protein digestibility varied significantly (P <0.05) among the bean varieties and had a positive significant correlation with sucrose content and negative correlations with trypsin inhibitors, tannins, lectins, á-galactosides and saponins. The correlation matrix indicated that variability in á-galactosides, the protein ...

  5. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-16

    Sep 16, 2015 ... serine residue for phosphorylation by Ser/Thr protein kinase is indicated by a red star. The characteristic sucrose synthase domain (single underline) and a glycosyltransferases domain (double underline) were identified by the Interproscan algorithm (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/ pfa/iprscan/). 464. Journal of ...

  6. Sucrose Responsiveness, Learning Success, and Task Specialization in Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Margot; Rolland, Uther; Giurfa,, Martin; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Social insects possess remarkable learning capabilities, which are crucial for their ecological success. They also exhibit interindividual differences in responsiveness to environmental stimuli, which underlie task specialization and division of labor. Here we investigated for the first time the relationships between sucrose responsiveness,…

  7. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the structure and thermodynamic properties of the modified starch were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: The properties of wheat starch changed greatly by adding different sucrose esters to their ...

  8. Radiation effect on sucrose content of inverted sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podadera, Priscilla; Sabato, Susy F.

    2007-01-01

    Inverted sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose used as an ingredient in the food and beverage industry. During production there are points of contamination by microorganisms that can modify the sugar properties and reduce shelf life. This work aims to consider one efficient technique in the sanitization of this ingredient with minimum alterations in the sugar ratios. Irradiation with Cobalt 60 is a technique with proven efficacy in the reduction of microorganisms. Samples of inverted sugar had been radiated with Cobalt 60, Gammacell type, at the CTR-IPEN, with doses of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 kGy, and dose rate of 3.88 kGy/h. The content of sucrose was determined by the Fehling method. The sample irradiated at highest dose presented the most intense reduction in the concentration of sucrose: 13% in comparison to the control. Irradiated samples up to 30 kGy did not presented statistical difference in relation to the control (p<0.05), indicating that radiation can be applied to the inverted sugar without significant alterations in the concentration of sucrose. (author)

  9. Radiation effect on sucrose content of inverted sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podadera, Priscilla; Sabato, Susy F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mails: ppodadera@yahoo.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Inverted sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose used as an ingredient in the food and beverage industry. During production there are points of contamination by microorganisms that can modify the sugar properties and reduce shelf life. This work aims to consider one efficient technique in the sanitization of this ingredient with minimum alterations in the sugar ratios. Irradiation with Cobalt 60 is a technique with proven efficacy in the reduction of microorganisms. Samples of inverted sugar had been radiated with Cobalt 60, Gammacell type, at the CTR-IPEN, with doses of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 kGy, and dose rate of 3.88 kGy/h. The content of sucrose was determined by the Fehling method. The sample irradiated at highest dose presented the most intense reduction in the concentration of sucrose: 13% in comparison to the control. Irradiated samples up to 30 kGy did not presented statistical difference in relation to the control (p<0.05), indicating that radiation can be applied to the inverted sugar without significant alterations in the concentration of sucrose. (author)

  10. Steroid hormone excretion is enhanced by sucrose feeding to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, T.C.; Hsu, H.; Saunders, J.P.; Kim, S.S.; Given-Proctor, J.; Ahrens, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that feeding rats sucrose rather than invert sugar (50:50 mixture of glucose and fructose) or cornstarch would result in a more rapid excretion of intravenously injected 1,2- 3 H aldosterone or 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol. The three carbohydrate sources provided 45% of dietary energy when fed, respectively, to one of three groups of 10 male, Sprague Dawley rats. After 4 or 8 weeks of ad lib feeding of the three diets 5 μCI of 3 H-labeled hormones were injected intravenously and % recovery in urine and feces was measured for 4 days by liquid scintillation counting. Nearly 90% of the 3 H injected as 1,2- 3 H aldosterone was recovered over 4 days in the excreta of the sucrose fed rats. This recovery of 3 H from aldosterone was significantly greater (P 3 H from intravenously injected 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol followed a similar pattern. The authors anticipate that the excretion of all metabolic end products and xenobiotics excreted as glucuronides would be enhanced by sucrose feeding. Oxocarbonium ions from the glucose portion of sucrose digestion in the mammalian small intestine are thought to compete with oxocarbonium ions from the glucuronic acid portion of glucuronide hydrolysis. Such competition may slow glucuronide hydrolysis and promote glucuronide excretion, including the glucuronides derived from aldosterone and cortisol

  11. Diverse expression of sucrose transporter gene family in Zea mays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-03-04

    Mar 4, 2015 ... In this study, we identified four sucrose transporter genes. (ZmSUT1 .... strand synthesis was done with forward and reverse primers designed at .... Qazi H. A., Paranjpe S. and Bhargava S. 2012 Stem sugar accu- mulation in ...

  12. Synthesis of Fructooligosaccharides from Sucrose Using Inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maugeri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructooligosaccharides (FOS from sucrose, new alternative sweeteners with functional properties, also called soluble fibers, have a number of desirable characteristics such as low calories, no cariogenicity, and safety for diabetics and Bifidus stimulating factor. Fructooligosaccharides are also known as prebiotics, since they stimulate probiotic organisms. The production, as well as the application of food-grade fructooligosaccharides, has increased rapidly during last years. In this work, experimental factorial design has been applied to optimize the fructooligosaccharide synthesis conditions by inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus var. bulgaricus. The studied variables were: temperature, pH, sucrose and enzyme concentrations. According to the results, only temperature and sucrose concentrations have shown to be significant parameters. The syntheses of the fructooligosaccharides were carried out on stirred reactor and packed bed reactors, using free and immobilized enzymes, with the best conditions obtained from the experimental design. It has been shown that there is no significant difference between these processes. The final sugar concentrations can be tailor made by varying residence time in the reactor to cope with the different standard needs in food industries. A typical solution product consists of a mixture of fructose (155 g/L, glucose (155 g/L, sucrose (132 g/L and fructooligosaccharides (50 g/L. These concentrations are suitable for applications in most food industries, in products such as sweets, candies, chocolates and yogurts. Besides, the prebiotic function of fructooligosaccharides as stimulants of the beneficial intestinal flora will give the product a functional and differentiated feature.

  13. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    stereo-chemical, and structural interactions at the ... are considered to play a principal role in biominer- alization, but their function is still ... men powders were prepared for SEM analysis by coating each .... mixture of two components and micro-absorption ef- fects are ... With the addition of the BSA, protein–sucrose com-.

  14. Transitions in aqueous solutions of sucrose at subzero temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sikora, Antonín; Dupanov, V. O.; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Zámečník, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2007), s. 71-85 ISSN 0022-2348 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/04/0384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : aqueous sucrose solutions * subzero temperature * glass transitions Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.809, year: 2007

  15. Seizing the Digital High Ground: Military Operations and Politics in the Social Media Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    a participatory and collaborative fashion. User Generated Content can be seen as the sum of all ways in which people use social media. See Andreas M...government policies at anytime and from anywhere. In democracies , this is not necessarily a significant factor; in semi-authoritarian states, it can...reduced. A possible by-product of this in democracies might be for politicians to become increasingly risk averse and cautious when making decisions

  16. Dynamics of a Highly Viscous Circular Blob in Homogeneous Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandita Sharma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Viscous fingering is ubiquitous in miscible displacements in porous media, in particular, oil recovery, contaminant transport in aquifers, chromatography separation, and geological CO2 sequestration. The viscosity contrasts between heavy oil and water is several orders of magnitude larger than typical viscosity contrasts considered in the majority of the literature. We use the finite element method (FEM-based COMSOL Multiphysics simulator to simulate miscible displacements in homogeneous porous media with very large viscosity contrasts. Our numerical model is suitable for a wide range of viscosity contrasts covering chromatographic separation as well as heavy oil recovery. We have successfully captured some interesting and previously unexplored dynamics of miscible blobs with very large viscosity contrasts in homogeneous porous media. We study the effect of viscosity contrast on the spreading and the degree of mixing of the blob. Spreading (variance of transversely averaged concentration follows the power law t 3 . 34 for the blobs with viscosity ∼ O ( 10 2 and higher, while degree of mixing is found to vary non-monotonically with log-mobility ratio. Moreover, in the limit of very large viscosity contrast, the circular blob behaves like an erodible solid body and the degree of mixing approaches the viscosity-matched case.

  17. New detection systems of bacteria using highly selective media designed by SMART: selective medium-design algorithm restricted by two constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kawanishi

    Full Text Available Culturing is an indispensable technique in microbiological research, and culturing with selective media has played a crucial role in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and the isolation of commercially useful microorganisms from environmental samples. Although numerous selective media have been developed in empirical studies, unintended microorganisms often grow on such media probably due to the enormous numbers of microorganisms in the environment. Here, we present a novel strategy for designing highly selective media based on two selective agents, a carbon source and antimicrobials. We named our strategy SMART for highly Selective Medium-design Algorithm Restricted by Two constraints. To test whether the SMART method is applicable to a wide range of microorganisms, we developed selective media for Burkholderia glumae, Acidovorax avenae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris. The series of media developed by SMART specifically allowed growth of the targeted bacteria. Because these selective media exhibited high specificity for growth of the target bacteria compared to established selective media, we applied three notable detection technologies: paper-based, flow cytometry-based, and color change-based detection systems for target bacteria species. SMART facilitates not only the development of novel techniques for detecting specific bacteria, but also our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the targeted bacteria.

  18. The changes of individual carotid artery wall layer by aging and carotid intima-media thickness value for high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jang-Ho; Kim, Wuon-Shik; Lee, Moo-Sik; Kim, Kee-Sik; Park, Jeong Bae; Youn, Ho-Joong; Park, Chang-Gyu; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Kim, Jang-Young; Jeong, Jin-Won; Park, Jong Chun; Lim, Do-Sun; Kim, Moo Hyun; Woo, Jeong Taek

    2016-12-01

    It is still unclear which layer (intima or media) is mainly involved in increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) by aging and also unclear regarding CIMT value suggesting high cardiovascular risk, although 75th percentile value of CIMT is known as a high risk in asymptomatic adults. We sought to find the changes of carotid intima thickness (CIT) and carotid media thickness (CMT) by aging and the 75th percentile value of CIMT in asymptomatic Korean adults. This is an observational cohort study. Carotid ultrasound findings (n=2204 from 12 hospitals) were prospectively collected. The carotid images were sent to Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science for analysis using specialized software which can measure intima and media wall also. Mean age was 58.1±13.5 years old (52% of men). Pearson's correlation coefficient between age and right CIMT (r=.489, Pvalue was 0.778 and 0.771 mm, respectively. Mean right CIT was 0.311±0.069 and 0.303±0.064 mm (P=.009), and mean right CMT was 0.391±0.124 and 0.388±0.131 mm (P=.694) in male and female, respectively. Left carotid ultrasound findings showed similar to the right one. An increased CIMT by aging was mainly due to increased CMT rather than CIT in asymptomatic adults. The 75th percentile values of right CIMT were 0.778 and 0.771 mm in asymptomatic Korean male and female adults, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Impact of thermal constraints on the optimal design of high-level waste repositories in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malbrain, C; Lester, R K [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1982-12-01

    An approximate, semi-analytical heat conduction model for predicting the time-dependent temperature distribution in the region of a high-level waste repository has been developed. The model provides the basis for a systematic, inexpensive examination of the impact of several independent thermal design constraints on key repository design parameters and for determining the optimal set of design parameters which satisfy these constraints. Illustrative calculations have been carried out for conceptual repository designs for spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel and reprocessed PWR high-level waste in salt and granite media.

  20. KARAKTERISTIK EMULSI SANTAN DAN MINYAK KEDELAI YANG DITAMBAH GUM ARAB DAN SUKROSA ESTER [Emulsion Characteristics of Coconut Milk and Soybean Oil Added with Gum Arabic and Sucrose Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksmi Hartayanie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available High saturated fatty acid content in coconut milk can be reduced by adding unsaturated fat. Pretreatment such as pasteurisation, homogenization or stabilizer and emulsifier addition are essential to prevent emulsion deterioration that could happen in few hours. This study aimed to determine the most appropriate combination of gum arabic and sucrose ester to produce good emulsion stability based on its physical and chemical characteristics. Furthermore this study also aimed to determine correlation between creaming index and other characteristics of coconut milk emulsion. Emulsion stability of mixed coconut milk in sterile glass bottles was observed for 7 days under 23-24°C. Stabilizer and emulsifier added were gum arabic and sucrose ester in five combinations, i.e. 6% gum arabic, 0.3% sucrose ester, 6% gum arabic + 0.3% sucrose ester, 3% gum arabic + 0.15% sucrose ester and 4.5% gum arabic + 0.225% sucrose ester. The physical characteristics evaluated were creaming index, total color change, viscosity and droplet distribution, while the chemical characteristics observed included pH, TBA value, and protein content. Data were analyzed by One Way Anova at 95% significant level to determine the differences among treatments. Bivariate Pearson Correlation was used in order to determine the interaction among sample characteristics. The data showed that, gum arabic and sucrose ester can maintain the emulsion stability. A combination of 4.5% gum arabic and 0.225% sucrose ester provided the best physicochemical characteristics with the lowest creaming index and decreased viscosit, and uniform droplet distribution.

  1. Experimental mixture design as a tool to optimize the growth of various Ganoderma species cultivated on media with different sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yit Kheng Goh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different medium components (glucose, sucrose, and fructose on the growth of different Ganoderma isolates and species was investigated using mixture design. Ten sugar combinations based on three simple sugars were generated with two different concentrations, namely 3.3% and 16.7%, which represented low and high sugar levels, respectively. The media were adjusted to either pH 5 or 8. Ganoderma isolates (two G. boninense from oil palm, one Ganoderma species from coconut palm, G. lingzhi, and G. australe from tower tree grew faster at pH 8. Ganoderma lingzhi proliferated at the slowest rate compared to all other tested Ganoderma species in all the media studied. However, G. boninense isolates grew the fastest. Different Ganoderma species were found to have different sugar preferences. This study illustrated that the mixture design can be used to determine the optimal combinations of sugar or other nutrient/chemical components of media for fungal growth.

  2. Effect of an avocado oil-enhanced diet (Persea americana) on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Toro-Equihua, Mario; Velasco-Rodríguez, Raymundo; López-Ascencio, Raúl; Vásquez, Clemente

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetable oils with varying percentages of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin resistance. However, there is no report on the effect of avocado oil on this pathologic condition. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of avocado oil on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats. An experimental study was carried out on Wistar rats that were randomly assigned into six groups. Each group received a different diet over an 8-week period (n = 11 in each group): the control group was given a standard diet, and the other five groups were given the standard feed plus sucrose with the addition of avocado oil at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. Variables were compared using Student t test and analysis of variance. Statistically significant difference was considered when p avocado oil showed lower insulin resistance (p = 0.022 and p = 0.024, respectively). Similar insulin resistance responses were observed in the control and 30% avocado oil addition groups (p = 0.85). Addition of 5-30% avocado oil lowered high sucrose diet-induced body weight gain in Wistar rats. It was thus concluded that glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by high sucrose diet in Wistar rats can be reduced by the dietary addition of 5-20% avocado oil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. SOCIAL MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    RESPONSIBILITY CENTCOM COALITION MEDIA SOCIAL MEDIA NEWS ARTICLES PRESS RELEASES IMAGERY VIDEOS TRANSCRIPTS VISITORS AND PERSONNEL FAMILY CENTER FAMILY READINESS CENTCOM WEBMAIL SOCIAL MEDIA SECURITY ACCOUNTABILITY HomeMEDIASOCIAL MEDIA Social Media CENTCOM'S ENGLISH SOCIAL MEDIA ACCOUNTS There are many U.S. military commands

  4. Effects of sucrose and cornstarch on 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced colon and liver carcinogenesis in F344 rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Poulsen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of sucrose and cornstarch on colon and liver carcinogenesis induced by 0.02% of the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in the feed. Male F344 rats were allocated to four groups. Two groups were fed diets...... high in either cornstarch (68%) or sucrose (34% sucrose/34% cornstarch) and were initiated with IQ. The remaining two groups received the same two diets but did not receive any IQ. In both liver and colon, administration of IQ resulted in a higher level of DNA adducts. In animals not dosed with IQ......, sucrose increased the adduct level in both organs but to a lower level than IQ. However, simultaneous administration of IQ and sucrose did not further increase the adduct level. Both IQ and sucrose increased the expression of the DNA-repair enzyme ERCC1 in the liver. In the colon, the number of large...

  5. Optimization of simultaneously enzymatic fructo- and inulo-oligosaccharide production using co-substrates of sucrose and inulin from Jerusalem artichoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawee-Ai, Arthitaya; Ritthibut, Nuntinee; Manassa, Apisit; Moukamnerd, Churairat; Laokuldilok, Thunnop; Surawang, Suthat; Wangtueai, Sutee; Phimolsiripol, Yuthana; Regenstein, Joe M; Seesuriyachan, Phisit

    2018-02-07

    Prebiotic substances are extracted from various plant materials or enzymatic hydrolysis of different substrates. The production of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) and inulo-oligosaccharide (IOS) was performed by applying two substrates, sucrose and inulin; oligosaccharide yields were maximized using central composite design to evaluate the parameters influencing oligosaccharide production. Inulin from Jerusalem artichoke (5-15% w/v), sucrose (50-70% w/v), and inulinase from Aspergillus niger (2-7 U/g) were used as variable parameters for optimization. Based on our results, the application of sucrose and inulin as co-substrates for oligosaccharide production through inulinase hydrolysis and synthesis is viable in comparative to a method using a single substrate. Maximum yields (674.82 mg/g substrate) were obtained with 5.95% of inulin, 59.87% of sucrose, and 5.68 U/g of inulinase, with an incubation period of 9 hr. The use of sucrose and inulin as co-substrates in the reaction simultaneously produced FOS and IOS from sucrose and inulin. Total conversion yield was approximately 67%. Our results support the high value-added production of oligosaccharides using Jerusalem artichoke, which is generally used as a substrate in prebiotics and/or bioethanol production.

  6. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XIX. The Identification of Sucrose Phosphate in Sugar Beet Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, J. G.

    1952-09-01

    The recognition and characterization of a sucrose phosphate as an intermediate in sucrose by synthesis by green plants is described. A tentative structure for this phosphate is proposed and its mode of formation suggested.

  7. Single, but not multiple pairings of sucrose and corticosterone enhance memory for sucrose drinking and amplify remote reward relativity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecoraro, Norman; Gomez, Francisca; La Fleur, Susanne; Roy, Monica; Dallman, Mary F.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested whether pre-training pairings of ingestion of a 32% sucrose solution and injection(s) of corticosterone (B) would enhance later ingestion in the absence of B, and whether these effects would carry over into later contrast-like effects when animals were subsequently shifted to 4%

  8. The development of mini project interactive media on junior statistical materials (developmental research in junior high school)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziah, D.; Mardiyana; Saputro, D. R. S.

    2018-05-01

    Assessment is an integral part in the learning process. The process and the result should be in line, regarding to measure the ability of learners. Authentic assessment refers to a form of assessment that measures the competence of attitudes, knowledge, and skills. In fact, many teachers including mathematics teachers who have implemented curriculum based teaching 2013 feel confuse and difficult in mastering the use of authentic assessment instruments. Therefore, it is necessary to design an authentic assessment instrument with an interactive mini media project where teacher can adopt it in the assessment. The type of this research is developmental research. The developmental research refers to the 4D models development, which consist of four stages: define, design, develop and disseminate. The research purpose is to create a valid mini project interactive media on statistical materials in junior high school. The retrieved valid instrument based on expert judgment are 3,1 for eligibility constructions aspect, and 3,2 for eligibility presentation aspect, 3,25 for eligibility contents aspect, and 2,9 for eligibility didactic aspect. The research results obtained interactive mini media projects on statistical materials using Adobe Flash so it can help teachers and students in achieving learning objectives.

  9. DESIGN APPLICATIONS BASED ON WEB MOBILE AT GAYA BARU SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL, CENTRAL LAMPUNG REGENCY AS PROMOTIONAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yudi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gaya Baru Senior High School is one of the educational institutions in Lampung which is a less favorite institution in the area is precisely located in the district of Seputih Surabaya Central Lampung Regency. Gaya Baru Senior High School has already had a website but not many known. This Senior High School is also no information system through mobile web to promote the institution. Nevertheless, in its development, students or community want to find information about the school can be directly through the mobile web application. So in its development requires fast service. From research that conducted in Gaya Baru High School, existence of new mobile web application system will facilitate student or society of that area, especially in subdistrict Seputih Surabaya district Central Lampung, and present information about the info about situation in high school of new style it can be accessed directly through the mobile web media.

  10. Process control of an ethanol fermentation with an enzyme thermistor as a sucrose sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandenius, C F; Danielsson, B; Mattiasson, B

    1981-01-01

    An enzyme thermistor was used to monitor and control the sucrose concentration in a conversion of sucrose to EtOH with immobilized yeast. A continuous stirred tank reactor containing Ca alginate-immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. The enzyme thermistor continuously measured the sucrose concentration in the fermentor with an online arrangement giving stable and reproducible heat signals. The control of the sucrose concentration level was performed with an analog P1-controller.

  11. Iodinated contrast media and patients with high-risk kidneys. Aiming at rational prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, B.; Frouge, C.; Gagey, N.

    1994-01-01

    Acute renal failure induced by iodinated contrast media (CM) accounts for about 10% of all hospital cases of renal failure, especially in azotemic patients. The specific anatomy and physiology of the inner medulla renalis render it particularly sensitive to even a moderate reduction in blood supply. Renal function will be estimated by measuring serum creatinine levels, before and within 72 hours after administration of the iodinated contrast medium. Hypovolaemia, diabetes mellitus-induced microangiopathy, nephrotoxic drugs and especially dehydratation may provoke renal accidents. Proper hydration, choosing a low osmolality medium and adequately spacing exposures to CM are elementary measures to be adopted to prevent renal failure. (authors)

  12. Reinforcement Value and Substitutability of Sucrose and Wheel Running: Implications for Activity Anorexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Terry W.; Duncan, Ian D.; Pierce, W. David

    2006-01-01

    Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior…

  13. Complete Sucrose Metabolism Requires Fructose Phosphotransferase Activity in Corynebacterium glutamicum To Ensure Phosphorylation of Liberated Fructose

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, H.; Lindley, N. D.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose uptake by Corynebacterium glutamicum involves a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sucrose phosphotransferase (PTS), but in the absence of fructokinase, further metabolism of the liberated fructose requires efflux of the fructose and reassimilation via the fructose PTS. Mutant strains lacking detectable fructose-transporting PTS activity accumulated fructose extracellularly but consumed sucrose at rates comparable to those of the wild-type strain.

  14. Modeling of the write and read back performances of hexagonal Ba-ferrite particulate media for high density tape recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jehyun; Fuger, Markus; Fidler, Josef; Suess, Dieter; Schrefl, Thomas; Shimizu, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performances of longitudinally, randomly, and perpendicularly oriented particles, based on hexagonal barium ferrite (h-BaFe) platelets with an average volume of 2400 nm 3 have been studied as a function of the recording head to media distance by numerical micromagnetic simulations. The distances from the write head to media and from the read head to media were varied independently. For a fixed read distance and varied writing distances, the SNR was decreasing in larger write distance. An optimum write distance of 40 and 50 nm was found for the longitudinally oriented media and the perpendicularly oriented media, respectively. The optimum write distance for longitudinally oriented media, 40 nm, resulted in the local minimum SNR for the perpendicularly oriented media. In most write distances the perpendicularly oriented media show the outstanding best performance, but near the write distance of 40 nm the longitudinally oriented media work as good as the perpendicularly oriented media. In a fixed write distance with various read distances, the SNR was almost constant in each media whereas the average signal amplitude was exponentially decayed in larger read head to media distance. The best SNR was found in the perpendicularly oriented media at write head to media distance d write =20 nm and read head to media distance d read =40 nm. The best SNR value is 11.9 and 24.4 dB in time domain and frequency domain, respectively.

  15. High-Q micromechanical resonators for mass sensing in dissipative media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappura, Kirsi; Pekko, Panu; Seppä, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    Single crystal silicon-based micromechanical resonators are developed for mass sensing in dissipative media. The design aspects and preliminary characterization of the resonators are presented. For the suggested designs, quality factors of about 20 000 are typically measured in air at atmospheric pressure and 1000–2000 in contact with liquid. The performance is based on a wine-glass-type lateral bulk acoustic mode excited in a rectangular resonator plate. The mode essentially eliminates the radiation of acoustic energy into the sample media leaving viscous drag as the dominant fluid-based dissipation mechanism in the system. For a mass loading distributed over the central areas of the resonator a sensitivity of 27 ppm ng −1 is measured exhibiting good agreement with the results of the finite element method-based simulations. It is also shown that the mass sensitivity can be somewhat enhanced, not only by the proper distribution of the loaded mass, but also by introducing shallow barrier structures on the resonator

  16. Activities of fructan- and sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in wheat stems subjected to water stress during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhiqing; Zhu, Qingsen; Liu, Lijun

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated if a controlled water deficit during grain filling of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) could accelerate grain filling by facilitating the remobilization of carbon reserves in the stem through regulating the enzymes involved in fructan and sucrose metabolism. Two high lodging-resistant wheat cultivars were grown in pots and treated with either a normal (NN) or high amount of nitrogen (HN) at heading time. Plants were either well-watered (WW) or water-stressed (WS) from 9 days post anthesis until maturity. Leaf water potentials markedly decreased at midday as a result of water stress but completely recovered by early morning. Photosynthetic rate and zeatin + zeatin riboside concentrations in the flag leaves declined faster in WS plants than in WW plants, and they decreased more slowly with HN than with NN when soil water potential was the same, indicating that the water deficit enhanced, whereas HN delayed, senescence. Water stress, both at NN and HN, facilitated the reduction in concentration of total nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and fructans in the stems but increased the sucrose level there, promoted the re-allocation of pre-fixed (14)C from the stems to grains, shortened the grain-filling period, and accelerated the grain-filling rate. Grain weight and grain yield were increased under the controlled water deficit when HN was applied. Fructan exohydrolase (FEH; EC 3.2.1.80) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) activities were substantially enhanced by water stress and positively correlated with the total NSC and fructan remobilization from the stems. Acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) activity was also enhanced by the water stress and associated with the change in fructan concentration, but not correlated with the total NSC remobilization and (14)C increase in the grains. Sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99) activity was inhibited by the water stress and negatively correlated with the remobilization of carbon reserves

  17. Detection of extremely high bit density signals with a narrow track width GMR head in double layered perpendicular recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiya, T.; Honda, N.; Ariake, J.; Ouchi, K.; Iwasaki, S.

    2001-01-01

    Recording resolution, medium noise and thermal stability have been investigated for double layered perpendicular magnetic recording media. The recording performance was improved by introducing a stacked intermediate layer between a soft magnetic backlayer and a storage layer due to increased crystal orientation with a small magnetic domain size and suppressed initial growing layer of the storage layer. The reproduced output at an extremely high linear density of 950 kFRPI was detected by using a contact-type CF-SPT head for write and a GMR head with a narrow read track width of 0.4 μm

  18. Cross-talk interactions of exogenous nitric oxide and sucrose modulates phenylpropanoid metabolism in yellow lupine embryo axes infected with Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkunas, Iwona; Formela, Magda; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Nowak, Witold; Bednarski, Waldemar

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine cross-talk of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) and sucrose in the mechanisms of synthesis and accumulation of isoflavonoids in embryo axes of Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno. It was verified whether the interaction of these molecules can modulate the defense response of axes to infection and development of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lupini. Sucrose alone strongly stimulated a high level of genistein glucoside in axes pretreated with exogenous nitric oxide (SNP or GSNO) and non-pretreated axes. As a result of amplification of the signal coming from sucrose and GSNO, high isoflavonoids accumulation was observed (+Sn+GSNO). It needs to be stressed that infection in tissues pretreated with SNP/GSNO and cultured on the medium with sucrose (+Si+SNP/+Si+GSNO) very strongly enhances the accumulation of free isoflavone aglycones. In +Si+SNP axes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity was high up to 72h. As early as at 12h in +Si+SNP axes an increase was recorded in gene expression level of the specific isoflavonoid synthesis pathway. At 24h in +Si+SNP axes a very high total antioxidant capacity dependent on the pool of fast antioxidants was noted. Post-infection generation of semiquinone radicals was lower in axes with a high level of sucrose than with a deficit. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. ChelomEx: Isotope-assisted discovery of metal chelates in complex media using high-resolution LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Oliver; Morel, François M M; Perlman, David H

    2014-11-18

    Chelating agents can control the speciation and reactivity of trace metals in biological, environmental, and laboratory-derived media. A large number of trace metals (including Fe, Cu, Zn, Hg, and others) show characteristic isotopic fingerprints that can be exploited for the discovery of known and unknown organic metal complexes and related chelating ligands in very complex sample matrices using high-resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). However, there is currently no free open-source software available for this purpose. We present a novel software tool, ChelomEx, which identifies isotope pattern-matched chromatographic features associated with metal complexes along with free ligands and other related adducts in high-resolution LC-MS data. High sensitivity and exclusion of false positives are achieved by evaluation of the chromatographic coherence of the isotope pattern within chromatographic features, which we demonstrate through the analysis of bacterial culture media. A built-in graphical user interface and compound library aid in identification and efficient evaluation of results. ChelomEx is implemented in MatLab. The source code, binaries for MS Windows and MAC OS X as well as test LC-MS data are available for download at SourceForge ( http://sourceforge.net/projects/chelomex ).

  20. Dense sampled transmission matrix for high resolution angular spectrum imaging through turbid media via compressed sensing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwanchol; Yoon, Changhyeong; Choi, Wonshik; Eom, Tae Joong; Lee, Heung-No

    2016-03-01

    We provide an approach to improve the quality of image reconstruction in wide-field imaging through turbid media (WITM). In WITM, a calibration stage which measures the transmission matrix (TM), the set of responses of turbid medium to a set of plane waves with different incident angles, is preceded to the image recovery. Then, the TM is used for estimation of object image in image recovery stage. In this work, we aim to estimate highly resolved angular spectrum and use it for high quality image reconstruction. To this end, we propose to perform a dense sampling for TM measurement in calibration stage with finer incident angle spacing. In conventional approaches, incident angle spacing is made to be large enough so that the columns in TM are out of memory effect of turbid media. Otherwise, the columns in TM are correlated and the inversion becomes difficult. We employ compressed sensing (CS) for a successful high resolution angular spectrum recovery with dense sampled TM. CS is a relatively new information acquisition and reconstruction framework and has shown to provide superb performance in ill-conditioned inverse problems. We observe that the image quality metrics such as contrast-to-noise ratio and mean squared error are improved and the perceptual image quality is improved with reduced speckle noise in the reconstructed image. This results shows that the WITM performance can be improved only by executing dense sampling in the calibration stage and with an efficient signal reconstruction framework without elaborating the overall optical imaging systems.

  1. Gamma ray irradiation induced optical band gap variations in silica sol-gel doped sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzouki, F.; Farah, K.; Hamzaoui, A.H; Ben Ouada, H

    2015-01-01

    The silica xerogels doped sucrose was prepared via sol-gel process and exposed at room temperature to different doses of high energy ("6"0Co) gamma irradiation. Changes in the UV-visible and FTIR spectra of pristine and irradiated xerogels with varying of gamma doses rays show variation in the gap energy. It was found that energy gap of the investigated silica xerogels decreases with increasing the gamma irradiation doses. Thereby the irradiated samples reveal behaviour changes, from an insulator (Eg ∼5,8 eV) towards a semiconductor with (Eg ∼ 3.5 eV).

  2. Differences in salivary flow rate and pH between chewing gum of xylitol and sucrose at 4, 5, and 6 grade of Inpres Toddopuli elementary school in Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Eva Chalid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chewing xylitol gum has been shown to be effective to produce of saliva between chewing sucrose gum. Other than, pH of saliva after  chewing xylitol gum is base and chewing sucrose gum is acid. Caries can be caused by various factors such as the large number of salivary flow, salivary acidity, etc. Then it needs to be known by chewing gum with xylitol and sucrose are most excellent to preventing caries in children. The aim of this research study was to determine the difference of salivary flow while chewing xylitol gum and bubble gum sucrose on Inpres Toddopuli elementary school in Makassar. The research is a qualitative research with quase experimental studies method, this type of design is pre- and post-test design with control group. Sample determined in accordance with the criteria of the sample is children aged 9-12 years old, has a superficial dental caries and caries media at least three teeth, another chewing gum does not consume about 60 minutes before the investigation, and ready to be research samples and ready to follow the instructions of researchers. After determining the sample then obtained 30 samples respectively at grades 4, 5, and 6. On first day, samples requested to chewing gum with xylitol and on the second day, chewing gum with sucrose each for 5 minutes after that saliva from samples collected on a centrifuge tube, then observed number of saliva and saliva acidity. The results obtained, showed that there are differences in the amount of salivary flow and acidity between  chewing gum with xylitol and sucrose, there is difference in amount of salivary flow (0.002 and for salivary pH value (0.000 which means the value of difference is significant. The research found that children who chewed xylitol gum can produce more saliva than chewed sucrose gum and sucrose gum had higher acidity than xylitol gum.

  3. Simulating high-frequency seismograms in complicated media: A spectral approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrey, J.L.; Archambeau, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    The main attraction of using a spectral method instead of a conventional finite difference or finite element technique for full-wavefield forward modeling in elastic media is the increased accuracy of a spectral approximation. While a finite difference method accurate to second order typically requires 8 to 10 computational grid points to resolve the smallest wavelengths on a 1-D grid, a spectral method that approximates the wavefield by trignometric functions theoretically requires only 2 grid points per minimum wavelength and produces no numerical dispersion from the spatial discretization. The resultant savings in computer memory, which is very significant in 2 and 3 dimensions, allows for larger scale and/or higher frequency simulations

  4. Sucrose polyesters from poultry fat as non-ionic emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megahed, Mohamed G.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry fats are rich in palmitic and oleic acids are produced as by-products from poultry industries. These fats can be utilized in the preparation of emulsifiers. Sucrose esters of poultry fat are prepared from low-cost poultry fat and sucrose by esterification. The yield of sucrose esters prepared in this work exceeds than 85%. The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB, surface tension, interfacial tension and stability index (SI were evaluated and compared with standard emulsifiers prepared from pure palmitate and oleate esters. Concerning the stability of emulsions, the values of interfacial tension and HLB were higher for the sucrose esters of poultry fat.Las grasas de aves de corral son ricas en ácidos palmítico y oleico y son producidas como subproductos de las industrias avícolas. Estas grasas pueden ser utilizadas en la preparación de emulsionantes. Los ésteres de sacarosa de grasas de aves de corral fueron preparadas a partir de grasas de bajo coste y sacarosa por esterificación. El rendimiento de los ésteres de sacarosa preparados en este trabajo superó el 85%. El balance hidrofílicolipofílico (HLB, tensión superficial, tensión interfacial e índice de estabilidad (SI fueron evaluados y comparados con emulsionantes estandar preparados de ésteres de palmitato y oleato puros. Los valores de tensión interfacial y el HLB fueron más altos en los poliésteres de sacarosa de las grasas de aves de corral.

  5. IODP Expedition 360: Analyzing the Media Coverage of a High Profile Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, L.; Martinez, A. O.; Burgio, M.; Zhang, J.; Expedition 360 Scientists, I.

    2016-12-01

    During Expedition 360 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP), the JOIDES Resolution drilled 789 meters of lower crustal gabbro in the Southwest Indian Ocean. This hole began a multi-expedition project with the goal of one day drilling across the crust-mantle boundary for the first time. This simplified narrative of the research objectives struck a chord with media and the project received worldwide coverage in the form of over 50 stories with a total audience in the millions. This expedition is presented as a case study in science communication. A four-member education and outreach team onboard the ship acted as the point of contact for interested reporters. Major outlets that ran stories include the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, British Broadcasting Corporation, Boston Globe, Daily Express, Fox News, Nature, Smithsonian, and Chinese based Xinhua News Agency who sailed a reporter on the ship for the duration of the expedition. The majority of stories published provided accurate and favourable coverage of the project; however, a few contained critical errors and cast the expedition in a less positive light. Public reaction varied greatly depending on the article. Positive themes include interest in the scientific outcomes and encouragement of human exploration. Negative themes include the project being an inefficient use of money and a perceived risk of the drilling triggering an earthquake or volcano. Through a review of published articles and online comments, the successes and challenges faced by Expedition 360 are identified. Despite minimal preparation for media relations, the team successfully maintained a public profile while working in one of the most remote locations on Earth. Interviews were facilitated and videos, articles, and podcasts were produced onboard the ship. A simple, catchy narrative resulted in a large volume of coverage; however, this simplicity also formed the root of a number of misconceptions and issues of public concern.

  6. Spectroscopic Study of the Effects of Pressure Media on High-Pressure Phase Transitions in Natrolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D Liu; W Lei; Z Liu; Y Lee

    2011-12-31

    Structural phase transitions in natrolite have been investigated as a function of pressure and different hydrostatic media using micro-Raman scattering and synchrotron infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Natrolite undergoes two reversible phase transitions at 0.86 and 1.53 GPa under pure water pressure medium. These phase transitions are characterized by the changes in the vibrational frequencies of four- and eight-membered rings related to the variations in the bridging T-O-T angles and the geometry of the elliptical eight-ring channels under pressure. Concomitant to the changes in the framework vibrational modes, the number of the O-H stretching vibrational modes of natrolite changes as a result of the rearrangements of the hydrogen bonds in the channels caused by a successive increase in the hydration level under hydrostatic pressure. Similar phase transitions were also observed at relatively higher pressures (1.13 and 1.59 GPa) under alcohol-water pressure medium. Furthermore, no phase transition was found up to 2.52 GPa if a lower volume ratio of the alcohol-water to natrolite was employed. This indicates that the water content in the pressure media plays a crucial role in triggering the pressure-induced phase transitions in natrolite. In addition, the average of the mode Grueneisen parameters is calculated to be about 0.6, while the thermodynamic Grueneisen parameter is found to be 1.33. This might be attributed to the contrast in the rigidity between the TO{sub 4} tetrahedral primary building units and other flexible secondary building units in the natrolite framework upon compression and subsequent water insertion.

  7. Maternal chocolate and sucrose soft drink intake induces hepatic steatosis in rat offspring associated with altered lipid gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Maj; Nilsson, C.; Rosendal, A.

    2014-01-01

    weight gain and adiposity in offspring born to chow-fed dams. Conclusion: Our results suggest that supplementation of chocolate and soft drink during gestation and lactation contributes to early onset of hepatic steatosis associated with changes in hepatic gene expression and lipid handling....... until weaning, giving four dietary groups. Results: At postnatal day 1, offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams were heavier and had increased hepatic triglycerides (TG), hepatic glycogen, blood glucose and plasma insulin compared with offspring from chow-fed dams. Hepatic genes involved in lipid...... oxidation, VLDL transport and insulin receptor were down-regulated, whereas FGF21 expression was up-regulated. Independent of postnatal litter size, offspring from high-fat/high-sucrose-fed dams aged 21 days had still increased hepatic TG and up-regulated FGF21 expression, while plasma insulin started...

  8. Effect of heavy ion irradiation on sucrose radical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Sato, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    We investigated sucrose radicals produced by heavy-ion irradiation with various LETs (linear energy transfer) and the possibility for a sucrose ESR (electron spin resonance) dosimeter. The obtained spectral pattern was the same as that for helium (He) ions, carbon (C) ions, neon (Ne) ions, argon (Ar) ions, and iron (Fe) ions. Identical spectra were measured after one year, but the initial intensities decreased by a few percent when the samples were kept in ESR tubes with the caps at ambient temperature. The total spin concentration obtained by heavy-ion irradiation had a linear relation with the absorbed dose, and correlated logarithmically with the LET. Qualitative ESR analyses showed that the production of sucrose radicals depended on both the particle identity and the LET at the same dose. The production of spin concentration by He ions was the most sensitive to LET. Empirical relations between the LET and the spin yield for various particles imply that the LET at a certain dose can be estimated by the spin concentration. (authors)

  9. Development of an Efficient Regeneration and Transformation Method for Nicothiana tabacum L. through the Optimization of Growth Regulators and Sucrose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maria Beihaghi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissues or organs under sterile conditions on a nutrient culture medium of known composition and widely used to produce clones of a plant in a method known as micropropagation. Plant research often involves growing new plants in a controlled environment. These may be plants that we have genetically altered in some way or may be plants of which we need many copies all exactly alike. These things can be accomplished through tissue culture of small tissue pieces from the plant of interest. These small pieces may come from a single mother plant or they may be the result of genetic transformation of single plant cells which are then encouraged to grow and to ultimately develop into a whole plant. Tissue culture techniques are often used for commercial production of plants as well as for plant research. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. is one of the most important model plants used in the physiologic, genetic and tissue culture studies. The manipulation of tobacco genetic structure requires an efficient technique of gene transferring and regeneration. Whereas, the tobacco plant is a very effective bioreactor in the production of recombinant proteins, in this research we optimized the best tissue culture system and also, genetic transformation process of this plant. Materials and Methods: Our plant tissue culture protocols, Include helpful information for Murashige and Skoog media, plant growth regulators, plant growth hormones, plant transformation systems, and other products for plant tissue culture. For this purpose, different concentrations of sucrose and 4 combinations of growth regulators (BAP and NAA on callus induction, direct shoot regeneration and rooting were examined in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with 3 replications. The sensitivity of tobacco explants to kanamycin was examined through the cultivation of them

  10. Influence of Heat Treatments on Electrical Properties and Microstructure of 10 % Mass Fraction of Sucrose YBCO Superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalida Salleh; Fariesha, F.; Azhan, H.; Yusainee, S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of different heat treatments on the superconducting properties of 10 % mass fraction of sucrose structure YBCO superconductor was investigated. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipment were used to determine the phase of superconductor and structural studies respectively at 10 % mass fraction of sucrose. The samples were prepared via solid state (SSM) and co-precipitation (CPM) reaction methods and underwent sintering and heat treatment process at 900, 930 and 960 degree Celsius respectively with mixing of C 12 H 22 O 11 sucrose during pelletization. The T C,on decreases with respect to higher heat treatment temperature. The suppression of both T C,on and T C,off indicates the destruction of superconductivity trends. The best T C,off were achieved in pure SSM and CPM samples sintered at 950 degree Celsius for 5 hours with T C,off 86 K and 91 K respectively. Comparing with pure YBCO, the 10 % mass fraction of sucrose YBCO exhibited higher critical current, I C by two times. It indicates the effect of high surface area in porous structure. The XRD results confirmed that all the samples remain in single phase, which indicates no effect of sucrose in the porous structures sample and maintaining in orthorhombic structure. Higher heat treatment at 960 degree Celsius resulted in destruction on its superconductivity behavior due to the partial melt phase on its microstructure, especially in CPM. This is due to the smaller grain size of samples which trapped more heat and causing partial melting to occur rapidly. It can be deduced that, annealing temperatures at 900 and 930 degree Celsius are the best optimum heat treatments for CPM and SSM porous superconductor, respectively. (author)

  11. Compared to Sucrose, Previous Consumption of Fructose and Glucose Monosaccharides Reduces Survival and Fitness of Female Mice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, James S; Hugentobler, Sara A; Suchy, Amanda K; Sosa, Mirtha M; Tanner, Ruth E; Hite, Megumi E; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intake of added sugar has been shown to correlate with many human metabolic diseases, and rodent models have characterized numerous aspects of the resulting disease phenotypes. However, there is a controversy about whether differential health effects occur because of the consumption of either of the two common types of added sugar—high-fructose corn syrup (fructose and glucose monosaccharides; F/G) or table sugar (sucrose, a fructose and glucose disaccharide). Objectives: We tested the equivalence of sucrose- vs. F/G-containing diets on mouse (Mus musculus) longevity, reproductive success, and social dominance. Methods: We fed wild-derived mice, outbred mice descended from wild-caught ancestors, a diet in which 25% of the calories came from either an equal ratio of F/G or an isocaloric amount of sucrose (both diets had 63% of total calories as carbohydrates). Exposure lasted 40 wk, starting at weaning (21 d of age), and then mice (104 females and 56 males) were released into organismal performances assays—seminatural enclosures where mice competed for territories, resources, and mates for 32 wk. Within enclosures all mice consumed the F/G diet. Results: Females initially fed the F/G diet experienced a mortality rate 1.9 times the rate (P = 0.012) and produced 26.4% fewer offspring than females initially fed sucrose (P = 0.001). This reproductive deficiency was present before mortality differences, suggesting the F/G diet was causing physiologic performance deficits prior to mortality. No differential patterns in survival, reproduction, or social dominance were observed in males, indicating a sex-specific outcome of exposure. Conclusion: This study provides experimental evidence that the consumption of human-relevant levels of F/G is more deleterious than an isocaloric amount of sucrose for key organism-level health measures in female mice. PMID:25733457

  12. Compared to sucrose, previous consumption of fructose and glucose monosaccharides reduces survival and fitness of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, James S; Hugentobler, Sara A; Suchy, Amanda K; Sosa, Mirtha M; Tanner, Ruth E; Hite, Megumi E; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2015-03-01

    Intake of added sugar has been shown to correlate with many human metabolic diseases, and rodent models have characterized numerous aspects of the resulting disease phenotypes. However, there is a controversy about whether differential health effects occur because of the consumption of either of the two common types of added sugar-high-fructose corn syrup (fructose and glucose monosaccharides; F/G) or table sugar (sucrose, a fructose and glucose disaccharide). We tested the equivalence of sucrose- vs. F/G-containing diets on mouse (Mus musculus) longevity, reproductive success, and social dominance. We fed wild-derived mice, outbred mice descended from wild-caught ancestors, a diet in which 25% of the calories came from either an equal ratio of F/G or an isocaloric amount of sucrose (both diets had 63% of total calories as carbohydrates). Exposure lasted 40 wk, starting at weaning (21 d of age), and then mice (104 females and 56 males) were released into organismal performances assays-seminatural enclosures where mice competed for territories, resources, and mates for 32 wk. Within enclosures all mice consumed the F/G diet. Females initially fed the F/G diet experienced a mortality rate 1.9 times the rate (P = 0.012) and produced 26.4% fewer offspring than females initially fed sucrose (P = 0.001). This reproductive deficiency was present before mortality differences, suggesting the F/G diet was causing physiologic performance deficits prior to mortality. No differential patterns in survival, reproduction, or social dominance were observed in males, indicating a sex-specific outcome of exposure. This study provides experimental evidence that the consumption of human-relevant levels of F/G is more deleterious than an isocaloric amount of sucrose for key organism-level health measures in female mice. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Rheological, functional and thermo-physical properties of ultrasound treated whey proteins with addition of sucrose or milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anet Režek Jambrak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound represents a non-thermal food processing technique and has great potential to be used in the food industry. The objective of this research was to observe ultrasound impact on physical properties of model systems prepared with whey protein isolates (WPI or whey protein concentrates (WPC with or without sucrose or milk powder addition. This kind of systems is often used in milk beverages and milk based products. Model systems with protein and milk powder or sucrose addition were treated with high power ultrasound (HPU probe of 30 kHz frequency for 5 and 10 minutes. After sonication several properties were determined and examined: solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, rheological and thermophysical properties. Ultrasound treatment showed severe influence on all examined properties, caused by protein denaturation as a consequence of cavitation and microstreaming effects. Ultrasound treatment caused decrease in protein solubility for whey protein isolate and whey protein concentrates model systems, compared to untreated sample. There was statistically significant increase in foam volume of model systems, prepared with sucrose or milk powder and WPI after ultrasound treatment. Statistically significant decrease in emulsion activity and emulsion stability indices was observed for model systems prepared solely with isolates and concentrates. After treatment of whey protein model systems (with or without milk powder or sucrose with 30 kHz ultrasound, the changes in consistency coefficients (k were observed, but there were no significant changes in flow behaviour indices (n. After addition of milk powder or sucrose, statistically significant decrease in initial freezing and melting temperatures was observed due to the ultrasound treatment.

  14. Investigations into the penetration and pressure drop of HEPA filter media during loading with submicron particle aerosols at high concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibold, H; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are typically employed in particle removal and retention within the air cleaning systems of clean rooms in the pharmaceutical, nuclear and semiconductor industries for dust concentrations of some μg/m 3 . Their extremely high removal efficiencies for submicron particles make them attractive candidates in complying with increasingly lower emission limits for industrial processes that involve dust concentrations of up to several g/m 3 . Cost-effective operation under such conditions requires the filter units to be recleanable. The recleanability of HEPA filter media depends not only on the operating conditions during the cleaning process but also on the filtration conditions during particle loading. The structure and location of the particles captured by the glass fiber matrix greatly affect the degree to which they can be subsequently dislodged and removed from the filter medium. Changes in filtration efficiency with service time for various particle diameters in the critical submicron size range, as well as the effects of filtration velocity on the increase in pressure drop, are important criteria with regard to recleaning HEPA filter units. Of special significance for the recleanability of HEPA filter media is knowledge of how operating conditions affect dust cake formation. (author)

  15. Nonlinear ultrasound propagation through layered liquid and tissue-equivalent media: computational and experimental results at high frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Ross; Cherin, Emmanuel; Lam, Toby Y J; Tavakkoli, Jahangir; Zemp, Roger J; Foster, F Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear propagation has been demonstrated to have a significant impact on ultrasound imaging. An efficient computational algorithm is presented to simulate nonlinear ultrasound propagation through layered liquid and tissue-equivalent media. Results are compared with hydrophone measurements. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of nonlinear propagation in high frequency ultrasound micro-imaging. The acoustic field of a focused transducer (20 MHz centre frequency, f-number 2.5) was simulated for layered media consisting of water and tissue-mimicking phantom, for several wide-bandwidth source pulses. The simulation model accounted for the effects of diffraction, attenuation and nonlinearity, with transmission and refraction at layer boundaries. The parameter of nonlinearity, B/A, of the water and tissue-mimicking phantom were assumed to be 5.2 and 7.4, respectively. The experimentally measured phantom B/A value found using a finite-amplitude insert-substitution method was shown to be 7.4 ± 0.6. Relative amounts of measured second and third harmonic pressures as a function of the fundamental pressures at the focus were in good agreement with simulations. Agreement within 3% was found between measurements and simulations of the beam widths of the fundamental and second harmonic signals following propagation through the tissue phantom. The results demonstrate significant nonlinear propagation effects for high frequency imaging beams

  16. Metabolic engineering to expand the substrate spectrum of Pseudomonas putida toward sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Hannes; Schmauder, Lukas; Hobmeier, Karina; Kremling, Andreas; Pflüger-Grau, Katharina

    2017-08-01

    Sucrose is an important disaccharide used as a substrate in many industrial applications. It is a major component of molasses, a cheap by-product of the sugar industry. Unfortunately, not all industrially relevant organisms, among them Pseudomonas putida, are capable of metabolizing sucrose. We chose a metabolic engineering approach to circumvent this blockage and equip P. putida with the activities necessary to consume sucrose. Therefore, we constructed a pair of broad-host range mini-transposons (pSST - sucrose splitting transposon), carrying either cscA, encoding an invertase able to split sucrose into glucose and fructose, or additionally cscB, encoding a sucrose permease. Introduction of cscA was sufficient to convey sucrose consumption and the additional presence of cscB had no further effect, though the sucrose permease was built and localized to the membrane. Sucrose was split extracellularly by the activity of the invertase CscA leaking out of the cell. The transposons were also used to confer sucrose consumption to Cupriavidus necator. Interestingly, in this strain, CscB acted as a glucose transporter, such that C. necator also gained the ability to grow on glucose. Thus, the pSST transposons are functional tools to extend the substrate spectrum of Gram-negative bacterial strains toward sucrose. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Photocatalytic properties of hierarchical ZnO flowers synthesized by a sucrose-assisted hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Wei [Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Wei Bo [Center for Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Xu Lingling, E-mail: xulingling_hit@163.com [Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China) and Center for Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhao Yan, E-mail: zhaoyan516@126.com [Department of Physics, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Gao Hong; Liu Jia [Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electric Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hierarchical ZnO flowers were synthesized via a sucrose-assisted urea hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sucrose added ZnO flowers showed improved activity mainly due to the improved crystallinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of sucrose content was studied and optimized. - Abstract: In this work, hierarchical ZnO flowers were synthesized via a sucrose-assisted urea hydrothermal method. The thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) showed that sucrose acted as a complexing agent in the synthesis process and assisted combustion during annealing. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated using the degradation of organic dye methyl orange. The sucrose added ZnO flowers showed improved activity, which was mainly attributed to the better crystallinity as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The effect of sucrose amount on photocatalytic activity was also studied.

  18. Penicillium digitatum metabolites on synthetic media and citrus fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariza, M.R.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.

    2002-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum has been cultured on citrus fruits and yeast extract sucrose agar media (YES).Cultivation of fungal cultures on solid medium allowed the isolation of two novel tryptoquivaline-like metabolites, tryptoquialanine A (1) and tryptoquialanine B (2), also biosynthesized on citrus...

  19. Consumption of sucrose from infancy increases the visceral fat accumulation, concentration of triglycerides, insulin and leptin, and generates abnormalities in the adrenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Aguila, Yadira; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela; Zambrano, Elena; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Muñoz, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2016-03-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages promotes the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. One factor related to the appearance of MetS components is the dysfunction of the adrenal gland. In fact, the experimental generation of hyperglycemia has been associated with morphological and microvascular changes in the adrenal glands of rats. We hypothesized that high sucrose consumption from infancy promotes histological disruption of the adrenal glands associated with the appearance of metabolic syndrome indicators. Male Wistar rats were separated at weaning (21 days old) into two groups: free access to tap water (control group, C) or 30 % sucrose diluted in water (sugar-fed group). After 12 weeks, high sucrose consumption promoted an increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipose cell number, and insulin resistance. Also, a rise in the concentration of triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein, insulin and leptin was observed. In control rats, a histomorphometric asymmetry between the right and left adrenal glands was found. In the sugar-fed group, sucrose consumption produced a major change in adrenal gland asymmetry. No changes in corticosterone serum level were observed in either group. Our results suggest that a high sucrose liquid-diet from early life alters the morphology of adrenocortical zones, leading to MetS indicators.

  20. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal-aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.; Freed, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    At various times after pulse labeling Vicia faba L. leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents whereas those from rinsed peels contained only cytoplastic contents. Sucrose specific radioactivity peaked in palisade cells, 111 GBq{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1}, at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and sucrose specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO{sub 2} incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum sucrose specific radioactivity and a high sucrose influx rate. These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple sucrose pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived sucrose in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by {approximately} 4 {micro}m. Factors expected to enhance sucrose accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic sucrose concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll-sucrose efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal-aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.

  1. Psychiatric emergency "surge capacity" following acts of terrorism and mass violence with high media impact: what is required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Cindy; Kashner, T Michael; Kashner, Tetyana K; Xuan, Lei; Larkin, Gregory L

    2011-01-01

    Adequate preparedness for acts of terrorism and mass violence requires a thorough understanding of the postdisaster mental health needs of all exposed groups, including those watching such events from a distance. This study examined emergency psychiatric treatment-seeking patterns following media exposure to four national terrorist or mass casualty events. An event was selected for study if (a) it precipitated local front-page headlines for >5 consecutive days and (b) emergency service psychiatrists identified it as specifically precipitating help-seeking in the study hospital. Four events qualified: the Oklahoma City bombing (1995), the Columbine High School (1999) and Wedgewood Baptist Church (1999) shootings and the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Time-series analyses were used to correct for autocorrelation in visit patterns during the postdisaster week, and equivalent time periods from years before and after each event were used as control years. Overall, disaster week census did not differ significantly from predisaster weeks, although 3-day nonsignificant decreases in visit rate were observed following each disaster. Treatment-seeking for anxiety-related issues showed a nonsignificant increase following each disaster, which became significant in the "all disaster" model (t=5.17; P=.006). Intensity of media coverage did not impact rate of help-seeking in any analysis. Although these sentinel US disasters varied in scope, method, geographic proximity to the study site, perpetrator characteristics, public response, sequelae and degree of media coverage, the extent to which they impacted emergency department treatment-seeking was minimal. Geographically distant mass violence and disaster events of the type and scope studied here may require only minimal mental health "surge capacity" in the days following the event. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of [14C] and [13C]Sucrose as Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammad K; Chowdhury, Ekram A; Bickel, Ulrich; Mehvar, Reza

    2017-06-01

    Nonspecific quantitation of [ 14 C]sucrose in blood and brain has been routinely used as a quantitative measure of the in vivo blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. However, the reported apparent brain uptake clearance (K in ) of the marker varies widely (∼100-fold). We investigated the accuracy of the use of the marker in comparison with a stable isotope of sucrose ([ 13 C]sucrose) measured by a specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Rats received single doses of each marker, and the K in values were determined. Surprisingly, the K in value of [ 13 C]sucrose was 6- to 7-fold lower than that of [ 14 C]sucrose. Chromatographic fractionation after in vivo administration of [ 14 C]sucrose indicated that the majority of the brain content of radioactivity belonged to compounds other than the intact [ 14 C]sucrose. However, mechanistic studies failed to reveal any substantial metabolism of the marker. The octanol:water partition coefficient of [ 14 C]sucrose was >2-fold higher than that of [ 13 C]sucrose, indicating the presence of lipid-soluble impurities in the [ 14 C]sucrose solution. Our data indicate that [ 14 C]sucrose overestimates the true BBB permeability to sucrose. We suggest that specific quantitation of the stable isotope ( 13 C) of sucrose is a more accurate alternative to the current widespread use of the radioactive sucrose as a BBB marker. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. DIY Media in the Classroom: New Literacies Across Content Areas (Middle Through High School). Language & Literacy Series (Practitioner's Bookshelf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, Barbara; Elliot, Kate; Welsch, Diana

    2010-01-01

    This book shows teachers how to bring students' Do-It-Yourself media practices into the classroom (Grades 6-12). In one accessible resource, the authors explain DIY media, identify their appealing features for content area instruction, and describe the literacy skills and strategies they promote. Chapters address: Adolescents' DIY Media as New…

  4. Implementing high-temperature short-time media treatment in commercial-scale cell culture manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlscheidt, Michael; Charaniya, Salim; Kulenovic, Fikret; Corrales, Mahalia; Shiratori, Masaru; Bourret, Justin; Meier, Steven; Fallon, Eric; Kiss, Robert

    2014-04-01

    The production of therapeutic proteins by mammalian cell culture is complex and sets high requirements for process, facility, and equipment design, as well as rigorous regulatory and quality standards. One particular point of concern and significant risk to supply chain is the susceptibility to contamination such as bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, and viruses. Several technologies have been developed to create barriers for these agents to enter the process, e.g. filtration, UV inactivation, and temperature inactivation. However, if not implemented during development of the manufacturing process, these types of process changes can have significant impact on process performance if not managed appropriately. This article describes the implementation of the high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment of cell culture media as an additional safety barrier against adventitious agents during the transfer of a large-scale commercial cell culture manufacturing process. The necessary steps and experiments, as well as subsequent results during qualification runs and routine manufacturing, are shown.

  5. Fluid-flow measurements in low permeability media with high pressure gradients using neutron imaging: Application to concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehya, Mohamad; Andò, Edward; Dufour, Frédéric; Tengattini, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    This article focuses on a new experimental apparatus for investigating fluid flow under high pressure gradients within low-permeability porous media by means of neutron imaging. A titanium Hassler cell which optimises neutron transparency while allowing high pressure confinement (up to 50 MPa) and injection is designed for this purpose and presented here. This contribution focuses on the development of the proposed methodology thanks to some preliminary results obtained using a new neutron imaging facility named NeXT on the D50 beamline at the Institute Laue Langevin (Grenoble). The preliminary test was conducted by injecting normal water into concrete sample prepared and saturated with heavy water to take advantage of the isotope sensitivity of neutrons. The front between these two types of water is tracked in space and time with a combination of neutron radiography and tomography.

  6. A stable high-order perturbation of surfaces method for numerical simulation of diffraction problems in triply layered media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Youngjoon, E-mail: hongy@uic.edu; Nicholls, David P., E-mail: davidn@uic.edu

    2017-02-01

    The accurate numerical simulation of linear waves interacting with periodic layered media is a crucial capability in engineering applications. In this contribution we study the stable and high-order accurate numerical simulation of the interaction of linear, time-harmonic waves with a periodic, triply layered medium with irregular interfaces. In contrast with volumetric approaches, High-Order Perturbation of Surfaces (HOPS) algorithms are inexpensive interfacial methods which rapidly and recursively estimate scattering returns by perturbation of the interface shape. In comparison with Boundary Integral/Element Methods, the stable HOPS algorithm we describe here does not require specialized quadrature rules, periodization strategies, or the solution of dense non-symmetric positive definite linear systems. In addition, the algorithm is provably stable as opposed to other classical HOPS approaches. With numerical experiments we show the remarkable efficiency, fidelity, and accuracy one can achieve with an implementation of this algorithm.

  7. Simultaneous separation and determination of fructose, sorbitol, glucose and sucrose in fruits by HPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunmei; Sun, Zhen; Chen, Changbao; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Shuhua

    2014-02-15

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was optimised for simultaneous determination of fructose, sorbitol, glucose and sucrose in fruits. The analysis was carried out on a Phenomenex Luna 5u NH₂ 100A column (250 mm × 4.60mm, 5 micron) with isocratic elution of acetonitrile:water (82.5:17.5, v/v). Drift tube temperature of the ELSD system was set to 82 °C and nitrogen flow rate was 2.0 L min⁻¹. The regression equation revealed good linear relationship (R = 0.9967-0.9989) within test ranges. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for four analytes (peach, apple, watermelon, and cherry fruits) were in the range of 0.07-0.27 and 0.22-0.91 mg L⁻¹, respectively. The proposed HPLC-ELSD method was validated for quantification of sugars in peach, apple, watermelon, and cherry fruits, and the results were satisfactory. The results showed that the contents of the four sugars varied among fruits. While fructose (5.79-104.01 mg g⁻¹) and glucose (9.25-99.62 mg g⁻¹) emerged as common sugars in the four fruits, sorbitol (8.70-19.13 mg g⁻¹) were only found in peach, apple and cherry fruits, and sucrose (15.82-106.39 mg g⁻¹) were in peach, apple and watermelon. There was not detectable sorbitol in watermelon and sucrose in cherry fruits, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Patients at high risk of adverse events from intravenous contrast media after computed tomography examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddan, Donal [University College Galway Hospitals, Unit 7, Merlin Park Hospital, Galway (Ireland)]. E-mail: donal.reddan@mailn.hse.ie

    2007-05-15

    Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media (CM) may occur and require prompt recognition and treatment. Although adverse reactions to radiocontrast agents cannot be eliminated, an important first step toward reducing their incidence is to identify patients at greatest risk. Prior to examinations using CM, patients should be adequately assessed by obtaining thorough medical histories and using simple screening tests. Studies have demonstrated that patients with a history of asthma, allergy, hyperthyroidism, and previous reaction to CM are at risk for severe reactions to iodinated CM. Renal adverse reactions reportedly occur more frequently in patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease, especially those with diabetic nephropathy. Patients with congestive heart failure, dehydration, older age, and those who use nephrotoxic medications are also at risk for developing contrast-associated nephropathy. The occurrence of adverse events may be further increased in patients with multiple risk factors. As the number of patients undergoing computed tomography procedures continues to increase, it is essential for physicians to be able to identify patients at risk for adverse events of CM. Patient-related risk factors are discussed and simple tools for risk stratification presented.

  9. Increased carotid intima thickness and decreased media thickness in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus: an investigation by non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, D; Akhter, T; Nordmark, G; Rönnblom, L; Naessen, T

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether high-frequency ultrasound (US) yielding separate assessments of intima and media thickness gives additional information about the vascular morphology compared with the total common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT). Using a 22 MHz US instrument, we determined the near-wall CCA-IMT, the intima and media layers, and the intima/media (I/M) ratio in 47 premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 20 healthy women, and 17 postmenopausal women (mean ages 37, 40, and 69 years, respectively). In SLE, the carotid intima was thicker (0.19 ± 0.04 vs. 0.12 ± 0.02 mm), the media thinner (0.45 ± 0.12 vs. 0.68 ± 0.24 mm), the I/M ratio higher (0.45 ± 0.17 vs. 0.20 ± 0.07) (all p women (0.19 ± 0.04 vs. 0.14 ± 0.03 mm, p media, and a higher I/M ratio in women with SLE compared to healthy controls and indicated an artery wall status in SLE comparable to 30-years-older healthy women. Separate estimates of carotid intima and media layers may be preferable to CCA-IMT in SLE patients.

  10. Simulation results for a multirate mass transfer modell for immiscible displacement of two fluids in highly heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecklenburg, Jan; Neuweiler, Insa; Dentz, Marco; Carrera, Jesus; Geiger, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    Flow processes in geotechnical applications do often take place in highly heterogeneous porous media, such as fractured rock. Since, in this type of media, classical modelling approaches are problematic, flow and transport is often modelled using multi-continua approaches. From such approaches, multirate mass transfer models (mrmt) can be derived to describe the flow and transport in the "fast" or mobile zone of the medium. The porous media is then modeled with one mobile zone and multiple immobile zones, where the immobile zones are connected to the mobile zone by single rate mass transfer. We proceed from a mrmt model for immiscible displacement of two fluids, where the Buckley-Leverett equation is expanded by a sink-source-term which is nonlocal in time. This sink-source-term models exchange with an immobile zone with mass transfer driven by capillary diffusion. This nonlinear diffusive mass transfer can be approximated for particular imbibition or drainage cases by a linear process. We present a numerical scheme for this model together with simulation results for a single fracture test case. We solve the mrmt model with the finite volume method and explicit time integration. The sink-source-term is transformed to multiple single rate mass transfer processes, as shown by Carrera et. al. (1998), to make it local in time. With numerical simulations we studied immiscible displacement in a single fracture test case. To do this we calculated the flow parameters using information about the geometry and the integral solution for two phase flow by McWorther and Sunnada (1990). Comparision to the results of the full two dimensional two phase flow model by Flemisch et. al. (2011) show good similarities of the saturation breakthrough curves. Carrera, J., Sanchez-Vila, X., Benet, I., Medina, A., Galarza, G., and Guimera, J.: On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects, Hydrogeology Journal, 6, 178-190, 1998. Flemisch, B., Darcis, M

  11. Development of a Twitter-based intervention for smoking cessation that encourages high-quality social media interactions via automessages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechmann, Cornelia; Pan, Li; Delucchi, Kevin; Lakon, Cynthia M; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-02-23

    automessages were related in terms of their content (r=.75, P=.012). Responses to automessages contributed 22.78% (653/2867) of the total tweets; 77.22% (2214/2867) were spontaneous. Overall tweeting related only marginally to abstinence (OR 1.03, P=.086). However, specific tweet content related to abstinence including tweets about setting of a quit date or use of nicotine patches (OR 1.52, P=.024), countering of roadblocks to quitting (OR 1.76, P=.008) and expressions of confidence about quitting (OR 1.71, SE 0.42, P=.032). Questionable, that is, non-evidence-based, information about quitting did not relate to abstinence (OR 1.12, P=.278). A hybrid social media intervention that combines traditional online social support with daily automessages appears to hold promise for smoking cessation. This hybrid approach capitalizes on social media's spontaneous real-time peer-to-peer exchanges but supplements this with daily automessages that group members respond to, bolstering and sustaining the social network and directing the information content. Highly engaging, this approach should be studied further. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01602536; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01602536 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6WGbt0o1K).

  12. Threats of school violence in Pennsylvania after media coverage of the Columbine High School massacre: examining the role of imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostinsky, S; Bixler, E O; Kettl, P A

    2001-09-01

    Following the April 20, 1999, massacre at Columbine High School, Littleton, Colo, school administrators, law enforcement officials, and the media reported a rash of successive bomb threats and threats of school violence that were attributed to imitation. To establish that the clustering of threats of school violence following the Columbine massacre was initiated by imitation. A database of threats of school violence reported to the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency, Harrisburg, during the 50 days following the Columbine incident was examined to determine the daily frequency of threats. To determine factors that predict the occurrence of these threats, counties and school districts in which threats occurred were noted. Pennsylvania school districts reported 354 threats of school violence during the 50 days after the Columbine massacre, far exceeding the 1 or 2 threats per year estimated by school administrators before 1999. The frequency of these threats over time demonstrated a crescendo-decrescendo pattern. Fifty-six percent of the threats were made on or before day 10 after the incident, and more than one third occurred on days 8, 9, and 10. Factors that predicted the likelihood of a school's receiving a threat after the massacre included a greater proportion of white students and larger school enrollment. Successive threats of violence follow a publicized act of school violence. The media should recognize that imitation threats can occur and craft their stories accordingly.

  13. Using social media for knowledge translation, promotion of evidence-based medicine and high-quality information on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljak, Livia

    2016-02-02

    Knowledge translation activities may be targeted towards all participants in healthcare practices, including patients, consumers, and policy makers. Hereby, use of social media, namely social network Facebook, as a tool for knowledge translation, promotion of evidence-based medicine and high-quality information on health is described. In March 2013, a Facebook page of the Croatian Cochrane Branch was created and its main content are translated plain language summaries (PLS) of the systematic reviews produced by The Cochrane Collaboration. Since the page was created it has gained 1441 followers, mostly from Croatia and neighboring countries with similar language. Most of the page followers are women aged 25 to 44 and the most popular content is related to pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. Page followers are lay persons, health professionals and journalists, who further disseminate the page content. In summary, social media enables multiple possibilities to engage with target audience and to disseminate the evidence-based medicine content. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Newsworthiness vs scientific impact: are the most highly cited urology papers the most widely disseminated in the media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Eabhann M; Nason, Gregory J; O'Kelly, Fardod; Manecksha, Rustom P; Loeb, Stacy

    2017-09-01

    To assess whether a correlation exists between newsworthiness (Altmetric score) and scientific impact markers, such as citation analysis, impact factors, and levels of evidence. The top five most cited articles for the year 2014 and 2015 from the top 10 ranking urology journals (Scientific Impact Group) were identified. The top 50 articles each in 2014 and 2015 were identified from Altmetric support based on media activity (Media Impact Group). We determined the number of citations that these articles received in the scientific literature, and calculated correlations between citations with Altmetric scores. In the Scientific Impact Group, the mean number of citations per article was 37.6, and the most highly cited articles were oncology guidelines. The mean Altmetric score in these articles was 14.8. There was a weak positive correlation between citations and Altmetric score (r s = 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.52, P scientifically rigorous, or that this audience places greater value on different subjects than the scientific community. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Intra-accumbens Raclopride Administration Prevents Behavioral Changes Induced by Intermittent Access to Sucrose Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué O. Suárez-Ortiz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Overeating is one of the most relevant clinical features in Binge Eating Disorder and in some obesity patients. According to several studies, alterations in the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission produced by non-homeostatic feeding behavior may be associated with changes in the reward system similar to those produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that binge-eating is related with changes in dopaminergic transmission mediated by D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS, it has not been determined whether these receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of eating pathology with binge-eating. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether sugar binging induced by intermittent access to a sucrose solution produced changes in the structure of feeding behavior and whether blocking D2 receptors prevented these changes. We used the intermittent access model to a 10% sucrose solution (2 h/day for 4 weeks to induce sugar binging in Sprague Dawley female rats. Experimental subjects consumed in a 2-h period more than 50% of the caloric intake consumed by the subjects with ad-lib access to the sweetened solution without any increase in body weight or fat accumulation. Furthermore, we evaluated whether sugar binging was associated to the estrous cycle and we did not find differences in caloric intake (estrous vs. diestrus. Subsequently, we characterized the structure of feeding behavior (microstructural analysis and the motivation for palatable food (breakpoints of the subjects with sugar binging and found that feeding episodes had short latencies, high frequencies, as well as short durations and inter-episode intervals. The intermittent access model did not increase breakpoints, as occurred in subjects with ad-lib access to the sucrose. Finally, we evaluated the effects of D2 receptor blockade in the NAcS, and found that raclopride (18 nM prevented the observed changes in the frequency and duration of

  16. Radiographic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golman, K.; Holtz, E.; Almen, T.

    1987-01-01

    Contrast media are used in diagnostic radiology to enhance the X-ray attenuation between a body structure of interest and the surrounding tissue. A detail becomes perceptible on a roentgenogram only when its contrast exceeds a minimum value in relation to the background. Small areas of interest must have higher contrast than the background. The contrast effect depends on concentration of the contrast media with the body. A high contrast media concentration difference thus gives rise to more morphological details in the radiographs. Contrast media can be divided into negative contrast media such as air and gas which attenuate X-rays less than the body tissues, and positive contrast materials which attenuate X-rays more than the body tissues. The positive contrast media all contain either iodine (atomic number 53) or barium (atomic number 56) and can be divided into water-insoluble and water-soluble contrast media

  17. Use of Novel Highly Selective Ion Exchange Media for Minimizing the Waste Arising from Different NPP and Other Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, Esko; Harjula, Risto; Lehto, Jukka

    2003-01-01

    Highly selective inorganic ion exchangers give new possibilities to implement and operate new innovative treatment systems for radioactive liquids. Because of high selectivity these ion exchangers can be used even in liquids of high salt concentrations. Only selected target nuclides will be separated and inactive salts are left in the liquid, which can be released or recategorized. Thus, it is possible to reduce the volume of radioactive waste dramatically. On the other hand, only a small volume of highly selective material is required in applications, which makes it possible to design totally new types of compact treatment systems. The major benefit of selective ion exchange media comes from the very large volume reduction of radioactive waste in final disposal. It is also possible to save in investment costs, because small ion exchanger volumes can be used and handled in a very small facility. This paper describes different applications of these highly selective ion exchangers, both commercial fullscale applications and laboratory tests, to give the idea of their efficiency for different liquids

  18. Remaking Poems: Combining Translation and Digital Media to Interest High School Students in Poetry Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Amy Beth

    2017-01-01

    In American high schools, the practice of poetry analysis as a study of language art has declined. Outworn methods have contributed to the trend away from close interactions with the text, to the unfortunate end that millennial high school students neither understand nor enjoy poetry. Digital technology coupled with principles of translation…

  19. A numerical study of super-resolution through fast 3D wideband algorithm for scattering in highly-heterogeneous media

    KAUST Repository

    Létourneau, Pierre-David

    2016-09-19

    We present a wideband fast algorithm capable of accurately computing the full numerical solution of the problem of acoustic scattering of waves by multiple finite-sized bodies such as spherical scatterers in three dimensions. By full solution, we mean that no assumption (e.g. Rayleigh scattering, geometrical optics, weak scattering, Born single scattering, etc.) is necessary regarding the properties of the scatterers, their distribution or the background medium. The algorithm is also fast in the sense that it scales linearly with the number of unknowns. We use this algorithm to study the phenomenon of super-resolution in time-reversal refocusing in highly-scattering media recently observed experimentally (Lemoult et al., 2011), and provide numerical arguments towards the fact that such a phenomenon can be explained through a homogenization theory.

  20. Prolonged Consumption of Sucrose in a Binge-Like Manner, Alters the Morphology of Medium Spiny Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Klenowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern diet has become highly sweetened, resulting in unprecedented levels of sugar consumption, particularly among adolescents. While chronic long-term sugar intake is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disorders including obesity and type II diabetes, little is known regarding the direct consequences of long-term, binge-like sugar consumption on the brain. Because sugar can cause the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc similarly to drugs of abuse, we investigated changes in the morphology of neurons in this brain region following short- (4 weeks and long-term (12 weeks binge-like sucrose consumption using an intermittent two-bottle choice paradigm. We used Golgi-Cox staining to impregnate medium spiny neurons (MSNs from the NAc core and shell of short- and long-term sucrose consuming rats and compared these to age matched water controls. We show that prolonged binge-like sucrose consumption significantly decreased the total dendritic length of NAc shell MSNs compared to age-matched control rats. We also found that the restructuring of these neurons resulted primarily from reduced distal dendritic complexity. Conversely, we observed increased spine densities at the distal branch orders of NAc shell MSNs from long-term sucrose consuming rats. Combined, these results highlight the neuronal effects of prolonged binge-like intake of sucrose on NAc shell MSN morphology.

  1. Dietary low-dose sucrose modulation of IQ-induced genotoxicity in the colon and liver of Big Blue((TM)) rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Hansen, Max; Autrup, H.

    2003-01-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that sucrose increases 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced aberrant crypt foci in the colon. In this study, we investigated the role of sucrose in IQ-induced genotoxicity of the colon mucosa and liver. Big Blue(TM) rats were fed with IQ (20 ppm...... in feed) and/or sucrose (3.45 or 6.85 wt.% in feed) for 3 weeks. IQ increased DNA strand breaks in the colon, whereas the mutation frequency was increased in the liver. The level of IQ-induced DNA adducts was elevated in both colon mucosa cells and liver. In the liver, high sucrose intake increased...... the level of DNA adducts above that of IQ and low sucrose intake. Oxidative DNA damage detected in terms of 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine by HPLC-EC, or endonuclease HI or formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sensitive sites were unaltered in the colon and liver. Expression of ERCC1 and OGG1 mRNA levels...

  2. Crystal structure of sucrose phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Desiree; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Mirza, Osman

    2004-01-01

    phosphorylase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BiSP) refined at 1.77 A resolution. It represents the first 3D structure of a sucrose phosphorylase and is the first structure of a phosphate-dependent enzyme from the glycoside hydrolase family 13. The structure of BiSP is composed of the four domains A, B, B...... binding and reduces the size of the substrate access channel compared to other family 13 members, underlining the role of this domain in modulating the function of these enzymes. It is remarkable that the fold of the C domain is not observed in any other known hydrolases of family 13. BiSP was found...

  3. Otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Anne G M; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Cripps, Allan W; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Haggard, Mark P; Venekamp, Roderick P

    2016-09-08

    Otitis media (OM) or middle ear inflammation is a spectrum of diseases, including acute otitis media (AOM), otitis media with effusion (OME; 'glue ear') and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). OM is among the most common diseases in young children worldwide. Although OM may resolve spontaneously without complications, it can be associated with hearing loss and life-long sequelae. In developing countries, CSOM is a leading cause of hearing loss. OM can be of bacterial or viral origin; during 'colds', viruses can ascend through the Eustachian tube to the middle ear and pave the way for bacterial otopathogens that reside in the nasopharynx. Diagnosis depends on typical signs and symptoms, such as acute ear pain and bulging of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) for AOM and hearing loss for OME; diagnostic modalities include (pneumatic) otoscopy, tympanometry and audiometry. Symptomatic management of ear pain and fever is the mainstay of AOM treatment, reserving antibiotics for children with severe, persistent or recurrent infections. Management of OME largely consists of watchful waiting, with ventilation (tympanostomy) tubes primarily for children with chronic effusions and hearing loss, developmental delays or learning difficulties. The role of hearing aids to alleviate symptoms of hearing loss in the management of OME needs further study. Insertion of ventilation tubes and adenoidectomy are common operations for recurrent AOM to prevent recurrences, but their effectiveness is still debated. Despite reports of a decline in the incidence of OM over the past decade, attributed to the implementation of clinical guidelines that promote accurate diagnosis and judicious use of antibiotics and to pneumococcal conjugate vaccination, OM continues to be a leading cause for medical consultation, antibiotic prescription and surgery in high-income countries.

  4. Production of lactic acid from sucrose: strain selection, fermentation, and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunelli, Betânia H; Andrade, Rafael R; Atala, Daniel I P; Wolf Maciel, Maria Regina; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2010-05-01

    Lactic acid is an important product arising from the anaerobic fermentation of sugars. It is used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, chemical, and food industries as well as for biodegradable polymer and green solvent production. In this work, several bacterial strains were isolated from industrial ethanol fermentation, and the most efficient strain for lactic acid production was selected. The fermentation was conducted in a batch system under anaerobic conditions for 50 h at a temperature of 34 degrees C, a pH value of 5.0, and an initial sucrose concentration of 12 g/L using diluted sugarcane molasses. Throughout the process, pulses of molasses were added in order to avoid the cell growth inhibition due to high sugar concentration as well as increased lactic acid concentrations. At the end of the fermentation, about 90% of sucrose was consumed to produce lactic acid and cells. A kinetic model has been developed to simulate the batch lactic acid fermentation results. The data obtained from the fermentation were used for determining the kinetic parameters of the model. The developed model for lactic acid production, growth cell, and sugar consumption simulates the experimental data well.

  5. Media education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  6. Depiction of normal gastrointestinal anatomy with MDCT: comparison of low- and high-attenuation oral contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Sukru Mehmet; Mortelé, Koenraad J; Oliva, Maria-Raquel; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Silverman, Stuart G; Cantisani, Vito; Pagliara, Elisa; Ros, Pablo R

    2008-04-01

    To compare low- and high-attenuation oral contrast media for depiction of normal gastrointestinal anatomy with multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). A prospective, randomized study of 90 consecutive patients without known or suspected gastrointestinal disease was conducted after the approval of our Institutional Review Board. All patients underwent IV contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic CT scans after oral administration of 900 ml of either low- or high-attenuation barium sulphate suspension. Using a five-point scale, two radiologists independently graded distention and wall visualization of stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The degree of distention and wall visualization was compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Duodenal, jejunal and ileal distention (pcontrast medium were significantly higher than those with high-attenuation barium sulphate preparation, for reader 1. Duodenal and jejunal wall visualization scores with low-attenuation contrast medium (pcontrast medium, for reader 2. Interobserver agreement was fair to good for both distention (kappa-range: 0.41-0.74) and wall visualization (kappa-range: 0.48-0.71). MDCT with low-attenuation contrast medium provides distention and wall visualization of the GI tract that is equal or better than high-attenuation contrast medium.

  7. Mechanisms of Sucrose and Non-Nutritive Sucking in Procedural Pain Management in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn Gibbins

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The administration of sucrose with and without non-nutritive sucking (NNS has been examined for relieving procedural pain in newborn infants. The calming and pain-relieving effects of sucrose are thought to be mediated by endogenous opioid pathways activated by sweet taste. The orogustatory effects of sucrose have been demonstrated in animal newborns, and in preterm and full term human infants during painful procedures. In contrast to sucrose, the analgesic effects of NNS are hypothesized to be activated through nonopioid pathways by stimulation of orotactile and mechanoreceptor mechanisms. Although there is uncertainty as to whether the effects of sucrose and NNS are synergistic or additive, there is sufficient evidence to support the efficacy of combining the two interventions for procedural pain relief in infants. In this review article, the underlying mechanisms of sucrose and NNS, separately and in combination for relieving procedural pain in preterm and full term infants, are examined. Clinical and research implications are addressed.

  8. Sugar industry sponsorship of germ-free rodent studies linking sucrose to hyperlipidemia and cancer: An historical analysis of internal documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristin E Kearns

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1965, the Sugar Research Foundation (SRF secretly funded a review in the New England Journal of Medicine that discounted evidence linking sucrose consumption to blood lipid levels and hence coronary heart disease (CHD. SRF subsequently funded animal research to evaluate sucrose's CHD risks. The objective of this study was to examine the planning, funding, and internal evaluation of an SRF-funded research project titled "Project 259: Dietary Carbohydrate and Blood Lipids in Germ-Free Rats," led by Dr. W.F.R. Pover at the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, between 1967 and 1971. A narrative case study method was used to assess SRF Project 259 from 1967 to 1971 based on sugar industry internal documents. Project 259 found a statistically significant decrease in serum triglycerides in germ-free rats fed a high sugar diet compared to conventional rats fed a basic PRM diet (a pelleted diet containing cereal meals, soybean meals, whitefish meal, and dried yeast, fortified with a balanced vitamin supplement and trace element mixture. The results suggested to SRF that gut microbiota have a causal role in carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia. A study comparing conventional rats fed a high-sugar diet to those fed a high-starch diet suggested that sucrose consumption might be associated with elevated levels of beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme previously associated with bladder cancer in humans. SRF terminated Project 259 without publishing the results. The sugar industry did not disclose evidence of harm from animal studies that would have (1 strengthened the case that the CHD risk of sucrose is greater than starch and (2 caused sucrose to be scrutinized as a potential carcinogen. The influence of the gut microbiota in the differential effects of sucrose and starch on blood lipids, as well as the influence of carbohydrate quality on beta-glucuronidase and cancer activity, deserve further scrutiny.

  9. Sugar industry sponsorship of germ-free rodent studies linking sucrose to hyperlipidemia and cancer: An historical analysis of internal documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Cristin E; Apollonio, Dorie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-11-01

    In 1965, the Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) secretly funded a review in the New England Journal of Medicine that discounted evidence linking sucrose consumption to blood lipid levels and hence coronary heart disease (CHD). SRF subsequently funded animal research to evaluate sucrose's CHD risks. The objective of this study was to examine the planning, funding, and internal evaluation of an SRF-funded research project titled "Project 259: Dietary Carbohydrate and Blood Lipids in Germ-Free Rats," led by Dr. W.F.R. Pover at the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, between 1967 and 1971. A narrative case study method was used to assess SRF Project 259 from 1967 to 1971 based on sugar industry internal documents. Project 259 found a statistically significant decrease in serum triglycerides in germ-free rats fed a high sugar diet compared to conventional rats fed a basic PRM diet (a pelleted diet containing cereal meals, soybean meals, whitefish meal, and dried yeast, fortified with a balanced vitamin supplement and trace element mixture). The results suggested to SRF that gut microbiota have a causal role in carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia. A study comparing conventional rats fed a high-sugar diet to those fed a high-starch diet suggested that sucrose consumption might be associated with elevated levels of beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme previously associated with bladder cancer in humans. SRF terminated Project 259 without publishing the results. The sugar industry did not disclose evidence of harm from animal studies that would have (1) strengthened the case that the CHD risk of sucrose is greater than starch and (2) caused sucrose to be scrutinized as a potential carcinogen. The influence of the gut microbiota in the differential effects of sucrose and starch on blood lipids, as well as the influence of carbohydrate quality on beta-glucuronidase and cancer activity, deserve further scrutiny.

  10. X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of high-temperature dense plasmas created in different gaseous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skobelev, I.Y.; Dyakin, V.M.; Faenov, A.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The investigations of emission x-ray spectra of multicharged ions of some chemical elements (S, F, Ar, Fr, O) have been carried out. These atoms are contained in gases and consequently can be used as diagnostic elements in a dense plasma focus experiments. The investigations were done in the dense high-temperature plasma (N e ∼ 10 21 cm -3 , T e ∼ 500 eV) created by laser heating of high-pressure gas puff targets, and X-ray spectrographs with a spherically bent mica crystals were used for spectra observations. Some new spectroscopic results (line identifications, high-precision wavelength measurements) have been obtained and have been applied to determine a spatial distribution of plasma parameters. It is shown that spectroscopic techniques used is a very suitable tool for studies of a plasma with complicated spatial structure

  11. Study on the preparation and characterization of sucrose-LDPE sheet for radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Yup Kim; Hwang, In Ra; Kyung, Young Lee

    2008-01-01

    To improve the dosimetry performance of sucrose, we investigated the possibility of a radiation detector with the sucrose/polymer composite. For this purpose we manufactured the sucrose/polyethylene composite for dosimetry system and investigated the suitable manufacture conditions of that. The possibility of sample for dosimetry system was measured by EPR and chemiluminescence. The sample had a possibility of dosimetry system from the experimental results. (author)

  12. Varietal performance of potato on induction and development of microtuber in response to sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sadek Hossain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue culture techniques are the most momentous and extensively method to produce disease-free quality plantlets and microtubers in potato. In spite of this, there has been a lack of research information into in vitro microtuberization for seed tuber production program in Bangladesh. In this experiment, we assessed the appropriateness of different concentrations of sucrose with especial accent on their effects for induction and development of microtuber in potato varieties. In vitro plantlets of three potato varieties; Asterix, Granola, and Diamant were treated with eight level of sucrose as 0, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14% for 70 days of incubation producing microtuber. Asterix induces microtuber after 10.69 days, it was statistically shorter duration than other two varieties. Tuberization did not occur without sucrose and were required a minimum (8.92 days with 8% sucrose, while it delayed with either increasing or decreasing rate of sucrose concentration. A single number of microtuber was not formed in absence of sucrose after 28 days of incubation. Microtuber plantlet−1 was the highest more or less in all varieties at harvest with 8% sucrose concentration. Hundred percent of microtuber below 250 mg induced in 3% sucrose concentration and from then the microtuber grade induction decreased with the increase of sucrose concentration. >500 mg grade microtuber produced by Granola (47.95% with 10% sucrose while Diamant produced 50.15% above 500 mg grade microtuber with 14% sucrose. It is also noticeable by Astrerix variety where >500 mg microtuber were produced about 46.95% with 8% sucrose.

  13. Dimerization effect of sucrose octasulfate on rat FGF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulahin, N.; Kiselyov, V.; Kochoyan, A.; Kristensen, O.; Kastrup, Jette S.; Berezin, V.; Bock, E.; Gajhede, M.

    2008-01-01

    The work describes the sucrose octasulfate-mediated dimerization of rat FGF1 by gel-filtration experiments and crystal structure determination. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a family of at least 23 structurally related heparin-binding proteins that are involved in regulation of cell growth, survival, differentiation and migration. Sucrose octasulfate (SOS), a chemical analogue of heparin, has been demonstrated to activate FGF signalling pathways. The structure of rat FGF1 crystallized in the presence of SOS has been determined at 2.2 Å resolution. SOS-mediated dimerization of FGF1 was observed, which was further supported by gel-filtration experiments. The major contributors to the sulfate-binding sites in rat FGF1 are Lys113, Lys118, Arg122 and Lys128. An arginine at position 116 is a consensus residue in mammalian FGF molecules; however, it is a serine in rat FGF1. This difference may be important for SOS-mediated FGF1 dimerization in rat

  14. Magnetic force microscopy of thin film media for high density magnetic recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porthun, Steffen; Porthun, S.; Abelmann, Leon; Lodder, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses various aspect of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) for use in the field of high density magnetic recording. After an introduction of the most important magnetic imaging techniques, an overview is given of the operation and theory of MFM. The developments in instrumentation, MFM

  15. Associations between Electronic Media Use and Involvement in Violence, Alcohol and Drug Use among United States High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denniston, Maxine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We identified associations between time spent watching television and time spent playing video or computer games or using computers and involvement in interpersonal violence, alcohol and drug use in a nationally representative sample of United States high school students.Methods: We analyzed data from the 2007 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Exposure variables were time spent watching television and time spent playing computer or video games or using computers (hereafter denoted as “computer/video game use” on an average school day; outcome variables included multiple measures assessing involvement in violence and alcohol or drug use. Chi-square tests were used to identify statistically significant associations between each exposure variable and each of the outcome variables. We used logistic regression to obtain crude odds ratios for outcome variables with a significant chi-square p-value and to obtain adjusted odds ratios controlling for sex, race, and grade in school.Results: Overall, 35.4% (95% CI=33.1%-37.7% of students reported frequent television (TV use and 24.9% (95% CI=22.9%-27.0% reported frequent computer/video game use. A number of risk behaviors, including involvement in physical fights and initiation of alcohol use before age 13, were significantly associated with frequent TV use or frequent computer/video game use, even after controlling for sex, race/ethnicity and grade.Conclusion: Findings highlight the need for additional research to better understand the mechanisms by which electronic media exposure and health-risk behaviors are associated and for the development of strategies that seek to understand how the content and context (e.g., watching with peers, having computer in common area of media use influence risk behaviors among youth. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(3:310-315.

  16. Utilization of surface active sites on gold in preparation of highly reactive interfaces for alcohols electrooxidation in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherevko, Serhiy; Kulyk, Nadiia; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Pt/Au and Pd/Au surface interfaces show very high activity in electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols in alkaline media. In this work, we present a method for preparation of such structures, which is based on galvanic displacement of the more noble gold with the less noble elements, and investigate their electrocatalytic properties. We propose that active states atoms on the surface of gold may be replaced with Pt and Pd. The generation of active sites on gold is achieved by cathodization in acidic solution. We show that depending on the cathodization time (active sites amount) gold surface electrochemistry changes from that resembling Au to the one typical for pure Pt. The Pt/Au structures prepared with a trace amount of platinum show extremely high electrocatalytic activity. The peak current of methanol oxidation on the Pt/Au electrode is more than an order of magnitude higher than that of the platinum film electrode and more than two orders of magnitude higher than that on the gold unactivated electrode. The difference in the peak current of ethanol oxidation between the Pt/Au and Pt electrodes is ca. 25 times. Moreover, similar deposition of Pt and Pd on active sites on high surface area gold prepared by hydrogen evolution assisted deposition and improved electrocatalytic properties of such structures toward alcohols oxidation is shown.

  17. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2